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Sample records for antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles

  1. Mass Spectrometric Detection of Neuropeptides Using Affinity-Enhanced Microdialysis with Antibody-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Schmerberg, Claire M.; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) is a useful sampling tool for many applications due to its ability to permit sampling from an animal concurrent with normal activity. MD is of particular importance in the field of neuroscience, in which it is used to sample neurotransmitters (NTs) while the animal is behaving in order to correlate dynamic changes in NTs with behavior. One important class of signaling molecules, the neuropeptides (NPs), however, presented significant challenges when studied with MD, due to the low relative recovery (RR) of NPs by this technique. Affinity-enhanced microdialysis (AE-MD) has previously been used to improve recovery of NPs and similar molecules. For AE-MD, an affinity agent (AA), such as an antibody-coated particle or free antibody, is added to the liquid perfusing the MD probe. This AA provides an additional mass transport driving force for analyte to pass through the dialysis membrane, and thus increases the RR. In this work, a variety of AAs have been investigated for AE-MD of NPs in vitro and in vivo, including particles with C18 surface functionality and antibody-coated particles. Antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles (AbMnP) provided the best RR enhancement in vitro, with statistically significant (p<0.05) enhancements for 4 out of 6 NP standards tested, and RR increases up to 41-fold. These particles were then used for in vivo MD in the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, during a feeding study, with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. 31 NPs were detected in a 30 min collection sample, compared to 17 when no AA was used. The use of AbMnP also increased the temporal resolution from 418 hrs in previous studies to just 30 min in this study. The levels of NPs detected were also sufficient for reliable quantitation with the MS system in use, permitting quantitative analysis of the concentration changes for 7 identified NPs on a 30 min time course during feeding. PMID:23249250

  2. Targeting Vascular Amyloid in Arterioles of Alzheimer Disease Transgenic Mice with Amyloid Beta Protein Antibody-Coated Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Poduslo, Joseph F.; Hultman, Kristi L.; Curran, Geoffry L.; Preboske, Gregory M.; Chamberlain, Ryan; Marja?ska, Ma?gorzata; Garwood, Michael; Jack, Clifford R.; Wengenack, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia in general emphasizes the importance of developing novel targeting approaches for detecting and treating cerebrovascular amyloid (CVA) deposits. We developed a nanoparticle-based technology that utilizes a monoclonal antibody against fibrillar human amyloid-?42 that is surface-coated onto a functionalized phospholipid monolayer. We demonstrate that this conjugated nanoparticle binds to CVA deposits in arterioles of AD transgenic mice (Tg2576) following infusion into the external carotid artery using 3 different approaches. The first 2 approaches utilize a blood vessel enrichment of homogenized brain and a leptomeningeal vessel preparation from thin tangential brain slices from the surface of the cerebral cortex. Targeting of CVA by the antibody-coated nanoparticle was visualized using fluorescent lissamine rhodamine-labeled phospholipids in the nanoparticles, which were compared with fluorescent staining of the endothelial cells and amyloid deposits utilizing confocal laser scanning microscopy. The third approach utilized high field strength magnetic resonance imaging of antibody-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) following infusion into the external carotid artery. Dark foci of contrast enhancement in cortical arterioles were observed in T2*-weighted images of ex vivo AD mouse brains that correlated histologically with CVA deposits. The targeting ability of these nanoparticles to CVA provides opportunities for the prevention and treatment of CAA. PMID:21760540

  3. Antibody-coated gold nanoparticles immunoassay for direct detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Saleh, M; Soliman, H; Haenen, O; El-Matbouli, M

    2011-11-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a disease that affects both salmonid and non-salmonid fish. Detection of A. salmonicida can be labour intensive and time consuming because of the difficulties in distinguishing the bacterium from other species given the wide variety of existing biochemical profiles and the slow growth characteristics which allow other organisms to overgrow the A. salmonicida. Herein, we report the development of a specific immunoassay using gold-conjugated polyclonal antibodies for the rapid detection of A. salmonicida in fish tissues. Monodispersible 13-nm gold nanoparticles were coated with polyclonal antibodies specific to A. salmonicida. Reddish purple agglutination of gold particles indicated the presence of A. salmonicida in samples. Positive reactions were detected visually with the naked eye. No agglutination was observed when A. salmonicida antibody-coated gold nanoparticles were tested with other common bacterial fish pathogens, thereby verifying the specificity of the assay. The assay could detect A. salmonicida in fish tissues down to 1 10(4) ?CFU?mL(-1) , and results were obtained within 45 min. The antibody-coated gold nanoparticles were stable for at least 2 months at 4 C. The immunoassay using antibody-coated gold nanoparticles represents a promising tool for the rapid and specific detection of A. salmonicida in fish tissues. PMID:21988356

  4. Using shape effects to target antibody-coated nanoparticles to lung and brain endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Kolhar, Poornima; Anselmo, Aaron C.; Gupta, Vivek; Pant, Kapil; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelium offers a variety of therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Significant research has been focused on developing agents to target the endothelium in diseased tissues. This includes identification of antibodies against adhesion molecules and neovascular expression markers or peptides discovered using phage display. Such targeting molecules also have been used to deliver nanoparticles to the endothelium of the diseased tissue. Here we report, based on in vitro and in vivo studies, that the specificity of endothelial targeting can be enhanced further by engineering the shape of ligand-displaying nanoparticles. In vitro studies performed using microfluidic systems that mimic the vasculature (synthetic microvascular networks) showed that rod-shaped nanoparticles exhibit higher specific and lower nonspecific accumulation under flow at the target compared with their spherical counterparts. Mathematical modeling of particlesurface interactions suggests that the higher avidity and specificity of nanorods originate from the balance of polyvalent interactions that favor adhesion and entropic losses as well as shear-induced detachment that reduce binding. In vivo experiments in mice confirmed that shape-induced enhancement of vascular targeting is also observed under physiological conditions in lungs and brain for nanoparticles displaying antiintracellular adhesion molecule 1 and anti-transferrin receptor antibodies. PMID:23754411

  5. Tensile Force-Dependent Neurite Elicitation via Anti-?1 Integrin Antibody-Coated Magnetic Beads

    PubMed Central

    Fass, Joseph N.; Odde, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work using glass microneedles to apply calibrated, localized force to neurons showed that tensile force is a sufficient signal for neurite initiation and elongation. However, previous studies did not examine the kinetics or probability of neurite initiation as a function of force or the rate of force application. Here we report the use of a new techniquemagnetic bead force applicationto systematically investigate the role of force in these phenomena with better ease of use and control over force than glass microneedles. Force-induced neurite initiation from embryonic chick forebrain neurons appeared to be a first-order random process whose rate increased with increasing force, and required the presence of peripheral microtubules. In addition, the probability of initiation was more than twofold lower for neurons exposed to rapid initial force ramps (450 pN/s) than for neurons exposed to slower ramps (1.5 and 11 pN/s). We observed a low force threshold for elongation (15100 pN), which was not previously detected in chick forebrain neurites elongated by glass microneedles. Finally, neurites subjected to constant force elongated at variable instantaneous rates, and switched abruptly between elongation and retraction, similar to spontaneous, growth-cone-mediated outgrowth and microtubule dynamic instability. PMID:12829516

  6. Single domain antibody coated gold nanoparticles as enhancer for Clostridium difficile toxin detection by electrochemical impedance immunosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zanzan; Shi, Lianfa; Feng, Hanping; Zhou, H. Susan

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a sandwich-type electrochemical impedance immunosensor for detecting Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Single domain antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles were applied to amplify the detection signal. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis spectra. The electron transfer resistance (Ret) of the working electrode surface was used as a parameter in the measurement of the biosensor. With the increase of the concentration of toxins from 1 pg/mL to 100 pg/mL, a linear relationship was observed between the relative electron transfer resistance and toxin concentration. In addition, the detection signal was enhanced due to the amplification effect. The limit of detection for TcdA and TcdB was found to be 0.61 pg/mL and 0.60 pg/mL respectively at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3). This method is simple, fast and ultrasensitive, thus possesses a great potential for clinical applications in the future. PMID:25460611

  7. What's new in imaging? New magnetic resonance imaging of esophageal cancer using an endoluminal surface coil and antibody-coated magnetite particles.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, S; Imai, Y; Suwa, T; Kitajima, M

    2000-01-01

    An endoluminal surface coil: Esophageal cancer was studied by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the histopathologic basis for signal intensity in these lesions and to determine the potential of this modality for evaluating the depth of cancer invasion. In a basic study, 14 tumors were examined with a 1.5-T superconductive MR system using a surface coil. The esophageal wall could be differentiated into four layers on the T1-weighted images and seven layers on the T2-weighted images. The signal intensity of the tumor varied from low to intermediate on the T1- and T2-weighted images. The submucosal layer is important in evaluating cancer invasion on the T2-weighted images. In a clinical study, 30 patients with esophageal cancer were examined with a 1.5-T superconductive MR system using an endoluminal surface coil. In terms of depth of cancer invasion, the accuracy rate of MRI using the endoluminal surface coil was 83%. In conclusion, MRI with an endoluminal surface coil will be a useful examination for esophageal cancer in the future. Antibody-coated magnetite particles: A highly specific and effective MRI contrast agent was prepared by coating superparamagnetite particles with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), which are overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The agent was shown to have EGFR-specific MRI contrast capacity in vivo in athymic rats bearing TE8 or H69 tumors. Immunospecific MRI using magnetite particles coated with MAbs against EGFR seems to be useful in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. PMID:10693240

  8. Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, James

    Nanoparticle system research and characterization is the focal point of this research and dissertation. In the research presented here, magnetite, cobalt, and ferrite nanoparticle systems have been explored in regard to their magnetocaloric effect (MCE) properties, as well as for use in polymer composites. Both areas of study have potential applications across a wide variety of interdisciplinary fields. Magnetite nanoparticles have been successfully dispersed in a polymer. The surface chemistry of the magnetic nanoparticle proves critical to obtaining a homogenous and well separated high density dispersion in PMMA. Theoretical studies found in the literature have indicated that surface interface energy is a critical component in dispersion. Oleic acid is used to alter the surface of magnetite nanoparticles and successfully achieve good dispersion in a PMMA thin film. Polypyrrole is then coated onto the PMMA composite layer. The bilayer is characterized using cross-sectional TEM, cross-sectional SEM, magnetic characterization, and low frequency conductivity. The results show that the superparmagnetic properties of the as synthesized particles are maintained in the composite. With further study of the properties of these nanoparticles for real and functional uses, MCE is studied on a variety of magnetic nanoparticle systems. Magnetite, manganese zinc ferrite, and cobalt ferrite systems show significant broadening of the MCE and the ability to tune the peak temperature of MCE by varying the size of the nanoparticles. Four distinct systems are studied including cobalt, cobalt core silver shell nanoparticles, nickel ferrite, and ball milled zinc ferrite. The results demonstrate the importance of surface characteristics on MCE. Surface spin disorder appears to have a large influence on the low temperature magnetic and magnetocalorie characteristics of these nanoparticle systems.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  10. Biotemplated magnetic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Johanna M; Bramble, Jonathan P; Rawlings, Andrea E; Burnell, Gavin; Evans, Stephen D; Staniland, Sarah S

    2012-01-23

    Immobilized biomineralizing protein Mms6 templates the formation of uniform magnetite nanoparticles in situ when selectively patterned onto a surface. Magnetic force microscopy shows that the stable magnetite particles maintain their magnetic orientation at room temperature, and may be exchange coupled. This precision-mixed biomimetic/soft-lithography methodology offers great potential for the future of nanodevice fabrication. PMID:22052737

  11. Magnetism in gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealon, Gareth L.; Donnio, Bertrand; Greget, Romain; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Terazzi, Emmanuel; Gallani, Jean-Louis

    2012-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles currently elicit an intense and very broad research activity because of their peculiar properties. Be it in catalysis, optics, electronics, sensing or theranostics, new applications are found daily for these materials. Approximately a decade ago a report was published with magnetometry data showing that gold nanoparticles, most surprisingly, could also be magnetic, with features that the usual rules of magnetism were unable to explain. Many ensuing experimental papers confirmed this observation, although the reported magnetic behaviours showed a great variability, for unclear reasons. In this review, most of the experimental facts pertaining to ``magnetic gold'' are summarized. The various theories put forth for explaining this unexpected magnetism are presented and discussed. We show that despite much effort, a satisfying explanation is still lacking and that the field of hypotheses should perhaps be widened.

  12. Theranostic magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dongwon; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2011-10-18

    Early detection and treatment of disease is the most important component of a favorable prognosis. Biomedical researchers have thus invested tremendous effort in improving imaging techniques and treatment methods. Over the past decade, concepts and tools derived from nanotechnology have been applied to overcome the problems of conventional techniques for advanced diagnosis and therapy. In particular, advances in nanoparticle technology have created new paradigms for theranostics, which is defined as the combination of therapeutic and diagnostic agents within a single platform. In this Account, we examine the potential advantages and opportunities afforded by magnetic nanoparticles as platform materials for theranostics. We begin with a brief overview of relevant magnetic parameters, such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Understanding the interplay of these parameters is critical for optimizing magnetic characteristics needed for effective imaging and therapeutics, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxivity, heat emission, and attractive forces. We then discuss approaches to constructing an MRI nanoparticle contrast agent with high sensitivity. We further introduce a new design concept for a fault-free contrast agent, which is a T1 and T2 dual mode hybrid. Important capabilities of magnetic nanoparticles are the external controllability of magnetic heat generation and magnetic attractive forces for the transportation and movement of biological objects. We show that these functions can be utilized not only for therapeutic hyperthermia of cancer but also for controlled release of cancer drugs through the application of an external magnetic field. Additionally, the use of magnetic nanoparticles to drive mechanical forces is demonstrated to be useful for molecular-level cell signaling and for controlling the ultimate fate of the cell. Finally, we show that targeted imaging and therapy are made possible by attaching a variety of imaging and therapeutic components. These added components include therapeutic genes (small interfering RNA, or siRNA), cancer-specific ligands, and optical reporting dyes. The wide range of accessible features of magnetic nanoparticles underscores their potential as the most promising platform material available for theranostics. PMID:21823593

  13. Magnetoacoustic Sensing of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Rosenthal, Amir; Myklatun, Ahne; Westmeyer, Gil G.; Sergiadis, George; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles and electromagnetic fields can be determined through electrical signal induction in coils due to magnetization. However, the direct measurement of instant electromagnetic energy absorption by magnetic nanoparticles, as it relates to particle characterization or magnetic hyperthermia studies, has not been possible so far. We introduce the theory of magnetoacoustics, predicting the existence of second harmonic pressure waves from magnetic nanoparticles due to energy absorption from continuously modulated alternating magnetic fields. We then describe the first magnetoacoustic system reported, based on a fiber-interferometer pressure detector, necessary for avoiding electric interference. The magnetoacoustic system confirmed the existence of previously unobserved second harmonic magnetoacoustic responses from solids, magnetic nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-loaded cells, exposed to continuous wave magnetic fields at different frequencies. We discuss how magnetoacoustic signals can be employed as a nanoparticle or magnetic field sensor for biomedical and environmental applications.

  14. Magnetoacoustic Sensing of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Rosenthal, Amir; Myklatun, Ahne; Westmeyer, Gil G; Sergiadis, George; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-11

    The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles and electromagnetic fields can be determined through electrical signal induction in coils due to magnetization. However, the direct measurement of instant electromagnetic energy absorption by magnetic nanoparticles, as it relates to particle characterization or magnetic hyperthermia studies, has not been possible so far. We introduce the theory of magnetoacoustics, predicting the existence of second harmonic pressure waves from magnetic nanoparticles due to energy absorption from continuously modulated alternating magnetic fields. We then describe the first magnetoacoustic system reported, based on a fiber-interferometer pressure detector, necessary for avoiding electric interference. The magnetoacoustic system confirmed the existence of previously unobserved second harmonic magnetoacoustic responses from solids, magnetic nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-loaded cells, exposed to continuous wave magnetic fields at different frequencies. We discuss how magnetoacoustic signals can be employed as a nanoparticle or magnetic field sensor for biomedical and environmental applications. PMID:27015511

  15. DNA templated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, Joseph M.

    Recent discoveries in nanoscience are predicted to potentially revolutionize future technologies in an extensive number of fields. These developments are contingent upon discovering new and often unconventional methods to synthesize and control nanoscale components. Nature provides several examples of working nanotechnology such as the use of programmed self assembly to build and deconstruct complex molecular systems. We have adopted a method to control the one dimensional assembly of magnetic nanoparticles using DNA as a scaffold molecule. With this method we have demonstrated the ability to organize 5 nm particles into chains that stretch up to ˜20 mum in length. One advantage of using DNA compared is the ability of the molecule to interact with other biomolecules. After assembling particles onto DNA we have been able to cleave the molecule into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. Using ligase enzymes we have re-connected these fragments, coated with either gold or iron oxide, to form long one-dimensional arrangements of the two different types of nanoparticles on a single molecular guide. We have also created a sensitive magnetic field sensor by incorporating magnetic nanoparticle coated DNA strands with microfabricated electrodes. The IV characteristics of the aligned nanoparticles are dependant on the magnitude of an externally applied magnetic field. This transport phenomenon known as tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) shows room temperature resistance of our devices over 80% for cobalt ferrite coated DNA when a field of 20 kOe is applied. In comparison, studies using two dimensional nanoparticle films of irox oxides xii only exhibit a 35% MR effect. Confinement into one dimension using the DNA guide produces a TMR mechanism which produces significant increases in magnetoresistance. This property can be utilized for applications in magnetic field sensing, data storage, and logic elements.

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles for theragnostics

    PubMed Central

    Shubayev, Veronica I.; Pisanic, Thomas R.; Jin, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    Engineered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a cutting-edge tool in medicine because they can be simultaneously functionalized and guided by a magnetic field. Use of MNPs has advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), guided drug and gene delivery, magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy, tissue engineering, cell tracking and bioseparation. Integrative therapeutic and diagnostic (i.e., theragnostic) applications have emerged with MNP use, such as MRI-guided cell replacement therapy or MRI-based imaging of cancer-specific gene delivery. However, mounting evidence suggests that certain properties of nanoparticles (e.g., enhanced reactive area, ability to cross cell and tissue barriers, resistance to biodegradation) amplify their cytotoxic potential relative to molecular or bulk counterparts. Oxidative stress, a 3-tier paradigm of nanotoxicity, manifests in activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (tier I), followed by a pro-inflammatory response (tier II) and DNA damage leading to cellular apoptosis and mutagenesis (tier III). In vivo administered MNPs are quickly challenged by macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), resulting in not only neutralization of potential MNP toxicity but also reduced circulation time necessary for MNP efficacy. We discuss the role of MNP size, composition and surface chemistry in their intracellular uptake, biodistribution, macrophage recognition and cytotoxicity, and review current studies on MNP toxicity, caveats of nanotoxicity assessments and engineering strategies to optimize MNPs for biomedical use. PMID:19389434

  17. Magnetic nanoparticle motion in external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, N. A.; Liubimov, B. Ya

    2015-07-01

    A set of equations describing the motion of a free magnetic nanoparticle in an external magnetic field in a vacuum, or in a medium with negligibly small friction forces is postulated. The conservation of the total particle momentum, i.e. the sum of the mechanical and the total spin momentum of the nanoparticle is taken into account explicitly. It is shown that for the motion of a nanoparticle in uniform magnetic field there are three different modes of precession of the unit magnetization vector and the director that is parallel the particle easy anisotropy axis. These modes differ significantly in the precession frequency. For the high-frequency mode the director points approximately along the external magnetic field, whereas the frequency and the characteristic relaxation time of the precession of the unit magnetization vector are close to the corresponding values for conventional ferromagnetic resonance. On the other hand, for the low-frequency modes the unit magnetization vector and the director are nearly parallel and rotate in unison around the external magnetic field. The characteristic relaxation time for the low-frequency modes is remarkably long. This means that in a rare assembly of magnetic nanoparticles there is a possibility of additional resonant absorption of the energy of alternating magnetic field at a frequency that is much smaller compared to conventional ferromagnetic resonance frequency. The scattering of a beam of magnetic nanoparticles in a vacuum in a non-uniform external magnetic field is also considered taking into account the precession of the unit magnetization vector and director.

  18. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ying

    Nanotechnology is revolutionizing human's life. Synthesis and application of magnetic nanoparticles is a fast burgeoning field which has potential to bring significant advance in many fields, for example diagnosis and treatment in biomedical area. Novel nanoparticles to function efficiently and intelligently are in desire to improve the current technology. We used a magnetron-sputtering-based nanocluster deposition technique to synthesize magnetic nanoparticles in gas phase, and specifically engineered nanoparticles for different applications. Alternating magnetic field heating is emerging as a technique to assist cancer treatment or drug delivery. We proposed high-magnetic-moment Fe3Si particles with relatively large magnetic anisotropy energy should in principle provide superior performance. Such nanoparticles were experimentally synthesized and characterized. Their promising magnetic properties can contribute to heating performance under suitable alternating magnetic field conditions. When thermal energy is used for medical treatment, it is ideal to work in a designed temperature range. Biocompatible and "smart" magnetic nanoparticles with temperature self-regulation were designed from both materials science and biomedicine aspects. We chose Fe-Si material system to demonstrate the concept. Temperature dependent physical property was adjusted by tuning of exchange coupling between Fe atoms through incorporation of various amount of Si. The magnetic moment can still be kept in a promising range. The two elements are both biocompatible, which is favored by in-vivo medical applications. A combination of "smart" magnetic particles and thermo-sensitive polymer were demonstrated to potentially function as a platform for drug delivery. Highly sensitive diagnosis for point-of-care is in desire nowadays. We developed composition- and phase-controlled Fe-Co nanoparticles for bio-molecule detection. It has been demonstrated that Fe70Co30 nanoparticles and giant magnetoresistance sensor make a successful integrated system for bio-molecule detection. In addition, we proposed the concept of "magnetic coloring": magnetic nanoparticles with different M-H loop form an archive of labels for detection of multiple molecules in the same sample. The composition- and phase- controlled Fe-Co particles are candidate to serve this application. Magnetic nanoparticles can also play a role in "green" catalysis. We synthesized core-shell structured nanoparticle with core rich in Fe, and shell rich in FeSiO, which have capability for phtocatalysis and magnetic recycling. The magnetic core enables recycling of catalysts by applying an external magnetic field. The shell shows good optical absorption which indicates the possibility of phtocatalysis. A big challenge for nanoparticles synthesized in gas phase is to transfer them into aqueous environment, especially in biomedical field. We experimented different approaches to modify the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. A direct way was developed to introduce functional molecule onto the surface of nanoparticles in vacuum. A new design of nanoparticle collection was implemented to assist surface modification in vacuum and to enable large quantity of manufacturing.

  19. Enzymatic synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kolhatkar, Arati G; Dannongoda, Chamath; Kourentzi, Katerina; Jamison, Andrew C; Nekrashevich, Ivan; Kar, Archana; Cacao, Eliedonna; Strych, Ulrich; Rusakova, Irene; Martirosyan, Karen S; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T Randall; Willson, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe4514Gd52O5015 and Fe424Ho64O525. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe4514Gd52O5015 and Fe424Ho64O525, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. PMID:25854425

  20. Enzymatic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Dannongoda, Chamath; Kourentzi, Katerina; Jamison, Andrew C.; Nekrashevich, Ivan; Kar, Archana; Cacao, Eliedonna; Strych, Ulrich; Rusakova, Irene; Martirosyan, Karen S.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T. Randall; Willson, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe4514Gd52O5015 and Fe424Ho64O525. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe4514Gd52O5015 and Fe424Ho64O525, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. PMID:25854425

  1. Magnetic hyperthermia with hard-magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashevsky, Bronislav E.; Kashevsky, Sergey B.; Korenkov, Victor S.; Istomin, Yuri P.; Terpinskaya, Tatyana I.; Ulashchik, Vladimir S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent clinical trials of magnetic hyperthermia have proved, and even hardened, the Ankinson-Brezovich restriction as upon magnetic field conditions applicable to any site of human body. Subject to this restriction, which is harshly violated in numerous laboratory and small animal studies, magnetic hyperthermia can relay on rather moderate heat source, so that optimization of the whole hyperthermia system remains, after all, the basic problem predetermining its clinical perspectives. We present short account of our complex (theoretical, laboratory and small animal) studies to demonstrate that such perspectives should be related with the hyperthermia system based on hard-magnetic (Stoner-Wohlfarth type) nanoparticles and strong low-frequency fields rather than with superparamagnetic (Brownian or Neél) nanoparticles and weak high-frequency fields. This conclusion is backed by an analytical evaluation of the maximum absorption rates possible under the field restriction in the ideal hard-magnetic (Stoner-Wohlarth) and the ideal superparamagnetic (single relaxation time) systems, by theoretical and experimental studies of the dynamic magnetic hysteresis in suspensions of movable hard-magnetic particles, by producing nanoparticles with adjusted coercivity and suspensions of such particles capable of effective energy absorption and intratumoral penetration, and finally, by successful treatment of a mice model tumor under field conditions acceptable for whole human body.

  2. Modulatable magnetically mediated thermoacoustic imaging with magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaohua; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2015-04-01

    Modulatable magnetically mediated thermoacoustic imaging with magnetic nanoparticles is reported here. Under a pulsed radio frequency magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticles absorb energy strongly from the field and then emanate ultrasound signal thermoelastically. The energy absorption and, consequently, generated thermoacoustic signal strength depend sensitively on the magnetization state of magnetic nanoparticles, which can therefore be modulated effectively by a "bias" magnetic field. The magnetic modulation is demonstrated with a static magnet and modulated phantom imaging results are presented. This method offers an alternative modality for mapping magnetic nanoparticles and its unique modulation capability is demonstrated to be useful for contrast enhancement.

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles for "smart liposomes".

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Mustapi?, Mislav; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Wagner, Pawel; Kim, Jung Ho; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Horvat, Joseph; Martinac, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Liposomal drug delivery systems (LDDSs) are promising tools used for the treatment of diseases where highly toxic pharmacological agents are administered. Currently, destabilising LDDSs by a specific stimulus at a target site remains a major challenge. The bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) presents an excellent candidate biomolecule that could be employed as a remotely controlled pore-forming nanovalve for triggered drug release from LDDSs. In this study, we developed superparamagnetic nanoparticles for activation of the MscL nanovalves by magnetic field. Synthesised CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with the radius less than 10 nm were labelled by SH groups for attachment to MscL. Activation of MscL by magnetic field with the nanoparticles attached was examined by the patch clamp technique showing that the number of activated channels under ramp pressure increased upon application of the magnetic field. In addition, we have not observed any cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles in human cultured cells. Our study suggests the possibility of using magnetic nanoparticles as a specific trigger for activation of MscL nanovalves for drug release in LDDSs. PMID:26184724

  4. Modeling and simulation of magnetic nanoparticle sensor.

    PubMed

    Makiranta, Jarkko; Lekkala, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity and detection limit of a magnetic nanoparticle sensor is modeled and simulated. A micro coil generates an alternating magnetic field which excites magnetic nanoparticles in its vicinity. A concentric sensing coil applies Faraday's law of induction measuring the excited magnetization of the magnetic particles at high frequency. A differential measurement compensates disturbances and the influence of the driving microcoil leaving only the signal caused by the magnetic particles. The sensing system can be used for detection of magnetic nanoparticle labels in immunological point of care diagnostics. The paper shows simulation results for a microcoil system capable of detecting a single superparamagnetic nanoparticle. PMID:17282422

  5. Magnetic nanoparticle sensing: decoupling the magnetization from the excitation field

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Daniel B.; Weaver, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of magnetic nanoparticles has exciting applications for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and molecular detection. We introduce, simulate, and experimentally demonstrate an innovationa sensing coil that is geometrically decoupled from the excitation fieldfor magnetic nanoparticle spectroscopy that increases the flexibility and capabilities of remote detection. The decoupling enhances the sensitivity absolutely; to small amounts of nanoparticles, and relatively; to small changes in the nanoparticle dynamics. We adapt a previous spectroscopic method that measures the relaxation time of nanoparticles and demonstrate a new measurement of nanoparticle temperature that could potentially be used concurrently during hyperthermia. PMID:24610961

  6. Magnetic Separation Dynamics of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Zhang, Huijin; Qiang, You

    2013-08-14

    Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are appealing candidates for analytical separation of heavy metal ions from waste water and separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. This work studies the separation dynamics and investigates the appropriate magnetic-field gradients. A dynamic study of colloidal MNPs was performed for steady-state flow. Measurements were conducted to record the separation time of particles as a function of magnetic field gradient. The drag and magnetic forces play a significant role on the separation time. A drop in saturation magnetization and variation of particle size occurs after surface functionalization of the MNPs; these are the primary factors that affect the separation time and velocity of the MNPs. The experimental results are correlated to a theoretical one-dimensional model.

  7. Intravenous magnetic nanoparticle cancer hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui S; Hainfeld, James F

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles heated by an alternating magnetic field could be used to treat cancers, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However, direct intratumoral injections suffer from tumor incongruence and invasiveness, typically leaving undertreated regions, which lead to cancer regrowth. Intravenous injection more faithfully loads tumors, but, so far, it has been difficult achieving the necessary concentration in tumors before systemic toxicity occurs. Here, we describe use of a magnetic nanoparticle that, with a well-tolerated intravenous dose, achieved a tumor concentration of 1.9 mg Fe/g tumor in a subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma mouse model, with a tumor to non-tumor ratio > 16. With an applied field of 38 kA/m at 980 kHz, tumors could be heated to 60C in 2 minutes, durably ablating them with millimeter (mm) precision, leaving surrounding tissue intact. PMID:23901270

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles for gene and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Stuart C; Yiu, Humphrey HP; Dobson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Investigations of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery began over 30 years ago. Since that time, major progress has been made in particle design and synthesis techniques, however, very few clinical trials have taken place. Here we review advances in magnetic nanoparticle design, in vitro and animal experiments with magnetic nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery, and clinical trials of drug targeting. PMID:18686777

  9. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles: A short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasany, S. F.; Rehman, A.; Jose, R.; Ahmed, I.

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been enjoying great importance and wide scale applications during the last two decades due to their specific characteristics and applications. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with appropriate surface chemistry have been implied in numerous applications such as biomedicine and cancer therapy, catalysis and in magnetic separation techniques. This review summarizes recent commercial, industrial and bio-engineering applications and brief study of the methods for the preparation of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with a control over the size, morphology and the magnetic properties. Some future applications of microwave irradiation for magnetic particle synthesis are also addressed.

  10. Fighting cancer with magnetic nanoparticles and immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, L.; Mejías, R.; Barber, D. F.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Serna, C. J.; Lázaro, F. J.; Morales, M. P.

    2012-03-01

    IFN-γ-adsorbed DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles can be used as an efficient in vivo drug delivery system for tumor immunotherapy. Magnetic nanoparticles, with adsorbed interferon-γ, were targeted to the tumor site by application of an external magnetic field. A relevant therapeutic dosage of interferon in the tumor was detected and led to a notable reduction in tumor size. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues by AC susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution is affected by the application of an external magnetic field.

  11. Measurements of Individual Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    Studying the limits between classical and quantum physics has become a very attractive field of research which is known as 'mesoscopic' physics. New and fascinating mesoscopic effects are expected. Nanometer-sized magnetic particles are situated at the frontier between classical and quantum magnetism. In addition, their magnetic properties are technologically very challenging (permanent magnets, information storage, etc.). First, we review briefly our micro-SQUID technique (For a review, see W. Wernsdorfer, Adv. Chem. Phys., 118, 99 (2001) or http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0101104) which allows us to study single nanometer-sized magnetic particles containing less than 1000 atoms, crystals of molecular clusters, or quantum spin chains. Then, we discuss our recent results concerning the magnetization reversal of individual Co and Fe clusters (3 nm). (M. Jamet, W. Wernsdorfer, C. Thirion, D. Mailly, V. Dupuis, P. Melinon, and A. Perez, Phys. Rev. Lett 86, 4676 (2001).) Using a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth model, (E. Bonet, W. Wernsdorfer, B. Barbara, A. Benoit, D. Mailly, and A. Thiaville Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 4188 (1999)) we show that 3D measurements of the angular dependence of the magnetization reversal yields the effective magnetic anisotropy function. The latter is important for our studies of the influence of temperature on the magnetization reversal. A new method allows us to study the magnetization switching up to the blocking temperature which is typically below 30 K. We achieved a new insight in the dynamics of magnetization reversal using ns-field pulses and micro-wave radiations. We conclude by showing how one might give a definite proof of the quantum character of a nanoparticle (S > 1000) at low temperatures.

  12. Bioinspired synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    David, Anand

    2009-05-26

    The synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles has long been an area of active research. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used in a wide variety of applications such as magnetic inks, magnetic memory devices, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and pathogen detection in foods. In applications such as MRI, particle uniformity is particularly crucial, as is the magnetic response of the particles. Uniform magnetic particles with good magnetic properties are therefore required. One particularly effective technique for synthesizing nanoparticles involves biomineralization, which is a naturally occurring process that can produce highly complex nanostructures. Also, the technique involves mild conditions (ambient temperature and close to neutral pH) that make this approach suitable for a wide variety of materials. The term 'bioinspired' is important because biomineralization research is inspired by the naturally occurring process, which occurs in certain microorganisms called 'magnetotactic bacteria'. Magnetotactic bacteria use biomineralization proteins to produce magnetite crystals having very good uniformity in size and morphology. The bacteria use these magnetic particles to navigate according to external magnetic fields. Because these bacteria synthesize high quality crystals, research has focused on imitating aspects of this biomineralization in vitro. In particular, a biomineralization iron-binding protein found in a certain species of magnetotactic bacteria, magnetospirillum magneticum, AMB-1, has been extracted and used for in vitro magnetite synthesis; Pluronic F127 gel was used to increase the viscosity of the reaction medium to better mimic the conditions in the bacteria. It was shown that the biomineralization protein mms6 was able to facilitate uniform magnetite synthesis. In addition, a similar biomineralization process using mms6 and a shorter version of this protein, C25, has been used to synthesize cobalt ferrite particles. The overall goal of this project is to understand the mechanism of magnetite particle synthesis in the presence of the biomineralization proteins, mms6 and C25. Previous work has hypothesized that the mms6 protein helps to template magnetite and cobalt ferrite particle synthesis and that the C25 protein templates cobalt ferrite formation. However, the effect of parameters such as the protein concentration on the particle formation is still unknown. It is expected that the protein concentration significantly affects the nucleation and growth of magnetite. Since the protein provides iron-binding sites, it is expected that magnetite crystals would nucleate at those sites. In addition, in the previous work, the reaction medium after completion of the reaction was in the solution phase, and magnetic particles had a tendency to fall to the bottom of the medium and aggregate. The research presented in this thesis involves solid Pluronic gel phase reactions, which can be studied readily using small-angle x-ray scattering, which is not possible for the solution phase experiments. In addition, the concentration effect of both of the proteins on magnetite crystal formation was studied.

  13. Dual immobilization and magnetic manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Jian, Z. F.; Horng, H. E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H. C.; Wu, C. C.; Lee, Y. H.

    By suitably bio-functionalizing the surfaces, magnetic nanoparticles are able to bind specific biomolecules, and may serve as vectors for delivering bio-entities to target tissues. In this work, the synthesis of bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with two kinds of bio-probes is developed. Here, the stem cell is selected as a to-be-delivered bio-entity and infarcted myocardium is the target issue. Thus, cluster designation-34 (CD-34) on stem cell and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) (or troponin I) on infarcted myocardium are the specific biomolecules to be bound with bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. In addition to demonstrating the co-coating of two kinds of bio-probes on a magnetic nanoparticle, the feasibility of manipulation on bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles by external magnetic fields is investigated.

  14. Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cancer Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Gobbo, Oliviero L.; Sjaastad, Kristine; Radomski, Marek W.; Volkov, Yuri; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2015-01-01

    In a report from 2008, The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicted a tripled cancer incidence from 1975, projecting a possible 13-17 million cancer deaths worldwide by 2030. While new treatments are evolving and reaching approval for different cancer types, the main prevention of cancer mortality is through early diagnosis, detection and treatment of malignant cell growth. The last decades have seen a development of new imaging techniques now in widespread clinical use. The development of nano-imaging through fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to detect and diagnose cancer at an earlier stage than with current imaging methods. The characteristic properties of nanoparticles result in their theranostic potential allowing for simultaneous detection of and treatment of the disease. This review provides state of the art of the nanotechnological applications for cancer therapy. Furthermore, it advances a novel concept of personalized nanomedical theranostic therapy using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in conjunction with MRI imaging. Regulatory and industrial perspectives are also included to outline future perspectives in nanotechnological cancer research. PMID:26379790

  15. Engineering biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles for biotechnological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moros, Maria; Pelaz, Beatriz; Lpez-Larrubia, Pilar; Garca-Martin, Maria L.; Graz, Valeria; de La Fuente, Jesus M.

    2010-09-01

    Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with excellent size control are showed here. Their functionalization using an amphiphilic polymer is also described. This strategy allows the stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solvents and in addition, the polymer shell serves as a platform to incorporate relevant biomolecules, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and a number of carbohydrates. Nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates show the ability to avoid unspecific interactions between proteins present in the working medium and the nanoparticles, so can be used as an alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. Results confirm these nanoparticles as excellent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the spin-spin transversal relaxation times of the surrounding water protons due to nanoparticle aggregation demonstrates the bioactivity of these nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates. To finish with, nanoparticle toxicity is evaluated by means of MTT assay. The obtained results clearly indicate that these nanoparticles are excellent candidates for their further application in nanomedicine or nanobiotechnology.Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with excellent size control are showed here. Their functionalization using an amphiphilic polymer is also described. This strategy allows the stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solvents and in addition, the polymer shell serves as a platform to incorporate relevant biomolecules, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and a number of carbohydrates. Nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates show the ability to avoid unspecific interactions between proteins present in the working medium and the nanoparticles, so can be used as an alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. Results confirm these nanoparticles as excellent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the spin-spin transversal relaxation times of the surrounding water protons due to nanoparticle aggregation demonstrates the bioactivity of these nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates. To finish with, nanoparticle toxicity is evaluated by means of MTT assay. The obtained results clearly indicate that these nanoparticles are excellent candidates for their further application in nanomedicine or nanobiotechnology. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Chemical, physical and magnetic characterization; R2 maps; stability of NPs at different conditions; size of glucose NPs in the presence of Concanavalin A; MTT assays of the samples are shown in figures S1-S10. Table S1 represents the hydrodynamic size of PMAO NPs after being washed with different solvents. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00104j

  16. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue; Tian, Dongliang

    2014-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ∼4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  17. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Tian, Dongliang; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms 4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  18. Drug loaded magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurgons, R.; Seliger, C.; Hilpert, A.; Trahms, L.; Odenbach, S.; Alexiou, C.

    2006-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated for biomedical applications for more than 30 years. In medicine they are used for several approaches such as magnetic cell separation or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The development of biocompatible nanosized drug delivery systems for specific targeting of therapeutics is the focus of medical research, especially for the treatment of cancer and diseases of the vascular system. In an experimental cancer model, we performed targeted drug delivery and used magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, bound to a chemotherapeutic agent, which were attracted to an experimental tumour in rabbits by an external magnetic field (magnetic drug targeting). Complete tumour remission could be achieved. An important advantage of these carriers is the possibility for detecting these nanoparticles after treatment with common imaging techniques (i.e. x-ray-tomography, magnetorelaxometry, magnetic resonance imaging), which can be correlated to histology.

  19. Magnetic nanoparticle-based cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Huang, Dong-Yan; Muhammad Zubair, Yousaf; Hou, Yang-Long; Gao, Song

    2013-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) with easily modified surfaces have been playing an important role in biomedicine. As cancer is one of the major causes of death, tremendous efforts have been devoted to advance the methods of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) that are responsive to a magnetic field have shown great promise in cancer therapy. Compared with traditional cancer therapy, magnetic field triggered therapeutic approaches can treat cancer in an unconventional but more effective and safer way. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress in cancer therapies based on MNPs, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic specific targeting, magnetically controlled drug delivery, magnetofection, and magnetic switches for controlling cell fate. Some recently developed strategies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitoring cancer therapy and magnetic tissue engineering are also addressed.

  20. Improving magnetic properties of ultrasmall magnetic nanoparticles by biocompatible coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costo, R.; Morales, M. P.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with the effect of a biocompatible surface coating layer on the magnetic properties of ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles. Particles were synthesized by laser pyrolysis and fully oxidized to maghemite by acid treatment. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was systematically coated with either phosphonate (phosphonoacetic acid or pamidronic acid) or carboxylate-based (carboxymethyl dextran) molecules and the binding to the nanoparticle surface was analyzed. Magnetic properties at low temperature show a decrease in coercivity and an increase in magnetization after the coating process. Hysteresis loop displacement after field cooling is significantly reduced by the coating, in particular, for particles coated with pamidronic acid, which show a 10% reduction of the displacement of the loop. We conclude that the chemical coordination of carboxylates and phosphonates reduces the surface disorder and enhances the magnetic properties of ultrasmall maghemite nanoparticles.

  1. Bioavailability of magnetic nanoparticles to the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bor-Ren; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Jung, Shih-Ming; Ma, Yunn-Hwa; Wu, Tony; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2009-05-01

    This study investigates the bioavailability of carboxymethyl dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMD-MNP) to the brain. The cytotoxicity of CMD-MNP was assessed by co-culture with C6, a rat glioma cell line. To investigate the effects of an external magnetic field on the biodistribution of nanoparticles in a rat model, a magnet of 0.3 Tesla was applied externally over the cranium and the particles injected via the external jugular vein. Nanoparticles were also injected into rats implanted with C6 tumor cells. Staining of histological samples with Prussian blue to detect iron particles revealed that the external magnetic field enhanced the aggregation of nanoparticles in the rat brain; this enhancement was even more pronounced in the tumor region.

  2. Current methods for synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Sima; Zeinali Sehrig, Fatemeh; Farkhani, Samad Mussa; Soleymani Goloujeh, Mehdi; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis of different kinds of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention. During the last few years, a large portion of the articles published about MNPs have described efficient routes to attain shape-controlled and highly stable MNPs with narrow size distribution. In this review, we have reported several popular methods including co-precipitation, microemulsion, thermal decomposition, solvothermal, sonochemical, microwave-assisted, chemical vapor deposition, combustion, carbon arc, and laser pyrolysis, for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:25435409

  3. Properties and biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Rajesh Kumar

    Magnetic nanoparticles have a number of unique properties, making them promising agents for applications in medicine including magnetically targeted drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging, and radiation therapy. They are biocompatible and can also be coated with biocompatible surfactants, which may be further functionalized with optically and therapeutically active molecules. These nanoparticles can be manipulated with non-invasive external magnetic field to produce heat, target specific site, and monitor their distribution in vivo. Within this framework, we have investigated a number of biomedical applications of these nanoparticles. We synthesized a thermosensitive microgel with iron oxide adsorbed on its surface. An alternating magnetic field applied to these nanocomposites heated the system and triggered the release of an anticancer drug mitoxantrone. We also parameterized the chain length dependence of drug release from dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles, finding that both the release rate and equilibrium release fraction depend on the molecular mass of the surfactant. Finally, we also localized dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles labeled with tat peptide to the cell nucleus, which permits this system to be used for a variety of biomedical applications. Beyond investigating magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications, we also studied their magnetohydrodynamic and dielectric properties in solution. Magnetohydrodynamic properties of ferrofluid can be controlled by appropriate selection of surfactant and deielctric measurement showed magnetodielectric coupling in this system. We also established that some complex low temperature spin structures are suppressed in Mn3O4 nanoparticles, which has important implications for nanomagnetic devices. Furthermore, we explored exchange bias effects in Ni-NiO core-shell nanoparticles. Finally, we also performed extensive magnetic studies in nickel metalhydride (NiMH) batteries to determine the size of Ni clusters, which plays important role on catalyzing the electrochemical reaction and powering Ni-MH batteries.

  4. Prospects for nanoparticle-based permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Balamurugan, B; Sellmyer, DJ; Hadjipanayis, GC; Skomski, R

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles smaller than similar to 15 nm in diameter and with high magnetocrystalline anisotropies K-1 >= 1 MJ m(-3) can be used as building blocks for next-generation permanent magnets. Advances in processing steps are discussed, such as self-assembly, alignment of the easy axes and appropriate nanostructuring that will enable the fabrication of densely packed nanopartide assemblies with improved permanent-magnet properties. This study also proposes an idealized nanocomposite structure for nanoparticle-based future permanent magnets with enhanced energy products. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal potentiation of chemotherapy by magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of hyperthermia as an adjuvant for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, significant clinical challenges have been encountered, such as a broader spectrum of toxicity, lack of patient tolerance, temperature control and significant invasiveness. Hyperthermia induced by magnetic nanoparticles in high-frequency oscillating magnetic fields, commonly termed magnetic fluid hyperthermia, is a promising form of heat delivery in which thermal energy is supplied at the nanoscale to the tumor. This review discusses the mechanisms of heat dissipation of iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles, current methods and challenges to deliver heat in the clinic, and the current work related to the use of magnetic nanoparticles for the thermal-chemopotentiation of therapeutic drugs. PMID:24074390

  6. Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle in a viscous liquid: Application to magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, N. A.; Liubimov, B. Ya.

    2012-07-01

    It is shown that the magnetic dynamics of an assembly of nanoparticles dispersed in a viscous liquid differs significantly from the behavior of the same assembly of nanoparticles immobilized in a solid matrix. For an assembly of magnetic nanoparticles in a liquid two characteristic mode for stationary magnetization oscillations are found that can be called the viscous and magnetic modes, respectively. In the viscous mode, which occurs for small amplitude of the alternating magnetic field H0 as compared to the particle anisotropy field Hk, the particle rotates in the liquid as a whole. In a stationary motion the unit magnetization vector and the director, describing the spatial orientation of the particle, move in unison, but the phase of oscillations of these vectors is shifted relative to that of the alternating magnetic field. Therefore, for the viscous mode the energy absorption is mainly due to viscous losses associated with the particle rotation in the liquid. In the opposite regime, H0 ? Hk, the director oscillates only slightly near the external magnetic field direction, whereas the unit magnetization vector sharply jumps between magnetic potential wells. Thus, a complete orientation of the assembly of nanoparticles in the liquid occurs in the alternating magnetic field of sufficient amplitude. As a result, large specific absorption rates, of the order of 1 kW/g, can be obtained for an assembly of magnetic nanoparticles in viscous liquid in the transient, H0 0.5Hk, and magnetic modes at moderate frequency and alternating magnetic field amplitude.

  7. Biomedical Applications of Advanced Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Yong; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Thi, Cao Minh; Cao, Yanqin; Nogami, Masayuki

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we have presented the latest results and highlights on biomedical applications of a class of noble metal nanoparticles, such as gold, silver and platinum, and a class of magnetic nanoparticles, such as cobalt, nickel and iron. Their most important related compounds are also discussed for biomedical applications for treating various diseases, typically as cancers. At present, both physical and chemical methods have been proved very successful to synthesize, shape, control, and produce metal- and oxide-based homogeneous particle systems, e.g., nanoparticles and microparticles. Therefore, we have mainly focused on functional magnetic nanoparticles for nanomedicine because of their high bioadaptability to the organs inside human body. Here, bioconjugation techniques are very crucial to link nanoparticles with conventional drugs, nanodrugs, biomolecules or polymers for biomedical applications. Biofunctionalization of engineered nanoparticles for biomedicine is shown respective to in vitro and in vivo analysis protocols that typically include drug delivery, hyperthermia therapy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and recent outstanding progress in sweep imaging technique with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) MRI. The latter can be especially applied using magnetic nanoparticles, such as Co-, Fe-, Ni-based nanoparticles, ?-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 oxide nanoparticles for analysis and treatment of malignancies. Therefore, this review focuses on recent results of scientists, and related research on diagnosis and treatment methods of common and dangerous diseases by biomedical engineered nanoparticles. Importantly, nanosysems (nanoparticles) or microsystems (microparticles) or hybrid micronano systems are shortly introduced into nanomedicine. Here, Fe oxide nanoparticles ultimately enable potential and applicable technologies for tumor-targeted imaging and therapy. Finally, we have shown the latest aspects of the most important Fe-based particle systems, such as Fe, ?-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Fe-Fe(x)O(y) oxide core-shell nanoparticles, and CoFe2O4-MnFe2O4 core-shell nanoparticles for nanomedicine in the efficient treatment of large tumors at low cost in near future. PMID:26682455

  8. MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLE HYPERTHERMIA IN CANCER TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Giustini, Andrew J.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Cassim, Shiraz M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-01-01

    The activation of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) is currently being explored as technique for targeted therapeutic heating of tumors. Various types of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic particles, with different coatings and targeting agents, allow for tumor site and type specificity. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is also being studied as an adjuvant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This review provides an introduction to some of the relevant biology and materials science involved in the technical development and current and future use of mNP hyperthermia as clinical cancer therapy. PMID:24348868

  9. Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles with high magnetic moment for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit; Qiang, You; Muldoon, Leslie; Meyer, Daniel; Hass, Jamie

    2007-05-01

    Non-toxic iron oxide naoparticles have extended the boundary in medical world; with size range form 2 to 400 nm they can be compiled with most of the small cells and tissues in living body. We have prepared monodispersive iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles in our novel cluster deposition system. The nanoparticles have very high magnetic moment up to 200 emu/g. To test the nontoxicity and uptake we incubated the nanoparticles coated with dextrin and non-coated iron naoparticles with LXI SCLC lung cancer cells found in rats. Results indicate that both coated and noncoated cells were successfully untaken by the cells indicating that the core-shell nanoparticles are not toxic. Due to the high magnetic moment offered by the nanoparticles we propose that even in low applied external alternating field desired temperature can be reached for hyperthermia treatment in comparison to the commercially available iron oxide nanoparticles (magnetic moment less than 20 emu/g). We also found that our ferromagnetic nanoparticles were uptaken by the cancer cells without adding protamine sulfate, which is normally needed to prevent the coagulation of cells for the commercial nanoparticles. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.B4.5

  10. Surface Induced Magnetic Switching in Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrel, Nathan; Sabirianov, Renat

    2010-03-01

    We show that the magnetic structure of nanoparticles with competing exchange interactions, i.e. having ferromagnetic exchange coupling between nearest neighbors, J01, and antiferromagnetic one between second nearest neighbors, J02, is very sensitive to the ratio of these exchanges, R=-J02/J01. The magnetic structurein ground state changes as a function of R from ferromagnetic to non-collinear, and to antiferromagnetic. This change occurs in a very narrow window of R. The moderate modification of the surface exchange parameters of such nanoparticle may lead to a substantial change in the temperature dependence of its total magnetic moment. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that the ``ordering'' temperature of nanoparticles of 3-4nm in diameter can be varied by about 25% with the change of nearest neighbor exchange by only 25%. Thus, if the surface exchange is modified by the external stimuli in core shell nanoparticles, the magnetic moment of the nanoparticle can be switched from nearly zero to about half of its maximum value. We discuss the modification of surface exchange in core-shell nanoparticles with core of iron oxide and shell made of photochromic materials as azobenzene.

  11. Biological cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertz, Frederick; Khitun, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report a manipulation of biological cells (erythrocytes) by magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic field. The experiment was accomplished on the top of a micro-electromagnet consisting of two magnetic field generating contours. An electric current flowing through the contour(s) produces a non-uniform magnetic field, which is about 1.4 mT/μm in strength at 100 mA current in the vicinity of the current-carrying wire. In responses to the magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticles move towards the systems energy minima. In turn, magnetic nanoparticles drag biological cells in the same direction. We present experimental data showing cell manipulation through the control of electric current. This technique allows us to capture and move cells located in the vicinity (10-20 microns) of the current-carrying wires. One of the most interesting results shows a periodic motion of erythrocytes between the two conducting contours, whose frequency is controlled by an electric circuit. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of non-destructive cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles with micrometer-scale precision.

  12. Aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles as nanosurgeons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Baiju G.; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hisao; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D.

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have shown promise in the fields of targeted drug delivery, hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cancer therapy. The ability of magnetic nanoparticles to undergo surface modification and the effect of external magnetic field in the dynamics of their movement make them an excellent nanoplatform for cancer destruction. Surgical removal of cancerous or unwanted cells selectively from the interior of an organ or tissue without any collateral damage is a serious problem due to the highly infiltrative nature of cancer. To address this problem in surgery, we have developed a nanosurgeon for the selective removal of target cells using aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles controlled by an externally applied three-dimensional rotational magnetic field. With the help of the nanosurgeon, we were able to perform surgical actions on target cells in in vitro studies. LDH and intracellular calcium release assay confirmed the death of cancer cells due to the action of the nanosurgeon which in turn nullifies the possibility of proliferation by the removed cells. The nanosurgeon will be a useful tool in the medical field for selective surgery and cell manipulation studies. Additionally, this system could be upgraded for the selective removal of complex cancers from diverse tissues by incorporating various target specific ligands on magnetic nanoparticles.

  13. Aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles as nanosurgeons.

    PubMed

    Nair, Baiju G; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hisao; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Kumar, D Sakthi

    2010-11-12

    Magnetic nanoparticles have shown promise in the fields of targeted drug delivery, hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cancer therapy. The ability of magnetic nanoparticles to undergo surface modification and the effect of external magnetic field in the dynamics of their movement make them an excellent nanoplatform for cancer destruction. Surgical removal of cancerous or unwanted cells selectively from the interior of an organ or tissue without any collateral damage is a serious problem due to the highly infiltrative nature of cancer. To address this problem in surgery, we have developed a nanosurgeon for the selective removal of target cells using aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles controlled by an externally applied three-dimensional rotational magnetic field. With the help of the nanosurgeon, we were able to perform surgical actions on target cells in in vitro studies. LDH and intracellular calcium release assay confirmed the death of cancer cells due to the action of the nanosurgeon which in turn nullifies the possibility of proliferation by the removed cells. The nanosurgeon will be a useful tool in the medical field for selective surgery and cell manipulation studies. Additionally, this system could be upgraded for the selective removal of complex cancers from diverse tissues by incorporating various target specific ligands on magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:20947949

  14. Alternative spatial encoding for imaging magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) was introduced in 2005 and is one of the very few imaging methods capable of sensitivities that allow the term "molecular imaging" to be applied. Estimates of sensitivity allow nanograms of iron oxide nanoparticles to be imaged. MPI cyclically saturates the nanoparticles with an alternating magnetic field termed the drive field. The signal from the harmonics of the drive frequency is recorded. Localization is achieved by saturating the nanoparticles outside a "field free point." We present an alternative method of encoding the position of the magnetic nanoparticles. Signal is generated at the 2nd harmonic of the drive field only when a static magnetic field is present. Localization is achieved by placing a small static magnetic field gradient across the sample and the phase of the signal depends on the sign of the static field. The response of the nanoparticles at different static fields provides the localization. The localization can be modeled as a wavelet transform if the gradient is approximately linear. Smaller field gradients are required than in MPI. The sensitivity is potentially significantly higher than that of MPI; when minimum bandwidths are employed to achieve the maximum SNR, the SNR is 85% larger for new method. Variable resolution can be achieved. This is the first method capable of imaging the signal from a single harmonic independently of other harmonics. The new method has promise for low cost screening applications where only coarse localization might be required.

  15. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: A novel heterogeneous catalyst support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have emerged as viable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust, high-surface-area heterogeneous catalyst supports. Post-synthetic surface modification protocol for magnetic nanoparticles has been developed that imparts desirable che...

  16. Effect of magnetic field in malaria diagnosis using magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quan; Yuen, Clement

    2011-07-01

    The current gold standard method of Malaria diagnosis relies on the blood smears examination. The method is laborintensive, time consuming and requires the expertise for data interpretation. In contrast, Raman scattering from a metabolic byproduct of the malaria parasite (Hemozoin) shows the possibility of rapid and objective diagnosis of malaria. However, hemozoin concentration is usually extremely low especially at the early stage of malaria infection, rendering weak Raman signal. In this work, we propose the sensitive detection of enriched ?-hematin, whose spectroscopic properties are equivalent to hemozoin, based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by using magnetic nanoparticles. A few orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal of ?-hematin can be achieved using magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field on SERS enhancement is investigated. Our result demonstrates the potential of SERS using magnetic nanoparticles in the effective detection of hemozoin for malaria diagnosis.

  17. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Jamison, Andrew C.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Willson, Richard C.; Lee, T. Randall

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous interest in magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reflected in published research that ranges from novel methods of synthesis of unique nanoparticle shapes and composite structures to a large number of MNP characterization techniques, and finally to their use in many biomedical and nanotechnology-based applications. The knowledge gained from this vast body of research can be made more useful if we organize the associated results to correlate key magnetic properties with the parameters that influence them. Tuning these properties of MNPs will allow us to tailor nanoparticles for specific applications, thus increasing their effectiveness. The complex magnetic behavior exhibited by MNPs is governed by many factors; these factors can either improve or adversely affect the desired magnetic properties. In this report, we have outlined a matrix of parameters that can be varied to tune the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. For practical utility, this review focuses on the effect of size, shape, composition, and shell-core structure on saturation magnetization, coercivity, blocking temperature, and relaxation time. PMID:23912237

  18. Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Quincy; Noginova, Natalia; Dallas, Pagnagiotis; Giannelis, Emmanuel; Norfolk State University Collaboration; Cornell University Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Commonly, metamaterials are systems with engineered electric response, based on optimized spatial arrangement of sub-wavelength sized metal and dielectric components. We explore alternative methods based on use of magnetic inclusions, such as magnetic nanoparticles, which can allow microwave permeability of a composite to be tuned from negative to positive at the range of magnetic resonance. Several systems with magnetic nanoparticles of different size were experimentally tested for estimate their potential as building blocks for metamaterials. Magnetic resonance studies were performed in the limits of diluted non-interacting solutions of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in liquid form and high concentrations of particles in solids at different temperatures. Broadening of the EMR signal was observed upon increase in the particle size and concentration, due to effects of anisotropy and dipolar interaction. Microwave permeability was estimated in solid composites. In dense systems with 5 nm iron oxide nanoparticles it can be tuned from -0.8 to 2 by the external magnetic field. NSF META-PREM # D MR 1205457, AFOSR # FA9550-09-1-0456, NSF IGERT # DGE-0966188, and subcontract from UTC #10-S567-001502C4.

  19. Thermoinduced Magnetization in NiO Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory

    2009-03-01

    The low-temperature magnetic susceptibility for model NiO nanoparticles is calculated using the Monte Carlo method, and three different behaviors are seen. With uncompensated spins present, the susceptibility diverges as T->0. For cube- shaped nanoparticles, a temperature-dependent thermoinduced magnetization is observed. For spherical and octahedral nanoparticles, a temperature-independent susceptibility associated with the spin-flop configuration is observed. Calculations for arbitrary values of the uniaxial anisotropy indicate that thermoinduced magnetization can be observed for all geometries in materials with strong enough anisotropy. This work was sponsored by the LDRD program of ORNL, by the DOE-OS through the Offices of BES, Division of MSE and ASCR, MICS Division. The ?--Mag tool set was developed as part of a BES sponsored Computational Material Science Network project. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  20. Magnetic nanoparticles in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandu, Viorel; Chee, Ching Yern

    2014-03-01

    Additional pinning generated by magnetic nanoparticles which were created or inserted within polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor is analyzed. The composites were built in two ways: (i) ceramization of polysiloxane-co-ferrocene based copolymers and (ii) insertion of coated nanoparticles. The composites present two types of pinning: core pinning based on the variation of the superconducting parameter when a non-superconducting particle is present and a magnetic pinning resulting from the interaction of the screening currents around the particle and the flux line. All samples show a consistent improvement of the critical current density when the magnetic moment of the sample in normal state is finite but small, showing a maximum for a magnetic moment of 0.015 emu/cm3. A tentative description of the effect of magnetic pinning is presented in the framework of the collective pinning.

