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Production of podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum hexandrum: a potential natural product for clinically useful anticancer drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Podophyllum hexandrum Royle of family Berberidaceae is an endangered medicinal plant. Rhizome ofP.hexandrum contains several lignans which posses antitumor activity. Podphyllotoxin is the most active cytotoxic natural product. It is used as starting compound for the synthesis of anticancer drug etoposide and teniposide. Podophyllotoxin acts as an inhibitor of microtubule assembly. These drugs are used for lung cancer, testicular cancer,

Archana Giri; M. Lakshmi Narasu



The role of biotechnology in the production of the anticancer compound podophyllotoxin.  


Podophyllotoxin is a plant-derived compound found in Podophyllum sp. that is used to produce semi-synthetic anticancer pharmaceuticals such as etoposide, teniposide, and etoposide phosphate. This chapter describes the role of biotechnology to produce podophyllotoxin and our attempts to domesticate Podophyllum peltatum L., also known as the American mayapple. The domestication research on mayapple included surveys of the natural population, identification of high yielding genotypes, propagation, cultivation, sustainable harvest procedures and the development of protocols for in vitro germplasm bank. PMID:19521861

Lata, Hemant; Mizuno, Cassia S; Moraes, Rita M



Anticancer Properties of an Important Drug Lead Podophyllotoxin Can Be Efficiently Mimicked by Diverse Heterocyclic Scaffolds Accessible via One-Step Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Structural simplification of an antimitotic natural product podophyllotoxin with mimetic heterocyclic scaffolds constructed using multicomponent reactions led to the identification of compounds exhibiting low nanomolar antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing properties. The most potent compounds were found in the dihydropyridopyrazole, dihydropyridonaphthalene, dihydropyridoindole and dihydropyridopyrimidine scaffold series. Biochemical mechanistic studies performed with dihydropyridopyrazole compounds showed that these heterocycles inhibit in vitro tubulin polymerization and disrupt the formation of mitotic spindles in dividing cells at low nanomolar concentrations, in a manner similar to podophyllotoxin itself. Separation of a racemic dihydropyridonaphthalene into individual enantiomers demonstrated that only the optical antipode matching the absolute configuration of podophyllotoxin possessed potent anticancer activity. Computer modeling, performed using the podophyllotoxin binding site on beta-tubulin, provided a theoretical understanding of these successful experimental findings. PMID:21615090

Magedov, Igor V.; Frolova, Liliya; Manpadi, Madhuri; Bhoga, Uma devi; Tang, Hong; Evdokimov, Nikolai M.; George, Olivia; Georgiou, Kathy Hadje; Renner, Steffen; Getlic, Matthäus; Kinnibrugh, Tiffany L.; Fernandes, Manuel A.; Van slambrouck, Severine; Steelant, Wim F. A.; Shuster, Charles B.; Rogelj, Snezna; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Kornienko, Alexander



Comparative in vivo evaluation of polyalkoxy substituted 4H-chromenes and oxa-podophyllotoxins as microtubule destabilizing agents in the phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay.  


A series of polyalkoxy substituted 7-hydroxy- and 7-methoxy-4-aryl-4H-chromenes were evaluated using the sea urchin embryo model to yield several compounds exhibiting potent antimitotic microtubule destabilizing activity. Data obtained by the assay were further confirmed in the NCI60 human cancer cell screen. The replacement of methylenedioxy ring A and lactone ring D in podophyllotoxin analogues by 7-methoxy, 2-NH2, and 3-CN groups in 4-aryl-4H-chromenes resulted in potent antimitotic microtubule destabilizing agents. Feasible synthesis and high yields render 7-methoxy-4H-chromenes to be a promising series for further anticancer drug development. PMID:24997684

Semenova, Marina N; Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Malyshev, Oleg R; Ershov, Oleg V; Bardasov, Ivan N; Semenov, Roman V; Kiselyov, Alex S; Semenov, Victor V



A Synthetic Podophyllotoxin Derivative Exerts Anti-Cancer Effects by Inducing Mitotic Arrest and Pro-Apoptotic ER Stress in Lung Cancer Preclinical Models  

PubMed Central

Some potent chemotherapy drugs including tubulin-binding agents had been developed from nature plants, such as podophyllotoxin and paclitaxel. However, poor cytotoxic selectivity, serious side-effects, and limited effectiveness are still the major concerns in their therapeutic application. We developed a fully synthetic podophyllotoxin derivative named Ching001 and investigated its anti-tumor growth effects and mechanisms in lung cancer preclinical models. Ching001 showed a selective cytotoxicity to different lung cancer cell lines but not to normal lung cells. Ching001 inhibited the polymerization of microtubule resulting in mitotic arrest as evident by the accumulation of mitosis-related proteins, survivin and aurora B, thereby leading to DNA damage and apoptosis. Ching001 also activated pro-apoptotic ER stress signaling pathway. Intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg Ching001 significantly inhibited the tumor growth of A549 xenograft, while injection of 0.2 mg/kg Ching001 decreased the lung colonization ability of A549 cells in experimental metastasis assay. These anti-tumor growth and lung colonization inhibition effects were stronger than those of paclitaxel treatment at the same dosage. The xenograft tumor tissue stains further confirmed that Ching001 induced mitosis arrest and tumor apoptosis. In addition, the hematology and biochemistry tests of blood samples as well as tissue examinations indicated that Ching001 treatment did not show apparent organ toxicities in tested animals. We provided preclinical evidence that novel synthetic microtubule inhibitor Ching001, which can trigger DNA damage and apoptosis by inducing mitotic arrest and ER stress, is a potential anti-cancer compound for further drug development. PMID:23646116

Chen, Jia-Yang; Tang, Yen-An; Li, Wen-Shan; Chiou, Yu-Ching; Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Wang, Yi-Ching



Recent progress on C-4-modified podophyllotoxin analogs as potent antitumor agents.  


Podophyllotoxin (PPT), as well as its congeners and derivatives, exhibits pronounced biological activities, especially antineoplastic effects. Its strong inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth led to the development of three of the most highly prescribed anticancer drugs in the world, etoposide, teniposide, and the water-soluble prodrug etoposide phosphate. Their clinical success as well as intriguing mechanism of action stimulated great interest in further modification of PPT for better antitumor activity. The C-4 position has been a major target for structural derivatization aimed at either producing more potent compounds or overcoming drug resistance. Accordingly, numerous PPT derivatives have been prepared via hemisynthesis and important structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations have been identified. Several resulting compounds, including GL-331, TOP-53, and NK611, reached clinical trials. Some excellent reviews on the distribution, sources, applications, synthesis, and SAR of PPT have been published. This review focuses on a second generation of new etoposide-related drugs and provides detailed coverage of the current status and recent development of C-4-modified PPT analogs as anticancer clinical trial candidates. PMID:24827545

Liu, Ying-Qian; Tian, Jing; Qian, Keduo; Zhao, Xiao-Bo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Liu; Nan, Xiang; Tian, Xuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung



Synthetic and application perspectives of azapodophyllotoxins: alternative scaffolds of podophyllotoxin.  


Podophyllotoxin (1) has been known to possess anti-tumor activity and is still considered an important lead for research and development of antineoplastic agents. Derivatives of podophyllotoxin, namely etoposide (2), etopophos (3) and teniposide (4) have been developed and are currently used in clinic for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. These agents are also used in combination therapies with other drugs. Due to the drug resistance developed by cancer cells as well as side effects associated with the use of these agents in clinic, the search for new effective anticancer analogues of podophyllotoxin remains an intense area of research. The structural complexity of podophyllotoxin, arising from the presence of four stereogenic carbons in ring C has restricted most of the structural activity relationship (SAR) studied by derivatization of the parent natural product rather than by de novo multi-step chemical synthesis. These issues provide strong impetus to a search for analogues of 1 with simplified structures, which can be accessible via short synthetic sequences from simple starting materials. Even if such initial compounds might have diminished cytotoxic potencies compared with the parent cyclolignan, the ease of preparation of carefully designed libraries of analogues would lead to more informative SAR studies and expeditious structure optimization. In this regard, during the last two decades considerable efforts have been made to synthesize aza- analogs of podophyllotoxin, i. e. aza-podophyllotoxins, with hetero atoms at different positions of the podophyllotoxin skeleton, while keeping the basic podophyllotoxin structure. Recently, there have been significant efforts towards the convenient synthesis of aza-analogs of 1. The use of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) and the synergies of ultrasound and microwave irradiations have increased the synthetic speed and variety of azapodophyllotoxins which are and will be available to be tested against a diverse population of carcinomas and other diseases. It has been reported that several aza-podophyllotoxins retain a great fraction of the cytotoxicity associated with the parent lignan. This review focuses on the strategies towards synthesis of various aza-podophyllotoxin analogues and their biological activities. PMID:21824101

Kumar, A; Kumar, V; Alegria, A E; Malhotra, S V



Synthetic and Application Perspectives of Azapodophyllotoxins: Alternative Scaffolds of Podophyllotoxin  

PubMed Central

Podophyllotoxin (1) has been known to possess anti-tumor activity and is still considered an important lead for research and development of antineoplastic agents. Derivatives of podophyllotoxin, namely etoposide (2), etopophos (3) and teniposide (4) have been developed and are currently used in clinic for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. These agents are also used in combination therapies with other drugs. Due to the drug resistance developed by cancer cells as well as side effects associated with the use of these agents in clinic, the search for new effective anticancer analogues of podophyllotoxin remains an intense area of research. The structural complexity of podophyllotoxin, arising from the presence of four stereogenic carbons in ring C has restricted most of the structural activity relationship (SAR) studied by derivatization of the parent natural product rather than by de novo multi-step chemical synthesis. These issues provide strong impetus to a search for analogues of 1 with simplified structures, which can be accessible via short synthetic sequences from simple starting materials. Even if such initial compounds might have diminished cytotoxic potencies compared with the parent cyclolignan, the ease of preparation of carefully designed libraries of analogues would lead to more informative SAR studies and expeditious structure optimization. In this regard, during the last two decades considerable efforts have been made to synthesize aza- analogs of podophyllotoxin, i. e. aza-podophyllotoxins, with hetero atoms at different positions of the podophyllotoxin skeleton, while keeping the basic podophyllotoxin structure. Recently, there have been significant efforts towards the convenient synthesis of aza-analogs of 1. The use of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) and the synergies of ultrasound and microwave irradiations have increased the synthetic speed and variety of azapodophyllotoxins which are and will be available to be tested against a diverse population of carcinomas and other diseases. It has been reported that several aza-podophyllotoxins retain a great fraction of the cytotoxicity associated with the parent lignan. This review focuses on the strategies towards synthesis of various aza-podophyllotoxin analogues and their biological activities. PMID:21824101

Kumar, A.; Kumar, V.; Alegria, A.E.; Malhotra, S.V.