  1. Tailored super magnetic nanoparticles synthesized via template free hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attallah, Olivia A.; Girgis, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed M. S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles of controlled shape and dimensions were synthesized using a modified hydrothermal technique. The influence of different synthesis conditions on the shape, size (length and diameter), structure and magnetic properties of the prepared nanoparticles is presented. The mineral phases, the morphologies, size distribution of the resulting magnetic nanoparticles and their magnetic properties were characterized using different characterization methods. We designed magnetite nanoparticles with different morphologies (nanospheres, nanorods, nanocubes and hexagons) and with improved saturation magnetization reaching 90 emu/g.

  2. Microfluidic Biosensing Systems Using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Giouroudi, Ioanna; Keplinger, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized. Some of the merits of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility of manipulating them inside microfluidic channels by utilizing high gradient magnetic fields, their detection by integrated magnetic microsensors, and their flexibility due to functionalization by means of surface modification and specific binding. Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing systems. In this review, focus will be given to the type of biosening systems that use microfluidics in combination with magnetoresistive sensors and detect the presence of bioanalyte tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:24022689

  3. Microfluidic biosensing systems using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giouroudi, Ioanna; Keplinger, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized. Some of the merits of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility of manipulating them inside microfluidic channels by utilizing high gradient magnetic fields, their detection by integrated magnetic microsensors, and their flexibility due to functionalization by means of surface modification and specific binding. Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing systems. In this review, focus will be given to the type of biosening systems that use microfluidics in combination with magnetoresistive sensors and detect the presence of bioanalyte tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:24022689

  4. A One-Step Homogeneous Sandwich Immunosensor for Salmonella Detection Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) and Quantum Dots (QDs)

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Hua; Cui, Gang; Chen, Xiujin; Yin, Honghong; Yong, Qianqian; Xu, Liguang; Peng, Chifang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    Simple immuno-magnetic separation tandem fluorescent probes based on quantum dots-antibody (QDs-Ab) were developed to detect Salmonella with sensitivity of 500 cfu mL?1. With two monoclonal antibodies, which recognize different antigenic determinant on the surface of Salmonella, we prepared antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and conjugates of QDs-Ab. The immune-magnetic beads were verified with high enrichment efficiency for Salmonella (90%). A sandwich structure formed if the Salmonella solution was mixed together with immune-beads and QDs-Ab, and the fluorescent single from QDs was related to the amount of Salmonella. A linear response between fluorescence intensity and various concentrations of Salmonella (2.5 103 to 1.95 108 cfu mL?1) were observed with this proposed method. The total assay time for Salmonella was 30 min, and no cross-reaction to other microbial strains, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), were found using this detection system. All our results showed that the simple homogeneous immunoassay could be applied in Salmonella screening without time-consuming extra-enrichment of bacteria. PMID:23609493

  5. Enzyme nanoparticle fabrication: magnetic nanoparticle synthesis and enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick A; Park, Hee Joon; Driscoll, Ashley J

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized enzymes are drawing significant attention for potential commercial applications as biocatalysts by reducing operational expenses and by increasing process utilization of the enzymes. Typically, immobilized enzymes have greater thermal and operational stability at various pH values, ionic strengths and are more resistant to denaturation that the soluble native form of the enzyme. Also, immobilized enzymes can be recycled by utilizing the physical or chemical properties of the supporting material. Magnetic nanoparticles provide advantages as the supporting material for immobilized enzymes over competing materials such as: higher surface area that allows for greater enzyme loading, lower mass transfer resistance, less fouling effect, and selective, nonchemical separation from the reaction mixture by an applied a magnetic field. Various surface modifications of magnetic nanoparticles, such as silanization, carbodiimide activation, and PEG or PVA spacing, aid in the binding of single or multienzyme systems to the particles, while cross-linking using glutaraldehyde can also stabilize the attached enzymes. PMID:20865397

  6. Magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M A; Merino, J M; Fernndez Pinel, E; Quesada, A; de la Venta, J; Ruz Gonzlez, M L; Castro, G R; Crespo, P; Llopis, J; Gonzlez-Calbet, J M; Hernando, A

    2007-06-01

    We experimentally show that it is possible to induce room-temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior in ZnO nanoparticles without doping with magnetic impurities but simply inducing an alteration of their electronic configuration. Capping ZnO nanoparticles ( approximately 10 nm size) with different organic molecules produces an alteration of their electronic configuration that depends on the particular molecule, as evidenced by photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies and altering their magnetic properties that varies from diamagnetic to ferromagnetic-like behavior. PMID:17521211

  7. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  8. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Pearson, T; Cordeau, Y; Mefford, O T; Crawford, T M

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles. PMID:26975332

  9. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.; Crawford, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles. PMID:26975332

  10. Magnetic properties of superparamagnetic lithium ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Seema; Joy, P. A.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic properties of lithium ferrite nanoparticles of size in the range of 4-50nm, synthesized by a low-temperature method, have been evaluated. A broad maximum at ˜220K in the temperature variation of the zero-field-cooled magnetization as well as the ac susceptibility and divergence of the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations below this temperature indicate the superparamagnetic behavior of the lithium ferrite particles of size ˜4nm. On the other hand, at high temperatures, these particles show a cusp immediately below the Curie temperature of bulk lithium ferrite (895K). This anomalous magnetic behavior of the lithium ferrite nanoparticles, similar to that arising from the Hopkinson effect for bulk materials, is probed in detail and is explained in terms of the cumulative effect of the temperature variation of the anisotropy and particle size growth during the measurements at high temperatures.

  11. Magnetism of Rubidium Cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajerowski, D. M.; Meisel, M. W.; Frye, F. A.; Talham, D. R.

    2007-03-01

    Although photoinduced magnetism in nanoparticles of Prussian blue analogs has been reported, these samples are superparamagnetic. We have generated and characterized nanoparticles of RbjCok[Fe(CN)6]l.nH2O, which exhibit photoinduced magnetism and, for the largest particles, long-range ferrimagnetism with finite coercive fields. The synthesis involves the variation of the concentration of the poly(vinylpyrrolidone), PVP, the encapsulating polymer, which controls the resulting particle sizes. From HR-TEM, the particle size distributions have been obtained for four batches of samples, with mean diameters ranging from nominally 3 nm to 13 nm. Upon irradiation with white light at 5 K, all samples exhibit photoinduced magnetism. Magnetization studies indicate that the smallest particles are superparamagnetic, while the largest ones are ferrimagnetic with long-range ordering temperatures (Tc 17 K) and coercive fields (Hc 250 G) varying with particle size in a manner consistent with the predictions of finite-size scaling.

  12. Nanocomposites of magnetic cobalt nanoparticles and cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkkalainen, K.; Leppnen, K.; Vainio, U.; Webb, M. A.; Elbra, T.; Kohout, T.; Nyknen, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Kotelnikova, N.; Serimaa, R.

    2008-10-01

    Polymeric matrices with stabilized metallic nanoparticles constitute an important class of nanostructured materials, because polymer technology allows fabrication of components with various electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties. The porous cellulose matrix has been shown to be a useful support material for platinum, palladium, silver, copper and nickel nanoparticles. In the present study, nanosized cobalt particles with enhanced magnetic properties were made by chemical reduction within a microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) matrix. Two different chemical reducers, NaBH4 and NaH2PO2, were used, and the so-formed nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These experimental techniques were used to gain insight into the effect of different synthesis routes on structural properties of the nanoparticles. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Particles made via the NaBH4 reduction were amorphous Co-B or Co oxide composites with diminished ferromagnetic behaviour and particles made via the NaH2PO2 reduction were well-ordered ferromagnetic hcp cobalt nanocrystals.

  13. Targeted polymeric magnetic nanoparticles for brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirthivasan, Bharat; Singh, Dhirender; Raut, Sangram; Bommana, Murali Mohan; Squillante, Emilio, III; Sadoqi, Mostafa

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop targeted polymeric magnetic nanoparticle system for brain imaging. Near infrared dye indocyanine green (ICG) or p-gycoprotein substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123) were encapsulated along with oleic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles (OAMNP) in a matrix of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactide) (Met-PEG-PLA). The nanoparticles were evaluated for morphology, particle size, dye content and magnetite content. The in vivo biodistribution study was carried out using three groups of six male Sprague Dawley rats each. Group I received a saline solution containing the dye, group II received dye-loaded polymeric magnetic nanoparticles without the aid of a magnetic field, and group III received dye-loaded polymeric magnetic nanoparticles with a magnet (8000 G) placed on the head of the rat. After a preset exposure period, the animals were sacrificed and dye concentration was measured in the brain, liver, kidney, lungs and spleen homogenates. Brain sections were fixed, cryotomed and visualized using fluorescence microscopy. The particles were observed to be spherical and had a mean size of 220 nm. The encapsulation efficiency for OAMNP was 57%, while that for ICG was 56% and for Rh123 was 45%. In the biodistribution study, while the majority of the dose for all animals was found in the liver, kidneys and spleen, group III showed a significantly higher brain concentration than the other two groups (p < 0.001). This result was corroborated by the fluorescence microscopy studies, which showed enhanced dye penetration into the brain tissue for group III. Further studies need to be done to elucidate the exact mechanism responsible for the increased brain uptake of dye to help us understand if the magnetic nanoparticles actually penetrate the blood brain barrier or merely deliver a massive load of dye just outside it, thereby triggering passive diffusion into the brain parenchyma. These results reinforce the potential use of polymeric magnetically-targeted nanoparticles in active brain targeting and imaging.

  14. Interphase synthesis of colloidal magnetic cobalt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlash, A. N.; Vorobyova, S. A.; Lesnikovich, A. I.

    2008-03-01

    The facilities of one-stage synthesis of magnetic cobalt nanoparticles by the interphase reduction of cobalt oleate (hexane or toluene solution) and sodium borohydride (aqueous or ethanol solution) at room temperature without a soluble polymer as a protective agent have been studied. The resultant cobalt nanoparticles have been concentrated either in non-polar or polar phases as black colloidal solutions. The composition and morphology of the colloid's dispersive phase were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray analysis and IR-spectroscopy. It has been shown that the dispersive phase of the produced colloidal solutions represents spherical crystal cobalt nanoparticles of fcc and hcp structures. Their average size varies from 4 to 7 nm. In accordance with the IR-spectroscopy results, the stability of the produced metallic nanoparticles was provided by the surfactant obtained as a result of the interphase reaction. Tables 1, Figs 5, Refs 12.

  15. Cold plasma treatment of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke

    This thesis investigates the application of cold plasma to remove the oleic acid bonded on magnetic nanoparticles: SmCo5 nanoflakes prepared via surfactant assisted high energy ball milling and CoFe2O 4 nanoparticles prepared via chemical synthesis. Oleic acid molecules bonded on nanoparticles are in the carboxylate form which could not be washed away by organic solvents in ultrasonic bath; only free oleic acid molecules left on the nanoparticle surface after ball milling can be washed away through ultrasonic bath. High temperature annealing method works for removing oleic acid but nanoparticles would be damaged because of oxidation and decomposition. The RF cold plasma has advantages over above methods as the plasma temperature is typically around room temperature, and the energetic ions could strike away carboxylate molecules bonded on the surface of nanoparticles without changing the surface chemistry. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed to see if there was phase transformation, decomposition during plasma treatment. The content change of oleic acid molecules on the nanoparticles surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  16. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.

  17. Plasmonic-magnetic bifunctional nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.; Lei, C.; Ren, Y.; Cook, R. E.; Sun, Y.

    2011-03-01

    An amorphous seed-mediated strategy has been developed for the synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles that are composed of silver (yellow) and iron oxide (blue) nanodomains and exhibit unique optical properties. These properties originate from both the strong surface plasmon resonance of the silver and the strong superparamagnetic responses of the iron oxide nanodomains.

  18. Arranging matter by magnetic nanoparticle assemblers

    PubMed Central

    Yellen, Benjamin B.; Hovorka, Ondrej; Friedman, Gary

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a method for transporting colloidal particles, large molecules, cells, and other materials across surfaces and for assembling them into highly regular patterns. In this method, nonmagnetic materials are manipulated by a fluid dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles. Manipulation of materials is guided by a program of magnetic information stored in a substrate. Dynamic control over the motion of nonmagnetic particles can be achieved by reprogramming the substrate magnetization on the fly. The unexpectedly large degree of control over particle motion can be used to manipulate large ensembles of particles in parallel, potentially with local control over particle trajectory. PMID:15956215

  19. Nonlinear simulations to optimize magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Daniel B. Weaver, John B.

    2014-03-10

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is an attractive emerging cancer treatment, but the acting microscopic energy deposition mechanisms are not well understood and optimization suffers. We describe several approximate forms for the characteristic time of Néel rotations with varying properties and external influences. We then present stochastic simulations that show agreement between the approximate expressions and the micromagnetic model. The simulations show nonlinear imaginary responses and associated relaxational hysteresis due to the field and frequency dependencies of the magnetization. This suggests that efficient heating is possible by matching fields to particles instead of resorting to maximizing the power of the applied magnetic fields.

  20. Tailoring magnetic nanoparticle for transformers application.

    PubMed

    Morais, P C; Silva, A S; Leite, E S; Garg, V K; Oliveira, A C; Viali, W R; Sartoratto, P P C

    2010-02-01

    In this study photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of dilution of an oil-based magnetic fluid sample on the magnetic nanoparticle surface-coating. Changes of the photoacoustic signal intensity on the band-L region (640 to 830 nm) upon dilution of the stock magnetic fluid sample were discussed in terms of molecular surface desorption. The model proposed here assumes that the driving force taking the molecules out from the nanoparticle surface into the bulk solvent is the gradient of osmotic pressure. This gradient of osmotic pressure is established between the nanoparticle surface and the bulk suspension. It is further assumed that the photoacoustic signal intensity (area under the photoacoustic spectra) scales linearly with the number of coating molecules (surface grafting) at the nanoparticle surface. This model picture provides a non-linear analytical description for the reduction of the surface grafting coefficient upon dilution, which was successfully-used to curve-fit the photoacoustic experimental data. PMID:20352784

  1. Structural and magnetic study of dysprosium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Hemaunt; Srivastava, R. C.; Pal Singh, Jitendra; Negi, P.; Agrawal, H. M.; Das, D.; Hwa Chae, Keun

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the magnetic behavior of Dy3+ substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction studies reveal presence of cubic spinel phases in these nanoparticles. Raman spectra of these nanoparticles show change in intensity of Raman bands, which reflects cation redistribution in cubic spinel lattice. Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with increase of Dy3+concentration in these nanoparticles. Room temperature Mssbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in these nanoparticles and corroborates the results obtained from Raman Spectroscopic measurements. Decrease in magnetization of Dy3+ substituted cobalt ferrite is attributed to the reduction in the magnetic interaction and cation redistribution.

  2. Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles for seawater desalination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qipeng; Chen, Ningping; Zhao, Dieling; Lu, Xianmao

    2013-11-13

    Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a class of smart materials that respond to a change in temperature may by used as a draw solute to extract water from brackish or seawater by forward osmosis (FO). A distinct advantage is the efficient regeneration of the draw solute and the recovery of water via heat-facilitated magnetic separation. However, the osmotic pressure attained by this type of draw solution is too low to counteract that of seawater. In this work, we have designed a FO draw solution based on multifunctional Fe3O4 nanoparticles grafted with copolymer poly(sodium styrene-4-sulfonate)-co-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PSSS-PNIPAM). The resulting regenerable draw solution shows high osmotic pressure for seawater desalination. This is enabled by three essential functional components integrated within the nanostructure: (i) a Fe3O4 core that allows magnetic separation of the nanoparticles from the solvent, (ii) a thermoresponsive polymer, PNIPAM, that enables reversible clustering of the particles for further improved magnetic capturing at a temperature above its low critical solution temperature (LCST), and (iii) a polyelectrolyte, PSSS, that provides an osmotic pressure that is well above that of seawater. PMID:24134565

  3. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Magnetic moment measurement of magnetic nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.-W.; Yoo, I. S.; Chang, W.-S.; Lee, E.-C.; Ju, H.; Chung, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic moment per unit mass of magnetic nanoparticles was found by using the atomic force microscope (AFM). The mass of the nanoparticles was acquired from the resonance frequency shift of the particle-attached AFM probe and magnetic force measurement was also carried out with the AFM. Combining with magnetic field strength, the magnetic moment per unit mass of the nanoparticles was determined as a function of magnetic field strength.

  4. Electrochemical fabrication of nanocomposite films containing magnetic metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Hashi, Shuichiro; Kura, Hiroaki; Yanai, Takeshi; Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2015-07-01

    Controlling the structure composed of soft and hard magnetic phases at the nanoscale is the key to fabricating nanocomposite magnets with efficient exchange coupling. In our previous study, nanocomposite films containing ferrite nanoparticles were fabricated by a combination of electrophoretic deposition and electroplating to show one possibility of controlling the structure of nanocomposite magnets three-dimensionally by applying self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles. To expand this combination method to the fabrication of nanocomposite magnets, the use of magnetic metal nanoparticles is desired. In this paper, we attempted to fabricate nanocomposite films composed of Fe-Co nanoparticles in a Fe-Pt matrix by this combination method. Through cross-sectional observation and XRD analysis, a nanostructure composed of Fe-Co nanoparticles embedded in a L10 Fe-Pt matrix was confirmed. These results indicate that this method is capable of producing composite materials containing metal magnetic nanoparticles.

  5. Targeted drug delivery to the brain using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Moos, Torben

    2015-10-01

    Brain capillary endothelial cells denote the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and conjugation of nanoparticles with antibodies that target molecules expressed by these endothelial cells may facilitate their uptake and transport into the brain. Magnetic nanoparticles can be encapsulated in liposomes and carry large molecules with therapeutic potential, for example, siRNA, cDNA and polypeptides. An additional approach to enhance the transport of magnetic nanoparticles across the BBB is the application of extracranially applied magnetic force. Stepwise targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to brain capillary endothelial cells followed by transport through the BBB using magnetic force may prove a novel mechanism for targeted therapy of macromolecules to the brain. PMID:26446407

  6. EDITORIAL: Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, K.

    2002-07-01

    Magnetic materials have been used with grain sizes down to the nanoscale for longer than any other type of material. This is because of a fundamental change in the magnetic structure of ferro- and ferrimagnetic materials when grain sizes are reduced. In these circumstances, the normal macroscopic domain structure transforms into a single domain state at a critical size which typically lies below 100 nm. Once this transformation occurs the mechanism of magnetisation reversal can only be via the rotation of the magnetisation vector from one magnetic easy axis to another via a magnetically hard direction. This change of reversal mechanism has led to a new class of magnetic materials whose properties and the basic underlying physical mechanism governing them were defined in a seminal work first published by E C Stoner and E P Wolhfarth in 1949. As a consequence of this rotation mechanism, magnetic nanoparticles exist having coercivities which are highly controllable and lie between soft materials and normal permanent magnet materials. This ability to control coercivity in such particles has led to a number of significant technological advances, particularly in the field of information storage. The high value of information storage technology has meant that since the 1950s an enormous research and development effort has gone into techniques for the preparation of magnetic particles and thin films having well defined properties. Hence, certainly since the 1960s, a wide range of techniques to produce both metallic and oxide magnetic nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 4-100 nm has been developed. The availability of this wide range of materials led to speculation from the 1960s onwards that they may have applications in biology and medicine. The fact that a magnetic field gradient can be used to either remotely position or selectively filter biological materials leads to a number of obvious applications. These applications fall broadly into two categories: those involving the use in-vivo and those involving the use of magnetic particles in-vitro. Obviously for safety reasons the development of in-vitro applications are more accessible. However, and somewhat ironically, the one application currently used on a significant scale involves the use of magnetic particles to produce a distortion in the magnetic field at a given site under examination via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The presence of the particles at a given site can alter the contrast of certain types of cells by several orders of magnitude, making visible objects that were hitherto difficult to image. With the increasing sophistication of pharmaceuticals, the dramatic development of cell manipulation and even DNA sequencing, the possibility of using magnetic nanoparticles to improve the effectiveness of such technologies is obviously appealing. Hence there are proposals for drug delivery systems, particularly for anti-inflammatory agents and also for the use of magnetic separation technologies for rapid DNA sequencing. A further and somewhat surprising application of magnetic nanoparticles lies in the production of controlled heating effects. Each cycle of a hysteresis loop of any magnetic material involves an energy loss proportional to the area of the loop. Hence if magnetic nanoparticles having the required coercivity are remotely positioned at a given site in the body, perhaps the site of a malignancy, then the application of an alternating magnetic field can be used to selectively warm a given area. It has been proposed that this simple physical effect could be used both to destroy cells directly or to induce a modest increase in temperature so as to increase the efficacy of either chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Clearly this area of potential technology is highly novel and offers many exciting possibilities for future developments. The area is relatively young and highly multidisciplinary, requiring a range of scientific knowledge from inorganic chemistry involved in the preparation of the nanoparticles, through biochemistry and medical science to allow for their functionalisation, and of course the basic physics of how the properties of the magnetic particles can best be brought to bear. In consequence it is not possible for a single author to be able to produce an overview of such a wide range of disciplines in a single paper. Therefore, in this issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics we have commissioned three separate reviews from leading groups in Western Europe covering in some detail the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles, their functionalisation with appropriate biomolecules for different applications and a review of the fundamental underlying physics behind the technology. We hope that this somewhat unusual combination of review articles in an applied physics journal will be of benefit to all those in the scientific community with interests in this area. We are most grateful to all the authors of the three papers for their contribution to this issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics and in particular for their willingness to coordinate their submissions so as to enable this cluster of review articles to appear in a single issue.

  7. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Magnetically-Guided and Magnetically-Responsive Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Estelrich, Joan; Escribano, Elvira; Queralt, Josep; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the recent advances in and problems with the use of magnetically-guided and magnetically-responsive nanoparticles in drug delivery and magnetofection. In magnetically-guided nanoparticles, a constant external magnetic field is used to transport magnetic nanoparticles loaded with drugs to a specific site within the body or to increase the transfection capacity. Magnetofection is the delivery of nucleic acids under the influence of a magnetic field acting on nucleic acid vectors that are associated with magnetic nanoparticles. In magnetically-responsive nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles are encapsulated or embedded in a larger colloidal structure that carries a drug. In this last case, an alternating magnetic field can modify the structure of the colloid, thereby providing spatial and temporal control over drug release. PMID:25867479

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetically-guided and magnetically-responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Estelrich, Joan; Escribano, Elvira; Queralt, Josep; Busquets, Maria Antnia

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the recent advances in and problems with the use of magnetically-guided and magnetically-responsive nanoparticles in drug delivery and magnetofection. In magnetically-guided nanoparticles, a constant external magnetic field is used to transport magnetic nanoparticles loaded with drugs to a specific site within the body or to increase the transfection capacity. Magnetofection is the delivery of nucleic acids under the influence of a magnetic field acting on nucleic acid vectors that are associated with magnetic nanoparticles. In magnetically-responsive nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles are encapsulated or embedded in a larger colloidal structure that carries a drug. In this last case, an alternating magnetic field can modify the structure of the colloid, thereby providing spatial and temporal control over drug release. PMID:25867479

  9. Optical detection of magnetic nanoparticles in colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, Alejandro J.; Ramirez-Wong, Diana G.; Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Sanchez, Isaac C.; Yáñez-Limón, J. M.; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the change of light transmittance and light scattering dispersion by colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles. Optical changes were observed during the application of transversal magnetic fields to magnetic nanoparticles and nanowires at concentrations spanning from 20 μg/mL to 2 ng/mL. Results show that light scattering modulation is a simple, fast and inexpensive method for detection of magnetic nanoparticles at low concentrations. Frequency and time response of the optical modulation strongly depends on the geometry of the particles. In this regard, light transmittance and scattering measurements may prove useful in characterizing the morphology of suspended nanoparticles.

  10. Improving the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast and Detection Methods with Engineered Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Zhong, Xiaodong; Wang, Liya; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Engineering and functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles have been an area of the extensive research and development in the biomedical and nanomedicine fields. Because their biocompatibility and toxicity are well investigated and better understood, magnetic nanoparticles, especially iron oxide nanoparticles, are better suited materials as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for image-directed delivery of therapeutics. Given tunable magnetic properties and various surface chemistries from the coating materials, most applications of engineered magnetic nanoparticles take advantages of their superb MRI contrast enhancing capability as well as surface functionalities. It has been found that MRI contrast enhancement by magnetic nanoparticles is highly dependent on the composition, size and surface properties as well as the degree of aggregation of the nanoparticles. Therefore, understanding the relationships between these intrinsic parameters and the relaxivities that contribute to MRI contrast can lead to establishing essential guidance that may direct the design of engineered magnetic nanoparticles for theranostics applications. On the other hand, new contrast mechanism and imaging strategy can be developed based on the novel properties of engineered magnetic nanoparticles. This review will focus on discussing the recent findings on some chemical and physical properties of engineered magnetic nanoparticles affecting the relaxivities as well as the impact on MRI contrast. Furthermore, MRI methods for imaging magnetic nanoparticles including several newly developed MRI approaches aiming at improving the detection and quantification of the engineered magnetic nanoparticles are described. PMID:22272222

  11. Exchange-coupled magnetic nanoparticles for efficient heat induction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Jung-Tak; Choi, Jin-Sil; Moon, Seung Ho; Noh, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Wook; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Il-Sun; Park, Kook In; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2011-07-01

    The conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by nanoparticles has the potential to be a powerful, non-invasive technique for biotechnology applications such as drug release, disease treatment and remote control of single cell functions, but poor conversion efficiencies have hindered practical applications so far. In this Letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the efficiency of magnetic thermal induction by nanoparticles. We take advantage of the exchange coupling between a magnetically hard core and magnetically soft shell to tune the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle and maximize the specific loss power, which is a gauge of the conversion efficiency. The optimized core-shell magnetic nanoparticles have specific loss power values that are an order of magnitude larger than conventional iron-oxide nanoparticles. We also perform an antitumour study in mice, and find that the therapeutic efficacy of these nanoparticles is superior to that of a common anticancer drug. PMID:21706024

  12. Exchange-coupled magnetic nanoparticles for efficient heat induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Jung-Tak; Choi, Jin-Sil; Moon, Seung Ho; Noh, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Wook; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Il-Sun; Park, Kook In; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2011-07-01

    The conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by nanoparticles has the potential to be a powerful, non-invasive technique for biotechnology applications such as drug release, disease treatment and remote control of single cell functions, but poor conversion efficiencies have hindered practical applications so far. In this Letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the efficiency of magnetic thermal induction by nanoparticles. We take advantage of the exchange coupling between a magnetically hard core and magnetically soft shell to tune the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle and maximize the specific loss power, which is a gauge of the conversion efficiency. The optimized core-shell magnetic nanoparticles have specific loss power values that are an order of magnitude larger than conventional iron-oxide nanoparticles. We also perform an antitumour study in mice, and find that the therapeutic efficacy of these nanoparticles is superior to that of a common anticancer drug.

  13. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutirrez, L.; Mejas, R.; Barber, D. F.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Serna, C. J.; Lzaro, F. J.; Morales, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  14. Magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution following intratumoral administration

    PubMed Central

    Giustini, A.J.; Ivkov, R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, heat generated by iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) stimulated by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) has shown promise in the treatment of cancer. To determine the mechanism of nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity, the physical association of the cancer cells and the nanoparticles must be determined. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to define the time dependent cellular uptake of intratumorally administered dextran-coated, core-shell configuration IONP having a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 100-130 nm in a murine breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MTG-B) in vivo. Tumors averaging volumes of 115 mm3 were injected with iron oxide nanoparticles. The tumors were then excised and fixed for TEM at time 0.1 to 120 hours post IONP injection. Intracellular uptake of IONP was 5.0, 48.8 and 91.1% uptake at one, two and four hours post-injection of IONP, respectively. This information is essential for the effective use of IONP hyperthermia in cancer treatment. PMID:21795772

  15. Magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution following intratumoral administration.

    PubMed

    Giustini, A J; Ivkov, R; Hoopes, P J

    2011-08-26

    Recently, heat generated by iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) stimulated by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) has shown promise in the treatment of cancer. To determine the mechanism of nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity, the physical association of the cancer cells and the nanoparticles must be determined. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to define the time dependent cellular uptake of intratumorally administered dextran-coated, core-shell configuration IONP having a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 100-130 nm in a murine breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MTG-B) in vivo. Tumors averaging volumes of 115 mm3 were injected with iron oxide nanoparticles. The tumors were then excised and fixed for TEM at time 0.1-120 h post-IONP injection. Intracellular uptake of IONPs was 5.0, 48.8 and 91.1% uptake at one, 2 and 4 h post-injection of IONPs, respectively. This information is essential for the effective use of IONP hyperthermia in cancer treatment. PMID:21795772

  16. Magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution following intratumoral administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, A. J.; Ivkov, R.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2011-08-01

    Recently, heat generated by iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) stimulated by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) has shown promise in the treatment of cancer. To determine the mechanism of nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity, the physical association of the cancer cells and the nanoparticles must be determined. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to define the time dependent cellular uptake of intratumorally administered dextran-coated, core-shell configuration IONP having a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 100-130 nm in a murine breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MTG-B) in vivo. Tumors averaging volumes of 115 mm3 were injected with iron oxide nanoparticles. The tumors were then excised and fixed for TEM at time 0.1-120 h post-IONP injection. Intracellular uptake of IONPs was 5.0, 48.8 and 91.1% uptake at one, 2 and 4 h post-injection of IONPs, respectively. This information is essential for the effective use of IONP hyperthermia in cancer treatment.

  17. Preparation and Properties of Various Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Drbohlavova, Jana; Hrdy, Radim; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Schneeweiss, Oldrich; Hubalek, Jaromir

    2009-01-01

    The fabrications of iron oxides nanoparticles using co-precipitation and gadolinium nanoparticles using water in oil microemulsion method are reported in this paper. Results of detailed phase analysis by XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy are discussed. XRD analysis revealed that the crystallite size (mean coherence length) of iron oxides (mainly γ-Fe2O3) in the Fe2O3 sample was 30 nm, while in Fe2O3/SiO2 where the ε-Fe2O3 phase dominated it was only 14 nm. Gd/SiO2 nanoparticles were found to be completely amorphous, according to XRD. The samples showed various shapes of hysteresis loops and different coercivities. Differences in the saturation magnetization (MS) correspond to the chemical and phase composition of the sample materials. However, we observed that MS was not reached in the case of Fe2O3/SiO2, while for Gd/SiO2 sample the MS value was extremely low. Therefore we conclude that only unmodified Fe2O3 nanoparticles are suitable for intended biosensing application in vitro (e.g. detection of viral nucleic acids) and the phase purification of this sample for this purpose is not necessary. PMID:22574017

  18. Dynamic Hysteresis in Compacted Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdary, Krishna M.

    The frequency and temperature dependent magnetic response of a bulk soft magnetic nanocomposite made by compacting Fe10Co 90 nanoparticles was measured and modeled. Electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the size, composition, and structure of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. Polyol synthesis was used to produce 200 nm particles with average grain size 20 nm and large superparamagnetic fraction. The nanoparticles were consolidated to 90% theoretical density by plasma pressure compaction. The compacted nanoparticles retained the 20 nm average grain size and large superparamagnetic fraction. The nanocomposite resistivity was more than three times that of the bulk alloy. Vibrating sample and SQUID-MPMS magnetometers were used for low frequency magnetic measurements of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. Compaction reduced the coercivity from 175 Oe to 8 Oe and the effective anisotropy from 124 x 10 3 ergs/cc to 7.9 x 103 ergs/cc. These reductions were caused by increased exchange coupling between surface nanograins, consistent with predictions from the Random Anisotropy model. Varying degrees of exchange coupling existed within the nanocomposite, contributing to a distribution of energy barriers. A permeameter was used for frequency dependent magnetic measurements on a toroid cut from the nanocomposite. Complex permeability, coercivity, and power loss were extracted from dynamic minor hysteresis loops measured over a range of temperatures (77 K - 873 K) and frequencies (0.1 kHz - 100 kHz). The real and imaginary parts of the complex permeability spectrum showed asymmetries consistent with a distribution of energy barriers and high damping. When the complex permeability, power loss, and coercivity were scaled relative to the peak frequency of the imaginary permeability, all fell on universal curves. Various microscopic and macroscopic models for the complex permeability were investigated. The complex permeability was successfully fit by modifying the Cole-Davidson model with a scaling factor that extended the model to higher damping. The additional damping was consistent with the damping from eddy current modeling, showing that the nanocomposite's complex permeability could be explained by combining microscopic effects (the distribution of energy barriers represented by the Cole-Davidson model) with macroscopic effects (damping due to eddy currents).

  19. Monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Don; Sun, Xiaolian; Sun, Shouheng

    2011-10-18

    Effective medical care requires the concurrent monitoring of medical treatment. The combination of imaging and therapeutics allows a large degree of control over the treatment efficacy and is now commonly referred to as "theranostics". Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) provide a unique nanoplatform for theranostic applications because of their biocompatibility, their responses to the external magnetic field, and their sizes which are comparable to that of functional biomolecules. Recent studies of magnetic NPs for both imaging and therapeutic applications have led to greater control over size, surface functionalization, magnetic properties, and specific binding capabilities of the NPs. The combination of the deep tissue penetration of the magnetic field and the ability of magnetic NPs to enhance magnetic resonance imaging sensitivity and magnetic heating efficiency makes magnetic NPs promising candidates for successful future theranostics. In this Account, we review recent advances in the synthesis of magnetic NPs for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). Our focus is on iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) NPs, gold-iron oxide (Au-Fe(3)O(4)) NPs, metallic iron (Fe) NPs, and Fe-based alloy NPs, such as iron-cobalt (FeCo) and iron-platinum (FePt) NPs. Because of the ease of fabrication and their approved clinical usage, Fe(3)O(4) NPs with controlled sizes and surface chemistry have been studied extensively for MRI and MFH applications. Porous hollow Fe(3)O(4) NPs are expected to have similar magnetic, chemical, and biological properties as the solid Fe(3)O(4) NPs, and their structures offer the additional opportunity to store and release drugs at a target. The Au-Fe(3)O(4) NPs combine both magnetically active Fe(3)O(4) and optically active Au within one nanostructure and are a promising NP platform for multimodal imaging and therapeutics. Metallic Fe and FeCo NPs offer the opportunity for probes with even higher magnetizations. However, metallic NPs are normally very reactive and are subject to fast oxidation in biological solutions. Once they are coated with a layer of polycrystalline Fe(3)O(4) or a graphitic shell, these metallic NPs are more stable and provide better contrast for MRI and more effective heating for MFH. FePt NPs are chemically more stable than Fe and FeCo NPs and have shown great potential as contrast agents for both MRI and X-ray computed tomography (CT) and as robust probes for controlled heating in MFH. PMID:21661754

  20. Dielectrophoresis-magnetophoresis force driven magnetic nanoparticle movement in transformer oil based magnetic fluids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Sangyoup

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic fluid is a stable colloidal mixture contained magnetic nanoparticles coated with a surfactant. Recently, it was found that the fluid has properties to increase heat transfer and dielectric characteristics due to the added magnetic nanoparticles in transformer oils. The magnetic nanoparticles in the fluid experience an electrical force directed toward the place of maximum electric field strength when the electric field is applied. And when the external magnetic field is applied, the magnetic nanoparticles form long chains oriented along the direction of the field. The behaviors of magnetic nanoparticles in both the fields must play an important role in changing the heat transfer and dielectric characteristics of the fluids. In this study, we visualized the movement of magnetic nanoparticles influenced by both the fields applied in-situ. It was found that the magnetic nanoparticles travel in the region near the electrode by the electric field and form long chains along the field direction by the magnetic field. It can be inferred that the movement of magnetic nanoparticles appears by both the fields, and the breakdown voltage of transformer oil based magnetic fluids might be influenced according to the dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:24205624

  1. MRI contrast enhancement using Magnetic Carbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Rakesh P.; Kangasniemi, Kim; Takahashi, Masaya; Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Koymen, Ali R.; Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington Team; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Team

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, nanotechnology has become one of the most exciting forefront fields in cancer diagnosis and therapeutics such as drug delivery, thermal therapy and detection of cancer. Here, we report development of core (Fe)-shell (carbon) nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic properties for contrast enhancement in MRI imaging. These new classes of magnetic carbon nanoparticles (MCNPs) are synthesized using a bottom-up approach in various organic solvents, using the electric plasma discharge generated in the cavitation field of an ultrasonic horn. Gradient echo MRI images of well-dispersed MCNP-solutions (in tube) were acquired. For T2 measurements, a multi echo spin echo sequence was performed. From the slope of the 1/T2 versus concentration plot, the R2 value for different CMCNP-samples was measured. Since MCNPs were found to be extremely non-reactive, and highly absorbing in NIR regime, development of carbon-based MRI contrast enhancement will allow its simultaneous use in biomedical applications. We aim to localize the MCNPs in targeted tissue regions by external DC magnetic field, followed by MRI imaging and subsequent photothermal therapy.

  2. Magnetism of cluster-deposited Y-Co nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Balamurugan, B.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Li, X. Z.; Shah, V. R.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.; Shield, J. E.

    2011-04-01

    Nanoparticles of YCo{sub 2}, YCo{sub 3}, and YCo{sub 5} are produced by cluster-deposition and investigated bothstructurally and magnetically. The nanoparticles have sizes of less than 10 nm and aresuperparamagnetic at 300 K, irrespective of stoichiometry. As-produced nanoparticles exhibitdisordered structures with magnetic properties differing from those of the bulk particles.The temperature-dependent magnetization curves of the nanoparticles reveal blocking temperatures from 110 to 250 K, depending on stoichiometry. The magnetic anisotropy constant K{sub 1}of disordered YCo{sub 5} nanoparticles of 7.8 nm in size is 3.5 x 10{sup 6} ergs/cm{sup 3}, higher than those of thedisordered YCo{sub 2} (8.9 x 10{sup 5} ergs/cm{sup 3}) and YCo{sub 3} (1.0 x 10{sup 6} ergs/cm{sup 3}) nanoparticles.

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

    2010-12-15

    Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific loss power of PNIPAM-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was peculiarly high, and the heat loss mechanism of this material remains to be elucidated. Since thermocatalysis is a long-term goal of this project, we also investigated the effects of the oscillating magnetic field system for the synthesis of 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid. Application of an oscillating magnetic field in the presence of magnetic particles with high thermal response was found to effectively increase the reaction rate of the uncatalyzed synthesis of the coumarin derivative compared to the room temperature control.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical NMR-based diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Huilin; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Liong, Monty

    2010-01-01

    Summary Rapid and accurate measurements of protein biomarkers, pathogens and cells in biological samples could provide useful information for early disease diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and design of personalized medicine. In general, biological samples have only negligible magnetic susceptibility. Thus, using magnetic nanoparticles for biosensing not only enhances sensitivity but also effectively reduces sample preparation needs. This review focuses on the use of magnetic nanoparticles for in vitro detection of biomolecules and cells based on magnetic resonance effects. This detection platform, termed diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR), exploits magnetic nanoparticles as proximity sensors, which modulate the spinspin relaxation time of water molecules surrounding molecularly-targeted nanoparticles. By developing more effective magnetic nanoparticle biosensors, DMR detection limits for various target moieties have been considerably improved over the last few years. Already, a library of magnetic nanoparticles has been developed, in which a wide range of targets, including DNA/mRNA, proteins, small molecules/drugs, bacteria, and tumor cells, have been quantified. More recently, the capabilities of DMR technology have been further advanced with new developments such as miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance detectors, better magnetic nanoparticles and novel conjugational methods. These developments have enabled parallel and sensitive measurements to be made from small volume samples. Thus, the DMR technology is a highly attractive platform for portable, low-cost, and efficient biomolecular detection within a biomedical setting. PMID:21977404

  5. Fabrication of aligned magnetic nanoparticles using tobamoviruses.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mime; Seki, Munetoshi; Tabata, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2010-03-10

    We used genetically modified tube-shaped tobamoviruses to produce 3 nm aligned magnetic nanoparticles. Amino acid residues facing the central channel of the virus were modified to increase the number of nucleation sites. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device analysis suggest that the particles consisted of Co-Pt alloy. The use of tobamovirus mutants is a promising approach to making a variety of components that can be applied to fabricate nanometer-scaled electronic devices. PMID:20158260

  6. Magnetic nanoparticle assembly on surfaces using click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kinge, Sachin; Gang, Tian; Naber, Wouter J M; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Reinhoudt, David N

    2011-01-18

    Controlled assembly of ferromagnetic nanoparticles on surfaces is of crucial importance for a range of spintronic and data storage applications. Here, we present a novel method for assembling monolayers of ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles on silicon oxide substrates using "click chemistry". Reaction of alkyne-functionalized FePt nanoparticles with azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), on silicon oxide, leads to the irreversible attachment of magnetic nanoparticles to the surface via triazole linkers. Based on this covalent interaction, well-packed monolayers of FePt nanoparticles were prepared and nanoparticle patterns are generated on surfaces via microcontact printing (?CP). PMID:21162518

  7. Magnetization Reversal in Dense Arrays of Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2003-03-01

    Recently, three-dimensional arrays of nanoparticles embedded in magnetic matrix have attracted renewed attention as potential permanent magnets with record energy products [1, 2]. A key problem is to ensure that the composites exhibit a sufficiently high coercivity. A lower bound to the coercivity is the nucleation field, at which the saturated magnetization state becomes unstable. The determination of the magnetic modes can be mapped onto the quantum-mechanical motion of a single electron [3], and in the case of arrays this reduces to a magnonic band-structure problem. The only difference is that magnetostatic interactions modify the wave-vector dependence of the energy levels. The nucleation field is determined by the s-band edge. For ideal periodic arrays, the edge is sharp and the nucleation field has a well-defined value, whereas real-structure disorder leads to an Urbach tail of low-lying localized states. This leads to a typically logarithmic dependence of the coercivity on the macroscopic size of the magnet. This research is supported by AFOSR, DOE, NSF MRSEC, and CMRA. [1] D. J. Sellmyer, Nature 420, 374 (2002). [2] H. Zeng, J. Li, J. P. Liu, Zh. L. Wang, and Sh.-H. Sun, Nature 420, 395 (2002). [3] R. Skomski and J. M. D. Coey, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15812 (1993).

  8. A feasibility study of magnetic separation of magnetic nanoparticle for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y C; Han, S; Hong, S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently reported that a UK company has developed a naturally non-toxic magnetoferritin to act as a draw solute for drawing water in forward osmosis process. The gist of this technology is the utilization of the magnetic nanoparticle and high-gradient magnetic separation for draw solute separation and reuse. However, any demonstration on this technology has not been reported yet. In this study, a feasibility test of magnetic separation using magnetic nanoparticle was therefore performed to investigate the possibility of magnetic separation in water treatment such as desalination. Basically, a magnetic separation system consisted of a column packed with a bed of magnetically susceptible wools placed between the poles of electromagnet and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle was used as a model nanoparticle. The effect of nanoparticle size to applied magnetic field in separation column was experimentally investigated and the magnetic field distribution in a magnet gap and the magnetic field gradient around stainless steel wool wire were analyzed through numerical simulation. The amount of magnetic nanoparticle captured in the separator column increased as the magnetic field strength and particle size increased. As a result, if magnetic separation is intended to be used for draw solute separation and reuse, both novel nanoparticle and large-scale high performance magnetic separator must be developed. PMID:22097022

  9. Polysaccharide-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Imaging and Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Uthaman, Saji; Lee, Sang Joon; Cherukula, Kondareddy; Cho, Chong-Su; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Today, nanotechnology plays a vital role in biomedical applications, especially for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. Among the many different types of fabricated nanoparticles, magnetic metal oxide nanoparticles stand out as unique and useful tools for biomedical applications, because of their imaging characteristics and therapeutic properties such as drug and gene carriers. Polymer-coated magnetic particles are currently of particular interest to investigators in the fields of nanobiomedicine and fundamental biomaterials. Theranostic magnetic nanoparticles that are encapsulated or coated with polymers not only exhibit imaging properties in response to stimuli, but also can efficiently deliver various drugs and therapeutic genes. Even though a large number of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles have been fabricated over the last decade, most of these have only been used for imaging purposes. The focus of this review is on polysaccharide-coated magnetic nanoparticles used for imaging and gene delivery. PMID:26078971

  10. Polysaccharide-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Imaging and Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uthaman, Saji; Cherukula, Kondareddy; Cho, Chong-Su; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Today, nanotechnology plays a vital role in biomedical applications, especially for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. Among the many different types of fabricated nanoparticles, magnetic metal oxide nanoparticles stand out as unique and useful tools for biomedical applications, because of their imaging characteristics and therapeutic properties such as drug and gene carriers. Polymer-coated magnetic particles are currently of particular interest to investigators in the fields of nanobiomedicine and fundamental biomaterials. Theranostic magnetic nanoparticles that are encapsulated or coated with polymers not only exhibit imaging properties in response to stimuli, but also can efficiently deliver various drugs and therapeutic genes. Even though a large number of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles have been fabricated over the last decade, most of these have only been used for imaging purposes. The focus of this review is on polysaccharide-coated magnetic nanoparticles used for imaging and gene delivery. PMID:26078971

  11. Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xin; Yu, Jing; Hou, Yang-Long

    2015-01-01

    Progress in surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is summarized with regard to organic molecules, macromolecules and inorganic materials. Many researchers are now devoted to synthesizing new types of multi-functional MNPs, which show great application potential in both diagnosis and treatment of disease. By employing an ever-greater variety of surface modification techniques, MNPs can satisfy more and more of the demands of medical practice in areas like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescent marking, cell targeting, and drug delivery. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51125001 and 51172005), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing,China (Grant No. 2122022), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81421004), and the Doctoral Program of the Education Ministry of China (Grant No. 20120001110078).

  12. 2D magnetic nanoparticle imaging using magnetization response second harmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Murata, Hayaki; Oishi, Tomoya; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Zhang, Yi

    2015-06-01

    A detection method and an imaging technique for magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been investigated. In MNP detection and in magnetic particle imaging (MPI), the most commonly employed method is the detection of the odd harmonics of the magnetization response. We examined the advantage of using the second harmonic response when applying an AC magnetic modulation field and a DC bias field. If the magnetization response is detected by a Cu-wound-coil detection system, the output voltage from the coil is proportional to the change in the flux, dϕ/dt. Thus, the dependence of the derivative of the magnetization, M, on an AC magnetic modulation field and a DC bias field were calculated and investigated. The calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. We demonstrated that the use of the second harmonic response for the detection of MNPs has an advantage compared with the usage of the third harmonic response, when the Cu-wound-coil detection system is employed and the amplitude of the ratio of the AC modulation field and a knee field Hac/Hk is less than 2. We also constructed a 2D MPI scanner using a pair of permanent ring magnets with a bore of ϕ80 mm separated by 90 mm. The magnets generated a gradient of Gz=3.17 T/m transverse to the imaging bore and Gx=1.33 T/m along the longitudinal axis. An original concentrated 10 μl Resovist solution in a ϕ2×3 mm2 vessel was used as a sample, and it was imaged by the scanner. As a result, a 2D contour map image could be successfully generated using the method with a lock-in amplifier.

  13. Influence Of Nanoparticles Diameter On Structural Properties Of Magnetic Fluid In Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kdel?k, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Hardo?, tefan; Kop?ansk, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The properties of magnetic fluids depend on the nanoparticle diameter, their concentration and the carrier liquid. The structural changes in magnetic fluids with different nanoparticle diameter based on transformer oils TECHNOL and MOGUL under the effect of a magnetic field and temperature were studied by acoustic spectroscopy. At a linear and jump changes of the magnetic field at various temperatures a continuous change was observed of acoustic attenuation caused by aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles to structures. From the anisotropy of acoustic attenuation and using the Taketomi theory the basic parameters of the structures are calculated and the impact of nanoparticle diameters on the size of structures is confirmed.

  14. Magnetic nanoparticles as targeted delivery systems in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Prijic, Sara; Sersa, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Background Many different types of nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles being just a category among them, offer exciting opportunities for technologies at the interfaces between chemistry, physics and biology. Some magnetic nanoparticles have already been utilized in clinical practice as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their physicochemical properties are constantly being improved upon also for other biological applications, such as magnetically-guided delivery systems for different therapeutics. By exposure of magnetic nanoparticles with attached therapeutics to an external magnetic field with appropriate characteristics, they are concentrated and retained at the preferred site which enables the targeted delivery of therapeutics to the desired spot. Conclusions The idea of binding chemotherapeutics to magnetic nanoparticles has been around for 30 years, however, no magnetic nanoparticles as delivery systems have yet been approved for clinical practice. Recently, binding of nucleic acids to magnetic nanoparticles has been demonstrated as a successful non-viral transfection method of different cell lines in vitro. With the optimization of this method called magnetofection, it will hopefully become another form of gene delivery for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22933928

  15. The effects of magnetic nanoparticle properties on magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappiyoor, Ravi; Liangruksa, Monrudee; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a noninvasive treatment that destroys cancer cells by heating a ferrofluid-impregnated malignant tissue with an ac magnetic field while causing minimal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. The strength of the magnetic field must be sufficient to induce hyperthermia but it is also limited by the human ability to safely withstand it. The ferrofluid material used for hyperthermia should be one that is readily produced and is nontoxic while providing sufficient heating. We examine six materials that have been considered as candidates for MFH use. Examining the heating produced by nanoparticles of these materials, barium-ferrite and cobalt-ferrite are unable to produce sufficient MFH heating, that from iron-cobalt occurs at a far too rapid rate to be safe, while fcc iron-platinum, magnetite, and maghemite are all capable of producing stable controlled heating. We simulate the heating of ferrofluid-loaded tumors containing nanoparticles of the latter three materials to determine their effects on tumor tissue. These materials are viable MFH candidates since they can produce significant heating at the tumor center yet maintain the surrounding healthy tissue interface at a relatively safe temperature.

  16. Local Control of Ultrafast Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhov, A.; Berakdar, J.

    2009-02-06

    Using the local control theory we derive analytical expressions for magnetic field pulses that steer the magnetization of a monodomain magnetic nanoparticle to a predefined state. Finite-temperature full numerical simulations confirm the analytical results and show that a magnetization switching or freezing is achievable within few precessional periods and that the scheme is exploitable for fast thermal switching.

  17. Fe-based nanoparticles as tunable magnetic particle hyperthermia agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonidis, K.; Martinez-Boubeta, C.; Balcells, Ll.; Monty, C.; Stavropoulos, G.; Mitrakas, M.; Matsakidou, A.; Vourlias, G.; Angelakeris, M.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia, an alternative anticancer modality, is influenced by the composition, size, magnetic properties, and degree of aggregation of the corresponding nanoparticle heating agents. Here, we attempt to evaluate the AC magnetic field heating response of Fe-based nanoparticles prepared by solar physical vapor deposition, a facile, high-yield methodology. Nanoparticle systems were grown by evaporating targets of Fe and Fe3O4 with different stoichiometry. It is observed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles residing in the magnetic monodomain region exhibit increased heating efficiency together with high specific loss power values above 0.9 kW/g at 765 kHz and 24 kA/m, compared with that of 0.1 kW/g for zero-valent Fe nanoparticles under the same conditions. The enhanced performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles under the range of field explored (12-24 kA/m) may be attributed to the activation of a magnetic hysteresis loss mechanism when the applied AC field surpasses the particle anisotropy field at H ? 0.5HA. This is also illustrated by the smaller coercivity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles compared with that of their Fe counterparts. Therefore, understanding the interconnection between intrinsic parameters (composition, size and magnetic properties), the dosage (concentration, volume) and the intensity and frequency of the AC field can lead to essential design guidelines for in vitro, in vivo, and clinical applications of magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia.

  18. Biotin avidin amplified magnetic immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection using GoldMag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, An; Geng, Tingting; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Chao; Cui, Yali

    2007-04-01

    Using GoldMag (Fe3O4/Au) nanoparticles as a carrier, a biotin-avidin amplified ELISA was developed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A specific antibody was labeled with biotin and then used to detect the antigen with an antibody coated on GoldMag nanoparticles by a sandwich ELISA assay. The results showed that 5 mol of biotin were surface bound per mole of antibody. The biotin-avidin amplified ELISA assay has a higher sensitivity than that of the direct ELISA assay. There is 5-fold difference between HBsAg positive and negative serum even at dilution of 1:10000, and the relative standard deviation of the parallel positive serum at dilution of 1:4000 is 5.98% (n=11).

  19. Microchip integrating magnetic nanoparticles for allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Malloggi, Florent; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Varenne, Anne; Kanoufi, Frederic; Descroix, Stphanie

    2011-12-21

    We report on the development of a simple and easy to use microchip dedicated to allergy diagnosis. This microchip combines both the advantages of homogeneous immunoassays i.e. species diffusion and heterogeneous immunoassays i.e. easy separation and preconcentration steps. In vitro allergy diagnosis is based on specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) quantitation, in that way we have developed and integrated magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) as an IgE capture nanoplatform in a microdevice taking benefit from both their magnetic and colloidal properties. Integrating such immunosupport allows to perform the target analyte (IgE) capture in the colloidal phase thus increasing the analyte capture kinetics since both immunological partners are diffusing during the immune reaction. This colloidal approach improves 1000 times the analyte capture kinetics compared to conventional methods. Moreover, based on the MCSNPs' magnetic properties and on the magnetic chamber we have previously developed the MCSNPs and therefore the target can be confined and preconcentrated within the microdevice prior to the detection step. The MCSNPs preconcentration factor achieved was about 35,000 and allows to reach high sensitivity thus avoiding catalytic amplification during the detection step. The developed microchip offers many advantages: the analytical procedure was fully integrated on-chip, analyses were performed in short assay time (20 min), the sample and reagents consumption was reduced to few microlitres (5 ?L) while a low limit of detection can be achieved (about 1 ng mL(-1)). PMID:22033539

  20. Biomedical and environmental applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dai Lam; Le, Van Hong; Linh Pham, Hoai; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Luong, Thien Tai; Thu Ha, Phuong; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of syntheses and applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) at the Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Three families of oxide MNPs, magnetite, manganite and spinel ferrite materials, were prepared in various ways: coprecipitation, sol-gel and high energy mechanical milling. Basic properties of MNPs were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Physical Properties Measurement Systems (PPMS). As for biomedical application, the aim was to design a novel multifunctional, nanosized magnetofluorescent water-dispersible Fe3O4-curcumin conjugate, and its ability to label, target and treat tumor cells was described. The conjugate possesses a magnetic nano Fe3O4 core, chitosan (CS) or Oleic acid (OL) as an outer shell and entrapped curcumin (Cur), serving the dual function of naturally autofluorescent dye as well as antitumor model drug. Fe3O4-Cur conjugate exhibited a high loading cellular uptake with the help of a macrophage, which was clearly visualized dually by Fluorescence Microscope and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM), as well as by magnetization measurement (PPMS). A preliminary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study also showed a clear contrast enhancement by using the conjugate. As for the environmental aspect, the use of magnetite MNPs for the removal of heavy toxic metals, such as Arsenic (As) and Lead (Pb), from contaminated water was studied.

  1. A Renewable Electrochemical Magnetic Immunosensor Based on Gold Nanoparticle Labels

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-05-24

    A particle-based renewable electrochemical magnetic immunosensor was developed by using magnetic beads and a gold nanoparticle label. Anti-IgG antibody-modified magnetic beads were attached to a renewable carbon paste transducer surface by magnets that were fixed inside the sensor. A gold nanoparticle label was capsulated to the surface of magnetic beads by sandwich immunoassay. Highly sensitive electrochemical stripping analysis offers a simple and fast method to quantify the capatured gold nanoparticle tracer and avoid the use of an enzyme label and substrate. The stripping signal of gold nanoparticle is related to the concentration of target IgG in the sample solution. A transmission electron microscopy image shows that the gold nanoparticles were successfully capsulated to the surface of magnetic beads through sandwich immunoreaction events. The parameters of immunoassay, including the loading of magnetic beads, the amount of gold nanoparticle conjugate, and the immunoreaction time, were optimized. The detection limit of 0.02 μg ml-1of IgG was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. Such particle-based electrochemical magnetic immunosensors could be readily used for simultaneous parallel detection of multiple proteins by using multiple inorganic metal nanoparticle tracers and are expected to open new opportunities for disease diagnostics and biosecurity.

  2. Oil-field wastewater purification by magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuonan; Yang, Huihui; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, oil-field wastewater purification through superconducting magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle was investigated. The magnetic nanoparticle, which has a multi-shell structure with ferroferric oxide as core, dense nonporous silica as inter layer and mesoporous silica as outer layer, was synthesized by co-precipitation method. To functionalize the magnetic nanoparticle, plasma polymerization technique was adopted and poly methyl acrylate (PMA) was formed on the surface of the nanoparticle. The multi-shell structure of the nanoparticle was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the characteristic is measurable by FTIR. It is found that most of the pollutants (85% by turbidity or 84% by COD value) in the oil-field wastewater are removed through the superconducting magnetic separation technique using this novel magnetic nanoparticle.

  3. Differential magnetic catch and release: Separation, purification, and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles and particle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveridge, Jacob S.

    Magnetic nanoparticles uniquely combine superparamagnetic behavior with dimensions that are smaller than or the same size as molecular analytes. The integration of magnetic nanoparticles with analytical methods has opened new avenues for sensing, purification, and quantitative analysis. Applied magnetic fields can be used to control the motion and properties of magnetic nanoparticles; in analytical chemistry, use of magnetic fields provides methods for manipulating and analyzing species at the molecular level. The ability to use applied magnetic fields to control the motion and properties of magnetic nanoparticles is a tool for manipulating and analyzing species at the molecular level, and has led to applications including analyte handing, chemical sensors, and imaging techniques. This is clearly an area where significant growth and impact in separation science and analysis is expected in the future. In Chapter 1, we describe applications of magnetic nanoparticles to analyte handling, chemical sensors, and imaging techniques. Chapter 2 reports the purification and separation of magnetic nanoparticle mixtures using the technique developed in our lab called differential magnetic catch and release (DMCR). This method applies a variable magnetic flux orthogonal to the flow direction in an open tubular capillary to trap and controllably release magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic moments of 8, 12, and 17 nm diameter CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are calculated using the applied magnetic flux density and experimentally determined force required to trap 50% of the particle sample. Balancing the relative strengths of the drag and magnetic forces enable separation and purification of magnetic CoFe2 O4 nanoparticle samples with < 20 nm diameters. Samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy to determine the average size and size dispersity of the sample population. DMCR is further demonstrated to be useful for separation of a magnetic nanoparticle mixture, resulting in samples with narrowed size distributions. Differential magnetic catch and release has been used as a method for the purification and separation of magnetic nanoparticles. In Chapter 3 the separation metrics are reported. DMCR separates nanoparticles in the mobile phase by magnetic trapping of magnetic nanoparticles against the wall of an open tubular capillary wrapped between two narrowly spaced electromagnetic poles. Using Au and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as model systems, the loading capacity of the 250 microm diameter capillary is determined to be 130 microg, and is scalable to higher quantities with larger bore capillary. Peak resolution in DMCR is externally controlled by selection of the release time (Rt) at which the magnetic flux density is removed, however longer capture times are shown to reduce the capture yield. In addition, the magnetic nanoparticle capture yields are observed to depend on the nanoparticle diameter, mobile phase viscosity and velocity, and applied magnetic flux. Using these optimized parameters, three samples of CoFe 2O4 nanoparticles whose diameters are different by less than 10 nm are separated with excellent resolution and capture yield, demonstrating the capability of DMCR for separation and purification of magnetic nanoparticles. Individual hybrid nanocrystals possess multiple structural units with solid state interfaces, giving them a wide range of possible applications. Synthesis of truly monodisperse nanoparticles and hybrid nanocrystals is a formidable task, which has led us to apply our analytical technique, differential magnetic catch and release, to separate and purify magnetic nanoparticles. Using an open tubular capillary column and electromagnet, DMCR separates magnetic nanoparticles based on a balance of their magnetic moment and hydrodynamic size. Chapter 4 focuses on the purification of real world samples of hybrid nanocrystals including Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures and FePt-Fe3O4 dimers. Samples are characterized with transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, selected area electro

  4. Advanced magnetic anisotropy determination through isothermal remanent magnetization of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillion, A.; Tamion, A.; Tournus, F.; Gaier, O.; Bonet, E.; Albin, C.; Dupuis, V.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a theoretical framework enabling the simulation of isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) curves, based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth model combined with the Nel macrospin relaxation time description. We show how low temperature IRM curves, which have many advantages compared to hysteresis loops, can be efficiently computed for realistic assemblies of magnetic particles with both a size and anisotropy constant distribution, and a biaxial anisotropy. The IRM curves, which probe the irreversible switching provoked by an applied field, are shown to be complementary to other usual measurements (in particular low-field susceptibility curves where a thermal switching is involved). As an application, the experimental IRM curve of Co clusters embedded in a carbon matrix is analyzed. We demonstrate how powerful such an analysis can be, which in the present case allows us to put into evidence an anisotropy constant dispersion among the Co nanoparticles.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization, and applications in bioimaging and magnetic energy storage.

    PubMed

    Frey, Natalie A; Peng, Sheng; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Shouheng

    2009-09-01

    This tutorial review summarizes the recent advances in the chemical synthesis and potential applications of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles. After a brief introduction to nanomagnetism, the review focuses on recent developments in solution phase syntheses of monodisperse MFe(2)O(4), Co, Fe, CoFe, FePt and SmCo(5) nanoparticles. The review further outlines the surface, structural, and magnetic properties of these nanoparticles for biomedicine and magnetic energy storage applications. PMID:19690734

  6. Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization, and applications in bioimaging and magnetic energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Natalie A.; Peng, Sheng; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Shouheng

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review summarizes the recent advances in the chemical synthesis and potential applications of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles. After a brief introduction to nanomagnetism, the review focuses on recent developments in solution phase syntheses of monodisperse MFe2O4, Co, Fe, CoFe, FePt and SmCo5 nanoparticles. The review further outlines the surface, structural, and magnetic properties of these nanoparticles for biomedicine and magnetic energy storage applications. PMID:19690734

  7. Assessing magnetic nanoparticle aggregation in polymer melts by dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra-Bermdez, Sergio; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena P.; Orange, Franois; Guinel, Maxime J.-F.; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in polymer melts was assessed using dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements. Magnetic nanocomposites consisting of polybutadiene/CoFe2O4 and polystyrene/CoFe2O4 mixtures were prepared using different techniques and characterized using dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements. The presence of nanoparticle aggregates determined using magnetic measurements was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy examinations. The results were in good agreement with predictions from the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters.

  8. Navigation with magnetic nanoparticles: magnetotactic bacteria and magnetic micro-robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Stefan; Kiani, Bahareh; Vach, Peter; Faivre, Damien

    2015-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria navigate in the magnetic field of the Earth by aligning and swimming along field lines with the help of special magnetic organelles called magnetosomes. These organelles contain magnetic nanoparticles and are organized into chain structures in cells. Here we review recent work on the formation of these chains and provide some estimates of the magnetic interaction energies and the corresponding forces involved in this process. In addition, we briefly discuss the propulsion of synthetic micro- or nanopropellers based on magnetic nanoparticles.

  9. Synthesis and magnetic characterizations of uniform iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, FuYi; Li, XiaoYi; Zhu, Yuan; Tang, ZiKang

    2014-06-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles with a cubic shape were prepared by the decomposition of homemade iron oleate in 1-octadecene with the presence of oleic acid. The particle shape and size uniformity are sensitive to the quantity of oleic acid. XRD, HRTEM and SAED results indicated that the main phase content of as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles is Fe3O4 with an inverse spinel structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles display a ferromagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 295 K. At low temperatures the magnetic anisotropy of the aligned nanoparticles caused the appearance of a hysteresis loop.

  10. Vinamax: a macrospin simulation tool for magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Leliaert, Jonathan; Vansteenkiste, Arne; Coene, Annelies; Dupr, Luc; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel

    2015-04-01

    We present Vinamax, a simulation tool for nanoparticles that aims at simulating magnetization dynamics on very large timescales. To this end, each individual nanoparticle is approximated by a macrospin. Vinamax numerically solves the Landau-Lifshitz equation by adopting a dipole approximation method, while temperature effects can be taken into account with two stochastic methods. It describes the influence of demagnetizing and anisotropy fields on magnetic nanoparticles at finite temperatures in a space- and time-dependent externally applied field. Vinamax can be used in biomedical research where nanoparticle imaging techniques are underdevelopment, e.g., to validate other higher-level models and study their limitations. PMID:25552437

  11. Magnetic nanoparticle-based drug delivery for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Rainer; Zaloga, Jan; Unterweger, Harald; Lyer, Stefan; Friedrich, Ralf P; Janko, Christina; Pttler, Marina; Drr, Stephan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-12-18

    Nanoparticles have belonged to various fields of biomedical research for quite some time. A promising site-directed application in the field of nanomedicine is drug targeting using magnetic nanoparticles which are directed at the target tissue by means of an external magnetic field. Materials most commonly used for magnetic drug delivery contain metal or metal oxide nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). SPIONs consist of an iron oxide core, often coated with organic materials such as fatty acids, polysaccharides or polymers to improve colloidal stability and to prevent separation into particles and carrier medium [1]. In general, magnetite and maghemite particles are those most commonly used in medicine and are, as a rule, well-tolerated. The magnetic properties of SPIONs allow the remote control of their accumulation by means of an external magnetic field. Conjugation of SPIONs with drugs, in combination with an external magnetic field to target the nanoparticles (so-called "magnetic drug targeting", MDT), has additionally emerged as a promising strategy of drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticle-based drug delivery is a sophisticated overall concept and a multitude of magnetic delivery vehicles have been developed. Targeting mechanism-exploiting, tumor-specific attributes are becoming more and more sophisticated. The same is true for controlled-release strategies for the diseased site. As it is nearly impossible to record every magnetic nanoparticle system developed so far, this review summarizes interesting approaches which have recently emerged in the field of targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:26271592

  12. Magnetic nanoparticle-based cancer nanodiagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, Yousaf Muhammad; Yu, Jing; Hou, Yang-Long; Gao, Song

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis facilitates the discovery of an impending disease. A complete and accurate treatment of cancer depends heavily on its early medical diagnosis. Cancer, one of the most fatal diseases world-wide, consistently affects a larger number of patients each year. Magnetism, a physical property arising from the motion of electrical charges, which causes attraction and repulsion between objects and does not involve radiation, has been under intense investigation for several years. Magnetic materials show great promise in the application of image contrast enhancement to accurately image and diagnose cancer. Chelating gadolinium (Gd III) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have the prospect to pave the way for diagnosis, operative management, and adjuvant therapy of different kinds of cancers. The potential of MNP-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents (CAs) now makes it possible to image portions of a tumor in parts of the body that would be unclear with the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple functionalities like variety of targeting ligands and image contrast enhancement have recently been added to the MNPs. Keeping aside the additional complexities in synthetic steps, costs, more convoluted behavior, and effects in-vivo, multifunctional MNPs still face great regulatory hurdles before clinical availability for cancer patients. The trade-off between additional functionality and complexity is a subject of ongoing debate. The recent progress regarding the types, design, synthesis, morphology, characterization, modification, and the in-vivo and in-vitro uses of different MRI contrast agents, including MNPs, to diagnose cancer will be the focus of this review. As our knowledge of MNPs' characteristics and applications expands, their role in the future management of cancer patients will become very important. Current hurdles are also discussed, along with future prospects of MNPs as the savior of cancer victims.

  13. Pulsed Laser Synthesized Magnetic Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Hari; Gupta, Ram; Ghosh, Kartik; Kahol, Pawan; Delong, Robert; Wanekawa, Adam

    2011-03-01

    Nanomaterials research has become a major attraction in the field of advanced materials research in the area of Physics, Chemistry, and Materials Science. Biocompatible and chemically stable magnetic metal oxide nanoparticles have biomedical applications that includes drug delivery, cell and DNA separation, gene cloning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This research is aimed at the fabrication of magnetic cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a safe, cost effective, and easy to handle technique that is capable of producing nanoparticles free of any contamination. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized at room temperature using cobalt foil by pulsed laser ablation technique. These cobalt oxide nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic laser light scattering (DLLS). The magnetic cobalt oxides nanoparticles were stabilized in glucose solutions of various concentrations in deionized water. The presence of UV-Vis absorption peak at 270 nm validates the nature of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The DLLS size distributions of nanoparticles are in the range of 110 to 300 nm, which further confirms the presence nanoparticles. This work is partially supported by National Science Foundation (DMR- 0907037).

  14. Kinetics and pathogenesis of intracellular magnetic nanoparticle cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Andrew J.; Gottesman, Rachel E.; Petryk, A. A.; Rauwerdink, A. M.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles excited by alternating magnetic fields (AMF) have demonstrated effective tumor-specific hyperthermia. This treatment is effective as a monotherapy as well as a therapeutic adjuvant to chemotherapy and radiation. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been shown, so far, to be non-toxic, as are the exciting AMF fields when used at moderate levels. Although higher levels of AMF can be more effective, depending on the type of iron oxide nanoparticles use, these higher field strengths and/or frequencies can induce normal tissue heating and toxicity. Thus, the use of nanoparticles exhibiting significant heating at low AMF strengths and frequencies is desirable. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles within tumor cells improves their heating effect and cytotoxicity per nanoparticle. We have used transmission electron microscopy to track the endocytosis of nanoparticles into tumor cells (both breast adenocarcinoma (MTG-B) and acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells). Our preliminary results suggest that nanoparticles internalized into tumor cells demonstrate greater cytotoxicity when excited with AMF than an equivalent heat dose from excited external nanoparticles or cells exposed to a hot water bath. We have also demonstrated that this increase in SAR caused by aggregation improves the cytotoxicity of nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy in vitro.

  15. Switching the Magnetic Vortex Core in a Single Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Pinilla-Cienfuegos, Elena; Mañas-Valero, Samuel; Forment-Aliaga, Alicia; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-02-23

    Imaging and manipulating the spin structure of nano- and mesoscale magnetic systems is a challenging topic in magnetism, yielding a wide range of spin phenomena such as skyrmions, hedgehog-like spin structures, or vortices. A key example has been provided by the vortex spin texture, which can be addressed in four independent states of magnetization, enabling the development of multibit magnetic storage media. Most of the works devoted to the study of the magnetization reversal mechanisms of the magnetic vortices have been focused on micrometer-size magnetic platelets. Here we report the experimental observation of the vortex state formation and annihilation in individual 25 nm molecular-based magnetic nanoparticles measured by low-temperature variable-field magnetic force microscopy. Interestingly, in these nanoparticles the switching of the vortex core can be induced with very small values of the applied static magnetic field. PMID:26745548

  16. Hyperthermic effects of dissipative structures of magnetic nanoparticles in large alternating magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Hiroaki; Jeyadevan, Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Targeted hyperthermia treatment using magnetic nanoparticles is a promising cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms of heat dissipation in the large alternating magnetic field used during such treatment have not been clarified. In this study, we numerically compared the magnetic loss in rotatable nanoparticles in aqueous media with that of non-rotatable nanoparticles anchored to localised structures. In the former, the relaxation loss in superparamagnetic nanoparticles has a secondary maximum because of slow rotation of the magnetic easy axis of each nanoparticle in the large field in addition to the known primary maximum caused by rapid Nel relaxation. Irradiation of rotatable ferromagnetic nanoparticles with a high-frequency axial field generates structures oriented in a longitudinal or planar direction irrespective of the free energy. Consequently, these dissipative structures significantly affect the conditions for maximum hysteresis loss. These findings shed new light on the design of targeted magnetic hyperthermia treatments. PMID:22355672

  17. Size and anisotropy effects on magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesselinowa, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Heisenberg model taking into account single-ion anisotropy and using a Green's function technique we have studied the influence of size and anisotropy effects on magnetization M, Neel temperature TN, coercive field Hc and spin excitation energy of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles. The properties are compared with those of ferromagnetic nanoparticles. We have shown that the enhanced magnetization M and coercive field Hc of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles is a surface effect, which is due to uncompensated surface spins. Moreover, the shape of the coercive field curve can be significantly influenced by surface magnetic anisotropy.

  18. Functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetic nanoparticles with biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mǎgeruşan, Lidia; Mrówczyński, Radosław; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    New hybrid materials, obtained through introduction of cysteine, lysine and folic acid as biological entities into polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles, are reported. The syntheses are straight forward and various methods were applied for structural and morphological characterization of the resulting nanoparticles. XPS proved a very powerful tool for surface chemical analysis and it evidences the functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetite nanoparticles. The superparamagnetic behavior and the high values of saturation magnetization recommend all products for further application where magnetism is important for targeting, separation, or heating by alternative magnetic fields.

  19. Water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles with biologically active stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskaya, Alla; Segal, Izolda; Lukevics, Edmunds; Maiorov, Mikhail; Zablotsky, Dmitry; Blums, Elmars; Shestakova, Irina; Domracheva, Ilona

    2009-05-01

    We present the results of the interaction of iron oxide nanoparticles with some biologically active surfactants, namely, oleic acid and cytotoxic alkanolamine derivatives. Physico-chemical properties, as magnetization, magnetite concentration and particle diameter, of the prepared magnetic samples were studied. The nanoparticle size of 11 nm for toluene magnetic fluid determined by TEM is in good agreement with the data obtained by the method of magnetogranulometry. In vitro cytotoxic effect of water-soluble nanoparticles with different iron oxide:oleic acid molar ratio were revealed against human fibrosarcoma and mouse hepatoma cells. In vivo results using a sarcoma mouse model showed observable antitumor action.

  20. Harmonic phases of the nanoparticle magnetization: An intrinsic temperature probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaio, Eneko; Collantes, Juan-Mari; Garcia, Jose Angel; Plazaola, Fernando; Sandre, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia is a promising cancer therapy in which magnetic nanoparticles act as heat sources activated by an external AC magnetic field. The nanoparticles, located near or inside the tumor, absorb energy from the magnetic field and then heat up the cancerous tissues. During the hyperthermia treatment, it is crucial to control the temperature of different tissues: too high temperature can cause undesired damage in healthy tissues through an uncontrolled necrosis. However, the current thermometry in magnetic hyperthermia presents some important technical problems. The widely used optical fiber thermometers only provide the temperature in a discrete set of spatial points. Moreover, surgery is required to locate these probes in the correct place. In this scope, we propose here a method to measure the temperature of a magnetic sample. The approach relies on the intrinsic properties of the magnetic nanoparticles because it is based on monitoring the thermal dependence of the high order harmonic phases of the nanoparticle dynamic magnetization. The method is non-invasive and it does not need any additional probe or sensor attached to the magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, this method has the potential to be used together with the magnetic particle imaging technique to map the spatial distribution of the temperature.

  1. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haracz, S.; Hilgendorff, M.; Rybka, J. D.; Giersig, M.

    2015-12-01

    For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  2. Paraoxonase 1-bound magnetic nanoparticles: preparation and characterizations.

    PubMed

    Kockar, Feray; Beyaz, Seda; Sinan, Selma; Kkar, Hakan; Demir, Dudu; Eryilmaz, Seda; Tanrisever, Taner; Arslan, Oktay

    2010-11-01

    This is most probably the first time that covalently binding of Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) to superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles via carbodiimide activation was investigated and presented in this study. PON1 was purified from human serum using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Sepharose 4B, L-tyrosine, 1-Napthylamine) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation Fe(+2) and Fe(+3) ions in an ammonia solution at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the magnetic measurements showed that the nanoparticles are magnetite and superparamagnetic, respectively. Direct measurements by dynamic light scattering revealed that the hydrodynamic size was 16.76 nm with polydispersity index (PDI: 0.234). The analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the PON1 was properly bound to magnetic nanoparticles replacing the characteristic band of -NH2 at 1629 cm(-1) with the protein characteristic band at 1744 cm(-1) and 1712 cm(-1). Magnetic measurements determined that PON1-bound nanoparticles have also favorable superparamagnetic properties with zero coercivity and remanence though a slightly smaller saturation magnetization due to the decrease of magnetic moment in the volume friction. The kinetic measurements indicated the PON1-bound nanoparticles retained 70% of its original activity and exhibited an improved stability than did the free enzyme. The PON1 enzyme is seen to be quite convenient to bind superparamagnetic nanoparticles as support material. PMID:21137981

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigation of intratumoral nanoparticle distribution to enhance magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaluri, Anilchandra

    Magnetic nanoparticles have gained prominence in recent years for use in clinical applications such as imaging, drug delivery, and hyperthermia. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is a minimally invasive and effective approach for confined heating in tumors with little collateral damage. One of the major problems in the field of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is irregular heat distribution in tumors which caused repeatable heat distribution quite impossible. This causes under dosage in tumor area and overheating in normal tissue. In this study, we develop a unified approach to understand magnetic nanoparticle distribution and temperature elevations in gel and tumors. A microCT imaging system is first used to visualize and quantify nanoparticle distribution in both tumors and tissue equivalent phantom gels. The microCT based nanoparticle concentration is related to specific absorption rate (SAR) of the nanoparticles and is confirmed by heat distribution experiments in tissue equivalent phantom gels. An optimal infusion protocol is identified to generate controllable and repeatable nanoparticle distribution in tumors. In vivo animal experiments are performed to measure intratumoral temperature elevations in PC3 xenograft tumors implanted in mice during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. The effect of nanofluid injection parameters on the resulted temperature distribution is studied. It shows that the tumor temperatures can be elevated above 50C using very small amounts of ferrofluid with a relatively low magnetic field. Slower ferrofluid infusion rates result in smaller nanoparticle distribution volumes in the tumors, however, it gives the much required controllability and repeatability when compared to the higher infusion rates. More nanoparticles occupy a smaller volume in the vicinity of the injection site with slower infusion rates, causing higher temperature elevations in the tumors. Based on the microCT imaging analyses of nanoparticles in tumors, a mass transport model is developed to simulate nanoparticle convection and diffusion in tumors, heat-induced tumor structural changes, as well as nanoparticle re-distribution during nanoparticle hyperthermia procedures. The modeled thermal damage induced nanoparticle redistribution predicts a 20% increase in the radius of the spherical tissue region containing nanoparticles. The developed model has demonstrated the feasibility of enhancing nanoparticle dispersion from injection sites using targeted thermal damage.

  4. Immobilization of bovine catalase onto magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Do?a, Yasemin ?spirli; Teke, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this study is to achieve carrier-bound immobilization of catalase onto magnetic particles (Fe?O? and Fe?O?NiO? H?O) to specify the optimum conditions of immobilization. Removal of H2O2 and the properties of immobilized sets were also investigated. To that end, adsorption and then cross-linking methods onto magnetic particles were performed. The optimum immobilization conditions were found for catalase: immobilization time (15 min for Fe?O?; 10 min for Fe2O?NiO? H?O), the initial enzyme concentration (1 mg/mL), amount of magnetic particles (25 mg), and glutaraldehyde concentration (3%). The activity reaction conditions (optimum temperature, optimum pH, pH stability, thermal stability, operational stability, and reusability) were characterized. Also kinetic parameters were calculated by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The optimum pH values were found to be 7.0, 7.0, and 8.0 for free enzyme, Fe?O?-immobilized catalases, and Fe?O?NiO? H?O-immobilized catalases, respectively. All immobilized catalase systems displayed the optimum temperature between 25 and 35C. Reusability studies showed that Fe?O?-immobilized catalase can be used 11 times with 50% loss in original activity, while Fe2O?NiO? H?O-immobilized catalase lost 67% of activity after the same number of uses. Furthermore, immobilized catalase systems exhibited improved thermal and pH stability. The results transparently indicate that it is possible to have binding between enzyme and magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:23876136

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles for bio-analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlapalli, Sri Lakshmi

    Magnetic nanoparticles are widely being used in various fields of medicine, biology and separations. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis and use of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and analytical separations. The goals of this research include synthesis of biocompatible surface modified monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) by novel techniques for targeted drug delivery and use of SPIONs as analytical sensing tools. Surface modification of SPIONs was performed with two different co-polymers: tri block co-polymer Pluronics and octylamine modified polyacrylic acid. Samples of SPIONs were subsequently modified with 4 different commercially available, FDA approved tri-block copolymers (Pluronics), covering a wide range of molecular weights (5.75-14.6 kDa). A novel, technically simpler and faster phase transfer approach was developed to surface modify the SPIONs with Pluronics for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. The hydrodynamic diameter and aggregation properties of the Pluronic modified SPIONs were studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The coverage of SPIONs with Pluronics was supported with IR Spectroscopy and characterized by Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The drug entrapment capacity of SPIONs was studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy using a hydrophobic carbocyanine dye, which serves as a model for hydrophobic drugs. These studies resulted in a comparison of physical properties and their implications for drug loading capacities of the four types of Pluronic coated SPIONs for drug delivery assessment. These drug delivery systems could be used for passive drug targeting. However, Pluronics lack the functional group necessary for bioconjugation and hence cannot achieve active targeting. SPIONs were functionalized with octylamine modified polyacrylic acid-based copolymer, providing water solubility and facile biomolecular conjugation. Epirubicin was loaded onto SPIONs and the drug entrapment was studied by UVVIS spectrophotometry. In this study, the antisense oligonucleotide sequence to the anti-apoptopic protein survivin was coupled to SPIONs to provide molecular targeting and potential therapy for cancer cells. Successful coupling of antisense survivin to SPIONs was demonstrated by circular dichroism studies of the conjugate and its complementary sequence. Such multifunctional SPIONs can be used as active targeting agents for cancer cells, producing enhanced magnetic resonance imaging contrast and releasing chemotherapeutic agents to targeted cells. SPIONs also serve as an excellent platform for analytical sensing. Streptavidin modified SPIONs were used as substrates to immobilize biotinylated aptamers (single-stranded DNA). The binding affinity of such aptamers to its target was achieved by quantifying the amount of target released from the aptamer. This quantification was achieved using pH-mediated stacking capillary electrophoresis. SPIONs were shown to be more efficient compared to magnetic microbeads as the sensing elements. The binding affinity constant of the aptamer determined was almost 8-fold better than that obtained using magnetic microbeads.

  6. Mass production of magnetic nickel nanoparticle in thermal plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, Ashok B.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2014-04-24

    We report the mass production of Ni metal nanoparticles using dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by homogeneous gas phase condensation process. To increase the evaporation rate and purity of Ni nanoparticles small amount of hydrogen added along with argon in the plasma. Crystal structure analysis was done by using X-ray diffraction technique. The morphology of as synthesized nanoparticles was carried out using FESEM images. The magnetic properties were measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature.

  7. Mass production of magnetic nickel nanoparticle in thermal plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, Ashok B.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Das, A. K.; Mathe, V. L.

    2014-04-01

    We report the mass production of Ni metal nanoparticles using dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by homogeneous gas phase condensation process. To increase the evaporation rate and purity of Ni nanoparticles small amount of hydrogen added along with argon in the plasma. Crystal structure analysis was done by using X-ray diffraction technique. The morphology of as synthesized nanoparticles was carried out using FESEM images. The magnetic properties were measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature.

  8. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Multi-Imaging and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ji-wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2013-01-01

    Various bio-medical applications of magnetic nanoparticles have been explored during the past few decades. As tools that hold great potential for advancing biological sciences, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as platform materials for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents, biological separation and magnetic drug delivery systems, and magnetic hyperthermia treatment. Furthermore, approaches that integrate various imaging and bioactive moieties have been used in the design of multi-modality systems, which possess synergistically enhanced properties such as better imaging resolution and sensitivity, molecular recognition capabilities, stimulus responsive drug delivery with on-demand control, and spatio-temporally controlled cell signal activation. Below, recent studies that focus on the design and synthesis of multi-mode magnetic nanoparticles will be briefly reviewed and their potential applications in the imaging and therapy areas will be also discussed. PMID:23579479

  9. Magnetic order of Au nanoparticle with clean surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryuju; Ishikawa, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    Au nanoparticles, which are kept in vacuum after the preparation by gas evaporation method, show ferromagnetism even in 1.7 nm in diameter. The intrinsic magnetism is examined by detecting the disappearance of spontaneous magnetization in Au bulk prepared by heating the nanoparticles without exposure to the air. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is not monotonic and the increase in magnetization is observed after Au nanoparticles are exposed to the air. The magnetic behavior can be interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core-shell structure with shell thickness of 0.160.01 nm and magnetic moment of (1.50.1)10-2 ?B/Au atom, respectively.

  10. Magnetic nanoparticle-supported glutathione: a conceptually sustainable organocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptually novel nanoparticle-supported and magnetically recoverable organocatalyst has been developed, which is readily prepared from inexpensive starting materials in a truly sustainable manner; which catalyzes Paal-Knorr reaction with high yield in pure aqueous medium that...

  11. Lectin-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for reproductive improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Semen ejaculates contain heterogeneous sperm populations that can jeopardize male fertility. Recent development of nanotechnology in physiological systems may have applications in reproductive biology. Here, we used magnetic nanoparticles as a novel strategy for sperm purification to imp...

  12. Temperature of the Magnetic Nanoparticle Microenvironment: Estimation from Relaxation Times

    PubMed Central

    Perreard, IM; Reeves, DB; Zhang, X; Kuehlert, E; Forauer, ER; Weaver, JB

    2014-01-01

    Accurate temperature measurements are essential to safe and effective thermal therapies for cancer and other diseases. However, conventional thermometry is challenging so using the heating agents themselves as probes allows for ideal local measurements. Here, we present a new noninvasive method for measuring the temperature of the microenvironment surrounding magnetic nanoparticles from the Brownian relaxation time of nanoparticles. Experimentally, the relaxation time can be determined from the nanoparticle magnetization induced by an alternating magnetic field at various applied frequencies. A previously described method for nanoparticle temperature estimation used a low frequency Langevin function description of magnetic dipoles and varied the excitation field amplitude to estimate the energy state distribution and the corresponding temperature. We show that the new method is more accurate than the previous method at higher applied field frequencies that push the system farther from equilibrium. PMID:24556943

  13. Synthesis and application of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles in oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Qi; Zheng, Xuefang

    2016-01-01

    The novel magnetic Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4-chitosan nanoparticles has the advantage of excellent biodegradation and a high level of controllability. The Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4-chitosan nanoparticles was prepared successfully. The size of the Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4-chitosan nanoparticles were all below 100 nm. The saturated magnetization of the Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4-chitosan nanoparticles could reach 80 emu/g and showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism at the same time. The image of TEM and SEM electron microscopy showed that the cubic-shape magnetic Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 particles were encapsulated by the spherical chitosan nanoparticles. The evaluation on the interfacial properties of the product showed that the interfacial tension between crude oil and water could be reduce to ultra-low values as low as 10-3 mN/m when the magnetic Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4-chitosan nanoparticle was used in several blocks in Shengli Oilfield without other additives. Meanwhile, the magnetic Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4-chitosan nanoparticles possessed good salt-resisting capacity.

  14. Bacterially synthesized ferrite nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Céspedes, Eva; Byrne, James M.; Farrow, Neil; Moise, Sandhya; Coker, Victoria S.; Bencsik, Martin; Lloyd, Jonathan R.; Telling, Neil D.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia uses AC stimulation of magnetic nanoparticles to generate heat for cancer cell destruction. Whilst nanoparticles produced inside magnetotactic bacteria have shown amongst the highest reported heating to date, these particles are magnetically blocked so that strong heating occurs only for mobile particles, unless magnetic field parameters are far outside clinical limits. Here, nanoparticles extracellularly produced by the bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens are investigated that contain Co or Zn dopants to tune the magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization and nanoparticle sizes, enabling heating within clinical field constraints. The heating mechanisms specific to either Co or Zn doping are determined from frequency dependent specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements and innovative AC susceptometry simulations that use a realistic model concerning clusters of polydisperse nanoparticles in suspension. Whilst both particle types undergo magnetization relaxation and show heating effects in water under low AC frequency and field, only Zn doped particles maintain relaxation combined with hysteresis losses even when immobilized. This magnetic heating process could prove important in the biological environment where nanoparticle mobility may not be possible. Obtained SARs are discussed regarding clinical conditions which, together with their enhanced MRI contrast, indicate that biogenic Zn doped particles are promising for combined diagnostics and cancer therapy.Magnetic hyperthermia uses AC stimulation of magnetic nanoparticles to generate heat for cancer cell destruction. Whilst nanoparticles produced inside magnetotactic bacteria have shown amongst the highest reported heating to date, these particles are magnetically blocked so that strong heating occurs only for mobile particles, unless magnetic field parameters are far outside clinical limits. Here, nanoparticles extracellularly produced by the bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens are investigated that contain Co or Zn dopants to tune the magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization and nanoparticle sizes, enabling heating within clinical field constraints. The heating mechanisms specific to either Co or Zn doping are determined from frequency dependent specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements and innovative AC susceptometry simulations that use a realistic model concerning clusters of polydisperse nanoparticles in suspension. Whilst both particle types undergo magnetization relaxation and show heating effects in water under low AC frequency and field, only Zn doped particles maintain relaxation combined with hysteresis losses even when immobilized. This magnetic heating process could prove important in the biological environment where nanoparticle mobility may not be possible. Obtained SARs are discussed regarding clinical conditions which, together with their enhanced MRI contrast, indicate that biogenic Zn doped particles are promising for combined diagnostics and cancer therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further details of the cluster model of polydisperse nanoparticles used for the AC susceptibility simulations (Fig. S1 to S3). Examples of the heating curves and the linear fit used to determine the SAR values are shown in Fig. S4. Fig. S5 exhibits the energy loss per mass of iron during magnetic hyperthermia (from SAR values) normalized to H2 and frequency for further comparison among samples. Fig. S6 shows the comparison between the simulations of AC susceptibility spectra including regions below and above the experimental frequency range for MNA, Zn0.2 and Zn0.4 nanoparticles suspended in solvents with different viscosities (water, glycerol and a hypothetical high viscous solvent). Fig. S7 exhibits a comparison among the simulated χ'' susceptibility of MNA, Zn0.2 and Zn0.4 nanoparticles (a) in water and (b) in glycerol. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03004d

  15. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy in cobalt-carbide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gendy, AA; Qian, MC; Huba, ZJ; Khanna, SN; Carpenter, EE

    2014-01-13

    An outstanding problem in nano-magnetism is to stabilize the magnetic order in nanoparticles at room temperatures. For ordinary ferromagnetic materials, reduction in size leads to a decrease in the magnetic anisotropy resulting in superparamagnetic relaxations at nanoscopic sizes. In this work, we demonstrate that using wet chemical synthesis, it is possible to stabilize cobalt carbide nanoparticles which have blocking temperatures exceeding 570 K even for particles with magnetic domains of 8 nm. First principles theoretical investigations show that the observed behavior is rooted in the giant magnetocrystalline anisotropies due to controlled mixing between C p- and Co d-states. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  16. Application of magnetic nanoparticles in smart enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Vaghari, Hamideh; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Mohammadlou, Mojgan; Berenjian, Aydin; Anarjan, Navideh; Jafari, Nahideh; Nasiri, Shahin

    2016-02-01

    Immobilization of enzymes enhances their properties for efficient utilization in industrial processes. Magnetic nanoparticles, due to their high surface area, large surface-to-volume ratio and easy separation under external magnetic fields, are highly valued. Significant progress has been made to develop new catalytic systems that are immobilized onto magnetic nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of recent developments in enzyme immobilization and stabilization protocols using this technology. The current applications of immobilized enzymes based on magnetic nanoparticles are summarized and future growth prospects are discussed. Recommendations are also given for areas of future research. PMID:26472272

  17. Bare magnetic nanoparticles as fluorescence quenchers for detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiemiao; Yang, Liangrong; Liang, Xiangfeng; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-06-21

    Rapid and sensitive detection of thrombin has very important significance in clinical diagnosis. In this work, bare magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (magnetic nanoparticles) without any modification were used as fluorescence quenchers. In the absence of thrombin, a fluorescent dye (CY3) labeled thrombin aptamer (named CY3-aptamer) was adsorbed on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles through interaction between a phosphate backbone of the CY3-aptamer and hydroxyl groups on the bare magnetic nanoparticles in binding solution, leading to fluorescence quenching. Once thrombin was introduced, the CY3-aptamer formed a G-quartet structure and combined with thrombin, which resulted in the CY3-aptamer being separated from the magnetic nanoparticles and restoration of fluorescence. This proposed assay took advantage of binding affinity between the CY3-aptamer and thrombin for specificity, and bare magnetic nanoparticles for fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence signal had a good linear relationship with thrombin concentration in the range of 1-60 nM, and the limit of detection for thrombin was estimated as low as 0.5 nM. Furthermore, this method could be applied for other target detection using the corresponding fluorescence labeled aptamer. PMID:25894923

  18. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. PMID:24232575

  19. Soft magnets from the self-organization of magnetic nanoparticles in twisted liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Matt, Benjamin; Pondman, Kirsten M; Asshoff, Sarah J; Ten Haken, Bennie; Fleury, Benoit; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2014-11-10

    Organizing magnetic nanoparticles into long-range and dynamic assemblies would not only provide new insights into physical phenomena but also open opportunities for a wide spectrum of applications. In particular, a major challenge consists of the development of nanoparticle-based materials for which the remnant magnetization and coercive field can be controlled at room temperature. Our approach consists of promoting the self-organization of magnetic nanoparticles in liquid crystals (LCs). Using liquid crystals as organizing templates allows us to envision the design of tunable self-assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles, because liquid crystals are known to reorganize under a variety of external stimuli. Herein, we show that twisted liquid crystals can be used as efficient anisotropic templates for superparamagnetic nanoparticles and demonstrate the formation of hybrid soft magnets at room temperature. PMID:25196652

  20. Magnetic Properties of Fe Oxide Nanoparticles Produced by Laser Pyrolysis for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca, M. A.; Bouzas, V.; Costo, R.; Veintemillas, S.; Morales, P.; Garca-Hernndez, M.; Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.; Gasco, P.

    2010-10-01

    We report on the magnetic characterization of Fe oxide nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis and the relationship between the preparation conditions and the magnetic response. It is shown that controlling the preparation conditions during the pyrolisis allows tuning the nanoparticles morphology and structure and consequently the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are loaded into solid lipid nanoparticles without degradation nor significant modification of the magnetic properties.

  1. Design of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yimeng; Lai, Pui To; Leung, Cheung Hoi; Pong, Philip W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising medical imaging technique producing quantitative images of the distribution of tracer materials (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) without interference from the anatomical background of the imaging objects (either phantoms or lab animals). Theoretically, the MPI platform can image with relatively high temporal and spatial resolution and sensitivity. In practice, the quality of the MPI images hinges on both the applied magnetic field and the properties of the tracer nanoparticles. Langevin theory can model the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and predict the crucial influence of nanoparticle core size on the MPI signal. In addition, the core size distribution, anisotropy of the magnetic core and surface modification of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles also determine the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the MPI images. As a result, through rational design of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the performance of MPI could be effectively optimized. In this review, the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in MPI is investigated. Rational synthesis and modification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and summarized. The potential medical application areas for MPI, including cardiovascular system, oncology, stem cell tracking and immune related imaging are also analyzed and forecasted. PMID:24030719

  2. Design of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging (MPI).

    PubMed

    Du, Yimeng; Lai, Pui To; Leung, Cheung Hoi; Pong, Philip W T

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising medical imaging technique producing quantitative images of the distribution of tracer materials (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) without interference from the anatomical background of the imaging objects (either phantoms or lab animals). Theoretically, the MPI platform can image with relatively high temporal and spatial resolution and sensitivity. In practice, the quality of the MPI images hinges on both the applied magnetic field and the properties of the tracer nanoparticles. Langevin theory can model the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and predict the crucial influence of nanoparticle core size on the MPI signal. In addition, the core size distribution, anisotropy of the magnetic core and surface modification of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles also determine the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the MPI images. As a result, through rational design of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the performance of MPI could be effectively optimized. In this review, the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in MPI is investigated. Rational synthesis and modification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and summarized. The potential medical application areas for MPI, including cardiovascular system, oncology, stem cell tracking and immune related imaging are also analyzed and forecasted. PMID:24030719

  3. Design and Application of Magnetic-based Theranostic Nanoparticle Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wadajkar, Aniket S.; Menon, Jyothi U.; Kadapure, Tejaswi; Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Nguyen, Kytai T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magnetic-based theranostic nanoparticle (MBTN) systems have been studied, researched, and applied extensively to detect and treat various diseases including cancer. Theranostic nanoparticles are advantageous in that the diagnosis and treatment of a disease can be performed in a single setting using combinational strategies of targeting, imaging, and/or therapy. Of these theranostic strategies, magnetic-based systems containing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have gained popularity because of their unique ability to be used in magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic targeting, hyperthermia, and controlled drug release. To increase their effectiveness, MNPs have been decorated with a wide variety of materials to improve their biocompatibility, carry therapeutic payloads, encapsulate/bind imaging agents, and provide functional groups for conjugation of biomolecules that provide receptor-mediated targeting of the disease. This review summarizes recent patents involving various polymer coatings, imaging agents, therapeutic agents, targeting mechanisms, and applications along with the major requirements and challenges faced in using MBTN for disease management. PMID:23795343

  4. Magnetic nanoparticle density mapping from the magnetically induced displacement data: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic nanoparticles are gaining great roles in biomedical applications as targeted drug delivery agents or targeted imaging contrast agents. In the magnetic nanoparticle applications, quantification of the nanoparticle density deposited in a specified region is of great importance for evaluating the delivery of the drugs or the contrast agents to the targeted tissues. We introduce a method for estimating the nanoparticle density from the displacement of tissues caused by the external magnetic field. Methods We can exert magnetic force to the magnetic nanoparticles residing in a living subject by applying magnetic gradient field to them. The nanoparticles under the external magnetic field then exert force to the nearby tissues causing displacement of the tissues. The displacement field induced by the nanoparticles under the external magnetic field is governed by the Navier's equation. We use an approximation method to get the inverse solution of the Navier's equation which represents the magnetic nanoparticle density map when the magnetic nanoparticles are mechanically coupled with the surrounding tissues. To produce the external magnetic field inside a living subject, we propose a coil configuration, the Helmholtz and Maxwell coil pair, that is capable of generating uniform magnetic gradient field. We have estimated the coil currents that can induce measurable displacement in soft tissues through finite element method (FEM) analysis. Results From the displacement data obtained from FEM analysis of a soft-tissue-mimicking phantom, we have calculated nanoparticle density maps. We obtained the magnetic nanoparticle density maps by approximating the Navier's equation to the Laplacian of the displacement field. The calculated density maps match well to the original density maps, but with some halo artifacts around the high density area. To induce measurable displacement in the living tissues with the proposed coil configuration, we need to apply the coil currents as big as 104A. Conclusions We can obtain magnetic nanoparticle maps from the magnetically induced displacement data by approximating the Navier's equation under the assumption of uniform-gradient of the external magnetic field. However, developing a coil driving system with the capacity of up to 104A should be a great technical challenge. PMID:22394477

  5. Regulation of PCR efficiency with magnetic nanoparticles in a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Toshiaki; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Minegishi, Hiroaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Usami, Ron; Maekawa, Toru; Hanajiri, Tatsuro

    2011-04-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is widely used for the reproduction and amplification of specific DNA segments in vitro, and a novel PCR method using nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles has recently been reported. This paper reports on the regulation of PCR efficiency with superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a rotating magnetic field. The level of efficiency was successfully regulated in a rotating magnetic field by the authors, and decreased with increasing frequency of the field. The results obtained show that simply controlling the structure and dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle clusters in a rotating magnetic field can regulate PCR efficiency.

  6. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Dispersion curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, A.; Carvalho, A.

    2008-08-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. We present the Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Dispersion curves for colloidal suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles used as contrast agents. The systems studied are composed of iron oxide nanoparticles of two different sizes, 80 150nm dextran coated and 300 400nm silicon coated. Previous studies show that the longitudinal relaxation time dispersion as a function of the proton Larmor frequency is not easily obtained for the aqueous colloidal suspension of 300 400nm diameter nanoparticles. We obtained this system longitudinal relaxation time dispersion over a broad range of magnetic fields in a viscous medium. A theoretical model that accounts for the relaxation rate of water protons under the influence of such colloidal superparamagnetic nanoparticles was fitted to the experimental data of both systems. The fit allows access to characteristic parameters of superparamagnetic nanoparticles such as the Nel relaxation time, the nanoparticle radius, particle's magnetic moment and translational correlation time, important parameters for the contrast agent efficiency.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanoparticle composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, Akeem Armand

    To effectively and accurately deliver drugs within the human body, both new designs and components for implantable micropumps are being studied. Designs must ensure high biocompatibility, drug compatibility, accuracy and small power consumption. The focus of this thesis was to fabricate a prototype magnetic nanoparticle membrane for eventual incorporation into a biomedical pump and then determine the relationship between this membrane deflection and applied pneumatic or magnetic force. The magnetic nanoparticle polymer composite (MNPC) membranes in this study were composed of crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). An optimal iron oxide fabrication route was identified and particle size in each batch was approximately 24.6 nm. Once these nanoparticles were incorporated into a membrane (5 wt. %), the nanoparticle formed agglomerates with an average diameter of 2.26 +/-1.23 microm. Comparisons between the 0 and 5 wt. % loading of particles into the membranes indicated that the elastic modulus of the composite decreased with increasing particle concentration. The pressure- central deflection of the membranes could not be predicated by prior models and variation between magnetic and pneumatic pressure-deflection curves was quantified. Attempts to fabricate membranes with above 5 wt. % nanoparticles were not successful (no gelation). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results suggest that excess oleic acid on the nanoparticles prior to mixing might have prevented crosslinking.

  8. Taking the temperature of the interiors of magnetically heated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Juyao; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-27

    The temperature increase inside mesoporous silica nanoparticles induced by encapsulated smaller superparamagnetic nanocrystals in an oscillating magnetic field is measured using a crystalline optical nanothermometer. The detection mechanism is based on the temperature-dependent intensity ratio of two luminescence bands in the upconversion emission spectrum of NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+). A facile stepwise phase transfer method is developed to construct a dual-core mesoporous silica nanoparticle that contains both a nanoheater and a nanothermometer in its interior. The magnetically induced heating inside the nanoparticles varies with different experimental conditions, including the magnetic field induction power, the exposure time to the magnetic field, and the magnetic nanocrystal size. The temperature increase of the immediate nanoenvironment around the magnetic nanocrystals is monitored continuously during the magnetic oscillating field exposure. The interior of the nanoparticles becomes much hotter than the macroscopic solution and cools to the temperature of the ambient fluid on a time scale of seconds after the magnetic field is turned off. This continuous absolute temperature detection method offers quantitative insight into the nanoenvironment around magnetic materials and opens a path for optimizing local temperature controls for physical and biomedical applications. PMID:24779552

  9. Applications of Magnetic Micro- and Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, J.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were first proposed for biomedical applications in the 1970s - primarily as targeted drug delivery vehicles and MRI contrast agents. Since that time, such particles have found application in a variety of biomedical techniques. In addition to drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles are now used routinely as MRI contrast agents as well as for magneto-immunoassay and cell sorting. More recently, magnetic micro- and nanoparticles have been used to investigate and manipulate cellular processes both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, biogenic magnetic nanoparticles are also produced in the human body. The iron storage protein, ferritin, consists of a superparamagnetic ferrihydrite core and biogenic magnetite (a ferrimagnet) has also been found in the brain and other organs. Though the role of ferritin and several other magnetic iron oxides in the body is well understood, the origin and role of biogenic magnetite is only now coming to light - and this may have profound implications for our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. This talk will review applications related to magnetic particle-mediated activation of cellular processes for tissue engineering applications and novel methods of magnetofection which have the potential to provide enhanced transfection for non-viral therapeutic gene delivery. It will also briefly highlight new techniques recently developed for the mapping and characterization of magnetic iron compounds related to neurodegenerative diseases and how rock magnetic techniques have been adapted to study magnetic iron compounds in the brain and other organs.

  10. Taking the Temperature of the Interiors of Magnetically Heated Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The temperature increase inside mesoporous silica nanoparticles induced by encapsulated smaller superparamagnetic nanocrystals in an oscillating magnetic field is measured using a crystalline optical nanothermometer. The detection mechanism is based on the temperature-dependent intensity ratio of two luminescence bands in the upconversion emission spectrum of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+. A facile stepwise phase transfer method is developed to construct a dual-core mesoporous silica nanoparticle that contains both a nanoheater and a nanothermometer in its interior. The magnetically induced heating inside the nanoparticles varies with different experimental conditions, including the magnetic field induction power, the exposure time to the magnetic field, and the magnetic nanocrystal size. The temperature increase of the immediate nanoenvironment around the magnetic nanocrystals is monitored continuously during the magnetic oscillating field exposure. The interior of the nanoparticles becomes much hotter than the macroscopic solution and cools to the temperature of the ambient fluid on a time scale of seconds after the magnetic field is turned off. This continuous absolute temperature detection method offers quantitative insight into the nanoenvironment around magnetic materials and opens a path for optimizing local temperature controls for physical and biomedical applications. PMID:24779552

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Caltun, O. F.; Hempelmann, R.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  12. Size-dependent magnetic properties of calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Lavanya; Verma, N. K.

    2013-06-01

    The union of nanotechnology with the other fields of science heralds the influx of many newer and better technologies, with the capability to revolutionize the human life. In the present work, calcium ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by conventional sol-gel method and were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, Vibrating sample magnetometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The synthesized nanoparticles were calcined at different temperatures and their magnetic behaviour was studied. The synthesized nanoparticles calcined at 900 °C were formed in the shape of capsules and exhibited mixed characteristics of ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic grains with magnetic saturation of 0.85 emu/g whereas nanoparticles calcined at 500 °C were spherical in shape and exhibited superparamagnetic characteristics with saturation magnetization of 37.67 emu/g.

  13. Spatiotemporal control of microtubule nucleation and assembly using magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Cline; Mazari, Elsa; Lallet, Sylvie; Le Borgne, Roland; Marchi, Valrie; Gosse, Charlie; Gueroui, Zoher

    2013-03-01

    Decisions on the fate of cells and their functions are dictated by the spatiotemporal dynamics of molecular signalling networks. However, techniques to examine the dynamics of these intracellular processes remain limited. Here, we show that magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with key regulatory proteins can artificially control, in time and space, the Ran/RCC1 signalling pathway that regulates the cell cytoskeleton. In the presence of a magnetic field, RanGTP proteins conjugated to superparamagnetic nanoparticles can induce microtubule fibres to assemble into asymmetric arrays of polarized fibres in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. The orientation of the fibres is dictated by the direction of the magnetic force. When we locally concentrated nanoparticles conjugated with the upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factor RCC1, the assembly of microtubule fibres could be induced over a greater range of distances than RanGTP particles. The method shows how bioactive nanoparticles can be used to engineer signalling networks and spatial self-organization inside a cell environment.

  14. Temperature-dependent magnetic anomalies of CuO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K.; Victor Jaya, N.; Kanagaraj, M.; Arumugam, S.

    2011-04-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with an average size of 25 nm were prepared by a sol-gel method. A detailed study was made of the magnetization of CuO nanoparticles using a maximum field of 60 kOe for temperatures between 8 and 300 K. Antiferromagnetic CuO nanoparticles exhibit anomalous magnetic properties, such as enhanced coercivity and magnetic moments. Significantly, the magnitude of the hysteresis component tends to weaken upon increase in temperature (>8 K). In addition, a hysteresis loop shift and coercivity enhancement are observed at 8 K in the field-cooled (FC, at 50 kOe) case. It is thought that the change in hysteresis behavior is due to the uncompensated surface spins of the CuO nanoparticles. The susceptibility ( ?) plot showed that ? varied substantially at temperatures below 12 K, and this transition is due to the exchange interactions between the neighboring atoms at the nanoscale.

  15. Labeling of macrophage cell using biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Kwanghee; Wu, Jun Hua; Jeong, Jaeho; Song, Ah Young; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Young Keun

    2011-04-01

    This work investigates the intrinsic cell labeling efficiency of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared by a modified thermal decomposition method using nontoxic precursors and a biocompatible polymer surfactant. This method eliminates the current need for additional step of surface modification. The structural analysis reveals the highly crystalline feature of the nanoparticles, while the magnetic measurement shows their superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were efficiently incorporated into the murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) without visible cytotoxicity. Cell labeling efficiency was found to be over 90% as measured by magnetically activated cell sorting and physical property measurement system. Therefore, such Fe3O4 nanoparticles could provide a useful magnetic cell labeling tool for macrophage cells using their phagocytic/endocytic activity and further apply to the other relevant biomedical applications.

  16. Photodegradation of Eosin Y Using Silver-Doped Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Eman

    2015-01-01

    The purification of industrial wastewater from dyes is becoming increasingly important since they are toxic or carcinogenic to human beings. Nanomaterials have been receiving significant attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties compared with their larger-size counterparts. The aim of the present investigation was to fabricate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a coprecipitation method, followed by coating with silver (Ag) in order to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the MNPs by loading metal onto them. The fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag were characterised using different instruments such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average size of the magnetic nanoparticles had a mean diameter of about 48 nm, and the average particle size changed to 55 nm after doping. The fabricated Ag-doped magnetic nanoparticles were used for the degradation of eosin Y under UV-lamp irradiation. The experimental results revealed that the use of fabricated magnetic nanoparticles coated with Ag can be considered as reliable methods for the removal of eosin Y since the slope of evaluation of pseudo-first-order rate constant from the slope of the plot between ln⁡(Co/C) and the irradiation time was found to be linear. Ag-Fe3O4 nanoparticles would be considered an efficient photocatalyst to degrade textile dyes avoiding the tedious filtration step. PMID:26617638

  17. Transient magnetic birefringence for determining magnetic nanoparticle diameters in dense, highly light scattering media.

    PubMed

    Köber, Mariana; Moros, Maria; Grazú, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesus M; Luna, Mónica; Briones, Fernando

    2012-04-20

    The increasing use of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications calls for further development of characterization tools that allow for determining the interactions of the nanoparticles with the biological medium in situ. In cell-incubating conditions, for example, nanoparticles may aggregate and serum proteins adsorb on the particles, altering the nanoparticles' performance and their interaction with cell membranes. In this work we show that the aggregation of spherical magnetite nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity in dense, highly light scattering media by making use of magnetically induced birefringence. Moreover, the hydrodynamic particle diameter distribution of anisometric nanoparticle aggregates can be determined directly in these media by monitoring the relaxation time of the magnetically induced birefringence. As a proof of concept, we performed measurements on nanoparticles included in an agarose gel, which scatters light in a similar way as a more complex biological medium but where particle-matrix interactions are weak. Magnetite nanoparticles were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and the hydrodynamic diameter distribution was determined in situ. For the different particle functionalizations and agarose concentrations tested, we could show that gel electrophoresis did not yield a complete separation of monomers and small aggregates, and that the electrophoretic mobility of the aggregates decreased linearly with the hydrodynamic diameter. Furthermore, the rotational particle diffusion was not clearly affected by nanoparticle-gel interactions. The possibility to detect nanoparticle aggregates and their hydrodynamic diameters in complex scattering media like cell tissue makes transient magnetic birefringence an interesting technique for biological applications. PMID:22456180

  18. Assembly and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles on silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel T; Manandhar, Pradeep; Nazaretski, E; Thompson, J

    2009-01-01

    The directed assembly of magnetic Ni nanoparticles at the tips of silicon nanowires is reported. Using electrodeposition Ni shells of thickness from 10 to 100 nm were selectively deposited on Au catalytic seeds at the ends of nanowires. Magnetic characterization confirms a low coercivity ({approx}115 Oe) ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K. This approach to multifunctional magnetic-semiconducting nanostructure assembly could be extended to electrodeposition of other materials on the nanowire ends, opening up novel ways of device integration. Such magnetically functionalized nanowires offer a new approach to developing novel highly localized magnetic probes for high resolution magnetic resonance force microscopy.

  19. Physics of heat generation using magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Cindi L; Ivkov, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and thermal ablation have been actively studied experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we provide a summary of the literature describing the properties of nanometer-scale magnetic materials suspended in biocompatible fluids and their interactions with external magnetic fields. Summarised are the properties and mechanisms understood to be responsible for magnetic heating, and the models developed to understand the behaviour of single-domain magnets exposed to alternating magnetic fields. Linear response theory and its assumptions have provided a useful beginning point; however, its limitations are apparent when nanoparticle heating is measured over a wide range of magnetic fields. Well-developed models (e.g. for magnetisation reversal mechanisms and pseudo-single domain formation) available from other fields of research are explored. Some of the methods described include effects of moment relaxation, anisotropy, nanoparticle and moment rotation mechanisms, interactions and collective behaviour, which have been experimentally identified to be important. Here, we will discuss the implicit assumptions underlying these analytical models and their relevance to experiments. Numerical simulations will be discussed as an alternative to these simple analytical models, including their applicability to experimental data. Finally, guidelines for the design of optimal magnetic nanoparticles will be presented. PMID:24131317

  20. Lanthanide doped nanoparticles as remote sensors for magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Junpei; Xu, Beibei; Sang, Xiangwen; Chen, Weibo; Liu, Xiaofeng; Han, Junbo; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-10-01

    We report the effect of magnetic fields (MFs) on emission Eu-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles. A notable shift in the position of emission bands and the suppressed emission intensity are observed with the MF. These magnetic-optical interactions are explained in terms of the Zeeman effect, enhanced cross-relaxation rate and change of site symmetry. PMID:25123099

  1. A magnonic gas sensor based on magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, D; Kolokoltsev, O V; Qureshi, N; Meja-Uriarte, E V; Saniger, J M

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative, simple and inexpensive gas sensor based on the variation in the magnetic properties of nanoparticles due to their interaction with gases. To measure the nanoparticle response a magnetostatic spin wave (MSW) tunable oscillator has been developed using an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) epitaxial thin film as a delay line (DL). The sensor has been prepared by coating a uniform layer of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles on the YIG film. The unperturbed frequency of the oscillator is determined by a bias magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the YIG film and perpendicularly to the wave propagation direction. In this device, the total bias magnetic field is the superposition of the field of a permanent magnet and the field associated with the layer of magnetic nanoparticles. The perturbation produced in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle layer due to its interaction with gases induces a frequency shift in the oscillator, allowing the detection of low concentrations of gases. In order to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to detect gases, it has been tested with organic volatile compounds (VOCs) which have harmful effects on human health, such as dimethylformamide, isopropanol and ethanol, or the aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene and xylene more commonly known by its abbreviation (BTX). All of these were detected with high sensitivity, short response time, and good reproducibility. PMID:25952501

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles: In vivo cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lima-Tenório, Michele K; Pineda, Edgardo A Gómez; Ahmad, Nasir M; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2015-09-30

    Recently, significant research efforts have been devoted to the finding of efficient approaches in order to reduce the side effects of traditional cancer therapy and diagnosis. In this context, magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their unique physical properties, magnetic susceptibility, biocompatibility, stability and many more relevant characteristics. Particularly, magnetic nanoparticles for in vivo biomedical applications need to fulfill special criteria with respect to size, size distribution, surface charge, biodegradability or bio-eliminability and optionally bear well selected ligands for specific targeting. In this context, many routes have been developed to synthesize these materials, and tune their functionalities through intriguing techniques including functionalization, coating and encapsulation strategies. In this review article, the use of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy and diagnosis is evaluated addressing potential applications in MRI, drug delivery, hyperthermia, theranostics and several other domains. In view of potential biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles, the review focuses on the most recent progress made with respect to synthetic routes to produce magnetic nanoparticles and their salient accomplishments for in vivo cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26232700

  3. A magnonic gas sensor based on magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matatagui, D.; Kolokoltsev, O. V.; Qureshi, N.; Mejía-Uriarte, E. V.; Saniger, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative, simple and inexpensive gas sensor based on the variation in the magnetic properties of nanoparticles due to their interaction with gases. To measure the nanoparticle response a magnetostatic spin wave (MSW) tunable oscillator has been developed using an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) epitaxial thin film as a delay line (DL). The sensor has been prepared by coating a uniform layer of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles on the YIG film. The unperturbed frequency of the oscillator is determined by a bias magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the YIG film and perpendicularly to the wave propagation direction. In this device, the total bias magnetic field is the superposition of the field of a permanent magnet and the field associated with the layer of magnetic nanoparticles. The perturbation produced in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle layer due to its interaction with gases induces a frequency shift in the oscillator, allowing the detection of low concentrations of gases. In order to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to detect gases, it has been tested with organic volatile compounds (VOCs) which have harmful effects on human health, such as dimethylformamide, isopropanol and ethanol, or the aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene and xylene more commonly known by its abbreviation (BTX). All of these were detected with high sensitivity, short response time, and good reproducibility.

  4. Magnetic Nanoparticle Degradation in vivo Studied by Mssbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Maxim; Gabbasov, Raul; Cherepanov, Valery; Chuev, Mikhail; Polikarpov, Mikhail; Panchenko, Vladislav; Deyev, Sergey

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles belong to the most promising nanosized objects for biomedical applications. However, little is known about clearance of magnetic nanoparticles from the organism. In this work superparamagnetic iron oxide particles fluidMAG-ARA were injected into tail vein of mice at a dose of 17 mg per 20 g body weight. At various time intervals after the injection the mice were sacrificed and their organs collected. A Mssbauer study allowed to detect magnetic particles in the liver and spleen and showed the degradation of the particles with incorporation of exogenous iron into paramagnetic ferritin-like iron species.

  5. Remote control of signaling pathways using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bonnemay, Louise; Hoffmann, Céline; Gueroui, Zoher

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to quantitatively control the spatiotemporal properties of cellular information processing is key for understanding biological systems at both mechanistic and systemic level. In this context, magnetic field offers a relevant strategy of control over cellular processes that broaden the toolbox currently available in cell biology. Among the increasing number of methods, we will focus on recent advances based on magnetic nanoparticles conjugated to proteins to trigger specific signaling pathways and cellular processes. Extracellular or intracellular manipulations of nanoparticles permit magnetic control of ion channels and membrane receptor activation, protein positioning within cells and cytoskeleton spatial engineering. These approaches provide powerful strategies to examine the organization principles of living cells. PMID:25377512

  6. Biocompatible core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Amit M.; Qiang, You; Meyer, Daniel R.; Souza, Ryan; Mcconnaughoy, Alan; Muldoon, Leslie; Baer, Donald R.

    2008-04-01

    Non-toxic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have expanded the treatment delivery options in the medical world. With a size range from 2 to 200 nm MNPs can be compiled with most of the small cells and tissues in living body. Monodispersive iron-iron oxide core shell nanoparticles were prepared in our novel cluster deposition system. This unique method of preparing the core shell MNPs gives nanoparticles very high magnetic moment. We tested the nontoxicity and uptake of MNPs coated with/without dextrin by incubating them with rat LX-1 small cell lung cancer cells (SCLC). Since core iron enhances the heating effect [7] the rate of oxidation of iron nanoparticles was tested in deionized water at certain time interval. Both coated and noncoated MNPs were successfully uptaken by the cells, indicating that the nanoparticles were not toxic. The stability of MNPs was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan after 0, 24, 48, 96, 204 hours. Due to the high magnetic moment offered by MNPs produced in our lab, we predict that even in low applied external alternating field desired temperature can be reached in cancer cells in comparison to the commercially available nanoparticles. Moreover, our MNPs do not require additional anti-coagulating agents and provide a cost effective means of treatment with significantly lower dosage in the body in comparison to commercially available nanoparticles.

  7. Enhancement in magnetic properties of magnesium substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Yilin; Ren, Tian-Ling E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-06-14

    We report a potential way to effectively improve the magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles through Mg{sup 2+} ion substitution at the Fe-sites of BFO lattice. The high purity and structural changes induced by Mg doping are confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometer and Raman spectra. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed in Mg substituted samples, which simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. A physical model is proposed to support the observed ferromagnetism of Mg doped samples, and the superparamagnetic properties are revealed by the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The improved magnetic properties and soft nature obtained by Mg doping in BFO nanoparticles demonstrate the possibility of BFO nanoparticles to practical applications.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticle clusters as actuators of ssDNA release.