Recent Developments Towards Podophyllotoxin Congeners as Potential Apoptosis Inducers.  


Podophyllotoxin, a lignan extracted from rhizomes of Podophyllum species, is a well established lead in the development of new chemical agents for the treatment of cancer. Its semi-synthetic variant, etoposide is an anticancer drug which inhibits DNA topoisomerase II causing cell cycle arrest in the S the phase. Its clinical success and intriguing mode of action made it a much sought after skeleton for the development of better antitumor agents. Modifications were made at several positions of its skeleton with the aim to either improve its potency or to overcome drug resistance. In recent years, the structurally modified podophyllotoxins have been investigated for their apoptosis inducing ability. Although numerous reviews emphasized the occurrence, synthesis and applications of podophyllotoxins, the recent progress towards development of structurally modified podophyllotoxins possessing apoptosis inducing ability has not been previously reviewed. Therefore the present review focuses on the studies carried out in the design and synthesis of new podophyllotoxin derivatives and their evaluation as apoptosis inducers. PMID:25469512

Kamal, Ahmed; Ali Hussaini, Syed Mohammed; Malik, M Shaheer



Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview  

PubMed Central

The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed. PMID:24227952

Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.



Anticancer agent-based marine natural products and related compounds.  


Marine natural products constitute a huge reservoir of anticancer agents. Consequently during the past decades, several marine anticancer compounds have been isolated, identified, and approved for anticancer treatment or are under trials. In this article the sources, structure, bioactivities, mode of actions, and analogs of some promising marine and derived anticancer compounds have been discussed. PMID:25559315

Chen, Jian-Wei; Wu, Qi-Hao; Rowley, David C; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong



Biological evaluation and molecular modelling study of podophyllotoxin derivatives as potent inhibitors of tubulin polymerization.  


Microtubules are considered as important targets of anticancer therapy. Podophyllotoxin and its structural derivative are major microtubule-interfering agents with potent anticancer activity. In this study, we reported the anticancer effects of 10 representative podophyllotoxin derivatives on a panel of four human cancer cell lines. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (6b) and ?-apopicropodophyllotoxin (6g) elicited strong antiproliferative effects (IC??) at a range of 0.0073-0.14 ?M. Direct tubulin depolymerization assay in vitro was also performed. Results showed that that the two compounds can inhibit microtubule polymerization. Experimental measurements were also supported by molecular dynamic simulations, which showed that the two active compounds formed interactions with the colchicine-binding site of the tubulin protein. Our results helped us understand the nature of tubulin binding and determine the core design of a new series of potent inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. PMID:23786349

Ma, Yaqiong; Fang, Senbiao; Li, Huanhuan; Han, Chao; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yonglong; Liu, Yingqian; Zhao, Chunyan



Spirooxindoles: Promising scaffolds for anticancer agents.  


The search for novel anticancer agents with more selectivity and lower toxicity continues to be an area of intensive investigation. The unique structural features of spirooxindoles together with diverse biological activities have made them privileged structures in new drug discovery. Among them, spiro-pyrrolidinyl oxindoles have been extensively studied as potent inhibitors of p53-MDM2 interaction, finally leading to the identification of MI-888, which could achieve rapid, complete and durable tumor regression in xenograft models of human cancer with oral administration and is in advanced preclinical research for cancer therapy. This review highlights recent progress of biologically active spirooxindoles for their anticancer potentials, mainly focusing on the discussions of SARs and modes of action. This article also aims to discuss potential further directions on the development of more potent analogues for cancer therapy. PMID:24994707

Yu, Bin; Yu, De-Quan; Liu, Hong-Min



Organoiridium complexes: anticancer agents and catalysts.  


Iridium is a relatively rare precious heavy metal, only slightly less dense than osmium. Researchers have long recognized the catalytic properties of square-planar Ir(I) complexes, such as Crabtree's hydrogenation catalyst, an organometallic complex with cyclooctadiene, phosphane, and pyridine ligands. More recently, chemists have developed half-sandwich pseudo-octahedral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Ir(III) complexes containing diamine ligands that efficiently catalyze transfer hydrogenation reactions of ketones and aldehydes in water using H2 or formate as the hydrogen source. Although sometimes assumed to be chemically inert, the reactivity of low-spin 5d(6) Ir(III) centers is highly dependent on the set of ligands. Cp* complexes with strong ?-donor C^C-chelating ligands can even stabilize Ir(IV) and catalyze the oxidation of water. In comparison with well developed Ir catalysts, Ir-based pharmaceuticals are still in their infancy. In this Account, we review recent developments in organoiridium complexes as both catalysts and anticancer agents. Initial studies of anticancer activity with organoiridium complexes focused on square-planar Ir(I) complexes because of their structural and electronic similarity to Pt(II) anticancer complexes such as cisplatin. Recently, researchers have studied half-sandwich Ir(III) anticancer complexes. These complexes with the formula [(Cp(x))Ir(L^L')Z](0/n+) (with Cp* or extended Cp* and L^L' = chelated C^N or N^N ligands) have a much greater potency (nanomolar) toward a range of cancer cells (especially leukemia, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma) than cisplatin. Their mechanism of action may involve both an attack on DNA and a perturbation of the redox status of cells. Some of these complexes can form Ir(III)-hydride complexes using coenzyme NAD(P)H as a source of hydride to catalyze the generation of H2 or the reduction of quinones to semiquinones. Intriguingly, relatively unreactive organoiridium complexes containing an imine as a monodentate ligand have prooxidant activity, which appears to involve catalytic hydride transfer to oxygen and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. In addition, researchers have designed inert Ir(III) complexes as potent kinase inhibitors. Octahedral cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes not only serve as cell imaging agents, but can also inhibit tumor necrosis factor ?, promote DNA oxidation, generate singlet oxygen when photoactivated, and exhibit good anticancer activity. Although relatively unexplored, organoiridium chemistry offers unique features that researchers can exploit to generate novel diagnostic agents and drugs with new mechanisms of action. PMID:24555658

Liu, Zhe; Sadler, Peter J



Organoiridium Complexes: Anticancer Agents and Catalysts  

PubMed Central

Conspectus Iridium is a relatively rare precious heavy metal, only slightly less dense than osmium. Researchers have long recognized the catalytic properties of square-planar IrI complexes, such as Crabtree’s hydrogenation catalyst, an organometallic complex with cyclooctadiene, phosphane, and pyridine ligands. More recently, chemists have developed half-sandwich pseudo-octahedral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl IrIII complexes containing diamine ligands that efficiently catalyze transfer hydrogenation reactions of ketones and aldehydes in water using H2 or formate as the hydrogen source. Although sometimes assumed to be chemically inert, the reactivity of low-spin 5d6 IrIII centers is highly dependent on the set of ligands. Cp* complexes with strong ?-donor C?C-chelating ligands can even stabilize IrIV and catalyze the oxidation of water. In comparison with well developed Ir catalysts, Ir-based pharmaceuticals are still in their infancy. In this Account, we review recent developments in organoiridium complexes as both catalysts and anticancer agents. Initial studies of anticancer activity with organoiridium complexes focused on square-planar IrI complexes because of their structural and electronic similarity to PtII anticancer complexes such as cisplatin. Recently, researchers have studied half-sandwich IrIII anticancer complexes. These complexes with the formula [(Cpx)Ir(L?L?)Z]0/n+ (with Cp* or extended Cp* and L?L? = chelated C?N or N?N ligands) have a much greater potency (nanomolar) toward a range of cancer cells (especially leukemia, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma) than cisplatin. Their mechanism of action may involve both an attack on DNA and a perturbation of the redox status of cells. Some of these complexes can form IrIII-hydride complexes using coenzyme NAD(P)H as a source of hydride to catalyze the generation of H2 or the reduction of quinones to semiquinones. Intriguingly, relatively unreactive organoiridium complexes containing an imine as a monodentate ligand have prooxidant activity, which appears to involve catalytic hydride transfer to oxygen and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. In addition, researchers have designed inert IrIII complexes as potent kinase inhibitors. Octahedral cyclometalated IrIII complexes not only serve as cell imaging agents, but can also inhibit tumor necrosis factor ?, promote DNA oxidation, generate singlet oxygen when photoactivated, and exhibit good anticancer activity. Although relatively unexplored, organoiridium chemistry offers unique features that researchers can exploit to generate novel diagnostic agents and drugs with new mechanisms of action. PMID:24555658



Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients.  


In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21-85 years) and 73 years (range, 30-90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3-3,585 days) and 219 days (24-3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4-5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence. PMID:25295117

Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Nakao, Toshiya; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Teramachi, Hitomi



Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients  

PubMed Central

In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21–85 years) and 73 years (range, 30–90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3–3,585 days) and 219 days (24–3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4–5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence. PMID:25295117




Podophyllotoxin and essential oil profile of Juniperus and related species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Podophyllotoxin is currently in high demand as the lead chemical precursor for the anti-cancer drugs etoposide and teniposide. The primary species in commercial bulk isolation of podophyllotoxin is an endangered medicinal plant gathered in the wild in the Himalayan region. Because of the threats t...