    PubMed

    Banchelli, M; Nappini, S; Montis, C; Bonini, M; Canton, P; Berti, D; Baglioni, P

    2014-06-01

    One of the major areas of research in nanomedicine is the design of drug delivery systems with remotely controllable release of the drug. Despite the enormous progress in the field, this aspect still poses a challenge, especially in terms of selectivity and possible harmful interactions with biological components other than the target. We report an innovative approach for the controlled release of DNA, based on clusters of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles. The primary nanoparticles are functionalized with a single-stranded oligonucleotide, whose pairing with a half-complementary strand in solution induces clusterization. The application of a low frequency (6 KHz) alternating magnetic field induces DNA melting with the release of the single strand that induces clusterization. The possibility of steering and localizing the magnetic nanoparticles, and magnetically actuating the DNA release discloses new perspectives in the field of nucleic-acid based therapy. PMID:24487734

  9. Preparation of magnetic fluorescent hollow nanoparticles with multi-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuxue; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Li, Ping; Zhou, Wen; Zheng, Guo

    2009-07-01

    A kind of novel magnetic fluorescent hollow nanoparticles with multi-layer shells by layer-by-layer self-assembly process was presented in this paper. Non-crosslinking poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles as core with 250 nm in diameters were prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization in acetonitrile with 2, 2'-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and without any stabilizer and crosslinker. Then 4-vinylpyridine (4-VPy) as monomer was selfassembled on the surface of PAA nanoparticles because of hydrogen-bonding effect between the surface carboxyl of PAA nanoparticles and pyridine of 4-VPy. The 4-VPy as first shell layer were crosslinked by ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) by seeds distillation-precipitation polymerization in acetonitrile. The core/shell structure of this kind of nanoparticles was investigated by FT-IR and TEM. We can find that the products had an absorption peak at 1641 cm-1 from the FT-IR, which showed that the vinyl groups had been connected in the polyAA microspheres. After that, the non-crosslinking PAA core was removed under a solution of sodium hydroxide in ethanol-water. On the other hand, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with about 3 nm in diameters as shell were prepared in aqueous solution with 3- mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as stabilizer and 1, 6-hexylenediamime modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles with about 11 nm in diameters as core were synthesized in water respectively. Because of the hydrogen-bonding between the surface carboxyl of MPA on CdTe QDs and the amino on Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the core/shell magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles were obtained. Then, the magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles as second shell layer were self-assembled on the hollow 4VPy nanoparticles.

  10. Nonequilibrium Magnetic Response of Anisotropic Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles and Possible Artifacts in Magnetic Particle Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Hiroaki; Jeyadevan, Balachandran

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic responses of superparamagnetic nanoparticles to high-frequency AC magnetic fields with sufficiently large amplitudes are numerically simulated to exactly clarify the phenomena occurring in magnetic particle imaging. When the magnetic anisotropy energy inevitable in actual nanoparticles is taken into account in considering the magnetic potential, larger nanoparticles exhibit a delayed response to alternations of the magnetic fields. This kind of delay is rather remarkable in the lower-amplitude range of the field, where the assistance by the Zeeman energy to thermally activated magnetization reversal is insufficient. In some cases, a sign inversion of the third-order harmonic response was found to occur at some specific amplitude, despite the lack in DC bias magnetic field strength. Considering the attenuation of the AC magnetic field generated in the human body, it is possible that the phases of the signals from nanoparticles deep inside the body and those near the body surface are completely different. This may lead to artifacts in the reconstructed image. Furthermore, when the magnetic/thermal torque-driven rotation of the anisotropic nanoparticles as well as the magnetic anisotropy energy are taken into account, the simulated results show that, once the easy axes are aligned toward the direction of the DC bias magnetic field, it takes time to randomize them at the field-free point. During this relaxation, the third-order harmonic response depends highly upon the history of the magnetic field. This is because non-linearity of the anhysteretic magnetization curve for the superparamagnetic nanoparticles varies with the orientations of the easy axes. This history dependence may also lead to another artifact in magnetic particle imaging, when the scanning of the field-free point is faster than the Brownian relaxations. PMID:25775017

  11. Mathematical modelling for trajectories of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shashi; Katiyar, V. K.; Singh, Uaday

    2015-04-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the trajectories of a cluster of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel for the application of magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a blood vessel upstream from a malignant tissue and are captured at the tumour site with help of an applied magnetic field. The applied field is produced by a rare earth cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body. All forces expected to significantly affect the transport of nanoparticles were incorporated, including magnetization force, drag force and buoyancy force. The results show that particles are slow down and captured under the influence of magnetic force, which is responsible to attract the magnetic particles towards the magnet. It is optimized that all particles are captured either before or at the centre of the magnet (z≤0) when blood vessel is very close proximity to the magnet (d=2.5 cm). However, as the distance between blood vessel and magnet (d) increases (above 4.5 cm), the magnetic nanoparticles particles become free and they flow away down the blood vessel. Further, the present model results are validated by the simulations performed using the finite element based COMSOL software.

  12. Lymph node localization of non-specific antibody-coated liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mangat, S.; Patel, H.M.

    1985-05-20

    Subcutaneously injected small unilamellar liposomes are drained into the lymphatics and localized in the regional lymph nodes, and thus they can be used for the detection of metastatic spread in breast cancer patients and for delivery of drugs to diseased lymph nodes. An aqueous phase marker, (/sup 125/I)-polyvinylpyrrolidone, and a lipid phase marker, (/sup 3/H)-cholesterol, were used to study the lymph node localization of IgG-coated liposomes injected subcutaneously into mouse and rat footpads. The results show that human immunoglobulin G (IgG) coated liposomes are rapidly removed from the site of injection and are localized in the regional lymph nodes to a greater extent than control liposomes (i.e. liposomes without IgG). Free IgG was found to inhibit the uptake of IgG-coated liposomes by the lymph nodes. The localization of IgG-coated liposomes in the regional lymph nodes is influenced by charge of the liposomes. The results presented here suggest that antibody-coated liposomes may provide a more efficient way of delivering therapeutic agents to the lymph nodes in the treatment of diseases such as breast cancer with lymph node involvement. Similarly, monoclonal antibody-coated liposomes containing lymphoscintigraphic material may improve the detection of lymph node metastases. 26 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Spherical magnetic nanoparticles fabricated by laser target evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, A. P.; Beketov, I. V.; Komogortsev, S. V.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Medvedev, A. I.; Leiman, D. V.; Larrañaga, A.; Bhagat, S. M.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide (MNPs) were prepared by the laser target evaporation technique (LTE). The main focus was on the fabrication of de-aggregated spherical maghemite MNPs with a narrow size distribution and enhanced effective magnetization. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, magnetization and microwave absorption measurements were comparatively analyzed. The shape of the MNPs (mean diameter of 9 nm) was very close to being spherical. The lattice constant of the crystalline phase was substantially smaller than that of stoichiometric magnetite but larger than the lattice constant of maghemite. High value of Ms up to 300 K was established. The 300 K ferromagnetic resonance signal is a single line located at a field expected from spherical magnetic particles with negligible magnetic anisotropy. The maximum obtained concentration of water based ferrofluid was as high as 10g/l of magnetic material. In order to understand the temperature and field dependence of MNPs magnetization, we invoke the core-shell model. The nanoparticles is said to have a ferrimagnetic core (roughly 70 percent of the caliper size) while the shell consists of surface layers in which the spins are frozen having no long range magnetic order. The core-shell interactions were estimated in frame of random anisotropy model. The obtained assembly of de-aggregated nanoparticles is an example of magnetic nanofluid stable under ambient conditions even without an electrostatic stabilizer.

  14. Magnonics: Selective heat production in nanocomposites with different magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically study Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) in nanocomposites focusing on the analysis of heat production. It is demonstrated that at the FMR frequency, the temperature of nanoparticles can be raised at the rate of a few degrees per second at the electromagnetic (EM) irradiation power equivalent to the sunlight power. Thus, using FMR, one can initiate either surface or bulk reaction in the vicinity of a particular magnetic inclusion by purposely delivering heat to the nanoscale at a sufficiently fast rate. We examined the FMR features in (a) the film with a mixture of nanoparticles made of different materials; (b) the laminated films where each layer is filled with a particular type of magnetic nanoparticles. It is shown that different nanoparticles can be selectively heated at the different bands of EM spectrum. This effect opens up new exciting opportunities to control the microwave assisted chemical reactions depending on the heating rate.

  15. Progress in applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, Q. A.; Thanh, N. T. K.; Jones, S. K.; Dobson, J.

    2009-11-01

    A progress report is presented on a selection of scientific, technological and commercial advances in the biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles since 2003. Particular attention is paid to (i) magnetic actuation for in vitro non-viral transfection and tissue engineering and in vivo drug delivery and gene therapy, (ii) recent clinical results for magnetic hyperthermia treatments of brain and prostate cancer via direct injection, and continuing efforts to develop new agents suitable for targeted hyperthermia following intravenous injection and (iii) developments in medical sensing technologies involving a new generation of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and the invention of magnetic particle imaging as a new modality. Ongoing prospects are also discussed.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, Q. A.; Connolly, J.; Jones, S. K.; Dobson, J.

    2003-07-01

    The physical principles underlying some current biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles are reviewed. Starting from well-known basic concepts, and drawing on examples from biology and biomedicine, the relevant physics of magnetic materials and their responses to applied magnetic fields are surveyed. The way these properties are controlled and used is illustrated with reference to (i) magnetic separation of labelled cells and other biological entities; (ii) therapeutic drug, gene and radionuclide delivery; (iii) radio frequency methods for the catabolism of tumours via hyperthermia; and (iv) contrast enhancement agents for magnetic resonance imaging applications. Future prospects are also discussed.

  17. A Two-Magnet System to Push Therapeutic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Benjamin; Dormer, Kenneth; Rutel, Isaac B.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to direct magnetically susceptible nanoparticles to disease locations: to infections, blood clots, or tumors. Any single magnet always attracts (pulls) ferro- or para-magnetic particles towards it. External magnets have been used to pull therapeutics into tumors near the skin in animals and human clinical trials. Implanting magnetic materials into patients (a feasible approach in some cases) has been envisioned as a means of reaching deeper targets. Yet there are a number of clinical needs, ranging from treatments of the inner ear, to antibiotic-resistant skin infections and cardiac arrhythmias, which would benefit from an ability to magnetically "inject", or push in, nanomedicines. We develop, analyze, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, and effective arrangement of just two permanent magnets that can magnetically push particles. Such a system might treat diseases of the inner ear; diseases which intravenously injected or orally administered treatments cannot reach due to the blood-brain barrier.

  18. Bifunctional magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjiao; Zheng, Yang; You, Shusen; Wang, Feng; Gao, Zhuo; Shen, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2015-03-11

    A new type of bifunctional magnetic-fluorescent Fe3O4@SiO2-PDI-PAA/Ca(2+) nanoparticles has been prepared by coating PDI-cored star polymers (PDI-PAA) onto the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanostructures. The morphology and properties of the composite nanoparticles are investigated by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, fluorescence spectrometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The composite nanoparticles display a strong red emission and superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The cell viability and uptake assays reveal good biocompatibility of these hybrid nanoparticles. Hence, the composite nanoparticles are of potential to be further explored as therapeutic vector in biomedical field. PMID:25691125

  19. Cobalt-based Magnetic Nanoparticles: Design, Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanpour, Mehdi

    The ever-increasing desire for more energy attainable from a smaller volume of matter has driven researchers to explore advanced materials at the molecular or even atomic size scale. Magnetic materials at the nanometer size scale have been the subject of enormous research effort worldwide for more than half a century. Different magnetic nanoparticles have shown different behavior in the absence and presence of an external magnetic field, which has led them to be categorized as soft (easy to demagnetize) or hard (resistive against demagnetization) magnets. Applications range from medical and biomedical devices to magnetic recording media and magnetic sensing have emphasized the importance of this class of materials. Soft magnetic phases have found application in power generation and magnetic targeted drug delivery, while hard magnets have been subject of extensive research for application as energy storage media. Discovery of the exchange-coupling phenomenon between the spins of two adjacent hard and soft magnetic phases which means taking advantage of both high magnetic moment of the soft phase as well as high coercivity of the hard phase has attracted scientists to develop advanced materials for energy storage with no usage of fossil fuels: clean energy. In this Dissertation, synthesis of pure phase, soft FeCo nanoparticles with high magnetic moment and hard phase CoxC nanoparticles possessing high coercivity is reported. The polyol method (chemical co-precipitating at polyhydric alcohol as reducing agent) is used to make FeCo and Co xC nanoparticles and the effects of important reaction kinetics parameters on the structure and magnetic properties of the products are studied. Careful analysis of correlations between these parameters and the properties of the magnetic particles has made synthesis of FeCo and CoxC nanoparticles with desired properties possible. Fabrication of MnAlC-FeCo heterostructures as a rare earth-free alternative for high-performance permanent magnet is also reported. To synthesize MnAlC-FeCo, mechanical alloying and dry mixing of MnAlC and FeCo nanoparticles are accomplished followed by annealing in a furnace. Morphological and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and physical property measuring system (PPMS) magnetometry, respectively. Overall, the achieved results in this work enable synthesis of high moment FeCo and high coercivity CoxC with desired structure and magnetic properties obtained through polyol method. In particular, this Dissertation provides the technique to fabricate cobalt carbide nanoparticles without using rare earth elements as a catalyst or as heterogeneous seed nuclei at any stage: pre-processing, synthesis and post-processing. Although the experimental results of this work suggest successful fabrication of desired materials, there are many unanswered questions and unresolved challenges regarding reaction mechanism and optimizing the magnetic properties of these materials. Therefore, some recommendations are provided at the end of this Dissertation for further studies and future work. It should be noted that, implementing first principal calculations on these particles will provide better explanations and enable prediction of structure and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and facilitate designing more complex heterostructures.

  20. Functionalizing with glycopeptide dendrimers significantly enhances the hydrophilicity of the magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinan; Wang, Fangjun; Liu, Jing; Xiong, Zhichao; Huang, Guang; Wan, Hao; Liu, Zheyi; Cheng, Kai; Zou, Hanfa

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with maltosylated glycopeptide dendrimers were prepared via azide-alkynyl click reaction. The functionalized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited high hydrophilicity and good efficiency in glycopeptide enrichment by HILIC. PMID:25666978

  1. Magnetic Nanoparticle Drug Carriers and their Study by Quadrupole Magnetic Field-Flow Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancers and other pathological conditions. The efficient delivery of therapeutic levels of drug to a target site while limiting nonspecific, systemic toxicity requires optimization of the drug delivery materials, the applied magnetic field, and the treatment protocol. The history and current state of magnetic drug targeting is reviewed. While initial studies involved micron-sized and larger carriers, and work with these microcarriers continues, it is the sub-micron carriers or nanocarriers that are of increasing interest. An aspect of magnetic drug targeting using nanoparticle carriers that has not been considered is then addressed. This aspect involves the variation in the magnetic properties of the nanocarriers. Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF) is a relatively new technique for characterizing magnetic nanoparticles. It is unique in its capability of determining the distribution in magnetic properties of a nanoparticle sample in suspension. The development and current state of this technique is also reviewed. Magnetic nanoparticle drug carriers have been found by QMgFFF analysis to be highly polydisperse in their magnetic properties, and the strength of response of the particles to magnetic field gradients is predicted to vary by orders of magnitude. It is expected that the least magnetic fraction of a formulation will contribute the most to systemic toxicity, and the depletion of this fraction will result in a more effective drug carrying material. A material that has a reduced systemic toxicity will allow higher doses of cytotoxic drugs to be delivered to the tumor with reduced side effects. Preliminary experiments involving a novel method of refining a magnetic nanoparticle drug carrier to achieve this result are described. QMgFFF is used to characterize the refined and unrefined material. PMID:19591456

  2. Unconventional Magnetism in Low Carrier Density Systems and Nanoparticle Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Meigan C Aronson

    2008-06-14

    Under the auspices of this funding, we have developed a program to synthesize and characterize highly monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles. We have been particularly interested in the origin of the exchange bias effect, which occurs in compound nanoparticles with a ferromagnetic core and an antiferromagnetic shell, and have mostly focused on Co/CoO core-shell nanoparticles. The exchange bias effect involves exchange coupling between the core moment and the antiferromagnetic shell which stabilizes the core moment, which would otherwise be quickly reorienting in ferromagnetic particles of this size.

  3. Detection of molecules and cells using nuclear magnetic resonance with magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rmenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard; Mannherz, Hans Georg; Haase, Axel

    2015-04-01

    For the detection of small molecules, proteins or even cells in vitro, functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements can be applied. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles with the size of 5-7 nm were functionalised with antibodies to detect two model systems of different sizes, the protein avidin and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the model organism. The synthesised magnetic nanoparticles showed a narrow size distribution, which was determined using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The magnetic nanoparticles were functionalised with the according antibodies via EDC/NHS chemistry. The binding of the antigen to magnetic nanoparticles was detected through the change in the NMR T2 relaxation time at 0.5 T (?21.7 MHz). In case of a specific binding the particles cluster and the T2 relaxation time of the sample changes. The detection limit in buffer for FITC-avidin was determined to be 1.35 nM and 107 cells/ml for S. cerevisiae. For fluorescent microscopy the avidin molecules were labelled with FITC and for the detection of S. cerevisiae the magnetic nanoparticles were additionally functionalised with rhodamine. The binding of the particles to S. cerevisiae and the resulting clustering was also seen by transmission electron microscopy.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Functionalisation of magnetic nanoparticles for applications in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Catherine C.; Curtis, Adam S. G.

    2003-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been proposed for use as biomedical purposes to a large extent for several years. In recent years, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to produce, characterize and specifically tailor the functional properties of nanoparticles for clinical applications. This has led to various opportunities such as improving the quality of magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermic treatment for malignant cells, site-specific drug delivery and the manipulation of cell membranes. To this end a variety of iron oxide particles have been synthesized. A common failure in targeted systems is due to the opsonization of the particles on entry into the bloodstream, rendering the particles recognizable by the body's major defence system, the reticulo-endothelial system. This review discusses each of the above bio-applications of such magnetic nanoparticles and details some of the main recent advances in biological research.

  5. Magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles loaded into silicon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the magnetic properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) filled with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are investigated. SiNTs with different wall thicknesses of 10 and 70 nm and an inner diameter of approximately 50 nm are prepared and filled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of 4 and 10 nm in diameter. The infiltration process of the NPs into the tubes and dependence on the wall-thickness is described. Furthermore, data from magnetization measurements of the nanocomposite systems are analyzed in terms of iron oxide nanoparticle size dependence. Such biocompatible nanocomposites have potential merit in the field of magnetically guided drug delivery vehicles. PACS 61.46.Fg; 62.23.Pq; 75.75.-c; 75.20.-g PMID:25170336

  6. Nonequilibrium dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Daniel Benjamin

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for use in biomedical applications as remote sensors of biophysical properties, thermal therapy agents, and detectors of specific biomolecules. Many approaches have been used to model magnetic nanoparticle behaviors in these applications to varying degrees of success. In this thesis, I study the most general non-equilibrium methods used to describe rotational dynamics. The characteristic rotational timescales of the particles are developed and critically evaluated conceptually and mathematically. Several approximate models are tested for their range of validity. A new apparatus is theoretically designed and then implemented, enhancing sensitivity to particle magnetizations in an oscillating field and increasing the accuracy of measurements of the environment surrounding the particles. Several other applications beyond sensing are successfully simulated computationally in order to give insight into the two mechanisms of rotation and suggest possible optimizations through an increased understanding of the nanoparticle physics.

  7. Efficient harvesting of marine microalgae Nannochloropsis maritima using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Ru; Wang, Feng; Wang, Shi-Kai; Liu, Chun-Zhao; Guo, Chen

    2013-06-01

    An efficient magnetic separation technology using Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles was developed for harvesting marine microalgae Nannochloropsis maritima from culture broth. Recovery capacity of these nanoparticles was affected by microalgal growth phase and reached the peak value when the microalgal growth reached its maximal biomass after 18 days. The recovery efficiency of microalgal cells from the culture medium reached more than 95% at the particle dosage of 120 mg/L within 4 min. Electrostatic attraction at acidic pH and cell aggregation under neutral and alkaline conditions was beneficial for harvesting the algal cells. Higher operation temperature resulted in higher adsorption capacity of these nanoparticles for microalgawl cells. Reuse of the culture medium obtained from magnetic separation gave similar biomass production in comparison with that from centrifugation separation after 5 recycles. Together with these results provide a great potential in high-efficient and economical harvesting of tiny marine microalgae using magnetic separation technology in practice. PMID:23639490

  8. Iron Nanoparticles for Environmental Applications Studied by Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Trevor; Inglefield, Colin; Matyjasik, Marek

    2010-10-01

    Iron nanoparticles have been widely used in environmental applications due to the ability of the iron to extract harmful chemicals from solution. Because of this trait, zero-valent, iron nanoparticles are currently being used in many water reclamation processes. Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) with CrCo magnetic tips, we were able to obtain images of various materials with the hope to track nanoparticulate iron through different chemical reactions commonly used in water reclamation. We used standard MFM techniques in our investigation, with the magnetic information coming from a measure of the change of phase of the tip's resonant oscillation. Preliminary results of the study using commercial grade nanoparticle solutions evaporated on flat glass surfaces and plans for future experiments will be presented.

  9. Physical Justification for Negative Remanent Magnetization in Homogeneous Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuo; He, Weidong; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Taisen; Jin, Yi; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Mao, Yiwu; Dickerson, James H.; Wagner, Michael J.; Torre, Edward Della; Bennett, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of negative remanent magnetization (NRM) has been observed experimentally in a number of heterogeneous magnetic systems and has been considered anomalous. The existence of NRM in homogenous magnetic materials is still in debate, mainly due to the lack of compelling support from experimental data and a convincing theoretical explanation for its thermodynamic validation. Here we resolve the long-existing controversy by presenting experimental evidence and physical justification that NRM is real in a prototype homogeneous ferromagnetic nanoparticle, an europium sulfide nanoparticle. We provide novel insights into major and minor hysteresis behavior that illuminate the true nature of the observed inverted hysteresis and validate its thermodynamic permissibility and, for the first time, present counterintuitive magnetic aftereffect behavior that is consistent with the mechanism of magnetization reversal, possessing unique capability to identify NRM. The origin and conditions of NRM are explained quantitatively via a wasp-waist model, in combination of energy calculations. PMID:25183061

  10. Physical justification for negative remanent magnetization in homogeneous nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; He, Weidong; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Taisen; Jin, Yi; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Mao, Yiwu; Dickerson, James H; Wagner, Michael J; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of negative remanent magnetization (NRM) has been observed experimentally in a number of heterogeneous magnetic systems and has been considered anomalous. The existence of NRM in homogenous magnetic materials is still in debate, mainly due to the lack of compelling support from experimental data and a convincing theoretical explanation for its thermodynamic validation. Here we resolve the long-existing controversy by presenting experimental evidence and physical justification that NRM is real in a prototype homogeneous ferromagnetic nanoparticle, an europium sulfide nanoparticle. We provide novel insights into major and minor hysteresis behavior that illuminate the true nature of the observed inverted hysteresis and validate its thermodynamic permissibility and, for the first time, present counterintuitive magnetic aftereffect behavior that is consistent with the mechanism of magnetization reversal, possessing unique capability to identify NRM. The origin and conditions of NRM are explained quantitatively via a wasp-waist model, in combination of energy calculations. PMID:25183061

  11. Characterization of iron oxide-dextran magnetic nanoparticle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, J.; Bai, R.; Chiou, W.; Briber, R. M.; Borchers, J. A.; Dennis, C. L.; Gruettner, C.

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles, with structures from core-shell to nanocrystallites in a matrix, are candidates for use in biomedical applications. ``Superparamagnetic iron oxide'' (SPIO) nanoparticles are nanocrystallites of iron oxide in a dextran matrix, with sizes between 20nm and 250nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and hysteresis measurements were used for structural and magnetic characterization. Additionally, cryoquench-TEM was performed, allowing direct imaging without false aggregation from drying. The DLS-determined size of the particles is 250nm, but cryoquench-TEM yields a smaller size of 150nm. In addition, the particles are relatively well-dispersed, but dimers and trimers are observed. This corresponds with the evidence of weak interactions in magnetic hysteresis measurements. Further magnetic characterization will provide information on how the magnetic properties of these SPIO particles correlate with their size and structure.

  12. Characterization of magnetic nanoparticles using programmed quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation is a relatively new technique for the separation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles are often of composite nature having a magnetic component, which may be a very finely divided material, and a polymeric or other material coating that incorporates this magnetic material and stabilizes the particles in suspension. There may be other components such as antibodies on the surface for specific binding to biological cells, or chemotherapeutic drugs for magnetic drug delivery. Magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF) has the potential for determining the distribution of the magnetic material among the particles in a given sample. MgFFF differs from most other forms of field-flow fractionation in that the magnetic field that brings about particle separation induces magnetic dipole moments in the nanoparticles, and these potentially can interact with one another and perturb the separation. This aspect is examined in the present work. Samples of magnetic nanoparticles were analysed under different experimental conditions to determine the sensitivity of the method to variation of conditions. The results are shown to be consistent and insensitive to conditions, although magnetite content appeared to be somewhat higher than expected. PMID:20732895

  13. X-ray Studies of Magnetic Nanoparticle Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, Michael F

    2003-06-20

    Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles were prepared using high temperature solution phase synthesis. Polymer-mediated layer-by-layer growth leads to precise control of the particle self-assembly. The narrow particle size distribution ({sigma} {le} 5%) offers the potential for increased data storage density by utilizing a smaller mean particle size and ultimately storage of one bit per individual nanoparticle. We have studied self-assembled multilayers of magnetic FePt nanoparticles. The L1{sub 0} phase of FePt has a very high magnetic anisotropy which allows the magnetization of particles of about 4 nm diameter to be thermally stable at room temperature. Magnetic measurements using vibrating sample magnetometer were combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) Spectroscopy to study the annealed FePt nanoparticle assemblies and to optimize annealing conditions. NEXAFS spectra showed that a fraction of the iron in the as-deposited particles was oxidized, and this fraction was reduced by annealing in inert or reducing atmospheres. A very thin layer (<0.4 nm) of oxide surrounding the particle is sufficient to explain the observed spectra. Structural analysis using XRD showed that a minimum temperature of 450 C was required to start the formation of the ordered ferromagnetic phase. Annealing for longer times and at higher temperatures led to higher coercivity and larger fraction of ordered phase but also to the onset of some agglomeration of the nanoparticles.

  14. The production of magnetic nanoparticles of Iron Oxide by arc discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Fathollah, Sara; Nikeyn, Maryam; Khatami, Shohreh

    2012-10-01

    Nanoparticles can be utilized for any practical application. In recent years; considerable attention has been paid to iron oxide magnetic. Iron oxide nanoparticles are the class of nanoparticle which can have useful magnetic properties. In this research, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were produced by Arc discharge method in water. Structural analysis carried out by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Spectrophotometer. Various magnetic nanoparticles like iron carbide (Fe3c), magnetic iron oxide (magnetite /maghemite) are obtained by arc discharge method in water. In this work have been showed, the influence of the time duration on the number of magnetic nanoparticles and the influence of the gap between the two electrodes on particle structure and size distribution. Furthermore, when iron nanoparticles are used under applied magnetic field, the particles would move in the direction of magnetic field. When the magnetic field is removed, the particles stop moving and still remain stably suspend in the dielectric liquid.

  15. Switching of magnetization by nonlinear resonance studied in single nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirion, Christophe; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Mailly, Dominique

    2003-08-01

    Magnetization reversal in magnetic particles is one of the fundamental issues in magnetic data storage. Technological improvements require the understanding of dynamical magnetization reversal processes at nanosecond time scales. New strategies are needed to overcome current limitations. For example, the problem of thermal stability of the magnetization state (superparamagnetic limit) can be pushed down to smaller particle sizes by increasing the magnetic anisotropy. High fields are then needed to reverse the magnetization, which are difficult to achieve in current devices. Here we propose a new method to overcome this limitation. A constant applied field, well below the switching field, combined with a radio-frequency (RF) field pulse can reverse the magnetization of a nanoparticle. The efficiency of this method is demonstrated on a 20-nm-diameter cobalt particle by using the microSQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technique. Other applications of this method might be nucleation or depinning of domain walls.

  16. Molecular sensing with magnetic nanoparticles using magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Reeves, Daniel B; Perreard, Irina M; Kett, Warren C; Griswold, Karl E; Gimi, Barjor; Weaver, John B

    2013-12-15

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have shown promise in biosensing and other biomedical applications. Here we use functionalized mNPs to develop a highly sensitive, versatile sensing strategy required in practical biological assays and potentially in vivo analysis. We demonstrate a new sensing scheme based on magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion (MSB) to quantitatively detect molecular targets. MSB uses the harmonics of oscillating mNPs as a metric for the freedom of rotational motion, thus reflecting the bound state of the mNP. The harmonics can be detected in vivo from nanogram quantities of iron within 5s. Using a streptavidin-biotin binding system, we show that the detection limit of the current MSB technique is lower than 150 pM (0.075 pmole), which is much more sensitive than previously reported techniques based on mNP detection. Using mNPs conjugated with two anti-thrombin DNA aptamers, we show that thrombin can be detected with high sensitivity (4 nM or 2 pmole). A DNA-DNA interaction was also investigated. The results demonstrated that sequence selective DNA detection can be achieved with 100 pM (0.05 pmole) sensitivity. The results of using MSB to sense these interactions, show that the MSB based sensing technique can achieve rapid measurement (within 10s), and is suitable for detecting and quantifying a wide range of biomarkers or analytes. It has the potential to be applied in variety of biomedical applications or diagnostic analyses. PMID:23896525

  17. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Kurt, M S; Roy, M; Lees, M R; Binns, C

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core. PMID:26740510

  18. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. H.; Kurt, M. S.; Roy, M.; Lees, M. R.; Binns, C.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core.

  19. Magnetic core shell nanoparticles trapping in a microdevice generating high magnetic gradient.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Malloggi, Florent; Gassner, Anne-Laure; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Varenne, Anne; Girault, Hubert; Descroix, Stphanie

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic core shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) 30 nm diameter with a magnetic weight of 10% are usually much too small to be trapped in microfluidic systems using classical external magnets. Here, a simple microchip for efficient MCSNPs trapping and release is presented. It comprises a bed of micrometric iron beads (6-8 ?m diameter) packed in a microchannel against a physical restriction and presenting a low dead volume of 0.8 nL. These beads of high magnetic permeability are used to focus magnetic field lines from an external permanent magnet and generate local high magnetic gradients. The nanoparticles magnetic trap has been characterised both by numerical simulations and fluorescent MCSNPs imaging. Numerical simulations have been performed to map both the magnetic flux density and the magnetic force, and showed that MCSNPs are preferentially trapped at the iron bead magnetic poles where the magnetic force is increased by 3 orders of magnitude. The trapping efficiency was experimentally determined using fluorescent MCSNPs for different flow rates, different iron beads and permanent magnet positions. At a flow rate of 100 ?L h(-1), the nanoparticles trapping/release can be achieved within 20 s with a preconcentration factor of 4000. PMID:21253647

  20. Magnetic Nanoparticle Arrays Self-Assembled on Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media

    PubMed Central

    Mohtasebzadeh, Abdul Rahman; Ye, Longfei; Crawford, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    We study magnetic-field directed self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles onto templates recorded on perpendicular magnetic recording media, and quantify feature width and height as a function of assembly time. Feature widths are determined from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, while heights are obtained with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). For short assembly times, widths were ~150 nm, while heights were ~14 nm, a single nanoparticle on average with a 10:1 aspect ratio. For long assembly times, widths approach 550 nm, while the average height grows to 3 nanoparticles, ~35 nm; a 16:1 aspect ratio. We perform magnetometry on these self-assembled structures and observe the slope of the magnetic moment vs. field curve increases with time. This increase suggests magnetic nanoparticle interactions evolve from nanoparticlenanoparticle interactions to clustercluster interactions as opposed to featurefeature interactions. We suggest the aspect ratio increase occurs because the magnetic field gradients are strongest near the transitions between recorded regions in perpendicular media. If these gradients can be optimized for assembly, strong potential exists for using perpendicular recording templates to assemble complex heterogeneous materials. PMID:26307967

  1. Ferrohydrodynamic modeling of magnetic nanoparticle harmonic spectra for magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhavalikar, Rohan; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Garraud, Nicolas; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging technique that uses magnetic nanoparticles as tracers. In order to analyze the quality of nanoparticles developed for MPI, a Magnetic Particle Spectrometer (MPS) is often employed. In this paper, we describe results for predictions of the nanoparticle harmonic spectra obtained in a MPS using three models: the first uses the Langevin function, which does not take into account finite magnetic relaxation; the second model uses the magnetization equation by Shliomis (Sh), which takes into account finite magnetic relaxation using a constant characteristic time scale; and the third model uses the magnetization equation derived by Martsenyuk, Raikher, and Shliomis (MRSh), which takes into account the effect of magnetic field magnitude on the magnetic relaxation time. We make comparisons between these models and with experiments in order to illustrate the effects of field-dependent relaxation in the MPS. The models results suggest that finite relaxation results in a significant drop in signal intensity (magnitude of individual harmonics) and in faster spectral decay. Interestingly, when field dependence of the magnetic relaxation time was taken into account, through the MRSh model, the simulations predict a significant improvement in the performance of the nanoparticles, as compared to the performance predicted by the Sh equation. The comparison between the predictions from models and experimental measurements showed excellent qualitative as well as quantitative agreement up to the 19th harmonic using the Sh and MRSh equations, highlighting the potential of ferrohydrodynamic modeling in MPI.

  2. Magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for recognition of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Jing, Tao; Du, Hairong; Dai, Qing; Xia, Huan; Niu, Jiwei; Hao, Qiaolin; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai

    2010-10-15

    Molecular imprinting is an attractive technique for preparing mimics of natural, biological receptors. Nevertheless, the imprinting of macromolecule remains a challenge due to their bulkiness and sensitivity to denaturation. In this work, we presented a method for preparing multifunctional lysozyme-imprinted nanoparticles (magnetic susceptibility, molecular recognition and environmental response). The magnetic susceptibility was imparted through the successful encapsulation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Selective lysozyme recognition depended on molecularly imprinted film. Moreover, it was also a hydrophilic stimuli-responsive polymer, which could undergo a reversible change of imprinted cavity in response to a small change in the environmental conditions. Thus, magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles had high adsorption capacity (0.11 mg mg(-1)), controlled selectivity and direct magnetic separation (22.1 emicro g(-1)) in crude samples. After preconcentration and purification with magnetic MIPs nanoparticles, a sensitive chemiluminescence method was developed for determination of lysozyme in human serum samples. The results indicated that the spiked recoveries were changed from 92.5 to 113.7%, and the RSD was lower than 11.8%. PMID:20829022

  3. Magnetic Nanoparticles in-vivo Detection of Transplant Rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, E. R.; Bryant, H. C.; Larson, R. S.; Sergatskov, D. A.

    2006-03-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are being used to develop methodology for the in-vivo detection and imaging of immune system attacks on transplanted organs. The signature for impending rejection of a transplant is enhanced presence of T-cells. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with specific antibodies (CD-2 and CD-3) will target and attach to these T-cells. Approximately 3 .10^5 nanoparticles can attach to each cell. When a pulsed external magnetic field is applied to the decorated cells for a fraction of a second, magnetic moments of the nanoparticles aligned with the field. After the pulse is switched off, the net magnetic moment decays over several seconds by the Nel mechanism. The resulting magnetic remanence field (typically 10-11 T) is measured using a multi-channel SQUID array. We present the data from live T-cells placed in realistic kidney phantom. The detection sensitivity was 2.10^3 T-cells - a small fraction of the number actually invading the rejected transplant. The 7-channel SQUID array allows us to image the cell clusters with a few millimeters resolution.

  4. Magnetic Core-Shell Morphology of Structurally Uniform Magnetite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krycka, Kathryn

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoscale structures are intriguing, in part, because of the exotic properties that emerge compared with bulk. The reduction of magnetic moment per atom in magnetite with decreasing nanoparticle size, for example, has been hypothesized to originate from surface disordering to anisotropy-induced radial canting, which are difficult to distinguish using conventional magnetometry. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is ideal for probing structure, both chemical and magnetic, from nm to microns across an ensemble of particles. Adding polarization analysis (PASANS) of the neutron spin orientation before and after interaction with the scattering particles allows the magnetic structure to be separated into its vector components. Application of this novel technique to 9 nm magnetite nanoparticles closed-packed into face-centered crystallites with order of a micron revealed that at nominal saturation the missing magnetic moments unexpectedly interacted to form well-ordered shells 1.0 to 1.5 nm thick canted perpendicular to their ferrimagnetic cores between 160 to 320 K. These shells additionally displayed intra-particle ``cross-talk'', selecting a common orientation over clusters of tens of nanoparticles. However, the shells disappeared when the external field was removed and interparticle magnetic interactions were negligible (300 K), confirming their magnetic origin. This work has been carried out in collaboration with Ryan Booth, Julie Borchers, Wangchun Chen, Liv Dedon, Thomas Gentile, Charles Hogg, Yumi Ijiri, Mark Laver, Sara Majetich, James Rhyne, and Shannon Watson.

  5. Engineering spatial gradients of signaling proteins using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bonnemay, L; Hostachy, S; Hoffmann, C; Gautier, J; Gueroui, Z

    2013-11-13

    Intracellular biochemical reactions are often localized in space and time, inducing gradients of enzymatic activity that may play decisive roles in determining cell's fate and functions. However, the techniques available to examine such enzymatic gradients of activity remain limited. Here, we propose a new method to engineer a spatial gradient of signaling protein concentration within Xenopus egg extracts using superparamagnetic nanoparticles. We show that, upon the application of a magnetic field, a concentration gradient of nanoparticles with a tunable length extension is established within confined egg extracts. We then conjugate the nanoparticles to RanGTP, a small G-protein controlling microtubule assembly. We found that the generation of an artificial gradient of Ran-nanoparticles modifies the spatial positioning of microtubule assemblies. Furthermore, the spatial control of the level of Ran concentration allows us to correlate the local fold increase in Ran-nanoparticle concentration with the spatial positioning of the microtubule-asters. Our assay provides a bottom-up approach to examine the minimum ingredients generating polarization and symmetry breaking within cells. More generally, these results show how magnetic nanoparticles and magnetogenetic tools can be used to control the spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling pathways. PMID:24111679

  6. Citrinin mycotoxin recognition and removal by naked magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Moritz, Denise Esteves; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Baratella, Davide; Terzo, Milo; Jakubec, Petr; Malina, Ondřej; Čépe, Klára; Aragao, Glaucia Maria Falcao de; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-07-15

    Citrinin is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which can be synthesized by Monascus mold during the fermentation process in foods. Monascus, generally described as red mold, is a red-pigmented filamentous fungus attracting a great interest for the production of natural dyes and cholesterol-lowering statins. We individuated a specie of Monascus producing high amount of natural dyes. However, this high pigmentation was correlated with the production of citrinin. Peculiar magnetic nanoparticles, synthesized in-house and called "Surface Active Maghemite Nanoparticles" (SAMNs), are proposed as an efficient and reliable mean for citrinin removal from Monascus treated foods. The nanomaterial efficiency for citrinin binding was proved on Monascus suspensions, and SAMN@citrinin complex was characterized by Mӧssbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements, showing that SAMNs resulted structurally and magnetically well conserved after citrinin binding. SAMNs are excellent and stable magnetic nano-carrier for toxin removal, which can be applied in food industry. PMID:26948644

  7. Magnetic single-enzyme nanoparticles with high activity and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zhengpeng; Si Shihui Zhang Chunjing

    2008-02-29

    Magnetic single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs) encapsulated within a composite inorganic/organic polymer network were fabricated via the surface modification and in situ aqueous polymerization of separate enzyme molecule. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These particles are almost spherical in shape and have a unique size of about 50 nm in diameter. Electrical and magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic SENs have a conductivity of 2.7 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}, and are superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 14.5 emu g{sup -1} and a coercive force of 60 Oe. Compared with free enzyme, encapsulated enzyme exhibits a strong tolerance to the variation of solution pH, high temperature, organic solvent and long-term storage, thus showing significantly enhanced enzyme performance and stability.

  8. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 Am2 was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  9. X-space MPI: magnetic nanoparticles for safe medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Patrick William; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Croft, Laura Rose; Kim, Tyson N; Krishnan, Kannan M; Schaffer, David V; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-07-24

    One quarter of all iodinated contrast X-ray clinical imaging studies are now performed on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Unfortunately, the iodine contrast agent used in X-ray is often toxic to CKD patients' weak kidneys, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, we are pioneering a new medical imaging method, called Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), to replace X-ray and CT iodinated angiography, especially for CKD patients. MPI uses magnetic nanoparticle contrast agents that are much safer than iodine for CKD patients. MPI already offers superb contrast and extraordinary sensitivity. The iron oxide nanoparticle tracers required for MPI are also used in MRI, and some are already approved for human use, but the contrast agents are far more effective at illuminating blood vessels when used in the MPI modality. We have recently developed a systems theoretic framework for MPI called x-space MPI, which has already dramatically improved the speed and robustness of MPI image reconstruction. X-space MPI has allowed us to optimize the hardware for fi ve MPI scanners. Moreover, x-space MPI provides a powerful framework for optimizing the size and magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used in MPI. Currently MPI nanoparticles have diameters in the 10-20 nanometer range, enabling millimeter-scale resolution in small animals. X-space MPI theory predicts that larger nanoparticles could enable up to 250 micrometer resolution imaging, which would represent a major breakthrough in safe imaging for CKD patients. PMID:22988557

  10. Ultrafine MnWO4 nanoparticles and their magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungelenk, Jan; Roming, Sabine; Adler, Peter; Schnelle, Walter; Winterlik, Jrgen; Felser, Claudia; Feldmann, Claus

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafine nanoparticles of MnWO4, a compound showing low-temperature multiferroicity in the bulk, were synthesized by the polyol method. Studies using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential sedimentation and sorption techniques show the formation of a single-phase material, which is composed of MnWO4 nanoparticles with a prolate ellipsoidal shape (short axis of 4-5 nm, long axis of 11-12 nm) and an unprecedented high specific surface area of 166 m2 g-1. The as-prepared MnWO4 nanoparticles are readily crystalline after the liquid-phase synthesis. Temperature and field dependent magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic behavior with a single magnetic phase transition near TN ? 6 K. In contrast, three successive transitions below 14 K were reported for multiferroic bulk-MnWO4. Above TN, the nanoparticles show Curie-Weiss-type paramagnetic behavior. Due to the large paramagnetic moment of Mn2+ (?eff ? 6.2 ?B), the nanoparticles can be easily manipulated by a bar magnet at ambient temperature.

  11. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic resonance and multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikma, Elise Ann Schultz

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for noninvasive tomographic imaging of biological systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. Superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles have emerged as highly effective MR contrast agents due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and magnetic properties. Conventional nanoparticle contrast agents suffer from difficult synthetic reproducibility, polydisperse sizes and weak magnetism. Numerous synthetic techniques and nanoparticle formulations have been developed to overcome these barriers. However, there are still major limitations in the development of new nanoparticle-based probes for MR and multimodal imaging including low signal amplification and absence of biochemical reporters. To address these issues, a set of multimodal (T2/optical) and dual contrast (T1/T2) nanoparticle probes has been developed. Their unique magnetic properties and imaging capabilities were thoroughly explored. An enzyme-activatable contrast agent is currently being developed as an innovative means for early in vivo detection of cancer at the cellular level. Multimodal probes function by combining the strengths of multiple imaging techniques into a single agent. Co-registration of data obtained by multiple imaging modalities validates the data, enhancing its quality and reliability. A series of T2/optical probes were successfully synthesized by attachment of a fluorescent dye to the surface of different types of nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles generated sufficient MR and fluorescence signal to image transplanted islets in vivo. Dual contrast T1/T2 imaging probes were designed to overcome disadvantages inherent in the individual T1 and T2 components. A class of T1/T2 agents was developed consisting of a gadolinium (III) complex (DTPA chelate or DO3A macrocycle) conjugated to a biocompatible silica-coated metal oxide nanoparticle through a disulfide linker. The disulfide linker has the ability to be reduced in vivo by glutathione, releasing large payloads of signal-enhancing T1 probes into the surrounding environment. Optimization of the agent occurred over three sequential generations, with each generation addressing a new challenge. The result was a T2 nanoparticle containing high levels of conjugated T1 complex demonstrating enhanced MR relaxation properties. The probes created here have the potential to play a key role in the advancement of nanoparticle-based agents in biomedical MRI applications.

  12. Magnetic properties of an individual Fe-Cu-B nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Duxin, N.; Pileni, M.P.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Barbara, B.; Benoit, A.; Mailly, D.

    2000-01-11

    Superparamagnetic elongated Fe-Cu-B alloys were prepared in aqueous solution via sodium borohydride reduction of copper and iron dodecyl sulfate, Cu(DS){sub 2} and Fe(DS){sub 2}. The magnetization reversal of an individual Fe-Cu-B nanoparticle can be described by uniform rotation of magnetization and by thermal activation over a single-energy barrier as originally proposed by Neel and Brown.

  13. Encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles as supports for proteins and recyclable biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Herdt, Aimee R; Kim, Byeong-Su; Taton, T Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the bioconjugation of histidine-tagged enzymes and other proteins to the surface of composite "magnetomicelles" consisting of magnetic gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated within cross-linked polystyrene-block-polyacrylate copolymer micelle shells. Free carboxylic acid groups on the magnetomicelle surface were converted to Cu2+-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) for protein capture. The conjugation of T4 DNA ligase and enhanced green fluorescent protein to magnetomicelles revealed that proteins were captured with a high surface density and could be magnetically separated from reaction mixtures and subsequently released from the nanoparticle surface. Additionally, bioconjugation of T7 RNA polymerase yielded a functional enzyme that maintained its biological activity and could be recycled for up to three subsequent transcription reactions. We propose that protein-magnetomicelle bioconjugates are effective for protein bioseparation and enzymatic recycling and further strengthen the idea that nanoparticle surfaces have utility in protein immobilization. PMID:17226972

  14. Computational studies of steering nanoparticles with magnetic gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylak, Sultan Suleyman

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided nanorobotic systems that could perform diagnostic, curative, and reconstructive treatments in the human body at the cellular and subcellular level in a controllable manner have recently been proposed. The concept of a MRI-guided nanorobotic system is based on the use of a MRI scanner to induce the required external driving forces to guide magnetic nanocapsules to a specific target. However, the maximum magnetic gradient specifications of existing clinical MRI systems are not capable of driving magnetic nanocapsules against the blood flow. This thesis presents the visualization of nanoparticles inside blood vessel, Graphical User Interface (GUI) for updating file including initial parameters and demonstrating the simulation of particles and C++ code for computing magnetic forces and fluidic forces. The visualization and GUI were designed using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML), MATLAB and C#. The addition of software for MRI-guided nanorobotic system provides simulation results. Preliminary simulation results demonstrate that external magnetic field causes aggregation of nanoparticles while they flow in the vessel. This is a promising result --in accordance with similar experimental results- and encourages further investigation on the nanoparticle-based self-assembly structures for use in nanorobotic drug delivery.

  15. Non-Langevin high-temperature magnetization of nanoparticles in a weak magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Chuev, M. A.

    2009-02-15

    Experimental evidence and theoretical substantiation are presented for the asymptotic behavior of high-temperature magnetization of an ensemble of nanoparticles in a weak magnetic field, which was predicted earlier and which differs qualitatively from the 'Langevin' limit for ideal superparamagnetic particles. It is shown that the physical reason for the new asymptotic behavior is the temperature-independent 'positive' tilt of the uniform magnetization vector at local energy minima in the direction of the field; this asymptotic behavior is associated with the nonstandard thermodynamics of single-domain particles, which depends on the ratio of characteristic frequencies of regular precession and random diffusion of this vector. An alternative approach is proposed for describing the magnetic dynamics of an ensemble of nanoparticles in a magnetic field, and the precession orbits of the magnetization vector are considered as stochastic states of each particle, whereas each state is characterized by the trajectory-averaged value of magnetization.

  16. Magnetic Assembly and Cross-Linking of Nanoparticles for Releasable Magnetic Microstructures.

    PubMed

    Velez, Camilo; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Rinaldi, Carlos; Arnold, David P

    2015-10-27

    This article describes a versatile method to fabricate magnetic microstructures with complex two-dimensional geometric shapes using magnetically assembled iron oxide (Fe3O4) and cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles. Magnetic pole patterns are imprinted into magnetizable media, onto which magnetic nanoparticles are assembled from a colloidal suspension into defined shapes via the shaped magnetic field gradients. The kinetics of this assembly process are studied by evaluation of the microstructure features (e.g., line width and height) as a function of time, particle type, and volume fraction. After assembly, the iron oxide particles are cross-linked in situ and subsequently released by dissolving a sacrificial layer. The free-floating magnetic structures are shown to retain their patterned shape during manipulation with external magnetic fields. PMID:26364509

  17. Computational evaluation of amplitude modulation for enhanced magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Soetaert, Frederik; Dupr, Luc; Ivkov, Robert; Crevecoeur, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can interact with alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) to deposit localized energy for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. Hyperthermia is useful in the context of multimodality treatments with radiation or chemotherapy to enhance disease control without increased toxicity. The unique attributes of heat deposition and transfer with MNPs have generated considerable attention and have been the focus of extensive investigations to elucidate mechanisms and optimize performance. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations are often conducted with the finite element method (FEM) using the Pennes' bioheat equation. In the current study, the Pennes' equation was modified to include a thermal damage-dependent perfusion profile to improve model predictions with respect to known physiological responses to tissue heating. A normal distribution of MNPs in a model liver tumor was combined with empirical nanoparticle heating data to calculate tumor temperature distributions and resulting survival fraction of cancer cells. In addition, calculated spatiotemporal temperature changes were compared among magnetic field amplitude modulations of a base 150-kHz sinusoidal waveform, specifically, no modulation, sinusoidal, rectangular, and triangular modulation. Complex relationships were observed between nanoparticle heating and cancer tissue damage when amplitude modulation and damage-related perfusion profiles were varied. These results are tantalizing and motivate further exploration of amplitude modulation as a means to enhance efficiency of and overcome technical challenges associated with magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH). PMID:26351900

  18. Core/shell magnetism in NiO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F. K.; Ionescu, A.; Langford, R. M.; Ziebeck, K. R. A.; Barnes, C. H. W.; Gruar, R.; Tighe, C.; Darr, J. A.; Thanh, N. T. K.; Ouladdiaf, B.

    2013-08-01

    The anomalous appearance of a ferromagnetic moment in nominally antiferromagnetic nanoparticles has been known about since Nel, but never well understood. We present proof of the core/shell model of magnetism in antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles (NP) using neutron diffraction. Nickel oxide nanoparticles were produced in a large quantity by a novel continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis method. The antiferromagnetic nature of the nanoparticles allowed the structural and the magnetic diffraction peaks to be completely separated. Using both the microstructure option in "Fullprof" microstructure fitting suite and convolution techniques, we determined the NP consisted of an ordered antiferromagnetic core 5.2(2) nm in diameter surrounded by a disordered shell 0.7(2) nm thick. Further magnetic measurements showed that this disordered shell possess a significant polarisable magnetisation, up to a fifth that of pure nickel. They also indicate that two magnetic transitions occur between 400 and 10 K; around 350 K, there is a broad transition from paramagnetic to a form of superparamagnetism, then near 30 K there is a transition to a higher anisotropy state. Differences in field cooled and zero field cooled hysteresis loops were found, though with no evidence of exchange bias effects.

  19. Maximizing hysteretic losses in magnetic ferrite nanoparticles via model-driven synthesis and materials optimization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ritchie; Christiansen, Michael G; Anikeeva, Polina

    2013-10-22

    This article develops a set of design guidelines for maximizing heat dissipation characteristics of magnetic ferrite MFe2O4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields. Using magnetic and structural nanoparticle characterization, we identify key synthetic parameters in the thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors that yield optimized magnetic nanoparticles over a wide range of sizes and compositions. The developed synthetic procedures allow for gram-scale production of magnetic nanoparticles stable in physiological buffer for several months. Our magnetic nanoparticles display some of the highest heat dissipation rates, which are in qualitative agreement with the trends predicted by a dynamic hysteresis model of coherent magnetization reversal in single domain magnetic particles. By combining physical simulations with robust scalable synthesis and materials characterization techniques, this work provides a pathway to a model-driven design of magnetic nanoparticles tailored to a variety of biomedical applications ranging from cancer hyperthermia to remote control of gene expression. PMID:24016039

  20. Dipolar Magnetism in Ordered and Disordered Low-Dimensional Nanoparticle Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Varn, M.; Beleggia, M.; Kasama, T.; Harrison, R. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Puntes, V. F.; Frandsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetostatic (dipolar) interactions between nanoparticles promise to open new ways to design nanocrystalline magnetic materials and devices if the collective magnetic properties can be controlled at the nanoparticle level. Magnetic dipolar interactions are sufficiently strong to sustain magnetic order at ambient temperature in assemblies of closely-spaced nanoparticles with magnetic moments of ? 100??B. Here we use electron holography with sub-particle resolution to reveal the correlation between particle arrangement and magnetic order in self-assembled 1D and quasi-2D arrangements of 15?nm cobalt nanoparticles. In the initial states, we observe dipolar ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and local flux closure, depending on the particle arrangement. Surprisingly, after magnetic saturation, measurements and numerical simulations show that overall ferromagnetic order exists in the present nanoparticle assemblies even when their arrangement is completely disordered. Such direct quantification of the correlation between topological and magnetic order is essential for the technological exploitation of magnetic quasi-2D nanoparticle assemblies. PMID:23390584

  1. Theoretical studies to elucidate the influence of magnetic dipolar interactions occurring in the magnetic nanoparticle systems, for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaci, M.; Cacciola, M.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the study of magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively developed not only for their fundamental theoretical interest, but also for their many technological applications, especially biomedical applications, ranging from contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging to the deterioration of cancer cells via hyperthermia treatment. The theoretical and experimental research has shown until now that the magnetic dipolar interactions between nanoparticles can have a significant influence on the magnetic behaviour of the system. But, this influence is not well understood. It is clear that the magnetic dipolar interaction intensity is correlated with the nanoparticle concentration, volume fraction and magnetic moment orientations. In this paper, we try to understand the influence of magnetic dipolar interactions on the behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle systems, for biomedical applications. For the model, we considered spherical nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy and lognormal distribution of the sizes. The model involves a simulation stage of the spatial distribution and orientation of the nanoparticles and their easy axes of magnetic anisotropy, and an evaluation stage of the Néel relaxation time. To assess the Néel relaxation time, we are going to discretise and adapt, to the local magnetic field, the Coffey analytical solution for the equation Fokker-Planck describing the dynamics of magnetic moments of nanoparticles in oblique external magnetic field. There are three fundamental aspects of interest in our studies on the magnetic nanoparticles: their spatial & orientational distributions, concentrations and sizes.

  2. Development of Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Shiraz M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values. PMID:24619487

  3. Development of novel magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassim, Shiraz M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2011-03-01

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values.

  4. Exploiting Size-Dependent Drag and Magnetic Forces for Size-Specific Separation of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Hunter B; Anani, Tareq; Choi, Young Suk; Beyers, Ronald J; David, Allan E

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the full potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in nanomedicine requires the optimization of their physical and chemical properties. Elucidation of the effects of these properties on clinical diagnostic or therapeutic properties, however, requires the synthesis or purification of homogenous samples, which has proved to be difficult. While initial simulations indicated that size-selective separation could be achieved by flowing magnetic nanoparticles through a magnetic field, subsequent in vitro experiments were unable to reproduce the predicted results. Magnetic field-flow fractionation, however, was found to be an effective method for the separation of polydisperse suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters greater than 20 nm. While similar methods have been used to separate magnetic nanoparticles before, no previous work has been done with magnetic nanoparticles between 20 and 200 nm. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis were used to confirm the size of the MNPs. Further development of this work could lead to MNPs with the narrow size distributions necessary for their in vitro and in vivo optimization. PMID:26307980

  5. Exploiting Size-Dependent Drag and Magnetic Forces for Size-Specific Separation of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Hunter B.; Anani, Tareq; Choi, Young Suk; Beyers, Ronald J.; David, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the full potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in nanomedicine requires the optimization of their physical and chemical properties. Elucidation of the effects of these properties on clinical diagnostic or therapeutic properties, however, requires the synthesis or purification of homogenous samples, which has proved to be difficult. While initial simulations indicated that size-selective separation could be achieved by flowing magnetic nanoparticles through a magnetic field, subsequent in vitro experiments were unable to reproduce the predicted results. Magnetic field-flow fractionation, however, was found to be an effective method for the separation of polydisperse suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters greater than 20 nm. While similar methods have been used to separate magnetic nanoparticles before, no previous work has been done with magnetic nanoparticles between 20 and 200 nm. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis were used to confirm the size of the MNPs. Further development of this work could lead to MNPs with the narrow size distributions necessary for their in vitro and in vivo optimization. PMID:26307980

  6. Strong and moldable cellulose magnets with high ferrite nanoparticle content.

    PubMed

    Galland, Sylvain; Andersson, Richard L; Ström, Valter; Olsson, Richard T; Berglund, Lars A

    2014-11-26

    A major limitation in the development of highly functional hybrid nanocomposites is brittleness and low tensile strength at high inorganic nanoparticle content. Herein, cellulose nanofibers were extracted from wood and individually decorated with cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles and then for the first time molded at low temperature (<120 °C) into magnetic nanocomposites with up to 93 wt % inorganic content. The material structure was characterized by TEM and FE-SEM and mechanically tested as compression molded samples. The obtained porous magnetic sheets were further impregnated with a thermosetting epoxy resin, which improved the load-bearing functions of ferrite and cellulose material. A nanocomposite with 70 wt % ferrite, 20 wt % cellulose nanofibers, and 10 wt % epoxy showed a modulus of 12.6 GPa, a tensile strength of 97 MPa, and a strain at failure of ca. 4%. Magnetic characterization was performed in a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed that the coercivity was unaffected and that the saturation magnetization was in proportion with the ferrite content. The used ferrite, CoFe2O4, is a magnetically hard material, demonstrated by that the composite material behaved as a traditional permanent magnet. The presented processing route is easily adaptable to prepare millimeter-thick and moldable magnetic objects. This suggests that the processing method has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial use for the preparation of a new subcategory of magnetic, low-cost, and moldable objects based on cellulose nanofibers. PMID:25331121

  7. Magnetically-Responsive Nanoparticles for Vectored Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klostergaard, Jim; Bankson, James; Woodward, Wendy; Gibson, Don; Seeney, Charles

    2010-12-01

    We propose that physical targeting of therapeutics to tumors using magnetically-responsive nanoparticles (MNPs) will enhance intratumoral drug levels compared to free drugs in an effort to overcome tumor resistance. We evaluated the feasibility of magnetic enhancement of tumor extravasation of systemically-administered MNPs in human xenografts implanted in the mammary fatpads of nude mice. Mice with orthotopic tumors were injected systemically with MNPs, with a focused magnetic field juxtaposed over the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging and scanning electron microscopy both indicated successful tumor localization of MNPs. Next, MNPs were modified with poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) and their clearance compared by estimating signal attenuation in liver due to iron accumulation. The results suggested that PEG substitution could retard the rate of MNP plasma clearance, which may allow greater magnetically-enhanced tumor localization. We propose that this technology is clinically scalable to many types of both superficial as well as some viscerable tumors with existing magnetic technology.