Designed TPR Modules as Novel Anticancer Agents  

SciTech Connect

Molecules specifically designed to modulate protein-protein interactions have tremendous potential as novel therapeutic agents. One important anticancer target is the chaperone Hsp90, whose activity is essential for the folding of many oncogenic proteins, including HER2, IGFIR, AKT, RAF-1, and FLT-3. Here we report the design and characterization of new tetratricopeptide repeat modules, which bind to the C-terminus of Hsp90 with higher affinity and with greater specificity than natural Hsp90-binding co-chaperones. Thus, when these modules are introduced into the cell, they out-compete endogenous co-chaperones for binding, thereby inhibiting Hsp90 function. The effect of Hsp90 inhibition in this fashion is dramatic; HER2 levels are substantially decreased and BT474 HER2 positive breast cancer cells are killed. Our designs thus provide new tools with which to dissect the mechanism of Hsp90-mediated protein folding and also open the door to the development of an entirely new class of anticancer agents.

Cortajarena,A.; Yi, F.; Regan, L.



Anti-cancer agents counteracting tumor glycolysis  

PubMed Central

Can we consider cancer as a “metabolic disease”? Tumors are the result of a metabolic selection, forming tissues composed of heterogeneous cells that generally express an overactive metabolism as a common feature. In fact, cancer cells have to deal with increased needs for both energy and biosynthetic intermediates, in order to support their growth and invasiveness. However, their high proliferation rate often generates regions that are not sufficiently oxygenated. Therefore, their carbohydrate metabolism has to rely mostly on a glycolytic process that is uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation. This metabolic switch, also known as the “Warburg Effect”, constitutes a fundamental adaptation of the tumor cells to a relatively hostile environment, and supports the evolution of aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. As a result, tumor glycolysis may constitute an attractive target for cancer therapy. This approach has often raised concerns that anti-glycolytic agents may cause serious side effects on normal cells. Actually, the key for a selective action against cancer cells can be found in their hyperbolic addiction to glycolysis, which may be exploited to generate new anti-cancer drugs showing minimal toxicity. In fact, there is growing evidence that supports many glycolytic enzymes and transporters as suitable candidate targets for cancer therapy. Herein we review some of the most relevant anti-glycolytic agents that have been investigated so far for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22684868

Granchi, Carlotta



Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel spin-labeled derivatives of podophyllotoxin as potential antineoplastic agents. Part XII.  


Five novel nitroxyl spin-labeled ester derivatives of podophyllotoxin (11a-11e) have been prepared and their structural information on these nitroxyl spin-labeled ester derivatives of podophyllotoxin (11a-11e) using (1)HNMR spectroscopy was efficiently obtained by application of the in situ reduction of representative nitroxyl spin-labeled ester derivative of podophyllotoxin 11e with phenylhydrazine for the preparation of N-hydroxylamine 12 in the NMR tube. These novel derivatives were further evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against five neoplastic cell lines (K562, HL-60, SPCA-1, Lewis, and L-1210) using MTT assay. Most of the target compounds (except for all these compounds against SPCA-1) exhibited more pronounced cytotoxicity against several neoplastic cell lines than that of the prototypical inhibitor etoposide. PMID:17691049

Yang, Liu; Liu, Ying-Qian; Tan, Hong; Li, Wen-Guang; Tian, Xuan



Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.  


In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797. PMID:22891988

Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui



Vitamin D as a promising anticancer agent  

PubMed Central

Presence of vitamin D receptors in noncalcemic tissues and subsequent identification of its involvement in growth factor(s)-mediated cellular function suggested its probable beneficial role in genesis, progression and survival of cancerous growths. Data collected from both in vitro and in vivo studies are highly optimistic regarding its potential in prevention and regression of colorectal, prostate and breast cancers. The vitamin has been found to interfere with the transduction pathways of various growth factor(s)-activated receptors (receptor tyrosine kinases) thereby modulating transcription and alteration of genomic functions resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis and facilitation of cell differentiation and apoptosis. It also increases the level of an endogenous protein - cystatin D, which possesses antitumor and antimetastatic property, by facilitation of the expression of the gene coding for it. Though not as a primary anticancer agent, this vitamin may be used for the prevention of cancer and included as an adjuvant in combination chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:21572642

Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti



Concept and Clinical Evaluation of Carrier-Mediated Anticancer Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in the use of carrier vehicles delivering pharmacologic agents and enzymes to sites of disease have occurredoverthepast10years.Thisreviewfocusesonthe concepts and clinical evaluation of carrier-mediated anti- cancer agents that are administered i.v. or orally. The pri- mary types of carrier-mediated anticancer agents are nanoparticles,nanosomes,whicharenanoparticle-sizedli- posomes, and conjugated agents. Nanosomes are further subdivided into stabilized and nonstabilized or conven- tional nanosomes.



Nanovectors for anticancer agents based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the application of nanotechnologies for anticancer drug delivery has been extensively explored, hoping to improve the efficacy and to reduce side effects of chemotherapy. The present review is dedicated to a certain kind of anticancer drug nanovectors developed to target tumors with the help of an external magnetic field. More particularly, this work treats anticancer drug nanoformulations based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with biocompatible polymers. The major purpose is to focus on the specific requirements and technological difficulties related to controlled delivery of antitumoral agents. We attempt to state the problem and its possible perspectives by considering the three major constituents of the magnetic therapeutic vectors: iron oxide nanoparticles, polymeric coating and anticancer drug. PMID:18203422

Douziech-Eyrolles, Laurence; Marchais, Hervé; Hervé, Katel; Munnier, Emilie; Soucé, Martin; Linassier, Claude; Dubois, Pierre; Chourpa, Igor



Properties of anticancer agents relevant to in vitro determinations of human tumor cell sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of 59 anticancer agents have been examined with respect to solubility in tissue culture media, binding to ultrafiltration materials, and molecular absorbance and fluorescence behavior. Methods for dissolving these agents, which are compatible with in vitro sensitivity testing of human tumor cells to anticancer agents, are reported in this paper. The potential for anticancer agent binding to

Edward J. Pavlik; Daniel E. Kenady; John R. van Nagell; Kathryn Keaton; Michael B. Hanson; Elvis S. Donaldson; Ward O. Griffen; Robert C. Flanigan



Effect of major nutrients on podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of major medium ingredients (sugar, nitrogen source and phosphate) in Podophyllum hexandrum suspension cultures was investigated in order to increase the production of podophyllotoxin, the raw material in the synthesis of anticancer drugs. Amongst B5, Eriksson, MS, Nitsch, Street and White's medium, MS medium resulted in high growth and podophyllotoxin accumulation. The optimum level of nitrogen was found

S. Chattopadhyay; R. S. Mehra; A. K. Srivastava; S. S. Bhojwani; V. S. Bisaria



Insight into the reactive form of the anticancer agent iproplatin.  


The reaction of iproplatin with reduced glutathione at different mole ratios yielded cis-di(isopropylamine)chloro-glutathionatoplatinum(II), not the expected cis-dichloro- species, indicating a mode of action of this anticancer agent that is different from that of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). PMID:17707553

Volckova, Erika; Weaver, Evelyne; Bose, Rathindra N



Synthesis and biological evaluation of 4?-sulphonamido and 4?-[(4'-sulphonamido)benzamide]podophyllotoxins as DNA topoisomerase-II? and apoptosis inducing agents.  


A series of new 4?-sulphonamido and 4?-[(4'-sulphonamido)benzamide] conjugates of podophyllotoxin (11a-j and 15a-g) were synthesized and evaluated for anticancer activity against six human cancer cell lines and found to be more potent than etoposide. Some of the compounds 11b, 11d and 11e that showed significant antiproliferative activity in Colo-205 cells, were superior to etoposide. The flow cytometric analysis indicates that these compounds (11b, 11d and 11e) showed G2/M cell cycle arrest and among them 11e is the most effective. It is observed that this compound (11e) caused both single-strand DNA breaks as observed by comet assay as well as double-strand DNA breaks as indicated by ?-H2AX. Further 11e showed inhibition of topo-II? as observed from Western blot analysis and related studies. Compounds caused activation of ATM as well as Chk1 protein indicating that the compound caused effective DNA damage. Moreover activation of caspase-3, p21, p16, NF-kB and down regulation of Bcl-2 protein suggests that this compound (11e) has apoptotic cell death inducing ability, apart from acting as a topo-II? inhibitor. PMID:22364746

Kamal, Ahmed; Suresh, Paidakula; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Mallareddy, Adla; Imthiajali, Syed; Pushpavalli, S N C V L; Lavanya, A; Pal-Bhadra, Manika



Flavaglines as potent anticancer and cytoprotective agents.  


Flavaglines represent a family of plant natural products that display potent anticancer, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective activities. Novel flavagline derivatives were synthesized and examined for their cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines, their cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, and their neuroprotection in culture models of Parkinson's disease and cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The structural requirements of flavaglines for cardio- and neuroprotection were for the first time unraveled and appeared to be slightly different from those for cytotoxicity on cancer cells. We provide also the first evidence that flavaglines may alleviate cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting a prophylactic potential of these compounds to prevent this frequently encountered adverse effect of cancer chemotherapies. PMID:23072299

Ribeiro, Nigel; Thuaud, Frédéric; Bernard, Yohann; Gaiddon, Christian; Cresteil, Thierry; Hild, Audrey; Hirsch, Etienne C; Michel, Patrick Pierre; Nebigil, Canan G; Désaubry, Laurent



Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence  

PubMed Central

Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. Natural occurring agents such as dietary phytochemicals, tea polyphenols and resveratrol show chemopreventive activity in animal models. Moreover, clinical trials for testing the safety and efficacy of a variety of natural agents in preventing or treating human malignancy have been ongoing. Here, we summarize experimental data on the chemopreventive or tumor suppressive effects of several natural compounds including curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and vitamin D. PMID:24520533

Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu



Fucoidan as a Marine Anticancer Agent in Preclinical Development  

PubMed Central

Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug. PMID:24477286

Kwak, Jong-Young



Underestimated potential of organometallic rhenium complexes as anticancer agents.  