  8. Probing magnetic and electric optical responses of silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Permyakov, Dmitry; Sinev, Ivan; Markovich, Dmitry; Samusev, Anton; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.; Luk'yanchuk, Boris S.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-04-27

    We study experimentally both magnetic and electric optically induced resonances of silicon nanoparticles by combining polarization-resolved dark-field spectroscopy and near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements. We reveal that the scattering spectra exhibit strong sensitivity of electric dipole response to the probing beam polarization and attribute the characteristic asymmetry of measured near-field patterns to the excitation of a magnetic dipole mode. The proposed experimental approach can serve as a powerful tool for the study of photonic nanostructures possessing both electric and magnetic optical responses.

  9. Synergistic enhancement effect of magnetic nanoparticles on anticancer drug accumulation in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyun; Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Chunhui; Song, Min; Li, Jingyuan; Lv, Gang; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Chen; Dai, Yongyuan; Gao, Feng; Fu, Degang; Li, Xiaomao; Guan, Zhiqun; Chen, Baoan

    2006-07-01

    Three kinds of magnetic nanoparticle, tetraheptylammonium capped nanoparticles of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and Ni have been synthesized, and the synergistic effect of these nanoparticles on the drug accumulation of the anticancer drug daunorubicin in leukaemia cells has been explored. Our observations indicate that the enhancement effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles is much stronger than that of Fe2O3 and Ni nanoparticles, suggesting that nanoparticle surface chemistry and size as well as the unique properties of the magnetic nanoparticles themselves may contribute to the synergistic enhanced effect of the drug uptake of targeted cancer cells.

  10. The numerical investigation of magnetic properties of single domain MnP:GaP nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerami, Adeleh Mokhles; Vaez-Zadeh, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of MnP:GaP nanoparticles are calculated using a statistical mechanical approach and effect of various factors on magnetization of nanoparticles is studied. The calculation is based on solution of localized partition function and evolution of magnetic moment affected by thermal fluctuation and external field is included by solving master equation. Instead of constant magnetic saturation approximation, a temperature dependent magnetic moment saturation is included to improve calculation efficiency for larger nanoparticles. In the present work, the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled (FC/ZFC) magnetization of randomly oriented anisotropy and log-normal volume distributed nanoparticles are calculated.

  11. THE SUBMILLIMETER AND MILLIMETER EXCESS OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: MAGNETIC DIPOLE EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES?

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B. T.; Hensley, Brandon

    2012-09-20

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) has surprisingly strong submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength emission that is inconsistent with standard dust models, including those with emission from spinning dust. Here, we show that the emission from the SMC may be understood if the interstellar dust mixture includes magnetic nanoparticles, emitting magnetic dipole radiation resulting from thermal fluctuations in the magnetization. The magnetic grains can be metallic iron, magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, or maghemite {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The required mass of iron is consistent with elemental abundance constraints. The magnetic dipole emission is predicted to be polarized orthogonally to the normal electric dipole radiation if the nanoparticles are inclusions in larger grains. We speculate that other low-metallicity galaxies may also have a large fraction of the interstellar Fe in magnetic materials.

  12. Enhanced magnetorheological performance of highly uniform magnetic carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungae; Shin, Keun-Young; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic carbon nanoparticles (MC NPs) are prepared on a multi-gram scale through carbonization of iron-doped polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPy NPs). Three different-sized MC NPs (ca. 40, 60 and 90 nm) are prepared and adopted as dispersing materials for magnetorheological (MR) fluids to investigate the influence of particle size on MR properties. The MC NP-based MR fluids exhibit outstanding MR performances compared to the conventional magnetic carbon material-based fluids. In addition, the MR activities are enhanced with decreasing particle diameter and increasing applied magnetic field strength. Furthermore, anti-sedimentation properties are examined in order to achieve in-depth insight into the effect of the particle size on MR fluids.Magnetic carbon nanoparticles (MC NPs) are prepared on a multi-gram scale through carbonization of iron-doped polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPy NPs). Three different-sized MC NPs (ca. 40, 60 and 90 nm) are prepared and adopted as dispersing materials for magnetorheological (MR) fluids to investigate the influence of particle size on MR properties. The MC NP-based MR fluids exhibit outstanding MR performances compared to the conventional magnetic carbon material-based fluids. In addition, the MR activities are enhanced with decreasing particle diameter and increasing applied magnetic field strength. Furthermore, anti-sedimentation properties are examined in order to achieve in-depth insight into the effect of the particle size on MR fluids. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The reaction mechanism at each step, and high-resolution TEM and SAED pattern analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07168a

  13. Aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions investigated by magnetorelaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberbeck, D.; Wiekhorst, F.; Steinhoff, U.; Trahms, L.

    2006-09-01

    The aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) is a decisive factor for their application in medicine and biotechnology. We extended the moment superposition model developed earlier for describing the Nel relaxation of an ensemble of immobilized particles with a given size distribution by including the Brownian relaxation mechanism. The resulting cluster moment superposition model is used to characterize the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in various suspensions in terms of mean cluster size, aggregate fraction, and size dispersion. We found that in stable ferrofluids 50%-80% of larger magnetic nanoparticles are organized in dimers and trimers. The scaling of the relaxation curves with respect to MNP concentration is found to be a sensitive indicator of the tendency of a MNP suspension to form large aggregates, which may limit the biocompatibility of the preparation. Scaling violation was observed in aged water based ferrofluids, and may originate from damaged MNP shells. In biological media such as foetal calf serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum we observed an aggregation behaviour which reaches a maximum at a specific MNP concentration. We relate this to agglutination of the particles by macromolecular bridges between the nanoparticle shells. Analysis of the scaling behaviour helps to identify the bridging component of the suspension medium that causes agglutination.

  14. NiFe nanoparticles: a soft magnetic material?

    PubMed

    Margeat, Olivier; Ciuculescu, Diana; Lecante, Pierre; Respaud, Marc; Amiens, Catherine; Chaudret, Bruno

    2007-03-01

    Polytetrahedral NiFe nanoparticles with diameters of (2.8+/-0.3) nm have been obtained by hydrogenation of Ni[(COD)(2)] (COD=1,5-cyclooctadiene) and Fe[{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)] at 150 degrees C using stearic acid and hexadecylamine as stabilizing ligands. The nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature and display a blocking temperature of 17.6 K. Their anisotropy (2.7x10(5)J m(-3)) is determined to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of the bulk NiFe alloy (10(3)J m(-3)) and is close to that determined for Fe nanoparticles of the same size. Still, they display a magnetization of (1.69+/-0.05) mu(B) per metallic atom, identical to that of the bulk NiFe alloy. Combining the results from X-ray absorption and Mssbauer studies, we evidence a progressive enrichment in iron atoms from the core to the surface of the nanoparticles. These results are discussed in relation to both size and chemical effects. They show the main role played by the enriched Fe surface on the magnetic properties and address the feasibility of soft magnetic materials at the nanoscale. PMID:17285643

  15. Magnetic properties of ultra-small goethite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brok, E.; Frandsen, C.; Madsen, D. E.; Jacobsen, H.; Birk, J. O.; Lefmann, K.; Bendix, J.; Pedersen, K. S.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Berhe, A. A.; Simeoni, G. G.; Mrup, S.

    2014-09-01

    Goethite (?-FeOOH) is a common nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic mineral. However, it is typically difficult to study the properties of isolated single-crystalline goethite nanoparticles, because goethite has a strong tendency to form particles of aggregated nanograins often with low-angle grain boundaries. This nanocrystallinity leads to complex magnetic properties that are dominated by magnetic fluctuations in interacting grains. Here we present a study of the magnetic properties of 5.7 nm particles of goethite by use of magnetization measurements, inelastic neutron scattering and Mssbauer spectroscopy. The ultra-small size of these particles (i.e. that the particles consist of one or only a few grains) allows for more direct elucidation of the particles' intrinsic magnetic properties. We find from ac and dc magnetization measurements a significant upturn of the magnetization at very low temperatures most likely due to freezing of spins in canted spin structures. From hysteresis curves we estimate the saturation magnetization from uncompensated magnetic moments to be ?s = 0.044 A m2 kg-1 at room temperature. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements show a strong signal from excitations of the uniform mode (q = 0 spin waves) at temperatures of 100-250 K and Mssbauer spectroscopy studies show that the magnetic fluctuations are dominated by classical superparamagnetic relaxation at temperatures above 170 K. From the temperature dependence of the hyperfine fields and the excitation energy of the uniform mode we estimate a magnetic anisotropy constant of around 1.0 105 J m-3.

  16. Magnetic disorder in TbAl2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, D. P.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Sánchez Marcos, J.; Echevarria-Bonet, C.; Espeso, J. I.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Rodríguez Fernández, L.; Mathon, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic and thermal properties of TbAl2 nanosized alloys (diameters, 12 nm ≤slant D≤slant 20 nm) obtained by high-energy milling are characterised by specific heat, magnetisation and neutron scattering. The specific heat shows that the λ-anomaly at Curie temperature vanishes when the milling time reaches 300 h and its field variation shows a broad peak around 70 K disclosing a disordered magnetic state. The thermal variation of magnetization follows a Bloch process with a decrease of the stiffness constant and a faster demagnetisation with a quadratic exponent instead of the bulk ordinary {T}3/2-dependence. The magnetic moment reduction in the nanosized alloys follows a 1/D dependence, remarking the role of disordered moment surface. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction patterns indicates a collinear ferromagnetic structure, with a reduction of the Tb-magnetic moment when decreasing the particle size. The temperature dependent overall magnetic signal of nanoparticles is derived from small-angle neutron scattering. A magnetic nanoparticle structure with an ordered ferromagnetic core and a disordered surface layer is proposed.

  17. Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wydra, Robert John

    Despite recent advances, cancer remains the second leading cause of deaths in the United States. Magnetic nanoparticles have found various applications in cancer research as drug delivery platforms, enhanced contrast agents for improved diagnostic imaging, and the delivery of thermal energy as standalone therapy. Iron oxide nanoparticles absorb the energy from an alternating magnetic field and convert it into heat through Brownian and Neel relaxations. To better utilize magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy, surface functionalization is essential for such factors as decreasing cytotoxicity of healthy tissue, extending circulation time, specific targeting of cancer cells, and manage the controlled delivery of therapeutics. In the first study, iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polymer shell. The PEG coating was selected to prevent protein adsorption and thus improve circulation time and minimize host response to the nanoparticles. Thermal therapy application feasibility was demonstrated in vitro with a thermoablation study on lung carcinoma cells. Building on the thermal therapy demonstration with iron oxide nanoparticles, the second area of work focused on intracellular delivery. Nanoparticles can be appropriately tailored to enter the cell and deliver energy on the nanoscale eliminating individual cancer cells. The underlying mechanism of action is still under study, and we were interested in determining the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) catalytically generated from the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles in this measured cytotoxicity. When exposed to an AMF, the nanoscale heating effects are capable of enhancing the Fenton-like generation of ROS determined through a methylene blue degradation assay. To deliver this enhanced ROS effect to cells, monosaccharide coated nanoparticles were developed and successfully internalized by colon cancer cell lines. Upon AMF exposure, there was a measured increase in cellular ROS and apoptosis that was attributed to lysosomal disruption since the surface functionalization selected inhibited the Fenton-like surface chemistry. To overcome this surface inhibition, a biodegradable poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) polymer coating was synthesized to deliver bare iron oxide to intracellular components. Delivering enhanced ROS to cancer cells is a promising new route of therapy that deserves future studies.

  18. Morphology and magnetic flux distribution in superparamagnetic, single-crystalline Fe3O4 nanoparticle rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeno, Yumu; Murakami, Yasukazu; Sato, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Park, Hyun Soon; Shindo, Daisuke; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-11-01

    This study reports on the correlation between crystal orientation and magnetic flux distribution of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the form of self-assembled rings. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were single-crystalline, highly monodispersed, (25 nm average diameter), and showed no appreciable lattice imperfections such as twins or stacking faults. Electron holography studies of these superparamagnetic nanoparticle rings indicated significant fluctuations in the magnetic flux lines, consistent with variations in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the nanoparticles. The observations provide useful information for a deeper understanding of the micromagnetics of ultrasmall nanoparticles, where the magnetic dipolar interaction competes with the magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Multifunctional clickable and protein-repellent magnetic silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupiñán, Diego; Bannwarth, Markus B.; Mylon, Steven E.; Landfester, Katharina; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Crespy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles are versatile materials whose physicochemical surface properties can be precisely adjusted. Because it is possible to combine several functionalities in a single carrier, silica-based materials are excellent candidates for biomedical applications. However, the functionality of the nanoparticles can get lost upon exposure to biological media due to uncontrolled biomolecule adsorption. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies that reduce non-specific protein-particle interactions without losing the introduced surface functionality. Herein, organosilane chemistry is employed to produce magnetic silica nanoparticles bearing differing amounts of amino and alkene functional groups on their surface as orthogonally addressable chemical functionalities. Simultaneously, a short-chain zwitterion is added to decrease the non-specific adsorption of biomolecules on the nanoparticles surface. The multifunctional particles display reduced protein adsorption after incubation in undiluted fetal bovine serum as well as in single protein solutions (serum albumin and lysozyme). Besides, the particles retain their capacity to selectively react with biomolecules. Thus, they can be covalently bio-functionalized with an antibody by means of orthogonal click reactions. These features make the described multifunctional silica nanoparticles a promising system for the study of surface interactions with biomolecules, targeting, and bio-sensing.Silica nanoparticles are versatile materials whose physicochemical surface properties can be precisely adjusted. Because it is possible to combine several functionalities in a single carrier, silica-based materials are excellent candidates for biomedical applications. However, the functionality of the nanoparticles can get lost upon exposure to biological media due to uncontrolled biomolecule adsorption. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies that reduce non-specific protein-particle interactions without losing the introduced surface functionality. Herein, organosilane chemistry is employed to produce magnetic silica nanoparticles bearing differing amounts of amino and alkene functional groups on their surface as orthogonally addressable chemical functionalities. Simultaneously, a short-chain zwitterion is added to decrease the non-specific adsorption of biomolecules on the nanoparticles surface. The multifunctional particles display reduced protein adsorption after incubation in undiluted fetal bovine serum as well as in single protein solutions (serum albumin and lysozyme). Besides, the particles retain their capacity to selectively react with biomolecules. Thus, they can be covalently bio-functionalized with an antibody by means of orthogonal click reactions. These features make the described multifunctional silica nanoparticles a promising system for the study of surface interactions with biomolecules, targeting, and bio-sensing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthetic procedures and additional experimental light scattering and zeta-potential data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08258g

  20. Magnetic manipulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a microfluidic system for drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiotis, L.; Theodorakos, I.; Samothrakitis, S.; Papazoglou, S.; Zergioti, I.; Raptis, Y. S.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS), have attracted major interest, due to their small size and unique magnetic properties, for drug delivery applications. In this context, iron oxide nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) (150 nm magnetic core diameter), were used as drug carriers, aiming to form a magnetically controlled nano-platform. The navigation capabilities of the iron oxide nanoparticles in a microfluidic channel were investigated by simulating the magnetic field and the magnetic force applied on the magnetic nanoparticles inside a microfluidic chip. The simulations have been performed using finite element method (ANSY'S software). The optimum setup which intends to simulate the magnetic navigation of the nanoparticles, by the use of MRI-type fields, in the human circulatory system, consists of two parallel permanent magnets to produce a homogeneous magnetic field, in order to ensure the maximum magnetization of the magnetic nanoparticles, an electromagnet for the induction of the magnetic gradients and the creation of the magnetic force and a microfluidic setup so as to simulate the blood flow inside the human blood vessels. The magnetization of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles and the consequent magnetic torque developed by the two permanent magnets, together with the mutual interactions between the magnetized nanoparticles lead to the creation of rhabdoid aggregates in the direction of the homogeneous field. Additionally, the magnetic gradients introduced by the operation of the electromagnet are capable of directing the aggregates, as a whole, to the desired direction. By removing the magnetic fields, the aggregates are disrupted, due to the super paramagnetic nature of the nanoparticles, avoiding thus the formation of undesired thrombosis.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles and nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Wai Lun

    This project involves a cationic surfactant assisted hydrothermal method for synthesizing magnetic manganite nanoparticles. We have demonstrated that manganite nanoparticles formed from a metal chloride precursor in water under mild hydrothermal conditions yields high crystalline, thermally stable and pure phase particles, whose sizes and morphology can also be tuned through adjustment of reaction temperature, precursor concentration, concentration of mineralizers and the presence of surfactants. Generally, stoichiometric LaxSr1-xMnO 3 (LSMO) nanoparticles were obtained at low process temperature of 240°C under the hydrothermal condition. Crystalline LSMO particles with grain size as small as 20 nm and confined to a narrow size distribution have been obtained. The nucleation and crystal growth processes mediated by macromolecule (CTAB) finally results in more uniform and controllable products. Based on these magnetic nano-sized perovskite manganites, we have systematically studied their magnetic hysteresis, magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling. Several magnetometry techniques such as Zero Field-Cooled (ZFC)/Field-Cooled (FC) measurements, temperature dependent magnetization curve have been employed in these studies. A systematic study of the temperature dependence and the magnetic effects on electrical conductivity in LSMO nanoparticle has been made also. The experimental results were explained satisfactory by several scattering and hopping models. The composite consists of ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33 MnO3 core and antiferromagnetic LaMnO3 shell has been prepared. Formation of this manganites core-shell structure has been done by a two-step hydrothermal process, which involves the use of two precursor solutions in succession. We are able to show that a 5 nm thin layer is clearly coated on LSMO particles to form the desired core-shell architecture. The effects on the magnetic properties such as the coercive field enhancement are also discussed. Finally, LSMO/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composites have been prepared by simple ultrasonic mixing of as-prepared nanoparticles and polymer solution. Then, films of LSMO/PVA composites have been fabricated on insulating substrate by traditional spin coating method. The microstructure, magnetic and magnetoresistivity properties of these films have been studied also. The experimental resistivity data of the present investigation are fitted to a simple empirical equation in order to reveal conduction mechanism in these composites.

  2. Iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetically assisted patterned coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodi, Gianina; Hritcu, Doina; Draganescu, Dan; Popa, Marcel I.

    2015-08-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles able to magnetically assemble during the curing stage of a polymeric support to create micro-scale surface protuberances in a controlled manner were prepared and characterized. The bare Fe3O4 particles were obtained by two methods: co-precipitation from an aqueous solution containing Fe3+/Fe2+ ions with a molar ratio of 2:1 and partial oxidation of ferrous ions in alkaline conditions. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurement. They were subsequently functionalized using oleic acid, sodium oleate, or non-ionic surfactant mixtures with various hydrophilic to lipophilic balance (HLB) values. Composite nanoparticle-polymer films prepared by spraying were deposited and cured by drying on glass slides under a static magnetic field in the range of 1.5-5.5 mT. Magnetic field generated surface roughness was evidenced by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum hierarchical patterning was obtained with the nanoparticles produced by partial oxidation and functionalized with hydrophobic surfactants. Possible applications may include ice-phobic composite coatings.

  3. Biomedical Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles: Delivering Genes and Remote Control of Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Jon

    2013-03-01

    The use of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for biomedical applications was first proposed in the 1920s as a way to measure the rehological properties of the cell's cytoplasm. Since that time, magnetic micro- and nanoparticle synthesis, coating and bio-functionalization have advanced significantly, as have the applications for these particles. Magnetic micro- and nanoparticles are now used in a variety of biomedical techniques such as targeted drug delivery, MRI contrast enhancement, gene transfection, immno-assay and cell sorting. More recently, magnetic micro- and nanoparticles have been used to investigate and manipulate cellular processes both in vitro and in vivo. This talk will focus on magnetic nanoparticle targeting to and actuation of cell surface receptors to control cell signaling cascades to control cell behavior. This technology has applications in disease therapy, cell engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of magnetic nanoparticles and oscillating magnet arrays for enhanced gene delivery will also be discussed.

  4. Magnetic circular dichroism of non-local surface lattice resonances in magnetic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Kataja, Mikko; Pourjamal, Sara; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-22

    Subwavelength metallic particles support plasmon resonances that allow extreme confinement of light down to the nanoscale. Irradiation with left- and right hand circularly polarized light results in the excitation of circular plasmon modes with opposite helicity. The Lorenz force lifts the degeneracy of the two modes in magnetic nanoparticles. Consequently, the confinement and frequency of localized surface plasmon resonances can be tuned by an external magnetic field. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate this effect for nickel nanoparticles using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD). Besides, we show that non-local surface lattice resonances in periodic arrays of the same nanoparticles significantly enhance the MCD signal. A numerical model based on the modified long wavelength approximation is used to reproduce the main features in the experimental spectra and provide design rules for large MCD effects in sensing applications. PMID:26907013

  5. Stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticles for monoclonal antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Borlido, Lus; Moura, Leila; Azevedo, Ana M; Roque, Ana C A; Aires-Barros, Maria R; Farinha, Jos Paulo S

    2013-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are important therapeutic proteins. One of the challenges facing large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies is the capacity bottleneck in downstream processing, which can be circumvented by using magnetic stimuli-responsive polymer nanoparticles. In this work, stimuli-responsive magnetic particles composed of a magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) core with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(NIPAM-co-AA)) shell cross-linked with N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide were prepared by miniemulsion polymerization. The particles were shown to have an average hydrodynamic diameter of 317 nm at 18C, which decreased to 277 nm at 41C due to the collapse of the thermo-responsive shell. The particles were superparamagnetic in behavior and exhibited a saturation magnetization of 12.6 emu/g. Subsequently, we evaluated the potential of these negatively charged stimuli-responsive magnetic particles in the purification of a monoclonal antibody from a diafiltered CHO cell culture supernatant by cation exchange. The adsorption of antibodies onto P(NIPAM-co-AA)-coated nanoparticles was highly selective and allowed for the recovery of approximately 94% of the mAb. Different elution strategies were employed providing highly pure mAb fractions with host cell protein (HCP) removal greater than 98%. By exploring the stimuli-responsive properties of the particles, shorter magnetic separation times were possible without significant differences in product yield and purity. PMID:23420794

  6. MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: EMISSION SPECTRUM AND POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B. T.; Hensley, Brandon

    2013-03-10

    The presence of ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic nanoparticles in the interstellar medium would give rise to magnetic dipole radiation at microwave and submillimeter frequencies. Such grains may account for the strong millimeter-wavelength emission observed from a number of low-metallicity galaxies, including the Small Magellanic Cloud. We calculate the absorption and scattering cross sections for such grains, with particular attention to metallic Fe, magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and maghemite {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, all potentially present in the interstellar medium. The rate of Davis-Greenstein alignment by magnetic dissipation is also estimated. We determine the temperature of free-flying magnetic grains heated by starlight and calculate the polarization of the magnetic dipole emission from both free-fliers and inclusions. For inclusions, the magnetic dipole emission is expected to be polarized orthogonally relative to the normal electric dipole radiation. Magnetic dipole radiation will contribute significantly to the 20-40 GHz anomalous microwave emission only if a large fraction of the Fe is in metallic Fe iron nanoparticles with extreme elongations. Finally, we present self-consistent dielectric functions for metallic Fe, magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and maghemite {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, enabling calculation of absorption and scattering cross sections from microwave to X-ray wavelengths.

  7. High temperature magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Silva, M. S.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties such as Curie temperature (TC), saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr), and coercivity (Hc) of nanoparticles of magnesium ferrites (MgFe2O4) were studied in a broad range of temperatures varying from room temperature to 800 K. The magnetization decreases with increasing temperature, approaching 0 at 750 K. The Curie temperature, determined by means of the inverse susceptibility versus temperature, was 738 K. The saturation magnetization, coercivity, and remanence decreased with increasing temperature, being close to 0 at temperatures near TC. However, for temperatures 100 K above room temperature, these magnetic properties were still the same as those at room temperature. The coercivity temperature dependence could be expressed in terms of T3/4, indicating that MgFe2O4 nanoparticles may form a system of random and noninteracting identical particles. The results are discussed in terms of interparticle interactions induced by the thermal fluctuations, cation distribution, and other imperfections that exert fields on Mg2+ ions that could increase with temperature.

  8. Intrinsic Magnetism and Collective Magnetic Properties of Size-Selected Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniak, C.; Friedenberger, N.; Trunova, A.; Meckenstock, R.; Kronast, F.; Fauth, K.; Farle, M.; Wende, H.

    Using size-selected spherical FePt nanoparticles and cubic Fe/Fe-oxide nanoparticles as examples, we discuss the recent progress in the determination of static and dynamic properties of nanomagnets. Synchroton radiation-based characterisation techniques in combination with detailed structural, chemical and morphological investigations by transmission and scanning electron microscopy allow the quantitative correlation between element-specific magnetic response and spin structure on the one hand and shape, crystal and electronic structure of the particles on the other hand. Examples of measurements of element-specific hysteresis loops of single 18 nm sized nanocubes are discussed. Magnetic anisotropy of superparamagnetic ensembles and their dynamic magnetic response are investigated by ferromagnetic resonance as a function of temperature at different microwave frequencies. Such investigations allow the determination of the magnetic relaxation and the extraction of the average magnetic anisotropy energy density of the individual particles.

  9. Self-assembly of magnetic biofunctional nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xiangcheng; Thode, C.J.; Mabry, J.K.; Harrell, J.W.; Nikles, D.E.; Sun, K.; Wang, L.M.

    2005-05-15

    Spherical, ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles with a particle size of 3 nm were prepared by the simultaneous polyol reduction of Fe(acac){sub 3} and Pt(acac){sub 2} in phenyl ether in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. The oleic acid ligands can be replaced with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, giving particles that can be dispersed in water. Both x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy indicated that FePt particles were not affected by ligands replacement. Dispersions of the FePt particles with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid ligands and ammonium counter ions gave self-assembled films consisting of highly ordered hexagonal arrays of particles.

  10. Magnetic poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles loaded with aliskiren: A promising tool for hypertension treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antal, Iryna; Kubovcikova, Martina; Zavisova, Vlasta; Koneracka, Martina; Pechanova, Olga; Barta, Andrej; Cebova, Martina; Antal, Vitaliy; Diko, Pavel; Zduriencikova, Martina; Pudlak, Michal; Kopcansky, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In this study anti-hypertensive drug called aliskiren was encapsulated in magnetic poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles by the modified nanoprecipitation method. The effect of magnetite and drug concentrations on the size distribution and zeta potential of polymer nanoparticles was investigated. The optimized loadings were as follows: theoretical magnetite loading was 20 mg/100 mg polymer nanoparticles and aliskiren was encapsulated in magnetic poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles at theoretical loading 0.6 mg aliskiren/100 mg magnetic polymer nanoparticles. The physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were studied, with spherical shape of nanoparticles sized between 58 and 227 nm being one of the observed results. Differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy confirmed that aliskiren was successfully identified in the magnetic poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles. The in vivo experiments indicated that encapsulated aliskiren decreased blood pressure of the studied male spontaneously hypertensive rat even more significantly than common administered drug.

  11. Quantification of drug-loaded magnetic nanoparticles in rabbit liver and tumor after in vivo administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietze, Rainer; Jurgons, Roland; Lyer, Stefan; Schreiber, Eveline; Wiekhorst, Frank; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Richter, Heike; Steinhoff, Uwe; Trahms, Lutz; Alexiou, Christoph

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated for biomedical applications for more than 30 years. The development of biocompatible nanosized drug delivery systems for specific targeting of therapeutics is imminent in medical research, especially for treating cancer and vascular diseases. We used drug-labeled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which were attracted to an experimental tumor in rabbits with an external magnetic field (magnetic drug targeting, MDT). Aim of this study was to detect and quantify the biodistribution of the magnetic nanoparticles by magnetorelaxometry. The study shows higher amount of nanoparticles in the tumor after intraarterial application and MDT compared to intravenous administration.

  12. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in body fluids, using specific antibody-coated staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Suksanong, M; Dajani, A S

    1977-01-01

    Protein A-rich staphylococci coated with Haemophilus influenzae type b antiserum agglutinate specifically with homologous bacterial cells or with cell-free supernatant fluids of cultures of the organism. Antibody-coated staphylococci were used to detect soluble antigens in body fluids of patients infected with H. influenzae type b. Cerebrospinal fluid from 36 cases of meningitis caused by this orgainsm showed positive coagglutination tests in 86% of patients prior to initiation of therapy. Antigens could be detected in 46% of sterile cerebrospinal fluid specimens obtained from the same cases 1 to 10 days after therapy. Soluble antigens were also detectable in sera (58%) and urine specimens (67%) of patients with H. influenzae type b septicemia, when such specimens were tested within 10 days of onset of illness. No antigen could be detected in body fluids beyond 10 days. The coagglutination test was positive in 57% of all body fluids examined; contercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) was positive in only 27%. All specimens positive by CCIE were also positive by coagglutination. No false-positive reactions were noted by either test in body fluids from controls. The coagglutination test is simple, specific, and more sensitive than the CCIE method and could be a valuable tool for detecting antigens in body fluids of patients with various infections. PMID:319113

  13. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in body fluids, using specific antibody-coated staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Suksanong, M; Dajani, A S

    1977-01-01

    Protein A-rich staphylococci coated with Haemophilus influenzae type b antiserum agglutinate specifically with homologous bacterial cells or with cell-free supernatant fluids of cultures of the organism. Antibody-coated staphylococci were used to detect soluble antigens in body fluids of patients infected with H. influenzae type b. Cerebrospinal fluid from 36 cases of meningitis caused by this orgainsm showed positive coagglutination tests in 86% of patients prior to initiation of therapy. Antigens could be detected in 46% of sterile cerebrospinal fluid specimens obtained from the same cases 1 to 10 days after therapy. Soluble antigens were also detectable in sera (58%) and urine specimens (67%) of patients with H. influenzae type b septicemia, when such specimens were tested within 10 days of onset of illness. No antigen could be detected in body fluids beyond 10 days. The coagglutination test was positive in 57% of all body fluids examined; contercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) was positive in only 27%. All specimens positive by CCIE were also positive by coagglutination. No false-positive reactions were noted by either test in body fluids from controls. The coagglutination test is simple, specific, and more sensitive than the CCIE method and could be a valuable tool for detecting antigens in body fluids of patients with various infections. Images PMID:319113

  14. Human lymph node lymphocytes fail to effect lysis of antibody-coated target cells.

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, C; Saxon, A; Bohrer, R

    1977-01-01

    Human lymphocytes prepared from peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus were titrated for ability to mediate lysis of human target cells coated with rabbit anti target antibody. Lymphocytes from blood and spleen produced efficient lysis of targets in the presence of antibody. Lymph node cells and thymocytes were essentially non-reactive in this system. Lymph node preparations from non-cancer patients contained approximately 25% of non-T cells with receptors for Fc,C3 and/or Ig. Regional lymph nodes from patients with primary tumours contained 37-50% non-T cells by the same criteria. Failure of lymph node lymphocytes to effect lysis of antibody-coated targets did not therefore correlate with content of Fc or C3 bearing cells per se. The effector cell in antibody-dependent cytotoxicity in other systems has been shown to carry Fc and C3 receptors, but not surface Ig. This cell type appears to be absent or non-functional in human lymph nodes. PMID:300304

  15. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Phospholipid Interactions in Monolayer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdill, Jennifer; Goff, John; Wilson, Kristen; Riffle, Judy; Esker, Alan

    2003-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have potential applications in drug delivery and as anti-cancer agents through hyperthermia, which is induced by hysteric magnetic heating. In order to determine the potential value of the MNPs in these applications, their interactions with cell membranes and phospholipid vesicles must be understood. As the primary structure of the cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer, a phospholipid monolayer can be used as a biomimetic model for MNP-phospholipid interactions. Monolayer studies have been conducted using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and varying concentrations of MNPs. The MNPs are magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by triblock copolymers. These copolymer coatings are comprised of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) tail blocks with a short carboxylic acid-functionalized urethane central block. Isotherm studies and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) are used to examine the phase behavior within the monolayer.

  16. Electrodeposition of highly uniform magnetic nanoparticle arrays in ordered alumite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Zangari, Giovanni; Shamsuzzoha, Mohammad; Metzger, Robert M.

    2001-05-01

    We report the fabrication of nanometer scale ordered arrays of magnetic cylindrical nanoparticles with low aspect ratio (height/radius a=0.2-7) and ultrahigh uniformity. Anodization and electrochemical deposition are employed for template synthesis and metal particle growth, respectively. Particle uniformity is achieved by an electrodeposition scheme, utilizing pulse reverse voltage wave forms to control nucleation and growth of the particles. The resulting nanoparticles are polycrystalline and grains are randomly oriented. The magnetic properties of the array are dominated by particle shape and by interparticle magnetostatic interactions. A very clear transition of the anisotropy from perpendicular to in plane is observed at an aspect ratio a of about two. The arrays exhibit good thermal stability, demonstrating a great potential of these structures as future recording media in a patterned scheme. The pulse reverse electrodeposition technique shows great promise for the synthesis of nanostructures of various nature.

  17. Characterization of magnetic nanoparticle by dynamic light scattering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a complete review on the use of dynamic light scattering (DLS) to study the size distribution and colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The mathematical analysis involved in obtaining size information from the correlation function and the calculation of Z-average are introduced. Contributions from various variables, such as surface coating, size differences, and concentration of particles, are elaborated within the context of measurement data. Comparison with other sizing techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy and dark-field microscopy, revealed both the advantages and disadvantages of DLS in measuring the size of magnetic nanoparticles. The self-assembly process of MNP with anisotropic structure can also be monitored effectively by DLS. PMID:24011350

  18. Biodistribution of PAMAM dendrimer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanying; Gu, Wei; Ye, Ling; Yang, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescein-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (FMNPs) have been increasingly utilized in nanomedicine due to their unique properties. In this study, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was used to modify the FMNPs through bifunctional polyethylene glycol linker. The obtained PAMAM modified magnetic nanoparticles (PFMNPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, zeta potential titration, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of PAMAM conjugation on the biodistribution of FMNPs and PFMNPs were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, respectively. It was revealed that PAMAM conjugation resulted in a lower uptake of FMNPs in the lung and less aggregation in the liver, whereas a higher uptake in brain and testis. Furthermore, the serum biochemical and the hematological analysis indicated the PFMNPs caused no significant changes in enzymes reflective of inflammatory response or organ toxicity. PMID:24276671

  19. Understanding the physics of magnetic nanoparticles and their applications in the biomedical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Suvra Santa

    The study of magnetic nanoparticles is of great interest because of their potential uses in magnetic-recording, medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Additionally, they also offer an opportunity to understand the physics underlying the complex behavior exhibited by these materials. Two of the most important relaxation phenomena occurring in magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic blocking and spin-glass-like freezing. In addition to features attributed to superparamagnetism, these nanoparticles can also exhibit magnetic relaxation effects at very low temperatures (≤ 50 K). Our studies suggest that all structural defects, and not just surface spins, are responsible for the low-temperature glass-like relaxation observed in many magnetic nanoparticles. The characteristic dipolar interaction energy existing in an ensemble of magnetic nanoparticles does not apparently depend on the average spacing between the nanoparticles but is likely to be strongly influenced by the fluctuations in the nanoparticle distribution. Our findings revealed that incorporating a small percentage of boron can stabilize the spinel structure in Mn 3O4 nanoparticles. We have also demonstrated that the dipolar interactions between the magnetic cores can be tuned by introducing non-magnetic nanoparticles. In particular, we studied the magnetic properties of Gd-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles, a potential applicant for T1--T2 dual-modal MRI contrast agent. We have explored the interactions of BiFeO3 nanoparticles on live cells and the binding of FITC-conjugated Fe3O 4 nanoparticles with artificial lipid membranes to investigate these materials as candidates in medical imaging. Taken together, these studies have advanced our understanding of the fundamental physical principles that governs magnetism in magnetic materials with a focus on developing these nanoparticles for advanced biomedical applications. The materials developed and studied expand the repertoire of tools available for multimodal imaging, using both x-ray and magnetic resonance.

  20. Polarized neutron reflectivity from monolayers of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mishra, D; Petracic, O; Devishvili, A; Theis-Brhl, K; Toperverg, B P; Zabel, H

    2015-04-10

    We prepared monolayers of iron oxide nanoparticles via self-assembly on a bare silicon wafer and on a vanadium film sputter deposited onto a plane sapphire substrate. The magnetic configuration of nanoparticles in such a dense assembly was investigated by polarized neutron reflectivity. A theoretical model fit shows that the magnetic moments of nanoparticles form quasi domain-like configurations at remanence. This is attributed to the dipolar coupling amongst the nanoparticles. PMID:25765283

  1. Multifunctional clickable and protein-repellent magnetic silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Estupin, Diego; Bannwarth, Markus B; Mylon, Steven E; Landfester, Katharina; Muoz-Esp, Rafael; Crespy, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    Silica nanoparticles are versatile materials whose physicochemical surface properties can be precisely adjusted. Because it is possible to combine several functionalities in a single carrier, silica-based materials are excellent candidates for biomedical applications. However, the functionality of the nanoparticles can get lost upon exposure to biological media due to uncontrolled biomolecule adsorption. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies that reduce non-specific protein-particle interactions without losing the introduced surface functionality. Herein, organosilane chemistry is employed to produce magnetic silica nanoparticles bearing differing amounts of amino and alkene functional groups on their surface as orthogonally addressable chemical functionalities. Simultaneously, a short-chain zwitterion is added to decrease the non-specific adsorption of biomolecules on the nanoparticles surface. The multifunctional particles display reduced protein adsorption after incubation in undiluted fetal bovine serum as well as in single protein solutions (serum albumin and lysozyme). Besides, the particles retain their capacity to selectively react with biomolecules. Thus, they can be covalently bio-functionalized with an antibody by means of orthogonal click reactions. These features make the described multifunctional silica nanoparticles a promising system for the study of surface interactions with biomolecules, targeting, and bio-sensing. PMID:26781542

  2. Real time monitoring of superparamagnetic nanoparticle self-assembly on surfaces of magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Crawford, T. M.; Qi, B.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.

    2014-05-07

    Nanoparticle self-assembly dynamics are monitored in real-time by detecting optical diffraction from an all-nanoparticle grating as it self-assembles on a grating pattern recorded on a magnetic medium. The diffraction efficiency strongly depends on concentration, pH, and colloidal stability of nanoparticle suspensions, demonstrating the nanoparticle self-assembly process is highly tunable. This metrology could provide an alternative for detecting nanoparticle properties such as colloidal stability.

  3. Measuring and controlling the transport of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Jason R.

    Despite the large body of literature describing the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles, few analytical tools are commonly used for their purification and analysis. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic nanoparticles are appealing candidates for biomedical applications and analytical separations. Yet in the absence of methods for assessing and assuring their purity, the ultimate use of magnetic particles and heterostructures is likely to be limited. For magnetic nanoparticles, it is the use of an applied magnetic flux or field gradient that enables separations. Flow based techniques are combined with applied magnetic fields to give methods such as magnetic field flow fractionation and high gradient magnetic separation. Additional techniques have been explored for manipulating particles in microfluidic channels and in mesoporous membranes. This thesis further describes development of these and new analytical tools for separation and analysis of colloidal particles is critically important to enable the practical use of these, particularly for medicinal purposes. Measurement of transport of nanometer scale particles through porous media is important to begin to understand the potential environmental impacts of nanomaterials. Using a diffusion cell with two compartments separated by either a porous alumina or polycarbonate membrane as a model system, diffusive flux through mesoporous materials is examined. Experiments are performed as a function of particle size, pore diameter, and solvent, and the particle fluxes are monitored by the change in absorbance of the solution in the receiving cell. Using the measured extinction coefficient and change in absorbance of the solution as a function of time, the fluxes of 3, 8, and 14 nm diameter CoFe2O4 particles are determined as they are translocated across pores with diameters 30, 50, 100, and 200 nm in hexane and aqueous solutions. In general, flux decreases with increasing particle size and increases with pore diameter. We find that fluxes are faster in aqueous solutions than in hexane, which is attributed to the hydrophilic nature of the porous membranes and differences in wettability. The impact of an applied magnetic flux gradient, which induces magnetization and motion, on permeation is also examined. Surface chemistry plays an important role in determining flux through porous media such as in the environment. Diffusive flux of nanoparticles through alkylsilane modified porous alumina is measured as a model for understanding transport in porous media of differing surface chemistries. Experiments are performed as a function of particle size, pore diameter, attached hydrocarbon chain length and chain terminus, and solvent. Particle fluxes are monitored by the change in absorbance of the solution in the receiving side of a diffusion cell. In general, flux increases when the membranes are modified with alkylsilanes compared to untreated membranes, which is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the porous membranes and differences in wettability. We find that flux decreases, in both hexane and aqueous solutions, when the hydrocarbon chain lining the interior pore wall increases in length. The rate and selectivity of transport across these membranes is related to the partition coefficient (Kp) and the diffusion coefficient (D) of the permeating species. By conducting experiments as a function of initial particle concentration, we find that KpD increases with increasing particle size, is greater in alkylsilane--modified pores, and larger in hexane solution than water. The impact of the alkylsilane terminus (--CH3, --Br, --NH2, --COOH) on permeation in water is also examined. In water, the highest KpD is observed when the membranes are modified with carboxylic acid terminated silanes and lowest with amine terminated silanes as a result of electrostatic effects during translocation. Finally, the manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles for the controlled formation of linked nanoparticle assemblies between microfluidic channels by the application of an external

  4. Magnetic Particle Imaging with Tailored Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Matthew; Khandhar, Amit P.; Kemp, Scott J.; Arami, Hamed; Saritas, Emine U.; Croft, Laura R.; Konkle, Justin; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Halkola, Aleksi; Rahmer, Jrgen; Borgert, Jrn; Conolly, Steven M.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) shows promise for medical imaging, particularly in angiography of patients with chronic kidney disease. As the first biomedical imaging technique that truly depends on nanoscale materials properties, MPI requires highly optimized magnetic nanoparticle tracers to generate quality images. Until now, researchers have relied on tracers optimized for MRI T2*-weighted imaging that are suboptimal for MPI. Here, we describe new tracers tailored to MPI's unique physics, synthesized using an organic-phase process and functionalized to ensure biocompatibility and adequate in vivo circulation time. Tailored tracers showed up to 3x greater SNR and better spatial resolution than existing commercial tracers in MPI images of phantoms. PMID:25438306

  5. Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles for separation of nuclear acidic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Han, H.; Kaur, M.; Qiang, Y.; Johnson, A.; Paszczynski, A.; Kaczor, J.

    2010-05-15

    Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been coated with silica, followed by covalent attachment of the actinide specific chelators to separate nuclear waste in acidic conditions. A general model is developed to relate the surface coating to the particle's magnetization change, providing an alternative way to characterize the size-distribution/aggregation of MNPs. The optimized silica coating protects the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MNPs from iron leaching under highly acidic conditions, facilitates the dispersion of MNPs, and dramatically increases the loading capacity of chelator onto the MNPs. Compared with the uncoated counterparts, the silica coated MNPs show enhanced actinide separation efficiency.

  6. Size-dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsula, Vitalii; Moskvin, Maksym; Dutz, Silvio; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range from 10 to 24 nm and polydisperse 14 nm iron oxide particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) carboxylates in the presence of oleic acid and co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides by ammonium hydroxide followed by oxidation, respectively. While the first method produced hydrophobic oleic acid coated particles, the second one formed hydrophilic, but uncoated, nanoparticles. To make the iron oxide particles water dispersible and colloidally stable, their surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and sucrose, respectively. Size and size distribution of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction. Surface of the PEG-functionalized and sucrose-modified iron oxide particles was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic properties were measured by means of vibration sample magnetometry and specific absorption rate in alternating magnetic fields was determined calorimetrically. It was found, that larger ferrimagnetic particles showed higher heating performance than smaller superparamagnetic ones. In the transition range between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism, samples with a broader size distribution provided higher heating power than narrow size distributed particles of comparable mean size. Here presented particles showed promising properties for a possible application in magnetic hyperthermia.

  7. Indole conjugated silica and magnetic nanoparticles as inhibitors of HIF.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiu-Yun; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Xia; Wang, Li

    2014-02-01

    Multifunctional silica nano-vehicles (SiO2@indol-IL) and magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@indol-IL) were constructed through the Schiff bases condensation of indole-3-carboxaldehyde and 4-acetyl-N-allyl pyridinium chloride (ILs) with the amine groups of silica and magnetic nanoparticles. SiO2@indol-IL can inhibit the proliferation of HepG-2 cells in 48 h. Fe3O4@indol-IL can mimic the function of catalase to disproportionate H2O2 to O2, and has obvious effect on the proliferation of HepG-2 cells in 72 h. Moreover, the two nanoparticles show some inhibition on the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α), glucose transporter (GLUT1) and the production of lactate in HepG-2 cells. Therefore, we deduced that indole conjugated silica and magnetic nanparticles could be used as inhibitors of HIF-1α or GLUT1. PMID:24184535

  8. Synthesis of core-shell gold coated magnetic nanoparticles and their interaction with thiolated DNA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ian; Tung, Le D; Maenosono, Shinya; Wlti, Christoph; Thanh, Nguyen T K

    2010-12-01

    Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles have received significant attention recently and are actively investigated owing to their large potential for a variety of applications. Here, the synthesis and characterization of bimetallic nanoparticles containing a magnetic core and a gold shell are discussed. The gold shell facilitates, for example, the conjugation of thiolated biological molecules to the surface of the nanoparticles. The composite nanoparticles were produced by the reduction of a gold salt on the surface of pre-formed cobalt or magnetite nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and super-conducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The spectrographic data revealed the simultaneous presence of cobalt and gold in 5.60.8 nm alloy nanoparticles, and demonstrated the presence of distinct magnetite and gold phases in 9.21.3 nm core-shell magnetic nanoparticles. The cobalt-gold nanoparticles were of similar size to the cobalt seed, while the magnetite-gold nanoparticles were significantly larger than the magnetic seeds, indicating that different processes are responsible for the addition of the gold shell. The effect on the magnetic properties by adding a layer of gold to the cobalt and magnetite nanoparticles was studied. The functionalization of the magnetic nanoparticles is demonstrated through the conjugation of thiolated DNA to the gold shell. PMID:20967339

  9. Ex vivo and in vivo capture and deactivation of circulating tumor cells by dual-antibody-coated nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Rongli; Sinko, Patrick J; Gu, Songen; Wang, Jichuang; Li, Yuanfang; Lu, Yusheng; Yu, Suhong; Wang, Lie; Chen, Shuming; Shao, Jingwei; Jia, Lee

    2015-07-10

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been detected by us and others in cancer patient blood. However, little is known about how to specifically capture and deactivate CTCs in vivo, which may lead to successful metastasis prevention in asymptomatic cancer survivors after surgery. We hypothesize that the dual antibody conjugates may have the advantage of capturing CTCs specifically over their single antibody counterparts. Here we show that the surface-functionalized dendrimers can be sequentially coated with two antibodies directed to surface biomarkers (EpCAM and Slex) of human colorectal CTCs. The dual antibody-coated dendrimers exhibit a significantly enhanced specificity in capturing CTCs in the presence of interfering blood cells, and in both eight-patient bloods and nude mice administered with the labeled CTCs in comparison to their single antibody-coated counterparts. The dual antibody-coated conjugates down-regulate the captured CTCs. This study provides the first conceptual evidence that two antibodies can be biocompatibly conjugated to a nanomaterial to capture and down-regulate CTCs in vivo with the enhanced specificity. PMID:25933713

  10. Magnetic Nanoparticles in MR Imaging and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Conroy; Lee, Jerry S.H.; Zhang, Miqin

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possess unique magnetic properties and the ability to function at the cellular and molecular level of biological interactions making them an attractive platform as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as carriers for drug delivery. Recent advances in nanotechnology have improved the ability to specifically tailor the features and properties of MNPs for these biomedical applications. To better address specific clinical needs, MNPs with higher magnetic moments, non-fouling surfaces, and increased functionalities are now being developed for applications in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of malignant tumors, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease. Through the incorporation of highly specific targeting agents and other functional ligands, such as fluorophores and permeation enhancers, the applicability and efficacy of these MNPs have greatly increased. This review provides a background on applications of MNPs as MR imaging contrast agents and as carriers for drug delivery and an overview of the recent developments in this area of research. PMID:18558452

  11. Multifunctional fluorescent and magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvan, Subramanian T.

    2012-03-01

    Hybrid multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) are emerging as useful probes for magnetic based targeting, delivery, cell separation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorescence-based bio-labeling applications. Assessing from the literature, the development of multifunctional NPs for multimodality imaging is still in its infancy state. This report focuses on our recent work on quantum dots (QDs), magnetic NPs (MNPs) and bi-functional NPs (composed of either QDs or rare-earth NPs, and magnetic NPs - iron oxide or gadolinium oxide) for multimodality imaging based biomedical applications. The combination of MRI and fluorescence would ally each other in improving the sensitivity and resolution, resulting in improved and early diagnosis of the disease. The challenges in this area are discussed.

  12. Magnetic memory effect in chelated zero valent iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, N.; Mandal, B. K.; Mohan Kumar, K.

    2012-11-01

    We report the study of nonequilibrium magnetic behavior of air stable zero valent iron nanoparticles synthesized in presence of N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium bromide chelating agent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study has suggested the presence of iron oxides on nZVI surfaces. Zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization measurements have been carried out at 20-300 K and 100 Oe. For field-cooled measurements with 1 h stops at 200, 100 and 50 K when compared with the warming cycle, we found the signature of magnetic memory effect. A study of magnetic relaxation at the same temperatures shows the existence of two relaxation times.

  13. Magnetic controlling of migration of DNA and proteins using one-step modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Feng, Lei; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-06-01

    A protocol was developed for preparing magnetic gold nanoparticles via one-step modification with a paramagnetic cationic surfactant. These magnetic gold nanoparticles can bind to and manipulate a low strength magnetic field-based delivery of DNA and proteins powerfully and non-invasively. PMID:25847127

  14. A method for introduction of magnetic nanoparticles into tissues by means of magnetic field gradient: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, K G; Afon'kin, V Yu; Kirichenko, A K; Ladygina, V P; Stolyar, S V; Bayukov, O A; Sipkin, A V

    2009-06-01

    Targeted effects of magnetic nanoparticles were studied. Solution with iron-containing nanosubstance was applied to resected nasal bone and cartilage tissues. Magnetic field was generated by a Polus-101 device for low-frequency magnetotherapy, which provided permanent work of one inductor (10.14+/-19.56 mT). The results indicate that magnetic nanoparticles placed into magnetic field gradient penetrate into the thickness of the cartilage and bone tissues. PMID:19902074

  15. Optimizing magnetite nanoparticles for mass sensitivity in magnetic particle imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Matthew; Minard, Kevin R.; Khandhar, Amit P.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI), using magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) as tracer material, shows great promise as a platform for fast tomographic imaging. To date, the magnetic properties of MNPs used in imaging have not been optimized. As nanoparticle magnetism shows strong size dependence, the authors explore how varying MNP size impacts imaging performance in order to determine optimal MNP characteristics for MPI at any driving field frequency f0. Methods: Monodisperse MNPs of varying size were synthesized and their magnetic properties characterized. Their MPI response was measured experimentally using a custom-built MPI transceiver designed to detect the third harmonic of MNP magnetization. The driving field amplitude H0=6 mT ?0?1 and frequency f0=250 kHz were chosen to be suitable for imaging small animals. Experimental results were interpreted using a model of dynamic MNP magnetization that is based on the Langevin theory of superparamagnetism and accounts for sample size distribution and size-dependent magnetic relaxation. Results: The experimental results show a clear variation in the MPI signal intensity as a function of MNP diameter that is in agreement with simulated results. A maximum in the plot of MPI signal vs MNP size indicates there is a particular size that is optimal for the chosen f0. Conclusions: The authors observed that MNPs 15 nm in diameter generate maximum signal amplitude in MPI experiments at 250 kHz. The authors expect the physical basis for this result, the change in magnetic relaxation with MNP size, will impact MPI under other experimental conditions. PMID:21520874

  16. RGD-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S W; Huang, M; Hong, R Y; Deng, S M; Cheng, L F; Gao, B; Badami, D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a specific targeting magnetic nanoparticle probe for magnetic resonance imaging and therapy in the form of local hyperthermia. Carboxymethyl dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxyl groups were coupled to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides for integrin ?(v)?? targeting. The particle size, magnetic properties, heating effect, and stability of the arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide were measured. The arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide demonstrates excellent stability and fast magneto-temperature response. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of Bcap37 cells incubated with arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide was significantly decreased compared with that incubated with plain ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. The preferential uptake of arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide by target cells was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:23796630

  17. Magnetic nanoparticles-DNA interactions: design and applications of nanobiohybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershina, A. G.; Sazonov, A. E.; Filimonov, V. D.

    2014-04-01

    Mechanisms of interaction between nucleic acid molecules and magnetic nanoparticles and methods of their conjugation in order to develop functional nanostructures are considered. The properties of nucleic acids and magnetic nanoparticles that are key to the design of nanobiocomposites are described. Prospects for applications of nanobiocomposites in nanoelectronics and medicine are analyzed. Possible harmful effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the genetic system are briefly outlined. The bibliography includes 287 references.

  18. Efficient bacterial capture with amino acid modified magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinjia; Liu, Fei; Shan, Chao; Tong, Meiping; Hou, Yanglong

    2014-03-01

    Traditional chemical disinfectants are becoming increasingly defective due to the generation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles yet have shown great application potentials in water treatment processes especially for bacterial removal. In this study, three types of amino acids (arginine, lysine, and poly-l-lysine) functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Arg, Fe3O4@Lys, and Fe3O4@PLL) were prepared through a facile and inexpensive two-step process. The amino acid modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@AA) showed rapid and efficient capture and removal properties for both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli 15597 (E. coli). For both strains, more than 97% of bacteria (initial concentration of 1.5נ10(7)CFUmL(-1)) could be captured by all three types of magnetic nanoparticles within 20min. With E. coli as a model strain, Fe3O4@AA could remove more than 94% of cells from solutions over a broad pH range (from 4 to 10). Solution ionic strength did not affect cell capture efficiency. The co-presence of sulfate and nitrate in solutions did not affect the capture efficiency, whereas, the presence of phosphate and silicate slightly decreased the removal rate. However, around 90% and 80% of cells could be captured by Fe3O4@AA even at 10mM of silicate and phosphate, respectively. Bacterial capture efficiencies were over 90% and 82% even in the present of 10mgL(-1) of humic acid and alginate, respectively. Moreover, Fe3O4@AA nanoparticles exhibited good reusability, and greater than 90% of E. coli cells could be captured even in the fifth regeneration cycle. The results showed Fe3O4@AA fabricated in this study have great application potential for bacteria removal from water. PMID:24370656

  19. Magnetic properties in BaFe 12O 19 nanoparticles prepared under a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Qianwang; Che, Shan

    2004-09-01

    It was observed that the nanocrystallites of BaFe12O19 formed at 140C under a 0.25 T magnetic field exhibited a higher saturation magnetization (6.1 emu/g at room temperature) than that of the sample (1.1 emu/g) obtained under zero magnetic field. Both of the two approaches yielded plain-like particles with an average particle size of 12 nm. However, the Curie temperature (Tc), a direct measuring of the strength of superexchange interaction of Fe3+-O2--Fe3+, increased from 410C for the nanoparticles prepared without an external field applied to 452C for the particles formed under a 0.25 T magnetic field, which indicates that external magnetic fields can improve the occupancy of magnetic ions and then increase the superexchange interaction. This was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance and Mssbauer spectrum analysis. The results present in this paper suggest that in addition to oxygen defects, surface non-magnetic layer and a fraction of finer particles in the superparamagnetic range, cation vacancies should be responsible for the decreasing of saturation magnetization in magnetic nanoparticles.

  20. Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Nanoparticles from a Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts

    PubMed Central

    Tesfai, Aaron; El-Zahab, Bilal; Kelley, Algernon T.; Li, Min; Garno, Jayne C.; Baker, Gary A.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2009-01-01

    The size and uniformity of magnetic nanoparticles developed from a Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts (GUMBOS) were controlled using an in situ ion exchange, water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion preparation. Most of these nanoGUMBOS are in fact ionic liquids (i.e., melting points less than 100 °C), while others have melting points above the conventional 100 °C demarcation. Simple variations in the reagent concentrations following a w/o approach allowed us to smoothly and predictably vary nanoparticle dimensions across a significant size regime with excellent uniformity. Average sizes of GUMBOS ranging from 14 to 198 nm were achieved by manipulation of the reagent concentration for example. Controllable formation of this new breed of nanoparticles is important for numerous potential applications and will open up interesting new opportunities in drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, and protein separations, among other areas. PMID:19780529

  1. Electrostatic complexation of polyelectrolyte and magnetic nanoparticles: from wild clustering to controllable magnetic wires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present the electrostatic complexation between polyelectrolytes and charged nanoparticles. The nanoparticles in solution are ?-Fe2O3 (maghemite) spheres with 8.3 nm diameter and anionic surface charges. The complexation was monitored using three different formulation pathways such as direct mixing, dilution, and dialysis. In the first process, the hybrids were obtained by mixing stock solutions of polymers and nanoparticles. A destabilization state with sharp and intense maximum aggregation was found at charges stoichiometry (isoelectric point). While on the two sides of the isoelectric point, long-lived stable clusters state (arrested states) were observed. Dilution and dialysis processes were based on controlled desalting kinetics according to methods developed in molecular biology. Under an external magnetic field (B?=?0.3 T), from dialysis at isoelectric point and at arrested states, cationic polyelectrolytes can paste these magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) together to yield irregular aggregates (size of 100 ?m) and regular rod-like aggregates, respectively. These straight magnetic wires were fabricated with diameters around 200 nm and lengths comprised between 1 ?m and 0.5 mm. The wires can have either positive or negative charges on their surface. After analyzing their orientational behavior under an external rotating field, we also showed that the wires made from different polyelectrolytes have the same magnetic property. The recipe used a wide range of polyelectrolytes thereby enhancing the versatility and applied potentialities of the method. This simple and general approach presents significant perspective for the fabrication of hybrid functional materials. PMID:24910569

  2. Electrostatic complexation of polyelectrolyte and magnetic nanoparticles: from wild clustering to controllable magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Minhao; Qu, Li; Fan, Jiangxia; Ren, Yong

    2014-05-01

    We present the electrostatic complexation between polyelectrolytes and charged nanoparticles. The nanoparticles in solution are γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) spheres with 8.3 nm diameter and anionic surface charges. The complexation was monitored using three different formulation pathways such as direct mixing, dilution, and dialysis. In the first process, the hybrids were obtained by mixing stock solutions of polymers and nanoparticles. A `destabilization state' with sharp and intense maximum aggregation was found at charges stoichiometry (isoelectric point). While on the two sides of the isoelectric point, `long-lived stable clusters state' (arrested states) were observed. Dilution and dialysis processes were based on controlled desalting kinetics according to methods developed in molecular biology. Under an external magnetic field ( B = 0.3 T), from dialysis at isoelectric point and at arrested states, cationic polyelectrolytes can `paste' these magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) together to yield irregular aggregates (size of 100 μm) and regular rod-like aggregates, respectively. These straight magnetic wires were fabricated with diameters around 200 nm and lengths comprised between 1 μm and 0.5 mm. The wires can have either positive or negative charges on their surface. After analyzing their orientational behavior under an external rotating field, we also showed that the wires made from different polyelectrolytes have the same magnetic property. The recipe used a wide range of polyelectrolytes thereby enhancing the versatility and applied potentialities of the method. This simple and general approach presents significant perspective for the fabrication of hybrid functional materials.

  3. Structural And Magnetic Properties Of Ni-Zn Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahane, G. S.; Kumar, Ashok; Pant, R. P.; Lal, Krishan

    2010-10-01

    Nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles of the composition NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) have been synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, TEM, EPR, DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the synthesis of single crystalline phase of NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) nanoparticles. Lattice parameter decreases with the increase in nickel content. The magnetic measurements shows superparamagnetic nature of the samples for x = 0.1 and 0.3 whereas for x = 0.5 the material shows ferromagnetic nature. The saturation magnetization is low and increases with increase in nickel content. The superparamagnetic nature of the samples is supported by the EPR and ac susceptibility measurement studies. The blocking temperature increases with the nickel concentration. The changes in the magnetic properties have been explained by the redistribution of the cations on A and B sites.