In the recent years, organometallic compounds have become recognized as promising anti-cancer drug candidates. While radioactive (186/188)Re compounds are already used in clinics for cancer treatment, cold Re organometallic compounds have mostly been explored as luminescent probes for cell imaging and photosensitizers in photocatalysis. However, a growing number of studies have recently revealed the potential of Re organometallic complexes as anti-cancer agents. Several compounds have displayed cytotoxicity equaling or exceeding that of the well-established anti-cancer drug cisplatin. In this review, we present the currently known Re organometallic complexes that have shown anti-proliferative activity on cancer cell lines. A particular emphasis is placed on their cellular uptake and localization as well as their potential mechanism of action. PMID:25137157

Leonidova, Anna; Gasser, Gilles



Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao



Design and synthesis of fluoroacylshikonin as an anticancer agent.  


A series of shikonin derivatives, selectively acylated by various fluorinated carboxylic acids at the side chain of shikonin, were synthesized and their anticancer activity evaluated, in which eight compounds are reported for the first time. Among all the compounds tested, compound showed the most potent anticancer activity against B16-F10 (malignant melanoma cells), MG63 (human osteosarcoma cells), and A549 (lung cancer cells) with IC50 0.39 ± 0.01, 0.72 ± 0.04 and 0.58 ± 0.02 µmol/L. Docking simulation of compound was carried out to position into a tubulin active site to determine the probable binding conformation. All the results suggested that compound may be a potential anticancer agent. PMID:23908135

Kong, Wen-Yao; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Shi, Jing; Baloch, Shahla Karim; Qi, Jin-Liang; Zhu, Hai-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Yong-Hua



Fucoidan as a marine anticancer agent in preclinical development.  


Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug. PMID:24477286

Kwak, Jong-Young



Novel benzimidazole derivatives as expected anticancer agents.  


A series of 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-(substituted)-2-propen-1-one and its 1-methyl analogues 2c-h were synthesized and cyclized with different reagents such as ethyl cyanoacetate, thiourea, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, guanidinium sulfate, methylhydrazine, phenylhydrazine and/or hydrogen peroxide in different reactions to produce pyridones 3a,b, pyrimidinethione 4a,b, isoxazole 5a,b, aminopyrimidine 6a,b, pyrazoline 7i-k and epoxy derivative 8, respectively. Acetohydrazide 10 reacted with formic acid, acetic anhydride, carbon disulfide and/or thiosemicarbazide to yield compounds 11-19. Also compound 21a,b was condensed with different monosaccharides to yield the corresponding N-glycoside Schiff's bases derivatives 22a-h, which upon treatment with acetic anhydride afforded 23a-h derivatives. The anticancer activity of some of the newly synthesized compounds was evaluated against HEPG2 (human liver carcinoma cell line) and PC12 (pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla) cells. Benzimidazole-2-isoxazole 5a derivative exhibited high potency against HEPG2 and PC12 cells. Benzimidazole chalcones 2c,e, benzimidazole mercaptoacetohydrazide 14 and benzimidazole thiosemicarbazide 15a,b derivatives gave high potency against PC12 cells. PMID:21796934

Nofal, Zienab M; Soliman, Elsyed A; Abd El-Karim, Somaia S; El Zahar, Magdy I; Srour, Aladdin M; Sethumadhavan, Shalini; Maher, Timothy J



Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics of Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Large interindividual variation is observed in both the response and toxicity associated with anticancer therapy. The etiology of this variation is multifactorial, but is due in part to host genetic variations. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies have successfully identified genetic variants that contribute to this variation in susceptibility to chemotherapy. This review provides an overview of the progress made in the field of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics using a five-stage architecture, which includes 1) determining the role of genetics in drug response; 2) screening and identifying genetic markers; 3) validating genetic markers; 4) clinical utility assessment; and 5) pharmacoeconomic impact. Examples are provided to illustrate the identification, validation, utility, and challenges of these pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic markers, with the focus on the current application of this knowledge in cancer therapy. With the advance of technology, it becomes feasible to evaluate the human genome in a relatively inexpensive and efficient manner; however, extensive pharmacogenetic research and education are urgently needed to improve the translation of pharmacogenetic concepts from bench to bedside. PMID:19147868

Huang, R. Stephanie; Ratain, Mark J.



Microtubule-targeted anticancer agents and apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of microtubule (MT) assembly into the mitotic spindle during mitosis and the molecular signaling and execution of the various pathways to apoptosis. In the same period, the microtubule-targeted tubulin-polymerizing agents (MTPAs), notably paclitaxel and taxotere, have come to occupy a central role in the treatment

Kapil N Bhalla



Determination of picropodophyllin and its isomer podophyllotoxin in human serum samples with electrospray ionization of hexylamine adducts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of the new anticancer agent picropodophyllin (AXL1717) and its isomer podophyllotoxin levels in human serum has been developed. Monitoring of hexylamine adducts rather than proton adducts was used to optimize sensitivity. The chromatography system was an Acquity BEH C18, 2.1 mm × 50 mm 1.7 ?m column with gradient elution (mobile phase A: 2.5 mM hexylamine and 5 mM formic acid in Milli-Q water and mobile phase B: methanol). The retention times were 1.4 min for picropodophyllin, 1.5 min for podophyllotoxin and 1.9 min for internal standard deoxypodophyllotoxin. The isomers were base-line separated. The analytes were detected after electrospray ionization in positive mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) with ion transitions m/z 516?102 for picropodophyllin and podophyllotoxin and m/z 500?102 for internal standard. The sample preparation was protein precipitation with acetonitrile (1:3) containing internal standard followed by dilution of the supernatant with mobile phase A (1:1). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 ?mol/L for picropodophyllin and podophyllotoxin. The limit of detection (LOD) at 3 times the signal to noise (S/N) was estimated below 0.001 ?mol/L for picropodophyllin and podophyllotoxin. The quantification range of the method was between 0.01 ?mol/L and 5 ?mol/L for both isomers. The accuracy was within ±15% of the theoretical value for both picropodophyllin and podophyllotoxin and inter-assay precision did not exceed ±15%, except for the 0.016 ?mol/L level of podophyllotoxin, which was 18%. The selectivity of the method was verified by analysis of two different product ions for each analyte and by analysis for interference of seven different batches of blank human serum. The combined recovery and matrix effects were about 83% for picropodophyllin and podophyllotoxin. The new LC-MS/MS method showed sufficient sensitivity and selectivity for determination of picropodophyllin and its isomer podophyllotoxin levels in human serum from subjects receiving therapeutic doses of AXL1717. PMID:21251888

Rönquist-Nii, Yuko; Eksborg, Staffan; Axelson, Magnus; Harmenberg, Johan; Ekman, Simon; Bergqvist, Michael; Beck, Olof



Discovery and development of anticancer agents from plants.  


A novel in vitro assay for the discovery of anticancer agents was used to examine aqueous and organic extracts from 1847 plants collected mainly in the U.S. Southwest and West. The assay results were separated into 5 categories: inactive (62%), equally active (36%), equally active and potent (0.5%), solid tumor selective (1.4%), and human selective (0.8%). Extracts from the latter three categories were fractionated using the in vitro assay to biodirect each step. Psorothamnus emoryi extracts were solid tumor selective and yielded two active compounds upon fractionation: dalrubone and 5-methoxydalrubone. Calocedrus decurrens was equally active and potent and yielded deoxypodophyllotoxin as the active compound. Linanthus floribundus was human selective and yielded strophanthidin as the active compound. The potential of this assay to discover novel anticancer agents from the active extracts is discussed. PMID:12416027

Valeriote, Fred; Grieshaber, Charles K; Media, Joseph; Pietraszkewicz, Halina; Hoffmann, Joseph; Pan, Meide; McLaughlin, Steve



Targeting Mitochondrial DNA with a Platinum-Based Anticancer Agent  

PubMed Central

Summary An analogue of the anticancer drug cisplatin (mtPt) was delivered to mitochondria of human cells using a peptide specifically targeting this organelle. mtPt induces apoptosis without damaging nuclear DNA, indicating that mtDNA damage is sufficient to mediate the activity of a platinum-based chemotherapeutic. This study is the first to demonstrate specific delivery of a platinum drug to mitochondria and to investigate the effects of directing this agent outside the nucleus. PMID:24183971

Wisnovsky, Simon P.; Wilson, Justin J.; Radford, Robert J.; Pereira, Mark P.; Chan, Maria R.; Laposa, Rebecca R.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Kelley, Shana O.



Microtubule-targeted anticancer agents and apoptosis.  


Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of microtubule (MT) assembly into the mitotic spindle during mitosis and the molecular signaling and execution of the various pathways to apoptosis. In the same period, the microtubule-targeted tubulin-polymerizing agents (MTPAs), notably paclitaxel and taxotere, have come to occupy a central role in the treatment of a variety of human epithelial cancers. Following their binding to B-tubulin, MTPAs inhibit MT dynamic instability, cell cycle G2/M phase transition and mitotic arrest of cancer cells. MTPA-induced anti-MT and cell cycle effects trigger the molecular signaling for the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This triggering is orchestrated through different molecular links and determined by the threshold for apoptosis that is set and controlled diversely in various cancer types. The complexity and regulatory potential of the links and the apoptosis threshold are integral to the transformed biology of the cancer cell. The emerging understanding of this biology and how it is influenced by treatment with MTPAs has highlighted novel strategies to further enhance the antitumor activity and overcome resistance to MTPA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:14663486

Bhalla, Kapil N



Prodrug-based intracellular delivery of anticancer agents.  


There are numerous anticancer agents based on a prodrug approach. However, no attempt has been made to review the ample available literature with a specific focus on the altered cell uptake pathways enabled by the conjugation and on the intracellular drug-release mechanisms. This article focuses on the cellular interactions of a broad selection of parenterally administered anticancer prodrugs based on synthetic polymers, proteins or lipids. The report also aims to highlight the prodrug design issues, which are key points to obtain an efficient intracellular drug delivery. The chemical basis of these molecular concepts is put into perspective with the uptake and intracellular activation mechanisms, the in vitro and in vivo proofs of concepts and the clinical results. Several active targeting strategies and stimuli-responsive architectures are discussed throughout the article. PMID:21237228

Bildstein, L; Dubernet, C; Couvreur, P



Discovery of new anticancer agents from higher plants  

PubMed Central

1. ABSTRACT Small organic molecules derived from higher plants have been one of the mainstays of cancer chemotherapy for approximately the past half a century. In the present review, selected single chemical entity natural products of plant origin and their semi-synthetic derivatives currently in clinical trials are featured as examples of new cancer chemotherapeutic drug candidates. Several more recently isolated compounds obtained from plants showing promising in vivo biological activity are also discussed in terms of their potential as anticancer agents, with many of these obtained from species that grow in tropical regions. Since extracts of only a relatively small proportion of the ca. 300,000 higher plants on earth have been screened biologically to date, bioactive compounds from plants should play an important role in future anticancer drug discovery efforts. PMID:22202049

Pan, Li; Chai, Hee-Byung; Kinghorn, A. Douglas



Rational Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Third Generation ?-Noscapine Analogues as Potent Tubulin Binding Anti-Cancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Systematic screening based on structural similarity of drugs such as colchicine and podophyllotoxin led to identification of noscapine, a microtubule-targeted agent that attenuates the dynamic instability of microtubules without affecting the total polymer mass of microtubules. We report a new generation of noscapine derivatives as potential tubulin binding anti-cancer agents. Molecular modeling experiments of these derivatives 5a, 6a-j yielded better docking score (-7.252 to -5.402 kCal/mol) than the parent compound, noscapine (-5.505 kCal/mol) and its existing derivatives (-5.563 to -6.412 kCal/mol). Free energy (?Gbind) calculations based on the linear interaction energy (LIE) empirical equation utilizing Surface Generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvent model predicted the tubulin-binding affinities for the derivatives 5a, 6a-j (ranging from -4.923 to -6.189 kCal/mol). Compound 6f showed highest binding affinity to tubulin (-6.189 kCal/mol). The experimental evaluation of these compounds corroborated with theoretical studies. N-(3-brormobenzyl) noscapine (6f) binds tubulin with highest binding affinity (KD, 38 ± 4.0 µM), which is ~ 4.0 times higher than that of the parent compound, noscapine (KD, 144 ± 1.0 µM) and is also more potent than that of the first generation clinical candidate EM011, 9-bromonoscapine (KD, 54 ± 9.1 µM). All these compounds exhibited substantial cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 72.9 µM; compound 6f showed prominent anti-cancer efficacy with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 26.9 µM in cancer cells of different tissues of origin. These compounds perturbed DNA synthesis, delayed the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase, and induced apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Collectively, the study reported here identified potent, third generation noscapinoids as new anti-cancer agents. PMID:24205049

Manchukonda, Naresh Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Santoshi, Seneha; Lopus, Manu; Joseph, Silja; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Kantevari, Srinivas



Monofunctional and Higher-Valent Platinum Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Platinum compounds represent one of the great success stories of metals in medicine. Following the serendipitous discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin by Rosenberg, a large number of cisplatin variants have been prepared and tested for their ability to kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. These efforts continue today with increased realization that new strategies are needed to overcome issues of toxicity and resistance inherent to treatment by the approved platinum anticancer agents. One approach has been the use of so-called “non-traditional” platinum(II) and platinum(IV) compounds that violate the structure-activity relationships that governed platinum drug-development research for many years. Another is the use of specialized drug delivery strategies. Here we describe recent developments from our laboratory involving monofunctional platinum(II) complexes together with an historical account of the manner by which we came to investigate these compounds and their relationship to previously studied molecules. We also discuss work carried out using platinum(IV) prodrugs and the development of nanoconstructs designed to deliver them in vivo. PMID:23738524

Johnstone, Timothy C.; Wilson, Justin J.



Small mitochondria-targeting molecules as anti-cancer agents  

PubMed Central

Alterations in mitochondrial structure and functions have long been observed in cancer cells. Targeting mitochondria as a cancer therapeutic strategy has gained momentum in the recent years. The signaling pathways that govern mitochondrial function, apoptosis and molecules that affect mitochondrial integrity and cell viability have been important topics of the recent review in the literature. In this article, we first briefly summarize the rationale and biological basis for developing mitochondrial-targeted compounds as potential anticancer agents, and then provide key examples of small molecules that either directly impact mitochondria or functionally affect the metabolic alterations in cancer cells with mitochondrial dysfunction. The main focus is on the small molecular weight compounds with potential applications in cancer treatment. We also summarize information on the drug developmental stages of the key mitochondria-targeted compounds and their clinical trial status. The advantages and potential shortcomings of targeting the mitochondria for cancer treatment are also discussed. PMID:19995573

Wang, Feng; Ogasawara, Marcia A.; Huang, Peng



Plant phytochemicals: potential anticancer agents against gastric cancer.  


Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are plant phytochemicals derived from vegetables consumed by human. ITCs comprise potent anti-carcinogenic agents of which the consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of cancer at several locations in the body. However, the studies on coping with gastric cancer remain unsatisfied. In the present review, ITCs are discussed in this context as ITCs may target gastric tumorigenesis at multiple levels. ITCs are taken up in the stomach, exposing mucosal and muscle layer cells as well as affecting Helicobacter pylori residing in the stomach. The natural and potent anti-cancer ITCs from vegetables have a great potential against gastric cancer, a disease in need of new treatment or preventive modalities. PMID:24929966

Overby, Anders; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan



Quinones derived from plant secondary metabolites as anti-cancer agents.  


Quinones are plant-derived secondary metabolites that present some anti-proliferation and anti-metastasis effects in various cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. This review focuses on the anti-cancer prospects of plant-derived quinones, namely, aloe-emodin, juglone, ?-lapachol, plumbagin, shikonin, and thymoquinone. We intend to summarize their anti-cancer effects and investigate the mechanism of actions to promote the research and development of anti-cancer agents from quinones. PMID:22931417

Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Wu, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Shan; Huang, Ming-Qing; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao



Design, Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Sulfonylurea Derivatives of Podophyllotoxin  

PubMed Central

Three series of novel sulfonylurea podophyllotoxin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against four tumor cell lines (A-549, DU-145, KB and KBvin). Compounds 14c (IC50: 1.41–1.76 ?M) and 14e (IC50: 1.72–2.01 ?M) showed superior cytotoxic activity compared with etoposide (IC50: 2.03– >20?M), a clinically available anticancer drug. Significantly, most of the compounds exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against the drug-resistant tumor cell line KBvin, while etoposide lost activity completely. Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations indicated that the 4?-O-methyl functionality in podophyllotoxin analogues may be essential to maintain cytotoxic activity, while an arylsulfonylurea side chain at podophyllotoxin’s 4? position can significantly improve cytotoxic activity. PMID:24332656

Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Tian, Jing; Wang, Li-Ting; Wang, Mei-Juan; Nan, Xiang; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ying-Qian; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung



Cell cycle studies of cyclocreatine, a new anticancer agent.  


Cyclocreatine (CCr), a substrate analogue of creatine kinase (CK), exhibits antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. To address its mechanism of action, we have examined its effects on tumor cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression. Complete inhibition of proliferation of ME-180 cervical carcinoma cells was observed within 8 h of exposure to CCr and was characterized by an inhibition of progression out of all phases of the cell cycle. This initial effect was partially reversible on drug removal. Increased cytotoxicity was observed after several days of drug exposure and was most specific to cells in S. Previous studies have shown that CCr supports ATP regeneration through the CK system less efficiently than the natural substrate creatine and that CCr is active against tumor cell lines with elevated levels of CK. We propose here that the general inhibition of cell cycle progression reflects an effect of CCr on tumor cell energy availability through CK and that impaired energy homeostasis for several days leads to tumor cell death. Our results point out the unique nature of CCr as an anticancer agent that inhibits progression out of all phases of the cell cycle. PMID:7923134

Martin, K J; Winslow, E R; Kaddurah-Daouk, R



Selective anti-cancer agents as anti-aging drugs  

PubMed Central

Recent groundbreaking discoveries have revealed that IGF-1, Ras, MEK, AMPK, TSC1/2, FOXO, PI3K, mTOR, S6K, and NF?B are involved in the aging process. This is remarkable because the same signaling molecules, oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, are well-known targets for cancer therapy. Furthermore, anti-cancer drugs aimed at some of these targets have been already developed. This arsenal could be potentially employed for anti-aging interventions (given that similar signaling molecules are involved in both cancer and aging). In cancer, intrinsic and acquired resistance, tumor heterogeneity, adaptation, and genetic instability of cancer cells all hinder cancer-directed therapy. But for anti-aging applications, these hurdles are irrelevant. For example, since anti-aging interventions should be aimed at normal postmitotic cells, no selection for resistance is expected. At low doses, certain agents may decelerate aging and age-related diseases. Importantly, deceleration of aging can in turn postpone cancer, which is an age-related disease. PMID:24345884

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V



A review of ceramide analogs as potential anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Summary Ceramide serves as a central mediator in sphingolipid metabolism and signaling pathways, regulating many fundamental cellular responses. It is referred to as a “tumor suppressor lipid”, since it powerfully potentiates signaling events which drive apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagic responses. In the typical cancer cell, ceramide levels and signaling are usually suppressed by over-expression of ceramide-metabolizing enzymes or down-regulation of ceramide-generating enzymes. However, chemotherapeutic drugs as well as radiotherapy increase intracellular ceramide levels while exogenously treating cancer cells with short-chain ceramides leads to anti-cancer effects. All evidence currently points to the fact that the up-regulation of ceramide level is a promising anti-cancer target. In this review, we exhibited a full scroll of anti-cancer ceramide analogs as down-stream receptor agonists and ceramide metabolizing enzyme inhibitors. PMID:23919551

Liu, Jiawang; Beckman, Barbara S.; Foroozesh, Maryam



A review of ceramide analogs as potential anticancer agents.  