  4. Exchange spring like magnetic behavior in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, M.; Anumol, C. N.; Sahu, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel technique and were annealed at 900 °C in air for 2 h. Structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies show presence of mostly two different sizes of grains in these samples. Magnetization value of 58.36 emu/g was observed at 300 K for the as prepared sample and an enhanced magnetization close to the bulk value of 80.59 emu/g was observed for the annealed sample. At 10 K a two stepped hysteresis loop showing exchange spring magnetic behavior was observed accompanied by very high values of coercivity and remanence. Two clear peaks were observed in the derivative of demagnetization curve in the as prepared sample where as two partially overlapped peaks were observed in the annealed sample. The observed magnetic properties can be understood on the basis of the grain size and their distribution leading to the different types of intergranular interactions in these nanoparticles.

  5. Magnetic Nanoparticles and microNMR for Diagnostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Huilin; Min, Changwook; Issadore, David; Liong, Monty; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive and quantitative measurements of clinically relevant protein biomarkers, pathogens and cells in biological samples would be invaluable for disease diagnosis, monitoring of malignancy, and for evaluating therapy efficacy. Biosensing strategies using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have recently received considerable attention, since they offer unique advantages over traditional detection methods. Specifically, because biological samples have negligible magnetic background, MNPs can be used to obtain highly sensitive measurements in minimally processed samples. This review focuses on the use of MNPs for in vitro detection of cellular biomarkers based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) effects. This detection platform, termed diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR), exploits MNPs as proximity sensors to modulate the spin-spin relaxation time of water molecules surrounding the molecularly-targeted nanoparticles. With new developments such as more effective MNP biosensors, advanced conjugational strategies, and highly sensitive miniaturized NMR systems, the DMR detection capabilities have been considerably improved. These developments have also enabled parallel and rapid measurements from small sample volumes and on a wide range of targets, including whole cells, proteins, DNA/mRNA, metabolites, drugs, viruses and bacteria. The DMR platform thus makes a robust and easy-to-use sensor system with broad applications in biomedicine, as well as clinical utility in point-of-care settings. PMID:22272219

  6. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, O.; Kavas, H.; Baykal, A.; Toprak, M. S.; oruh, Ali; Akta?, B.

    2013-02-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications.

  7. Diameter Dependence of Magnetic Properties in Nanoparticle-Filled CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojak, Kristen; Chandra, Sayan; Khurshid, Hafsa; Phan, Manh-Huong; Srikanth, Hariharan; Palmero, Ester; Vázquez, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    In past studies we showed magnetic polymer nanocomposites (MPNCs) with ferrite nanoparticle (NP) fillers to be magnetically tunable when passing microwave signals through films under the influence of an external magnetic field. We extend this study to include NP-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of various diameter (~300nm, ~100nm, ~40nm) synthesized by a catalyst-free CVD method, where the outer diameter of the CNTs is determined by a porous alumina template. These high-aspect ratio magnetic nanostructures, with tunable anisotropy and tunable saturation magnetization, are of particular interest in enhancing magnetic and microwave response in existing MPNCs. CNTs with ~ 300nm diameter have been uniformly filled with cobalt ferrite and nickel ferrite NPs (~7nm). NP-filled CNTs show an increase in blocking temperature of ~40K, as well as an increase in relaxation time, τ0. The enhancement of these properties indicates that enclosing NPs in CNTs increases interparticle interactions. The magnetic properties are also tunable by varying the diameter of CNTs. Characterization was completed with XRD, TEM and Quantum Design PPMS, with VSM and ACMS options.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Ubiquitous yet Underrated Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyodo, Y. J.; Till, J. L.; Lagroix, F.; Bonville, P.; Penn, R.; Sainctavit, P.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Morin, G.

    2013-05-01

    Ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and goethite are antiferromagnetic, weakly "ferromagnetic" iron oxyhydroxides that are commonly found in diverse environments, including ground waters and streams, sediments, soils, or acid mine drainage. One of them, ferrihydrite, constitutes the mineral core of ferritin, a vital iron storage protein. Iron oxyhydroxides take part in multiple biological and abiological processes, and can evolve, under changing environmental or geological conditions, to more magnetic phases such as hematite, maghemite, or magnetite. Therefore, they represent key minerals with regard to paleoclimate, paleoenvironmental, and paleomagnetic studies. We will present low temperature magnetic properties acquired on fully characterized synthetic iron oxyhydroxides. The complex nature of the magnetism of these minerals is revealed by comparing magnetic data with other types of characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy or synchrotron X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), or when the early-stages of solid-state alteration (under oxidizing or reducing atmosphere) are studied. In particular, we will present resent results about the structure of 6-line ferrihydrite, about the possible presence of ferri-magnetic nano-clusters in lepidocrocite, and about uncompensated magnetic moments in goethite nanoparticles.

  9. Optimization of Pathogen Capture in Flowing Fluids with Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joo H; Um, Eujin; Diaz, Alexander; Driscoll, Harry; Rodas, Melissa J; Domansky, Karel; Watters, Alexander L; Super, Michael; Stone, Howard A; Ingber, Donald E

    2015-11-11

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been employed to capture pathogens for many biological applications; however, optimal particle sizes have been determined empirically in specific capturing protocols. Here, a theoretical model that simulates capture of bacteria is described and used to calculate bacterial collision frequencies and magnetophoretic properties for a range of particle sizes. The model predicts that particles with a diameter of 460 nm should produce optimal separation of bacteria in buffer flowing at 1 L h(-1) . Validating the predictive power of the model, Staphylococcus aureus is separated from buffer and blood flowing through magnetic capture devices using six different sizes of magnetic particles. Experimental magnetic separation in buffer conditions confirms that particles with a diameter closest to the predicted optimal particle size provide the most effective capture. Modeling the capturing process in plasma and blood by introducing empirical constants (ce ), which integrate the interfering effects of biological components on the binding kinetics of magnetic beads to bacteria, smaller beads with 50 nm diameters are predicted that exhibit maximum magnetic separation of bacteria from blood and experimentally validated this trend. The predictive power of the model suggests its utility for the future design of magnetic separation for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26389806

  10. Imaging of Her2-Targeted Magnetic Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Detection: Comparison of SQUID-detected Magnetic Relaxometry and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Adolphi, Natalie L.; Butler, Kimberly S.; Lovato, Debbie M.; Tessier, T. E.; Trujillo, Jason E.; Hathaway, Helen J.; Fegan, Danielle L.; Monson, Todd C.; Stevens, Tyler E.; Huber, Dale L.; Ramu, Jaivijay; Milne, Michelle L.; Altobelli, Stephen A.; Bryant, Howard C.; Larson, Richard S.; Flynn, Edward R.

    2013-01-01

    Both magnetic relaxometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect and locate targeted magnetic nanoparticles, non-invasively and without ionizing radiation. Magnetic relaxometry offers advantages in terms of its specificity (only nanoparticles are detected) and the linear dependence of the relaxometry signal on the number of nanoparticles present. In this study, detection of single-core iron oxide nanoparticles by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID)-detected magnetic relaxometry and standard 4.7 T MRI are compared. The nanoparticles were conjugated to a Her2 monoclonal antibody and targeted to Her2-expressing MCF7/Her2-18 breast cancer cells); binding of the nanoparticles to the cells was assessed by magnetic relaxometry and iron assay. The same nanoparticle-labeled cells, serially diluted, were used to assess the detection limits and MR relaxivities. The detection limit of magnetic relaxometry was 125,000 nanoparticle-labeled cells at 3 cm from the SQUID sensors. T2-weighted MRI yielded a detection limit of 15,600 cells in a 150 ?l volume, with r1 = 1.1 mM?1s?1 and r2 = 166 mM?1s?1. Her2-targeted nanoparticles were directly injected into xenograft MCF7/Her2-18 tumors in nude mice, and magnetic relaxometry imaging and 4.7 T MRI were performed, enabling direct comparison of the two techniques. Co-registration of relaxometry images and MRI of mice resulted in good agreement. A method for obtaining accurate quantification of microgram quantities of iron in the tumors and liver by relaxometry was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the potential of SQUID-detected magnetic relaxometry imaging for the specific detection of breast cancer and the monitoring of magnetic nanoparticle-based therapies. PMID:22539401

  11. Enhanced Magnetic Properties in Antiferromagnetic-Core/Ferrimagnetic-Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi N.; Nogus, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles are gaining increasing interest due to their foreseen applications. Inverse antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferrimagnetic(FiM) core/shell nanoparticles are particularly appealing since they may overcome some of the limitations of conventional FiM/AFM systems. However, virtually no simulations exist on this type of morphology. Here we present systematic Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations of the exchange bias properties of such nanoparticles. The coercivity, HC, and loop shift, Hex, present a non-monotonic dependence with the core diameter and the shell thickness, in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Additionally, we demonstrate novel unconventional behavior in FiM/AFM particles. Namely, while HC and Hex decrease upon increasing FiM thickness for small AFM cores (as expected), they show the opposite trend for large cores. This presents a counterintuitive FiM size dependence for large AFM cores that is attributed to the competition between core and shell contributions, which expands over a wider range of core diameters leading to non-vanishing Hex even for very large cores. Moreover, the results also hint different possible ways to enhance the experimental performance of inverse core/shell nanoparticles for diverse applications. PMID:25872473

  12. Targeted diagnostic magnetic nanoparticles for medical imaging of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, I; Strauss, A; Dobiasch, S; Weis, C; Szanyi, S; Gil-Iceta, L; Alonso, E; González Esparza, M; Gómez-Vallejo, V; Szczupak, B; Plaza-García, S; Mirzaei, S; Israel, L L; Bianchessi, S; Scanziani, E; Lellouche, J-P; Knoll, P; Werner, J; Felix, K; Grenacher, L; Reese, T; Kreuter, J; Jiménez-González, M

    2015-09-28

    Highly aggressive cancer types such as pancreatic cancer possess a mortality rate of up to 80% within the first 6months after diagnosis. To reduce this high mortality rate, more sensitive diagnostic tools allowing an early stage medical imaging of even very small tumours are needed. For this purpose, magnetic, biodegradable nanoparticles prepared using recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) and incorporated iron oxide (maghemite, γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were developed. Galectin-1 has been chosen as target receptor as this protein is upregulated in pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions but not in healthy pancreatic tissue nor in pancreatitis. Tissue plasminogen activator derived peptides (t-PA-ligands), that have a high affinity to galectin-1 have been chosen as target moieties and were covalently attached onto the nanoparticle surface. Improved targeting and imaging properties were shown in mice using single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT), a handheld gamma camera, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:26192099

  13. Photothermal therapy of cancer cells using magnetic carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardarajan, V.; Gu, L.; Kanneganti, A.; Mohanty, S. K.; Koymen, A. R.

    2011-03-01

    Photothermal therapy offers a solution for the destruction of cancer cells without significant collateral damage to otherwise healthy cells. Several attempts are underway in using carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and nanotubes due to their excellent absorption properties in the near-infrared spectrum of biological window. However, minimizing the required number of injected nanoparticles, to ensure minimal cytotoxicity, is a major challenge. We report on the introduction of magnetic carbon nanoparticles (MCNPs) onto cancer cells, localizing them in a desired region by applying an external magnetic field and irradiating them with a near-infrared laser beam. The MCNPs were prepared in Benzene, using an electric plasma discharge, generated in the cavitation field of an ultrasonic horn. The CNPs were made ferromagnetic by use of Fe-electrodes to dope the CNPs, as confirmed by magnetometry. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the size distribution of these MCNPs to be in the range of 5-10 nm. For photothermal irradiation, a tunable continuous wave Ti: Sapphire laser beam was weakly focused on to the cell monolayer under an inverted fluorescence microscope. The response of different cell types to photothermal irradiation was investigated. Cell death in the presence of both MCNPs and laser beam was confirmed by morphological changes and propidium iodide fluorescence inclusion assay. The results of our study suggest that MCNP based photothermal therapy is a promising approach to remotely guide photothermal therapy.

  14. Measuring and modeling the magnetic settling of superparamagnetic nanoparticle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Prigiobbe, Valentina; Ko, Saebom; Huh, Chun; Bryant, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present settling experiments and mathematical modeling to study the magnetic separation of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) from a brine. The experiments were performed using SPIONs suspensions of concentration between 3 and 202g/L dispersed in water and separated from the liquid under the effect of a permanent magnet. A 1D model was developed in the framework of the sedimentation theory with a conservation law for SPIONs and a mass flux function based on the Newton's law for motion in a magnetic field. The model describes both the hindering effect of suspension concentration (n) during settling due to particle collisions and the increase in settling rate due to the attraction of the SPIONs towards the magnet. The flux function was derived from the settling experiments and the numerical model validated against the analytical solution and the experimental data. Suspensions of SPIONs were of 2.8cm initial height, placed on a magnet, and monitored continuously with a digital camera. Applying a magnetic field of 0.5T of polarization, the SPION's velocity was of approximately 3·10(-5)m/s close to the magnet and decreases of two orders of magnitude across the domain. The process was characterized initially by a classical sedimentation behavior, i.e., an upper interface between the clear water and the suspension slowly moving towards the magnet and a lower interface between the sediment layer and the suspension moving away from the magnet. Subsequently, a rapid separation of nanoparticle occured suggesting a non-classical settling phenomenon induced by magnetic forces which favor particle aggregation and therefore faster settling. The rate of settling decreased with n and an optimal condition for fast separation was found for an initial n of 120g/L. The model agrees well with the measurements in the early stage of the settling, but it fails to describe the upper interface movement during the later stage, probably because of particle aggregation induced by magnetization which is not accounted for in the model. PMID:25700211

  15. Bench-to-bedside translation of magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dhirender; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Kabanov, Alexander V; Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Gendelman, Howard E

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are a new and promising addition to the spectrum of biomedicines. Their promise revolves around the broad versatility and biocompatibility of the MNPs and their unique physicochemical properties. Guided by applied external magnetic fields, MNPs represent a cutting-edge tool designed to improve diagnosis and therapy of a broad range of inflammatory, infectious, genetic and degenerative diseases. Magnetic hyperthermia, targeted drug and gene delivery, cell tracking, protein bioseparation and tissue engineering are but a few applications being developed for MNPs. MNPs toxicities linked to shape, size and surface chemistry are real and must be addressed before clinical use is realized. This article presents both the promise and perils of this new nanotechnology, with an eye towards opportunity in translational medical science. PMID:24910878

  16. Evaluation of Hyperthermia of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Dehydrating DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lina; Liu, Jinming; Wu, Kai; Klein, Todd; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    A method based on the thermodynamic equilibrium reached between the hybridization and denaturation of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) is opened up to evaluate the hyperthermia performance of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Two kinds of MNPs with different sizes and magnetic performance are chosen, and their temperature increments at the surface area under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) are calculated and compared through the concentration variation of ds-DNA modified on the surface. The temperature difference between the surface area of MNPs and bulk solution is also investigated, which can reach as high as 57.8C when AMF applied for 300?s. This method provides a direct path way of comparison hyperthermia ability of MNPs, and serves as a good reference to choose MNPs and decides the therapy parameters based on the unique drug response of individual patient. PMID:25427561

  17. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Surface Functionalization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Surface functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are a kind of novel functional materials, which have been widely used in the biotechnology and catalysis. This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in preparation, structure, and magnetic properties of naked and surface functionalized iron oxide NPs and their corresponding application briefly. In order to implement the practical application, the particles must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of iron oxide NPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The problems and major challenges, along with the directions for the synthesis and surface functionalization of iron oxide NPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and prospective in these research areas are also discussed. PMID:21749733

  18. Magnetic nanoparticle imaging using multiple electron paramagnetic resonance activation sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Coene, A. Dupré, L.; Crevecoeur, G.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in several biomedical applications such as hyperthermia, drug targeting, and disease detection. To realize an effective working of these applications, the spatial distribution of the particles needs to be accurately known, in a non-invasive way. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a promising and sensitive measurement technique for recovering these distributions. In the conventional approach, EPR is applied with a homogeneous magnetic field. In this paper, we employ different heterogeneous magnetic fields that allow to stabilize the solution of the associated inverse problem and to obtain localized spatial information. A comparison is made between the two approaches and our novel adaptation shows an average increase in reconstruction quality by 5% and is 12 times more robust towards noise. Furthermore, our approach allows to speed up the EPR measurements while still obtaining reconstructions with an improved accuracy and noise robustness compared to homogeneous EPR.

  19. Behavior of nanoparticle clouds around a magnetized microsphere under magnetic and flow fields.

    PubMed

    Magnet, C; Kuzhir, P; Bossis, G; Meunier, A; Nave, S; Zubarev, A; Lomenech, C; Bashtovoi, V

    2014-03-01

    When a micron-sized magnetizable particle is introduced into a suspension of nanosized magnetic particles, the nanoparticles accumulate around the microparticle and form thick anisotropic clouds extended in the direction of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon promotes colloidal stabilization of bimodal magnetic suspensions and allows efficient magnetic separation of nanoparticles used in bioanalysis and water purification. In the present work, the size and shape of nanoparticle clouds under the simultaneous action of an external uniform magnetic field and the flow have been studied in detail. In experiments, a dilute suspension of iron oxide nanoclusters (of a mean diameter of 60 nm) was pushed through a thin slit channel with the nickel microspheres (of a mean diameter of 50 ?m) attached to the channel wall. The behavior of nanocluster clouds was observed in the steady state using an optical microscope. In the presence of strong enough flow, the size of the clouds monotonically decreases with increasing flow speed in both longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields. This is qualitatively explained by enhancement of hydrodynamic forces washing the nanoclusters away from the clouds. In the longitudinal field, the flow induces asymmetry of the front and the back clouds. To explain the flow and the field effects on the clouds, we have developed a simple model based on the balance of the stresses and particle fluxes on the cloud surface. This model, applied to the case of the magnetic field parallel to the flow, captures reasonably well the flow effect on the size and shape of the cloud and reveals that the only dimensionless parameter governing the cloud size is the ratio of hydrodynamic-to-magnetic forces-the Mason number. At strong magnetic interactions considered in the present work (dipolar coupling parameter ??2), the Brownian motion seems not to affect the cloud behavior. PMID:24730845

  20. Behavior of nanoparticle clouds around a magnetized microsphere under magnetic and flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnet, C.; Kuzhir, P.; Bossis, G.; Meunier, A.; Nave, S.; Zubarev, A.; Lomenech, C.; Bashtovoi, V.

    2014-03-01

    When a micron-sized magnetizable particle is introduced into a suspension of nanosized magnetic particles, the nanoparticles accumulate around the microparticle and form thick anisotropic clouds extended in the direction of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon promotes colloidal stabilization of bimodal magnetic suspensions and allows efficient magnetic separation of nanoparticles used in bioanalysis and water purification. In the present work, the size and shape of nanoparticle clouds under the simultaneous action of an external uniform magnetic field and the flow have been studied in detail. In experiments, a dilute suspension of iron oxide nanoclusters (of a mean diameter of 60 nm) was pushed through a thin slit channel with the nickel microspheres (of a mean diameter of 50 ?m) attached to the channel wall. The behavior of nanocluster clouds was observed in the steady state using an optical microscope. In the presence of strong enough flow, the size of the clouds monotonically decreases with increasing flow speed in both longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields. This is qualitatively explained by enhancement of hydrodynamic forces washing the nanoclusters away from the clouds. In the longitudinal field, the flow induces asymmetry of the front and the back clouds. To explain the flow and the field effects on the clouds, we have developed a simple model based on the balance of the stresses and particle fluxes on the cloud surface. This model, applied to the case of the magnetic field parallel to the flow, captures reasonably well the flow effect on the size and shape of the cloud and reveals that the only dimensionless parameter governing the cloud size is the ratio of hydrodynamic-to-magnetic forcesthe Mason number. At strong magnetic interactions considered in the present work (dipolar coupling parameter ? ?2), the Brownian motion seems not to affect the cloud behavior.

  1. Investigation of magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using temperature dependent magnetic hyperthermia in ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemala, H.; Thakur, J. S.; Naik, V. M.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Lawes, G.; Naik, R.

    2014-07-01

    Rate of heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid is affected by their magnetic properties, temperature, and viscosity of the carrier liquid. We have investigated temperature dependent magnetic hyperthermia in ferrofluids, consisting of dextran coated superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, subjected to external magnetic fields of various frequencies (188-375 kHz) and amplitudes (140-235 Oe). Transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the nanoparticles are polydispersed with a mean diameter of 13.8 3.1 nm. The fitting of experimental dc magnetization data to a standard Langevin function incorporating particle size distribution yields a mean diameter of 10.6 1.2 nm, and a reduced saturation magnetization (65 emu/g) compared to the bulk value of Fe3O4 (95 emu/g). This is due to the presence of a finite surface layer (1 nm thickness) of non-aligned spins surrounding the ferromagnetically aligned Fe3O4 core. We found the specific absorption rate, measured as power absorbed per gram of iron oxide nanoparticles, decreases monotonically with increasing temperature for all values of magnetic field and frequency. Using the size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles estimated from the magnetization measurements, we have fitted the specific absorption rate versus temperature data using a linear response theory and relaxation dissipation mechanisms to determine the value of magnetic anisotropy constant (28 2 kJ/m3) of Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  2. The effect of thermal treatment on the magnetic properties of spinel ferrite nanoparticles in magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronkalns, G.; Dreimane, A.; Maiorov, M. M.

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic properties of ferrites are dependent on the crystalline structure and location of metal ions in the material. The most commonly used materials of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids are chemical stable spinel (2-3) ferrites. The preparation of ferrite nanoparticles for magnetic fluids synthesis needs a special technology. More commonly used is the wet chemical coprecipitation production technology of magnetic nanoparticles for MF. The ferrites synthesized by the wet chemical method have different magnetic characteristics if compared to the ferrites prepared by standard ceramic methods. In this paper, the physical properties of ultrafine complex spinel-type Fe _{2}Co _{0.3}Zn _{0.6}Ca _{0.1}O_{4}, Fe _{1.9}Cd _{0.1}Mn _{0.54}Zn _{0.46}O_{4}, Fe _{2}CoO_{4} and Fe _{2}Zn _{0.6}Mn _{0.3}Ca _{0.1}O_{4} ferrite particles and MF on its base, after their special thermal treatment, are studied. Tables 1, Figs 6, Refs 8.

  3. Magnetization and Hysteresis of Dilute Magnetic-Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, Ralph; Balamurugan, B.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Real-structure imperfections in dilute magnetic oxides tend to create small concentrations of local magnetic moments that are coupled by fairly long-range exchange interactions, mediated by p-electrons. The robustness of these interactions is caused by the strong overlap of the p orbitals, as contrasted to the much weaker interatomic exchange involving iron-series 3d electrons. The net exchange between defect moments can be positive or negative, which gives rise to spin structures with very small net moments. Similarly, the moments exhibit magnetocrystalline anisotropy, reinforced by electron hopping to and from 3d states and generally undergoing some random-anuisotropy averaging. Since the coercivity scales as 2K1/M and M is small, this creates pronounced and -- in thin films -- strongly anisotropic hysteresis loops. In finite systems with N moments, both K1 and M are reduced by a factor of order N1/2 due to random anisotropy and moment compensation, respectively, so that that typical coercivities are comparable to bulk magnets. Thermal activation readily randomizes the net moment of small oxide particles, so that the moment is easier to measure in compacted or aggregated particle ensembles. This research is supported by DOE (BES).

  4. Preparation and characterization of biofunctionalized chitosan/Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for application in liver magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiadan; Zhang, Qingqing; Zhu, Aiping; Ji, Lijun; Yan, Caifeng

    2015-08-01

    Biofunctionalized chitosan@Fe3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized by combining Fe3O4 and CS chemically modified with PEG and lactobionic acid in one step. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, X-ray, DLS, zeta-potential and magnetic measurements. The in vitro and in vivo behaviors of the biofunctionalized nanoparticles, especially, the cytotoxicity, the protein resistance, metabolism and iron toxicity are assessed. The functional groups, PEG enable the nanoparticles more biocompatible and the lactobionic acid groups enable liver targeting. The potential applications of the nanoparticles in liver magnetic resonance imaging are confirmed. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles are suspension stability, non-cytotoxicity, non-tissue toxicity and sensitive in liver magnetic resonance imaging, representing potential tools for applications in the biomedical field.

  5. Effective magnetic anisotropy of annealed FePt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, N. A.; Barandiarn, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    The hysteresis loops of randomly oriented assembly of FePt nanoparticles are calculated numerically as a function of particle diameter for the range of the effective anisotropy constants, Kef = 1-5 107 erg/cm3, taking into account the effect of thermal fluctuations. Very sharp dependence of the assembly coercive force on the particle diameter is found for Kef ? 3 107 erg/cm3. The effective anisotropy constant of annealed FePt nanoparticle is estimated assuming the existence of L10 inclusions distributed randomly in a magnetically soft surrounding matrix. The hysteresis loop evolution can be explained if the total volume of the L10 grains is supposed to increase during annealing.

  6. Optimization of nanoparticle core size for magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, R. Matthew; Minard, Kevin R.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a powerful new research and diagnostic imaging platform that is designed to image the amount and location of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in biological tissue. Here, we present mathematical modeling results that show how MPI sensitivity and spatial resolution both depend on the size of the nanoparticle core and its other physical properties, and how imaging performance can be effectively optimized through rational core design. Modeling is performed using the properties of magnetite cores, since these are readily produced with a controllable size that facilitates quantitative imaging. Results show that very low detection thresholds (of a few nanograms Fe 3O 4) and sub-millimeter spatial resolution are possible with MPI.

  7. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Huber, Dale L.

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  8. Liver cancer immunoassay with magnetic nanoparticles and MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z. Q.; Li, L.; Li, G. J.; Leung, C. W.; Shi, J.; Wong, C. M.; Lo, K. C.; Chan, W. K.; Mak, C. S. K.; Chan, S. B.; Chan, N. M. M.; Leung, C. H.; Lai, P. T.; Pong, P. W. T.

    2012-04-01

    We have demonstrated the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) labeled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors. AFP is an important hepatic tumor biomarker and the detection of AFP has significant applications for clinical diagnostics and immunoassay for early-stage liver cancer indications. In this work, MgO-based MTJ sensors and 20-nm iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for detecting AFP antigens by a sandwich-assay configuration. The MTJ sensors with a sensing area of 4 2 ?m2 possess tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of 122% and sensitivity of 0.95%/Oe at room temperature. The target AFP antigens of three concentrations were successfully detected, and the experimental data indicate that the resistance variations of the MTJ sensor increased with the AFP concentration ratios proportionally. These results demonstrate that MgO-based MTJ sensors together with MNPs are a promising biosensing platform for liver cancer immunoassay.

  9. Magnetic Nanoparticles with High Specific Absorption Rate at Low Alternating Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Kekalo, K.; Baker, I.; Meyers, R.; Shyong, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) for use in the hyperthermia treatment of tumors. These particles consist of 2–4 nm crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 gathered in 20–40 nm aggregates with a coating of carboxymethyl-dextran, producing a zetasize of 110–120 nm. Despite their very low saturation magnetization (1.5–6.5 emu/g), the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the nanoparticles is 22–200 W/g at applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) with strengths of 100–500 Oe at a frequency of 160 kHz. PMID:26884816

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles: a new tool for antibiotic delivery to sinonasal tissues. Results of preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, K; Stolyar, S; Lopatin, A

    2015-04-01

    Herein we examined the toxicity, penetration properties and ability of Fe2O3nH2O magnetic nanoparticles extracted from silt of the Borovoye Lake (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) to bind an antibiotic. Experimental studies were carried out using magnetic nanoparticles alone and after antibiotic exposure in tissue samples from nasal mucosa, cartilage and bone (in vitro). Toxicity of particles was studied in laboratory animals (in vivo). Tissues removed at endonasal surgery (nasal mucosa, cartilage and bone of the nasal septum) were placed in solution containing nanoparticles and exposed to a magnetic field. Distribution of nanoparticles was determined by Perls' reaction. After intravenous injection, possible toxic effects of injected nanoparticles on the organs and tissues of rats were evaluated by histological examination. Binding between the nanoparticles and antibiotic (amoxicillin clavulanate) was studied using infrared spectroscopy. In 30 in vitro experiments, magnetisation of Fe2O3nH2O nanoparticles resulted in their diffuse infiltration into the mucosa, cartilage and bone tissue of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Intravenous injection of 0.2 ml of magnetic nanoparticles into the rat's tail vein did not result in any changes in parenchymatous organs, and the nanoparticles were completely eliminated from the body within 24 hours. The interaction of nanoparticles with amoxicillin clavulanate was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy. Positive results of experimental studies provide a basis for further clinical investigations of these magnetic nanoparticles and their use in otorhinolaryngology. PMID:26019393

  11. Structural and Magnetic model of self-assembled FePt nanoparticle arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T

    2004-05-13

    Chemically ordered, self-assembled FePt nanoparticle arrays with high magnetic anisotropy are considered a candidate medium for data storage beyond 1 Tbit/in{sup 2}. We report comprehensive structural and magnetic studies on thin (3 layer) assemblies of polyethylenimine (PEI) and 4 nm Fe{sub 58}Pt{sub 42} nanoparticles using X-ray diffraction, small angle neutron scattering and magnetometry. We show that prior to annealing FePt nanoparticles in the PEI-FePt assembly consist of a metallic, magnetic core surrounded by a weakly magnetic or non-magnetic shell. High temperature annealing creates the desired L1{sub 0} chemical ordering and results in high coercivity FePt nanoparticles. However, we find that the high temperatures necessary to establish full chemical ordering leads to particle sintering and agglomeration. Understanding the magnetic and physical properties of these assemblies allows future research directions to be clarified for nanoparticle arrays as data storage media.

  12. NMR Relaxation in Systems with Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Temperature Study

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Hejasee, Rola H.; Qadri, Shahnaz; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To measure and model NMR relaxation enhancement due to the presence of Gd substituted Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles at different temperatures. Materials and Methods Relaxation rates were measured at 1.5 T using FSE sequences in samples of agarose gel doped with uncoated and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 nanoparticles over the temperature range 8 to 58C. Physical characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles synthesized using chemical co-precipitation included scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and magnetometry. Results Relaxivity (in s?1 mM?1 Fe) for the uncoated and coated particles, respectively, increased as follows: from 2.5 to 3.2 and 0.4 to 0.7 for T1, while for T2 it increased from 162.3 to 253.7 and 59.7 to 82.2 over the temperature range 8 to 58C. T2 data was fitted to the echo limited motional regime using one fitting parameter that reflects the degree of agglomeration of particles into a cluster. This parameter was found to increase linearly with temperature and was larger for the PEG coated particles than the uncoated ones. Conclusion The increase of 1/T2 with temperature is modeled successfully using echo limited motional regime where both diffusion of the protons and nanoparticle cluster size increase with temperature. Both transverse and longitudinal relaxation efficiencies are reduced by PEG coating at all temperatures. If prediction of relaxation rates under different particle concentrations and operating temperatures is possible then the use of MNP in temperature monitoring and hyperthermia applications may be achieved. PMID:23720101

  13. Multi-functional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yallapu, Murali M.; Othman, Shadi F.; Curtis, Evan T.; Gupta, Brij K.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a multi-layer approach for the synthesis of water-dispersible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and drug delivery applications. In this approach, iron oxide core nanoparticles were obtained by precipitation of iron salts in the presence of ammonia and provided ?-cyclodextrin and pluronic polymer (F127) coatings. This formulation (F127250) was highly water dispersible which allowed encapsulation of the anti-cancer drug(s) in ?-cyclodextrin and pluronic polymer for sustained drug release. The F127250 formulation has exhibited superior hyperthermia effects over time under alternating magnetic field compared to pure magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and ?-cyclodextrin coated nanoparticles (CD200). Additionally, the improved MRI characteristics were also observed for the F127250 formulation in agar gel and in cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells (A12780CP) compared to MNP and CD200 formulations. Furthermore, the drug loaded formulation of F127250 exhibited many folds of imaging contrast properties. Due to the internalization capacity of the F127250 formulation, its curcumin loaded formulation (F127250-CUR) exhibited almost equivalent inhibition effects on A2780CP (ovarian), MDA-MB-231 (breast), and PC3 (prostate) cancer cells even though curcumin release was only 40%. The improved therapeutic effects were verified by examining molecular effects using Western blotting and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. F127250-CUR also exhibited haemocompatibility, suggesting a nanochemo-therapuetic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:21167595

  14. Dynamic magnetic fields remote-control apoptosis via nanoparticle rotation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enming; Kircher, Moritz F; Koch, Martin; Eliasson, Lena; Goldberg, S Nahum; Renstrm, Erik

    2014-04-22

    The ability to control the movement of nanoparticles remotely and with high precision would have far-reaching implications in many areas of nanotechnology. We have designed a unique dynamic magnetic field (DMF) generator that can induce rotational movements of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). We examined whether the rotational nanoparticle movement could be used for remote induction of cell death by injuring lysosomal membrane structures. We further hypothesized that the shear forces created by the generation of oscillatory torques (incomplete rotation) of SPIONs bound to lysosomal membranes would cause membrane permeabilization, lead to extravasation of lysosomal contents into the cytoplasm, and induce apoptosis. To this end, we covalently conjugated SPIONs with antibodies targeting the lysosomal protein marker LAMP1 (LAMP1-SPION). Remote activation of slow rotation of LAMP1-SPIONs significantly improved the efficacy of cellular internalization of the nanoparticles. LAMP1-SPIONs then preferentially accumulated along the membrane in lysosomes in both rat insulinoma tumor cells and human pancreatic beta cells due to binding of LAMP1-SPIONs to endogenous LAMP1. Further activation of torques by the LAMP1-SPIONs bound to lysosomes resulted in rapid decrease in size and number of lysosomes, attributable to tearing of the lysosomal membrane by the shear force of the rotationally activated LAMP1-SPIONs. This remote activation resulted in an increased expression of early and late apoptotic markers and impaired cell growth. Our findings suggest that DMF treatment of lysosome-targeted nanoparticles offers a noninvasive tool to induce apoptosis remotely and could serve as an important platform technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:24597847

  15. Dynamic Magnetic Fields Remote-Control Apoptosis via Nanoparticle Rotation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control the movement of nanoparticles remotely and with high precision would have far-reaching implications in many areas of nanotechnology. We have designed a unique dynamic magnetic field (DMF) generator that can induce rotational movements of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). We examined whether the rotational nanoparticle movement could be used for remote induction of cell death by injuring lysosomal membrane structures. We further hypothesized that the shear forces created by the generation of oscillatory torques (incomplete rotation) of SPIONs bound to lysosomal membranes would cause membrane permeabilization, lead to extravasation of lysosomal contents into the cytoplasm, and induce apoptosis. To this end, we covalently conjugated SPIONs with antibodies targeting the lysosomal protein marker LAMP1 (LAMP1-SPION). Remote activation of slow rotation of LAMP1-SPIONs significantly improved the efficacy of cellular internalization of the nanoparticles. LAMP1-SPIONs then preferentially accumulated along the membrane in lysosomes in both rat insulinoma tumor cells and human pancreatic beta cells due to binding of LAMP1-SPIONs to endogenous LAMP1. Further activation of torques by the LAMP1-SPIONs bound to lysosomes resulted in rapid decrease in size and number of lysosomes, attributable to tearing of the lysosomal membrane by the shear force of the rotationally activated LAMP1-SPIONs. This remote activation resulted in an increased expression of early and late apoptotic markers and impaired cell growth. Our findings suggest that DMF treatment of lysosome-targeted nanoparticles offers a noninvasive tool to induce apoptosis remotely and could serve as an important platform technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:24597847

  16. Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticle tracers for in vivo magnetic particle imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khandhar, Amit P; Ferguson, R Matthew; Arami, Hamed; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging modality that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle tracer distributions. In this study, we synthesized monodisperse tracers for enhanced MPI performance and investigated both, their blood clearance time using a 25 kHz magnetic particle spectrometer (MPS), and biodistribution using a combination of quantitative T2-weighted MRI and tissue histology. In vitro and in vivo MPI performance of our magnetic nanoparticle tracers (MNTs), subject to biological constraints, were compared to commercially available SPIOs (Resovist). Monodisperse MNTs showed a 2-fold greater signal per unit mass, and 20% better spatial resolution. In vitro evaluation of tracers showed that MPI performance of our MNTs is preserved in blood, serum-rich cell culture medium and gel; thus independent of changes in hydrodynamic volume and fluid viscosity a critical prerequisite for in vivo MPI. In a rodent model, our MNTs circulated for 15 minutes 3 longer than Resovist and supported our in vitro evaluation that MPI signal is preserved in the physiological environment. Furthermore, MRI and histology analysis showed that MNTs distribute in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in a manner similar to clinically approved SPIO agents. MNTs demonstrating long-circulation times and optimized MPI performance show potential as angiography tracers and blood-pool agents for the emerging MPI imaging modality. PMID:23434348

  17. Acid-Sensitive Magnetic Nanoparticles as Potential Drug Depots

    PubMed Central

    Wuang, Shy Chyi; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Leckband, Deborah E.; Pack, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetic nanoparticles were successfully functionalized with poly(methacrylic acid) via atom transfer radical polymerization, followed by conjugation to doxorubicin (Dox). Because of pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages, the rate and extent of Dox release from the particles was higher at a lower pH and/or a higher temperature than at physiological conditions. Appropriate changes to the pH and temperature can increase the drug release from the particles. Because of the released drug, the particles were found to be cytotoxic to human breast cancer cells in vitro. Such magnetic nanoparticles, with the potential to retain drug under physiological conditions and release the drug in conditions where the pH is lower or temperature is higher, may be useful in magnetic drug targeting by reducing the side effects of the drug caused to healthy tissues. In addition, they may serve as hyperthermia agents where the high temperatures used in hyperthermia can trigger further drug release. PMID:21760639

  18. Synthesis and characterization of enzyme-magnetic nanoparticle complexes: effect of size on activity and recovery.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Joon; McConnell, Joshua T; Boddohi, Soheil; Kipper, Matt J; Johnson, Patrick A

    2011-04-01

    The influence of particle size on the activity and recycling capabilities of enzyme conjugated magnetic nanoparticles was studied. Co-precipitation and oxidation of Fe(OH)(2) methods were used to fabricate three different sizes of magnetic nanoparticles (5 nm, 26 nm and 51 nm). Glucose oxidase was covalently bound to the magnetic nanoparticles by modifying the surfaces with 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and a common protein crosslinking agent, glutaraldehyde. Analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that the morphology of the magnetic nanoparticles to be spherical and sizes agreed with results of the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method. Magnetic strength of the nanoparticles was analyzed by magnetometry and found to be 49 emu g(-1) (5 nm), 73 emu g(-1) (26 nm), and 85 emu g(-1) (51 nm). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed each step of the magnetic nanoparticle surface modification and successful glucose oxidase binding. The immobilized enzymes retained 15-23% of the native GOx activity. Recycling stability studies showed approximately 20% of activity loss for the large (51 nm) and medium (26 nm) size glucose oxidase-magnetic nanoparticle (GOx-MNP) bioconjugate and about 96% activity loss for the smallest GOx-MNP bioconjugate (5 nm) after ten cycles. The bioconjugates demonstrated equivalent total product conversions as a single reaction of an equivalent amount of the native enzyme after the 5th cycle for the 26 nm nanoparticles and the 7th cycle for the 51 nm nanoparticles. PMID:21176875

  19. Magnetic properties, water proton relaxivities, and in-vivo MR images of paramagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gang Ho; Chang, Yongmin

    2015-07-01

    In this mini review, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents based on lanthanideoxide (Ln2O3) nanoparticles are described. Ln2O3 (Ln = Gd, Dy, Ho, and Er) nanoparticles are paramagnetic, but show appreciable magnetic moments at room temperature and even at ultrasmall particle diameters. Among Ln2O3 nanoparticles, Gd2O3 nanoparticles show larger longitudinal water proton relaxivity (r1) values than Gd-chelates because of the large amount of Gd in the nanoparticle, and the other Ln2O3 nanoparticles (Ln = Dy, Ho, and Er) show appreciable transverse water proton relaxivity (r2) values. Therefore, Gd2O3 nanoparticles are potential T1 MRI contrast agents while the other Ln2O3 nanoparticles are potential T2 MRI contrast agents at high MR fields.

  20. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy of maghemite nanoparticles via the surface coordination of molecular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Yoann; Daff, Nili; Michel, Aude; Georgelin, Thomas; Yaacoub, Nader; Grenche, Jean-Marc; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cartier-Dit-Moulin, Christophe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Fleury, Benoit; Dupuis, Vincent; Lisnard, Laurent; Fresnais, Jrme

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising objects for data storage or medical applications. In the smallest--and more attractive--systems, the properties are governed by the magnetic anisotropy. Here we report a molecule-based synthetic strategy to enhance this anisotropy in sub-10-nm nanoparticles. It consists of the fabrication of composite materials where anisotropic molecular complexes are coordinated to the surface of the nanoparticles. Reacting 5 nm ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the [CoII(TPMA)Cl2] complex (TPMA: tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) leads to the desired composite materials and the characterization of the functionalized nanoparticles evidences the successful coordination--without nanoparticle aggregation and without complex dissociation--of the molecular complexes to the nanoparticles surface. Magnetic measurements indicate the significant enhancement of the anisotropy in the final objects. Indeed, the functionalized nanoparticles show a threefold increase of the blocking temperature and a coercive field increased by one order of magnitude.

  1. Magnetic phase diagram of superantiferromagnetic TbCu2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria-Bonet, C.; Rojas, D. P.; Espeso, J. I.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; de la Fuente Rodríguez, M.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Rodríguez Fernández, L.; Gorria, P.; Blanco, J. A.; Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.; Bauer, E.; Damay, F.

    2015-12-01

    The structural state and static and dynamic magnetic properties of TbCu2 nanoparticles are reported to be produced by mechanical milling under inert atmosphere. The randomly dispersed nanoparticles as detected by TEM retain the bulk symmetry with an orthorhombic Imma lattice and Tb and Cu in the 4e and 8h positions, respectively. Rietveld refinements confirm that the milling produces a controlled reduction of particle sizes reaching ≃6 nm and an increase of the microstrain up to ≃0.6%. The electrical resistivity indicates a metallic behavior and the presence of a magnetic contribution to the electronic scattering which decreases with milling times. The dc-susceptibility shows a reduction of the Néel transition (from 49 K to 43 K) and a progressive increase of a peak (from 9 K to 15 K) in the zero-field-cooled magnetization with size reduction. The exchange anisotropy is very weak (a bias field of ≃30 Oe) and is due to the presence of a disordered (thin) shell coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. The dynamic susceptibility evidences a critical slowing down in the spin-disordered state for the lowest temperature peak associated with a spin glass-like freezing with a tendency of zv and β exponents to increase when the size becomes 6 nm (zv≃ 6.6 and β ≃ 0.85 ). A Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction patterns 1.8≤slant T≤slant 60 K, including the magnetic structure determination, reveals that there is a reduction of the expected moment (≃80%), which must be connected to the presence of the disordered particle shell. The core magnetic structure retains the bulk antiferromagnetic arrangement. The overall interpretation is based on a superantiferromagnetic behavior which at low temperatures coexists with a canting of surface moments and a mismatch of the antiferromagnetic sublattices of the nanoparticles. We propose a novel magnetic phase diagram where changes are provoked by a combination of the decrease of size and the increase of microstrain.

  2. Magnetic phase diagram of superantiferromagnetic TbCu₂ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Echevarria-Bonet, C; Rojas, D P; Espeso, J I; Rodríguez Fernández, J; de la Fuente Rodríguez, M; Fernández Barquín, L; Rodríguez Fernández, L; Gorria, P; Blanco, J A; Fdez-Gubieda, M L; Bauer, E; Damay, F

    2015-12-16

    The structural state and static and dynamic magnetic properties of TbCu2 nanoparticles are reported to be produced by mechanical milling under inert atmosphere. The randomly dispersed nanoparticles as detected by TEM retain the bulk symmetry with an orthorhombic Imma lattice and Tb and Cu in the 4e and 8h positions, respectively. Rietveld refinements confirm that the milling produces a controlled reduction of particle sizes reaching ≃6 nm and an increase of the microstrain up to ≃0.6%. The electrical resistivity indicates a metallic behavior and the presence of a magnetic contribution to the electronic scattering which decreases with milling times. The dc-susceptibility shows a reduction of the Néel transition (from 49 K to 43 K) and a progressive increase of a peak (from 9 K to 15 K) in the zero-field-cooled magnetization with size reduction. The exchange anisotropy is very weak (a bias field of ≃30 Oe) and is due to the presence of a disordered (thin) shell coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. The dynamic susceptibility evidences a critical slowing down in the spin-disordered state for the lowest temperature peak associated with a spin glass-like freezing with a tendency of zv and β exponents to increase when the size becomes 6 nm (zv ≃ 6.6 and β ≃ 0.85). A Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction patterns 1.8 ≤ T ≤ 60 K, including the magnetic structure determination, reveals that there is a reduction of the expected moment (≃80%), which must be connected to the presence of the disordered particle shell. The core magnetic structure retains the bulk antiferromagnetic arrangement. The overall interpretation is based on a superantiferromagnetic behavior which at low temperatures coexists with a canting of surface moments and a mismatch of the antiferromagnetic sublattices of the nanoparticles. We propose a novel magnetic phase diagram where changes are provoked by a combination of the decrease of size and the increase of microstrain. PMID:26593408

  3. Synthesis of high magnetization Fe and FeCo nanoparticles by high temperature chemical reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kandapallil, B; Colborn, RE; Bonitatibus, PJ; Johnson, F

    2015-03-15

    Fe and FeCo ferromagnetic nanoparticles in the 5-10 nm size regimes featuring high magnetization were synthesized using a modified chemical reduction method. The structure and morphology of these nanoparticles were confirmed by XRD and TOM analysis. These small, monodisperse and phase pure nanoparticles exhibited magnetic saturation of 210 emu/g (Fe) and 220 emu/g (Fe+Co) for Fe and FeCo nanoparticles respectively. The magnetization was found to be dependent on the temperature at which the reducing agent was introduced. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved,

  4. Magnetic and Mssbauer studies of fucan-coated magnetite nanoparticles for application on antitumoral activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, V. A. J.; Andrade, P. L.; Bustamante, Angel; de los Santos Valladares, L.; Mejia, M.; Souza, I. A.; Cavalcanti, K. P. S.; Silva, M. P. C.; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-01-01

    Fucan-coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and studied by Mssbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The sizes of the nanoparticles were 8-9 nm. Magnetization measurements and Mssbauer spectroscopy at 300 K revealed superparamagnetic behavior. The magnetic moment of the Fe3O4 is partly screened by the Fucan coating aggregation. When the magnetite nanoparticles are capped with oleic acid or fucan, reduced particle-particle interaction is observed by Mssbauer and TEM studies. The antitumoral activity of the fucan-coated nanoparticles were tested in Sarcoma 180, showing an effective reduction of the tumor size.

  5. Enhanced magnetic resonance contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in a porous silicon nanoparticle host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, Joseph; Ananda, Shalini; Andrew, Jennifer; Grondek, Joel; Chien, Miao-Ping; Scandeng, Miriam; Gianneschi, Nathan; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sailor, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In this report, we prepared a porous Si nanoparticle with a pore morphology that facilitates the proximal loading and alignment of magnetite nanoparticles. We characterized the composite materials using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and MRI. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the composite materials was tested using cell viability assays on human liver cancer cells and rat hepatocytes. An in vivo analysis using a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Sprague Dawley rat model was used to determine the biodistribution properties of the material, while naïve Sprague Dawley rats were used to determine the pharmocokinetic properties of the nanomaterials. The composite material reported here demonstrates an injectable nanomaterial that exploits the dipolar coupling of superparamagnetic nanoparticles trapped within a secondary inorganic matrix to yield significantly enhanced MRI contrast. This preparation successfully avoids agglomeration issues that plague larger ferromagnetic systems. A Fe3O4:pSi composite formulation consisting of 25% by mass Fe3O4 yields an maximal T2* value of 556 mM Fe-1 s-1. No cellular (HepG2 or rat hepatocyte cells) or in vivo (rat) toxicity was observed with the formulation, which degrades and is eliminated after 4-8 h in vivo. The ability to tailor the magnetic properties of such materials may be useful for in vivo imaging, magnetic hyperthermia, or drug-delivery applications.

  6. Magnetic properties of hematite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadic, Marin; Panjan, Matjaz; Damnjanovic, Vesna; Milosevic, Irena

    2014-11-01

    Hematite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized by using the hydrothermal synthesis method. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) of the sample shows formation of the nanocrystalline ?-Fe2O3 phase. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show spherical morphology of the hematite nanoparticles and narrow size distribution. An average hematite nanoparticle size is estimated to be about 8 nm by TEM and XRD. Magnetic properties were measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Investigation of the magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles showed a divergence between field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization curves below Tirr = 103 K (irreversibility temperature). The ZFC magnetization curve showed maximum at TB = 52 K (blocking temperature). The sample did not exhibit the Morin transition. The M(H) (magnetization versus magnetic field) dependence at 300 K showed properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). The M(H) data were successfully fitted by the Langevin function and magnetic moment ?p = 657 ?B and diameter d = 8.1 nm were determined. Furthermore, magnetic measurements showed high magnetization at room temperature (MS = 3.98 emu/g), which is desirable for application in spintronics and biomedicine. Core-shell structure of the nanoparticles was used to describe high magnetization of the hematite nanoparticles.

  7. Synthesis of magnetic multicomponent nanoparticles CuxNi1-xFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binglbali, A.; Do?an, N.; Ye?il, Z.; Asiltrk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of great importance in many biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement. To build the most effective magnetic nanoparticle systems for various biomedical applications, characteristics of particle, including size, surface chemistry, magnetic properties, and toxicity have to be fully investigated. In this work, the effects of some production methods of the magnetic nanoparticles for the bio-medical applications are discussed. In this study, multicomponents of CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles (where x=0, 0.6, and 1) were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method. In addition, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a vibrating scanning magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. The particle sizes of the samples were measured by Malvern Instruments Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS instrument. The data were recorded under magnetic fields for different ratios of CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles. The temperature dependence of field cooled (FC) magnetization of the CuxNi1-xFe2O4 samples has been shown in this work. Magnetizations change with decreasing the dopant value of Cu. The magnetic phase transition was observed for CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  8. Renal perfusion evaluation by alternating current biosusceptometry of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quini, Caio C.; Matos, Juliana F.; Prspero, Andr G.; Calabresi, Marcos Felipe F.; Zufelato, Nicholas; Bakuzis, Andris F.; Baffa, Oswaldo; Miranda, Jos Ricardo A.

    2015-04-01

    Alternating current susceptometry, a simple and affordable technique, was employed to study the sensitivity of this approach to assess rat kidney perfusion by the injection of 200 ?L of magnetic nanoparticles with a concentration of 23 mg/mL in the femoral vein and the measurement of the signal above the kidney. The instrument was able to detect the signal and the transit time of the first and second pass were measured in five animals with average values of 13.64.3 s and 20.67.1 s.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles: preparation, physical properties, and applications in biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Finally, we have addressed some relevant findings on the importance of having well-defined synthetic strategies developed for the generation of MNPs, with a focus on particle formation mechanism and recent modifications made on the preparation of monodisperse samples of relatively large quantities not only with similar physical features, but also with similar crystallochemical characteristics. Then, different methodologies for the functionalization of the prepared MNPs together with the characterization techniques are explained. Theorical views on the magnetism of nanoparticles are considered. PMID:22348683

  10. Effects of core/shell structure on magnetic induction heating promotion in Fe3O4/?-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chi; Fu, Chao-Ming; Chang, Fu-Hsiung

    2013-10-01

    Fe3O4/?-Fe2O3 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles have demonstrated superior heating efficiency by applying the alternating magnetic field. The magnetic induction heating properties of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles were analyzed by the rate-dependent hysteresis model, taken into account the magnetic anisotropies and actual size distribution of particles. The analyzed results have disclosed the significance of magnetic anisotropies and shell-thickness to the promotion of magnetic induction heating performance. Further experiments about the cancer cells with uptake of these core-shell magnetic nanoparticles conjugated biocompatible cationic liposomes have achieved in vitro intracellular magnetically induced hyperthermia under a weak alternating magnetic field.

  11. Magnetic Carbon nanoparticles enabled efficient photothermal alteration of mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Thomas, Patrick; Yu, Lingfeng; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2011-03-01

    While cw near-infrared (NIR) laser beams have been finding widespread application in photothermal therapy of cancer and pulsed NIR laser microbeams are recently being used for optoporation of exogeneous impermeable materials into cells. Since, carbon nanomaterials are very good in photothermal conversion, we utilized carbon nanoparticles (CNP) doped with Fe, so that they can be localized in a defined area by two fold selectivity, (i) external magnetic field for retention of the CNP in targeted area and (ii) surface functionalization for binding the targeted cells. Here, we report efficient photothermal therapy as well as poration of cells using magnetic CNPs with very low power continuous wave laser beam. Localization of CNPs on cell membrane under application of magnetic field was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. At different power levels, cells could be damaged or microinjected with fluorescence protein-encoding plasmids or impermeable dyes. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the dose of NIR laser beam is sufficient to elicit response for magnetic CNP based photothermal treatment at significant depth. The results of our study suggest that magnetic CNP based photothermal alteration is a viable approach to remotely guide treatments offering high efficiency with significantly reduced cytotoxicity.

  12. Electronic structure and magnetism of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Song, G. S.; Fujimori, A.; Chang, F.-H.; Lin, H.-J.; Huang, D. J.; Chen, C. T.; Ohkochi, T.; Takeda, Y.; Okane, T.; Saitoh, Y.; Yamagami, H.; Tanaka, A.; Mandal, S. K.; Nath, T. K.; Karmakar, D.; Dasgupta, I.

    2010-02-15

    We have studied the electronic structure of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles, which have been reported to show ferromagnetism at room temperature, by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the experimental and cluster-model calculation results, we find that Fe atoms are predominantly in the Fe{sup 3+} ionic state with mixture of a small amount of Fe{sup 2+} and that Fe{sup 3+} ions are dominant in the surface region of the nanoparticles. It is shown that the room temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles primarily originated from the antiferromagnetic coupling between unequal amounts of Fe{sup 3+} ions occupying two sets of nonequivalent positions in the region of the XMCD probing depth of {approx}2-3 nm.

  13. Capture Efficiency of Biocompatible Magnetic Nanoparticles in Arterial Flow: A Computer Simulation for Magnetic Drug Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunnoo, Thodsaphon; Puangmali, Theerapong

    2015-10-01

    The primary limitation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) relates to the strength of an external magnetic field which decreases with increasing distance. Small nanoparticles (NPs) displaying superparamagnetic behaviour are also required in order to reduce embolization in the blood vessel. The small NPs, however, make it difficult to vector NPs and keep them in the desired location. The aims of this work were to investigate parameters influencing the capture efficiency of the drug carriers in mimicked arterial flow. In this work, we computationally modelled and evaluated capture efficiency in MDT with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. The studied parameters were (i) magnetic nanoparticle size, (ii) three classes of magnetic cores (Fe3O4, Fe2O3, and Fe), and (iii) the thickness of biocompatible coating materials (Au, SiO2, and PEG). It was found that the capture efficiency of small particles decreased with decreasing size and was less than 5 % for magnetic particles in the superparamagnetic regime. The thickness of non-magnetic coating materials did not significantly influence the capture efficiency of MDT. It was difficult to capture small drug carriers ( D<200 nm) in the arterial flow. We suggest that the MDT with high-capture efficiency can be obtained in small vessels and low-blood velocities such as micro-capillary vessels.

  14. Capture Efficiency of Biocompatible Magnetic Nanoparticles in Arterial Flow: A Computer Simulation for Magnetic Drug Targeting.

    PubMed

    Lunnoo, Thodsaphon; Puangmali, Theerapong

    2015-12-01

    The primary limitation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) relates to the strength of an external magnetic field which decreases with increasing distance. Small nanoparticles (NPs) displaying superparamagnetic behaviour are also required in order to reduce embolization in the blood vessel. The small NPs, however, make it difficult to vector NPs and keep them in the desired location. The aims of this work were to investigate parameters influencing the capture efficiency of the drug carriers in mimicked arterial flow. In this work, we computationally modelled and evaluated capture efficiency in MDT with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. The studied parameters were (i) magnetic nanoparticle size, (ii) three classes of magnetic cores (Fe3O4, Fe2O3, and Fe), and (iii) the thickness of biocompatible coating materials (Au, SiO2, and PEG). It was found that the capture efficiency of small particles decreased with decreasing size and was less than 5 % for magnetic particles in the superparamagnetic regime. The thickness of non-magnetic coating materials did not significantly influence the capture efficiency of MDT. It was difficult to capture small drug carriers (D<200 nm) in the arterial flow. We suggest that the MDT with high-capture efficiency can be obtained in small vessels and low-blood velocities such as micro-capillary vessels. PMID:26515074

  15. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer.

  16. Temperature Dependence of Smectic Liquid Crystals Mixed With Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jefferson W.; Kurihara, Lynn K.; Martinez-Miranda, Luz J.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the properties of bulk liquid crystal mixed with a magnetic nanoparticle (CoFe) as a function of temperature. We compare our results to those of a heat capacity measurement of Cordoyiannis et al.ootnotetextGeorge Cordoyiannis, Lynn K. Kurihara, Luz J. Martinez-Miranda, Christ Glorieux, and Jan Thoen, Phys. Rev. E 79, 011702 (2009) and compare the way the smectic as a function of temperature the way the nematic behaves. We study how the liquid crystal reorganizes in the presence of the functionalized nanoparticles as a function of temperature and compare it to how it behaves at room temperature.ootnotetextL. J. Mart'inez-Miranda, and Lynn Kurihara, J. Appl. Phys, 105, p. 084305 (2009). The X-rays give rise to three or four peaks whose evolution in temperature varies depending on their origin. In particular the second peak does not seem to vary much with temperature, and can be associated with the first several molecular layers attached to the nanoparticles.

  17. Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. PMID:24991427

  18. Cancer Theranostics: The Rise of Targeted Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Adam J.; Yang, Victor C.; David, Allan E.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in utilizing magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) for biomedical applications has grown considerably over the past two decades. This excitement is driven in large part by the success of MNPs as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The recent investigative trend with respect to cancer has continued down a diagnostic path, but has also turned toward concurrent therapy giving rise to the distinction of MNPs as potential theranostics. Here we review both the key technical principles of MNPs and the ongoing advancement toward a cancer theranostic MNP. Recent progress in diagnostics, hyperthermia treatments, and drug delivery are all considered. We conclude by identifying current barriers to clinical translation of MNPs and offer considerations for their future development. PMID:21489647

  19. Preparation and magnetic properties of spindle porous iron nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lv Baoliang; Xu Yao Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2009-05-06

    Spindle porous iron nanoparticles were firstly synthesized by reducing the pre-synthesized hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) spindle particles with hydrogen gas. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). A lattice shrinkage mechanism was employed to explain the formation process of the porous structure, and the adsorbed phosphate was proposed as a protective shell in the reduction process. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption result showed a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 29.7 m{sup 2}/g and a continuous pore size distribution from 2 nm to 100 nm. The magnetic hysteresis loop of the synthesized iron particles showed a saturation magnetization of 84.65 emu/g and a coercivity of 442.36 Oe at room temperature.