Ceramide serves as a central mediator in sphingolipid metabolism and signaling pathways, regulating many fundamental cellular responses. It is referred to as a 'tumor suppressor lipid', since it powerfully potentiates signaling events that drive apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagic responses. In the typical cancer cell, ceramide levels and signaling are usually suppressed by overexpression of ceramide-metabolizing enzymes or downregulation of ceramide-generating enzymes. However, chemotherapeutic drugs as well as radiotherapy increase intracellular ceramide levels, while exogenously treating cancer cells with short-chain ceramides leads to anticancer effects. All evidence currently points to the fact that the upregulation of ceramide levels is a promising anticancer strategy. In this review, we exhibit many anticancer ceramide analogs as downstream receptor agonists and ceramide-metabolizing enzyme inhibitors. PMID:23919551

Liu, Jiawang; Beckman, Barbara S; Foroozesh, Maryam



Salinomycin: A Novel Anti-Cancer Agent with Known Anti-Coccidial Activities  

PubMed Central

Salinomycin, traditionally used as an anti-coccidial drug, has recently been shown to possess anti-cancer and anti-cancer stem cell (CSC) effects, as well as activities to overcome multi-drug resistance based on studies using human cancer cell lines, xenograft mice, and in case reports involving cancer patients in pilot clinical trials. Therefore, salinomycin may be considered as a promising novel anti-cancer agent despite its largely unknown mechanism of action. This review summarizes the pharmacologic effects of salinomycin and presents possible mechanisms by which salinomycin exerts its anti-tumorigenic activities. Recent advances and potential complications that might limit the utilization of salinomycin as an anti-cancer and anti-CSC agent are also presented and discussed. PMID:23931281

Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Fengfei; Wong, Eric T.; Fonkem, Ekokobe; Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M.; Wu, Erxi



Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils....


Synthesis and Evaluation of Flavanones as Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

A few flavanones were synthesised by cyclisation of corresponding 3-(heteroaryl)-1(2-hydroxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one with sodium acetate in alcohol–water and evaluated for activity. Synthesised compounds were assayed for their in vitro anticancer activity against three human cancer cell lines, mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF7), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) using sulforhodamine B dye. Results indicated that most of the compounds exhibited significant in vitro anticancer potential. Among them, compound having furan ring showed most potent activity against all the tested cell lines. PMID:24843190

Murti, Y.; Mishra, P.



Nanomicellar carriers for targeted delivery of anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Clinical application of anticancer drugs is limited by problems such as low water solubility, lack of tissue-specificity and toxicity. Formulation development represents an important approach to these problems. Among the many delivery systems studied, polymeric micelles have gained considerable attention owing to ease in preparation, small sizes (10–100 nm), and ability to solubilize water-insoluble anticancer drugs and accumulate specifically at the tumors. This article provides a brief review of several promising micellar systems and their applications in tumor therapy. The emphasis is placed on the discussion of the authors’ recent work on several nanomicellar systems that have both a delivery function and antitumor activity, named dual-function drug carriers. PMID:24341817

Zhang, Xiaolan; Huang, Yixian; Li, Song



Discovery of anticancer agents of diverse natural origin*  

PubMed Central

A collaborative multidisciplinary research project is described in which new natural product anticancer drug leads are obtained from a diverse group of organisms, constituted by tropical plants, aquatic cyanobacteria, and filamentous fungi. Information is provided on how these organisms are collected and processed. The types of bioassays are indicated in which crude extracts of these acquisitions are tested. Progress made in the isolation of lead bioactive secondary metabolites from three tropical plants is discussed. PMID:20046887

Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Chai, Hee-Byung; Orjala, Jimmy; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Soejarto, D. Doel; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Kroll, David J.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kramer, Robert A.; Rose, William C.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Vite, Gregory D.; Emanuel, Stuart; Jarjoura, David; Cope, Frederick O.



Cysteine-modifying agents: a possible approach for effective anticancer and antiviral drugs.  

PubMed Central

Modification of cysteine residues in proteins, due to a) the participation of the thiol moiety of this amino acid in oxido-reduction reactions, b) its ability to strongly coordinate transition metal ions, or c) its nucleophilic nature and facile reaction with electrophiles, may be critically important for the design of novel types of pharmacological agents. Application of such procedures recently led to the design of novel antivirals, mainly based on the reaction of zinc finger proteins with disulfides and related derivatives. This approach was particularly successful for developing novel antiviral agents for human immunodeficiency virus and human papilloma virus. Several new anticancer therapeutic approaches, mainly targeting tubulin, have also been reported. Thus, this unique amino acid offers very interesting possibilities for developing particularly useful pharmacological agents, which generally possess a completely different mechanism of action compared with classic agents in clinical use, thus avoiding major problems such as multidrug resistance (for antiviral and anticancer agents) or high toxicity. PMID:12426135

Casini, Angela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T



Natural products of plant origin as anticancer agents.  


Natural products have been used as effective remedies for the treatment of various ailments. Numerous plant products in the form of decoction, tincture, tablets and capsules have been clinically used for the treatment of different kinds of cancer. This review covers some of the important plants with clinically proven anticancer activity, including Catharanthus roseus, Podophyllum peltatum, Taxus brevifolia, Camptothecin acuminata, Cephalotaxus harringtonia, Viscum album, Onchrosia elliptica, Annona bullata, Asmina triloba and Rhizoma zedoariae. Synthetic analogues in some cases have also been prepared to improve the efficacy and decrease the side effects of parent compounds. The modes of action of clinically used drugs are also delineated. PMID:12806432

Ram, V J; Kumari, S



Substituted ajoenes as novel anti-cancer agents.  


A new synthesis of the ajoene pharmacophore core is presented involving the regioselective radical addition of a thiyl radical to a terminal alkyne as the key step. The synthesis allows structural variation of the two end groups on sulfur, and a range of novel derivatives varying the R(1) group (sulfoxide end) has been prepared and tested against CT-1 transformed fibroblast cells for anti-cancer activity. The results indicate comparable or even improved activity compared to the parent natural product ajoene isomers. This opens up the way to systematically studying the biology of the ajoene core. PMID:18774712

Hunter, Roger; Kaschula, Catherine H; Parker, Iqbal M; Caira, Mino R; Richards, Philip; Travis, Susan; Taute, Francois; Qwebani, Thozama



1. (a) Why are DNA-targeted drugs largely used as anticancer agents and not as, say, antibacterial or antifungal agents?  

E-print Network

CHEM 4170 Homework 4 1. (a) Why are DNA-targeted drugs largely used as anticancer agents and not as, say, antibacterial or antifungal agents? (b) Provide an explanation for how anticancer drugs can-damaging drugs mentioned in Question 1). (b) However, some medicinal chemists believe that these compounds

Gates, Kent. S.


Adverse effects of anticancer agents that target the VEGF pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiangiogenesis agents that target the VEGF\\/VEGF receptor pathway have become an important part of standard therapy in multiple cancer indications. With expanded clinical experience with this class of agents has come the increasing recognition of the diverse adverse effects related to disturbance of VEGF-dependent physiological functions and homeostasis in the cardiovascular and renal systems, as well as wound healing and

Jessica N. Cleck; Helen X. Chen



Synthesis of novel steroid derivatives derived from dehydroepiandrosterone as potential anticancer agents.  


A series of dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives containing dihydrazone unit was synthesized via a convenient condensation procedure, and which were evaluated for their potential anticancer activities. The preliminary assays indicated that some of the newly synthesized compounds exhibited good antitumor activities against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2), heptoma (Huh-7), gastric cancer (BGC-823) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which might be considered as promising lead scaffold for further design and synthesis of potential anticancer agents. PMID:23547874

Ke, Shaoyong; Wei, Yanhong; Shi, Liqiao; Yang, Qingyu; Yang, Ziwen



Design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of novel berberine derivatives prepared via CuAAC “click” chemistry as potential anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

A series of novel derivatives of phenyl-substituted berberine triazolyls has been designed and synthesized via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry in an attempt to develop antitumor agents. All of the compounds were evaluated for anticancer activity against a panel of three human cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 (breast), SW-1990 (pancreatic), and SMMC-7721 (liver) and the noncancerous human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cell lines. The results indicated that most of the compounds displayed notable anticancer activities against the MCF-7 cells compared with berberine. Among these derivatives, compound 16 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against the SW-1990 and SMMC-7721 cell lines, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 8.54±1.97 ?M and 11.87±1.83 ?M, respectively. Compound 36 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with an IC50 value of 12.57±1.96 ?M. Compound 16 and compound 36 exhibited low cytotoxicity in the HUVEC cell line, with IC50 values of 25.49±3.24 ?M and 30.47±3.47 ?M. Furthermore, compounds 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 32, and 36 exhibited much better selectivity than berberine toward the normal cell line HUVEC. PMID:25120353

Jin, Xin; Yan, Tian-Hua; Yan, Lan; Li, Qian; Wang, Rui-Lian; Hu, Zhen-Lin; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Sun, Qing-Yan; Cao, Yong-Bing



Double layered hydroxides as potential anti-cancer drug delivery agents.  