  20. Chemisorption of cyanogen chloride by spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Glover, T Grant; DeCoste, Jared B; Sabo, Daniel; Zhang, Z John

    2013-05-01

    Spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, MnFe2O4, NiFe2O4, and CoFe2O4, were synthesized and used as gas-phase adsorbents for the removal of cyanogen chloride from dry air. Fixed-bed adsorption breakthrough experiments show adsorption wave behavior at the leading edge of the breakthrough curve that is not typical of physically adsorbed species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicate that CK is reacting with the spinel ferrite surface and forming a carbamate species. The reaction is shown to be a function of the hydroxyl groups and adsorbed water on the surface of the particles as well as the metallic composition of the particles. The surface reaction decreases the remnant and saturation magnetism of the MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 particles by approximately 25%. PMID:23540752

  1. Therapeutic approaches of magnetic nanoparticles for the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent one of the fastest growing areas of concern requiring urgent medical attention. Treatment of CNS ailments is hindered owing to different physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits the accessibility of potential drugs. With the assistance of a nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategy, the problems could be overcome. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven immensely useful as drug carriers for site-specific delivery and as contrast agents owing to their magnetic susceptibility and biocompatibility. By utilizing MNPs, diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases have progressed by overcoming the hurdles of the BBB. In this review, the therapeutic aspect and the future prospects related to the theranostic approach of MNPs are discussed. PMID:26103617

  2. Investigation of nanoparticle distribution formed by the rotation of the magnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, Andrej; Kozireva, Svetlana; Avoti?a, Dace; Chernobayeva, Lidija; Baryshev, Mikhail

    2014-11-01

    An even dispersion of nanoparticles onto a cell monolayer may open up new options for the gene transfer into cells and this could be a valuable achievement in the field of nanotechnology based drug delivery. Here we report on our evaluation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) patterning formed by magnetic arrays with unipolar NdFeB magnet arrangements and describe a rotating magnetic array as well as underlying mechanisms of the nanoparticle pattern formation. SPION pattern derived from static magnetic array represents line-like pattern, while the pattern formed by orbital magnetic array is homogenously distributed nanoparticles. Our results show that the SPION sedimentation under the time-phase varying action of magnetic field occurs with horizontal motion of nanoparticles and forms a homogenous distribution of them on the target. In the process, the amplitude of nanoparticle displacement reaches up to 0.5 ?m at the magnet boundary, at the greatest linear speed tested of 60 mm/s (magnetic field gradient: 50 T/m). Application of the orbital magnetic array increases the probability of nanoparticle-cell interactions and enhances the efficiency of the gene delivery.

  3. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers

    PubMed Central

    Wahajuddin; Arora, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) or Fe3O4 (magnetite) particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to be resolved before they can be moved from bench top to bedside. PMID:22848170

  4. Selective and directional actuation of elastomer films using chained magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sumeet R; Dickey, Michael D; Velev, Orlin D; Tracy, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    We report selective and directional actuation of elastomer films utilizing magnetic anisotropy introduced by chains of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Under uniform magnetic fields or field gradients, dipolar interactions between the MNPs favor magnetization along the chain direction and cause selective lifting. This mechanism is described using a simple model. PMID:26677134

  5. The synthesis, characterization, and application of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, Ronald J.

    In recent years, the field of nanotechnology has been one of extreme activity. Among other things, this activity is driven by the push for consumer technologies that are lighter, stronger, and most importantly smaller. With this push from the everyday consumer, the need for a basic understanding of the underlying physics of nanoscale materials has never been more evident. In this dissertation, the author investigates the many physical differences, in particular the differences in the magnetic properties, between nanoscale materials and their bulk counterparts. Starting out with a brief overview of magnetism, the author sets out to explore the fantastic changes in the magnetic properties of materials that occur when the physical dimensions of the materials become smaller than typical magnetic length scales. Among the first differences noticed arises when nanoscale ferromagnets are investigated. While the magnetic properties of bulk ferromagnets are governed by magnetic domain dynamics, when a material becomes small enough that only one domain is possible, a new type of magnetic behavior known as superparamagnetism arises. While this superparamagnetic behavior is well understood in terms of thermally activated spin reversal through an energy barrier, many factors, such as interactions between separate nanoparticles, cause deviations from this simple picture. The effects of these factors are investigated. In addition to the effects of interactions, the relation of nanoscale magnetics and its coupling to the dielectric properties of nanoparticles is investigated. This investigation, motivated by recent research focusing on the search for materials whose magnetic and electronic properties are influenced by each other, shows that nanomaterials can show a coupling between these properties that isn't necessarily the intrinsic coupling of the two properties, but an effect from the surface layers of nanoparticles, which are generally ignored in bulk systems due to the fact that they make up such a small percentage of the overall material. However, in nanoscale systems, the surface layers become much more involved in the determination of the overall behavior of the system as they are no longer a small percentage of the overall system, and cannot be ignored. A third investigation looks at magnetodielectric coupling that occurs in bulk Mn3O4 as a result of spin-lattice coupling with the lattice and the long-range magnetic order that develops in the system at low temperature. The motivation to study this bulk system becomes evident to the general theme of this dissertation when one asks the question, can this long-range order (extending over many unit cells of the lattice) occur in nanoscale systems (where only a few unit cells of material are present)? Preliminary data suggests that these long-range orders that occur in the bulk are not feasible in the nanoscale material. Finally, as consumer driven technology grows, the need for a single material that can be altered for use in a wide variety of applications becomes increasingly more evident. It is with this motivation that the author investigates the ability to tune the blocking temperature of an Fe3O4 nanoparticle system through cobalt doping, effectively changing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the system. The author finds that up to small cobalt concentrations, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy was able to be linearly increased by increasing the amount of cobalt in the system, thus providing a nanoparticle system whose blocking temperature is effectively tunable. In addition to this tuning using the cobalt doping to change the anisotropy, it was found that altering the size of the nanoparticles was also an effective way to controllably tune the blocking temperature of a nanoparticle system. In addition to the author's main research aimed at this dissertation, the author provides a small outline of some work that was done outside of the scope of his dissertation research. It is shown that while this work did not directly contribute to the dissertation topic, it did broaden the author's skill set and lead to additional collaborations between the author's research group and groups around the world.

  6. Magnetoabsorption and magnetic hysteresis in Ni ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Gómez, P.; Muñoz, J. M.; Valente, M. A.; Torres, C.; de Francisco, C.

    2013-01-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a modified sol-gel technique employing coconut oil, and then annealed at different temperatures in 400-1200 °C range. This route of preparation has revealed to be one efficient and cheap technique to obtain high quality nickel ferrite nanosized powder. Sample particles sizes obtained with XRD data and Scherrer's formula lie in 13 nm to 138 nm, with increased size with annealing temperature. Hysteresis loops have been obtained at room temperature with an inductive method. Magnetic field induced microwave absorption in nanoscale ferrites is a recent an active area of research, in order to characterize and explore potential novel applications. In the present work microwave magnetoabsorption data of the annealed nickel ferrite nanoparticles are presented. These data have been obtained with a system based on a network analyzer that operates in the frequency range 0 - 8.5 GHz. At fields up to 400 mT we can observe a peak according to ferromagnetic resonance theory. Sample annealed at higher temperature exhibits different absorption, coercivity and saturation magnetization figures, revealing its multidomain character.

  7. Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O; Gomes, I T; Almeida, Bernardo G; Arajo, J P; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Coutinho, Paulo J G

    2015-07-21

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes (DMLs), or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs). A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described. The presence of the lipid bilayer in DMLs was confirmed by FRET (Frster Resonance Energy Transfer) measurements between the fluorescent-labeled lipids NBD-C12-HPC (NBD acting as a donor) included in the second lipid layer and rhodamine B-DOPE (acceptor) in the first lipid layer. An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes (modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) were performed. Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers. PMID:26095537

  8. Effect of hexane on magnetic blocking behavior of FePt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?im?ek, Telem; Akansel, Serkan; zcan, ?adan

    2012-11-01

    In this work effect of the carrier fluid, hexane, on the magnetic properties of 4.7 nm sized FePt nanoparticles is investigated. Nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method. Structural and magnetic characterizations confirmed that samples are monodispersed with disordered face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and, magnetically, exhibit two blocking behaviors; the first is at 27 K and second at 110 K. Carrier fluid of particles, hexane, is found to influence the blocking of 7% of the total magnetic moments in the system by freezing at low temperatures resulting in a two blocking phenomena even for nanoparticles that are monodispersed with narrow particle size distribution.

  9. Specific features of the behavior of electroarc CuO nanoparticles in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, A. V.; Karpov, I. V.; Lepeshev, A. A.; Petrov, M. I.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2015-05-01

    The temperature and time dependences of the magnetization of copper oxide nanoparticles 8, 13, and 18 nm in size have been investigated. Specific features of the behavior of CuO nanoparticles formed by vacuum plasma-arc synthesis as compared to other antiferromagnetic particles have been revealed. It has been shown that the bifurcation of magnetization curves upon cooling in the zero (ZFC) and nonzero (FC) magnetic fields occurs above the Nel temperature, while the usual peak of the magnetization curve is absent in the ZFC mode. The problems associated with the nonequilibrium behavior of synthesized CuO nanoparticles have been discussed.

  10. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Robert; Glser, Marcus; Ghner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Hofmann, Andreas; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ?10-8 Am2) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100-150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  11. Relaxation of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles in ultra-low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. C.; Chiu, L. L.; Liao, S. H.; Chen, H. H.; Horng, H. E.; Liu, C. W.; Liu, C. I.; Chen, K. L.; Chen, M. J.; Wang, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the spin-spin relaxation rate, 1/T2, and spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1, of protons' spins induced by biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles and ferrofluids are investigated using a high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device-detected magnetometer in ultra-low fields. The biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles are the anti-human C-reactive protein (antiCRP) coated onto dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxides Fe3O4, which is labeled as Fe3O4-antiCRP. The ferrofluids are dextran-coated iron oxides. It was found that both 1/T2 and 1/T1 of protons in Fe3O4-antiCRP are enhanced by the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. Additionally, both the 1/T1 and 1/T2 of Fe3O4-antiCRP are close to that of ferrofluids, which are dextran-coated Fe3O4 dispersed in phosphate buffer saline. Characterizing the relaxation of Fe3O4-antiCRP can be useful for biomedical applications.

  12. Nonlinear magnetization relaxation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in superimposed ac and dc magnetic bias fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Serguey V.; Djardin, Pierre-Michel; El Mrabti, Halim; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    2010-09-01

    The nonlinear ac response of the magnetization M(t) of a uniaxially anisotropic superparamagnetic nanoparticle subjected to both ac and dc bias magnetic fields of arbitrary strengths and orientations is determined by averaging Gilberts equation augmented by a random field with Gaussian white-noise properties in order to calculate exactly the relevant statistical averages. It is shown that the magnetization dynamics of the uniaxial particle driven by a strong ac field applied at an angle to the easy axis of the particle (so that the axial symmetry is broken) alters drastically leading to different nonlinear effects due to coupling of the thermally activated magnetization reversal mode with the precessional modes of M(t) via the driving ac field.

  13. Estimation of magnetic nano-particles' size distribution using their magnetization curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming; Liu, Wenzhong; Kong, Li

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we illustrate a method of reconstructing the size distribution of magnetic nano-particles (MNP) using a magnetization curve that was measured on a water-based MNP. The objective was to find solutions to the ill-posed problem in the matrix equation Ax=b, which was obtained from the numerical model on magnetization. Prior the use of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), a method utilizing a total of 60 sample points of magnetization curves was obtained from Superconducting QUantum Interface Devices (SQUID) in attempts to achieve a favorable solution. However, eliminating oscillation in this manner was proven difficult. Therefore, the Tikhonov regulation (ATA-?I) was offered in the solution to overcome the above-mentioned ill-posed problem. Size distributions from Tikhonov SVD (TSVD) were found stable. As predicted in previous theoretical analyses, a lognormal-like distribution of the MNP could be observed in single-origin MNP EMG1111.

  14. Magnetic particle hyperthermia: nanoparticle magnetism and materials development for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergt, Rudolf; Dutz, Silvio; Mller, Robert; Zeisberger, Matthias

    2006-09-01

    Loss processes in magnetic nanoparticles are discussed with respect to optimization of the specific loss power (SLP) for application in tumour hyperthermia. Several types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles representative for different preparation methods (wet chemical precipitation, grinding, bacterial synthesis, magnetic size fractionation) are the subject of a comparative study of structural and magnetic properties. Since the specific loss power useful for hyperthermia is restricted by serious limitations of the alternating field amplitude and frequency, the effects of the latter are investigated experimentally in detail. The dependence of the SLP on the mean particle size is studied over a broad size range from superparamagnetic up to multidomain particles, and guidelines for achieving large SLP under the constraints valid for the field parameters are derived. Particles with the mean size of 18 nm having a narrow size distribution proved particularly useful. In particular, very high heating power may be delivered by bacterial magnetosomes, the best sample of which showed nearly 1 kW g-1 at 410 kHz and 10 kA m-1. This value may even be exceeded by metallic magnetic particles, as indicated by measurements on cobalt particles.

  15. Influence of surface segregation on magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hongyan; Lei, Yinkai; Datta, Aditi; Wang, Guofeng

    2013-09-01

    Surface segregation leads to chemical disordering in magnetic alloy nanostructures and thus could have profound impact upon the magnetic properties of these nanostructures. In this study, we used the first-principles density functional theory calculation method to determine how Pt surface segregation (exchanging interior Pt with surface Fe atoms) would affect the magnetic properties of L10 ordered FePt nanoparticles. For both cuboid and cuboctahedral FePt nanoparticles, we predicted that the Pt surface segregation process could cause a decrease in total magnetic moments, a change in (easy and/or hard) magnetization axes, and a reduction in magnetic anisotropy.

  16. Influence of surface segregation on magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Hongyan; Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 ; Lei, Yinkai; Datta, Aditi; Wang, Guofeng

    2013-09-23

    Surface segregation leads to chemical disordering in magnetic alloy nanostructures and thus could have profound impact upon the magnetic properties of these nanostructures. In this study, we used the first-principles density functional theory calculation method to determine how Pt surface segregation (exchanging interior Pt with surface Fe atoms) would affect the magnetic properties of L1{sub 0} ordered FePt nanoparticles. For both cuboid and cuboctahedral FePt nanoparticles, we predicted that the Pt surface segregation process could cause a decrease in total magnetic moments, a change in (easy and/or hard) magnetization axes, and a reduction in magnetic anisotropy.

  17. Antibacterial activity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Raid A; Sulaiman, Ghassan M; Abdulrahman, Safa A; Marzoog, Thorria R

    2015-08-01

    In this study, (50-110 nm) magnetic iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of iron target in dimethylformamide (DMF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-VIS absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of laser fluence on the characteristics of these nanoparticles was studied. Antibacterial activities of iron oxide nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The results showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. The preparation conditions were found to affect significantly the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used to capture rapidly S. aureus bacteria under the magnetic field effect. PMID:26042717

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of magnetic Fe3O4@Au core shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, Dina M.; El-Said, Waleed A.; Mohamed, Mona B.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and iron oxide/gold core-shell (Fe3O4/Au) nanoparticles were synthesized and their catalytic photo-degradation activity towards malathion as example of organophosphorus pesticides were reported. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticle was successfully prepared through co-precipitation method by the reduction of ferric chloride (FeCl3) using ascorbic acid. The morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was characterized by the TEM and XRD (X-ray diffraction) techniques. Degradation of 10 ppm of malathion in the presence of these nanoparticles under UV radiation was monitored using (HPLC) and UV-visible spectra. Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles showed higher efficiency in photo-degradation of malathion than Fe3O4 ones.

  19. Characterization of Magnetic NiFe Nanoparticles with Controlled Bimetallic Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Chi, Yanxiu; Shan, Shiyao; Yin, Jun; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2014-02-25

    The exploration of the magnetic properties of bimetallic alloy nanoparticles for various technological applications requires the ability to control the morphology, composition, and surface properties. In this report, we describe new findings of an investigation of the morphology and composition of NiFe alloy nanoparticles synthesized under controlled conditions. The controllability over the bimetallic composition has been demonstrated by the observation of an approximate linear relationship between the composition in the nanoparticles and in the synthetic feeding. The morphology of the NiFe nanoparticles is consistent with an fcc-type alloy, with the lattice strain increasing linearly with the iron content in the nanoparticles. The alloy nanoparticles exhibit remarkable resistance to air oxidation in comparison with Ni or Fe particles. The thermal stability and the magnetic properties of the as-synthesized alloy nanoparticles are shown to depend on the composition. The alloy nanoparticles have also be sown to display low saturation magnetization and coercivity values in comparison with the Ni nanoparticles, in line with the superparamagnetic characteristic. These findings have important implications for the design of stable and controllable magnetic nanoparticles for various technological applications.

  20. In-situ dispersion and optical manipulation of magnetic carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusain, Sunil; Mohanty, Samarendra; Koymen, Ali

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic carbon nanoparticles are finding increasing use in enhancing contrast of imaging and photo thermal therapy of cancer. However, conventional synthesis of these nanoparticles involves very cumbersome and skillful interventions. We developed a simple method for controlled synthesis of amorphous carbon nanoparticles using dense medium plasma generated in the cavitation field of an ultrasonic horn in Benzene using two metal electrodes. In this method, the electrode (magnetic) material is incorporated into the C nanoparticles, as confirmed by hysteresis curve, measured using SQUID magnetometer. TEM images showed that the size of the C nanoparticles is in the range of 8-14 nm and the electron diffraction established that these nanoparticles are amorphous. The absorption spectrum in near-IR region was measured to be of similar value as in the visible region, making it a very useful candidate for photothermal therapy using near-infrared laser in the biological window. These carbon nanoparticles aggregates and tend to form clusters. For in-situ dispersion of these nanoparticles, we made use of the absorption property of these nanoparticles using a focused near-IR cw laser microbeam (1064nm). We believe the magnetic property of these nanoparticles would allow effective localization in the tumor region by application of external magnetic field.

  1. Highly magnetic iron carbide nanoparticles as effective T2 contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoming; Hu, Juan; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Zijian; Chi, Xiaoqin; Gao, Jinhao

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports that iron carbide nanoparticles with high air-stability and strong saturation magnetization can serve as effective T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Fe5C2 nanoparticles (~20 nm in diameter) exhibit strong contrast enhancement with an r2 value of 283.2 mM-1 S-1, which is about twice as high as that of spherical Fe3O4 nanoparticles (~140.9 mM-1 S-1). In vivo experiments demonstrate that Fe5C2 nanoparticles are able to produce much more significant MRI contrast enhancement than conventional Fe3O4 nanoparticles in living subjects, which holds great promise in biomedical applications.This paper reports that iron carbide nanoparticles with high air-stability and strong saturation magnetization can serve as effective T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Fe5C2 nanoparticles (~20 nm in diameter) exhibit strong contrast enhancement with an r2 value of 283.2 mM-1 S-1, which is about twice as high as that of spherical Fe3O4 nanoparticles (~140.9 mM-1 S-1). In vivo experiments demonstrate that Fe5C2 nanoparticles are able to produce much more significant MRI contrast enhancement than conventional Fe3O4 nanoparticles in living subjects, which holds great promise in biomedical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figures and experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04691e

  2. How cellular processing of superparamagnetic nanoparticles affects their magnetic behavior and NMR relaxivity.

    PubMed

    Lvy, Michael; Wilhelm, Claire; Devaud, Martin; Levitz, Pierre; Gazeau, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Cellular processing of nanomaterials may affect their physical properties at the root of various biomedical applications. When nanoparticles interact with living cells, their spatial distribution is progressively modified by cellular activity, which tends to concentrate them into intracellular compartments, changing in turn their responsivity to physical stimuli. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of cellular uptake on the related magnetic properties and NMR relaxivity of iron oxide nanoparticles. The superparamagnetic behavior (field-dependent and temperature-dependent magnetization curves investigated by SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) measurements) and nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) R(1) profiles of citrate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (mean diameter 8 nm) were characterized in colloidal suspension and after being uptaken by several types of cells (tumor cells, stem cells and macrophages). The temperature-dependent magnetization as well as the NMRD profile were changed following cellular uptake depending on the stage of endocytosis process while the field-dependent magnetization at room temperature remained unchanged. Magnetic coupling between nanoparticles confined in cell lysosomes accounts for the modification in magnetic behavior, thereby reflecting the local organization of nanoparticles. NMR longitudinal relaxivity was directly sensitive to the intracellular distribution of nanoparticles, in line with Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM observations. This study is the first attempt to link up magnetic properties and NMR characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles before and after their cell processing. PMID:22649043

  3. The influence of magnetic and physiological behaviour on the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, C. L.; Jackson, A. J.; Borchers, J. A.; Ivkov, R.; Foreman, A. R.; Hoopes, P. J.; Strawbridge, R.; Pierce, Z.; Goerntiz, E.; Lau, J. W.; Gruettner, C.

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are being developed for a wide range of biomedical applications. In particular, hyperthermia involves heating the magnetic nanoparticles through exposure to an alternating magnetic field. These materials offer the potential to selectively treat cancer by heating cancer tissue locally and at the cellular level. This may be a successful method if there are enough particles in a tumor possessing a sufficiently high specific absorption rate (SAR) to deposit heat quickly while minimizing thermal damage to surrounding tissue. High SAR magnetic nanoparticles have been developed and used in mouse models of cancer. The magnetic nanoparticles comprise iron oxide magnetic cores (mean core diameter of 50 nm) surrounded by a dextran layer shell for colloidal stability. In comparing two similar systems, the saturation magnetization is found to play a crucial role in determining the SAR, but is not the only factor of importance. (A difference in saturation magnetization of a factor of 1.5 yields a difference in SAR of a factor of 2.5 at 1080 Oe and 150 kHz.) Variations in the interactions due to differences in the dextran layer, as determined through neutron scattering, also play a role in the SAR. Once these nanoparticles are introduced into the tumor, their efficacy, with respect to tumor growth, is determined by the location of the nanoparticles within or near the tumor cells and the association of the nanoparticles with the delivered alternating magnetic field (AMF). This association (nanoparticle SAR and AMF) determines the amount of heat generated. In our setting, the heat generated and the time of heating (thermal dose) provides a tumor gross treatment response which correlates closely with that of conventional (non-nanoparticle) hyperthermia. This being said, it appears specific aspects of the nanoparticle hyperthermia cytopathology mechanism may be very different from that observed in conventional cancer treatment hyperthermia.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curely, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization studies.

  5. Controlled assembly of magnetic nanoparticles on microbubbles for multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Yang, Fang; Song, Lina; Fang, Kun; Tian, Jilai; Liang, Yijun; Li, Mingxi; Xu, Ning; Chen, Zhongda; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-07-21

    Magnetic microbubbles (MMBs) consisting of microbubbles (MBs) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized for use as novel markers for improving multifunctional biomedical imaging. The MMBs were fabricated by assembling MNPs in different concentrations on the surfaces of MBs. The relationships between the structure, magnetic properties, stability of the MMBs, and their use in magnetic resonance/ultrasound (MR/US) dual imaging applications were determined. The MNPs used were NPs of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS)-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide ?-Fe2O3 (SPIO). SPIO was assembled on the surfaces of polymer MBs using a "surface-coating" approach. An analysis of the underlying mechanism showed that the synergistic effects of covalent coupling, electrostatic adsorption, and aggregation of the MNPs allowed them to be unevenly assembled in large amounts on the surfaces of the MBs. With an increase in the MNP loading amount, the magnetic properties of the MMBs improved significantly; in this way, the shell structure and mechanical properties of the MMBs could be modified. For surface densities ranging from 2.45 10(-7) ?g per MMB to 8.45 10(-7) ?g per MMB, in vitro MR/US imaging experiments showed that, with an increase in the number of MNPs on the surfaces of the MBs, the MMBs exhibited better T2 MR imaging contrast, as well as an increase in the US contrast for longer durations. In vivo experiments also showed that, by optimizing the structure of the MMBs, enhanced MR/US dual-modality image signals could be obtained for mouse tumors. Therefore, by adjusting the shell composition of MBs through the assembly of MNPs in different concentrations, MMBs with good magnetic and acoustic properties for MR/US dual-modality imaging contrast agents could be obtained. PMID:26061750

  6. Multifunctional hybrid silica nanoparticles based on [Mo?Br??]? phosphorescent nanosized clusters, magnetic ?-Fe?O? and plasmonic gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nerambourg, Nicolas; Aubert, Tangi; Neaime, Chrystelle; Cordier, Stphane; Mortier, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles; Grasset, Fabien

    2014-06-15

    We report on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical study of new luminescent and magnetic hybrid silica nanoparticles. Our method is based on the co-encapsulation of single maghemite ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and luminescent molybdenum cluster units [Mo6Br(i)8Br(a)6](2-) through a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion technique. The as-prepared core-shell [Cs2Mo6Br14-?Fe2O3]@SiO2 nanoparticles (45-53 nm) possess a single magnetic core (6, 10.5 or 15 nm) and the cluster units are dispersed in the entire volume of the silica sphere. The [Cs2Mo6Br14-?Fe2O3]@SiO2 nanoparticles have a perfect spherical shape with a good monodispersity and they display red and near-infrared (NIR) emission in water under UV excitation, whose intensity depends on the magnetic core size. The hybrid nanoparticles have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high annular angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and magnetometer SQUID analysis. Small gold nanoparticles were successfully nucleated at the surface of the hybrid silica nanoparticles in order to add plasmonic properties. PMID:24767509

  7. Air stable iron/iron carbide magnetic nanoparticles embedded in amorphous carbon globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhanala, Hari Krishna; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized Fe/Fe3C magnetic nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous carbon globule by pyrolysing of benzene, ferrocene and hydroboric acid. The diameter of the globules is 1 m and that of Fe/Fe3C magnetic nanoparticles is 40 nm. The globules exhibit ferromagnetic like behavior and the magnetization as well as the coercivity is found to increases with decreasing temperature.

  8. Release of Magnetic Nanoparticles from Cell-Encapsulating Biodegradable Nanobiomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Inci, Fatih; Mullick, Omer; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Sung, Yuree; Kavaz, Doga; Li, Baoqiang; Denkbas, Emir Baki; Demirci, Utkan

    2013-01-01

    The future of tissue engineering requires development of intelligent biomaterials using nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have several applications in biology and medicine; one example is Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, MNPs have been encapsulated within cell-encapsulating hydrogels to create novel nanobiomaterials (i.e., M-gels), which can be manipulated and assembled in magnetic fields. The M-gels can be used as building blocks for bottom-up tissue engineering to create 3D tissue constructs. For tissue engineering applications of M-gels, it is essential to study the release of encapsulated MNPs from the hydrogel polymer network and the effect of MNPs on hydrogel properties, including mechanical characteristics, porosity, swelling behavior, and cellular response (e.g., viability, growth). Therefore, we evaluated the release of MNPs from photocrosslinkable gelatin methacrylate hydrogels as the polymer network undergoes biodegradation using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. MNP release correlated linearly with hydrogel biodegradation rate with correlation factors (Pearson product moment correlation coefficient) of 0.96 ± 0.03 and 0.99 ± 0.01 for MNP concentrations of 1% and 5%, respectively. We also evaluated the effect of MNPs on hydrogel mechanical properties, porosity, and swelling behavior, as well as cell viability and growth in MNP-encapsulating hydrogels. Fibroblasts encapsulated with MNPs in hydrogels remained viable (>80% at t = 144 h) and formed microtissue constructs in culture (t = 144 h). These results indicated that MNP-encapsulating hydrogels show promise as intelligent nanobiomaterials, with great potential to impact broad areas of bioengineering, including tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:22680777

  9. Nano- and microstructures of magnetic field-guided maghemite nanoparticles in diblock copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Niedermeier, Martin A; Opel, Matthias; Lin, Chen; Ning, Jing; Perlich, Jan; Roth, Stephan V; Mller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The control over the alignment of nanoparticles within a block copolymer matrix was investigated for different external magnetic fields with respect to producing well-aligned, highly oriented metal-oxide-polymer nanopatterns. Hybrid films were prepared by solution casting under a range of external magnetic fields. The nano- and microstructure of maghemite nanoparticles within poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymer films as a function of the nanoparticle concentration was studied using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. Because of a polystyrene (PS) coating, the nanoparticles are incorporated in the PS domains of the diblock copolymer morphology. At higher nanoparticle concentrations, nanoparticle aggregates perturb the block copolymer structure and accumulate at the films surface into wire-shaped stripes. These wire-shaped nanoparticle aggregates form mainly because of the competition between nanoparticle-polymer friction and magnetic dipolar interaction. The magnetic behavior of the hybrid films was probed at different temperatures for two orthogonal directions (with the line-shaped particle aggregates parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field). The hybrid film systems show superparamagnetic behavior and remarkable shape anisotropy that render them interesting for magnetic applications. PMID:24621173

  10. Immobilization of cholesterol oxidase to finely dispersed silica-coated maghemite nanoparticles based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ulek, Franja; Knez, eljko; Habulin, Maja

    2010-05-01

    In the recent years, the potential applicability of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has witnessed a significant increase in interest towards the medical field, in particular, towards the usage of novel nanoparticles in diagnostics and disease treatment, respectively. In a present study, cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was covalently immobilized to magnetic nanoparticles of maghemite (?-Fe 2O 3) and further functionalized by silica (SiO 2) and amino-silane molecules. The activity of the bound enzyme was retained up to 60%, respectively. The binding of cholesterol oxidase was confirmed using FT-IR spectrophotometer. SEM analysis showed uniformly dispersed functional magnetic nanoparticles, which ranged in size from 22.5 to 50.8 nm, surrounded by amorphous silica. In this paper, the potential applications of chemically modified magnetic nanoparticles as carriers for cholesterol oxidase and other enzymes are discussed.

  11. Chromenone-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Toward conveyable DNA binders.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Sameena; Enoch, Israel V M V; Paulraj, Mosae Selvalumar; Dhanaraj, Premnath

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles can transport drug and possibly target cancer. DNA-binding of ligands loaded in dextran coated magnetic nanoparticles, could aid their better target-specific binding. In this work, we report the loading of chromenones onto aminoethylamino-modified dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles, their loading efficiency, and openness for binding to DNA. The magnetic behavior, the size, and the morphology of the nanoparticles are analyzed. The crystallite size of the magnetic nanoparticles is around 40nm. The chromenones are present on the surface of the dextran shell, as revealed by their cyclodextrin-binding characteristics, which is a new approach in comprehending the accessibility of the surface-bound molecules by macromolecules. The mode of binding of the chromenones to DNA is not altered on surface loading on dextran shell, although the binding strength is generally diminished, compared to the strength of binding of the free chromenones to DNA. PMID:26280819

  12. The use of magnetic nanoparticles in thermal therapy monitoring and screening: Localization and imaging (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A method termed magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion (MSB) was developed to interrogate in vivo the microscopic environment surrounding magnetic nanoparticles. We can monitor several effects that are important in thermal therapy and screening including temperature measurement and the bound state distribution. Here we report on simulations of nanoparticle localization. Measuring the spatial distribution of nanoparticles would allow us to identify ovarian cancer much earlier when it is still curable or monitor thermal therapies more accurately. We demonstrate that with well-designed equipment superior signal to noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved using only two harmonics rather than using all the harmonics containing signal. Alternatively, smaller magnetic field amplitudes can be used to achieve the same SNR. The SNR is improved using fewer harmonics because the noise is limited.

  13. Fluorescent chitosan functionalized magnetic polymeric nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and invitro evaluation of cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Kaewsaneha, Chariya; Jangpatarapongsa, Kulachart; Tangchaikeeree, Tienrat; Polpanich, Duangporn; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles possessing magnetic and fluorescent properties were fabricated by the covalent attachment of fluorescein isothiocyanate onto magnetic polymeric nanoparticles functionalized by chitosan. The synthesized magnetic polymeric nanoparticles-chitosan/fluorescein isothiocyanate were successfully used for labeling the living organ and blood-related cancer cells, i.e., HeLa, Hep G2, and K562 cells. The cytotoxicity test of nanoparticles at various incubation times indicated the high cell viability (>90%) without morphological change. The confocal microscopy revealed that they could pass through cell membrane within 2?h for K562 cells and 3?h for HeLa and Hep G2 cells and then confine inside cytoplasm of all types of tested cells for at least 24?h. Therefore, the synthesized magnetic polymeric nanoparticles-chitosan/fluorescein isothiocyanate would potentially be used as cell tracking in theranostic applications. PMID:24951458

  14. Synthesis of high saturation magnetization FeCo nanoparticles by polyol reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F. J.; Yao, J.; Min, J. J.; Li, J. H.; Chen, X. Q.

    2016-03-01

    FeCo nanoparticles with different compositions were prepared by a polyol reduction method and annealed in gas mixtures. All FeCo nanoparticles show large saturation magnetization (over 220 emu/g). The largest saturation magnetization of 273 emu/g was observed in the Fe55Co45 sample. As for Fe48Co52, the impurity phase of CoFe2O4 existed when nanoparticles were annealed at low temperature (200-400 °C). While annealed at above 450 °C, pure Fe48Co52 nanoparticles with large saturation magnetization of 230 emu/g were obtained. These FeCo nanoparticles with large saturation magnetization have great potential in some industry fields.

  15. Magnetic capture of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a constant pressure microcapillary flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darton, Nicholas J.; Hallmark, Bart; James, Tom; Agrawal, Pulkit; Mackley, Malcolm R.; Slater, Nigel K. H.

    2009-05-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesised and their in-flow magnetic capture behaviour studied within transparent plastic microcapillary arrays (MicroCapillary Film or MCF). This system represents an in vitro analogue of capillary vasculature and facilitates easy optical observation of capture phenomenon. A dispersion of nanoparticles was delivered at a constant pressure to an array of capillaries sited adjacent to a 0.5 T permanent magnet. The spatial position of trapped nanoparticles relative to the position of the magnet was analysed. The position of nanoparticle capture appears to be dependent on both spatial location and fluid flow rate and suggests two zones in the magnetic field in which nanoparticles are acted upon differently; a 'steering' zone and a 'capture' zone.

  16. Adsorption of environmental pollutants using magnetic hybrid nanoparticles modified with ?-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Niejun; Zhou, Lilin; Guo, Jun; Ye, Qiquan; Lin, Jin-Ming; Yuan, Jinying

    2014-06-01

    Graft through strategy was utilized to coat magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) using ordinary radical polymerization and then ?-cyclodextrin was linked onto the surface of nanoparticles. With these nanoparticles modified with cyclodextrin groups, adsorption of two model environmental pollutants, bisphenol A and copper ions, was studied. Host-guest interactions between cyclodextrin and aromatic molecules had a great contribution to the adsorption of bisphenol A, while multiple hydroxyls of cyclodextrin also helped the adsorption of copper ions. These magnetic nanoparticles could be applied in the elimination, enrichment and detection of some environmental pollutants.

  17. Folate-conjugated luminescent Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barick, K. C.; Rana, Suman; Hassan, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate a facile approach for the synthesis of folate-conjugated luminescent iron oxide nanoparticles (FLIONs). XRD and TEM analyses reveal the formation of highly crystalline single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticles of size about 10 nm. The conjugation of folate receptor (folic acid, FA) and luminescent molecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC) onto the surface of nanoparticles was evident from FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. These FLIONs show good colloidal stability, high magnetic field responsivity and excellent self-heating efficacy. Specifically, a new class of magnetic nanoparticles has been fabricated, which can be used as an effective heating source for hyperthermia.

  18. Analysis of high gradient magnetic field effects on distribution of nanoparticles injected into pulsatile blood stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Habibi, Mohammad; Ghassemi, Majid; Hossien Hamedi, Mohammad

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are widely used in a wide range of applications including data storage materials, pharmaceutical industries as magnetic separation tools, anti-cancer drug carriers and micro valve applications. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field on bio-fluid (blood) with magnetic nanoparticles. The effect of particles as well as mass fraction on flow field and volume concentration is investigated. The governing non-linear differential equations, concentration and Navier-stokes are coupled with the magnetic field. To solve these equations, a finite volume based code is developed and utilized. A real pulsatile velocity is utilized as inlet boundary condition. This velocity is extracted from an actual experimental data. Three percent nanoparticles volume concentration, as drug carrier, is steadily injected in an unsteady, pulsatile and non-Newtonian flow. A power law model is considered for the blood viscosity. The results show that during the systole section of the heartbeat when the blood velocity increases, the magnetic nanoparticles near the magnetic source are washed away. This is due to the sudden increase of the hydrodynamic force, which overcomes the magnetic force. The probability of vein blockage increases when the blood velocity reduces during the diastole time. As nanoparticles velocity injection decreases (longer injection time) the wall shear stress (especially near the injection area) decreases and the retention time of the magnetic nanoparticles in the blood flow increases.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: The behaviour of nanostructured magnetic materials produced by depositing gas-phase nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, C.; Trohidou, K. N.; Bansmann, J.; Baker, S. H.; Blackman, J. A.; Bucher, J.-P.; Kechrakos, D.; Kleibert, A.; Louch, S.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.; Pastor, G. M.; Perez, A.; Xie, Y.

    2005-11-01

    Depositing pre-formed gas-phase nanoparticles, whose properties can be widely varied, onto surfaces enables the production of films with designed properties. The films can be nanoporous or, if co-deposited with an atomic vapour, granular, allowing independent control over the size and volume fraction of the grains. This high degree of control over the nanostructure of the film enables the production of thin films with a wide variety of behaviour, and the technique is destined to make a significant contribution to the production of high-performance magnetic materials. Here we review the behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle assemblies on surfaces and in non-magnetic and magnetic matrices deposited from the gas phase at densities from the dilute limit to pure nanoparticle films with no matrix. At sufficiently low volume fractions (~1%), and temperatures well above their blocking temperature, nanoparticle assemblies in non-magnetic matrices show ideal superparamagnetism. At temperatures below the blocking temperature, the magnetization behaviour of both Fe and Co particles is consistent with a uniaxial intra-particle magnetic anisotropy and an anisotropy constant several times higher than the bulk magnetocrystalline value. At relatively low volume fractions (>=5%) the effect of inter-particle interactions becomes evident, and the magnetization behaviour becomes characteristic of agglomerates of nanoparticles exchange coupled to form magnetic grains larger than a single particle that interact with each other via dipolar forces. The evolution of the magnetic behaviour with volume fraction is predicted by a Monte-Carlo model that includes exchange and dipolar couplings. Above the percolation threshold the films become magnetically softer, and films of pure clusters have a magnetic ground state that obeys the predicted magnetization behaviour of a correlated super-spin glass characteristic of random anisotropy materials. Magnetic nanoparticles in non-magnetic matrices show giant magnetoresistance behaviour, and the magnetotransport in deposited nanoparticle films is reviewed. Assembling Fe nanoparticles in Co matrices and vice versa is a promising technique for producing magnetic materials with a saturation magnetization that exceeds the Slater-Pauling limit. Structural studies reveal that the particles' atomic structure is dependent on the matrix material, and it is possible to prepare Fe nanoparticles with an fcc structure and, unusually, Co particles with a bcc structure. We also look to the future and discuss applications for materials made from more complex bi-metallic and core-shell nanoparticles.

  20. Evaluation of Magnetic Micro- and Nanoparticle Toxicity to Ocular Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Hemalatha B.; Hu, Ying; Vedula, Anil; Dubovy, Sander R.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) may be used for focal delivery of plasmids, drugs, cells, and other applications. Here we ask whether such particles are toxic to ocular structures. Methods To evaluate the ocular toxicity of MNPs, we asked if either 50 nm or 4 m magnetic particles affect intraocular pressure, corneal endothelial cell count, retinal morphology including both cell counts and glial activation, or photoreceptor function at different time points after injection. Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?44) were injected in the left eye with either 50 nm (3 l, 1.65 mg) or 4 m (3 l, 1.69 mg) magnetic particles, and an equal volume of PBS into the right eye. Electroretinograms (ERG) were used to determine if MNPs induce functional changes to the photoreceptor layers. Enucleated eyes were sectioned for histology and immunofluorescence. Results Compared to control-injected eyes, MNPs did not alter IOP measurements. ERG amplitudes for a-waves were in the 100250 V range and b-waves were in the 500600 V range, with no significant differences between injected and non-injected eyes. Histological sectioning and immunofluorescence staining showed little difference in MNP-injected animals compared to control eyes. In contrast, at 1 week, corneal endothelial cell numbers were significantly lower in the 4 m magnetic particle-injected eyes compared to either 50 nm MNP- or PBS-injected eyes. Furthermore, iron deposition was detected after 4 m magnetic particle but not 50 nm MNP injection. Conclusions Intravitreal or anterior chamber injections of MNPs showed little to no signs of toxicity on retinal structure, photoreceptor function or aqueous drainage in the eye. Our results suggest that MNPs are safe for intraocular use. PMID:21637340

  1. Development of a Magnetic Nanoparticle Susceptibility Magnitude Imaging Array

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-01-01

    There are several emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in medicine. This study examines the potential for developing an mNP imager that meets these emerging clinical needs with a low cost imaging solution that uses arrays of digitally controlled drive coils in a multiple-frequency, continuous-wave operating mode and compensated fluxgate magnetometers. The design approach is described and a mathematical model is developed to support measurement and imaging. A prototype is used to demonstrate active compensation of up to 185 times the primary applied magnetic field, depth sensitivity up to 2.5 cm (p < 0.01), and linearity over 5 dilutions (R2 > 0.98, p <0.001). System frequency responses show distinguishable readouts for iron oxide mNPs with single magnetic domain core diameters of 10 nm and 40 nm, and multi-domain mNPs with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm. Tomographic images show a contrast-to-noise ratio of 23 for 0.5 ml of 12.5 mg Fe/ml mNPs at 1 cm depth. A demonstration involving the injection of mNPs into pork sausage shows the potential for use in biological systems. These results indicate that the proposed mNP imaging approach can potentially be extended to a larger array system with higher-resolution. PMID:24504184

  2. Toward Epileptic Brain Region Detection Based on Magnetic Nanoparticle Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Pedram, Maysam Z.; Shamloo, Amir; Alasty, Aria; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Resection of the epilepsy foci is the best treatment for more than 15% of epileptic patients or 50% of patients who are refractory to all forms of medical treatment. Accurate mapping of the locations of epileptic neuronal networks can result in the complete resection of epileptic foci. Even though currently electroencephalography is the best technique for mapping the epileptic focus, it cannot define the boundary of epilepsy that accurately. Herein we put forward a new accurate brain mapping technique using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNs). The main hypothesis in this new approach is the creation of super-paramagnetic aggregates in the epileptic foci due to high electrical and magnetic activities. These aggregates may improve tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that results in improving the resection of epileptic foci. In this paper, we present the mathematical models before discussing the simulation results. Furthermore, we mimic the aggregation of SPMNs in a weak magnetic field using a low-cost microfabricated device. Based on these results, the SPMNs may play a crucial role in diagnostic epilepsy and the subsequent treatment of this disease. PMID:26402686

  3. Quantitative intracellular magnetic nanoparticle uptake measured by live cell magnetophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Ying; Mal, Niladri; Williams, P. Stephen; Mayorga, Maritza; Penn, Marc S.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles have been used successfully as an intracellular contrast agent for nuclear MRI cell tracking in vivo. We present a method of detecting intracellular SPIO colloid uptake in live cells using cell magnetophoresis, with potential applications in measuring intracellular MRI contrast uptake. The method was evaluated by measuring shifts in mean and distribution of the cell magnetophoretic mobility, and the concomitant changes in population frequency of the magnetically positive cells when compared to the unmanipulated negative control. Seven different transfection agent (TA) -SPIO complexes based on dendrimer, lipid, and polyethylenimine compounds were used as test standards, in combination with 3 different cell types: mesenchymal stem cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and cultured KG-1a hematopoietic stem cells. Transfectol (TRA) -SPIO incubation resulted in the highest frequency of magnetically positive cells (>90%), and Fugene 6 (FUG) -SPIO incubation the lowest, below that when using SPIO alone. A highly regular process of cell magnetophoresis was amenable to intracellular iron mass calculations. The results were consistent in all the cell types studied and with other reports. The cell magnetophoresis depends on the presence of high-spin iron species and is therefore expected to be directly related to the cell MRI contrast level.Jing, Y., Mal, N., Williams, P. S., Mayorga, M., Penn, M. S., Chalmers, J. J., Zborowski, M. Quantitative intracellular magnetic nanoparticle uptake measured by live cell magnetophoresis. PMID:18725459

  4. Magnetic tumor targeting of ?-glucosidase immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; David, Allan E; Yang, Victor C

    2013-09-20

    Directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (DEPT) has promising application for cancer therapy. However, most current DEPT strategies face shortcomings such as the loss of enzyme activity during preparation, low delivery and transduction efficiency in vivo and difficultly of monitoring. In this study, a novel magnetic directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (MDEPT) was set up by conjugating ?-glucosidase (?-Glu) to aminated, starch-coated, iron oxide magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs), abbreviated as ?-Glu-MNP, using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. This ?-Glu-MNP was then characterized in detail by size distribution, zeta potential, FTIR spectra, TEM, SQUID and magnetophoretic mobility analysis. Compared to free enzyme, the conjugated ?-Glu on MNPs retained 85.54% 6.9% relative activity and showed much better temperature stability. The animal study results showed that ?-Glu-MNP displays preferable pharmacokinetics characteristics in relation to MNPs. With an adscititious magnetic field on the surface of a tumor, a significant quantity of ?-Glu-MNP was selectively delivered into a subcutaneous tumor of a glioma-bearing mouse. Remarkably, the enzyme activity of the delivered ?-Glu in tumor lesions showed as high as 20.1235.022mUg(-1) tissue with 2.14 of tumor/non-tumor ?-Glu activity. PMID:23974977

  5. Toward Epileptic Brain Region Detection Based on Magnetic Nanoparticle Patterning.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Maysam Z; Shamloo, Amir; Alasty, Aria; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Resection of the epilepsy foci is the best treatment for more than 15% of epileptic patients or 50% of patients who are refractory to all forms of medical treatment. Accurate mapping of the locations of epileptic neuronal networks can result in the complete resection of epileptic foci. Even though currently electroencephalography is the best technique for mapping the epileptic focus, it cannot define the boundary of epilepsy that accurately. Herein we put forward a new accurate brain mapping technique using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNs). The main hypothesis in this new approach is the creation of super-paramagnetic aggregates in the epileptic foci due to high electrical and magnetic activities. These aggregates may improve tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that results in improving the resection of epileptic foci. In this paper, we present the mathematical models before discussing the simulation results. Furthermore, we mimic the aggregation of SPMNs in a weak magnetic field using a low-cost microfabricated device. Based on these results, the SPMNs may play a crucial role in diagnostic epilepsy and the subsequent treatment of this disease. PMID:26402686

  6. Magnetic properties of polypyrrole-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Raksha; Lamba, Subhalakshmi; Annapoorni, S.

    2005-09-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared using the sol-gel process. In situ polymerization of a pyrrole monomer in the presence of oxygen in an iron oxide-ethanol suspension resulted in an iron oxide polypyrrole nanocomposite. The structure and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites with varying pyrrole concentrations are investigated. X-ray diffraction studies indicate the presence of the γ-Fe2O3 phase for the concentrations investigated. FTIR studies confirm the presence of polypyrrole. TEM studies show agglomeration in uncoated samples and in samples with a lower concentration of polypyrrole. Agglomeration is greatly reduced for samples coated with a higher concentration of polypyrrole. The ac susceptibility measurements performed in the temperature range 77-300 K show the presence of blocking, indicating the superparamagnetic phase. The blocking temperature is found to depend on the pyrrole concentration. Monte Carlo studies for an array of polydispersed single domain magnetic particles, based on an interacting random anisotropy model, were also carried out, and the blocking temperatures obtained from the simulation of the field cooled-zero field cooled magnetization compare favourably with experimental results.

  7. Magnetic tumor targeting of ?-glucosidase immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-09-01

    Directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (DEPT) has promising application for cancer therapy. However, most current DEPT strategies face shortcomings such as the loss of enzyme activity during preparation, low delivery and transduction efficiency in vivo and difficultly of monitoring. In this study, a novel magnetic directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (MDEPT) was set up by conjugating ?-glucosidase (?-Glu) to aminated, starch-coated, iron oxide magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs), abbreviated as ?-Glu-MNP, using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. This ?-Glu-MNP was then characterized in detail by size distribution, zeta potential, FTIR spectra, TEM, SQUID and magnetophoretic mobility analysis. Compared to free enzyme, the conjugated ?-Glu on MNPs retained 85.54% 6.9% relative activity and showed much better temperature stability. The animal study results showed that ?-Glu-MNP displays preferable pharmacokinetics characteristics in relation to MNPs. With an adscititious magnetic field on the surface of a tumor, a significant quantity of ?-Glu-MNP was selectively delivered into a subcutaneous tumor of a glioma-bearing mouse. Remarkably, the enzyme activity of the delivered ?-Glu in tumor lesions showed as high as 20.1235.022 mU g-1 tissue with 2.14 of tumor/non-tumor ?-Glu activity.

  8. Development of a magnetic nanoparticle susceptibility magnitude imaging array.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Bradley W; Nadar, Priyanka M; Hoopes, P Jack; Diamond, Solomon G

    2014-02-21

    There are several emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in medicine. This study examines the potential for developing an mNP imager that meets these emerging clinical needs with a low cost imaging solution that uses arrays of digitally controlled drive coils in a multiple-frequency, continuous-wave operating mode and compensated fluxgate magnetometers. The design approach is described and a mathematical model is developed to support measurement and imaging. A prototype is used to demonstrate active compensation of up to 185 times the primary applied magnetic field, depth sensitivity up to 2.5 cm (p < 0.01), and linearity over five dilutions (R(2) > 0.98, p < 0.001). System frequency responses show distinguishable readouts for iron oxide mNPs with single magnetic domain core diameters of 10 and 40 nm, and multi-domain mNPs with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm. Tomographic images show a contrast-to-noise ratio of 23 for 0.5 ml of 12.5 mg Fe ml(-1) mNPs at 1 cm depth. A demonstration involving the injection of mNPs into pork sausage shows the potential for use in biological systems. These results indicate that the proposed mNP imaging approach can potentially be extended to a larger array system with higher-resolution. PMID:24504184

  9. Development of a magnetic nanoparticle susceptibility magnitude imaging array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-02-01

    There are several emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in medicine. This study examines the potential for developing an mNP imager that meets these emerging clinical needs with a low cost imaging solution that uses arrays of digitally controlled drive coils in a multiple-frequency, continuous-wave operating mode and compensated fluxgate magnetometers. The design approach is described and a mathematical model is developed to support measurement and imaging. A prototype is used to demonstrate active compensation of up to 185 times the primary applied magnetic field, depth sensitivity up to 2.5 cm (p < 0.01), and linearity over five dilutions (R2 > 0.98, p < 0.001). System frequency responses show distinguishable readouts for iron oxide mNPs with single magnetic domain core diameters of 10 and 40 nm, and multi-domain mNPs with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm. Tomographic images show a contrast-to-noise ratio of 23 for 0.5 ml of 12.5 mg Fe ml-1 mNPs at 1 cm depth. A demonstration involving the injection of mNPs into pork sausage shows the potential for use in biological systems. These results indicate that the proposed mNP imaging approach can potentially be extended to a larger array system with higher-resolution.

  10. Pulsed field probe of real time magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, T.; Syed, M.; Taplin, T.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively used in biotechnology. These applications rely on magnetic properties that are a keen function of MNP size, distribution, and shape. Various magneto-optical techniques, including Faraday Rotation (FR), Cotton-Mouton Effect, etc., have been employed to characterize magnetic properties of MNPs. Generally, these measurements employ AC or DC fields. In this work, we describe the results from a FR setup that uses pulsed magnetic fields and an analysis technique that makes use of the entire pulse shape to investigate size distribution and shape anisotropy. The setup employs a light source, polarizing components, and a detector that are used to measure the rotation of light from a sample that is subjected to a pulsed magnetic field. This magnetic field "snapshot" is recorded alongside the intensity pulse of the sample's response. This side by side comparison yields useful information about the real time magnetization dynamics of the system being probed. The setup is highly flexible with variable control of pulse length and peak magnitude. Examining the raw data for the response of bare Fe3O4 and hybrid Au and Fe3O4 nanorods reveals interesting information about Brownian relaxation and the hydrodynamic size of these nanorods. This analysis exploits the self-referencing nature of this measurement to highlight the impact of an applied field on creating a field induced transparency for a longitudinal measurement. Possible sources for this behavior include shape anisotropy and field assisted aggregate formation.

  11. Experimental investigation of magnetically actuated separation using tangential microfluidic channels and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Munir, Ahsan; Zhu, Zanzan; Wang, Jianlong; Zhou, Hong Susan

    2014-06-01

    A novel continuous switching/separation scheme of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a sub-microlitre fluid volume surrounded by neodymium permanent magnet is studied in this work using tangential microfluidic channels. Polydimethylsiloxane tangential microchannels are fabricated using a novel micromoulding technique that can be done without a clean room and at much lower cost and time. Negligible switching of MNPs is seen in the absence of magnetic field, whereas 90% of switching is observed in the presence of magnetic field. The flow rate of MNPs solution had dramatic impact on separation performance. An optimum value of the flow rate is found that resulted in providing effective MNP separation at much faster rate. Separation performance is also investigated for a mixture containing non-magnetic polystyrene particles and MNPs. It is found that MNPs preferentially moved from lower microchannel to upper microchannel resulting in efficient separation. The proof-of-concept experiments performed in this work demonstrates that microfluidic bioseparation can be efficiently achieved using functionalised MNPs, together with tangential microchannels, appropriate magnetic field strength and optimum flow rates. This work verifies that a simple low-cost magnetic switching scheme can be potentially of great utility for the separation and detection of biomolecules in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. PMID:25014081

  12. Preparation of magnetic fluorochromate hybrid nanomaterials with triphenylphosphine surface modified iron oxide nanoparticles and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Maleki, Ali; Maleki, Saied

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a new magnetic hybrid nanomaterial Fe3O4@SiO2@PPh3@[CrO3F]- is instituted. Firstly, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. Next, the produced magnetic nanoparticles were covered with a silica shell via modified Stber method. Then, the core-shell magnetic nanoparticles system Fe3O4@SiO2 functionalization was combined by utilizing (3-chloropropyl)trimethoxysilane and triphenylphosphine, to give the cationic part for immobilization of the anionic part of the Cr(VI) catalysts including [CrO3F]-. The structure of the catalyst after immobilization was investigated by using elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid state UV-vis. The particle size and morphology were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD. Magnetization properties of nanoparticles were confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

  13. Magnetorelaxometry—a new binding specific detection method based on magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Kötitz, R.; Haller, A.; Trahms, L.; Semmler, W.; Weitschies, W.

    2002-11-01

    The measurement of the relaxing magnetisation of magnetic nanoparticles after switching off a magnetising field (magnetorelaxometry) was investigated towards its applicability for the determination of the binding of antibodies to their antigens. For this purpose a direct solid phase immunoassay using magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with an antibody against human IgG and a sandwich solid phase immunoassay using the identical biotinylated antibody against human IgG and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with streptavidin were performed. Both assays yielded binding specific magnetic nanoparticle relaxation signals that were dependent on the amount of antigen. The comparison of the magnetic relaxation immunoassay (MARIA) with an established immunoassy technique (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) showed, that both techniques yielded well comparable results.

  14. Simplified unified model for estimating the motion of magnetic nanoparticles within electrohydrodynamic field.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Lee, Sangyoup; Lee, Jong-Chul

    2014-11-01

    In previous research, we studied the electrical breakdown characteristics of a transformer oil-based magnetic fluid; mailnly, those were carried out by the experimental measurements. The first study was aimed at enhancing the dielectric breakdown voltage of transformer oil by adding magnetic nanoparticles experimentally under the official testing condition of dielectric liquids. The next study was focused on explaining the reason why the dielectric characterisitics of the fluids were changed through optically visualizing the particles motion in a microchannel using an optical microscopic measurement and numerically calculating the dielectrophoretic force induced in the fluids with considering only the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. In this study, we developed a simplified unified model for calculating further the motion of magnetic nanoparticles suspended in the presence of electrohydrodynamic field using the COMSOL multiphysics finite element simulation suite and investigated the effects of magnetic nanoparticle dielectrophoretic activity aimed at enhancing the electrical breakdown characteristics of transformer oil. PMID:25958577

  15. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle quantification using a giant magnetoresistive sensor and permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are used in various biological applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biological separation, drug delivery or as biomarker. In the case of biomarker, the magnetic particle and a measurand are combined via biological reactions and then detected by magnetic field sensors for a qualitative or quantitative measurement. In the present work, we introduce a commercially available giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor for the quantitative measurement of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which were injected into a glass capillary tube. A pair of permanent magnets standing diagonally opposite to each other was utilized to provide vertical and horizontal magnetic fields for particle magnetization and sensor bias, respectively. In addition, the permanent magnets solved the uniformity problem of generated magnetic fields in previous biomarker detection systems. Using the proposed measurement setup, an output signal change of 0.407 V was achieved for a 1 μg change in the magnetic particle mass. The detection limit was 43.5 ng.

  16. Interfacial magnetic coupling between Fe nanoparticles in Fe–Ag granular alloys.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J; Fdez-Gubieda, M L; Sarmiento, G; Chaboy, J; Boada, R; García Prieto, A; Haskel, D; Laguna-Marco, M A; Lang, J C; Meneghini, C; Fernández Barquín, L; Neisius, T; Orue, I

    2012-01-20

    The role of the interface in mediating interparticle magnetic interactions has been analysed in Fe50Ag50 and Fe55Ag45 granular thin films deposited by the pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). These samples are composed of crystalline bcc Fe (2–4 nm) nanoparticles and fcc Ag (10–12 nm) nanoparticles, separated by an amorphous Fe50Ag50 interface, occupying around 20% of the sample volume, as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Interfacial magnetic coupling between Fe nanoparticles is studied by dc magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Fe K and Ag L2,3 edges. This paper reveals that these thin films present two magnetic transitions, at low and high temperatures, which are strongly related to the magnetic state of the amorphous interface, which acts as a barrier for interparticle magnetic coupling. PMID:22166763

  17. Multiplexed sensing based on Brownian relaxation of magnetic nanoparticles using a compact AC susceptometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoungchul; Harrah, Tim; Goldberg, Edward B.; Guertin, Robert P.; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2011-02-01

    A novel multiplexed sensing scheme based on the measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of the affinity captured target molecules on magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension is proposed. The AC magnetic susceptibility provides a measurement of Brownian relaxation behavior of biomolecules bound to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) that is related to its hydrodynamic size. A room temperature, compact AC susceptometer is designed and developed to measure complex AC magnetic susceptibility of such magnetic nanoparticles. The AC susceptometer exhibits high sensitivity in magnetic fields as low as 10 T for 1 mg ml-1 concentration and 5 l volume, and is fully software programmable. The capability of biological sensing using the proposed scheme has been demonstrated in proof of principle using the binding of biotinylated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to streptavidin-coated MNPs. The proposed technique and instrument are readily compatible with lab-on-chip applications for point-of-care medical applications.

  18. In-vitro investigations of nanoparticle magnetic thermotherapy: adjuvant effects and comparison to conventional heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Z.; Strawbridge, R.; Gaito, C.; Dulatas, L.; Tate, J.; Ogden, J.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2007-02-01

    Thermotherapy, particularly magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, is a promising modality both as a direct cancer cell killing and as a radiosensitization technique for adjuvant therapy. Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were mixed with multiple tumor cell lines in solution and exposed to varying magnetic field regimes and combined with traditional external radiotherapy. Heating of cell lines by water bath in temperature patterns comparable to those achieved by nanoparticle hyperthermia was conducted to assess the relative value of nano-magnetic thermotherapy compared with conventional bulk heating techniques and data.