The emergence of nanotechnology has changed the scenario of the medical world by revolutionizing the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of cancer. This nanotechnology has been proved miraculous in detecting cancer cells, delivering chemotherapeutic agents and monitoring treatment from non-specific to highly targeted killing of tumor cells. In the past few decades, a number of inorganic materials have been investigated such as calcium phosphate, gold, carbon materials, silicon oxide, iron oxide, and layered double hydroxide (LDH) for examining their efficacy in targeting drug delivery. The reason behind the selection of these inorganic materials was their versatile and unique features efficient in drug delivery, such as wide availability, rich surface functionality, good biocompatibility, potential for target delivery, and controlled release of the drug from these inorganic nanomaterials. Although, the drug-LDH hybrids are found to be quite instrumental because of their application as advanced anti-cancer drug delivery systems, there has not been much research on them. This mini review is set to highlight the advancement made in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as anti-cancer drug delivery agents. Along with the advantages of LDHs as anti-cancer drug delivery agents, the process of interaction of some of the common anti-cancer drugs with LDH has also been discussed. PMID:23170959

Riaz, Ufana; Ashraf, S M



Garlic-derived anticancer agents: structure and biological activity of ajoene.  


Garlic has been used throughout the centuries to treat infections, heart disease, and cancer. Ajoene is one of the main compounds formed from heating crushed garlic as a mixture of E- and Z-isomers (E- and Z-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide). Ajoene possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities that include anticancer activity. It's cytotoxicity towards cancer cells is postulated to occur via an apoptotic mechanism involving activation of the mitochondrial-dependent caspase cascade. Structure-activity studies on ajoene and ajoene analogues have revealed that the Z-isomer is moderately more active than the E-isomer at inhibiting in vitro tumor cell growth, suggesting that specific protein interactions may be important. Substitution of the terminal end allyl groups in ajoene for alkyl, aromatic, or heteroaromatic groups produces some analogs with superior in vitro anticancer activity to ajoene, opening up the way to developing ajoene-based anticancer agents. PMID:20108330

Kaschula, Catherine H; Hunter, Roger; Parker, M Iqbal



Synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of novel triazolo-benzoxazepine as new anticancer agents.  


Cancer continues to be one of the biggest threats to the human civilization because there is no cure of it. Small heterocyclic molecule with low molecular weight and novel structural feature is therapeutically highly demanding. These molecules have the capability to disrupt signaling pathways leading to anticancer activities. Therefore, the search for new anticancer agents continues to draw attention to the research community. In this study, a small triazolo-benzoxazepine scaffolds was synthesized using a one-pot four-step synthetic methodology involving click reaction. Small libraries of 12 compounds were successfully synthesized and screened them against different cancer cell lines. Low micromolar anticancer activity was recorded using MTT assay, and further confirmation of cell death was obtained by phase contrast, fluorescent, and confocal images. PMID:23672315

Banerji, Biswadip; Pramanik, Sumit Kumar; Sanphui, Priyankar; Nikhar, Sameer; Biswas, Subhas C



Novel shikonin derivatives targeting tubulin as anticancer agents.  


In this study, we report the identification of a new shikonin-phenoxyacetic acid derivative, as an inhibitor of tubulin. A series of compounds were prepared; among them, compound 16 [(R)-1-(5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)-4-methylpent-3-enyl 2-(4- phenoxyphenyl) acetate] potently inhibited the function of microtubules, inducing cell growth inhibition, apoptosis of cancer cell lines in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Molecular docking involving 16 at the vinblastine binding site of tubulin indicated that a phenoxy moiety interacted with tubulin via hydrogen bonding with asparaginate (Asn) and tyrosine (Tyr). Analysis of microtubules with confocal microscopy demonstrated that 16 altered the microtubule architecture and exhibited a significant reduction in microtubule density. Cell cycle assay further proved that HepG2 cells were blocked in G2/M phase. Our study provides a new, promising compound for the development of tubulin inhibitors by proposing a new target for the anticancer activity of shikonin. PMID:24797889

Guo, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Jing; Lin, Hong-Yan; Han, Hong-Wei; Liu, Hong-Chang; Huang, Shou-Cheng; Shahla, Baloch K; Kulek, Andrew; Qi, Jin-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ling, Li-Jun; Yang, Yong-Hua



Podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin Production in Hairy Root Cultures of Liunm mucronatum ssp. mucronatum  

PubMed Central

Aim: Two bacterial strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, A13 and 9534 were evaluated for induction of transformed hairy roots in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, a high value medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: The hairy roots were successfully initiated, through infecting the hypocotyl and root explants and the A13 strain performed a high transformation frequency for hairy roots induction. Transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the rol genes. Growth kinetics of transgenic roots induced by two strains indicated a similar pattern of growth, with maximum growth occurring between 42 to 56 days. The lignan contents in hairy roots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: Transformed cultures showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in lignan content. The highest amount of Podophyllotoxin (PTOX, 5.78 mg/g DW) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (MPTOX, 49.19 mg/g DW) was found in transformed lines induced by strain A13, which was four times higher than those of non-transformed roots. The results showed that hairy root cultures of L. mucronatum are rich sources of MPTOX. Conclusion: hairy root cultures from L. mucronatum can be used as a useful system for scale-up producing MPTOX and precursors for the production of antitumor agents in substitution with PTOX by considering the appropriate optimizations in future studies. PMID:24914281

Samadi, Afsaneh; Jafari, Morad; Nejhad, Nasim Mohammad; Hossenian, Farah



Investigation of Vietnamese plants for potential anticancer agents.  


Higher plants continue to afford humankind with many new drugs, for a variety of disease types. In this review, recent phytochemical and biological progress is presented for part of a collaborative multi-institutional project directed towards the discovery of new antitumor agents. The specific focus is on bioactive natural products isolated and characterized structurally from tropical plants collected in Vietnam. The plant collection, identification, and processing steps are described, and the natural products isolated from these species are summarized with their biological activities. PMID:25395897

Pérez, Lynette Bueno; Still, Patrick C; Naman, C Benjamin; Ren, Yulin; Pan, Li; Chai, Hee-Byung; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Van Thanh, Bui; Swanson, Steven M; Soejarto, Djaja D; Kinghorn, A Douglas



Strained ruthenium complexes are potent light-activated anticancer agents.  


Strained ruthenium (Ru) complexes have been synthesized and characterized as novel agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The complexes are inert until triggered by visible light, which induces ligand loss and covalent modification of DNA. An increase in cytotoxicity of 2 orders of magnitude is observed with light activation in cancer cells, and the compounds display potencies superior to cisplatin against 3D tumor spheroids. The use of intramolecular strain may be applied as a general paradigm to develop light-activated ruthenium complexes for PDT applications. PMID:22553960

Howerton, Brock S; Heidary, David K; Glazer, Edith C



[Phase I clinical trial design of anticancer agents--a Fibonacci and a modified Fibonacci sequence].  


A Phase I clinical trial of an anticancer agent is the first evaluation in humans, and it is an important step in drug development. From the ethical point of view, the goal is to escalate to the maximum tolerated dose quickly, yet safely, to minimize the likelihood of treating patients at doses that are too low or high. It is expected that the contradictions between safety and efficacy in the Phase I clinical trials will be solved by developing methods. The modified Fibonacci sequence has been generally adopted for dose escalation, although it includes some problems. It is necessary to recognize that the method used for Phase I clinical trials for anticancer agents remains unsatisfactory, and that it is also necessary to develop more ethical and scientific methods. PMID:10832451

Kusaba, H; Tamura, T



Evaluation of Degradation Properties of Polyglycolide and Its Potential as Delivery Vehicle for Anticancer Agents  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradable polymers offer a unique combination of properties that can be tailored to suit nearly any controlled drug delivery application. The most common biodegradable polymers used for biomedical applications are semicrystalline polyesters and polyethers which possess good mechanical properties and have been used in many controlled release applications. Drug release from these polymers may be controlled by several mechanisms and these include diffusion of drug through a matrix, dissolution of polymer matrix and degradation of the polymer. This study aims to investigate the degradation and drug release properties of polyglycolide (1.03 dL/g), in which, cis platin, an anticancer agent was used as the model drug. The degradation behaviour of the chosen polymer is thought to largely govern the release of the anticancer agent in vitro.

Noorsal, K.; Ghani, S. M.; Yunos, D. M.; Mohamed, M. S. W.; Yahya, A. F. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim Kedah (Malaysia)



Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent.  


In recent years, various dietary components that can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72 h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines (PCa). When tested at higher doses (15-20 ug/mL), FE continued to be growth inhibitory to PCa cell lines but not to either primary prostate or hTert-immortalized prostate cells. At least part of the growth inhibition is due to induction of cell death, as seen by incorporation of Ethidium Bromide III into cancer cells exposed to FE. Molecular changes induced in PCa cells are: in DU-145 cells: downregulation of mutant p53, and in PC-3 cells upregulation of p21 and inhibition of TGFbeta induced phosphorylation of Akt. The surprising finding of our studies is that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously upregulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential. PMID:19197146

Shabbeer, Shabana; Sobolewski, Michelle; Anchoori, Ravi Kumar; Kachhap, Sushant; Hidalgo, Manuel; Jimeno, Antonio; Davidson, Nancy; Carducci, Michael A; Khan, Saeed R



Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent  

PubMed Central

In recent years, various dietary components that can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines (PCa). When tested at higher doses (15-20 ug/mL), FE continued to be growth inhibitory to PCa cell lines but not to either primary prostate or htert-immortalized prostate cells. At least part of the growth inhibition is due to induction of cell death, as seen by incorporation of Ethidium Bromide III into cancer cells exposed to FE. Molecular changes induced in PCa cells are: in DU-145 cells: down regulation of mutant p53, and in PC-3 cells up regulation of p21 and inhibition of TGF-? induced phosphorylation of Akt. The surprising finding of our studies is that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously up regulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential. PMID:19197146

Shabbeer, Shabana; Sobolewski, Michelle; Kachhap, Sushant; Davidson, Nancy; Carducci, Michael A.; Khan, Saeed