  19. Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetic Profiling in vivo using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Anne M.; Sim, Hoon; Winter, Patrick M.; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Williams, Todd A.; Robertson, J. David; Sept, David; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    Contrast agents targeted to molecular markers of disease are currently being developed with the goal of identifying disease early and evaluating treatment effectiveness using non-invasive imaging modalities such as MRI. Pharmacokinetic profiling of the binding of targeted contrast agents, while theoretically possible with MRI, has thus far only been demonstrated with more sensitive imaging techniques. Paramagnetic liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticles were formulated to target ?v?3-integrins associated with early atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits in order to produce a measurable signal increase on magnetic resonance images after binding. In this work, we combine quantitative information of the in vivo binding of this agent over time obtained via MRI with blood sampling to derive pharmacokinetic parameters using simultaneous and individual fitting of the data to a three compartment model. A doubling of tissue exposure (or area under the curve) is obtained with targeted as compared to control nanoparticles, and key parameter differences are discovered that may aid in development of models for targeted drug delivery. PMID:19025903

  20. Low biosorption of PVA coated engineered magnetic nanoparticles in granular sludge assessed by magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Herrling, Maria P; Fetsch, Katharina L; Delay, Markus; Blauert, Florian; Wagner, Michael; Franzreb, Matthias; Horn, Harald; Lackner, Susanne

    2015-12-15

    When engineered nanoparticles (ENP) enter into wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) their removal from the water phase is driven by the interactions with the biomass in the biological treatment step. While studies focus on the interactions with activated flocculent sludge, investigations on the detailed distribution of ENP in other types of biomass, such as granulated sludge, are needed to assess their potential environmental pollution. This study employed engineered magnetic nanoparticles (EMNP) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as model nanoparticles to trace their fate in granular sludge from WWT. For the first time, magnetic susceptibility was used as a simple approach for the in-situ quantification of EMNP with a high precision (error <2%). Compared to other analytical methods, the magnetic susceptibility requires no sample preparation and enabled direct quantification of EMNP in both the aqueous phase and the granular sludge. In batch experiments granular sludge was exposed to EMNP suspensions for 18 h. The results revealed that the removal of EMNP from the water phase (5-35%) and biosorption in the granular sludge were rather low. Less than 2.4% of the initially added EMNP were associated with the biomass. Loosely bounded to the granular sludge, desorption of EMNP occurred. Consequently, the removal of EMNP was mainly driven by physical co-sedimentation with the biomass instead of sorption processes. A mass balance elucidated that the majority of EMNP were stabilized by particulate organic matter in the water phase and can therefore likely be transported further. The magnetic susceptibility enabled tracing EMNP in complex matrices and thus improves the understanding of the general distribution of ENP in technical as well as environmental systems. PMID:26282738

  1. Human-like collagen protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles with high magnetic hyperthermia performance and improved biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huan; Chang, Le; Yu, Baozhi; Liu, Qiuying; Wu, Jianpeng; Miao, Yuqing; Ma, Pei; Fan, Daidi; Fan, Haiming

    2015-01-01

    Human-like collagen (HLC)-coated monodispersed superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been successfully prepared to investigate its effect on heat induction property and cell toxicity. After coating of HLC, the sample shows a faster rate of temperature increase under an alternating magnetic field although it has a reduced saturation magnetization. This is most probably a result of the effective heat conduction and good colloid stability due to the high charge of HLC on the surface. In addition, compared with Fe3O4 nanoparticles before coating with HLC, HLC-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles do not induce notable cytotoxic effect at higher concentration which indicates that HLC-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles has improved biocompatibility. Our results clearly show that Fe3O4 nanoparticles after coating with HLC not only possess effective heat induction for cancer treatment but also have improved biocompatibility for biomedicine applications. PMID:25852325

  2. Human-like collagen protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles with high magnetic hyperthermia performance and improved biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huan; Chang, Le; Yu, Baozhi; Liu, Qiuying; Wu, Jianpeng; Miao, Yuqing; Ma, Pei; Fan, Daidi; Fan, Haiming

    2015-01-01

    Human-like collagen (HLC)-coated monodispersed superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been successfully prepared to investigate its effect on heat induction property and cell toxicity. After coating of HLC, the sample shows a faster rate of temperature increase under an alternating magnetic field although it has a reduced saturation magnetization. This is most probably a result of the effective heat conduction and good colloid stability due to the high charge of HLC on the surface. In addition, compared with Fe3O4 nanoparticles before coating with HLC, HLC-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles do not induce notable cytotoxic effect at higher concentration which indicates that HLC-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles has improved biocompatibility. Our results clearly show that Fe3O4 nanoparticles after coating with HLC not only possess effective heat induction for cancer treatment but also have improved biocompatibility for biomedicine applications.

  3. Closed-loop magnetic separation of nanoparticles on a packed bed of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnet, Ccilia; Akouala, Mesferdon; Kuzhir, Pavel; Bossis, Georges; Zubarev, Andrey; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we consider magnetic separation of iron oxide nanoparticles when a nanoparticle suspension (diluted ferrofluid) passes through a closed-loop filter composed of a packed bed of micro-beads magnetized by an externally applied magnetic field. We show that the capture of nanoparticles of a size as small as 60 nm is easily achieved at low-to-moderate magnetic fields (16-32 kA/m) thanks to relatively strong magnetic interactions between them. The key parameter governing the capture process is the Mason numberthe ratio of hydrodynamic-to-magnetic forces exerted to nanoparticles. The filter efficiency, ?, defined through the ratio of the inlet-to-outlet concentration shows a power-law dependency on Mason number, ??M a-0.83 , in the range of 102magnetic nanoparticles, followed by magnetic separation of the nanoparticles.

  4. Enhanced magnetism in highly ordered magnetite nanoparticle-filled nanohole arrays.

    PubMed

    Duong, Binh; Khurshid, Hafsa; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Devkota, Jagannath; Stojak, Kristen; Srikanth, Hariharan; Tetard, Laurene; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, N; Phan, Manh-Huong; Thomas, Jayan

    2014-07-23

    A new approach to develop highly ordered magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle-patterned nanohole arrays with desirable magnetic properties for a variety of technological applications is presented. In this work, the sub-100 nm nanohole arrays are successfully fabricated from a pre-ceramic polymer mold using spin-on nanoprinting (SNAP). These nanoholes a then filled with monodispersed, spherical Fe3O4 nanoparticles of about 10 nm diameter using a novel magnetic drag and drop procedure. The nanohole arrays filled with magnetic nanoparticles a imaged using magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Magnetometry and MFM measurements reveal room temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe3O4-filled nanohole arrays, while the as-synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. As revealed by MFM measurements, the enhanced magnetism in the Fe3O4-filled nanohole arrays originates mainly from the enhanced magnetic dipole interactions of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles within the nanoholes and between adjacent nanoholes. Nanoparticle filled nanohole arrays can be highly beneficial in magnetic data storage and other applications such as microwave devices and biosensor arrays that require tunable and anisotropic magnetic properties. PMID:24706405

  5. Antitumor immunity by magnetic nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Eiichi; Jimbow, Kowichi

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia (MNHT) generates heat to a local tumor tissue of above 43C without damaging surrounding normal tissues. By applying MNHT, a significant amount of heat-shock proteins is expressed within and around the tumor tissues, inducing tumor-specific immune responses. In vivo experiments have indicated that MNHT can induce the regression of not only a local tumor tissue exposed to heat, but also distant metastatic tumors unexposed to heat. In this article, we introduce recent progress in the application of MNHT for antitumor treatments and summarize the mechanisms and processes of its biological effects during antitumor induction by MNHT. Several clinical trials have been conducted indicating that the MNHT system may add a promising and novel approach to antitumor therapy. PMID:25321171

  6. Silica-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles: enzyme immobilization and cytotoxic study.

    PubMed

    Ashtari, Khadijeh; Khajeh, Khosro; Fasihi, Javad; Ashtari, Parviz; Ramazani, Ali; Vali, Hojatollah

    2012-05-01

    Silica-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared via microemulsion method. The products were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS). MNPs with no observed cytotoxic activity against human lung carcinoma cell and brine shrimp lethality were used as suitable support for glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilization. Binding of GOD onto the support was confirmed by the FTIR spectra. The amount of immobilized GODs was 95 mg/g. Storage stability study showed that the immobilized GOD retained 98% of its initial activity after 45 days and 90% of the activity was also remained after 12 repeated uses. Considerable enhancements in thermal stabilities were observed for the immobilized GOD at elevated temperatures up to 80C and the activity of immobilized enzyme was less sensitive to pH changes in solution. PMID:22269345

  7. Calibration Phantom for Quantitative Tomography Analysis of Biodistribution of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helen; Kettering, Melanie; Richter, Heike; Hilger, Ingrid; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Ferrofluids are being investigated for cancer treatments such as magnetic drug targeting (MDT) and magnetic heating treatments with the aim of treating the cancer locally, since magnetic nanoparticles with attached drugs are concentrated within the target region. Thus, the side effects are considerably reduced. One of the crucial factors for the success of these therapies is the magnetic nanoparticle distribution. Microcomputed X-ray tomography (X?CT) has been introduced as adequate technique for non-destructive three-dimensional analysis of biological samples enriched with magnetic nanoparticles. The biological tissue specimens, in this case tumor bearing mice after intra-tumoral magnetic nanoparticle injection, have been analyzed by means of X?CT. Complementary measurements have been performed by magnetorelaxometry (MRX). This technique enables a sensitive quantification of magnetic nanoparticles down to few nanograms. For multi-phase samples, such as biological tissue enriched with magnetic nanoparticles the polychromasy and beam hardening artifacts occurring in X?CT with conventional X-ray tubes cause severe problems for quantitative density determination. This problem requires an appropriate calibration of the polychromatic tomography equipment enabling a semi-quantitative analysis of the data. For this purpose a phantom system has been implemented. These phantoms consist of a tissue substitute containing different amounts of magnetic nanoparticles. Since the attenuation of the beam also depends on the thickness i.e. the path length of the beam transmitting the object, the reference sample has been defined to a cone shape. Thus, with one phantom the information about the magnetic nanoparticle concentration as well as the attenuation in dependence of the path length can be determined. Two phantom systems will be presented, one based on agarose-gel and one based on soap.

  8. A Novel Magnetic Nanoparticle Drug Carrier for Enhanced Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lili; Zhu, Jingjing; Peng, Mingli; Vermorken, Alphonsus J. M.; Van de Ven, Wim J. M.; Chen, Chao; Cui, Yali

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with antitumor drugs in combination with an external magnetic field (EMF)-guided delivery can improve the efficacy of treatment and may decrease serious side effects. The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate application of PEG modified GMNPs (PGMNPs) as a drug carrier of the chemotherapy compound doxorubicin (DOX) in vitro; 2) to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of DOX-conjugated PGMNPs (DOX-PGMNPs) using an EMF-guided delivery in vivo. Methods First, DOX-PGMNPs were synthesized and the cytotoxicity of DOX-PGMNPs was assessed in vitro. Second, upon intravenous administration of DOX-PMGPNs to H22 hepatoma cell tumor-bearing mice, the DOX biodistribution in different organs (tissues) was measured. The antitumor activity was evaluated using different treatment strategies such as DOX-PMGPNs or DOX-PMGPNs with an EMF-guided delivery (DOX-PGMNPs-M). Results The relative tumor volumes in DOX-PGMNPs-M, DOX-PGMNPs, and DOX groups were 5.461.48, 9.221.51, and 14.81.64, respectively (each p<0.05), following treatment for 33 days. The life span of tumor-bearing mice treated with DOX-PGMNPs-M, DOX-PGMNPs, and DOX were 74.89.95, 66.113.5, and 31.33.31 days, respectively (each p<0.05). Conclusion This simple and adaptive nanoparticle design may accommodate chemotherapy for drug delivery optimization and in vivo drug-target definition in system biology profiling, increasing the margin of safety in treatment of cancers in the near future. PMID:23056167

  9. Current investigations into magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Jianrong; Aifantis, Katerina E; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2016-05-01

    It is generally recognized that nanoparticles possess unique physicochemical properties that are largely different from those of conventional materials, specifically the electromagnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). These properties have attracted many researchers to launch investigations into their potential biomedical applications, which have been reviewed in this article. First, common types of MNPs were briefly introduced. Then, the biomedical applications of MNPs were reviewed in seven parts: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cancer therapy, the delivery of drugs and genes, bone and dental repair, tissue engineering, biosensors, and in other aspects, which indicated that MNPs possess great potentials for many kinds of biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Although lots of achievements have been obtained, there is still a lot of work to do. New synthesis techniques and methods are still needed to develop the MNPs with satisfactory biocompatibility. More effective methods need to be exploited to prepare MNPs-based composites with fine microstructures and high biomedical performances. Other promising research points include the development of more appropriate techniques of experiments both in vitro and in vivo to detect and analyze the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MNPs and understand the possible influencing mechanism of the two properties. More comprehensive investigations into the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of composites containing MNPs with "core-shell" structure and deeper understanding and further study into the properties of MNPs to reveal their new biomedical applications, are also described in the conclusion and perspectives part. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1285-1296, 2016. PMID:26779606

  10. Spherical porous hydroxyapatite granules containing composites of magnetic and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for the hyperthermia treatment of bone tumor.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ohtoshi, Naohiro; Kawashita, Masakazu; Ioku, Koji

    2016-05-01

    Spherical porous granules of hydroxyapatite (HA) containing magnetic nanoparticles would be suitable for the hyperthermia treatment of bone tumor, because porous HA granules act as a scaffold for bone regeneration, and magnetic nanoparticles generate sufficient heat to kill tumor cells under an alternating magnetic field. Although magnetic nanoparticles are promising heat generators, their small size makes them difficult to support in porous HA ceramics. We prepared micrometer-sized composites of magnetic and HA nanoparticles, and then supported them in porous HA granules composed of rod-like particles. The spherical porous HA granules containing the composites of magnetic and HA nanoparticle were successfully prepared using a hydrothermal process without changing the crystalline phase and heat generation properties of the magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained granules generated sufficient heat for killing tumor cells under an alternating magnetic field (300 Oe at 100 kHz). The obtained granules are expected to be useful for the hyperthermia treatment of bone tumors. PMID:26984358

  11. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis and surface coating techniques for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Chao; Zhu, Zan-Zan; Hou, Yang-Long; Subbu, S. Venkatraman; Xu, Zhi-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most popular magnetic nanoparticles used in biomedical applications due to their low cost, low toxicity, and unique magnetic property. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, including magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3), usually exhibit a superparamagnetic property as their size goes smaller than 20 nm, which are often denoted as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and utilized for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapy, and etc. This review article gives a brief introduction on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of their fundamentals of magnetism, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and drug delivery, as well as the synthesis approaches, surface coating, and application examples from recent key literatures. Because the quality and surface chemistry play important roles in biomedical applications, our review focuses on the synthesis approaches and surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles. We aim to provide a detailed introduction to readers who are new to this field, helping them to choose suitable synthesis methods and to optimize the surface chemistry of iron oxide nanoparticles for their interests.

  12. Magnetic Force Microscopy of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocera, Tanya M.

    In recent years, both synthetic as well as naturally occurring superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNs) have become increasingly important in biomedicine. For instance, iron deposits in many pathological tissues are known to contain an accumulation of the superparamagnetic protein, ferritin. Additionally, man-made SPNs have found biomedical applications ranging from cell-tagging in vitro to contrast agents for in vivo diagnostic imaging. Despite the widespread use and occurrence of SPNs, detection and characterization of their magnetic properties, especially at the single-particle level and/or in biological samples, remains a challenge. Magnetic signals arising from SPNs can be complicated by factors such as spatial distribution, magnetic anisotropy, particle aggregation and magnetic dipolar interaction, thereby confounding their analysis. Techniques that can detect SPNs at the single particle level are therefore highly desirable. The goal of this thesis was to develop an analytical microscopy technique, namely magnetic force microscopy (MFM), to detect and spatially localize synthetic and natural SPNs for biomedical applications. We aimed to (1) increase MFM sensitivity to detect SPNs at the single-particle level and (2) quantify and spatially localize iron-ligated proteins (ferritin) in vitro and in biological samples using MFM. Two approaches were employed to improve MFM sensitivity. First, we showed how exploitation of magnetic anisotropy could produce a higher, more uniform MFM signal from single SPNs. Second, we showed how an increase in probe magnetic moment increased both the magnitude and range up to which the MFM signal could be detected from a single SPN. We further showed how MFM could enable accurate quantitative estimation of ferritin content in ferritin-apoferritin mixtures. Finally, we demonstrated how MFM could be used to detect iron/ferritin in serum and animal tissue with spatial resolution and sensitivity surpassing that obtained using conventional biochemical assays. We envisage these advancements will allow MFM to serve as a novel biosensing technique to spatially localize iron/ferritin in small aliquots of clinical samples (i.e. serum) and in tissue biopsies at the ultra-sensitive and ultra-structural level. We also discuss how future work incorporating our advancements could lead to the development of a novel indirect MFM technique, which could enable high-throughput analysis of SPNs for biomedical applications.

  13. Controlled synthetic conditions of FePt nanoparticles with high magnetization for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, D H; Chen, P H

    2011-03-01

    Monodispersed FePt nanoparticles with hydrophobic ligand were chemically synthesized and with controllable surface-functional properties. In order to enhance the saturation magnetization of FePt nanoparticles, the initial mole ratio of Fe to Pt precursors and reaction times were controlled to effectively increase magnetization due to the increased particle size and formation of FePt-Fe3O4 nanocomposites. The surface modification of FePt nanoparticles by using mercaptoacetic acid (C2H4O2S) as a phase transfer reagent through ligand exchange turned the nanoparticles hydrophilic, and the nanoparticles could water-dispersible. The streptavidin-biotin binding pair was used to conjugate with carboxylic acid (COOH) functional group on the surface of FePt nanoparticles that could be further functionalized to provide a biotin moiety for specific interactions with streptavidin protein. PMID:21449434

  14. Effect of substrate interface on the magnetism of supported iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Balan, A; Fraile Rodrguez, A; Vaz, C A F; Kleibert, A; Nolting, F

    2015-12-01

    In situ X-ray photo-emission electron microscopy is used to investigate the magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles deposited on different single crystalline substrates, including Si(001), Cu(001), W(110), and NiO(001). We find that, in our room temperature experiments, Fe nanoparticles deposited on Si(001) and Cu(001) show both superparamagnetic and magnetically stable (blocked) ferromagnetic states, while Fe nanoparticles deposited on W(110) and NiO(001) show only superparamagnetic behaviour. The dependence of the magnetic behaviour of the Fe nanoparticles on the contact surface is ascribed to the different interfacial bonding energies, higher for W and NiO, and to a possible relaxation of point defects within the core of the nanoparticles on these substrates, that have been suggested to stabilise the ferromagnetic state at room temperature when deposited on more inert surfaces such as Si and Cu. PMID:26051656

  15. Competing magnetic interactions in nickel ferrite nanoparticle clusters: Role of magnetic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Rakesh; Annapoorni, S.; Lamba, Subhalakshmi; Sharma, Parmanand; Inoue, Akihisa

    2008-09-01

    The magnetic behavior of nickel ferrite nanoparticles of different sizes was studied by annealing nickel ferrite powders at temperatures ranging from 300 to 900 °C. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the average particle sizes change from ˜8 to ˜120 nm with increasing annealing temperatures. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the annealed samples reveal that a single phase is retained. Hysteresis measurements performed up to a field of 10 kOe show a tendency toward saturation. The saturation magnetization is found to increase with annealing temperature (particle size) with the magnetization tending toward the bulk value for powders annealed at 900 °C. Zero field cooled-field cooled measurements performed at 0.5 kOe indicate the presence of a superparamagnetic phase up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C with blocking temperatures in the range of 150-330 K. Numerical simulations are carried out using an interacting model of an array of single domain magnetic particles to explain the change in the magnetic behavior of the samples with annealing temperature and to estimate the anisotropy of the system. Our studies indicate that the observed magnetic behavior can be explained by the changes in the anisotropy of the system and the dominance of the short range interparticle exchange interactions over the long range dipolar interactions with increasing particle sizes. This change in the interaction profile is further confirmed by the Henkel plots for the particles annealed at different temperatures.

  16. Measurement of molecular binding using the Brownian motion of magnetic nanoparticle probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Weaver, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular binding is important in many venues including antibody binding for diagnostic and therapeutic agents and pharmaceutical function. We demonstrate that a method of measuring nanoparticle Brownian motion, termed magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion (MSB), can be used to monitor molecular binding and the bound fraction. It is plausible that MSB can be used to measure binding in vivo because the same signal has been used to image nanoparticles in nanogram quantities in vivo.

  17. Al(OH)3 facilitated synthesis of water-soluble, magnetic, radiolabelled and fluorescent hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cui, X; Green, M A; Blower, P J; Zhou, D; Yan, Y; Zhang, W; Djanashvili, K; Mathe, D; Veres, D S; Szigeti, K

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic and fluorescent hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesised using Al(OH)3-stabilised MnFe2O4 or Fe3O4 nanoparticles as precursors. They were readily and efficiently radiolabelled with (18)F. Bisphosphonate polyethylene glycol polymers were utilised to endow the nanoparticles with excellent colloidal stability in water and to incorporate cyclam for high affinity labelling with (64)Cu. PMID:25960059

  18. Selective detection of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications using differential magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, M.; Waanders, S.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; ten Haken, B.

    2014-09-01

    The present study describes a new concept of magnetic detection that can be used for fast, selective measurements on magnetic nanoparticles and which is not influenced by the presence of materials with a linear magnetic susceptibility, like tissue. Using an alternating excitation field (f ~ 5 kHz) with a sequence of static offset fields, the magnetometer is selectively sensitive for the nonlinear properties of magnetic nanoparticles in samples. The offset field sequence modulates the measured inductive response of nonlinear magnetic materials, in contrast to linear magnetic materials. We demonstrate a detection limit for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the sub-microgram (iron) range. The mass sensitivity of the procedure increases with offset field amplitude and particle size. Compared to the sensitivity for particles in suspension, the sensitivity reduces for particles accumulated in lymph node tissue or immobilized by drying, which is attributed to a change in Brownian relaxation. The differential magnetometry concept is used as a tool to perform non-destructive analysis of magnetic nanoparticles in clinically relevant tissue samples at room temperature. In addition, the differential magnetometer can be used for fundamental quantitative research of the performance of magnetic nanoparticles in alternating fields. The method is a promising approach for in vivo measurements during clinical interventions, since it suppresses the linear contribution of the surrounding body volume and effectively picks out the nonlinear contribution of magnetic tracer.

  19. Glioma Selectivity of Magnetically Targeted Nanoparticles: A Role of Abnormal Tumor Hydrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E.; Huang, Yongzhuo; Yang, Victor C.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic targeting is a promising strategy for achieving localized drug delivery. Application of this strategy to treat brain tumors, however, is complicated by their deep intracranial location, since magnetic field density cannot be focused at a distance from an externally applied magnet. This study intended to examine whether, with magnetic targeting, pathological alteration in brain tumor flow dynamics could be of value in discriminating the diseased site from healthy brain. To address this question, the capture of magnetic nanoparticles was first assessed in vitro using a simple flow system under theoretically estimated glioma and normal brain flow conditions. Secondly, accumulation of nanoparticles via magnetic targeting was evaluated in vivo using 9L-glioma bearing rats. In vitro results that predicted a 7.6-fold increase in nanoparticle capture at glioma-versus contralateral brain-relevant flow rates were relatively consistent with the 9.6-fold glioma selectivity of nanoparticle accumulation over the contralateral brain observed in vivo. Based on these finding, the in vitro ratio of nanoparticle capture can be viewed as a plausible indicator of in vivo glioma selectivity. Overall, it can be concluded that the decreased blood flow rate in glioma, reflecting tumor vascular abnormalities, is an important contributor to glioma-selective nanoparticle accumulation with magnetic targeting. PMID:17628157

  20. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G.; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment1. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression2. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand3,4,5 and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells6. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection. PMID:22983492

  1. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G.; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and would improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection.

  2. Bare Magnetic Nanoparticles: Sustainable Synthesis and Applications in Catalytic Organic Transformations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic nanoparticles have become increasingly prominent in the field of catalysis over the last decade as they combine interesting reactivity with an easy, economical and environmentally benign mode of recovery. Early strategies focused on the use of such nanoparticles only as ...

  3. Change in the magnetic moment of a ferromagnetic nanoparticle under polarized current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhushner, M. A.; Gatin, A. K.; Grishin, M. V.; Shub, B. R.; Kim, V. P.; Khomutov, G. B.; Trakhtenberg, L. I.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetization reversal of a ferromagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle with a volume of the order of several thousands of cubic nanometers under the influence of spin-polarized current has been investigated on a high-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope, where one of the electrodes is a magnetized iron wire needle and the second electrode is a ferromagnetic nanoparticle on a graphite substrate. The measured threshold current of magnetization reversal, i.e., the lowest value of the current corresponding to the magnetization reversal, is found to be I thresh ≈ 9 nA. A change in the magnetization of a nanoparticle is revealed using the giant magnetoresistance effect, i.e., the dependence of the weak polarized current ( I < I thresh) on the relative orientation of the magnetizations of the electrodes.

  4. External magnetic fields affect the biological impacts of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Ghavami, Mahdi; Azhdarzadeh, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are recognized as one of the promising nanomaterials for applications in various field of nanomedicine such as targeted imaging/drug delivery, tissue engineering, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Besides their suitable biocompatibility, SPIONs' unique magnetic properties make them an outstanding candidate for theranostic nanomedicine. Very recent progress in the field revealed that the presence of external magnetic fields may cause considerable amount of SPIONs' agglomeration in their colloidal suspension. As variation of physicochemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles has strong effect on their biological outcomes, one can expect that the SPIONs' agglomeration in the presence of external magnetic fields could change their well-recognized biological impacts. In this case, here, we probed the cellular uptake and toxicity of the SPIONs before and after exposure to external magnetic fields. We found that the external magnetic fields can affect the biological outcome of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:26613856

  5. Study of magnetic silk fibroin nanoparticles for massage-like transdermal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ai-Zheng; Chen, Lin-Qing; Wang, Shi-Bin; Wang, Ya-Qiong; Zha, Jun-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    A synergistic approach by the combination of magnetic nanoparticles with an alternating magnetic field for transdermal drug delivery was investigated. Methotrexate-loaded silk fibroin magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using suspension-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2. The physiochemical properties of the magnetic nanoparticles were characterized. In vitro studies on drug permeation across skin were performed under different magnetic fields in comparison with passive diffusion. The permeation flux enhancement factor was found to increase under a stationary magnetic field, while an alternating magnetic field enhanced drug permeation more effectively; the combination of stationary and alternating magnetic fields, which has a massage-like effect on the skin, achieved the best result. The mechanistic studies using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that an alternating magnetic field can change the ordered structure of the stratum corneum lipid bilayers from the gel to the lipid-crystalline state, which can increase the fluidity of the stratum corneum lipids, thus enhancing skin penetration. Compared with the other groups, the fluorescence signal with a bigger area detected in deeper regions of the skin also reveals that the simulated massage could enhance the drug permeation across the skin by increasing the follicular transport. The combination of magnetic nanoparticles with stationary/alternating magnetic fields has potential for effective massage-like transdermal drug delivery. PMID:26229467

  6. Study of magnetic silk fibroin nanoparticles for massage-like transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ai-Zheng; Chen, Lin-Qing; Wang, Shi-Bin; Wang, Ya-Qiong; Zha, Jun-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    A synergistic approach by the combination of magnetic nanoparticles with an alternating magnetic field for transdermal drug delivery was investigated. Methotrexate-loaded silk fibroin magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using suspension-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2. The physiochemical properties of the magnetic nanoparticles were characterized. In vitro studies on drug permeation across skin were performed under different magnetic fields in comparison with passive diffusion. The permeation flux enhancement factor was found to increase under a stationary magnetic field, while an alternating magnetic field enhanced drug permeation more effectively; the combination of stationary and alternating magnetic fields, which has a massage-like effect on the skin, achieved the best result. The mechanistic studies using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that an alternating magnetic field can change the ordered structure of the stratum corneum lipid bilayers from the gel to the lipid-crystalline state, which can increase the fluidity of the stratum corneum lipids, thus enhancing skin penetration. Compared with the other groups, the fluorescence signal with a bigger area detected in deeper regions of the skin also reveals that the simulated massage could enhance the drug permeation across the skin by increasing the follicular transport. The combination of magnetic nanoparticles with stationary/alternating magnetic fields has potential for effective massage-like transdermal drug delivery. PMID:26229467

  7. Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles: fabrication and their laccase immobilization performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Guo, Chen; Yang, Liang-rong; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Newly large-pore magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs) with wormhole framework structures were synthesized for the first time by using tetraethyl orthosilicate as the silica source and amine-terminated Jeffamine surfactants as template. Iminodiacerate was attached on these MMSNPs through a silane-coupling agent and chelated with Cu(2+). The Cu(2+)-chelated MMSNPs (MMSNPs-CPTS-IDA-Cu(2+)) showed higher adsorption capacity of 98.1 mg g(-1)-particles and activity recovery of 92.5% for laccase via metal affinity adsorption in comparison with MMSNPs via physical adsorption. The Michaelis constant (K(m)) and catalytic constant (k(cat)) of laccase immobilized on the MMSNPs-CPTS-IDA-Cu(2+) were 3.28 mM and 155.4 min(-1), respectively. Storage stability and temperature endurance of the immobilized laccase on MMSNPs-CPTS-IDA-Cu(2+) increased significantly, and the immobilized laccase retained 86.6% of its initial activity after 10 successive batch reactions operated with magnetic separation. PMID:20655206

  8. Large-scale synthesis and magnetic properties of cubic CoO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huigang; He, Xuemin

    2012-05-01

    We present the synthesis, microstructural and magnetic characterization of cubic CoO nanoparticles with well-controlled size and shape. The as-synthesized CoO nanoparticles are stable because of the organic coating that occurred in situ. The Nel temperature is 225 and 280 K for the 42 and 74 nm CoO particles, respectively. The CoO nanoparticles exhibit anomalous magnetic properties, such as large moments, coercivities and loop shifts. These results provide evidence for the formation of spin compensated random system in CoO. The structurally distorted and magnetically disordered surface layer ferromagnetic phase played an important role in the magnetic behavior of CoO nanoparticles. The smaller is the particle size, the stronger is the contribution of the ferromagnetic phase and the more is the surface layer helpful to enhance the observed coercivity and the exchange bias.

  9. Suitability of magnetic single- and multi-core nanoparticles to detect protein binding with dynamic magnetic measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmer, Hilke; Dieckhoff, Jan; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the binding of biotinylated proteins to various streptavidin functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with different dynamic magnetic measurement techniques to examine their potential for homogeneous bioassays. As particle systems, single-core nanoparticles with a nominal core diameter of 30 nm as well as multi-core nanoparticles with hydrodynamic sizes varying between nominally 60 nm and 100 nm were chosen. As experimental techniques, fluxgate magnetorelaxometry (MRX), complex ac susceptibility (ACS) and measurements of the phase lag between rotating field and sample magnetization are applied. MRX measurements are only suited for the detection of small analytes if the multivalency of functionalized nanoparticles and analytes causes cross-linking, thus forming larger aggregates. ACS measurements showed for all nanoparticle systems a shift of the imaginary part's maximum towards small frequencies. In rotating field measurements only the single-core nanoparticle systems with dominating Brownian mechanism exhibit an increase of the phase lag upon binding in the investigated frequency range. The coexistence of Brownian and Nel relaxation processes can cause a more complex phase lag change behavior, as demonstrated for multi-core nanoparticle systems.

  10. Deposition feature of Ni nanoparticles on halloysite template and magnetic properties of the composite.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yubin; Zhang, Lide

    2005-07-01

    A novel cermet composite with Ni nanoparticles deposited on a hollow cylindrical halloysite template is fabricated by electroless plating. Ni nanoparticles have a uniform distribution on the template, and their average diameter is mainly in the range of 20-30 nm. The halloysite template will be beneficial to make the Ni nanoparticles achieve high stability and well-dispersed state. Different heat treatment temperatures have a great effect on the crystal structure of Ni nanoparticles and the magnetic properties of the composite. With the heat-treated temperature increase, Ni nanoparticles gradually become crystallized, and the composite values of inherent coercive force (iHc), saturated magnetization (Ms), and residual magnetization (Mr) increase respectively. After complete crystallization of Ni nanoparticles at 673 K, the composite has the maximum values of iHc (253.6 Oe), Ms (57.37 emu/g), and Mr (21.64 emu/g). The sum contribution of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy, single magnetic domain effect, and the pinning effect of multiple-twinned planar defects in Ni nanoparticles would result in the high value of iHc. The new nanosized cermet composite will be at such an advantage for its practicable fabrication method, higher coercive force, high stability, and low cost that it would have great potential to be utilized to design and prepare magnetic materials. PMID:16108436

  11. Effect of Anti-ApoA-I Antibody-Coating of Stents on Neointima Formation in a Rabbit Balloon-Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Koole, Leo H.; de Winter, Robbert J.; van der Wal, Allard C.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.; Tak, Paul P.; Bisoendial, Radjesh J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Rotmans, Joris I.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Since high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has pro-endothelial and anti-thrombotic effects, a HDL recruiting stent may prevent restenosis. In the present study we address the functional characteristics of an apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) antibody coating in vitro. Subsequently, we tested its biological performance applied on stents in vivo in rabbits. Materials and Methods The impact of anti ApoA-I- versus apoB-antibody coated stainless steel discs were evaluated in vitro for endothelial cell adhesion, thrombin generation and platelet adhesion. In vivo, response to injury in the iliac artery of New Zealand white rabbits was used as read out comparing apoA-I-coated versus bare metal stents. Results ApoA-I antibody coated metal discs showed increased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation and decreased thrombin generation and platelet adhesion, compared to control discs. In vivo, no difference was observed between ApoA-I and BMS stents in lumen stenosis (23.313.8% versus 23.311.3%, p=0.77) or intima surface area (0.810.62 mm2 vs 0.840.55 mm2, p=0.85). Immunohistochemistry also revealed no differences in cell proliferation, fibrin deposition, inflammation and endothelialization. Conclusion ApoA-I antibody coating has potent pro-endothelial and anti-thrombotic effects in vitro, but failed to enhance stent performance in a balloon injury rabbit model in vivo. PMID:25821966

  12. Hydroxybutyl Chitosan Polymer-Mediated CD133 Antibody Coating of Metallic Stents to Reduce Restenosis in a Porcine Model of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Qiuwang; Li, Dan; An, Yi; Kutryk, Michael B J

    2015-05-01

    Antibody-coated stents to capture circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for re-endothelialization appear to be a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. Hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC), a linear polysaccharide made from shrimps and other crustacean shells, is biocompatible, nontoxic, and hydrophilic, making it ideal for biomedical applications. In this study, HBC was explored for the immobilization of anti-CD133 antibodies. We demonstrated that CD133 antibodies mediated by HBC were successfully coated on cobalt-chromium alloy discs and metal stents. The coating was homogeneous and smooth as shown by electronic microscopy analysis. Balloon expansion of coated stents did not cause cracking or peeling. The HBC discs promoted CD133+ EPCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cell growth in vitro. The CD133 antibody-coated but not bare discs bound CD133+ EPCs in vitro. Implantation of CD133 antibody-coated stents significantly inhibited intimal hyperplasia and reduced restenosis compared with implantation of bare stents in a porcine model of atherosclerosis. These findings suggest HBC is a valuable anchoring agent that can be applied for bioactive coating of stents and that CD133 antibody-coated stents might be a potential therapeutic alternative for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25412893

  13. Three-dimensional magnetic field determination in magnetic nanoparticles using iterative reconstruction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Emma Margaret

    Improving processing methods have consistently decreased the length scales of many magnetic devices. Methods to quantify the physical and magnetic domain structure of magnetic materials are needed to optimize their performance. However, magnetic characterization methods typically only measure one or two components of the magnetic properties. For instance, Lorentz microscopy is used to construct a two-dimensional projection of the magnetic induction. The vector field electron tomography (VFET) method uses Lorentz microscopy and tomography techniques to reconstruct the three-dimensional magnetic induction and magnetic vector potential of a sample. However, these reconstructions suffer from errors due to factors such as missing wedge information due to the nature of the samples and the physical constraints of the transmission electron microscope. Iterative tomographic techniques and the use of prior knowledge have been used in the literature to compensate for missing wedge data. In this work, we present several tools to construct iterative VFET (IVFET) algorithms. The iterative tomography algorithms Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT), Discrete Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (DART), and Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) are summarized, and their relative merits are discussed. A novel approach to solving the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE) that incorporates phase separation is presented, along with a comparison to the standard method. A model for simulating VFET images of a chain of nanoparticles and tomographic reconstructions using the model are shown. A spherical voxel forward projection model that can be used to update a single voxel of a VFET reconstruction and its projections is presented as a method for updating the reconstruction during iterative tomography.

  14. Quantitative real-time in vivo detection of magnetic nanoparticles by their nonlinear magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, M. P.; Torno, M.; Chen, H.; Rosengart, A.; Nikitin, P. I.

    2008-04-01

    A novel method of highly sensitive quantitative detection of magnetic nanoparticles (MP) in biological tissues and blood system has been realized and tested in real time in vivo experiments. The detection method is based on nonlinear magnetic properties of MP and the related device can record a very small relative variation of nonlinear magnetic susceptibility up to 10-8 at room temperature, providing sensitivity of several nanograms of MP in 0.1ml volume. Real-time quantitative in vivo measurements of dynamics of MP concentration in blood flow have been performed. A catheter that carried the blood flow of a rat passed through the measuring device. After an MP injection, the quantity of MP in the circulating blood was continuously recorded. The method has also been used to evaluate the MP distribution between rat's organs. Its sensitivity was compared with detection of the radioactive MP based on isotope of Fe59. The comparison of magnetic and radioactive signals in the rat's blood and organ samples demonstrated similar sensitivity for both methods. However, the proposed magnetic method is much more convenient as it is safe, less expensive, and provides real-time measurements in vivo. Moreover, the sensitivity of the method can be further improved by optimization of the device geometry.

  15. Intracellular performance of tailored nanoparticle tracers in magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arami, Hamed; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a quantitative mass-sensitive, tracer-based imaging technique, with potential applications in various cellular imaging applications. The spatial resolution of MPI, in the first approximation, improves by decreasing the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the field-derivative of the magnetization, dm/dH of the nanoparticle (NP) tracers. The FWHM of dm/dH depends critically on NPs' size, size distribution, and their environment. However, there is limited information on the MPI performance of the NPs after their internalization into cells. In this work, 30 to 150 μg of the iron oxide NPs were incubated in a lysosome-like acidic buffer (0.2 ml, 20 mM citric acid, pH 4.7) and investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry, magnetic particle spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The FWHM of the dm/dH curves of the NPs increased with incubation time and buffer to NPs ratio, consistent with a decrease in the median core size of the NPs from ˜20.1 ± 0.98 to ˜18.5 ± 3.15 nm. Further, these smaller degraded NPs formed aggregates that responded to the applied field by hysteretic reversal at higher field values and increased the FWHM. The rate of core size decrease and aggregation were inversely proportional to the concentration of the incubated NPs, due to their slower biodegradation kinetics. The results of this model experiment show that the MPI performance of the NPs in the acidic environments of the intracellular organelles (i.e., lysosomes and endosomes) can be highly dependent on their rate of internalization, residence time, and degradation.

  16. Intracellular performance of tailored nanoparticle tracers in magnetic particle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arami, Hamed; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-05-07

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a quantitative mass-sensitive, tracer-based imaging technique, with potential applications in various cellular imaging applications. The spatial resolution of MPI, in the first approximation, improves by decreasing the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the field-derivative of the magnetization, dm/dH of the nanoparticle (NP) tracers. The FWHM of dm/dH depends critically on NPs size, size distribution, and their environment. However, there is limited information on the MPI performance of the NPs after their internalization into cells. In this work, 30 to 150??g of the iron oxide NPs were incubated in a lysosome-like acidic buffer (0.2?ml, 20?mM citric acid, pH 4.7) and investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry, magnetic particle spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The FWHM of the dm/dH curves of the NPs increased with incubation time and buffer to NPs ratio, consistent with a decrease in the median core size of the NPs from ?20.1??0.98 to ?18.5??3.15?nm. Further, these smaller degraded NPs formed aggregates that responded to the applied field by hysteretic reversal at higher field values and increased the FWHM. The rate of core size decrease and aggregation were inversely proportional to the concentration of the incubated NPs, due to their slower biodegradation kinetics. The results of this model experiment show that the MPI performance of the NPs in the acidic environments of the intracellular organelles (i.e., lysosomes and endosomes) can be highly dependent on their rate of internalization, residence time, and degradation.

  17. Improved efficiency of heat generation in nonlinear dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rcz, J; de Chtel, P F; Szab, I A; Szunyogh, L; Nndori, I

    2016-01-01

    The deterministic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation has been used to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of magnetization and the specific loss power in magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy driven by a rotating magnetic field. We propose a new type of applied field, which is "simultaneously rotating and alternating," i.e., the direction of the rotating external field changes periodically. We show that a more efficient heat generation by magnetic nanoparticles is possible with this new type of applied field and we suggest its possible experimental realization in cancer therapy which requires the enhancement of loss energies. PMID:26871122

  18. Improved efficiency of heat generation in nonlinear dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, J.; de Châtel, P. F.; Szabó, I. A.; Szunyogh, L.; Nándori, I.

    2016-01-01

    The deterministic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation has been used to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of magnetization and the specific loss power in magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy driven by a rotating magnetic field. We propose a new type of applied field, which is "simultaneously rotating and alternating," i.e., the direction of the rotating external field changes periodically. We show that a more efficient heat generation by magnetic nanoparticles is possible with this new type of applied field and we suggest its possible experimental realization in cancer therapy which requires the enhancement of loss energies.

  19. Magnetic and photoluminescence studies of electron irradiated Bi2Fe4O9 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Prashanth K. S.; Krishnan, Sheeja; Pattabi, Manjunatha; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2016-03-01

    The effect of 8 MeV electron irradiation on the magnetic and photoluminescence properties of Bi2Fe4O9 has been investigated and reported in this paper. Magnetic parameters of unirradiated and irradiated Bi2Fe4O9 nanoparticles were investigated by Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Modification in saturation magnetization, remanence magnetization and coercivity were observed after exposure of Bi2Fe4O9 nanoparticles to high energy electrons. A decrease in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) spectra was observed in irradiated samples compared to the unirradiated samples.

  20. Colloidal Stability and Monodispersible Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Biotechnology Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamili, K.; Rajesh, E. M.; Rajendran, R.; Madhan Shankar, S. R.; Elango, M.; Abitha Devi, N.

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are promising material for various biological applications. In the recent decades, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) have great attention in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). This review focuses on the colloidal stability and monodispersity properties of MNPs, which pay more attention toward biomedical applications. The simplest and the most promising method for the synthesis of MNPs is co-precipitation. The biocompatible MNPs are more interested in MRI application. This review also apportions synthesis, characterization and applications of MNP in biological and biomedical as theranostics and imaging.

  1. The effect of low-temperature heat treatment on the magnetic properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, D. A.; Krasikov, A. A.; Dubrovskii, A. A.; Bayukov, O. A.; Stolyar, S. V.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Ladygina, V. P.; Yaroslavtsev, R. N.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the influence of low-temperature heat treatment (annealing) on the magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of biogenic ferrihydrite. It is established that the proposed treatment leads to an increase in the blocking temperature and magnetic susceptibility of samples. After subsequent exposure in aqueous medium, the magnetic properties of annealed sol remain constant. The character of changes in the magnetic properties of samples studied shows that low-temperature heat treatment allows nanoparticle dimensions to be increased in a controlled way.

  2. Ectoenzyme switches the surface of magnetic nanoparticles for selective binding of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuewen; Zhou, Jie; Xu, Bing

    2015-06-01

    Enzymatic switch, such as phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins, is the most important mechanism for cellular signal transductions. Inspired by Nature and encouraged by our recent unexpected observation of the dephosphorylation of d-tyrosine phosphate-contain small peptides, we modify the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) with d-tyrosine phosphate that is a substrate of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our studies find that ALP is able to remove the phosphate groups from the magnetic nanoparticles. Most importantly, placental alkaline phosphatase (ALPP), an ectoenzyme that locates on cell surface with catalytic domains outside the plasma membrane and is overexpressed on many cancer cells, dephosphorylate the d-tyrosine phosphates on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticle and enable the magnetic nanoparticles to adhere selectively to the cancer cells, such as HeLa cells. Unlikely commonly used antibodies, the selectivity of the magnetic nanoparticles to cancer cells originates from the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by ALPP. The use of enzymatic reaction to modulate the surface of various nanostructures may lead to a general method to broadly target cancer cells without relying on specific ligand-receptor interactions (e.g., antibodies). This work, thus, illustrates a fundamentally new concept to allow cells to actively engineer the surface of colloids materials, such as magnetic nanoparticles, for various applications. PMID:25586118

  3. Effect of O-vacancies on magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by solution evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, A. M.; Umair, M.; Dastgeer, G.; Rizwan, M.; Yaqoob, M. Z.; Rashid, R.; Munir, H. S.

    2016-02-01

    Bismuth ferrite is a multiferroic material which shows high magnetization and polarization at room temperature. In present work, the effect of Oxygen (O) vacancies on magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles is studied. Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BiFeO3) were synthesized by solution evaporation method (SEM) at room temperature. The sample was annealed under two different atmospheres such as in air and oxygen, to check the effect of O-vacancies on magnetic properties. The average crystallite size of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) as calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) falls in the range of 23-32 nm and 26-39 nm for the case of air and oxygen respectively. The crystallite size of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles increases as the temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C. Further the influence of annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles was also observed. It was concluded that the magnetic properties of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are directly interconnected to annealing atmosphere and annealing temperature. The magnetic properties were increased in the case of oxygen annealing, which actually leads in our case to an improvement of the crystallinity.

  4. The influence of collective behavior on the magnetic and heating properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, C. L.; Jackson, A. J.; Borchers, J. A.; Ivkov, R.; Foreman, A. R.; Lau, J. W.; Goernitz, E.; Gruettner, C.

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles with a high specific absorption rate (SAR) have been developed and used in mouse models of cancer. The magnetic nanoparticles are comprised of predominantly iron oxide magnetic cores surrounded by a dextran layer for colloidal stability. The average diameter of a single particle (core plus dextran) is 9214nm as measured by photon correlation spectroscopy. Small angle neutron scattering measurements under several H2O/D2O contrast conditions and at varying nanoparticle concentrations have revealed three length scales: >10?m, several hundred nanometers, and tens of nanometers. The latter corresponds to the particle diameter; the several hundred nanometers corresponds to a hard sphere interaction radius of the core/shell nanoparticles; >10?m corresponds to the formation of long-range, many-particle structures held together by magnetic interactions and dextran. The long-range collective magnetic behavior appears to play a major role in enhancing the SAR. For samples having nominally equal concentrations and similar saturation magnetizations, the measured SAR is 1075W/(g of Fe) for tightly associated nanoparticles and 150W/(g of Fe) for very loosely associated nanoparticles at an applied field of 86kA/m (1080Oe) and 150kHz.

  5. Large Scale Production of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Bacterial Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ji Won; Rawn, Claudia J; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J; Roh, Yul; Lauf, Robert J; Everett, Susan M; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2010-01-01

    Microbial production of nano-sized particles has a demonstrated capacity to make highly crystalline pure phase magnetite or with some substitution of Fe by Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn or the rare earths. Microbial production of magnetic nanoparticles can be achieved in large quantities and at low cost. Over 1 kg (wet weight) of Zn-substituted magnetite (nominal composition of Zn0.6Fe2.4O4) has been recovered from 30 L fermentations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to confirm that this mass produced extracellular magnetites exhibited good mono-dispersity. TEM results also showed a highly reproducible particle size and corroborated average crystallite size (ACS) of 13.1 0.8 nm determined through X-ray diffraction (N=7) at a 99 % confidence level. Based on scale-up experiments performed using a 35 L reactor, the increase in ACS reproducibility may be attributed to an increase of electron donor input, availability of divalent substitution metal ions and less ferrous ions in the case of substituted magnetite, increased reactor volume overcoming differences in each batch, or a combination of the above. While costs of commercial nanometer sized magnetite (25-50 nm) may cost $500/kg, microbial production is likely capable of producing 5-90 nm pure or substituted magnetites at a fraction of the cost of traditional chemical synthesis. While there are numerous approaches for the synthesis of nanoparticles, bacterial fermentation of magnetite or metal-substituted magnetite may represent an advantageous manufacturing technology with respect to yield, reproducibility and scalable synthesis with low costs at low energy input.

  6. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with magnetic nanoparticles: general nonaqueous synthesis and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Du, Ning; Wu, Ping; Chen, Bingdi; Yang, Deren

    2008-08-01

    A novel approach has been developed to synthesize magnetic nanoparticle and carbon nanotube (CNT) core-shell nanostructures, such as CoO/CNTs and Mn3O4/CNTs, by the nonaqueous solvothermal treatment of metal carbonyl on CNT templates using hexane as the solvent. The morphological and structural characterizations indicate that numerous cubic CoO or tetragonal Mn3O4 nanoparticles are deposited on the surfaces of the CNTs to form CNT-based core-shell nanostructures. It is revealed that the hydrophobic interaction between nanoparticles and CNTs in hexane plays the critical role for the formation of CNT-based core-shell nanostructures. A physical property measurement system (PPMS-9, Quantum Design) analysis indicates that the CoO/CNT core-shell nanostructures show weak ferromagnetic performance at 300 K due to the ferromagnetic Co clusters and the uncompensated surface spin states, while the Mn3O4/CNT core-shell nanostructures display ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (34.5 K), which transforms into paramagnetic behavior with increasing temperature.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenyan; An, Yanli; Zhang, Jia; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression.

  8. Sensing the quantum behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Fittipaldi, M; Mercatelli, R; Sottini, S; Ceci, P; Falvo, E; Gatteschi, D

    2016-01-27

    We have investigated Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) of spinel type iron oxide (of approximately 8 nm) mineralized in the internal cavity of the bioreactor ferritin nanocage. In particular, we have used Electron Magnetic Resonance, EMR, spectroscopy and taken advantage of the capacity of the protein shells to control the size of the MNPs. EMR measurements in perpendicular and parallel configurations have been recorded at various temperatures. A model based on the giant spin is used to interpret the experimental results. The analysis indicates that the observed quantum behaviour has to be ascribed to the whole MNP and that the thermal population of excited spin states has a strong influence in the EMR behaviour of MNPs. PMID:26750402

  9. Comparative study of magnetic ordering in bulk and nanoparticles of Sm0.65Ca0.35MnO3: Magnetization and electron magnetic resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goveas, Lora Rita; Anuradha, K. N.; Bhagyashree, K. S.; Bhat, S. V.

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effect of size reduction to nanoscale on the hole doped Sm0.65Ca0.35MnO3 compound, dc magnetic measurements and electron magnetic resonance (EMR) were done on bulk and nanoparticle samples in the temperature range 10 ? T ? 300 K. Magnetization measurement showed that the bulk sample undergoes a charge ordering transition at 240 K and shows a mixed magnetic phase at low temperature. However, the nanosample underwent a ferromagnetic transition at 75 K, and the charge ordered state was destabilized on size reduction down to nanoscale. The low-temperature ferromagnetic component is found to be enhanced in nanoparticles as compared to their bulk counterpart. Interestingly around room temperature, bulk particles show higher magnetization where as at low temperature nanoparticles show higher magnetization. Ferromagnetism in the bulk is due to super exchange where as ferromagnetism in nanoparticles is due to uncompensated spins of the surface layer. Temperature variation of EMR parameters correlates well with the results of magnetic measurements. The magnetic behaviour of the nanoparticles is understood in terms of the core shell scenario.

  10. Appropriate Size of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Various Bioapplications in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomeng; Wu, Zhe; Li, Wei; Wang, Zuhua; Li, Qingpo; Kong, Fenfen; Zhang, Hanbo; Zhu, Xiuliang; Du, Yiping P; Jin, Yi; Du, Yongzhong; You, Jian

    2016-02-10

    The development of multifunctional nanoparticles has attracted increasing attention. The versatility of nanoparticles largely depends on their physiochemical properties (especially size). However, the optimized size range may be different for the bioapplications of each function associated with multifunctional nanoparticles. It is important to investigate every optimized size range to ascertain which size enables the best function of the nanoparticles before deciding their final size. In this work, we synthesized a series of monodisperse Fe3O4 nanoparticles with identical surface properties ranging in size from 60 to 310 nm and systematically investigated their biobehavior and application. Our data indicate that compared to their large counterparts, small Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited greater cellular internalization and deeper penetration into multicellular spheroids, thus enabling a higher photothermal ablation efficacy in vitro. Interestingly, larger Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed greater accumulation in tumors, thereby inducing more efficient tumor growth inhibition. In addition, 120 nm may be the optimal diameter of Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic tomography in vitro. However, more efficient in vivo imaging mediated by Fe3O4 nanoparticles will predominantly depend on their high accumulation. Our work presents a different appropriate size range for each biofunction of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which could be a valuable reference for future nanoparticle design. PMID:26754032

  11. Infrared characteristics of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in a transparent matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuteson, D. J.; Singh, N. B.; Kahler, D.; Berghmans, A.; Wagner, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Jelen, E.; King, M.

    2009-08-01

    Effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the transparency of a transparent matrix is studied in the infrared wavelength region. We used the iron oxide - potassium bromide system for this study. Several samples were prepared with different concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticles. IR microscopy and transmission measurements were performed to determine the resonance characteristics of aggregates of nanoparticles. We observed a sharp strong absorption peak at 7.22 ?m. The amplitude of the absorption peak was dependent on the nanoparticle concentration. Effect of interface diffusion on the morphology and transmission was studied by annealing the sample at 175 C and 500C. High temperature annealing indicated interpenetration and affected the transparency significantly.

  12. Influence of surface spins on the magnetization of fine maghemite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeem, K.; Krenn, H.; Szabó, D. V.

    2013-12-16

    Influence of surface spins on magnetization of maghemite nanoparticles have been studied by using SQUID measurements and also comparison done with theoretical simulations. Surface spin disorder arises in these nanoparticles due to the randomness of surface spins. A model of AC-susceptibility has been used to investigate the experimental results. The comparison between experiment and theory signifies the presence of large effective anisotropy and freezing effects on the surface of maghemite nanoparticles. The enhanced effective anisotropy constant of these nanoparticles as compared to bulk maghemite is due to presence of disordered surface spins.

  13. Experimental evidence of surface effects in the magnetic dynamics behavior of ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, E. C.; Alves, C. R.; Aquino, R.; Sousa, M. H.; Goya, G. F.; Rechenberg, H. R.; Tourinho, F. A.; Depeyrot, J.

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic dynamics behavior of copper and nickel ferrite nanoparticles used in the magnetic fluid elaboration and with mean sizes between 3.5 to 10.4 nm is investigated by measurements of magnetic hysteretic properties and zero field cooling (ZFC) susceptibility. The dependence of the irreversibility field, inversely proportional to the particle size, clearly indicates that the magnetic anisotropy of our particles finds its origin on the surface layer.

  14. Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with embedded ferrite-spinel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Korolev, A. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Klescheva, S. M.; Perov, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with ferrite-spinel nanoparticles embedded have been investigated in temperature range from 2 to 300 K. The magnetization curves and hysteresis loops as well as the temperature dependence of magnetic moment and the temperature and frequency dependences of AC susceptibility have been measured. The results of magnetic measurements are compared to X-ray analysis and electron microscopy investigations.

  15. Magnetic relaxation/stability of Co ferrite nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caizer, C.; ?ura, V.

    2006-06-01

    The investigated system consisted of Co ferrite nanoparticles embedded in amorphous SiO 2 particles, with ?=1% magnetic volume fraction. The M- H curve ( M is the magnetization and H is the external magnetic field) of the particle system, recorded at room temperature using a 50 Hz alternating magnetic field, showed a very wide hysteresis loop indicating a strong deviation from the theoretical Langevin curve. The structural phases and mean diameter of the nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Structural analysis results and theoretical evaluations of the critical diameter under which the particle has a single-domain magnetic structure suggested that the factor accounting for the observed behavior is a high magnetic anisotropy (anisotropy constant around 1.610 5 Jm -3); even the volume of Co ferrite nanoparticles is within the superparamagnetic range. The observed behavior was explained assuming that the magnetic moments of nanoparticles could be blocked even at room temperature, due to the existence of a high (0.64 eV) energy barrier which cannot be exceeded by thermal activation alone (0.03 eV). The magnetic relaxation time (?=2.510-1 s) evaluated from experimental data was much longer than the experiment time (t=210-2 s), in agreement with the observed magnetic remanence. The Co ferrite nanoparticles embedded in amorphous SiO 2 showed stable magnetic single-domain structure in a very wide range of diameters (7.6-162 nm), and the particle shape appeared to be unimportant due to the high magnetic anisotropy. The results reported in the present paper demonstrate the existence of a relatively simple preparation method of interesting magnetic nanomaterials with potential application for magnetic recording media.

  16. Tuning the surface magnetism of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a Cu shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desautels, R. D.; Skoropata, E.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Ouyang, H.; Freeland, J. W.; van Lierop, J.

    2011-12-01

    An interfacial monolayer of CuO in Cu-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles enables significantly decreased intrinsic surface spin disorder compared to bare ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Element specific x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edges for Cu and Fe indicates that the magnetic moment of the CuO in the shell interacts with the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticle's surface magnetic moments. This exchange interaction cants the moments of the CuO resulting in a non-zero Cu moment, altering the ?-Fe2O3 nanomagnetism.

  17. Surface effects on the magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles with core/shell morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi N.

    2008-07-01

    We study the influence of the surface on the hysteresis behaviour of nanoparticles with core/shell morphology at an atomic level. We use a model that explicitly takes into account the dynamics of the core, interface and surface regions using the Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. The presence of uncompensated spins (Nu) and the surface spins' canting strongly influence the magnetic response of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles. The strength of the surface anisotropy in this case determines the behaviour of the temperature dependence of the coercive field. In ferrimagnetic nanoparticles the magnetization and coercivity depend on the details of the surface.

  18. Dual-Color Fluorescence Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Live Cancer Cells Using Conjugated Polymer Probes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Minjie; Sun, Bin; Liu, Yun; Shen, Qun-Dong; Jiang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth in biological applications of nanomaterials brings about pressing needs for exploring nanomaterial-cell interactions. Cationic blue-emissive and anionic green-emissive conjugated polymers are applied as dual-color fluorescence probes to the surface of negatively charged magnetic nanoparticles through sequentially electrostatic adsorption. These conjugated polymers have large extinction coefficients and high fluorescence quantum yield (82% for PFN and 62% for ThPFS). Thereby, one can visualize trace amount (2.7 μg/mL) of fluorescence-labeled nanoparticles within cancer cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fluorescence labeling by the conjugated polymers is also validated for quantitative determination of the internalized nanoparticles in each individual cell by flow cytometry analysis. Extensive overlap of blue and green fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm indicates that both conjugated polymer probes tightly bind to the surface of the nanoparticles during cellular internalization. The highly charged and fluorescence-labeled nanoparticles non-specifically bind to the cell membranes, followed by cellular uptake through endocytosis. The nanoparticles form aggregates inside endosomes, which yields a punctuated staining pattern. Cellular internalization of the nanoparticles is dependent on the dosage and time. Uptake efficiency can be enhanced three-fold by application of an external magnetic field. The nanoparticles are low cytotoxicity and suitable for simultaneously noninvasive fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging application. PMID:26931282

  19. Iron oxide nanoparticles: the Influence of synthesis method and size on composition and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, M.D.; Godinho, M.; Cruz, M.M.

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles with mean diameter ranging from 7 to 20 nm were synthesized using two routes: the precipitation method in controlled atmosphere and a reductionprecipitation method under air, in some cases followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The smallest nanoparticles were obtained by the reductionprecipitation method. In order to establish the composition of the iron oxide nanoparticles and its relation with size, the morphological, structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Mssbauer spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. The results allow to conclude that the nanoparticles can be essentially described as Fe3xO?, x decreasing with the particle size increase. The composition and magnetic behavior of the synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles are directly related with their size. The overall results are compatible with a core@shell structure model, where a magnetite core is surrounded by an oxidized magnetite layer (labeled as maghemite), the magnetite core dimension depending on the average particle size. - Graphical abstract: TEM images and Mssbauer spectroscopy spectra of Fe3xO? samples with different sizes. Highlights: Fe3xO? nanoparticles with a mean size between 7 and 20 nm were synthesized. The smallest nanoparticles were obtained by a reduction precipitation method, under air. The increase of particles size was succeeded using a hydrothermal treatment at 150 C. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are directly related with their size.