Correlation of DNA reactivity and cytotoxicity of a new class of anticancer agents: Aza-anthracenediones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doxorubicin and mitoxantrone are carbocyclic anti-cancer drugs that interact with DNA through intercalation. Our laboratory has synthesized a new series of anti-tumor agents, the aza-anthracenediones, which are structurally related to mitoxantrone but contain a heterocyclic, rather than a carbocyclic, chromophore. Both the in vivo and in vitro anti-tumor activities of these compounds were exquisitely sensitive to the positioning of the

Lori A. Hazlehurst; A. Paul Krapcho; Miles P. Hacker



New hopes from old drugs: revisiting DNA-binding small molecules as anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Most of the anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs that are broadly and successfully used today are DNA-damaging agents. Targeting of DNA has been proven to cause relatively potent and selective destruction of tumor cells. However, the clinical potential of DNA-damaging agents is limited by the adverse side effects and increased risk of secondary cancers that are consequences of the agents' genotoxicity. In this review, we present evidence that those agents capable of targeting DNA without inducing DNA damage would not be limited in these ways, and may be as potent as DNA-damaging agents in the killing of tumor cells. We use as an example literature data and our own research of the well-known antimalarial drug quinacrine, which binds to DNA without inducing DNA damage, yet modulates a number of cellular pathways that impact tumor cell survival. PMID:20001804

Gurova, Katerina



Lysosomotropic Properties of Weakly Basic Anticancer Agents Promote Cancer Cell Selectivity In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Drug distribution in cells is a fundamentally important, yet often overlooked, variable in drug efficacy. Many weakly basic anticancer agents accumulate extensively in the acidic lysosomes of normal cells through ion trapping. Lysosomal trapping reduces the activity of anticancer drugs, since anticancer drug targets are often localized in the cell cytosol or nucleus. Some cancer cells have defective acidification of lysosomes, which causes a redistribution of trapped drugs from the lysosomes to the cytosol. We have previously established that such differences in drug localization between normal and cancer cells can contribute to the apparent selectivity of weakly basic drugs to cancer cells in vitro. In this work, we tested whether this intracellular distribution-based drug selectivity could be optimized based on the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the drug, which is one of the determinants of lysosomal sequestration capacity. We synthesized seven weakly basic structural analogs of the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA) with pKa values ranging from 5 to 12. The selectivity of each analog was expressed by taking ratios of anti-proliferative IC50 values of the inhibitors in normal fibroblasts to the IC50 values in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Similar selectivity assessments were performed in a pair of cancer cell lines that differed in lysosomal pH as a result of siRNA-mediated alteration of vacuolar proton ATPase subunit expression. Optimal selectivity was observed for analogs with pKa values near 8. Similar trends were observed with commercial anticancer agents with varying weakly basic pKa values. These evaluations advance our understanding of how weakly basic properties can be optimized to achieve maximum anticancer drug selectivity towards cancer cells with defective lysosomal acidification in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to examine the utility of this approach for enhancing selectivity. PMID:23145164

Ndolo, Rosemary A.; Luan, Yepeng; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M. Laird; Krise, Jeffrey P.



Cellular pharmacology of polynuclear platinum anti-cancer agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the cellular pharmacology of the dinuclear platinum complexes, BBR3005 ([{trans-PtCl(NH3)2}2H2N(CH2)6NH2]2+), BBR3171 ([{cis-PtCl(NH3)2}2H2N(CH2)6NH2]2+) and the trinuclear platinum complex, BBR3464 ([{trans-PtCl(NH3)2}2?-{trans-Pt(NH3)2(H2N(CH2)6NH2)2}]4+) was undertaken in wild type and cisplatin-resistant L1210 murine leukemia cell lines. All complexes are potent cytotoxic agents against the wild type cell line. Only BBR3464 shows enhanced activity against the cisplatin-resistant cell line following a brief exposure. This

John D Roberts; John Peroutka; Nicholas Farrell



Curcumin and its formulations: potential anti-cancer agents.  


Curcumin, one of the most studied chemopreventive agents, is a natural compound extracted from Curcuma longa L. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed that curcumin can inhibit the proliferation of various tumor cells in culture, prevent carcinogen induced cancers in rodents and inhibit the growth of human tumors in xenotransplant or orthotransplant animal models. Several phase I and phase II clinical trials indicated that curcumin is quite safe and may exhibit therapeutic efficacy. The utility of curcumin is limited by its lack of water solubility and relatively low in vivo bioavailability. Multiple approaches including nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles and phospholipid complexes are being sought to overcome these limitations. This review describes the general properties of curcumin and its potential effect against cancer including evidences of its antitumor action in vitro, in vivo, clinically and the strategies to overcome its low bioavailability. PMID:22044005

Ji, Jun-Ling; Huang, Xian-Feng; Zhu, Hai-Liang



Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Creeping Juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)  

PubMed Central

Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (?)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (?)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

Cantrell, Charles L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Carvalho, Camila R.; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Rosa, Luiz H.



Spectral and electrochemical detection of protonated triplex formation by a small-molecule anticancer agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triplex helical formation has been the focus of considerable interest because of possible applications in developing new molecular biology tools as well as therapeutic agents and the possible relevance of H-DNA structures in biology system. We report here that a small-molecule anticancer agent, coralyne, has binding preference to the less stable protonated triplex d(C +-T) 6:d(A-G) 6·d(C-T) 6 over duplex d(A-G) 6·d(C-T) 6 and shows different spectral and electrochemical characteristics when binding to triplex and duplex DNA, indicating that electrochemical technique can detect the less stable protonated triplex formation.

Feng, Lingyan; Li, Xi; Peng, Yinghua; Geng, Jie; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang



Apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells induced by podophyllotoxin  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have demonstrated that podophyllotoxin and its derivatives exhibit antitumor effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanism induced by podophyllotoxin. SGC-7901 cells were treated with varying concentrations of podophyllotoxin. MTT assays and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the effects of podophyllotoxin on the proliferation and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, while fluorescence inverted microscopy was used to observe the morphology of SGC-7901 cells that had been dyed with Hoechst 33258. In addition, laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to analyze the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of SGC-7901 cells dyed with Rhodamine 123. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of cytochrome c (cyt-c), caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the SGC-7901 cells. The results indicated that podophyllotoxin was capable of inhibiting growth and inducing the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner, causing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. After 48 h of treatment, the apoptotic morphology of SGC-7901 cells was clear, exhibiting cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasms and apoptotic bodies. Following 24 h of treatment, the MMP of the SGC-7901 cells decreased. In addition, after 48 h, the expression of cyt-c was shown to be upregulated, while the expression levels of pro-caspase-9 and pro-caspase-3 in the SGC-7901 cells were shown to be downregulated. In conclusion, apoptosis can be induced in SGC-7901 cells by podophyllotoxin, potentially via a mitochondrial pathway, indicating that podophyllotoxin may be a potent agent for cancer treatment. PMID:24940431




Apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells induced by podophyllotoxin.  


Numerous studies have demonstrated that podophyllotoxin and its derivatives exhibit antitumor effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanism induced by podophyllotoxin. SGC-7901 cells were treated with varying concentrations of podophyllotoxin. MTT assays and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the effects of podophyllotoxin on the proliferation and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, while fluorescence inverted microscopy was used to observe the morphology of SGC-7901 cells that had been dyed with Hoechst 33258. In addition, laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to analyze the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of SGC-7901 cells dyed with Rhodamine 123. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of cytochrome c (cyt-c), caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the SGC-7901 cells. The results indicated that podophyllotoxin was capable of inhibiting growth and inducing the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner, causing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. After 48 h of treatment, the apoptotic morphology of SGC-7901 cells was clear, exhibiting cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasms and apoptotic bodies. Following 24 h of treatment, the MMP of the SGC-7901 cells decreased. In addition, after 48 h, the expression of cyt-c was shown to be upregulated, while the expression levels of pro-caspase-9 and pro-caspase-3 in the SGC-7901 cells were shown to be downregulated. In conclusion, apoptosis can be induced in SGC-7901 cells by podophyllotoxin, potentially via a mitochondrial pathway, indicating that podophyllotoxin may be a potent agent for cancer treatment. PMID:24940431

Ji, Chen-Feng; Ji, Yu-Bin



Amino acid esters substituted phosphorylated emtricitabine and didanosine derivatives as antiviral and anticancer agents.  


Owing to the promising antiviral activity of amino acid ester-substituted phosphorylated nucleosides in the present study, a series of phosphorylated derivatives of emtricitabine and didanosine substituted with bioactive amino acid esters at P-atom were synthesized. Initially, molecular docking studies were screened to predict their molecular interactions with hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus and E2 protein of human papillomavirus. The title compounds were screened for their antiviral ability against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by their in ovo study in embryonated chicken eggs. Compounds 5g and 9c exposed well mode of interactions with HN protein and also exhibited potential growth of NDV inhibition. The remaining compounds exhibited better growth of NDV inhibition than their parent molecules, i.e., emtricitabine (FTC) and didanosine (ddI). In addition, the in vitro anticancer activity of all the title compounds were screenedagainst HeLa cell lines at 10 and 100 ?g/mL concentrations. The compounds 5g and 9c showed an effective anticancer activity than that of the remaining title compounds with IC50 values of 40 and 60 ?g/mL, respectively. The present in silico and in ovo antiviral and in vitro anticancer results of the title compounds are suggesting that the amino acid ester-substituted phosphorylated FTC and ddI derivatives, especially 5g and 9c, can be used as NDV inhibitors and anticancer agents for the control and management of viral diseases with cancerous condition. PMID:24789416

Sekhar, Kuruva Chandra; Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Narasimha, Golla; Raju, Chamarthi Naga; Ghosh, S K



Essential Oils and Their Constituents as Anticancer Agents: A Mechanistic View  

PubMed Central

Exploring natural plant products as an option to find new chemical entities as anticancer agents is one of the fastest growing areas of research. Recently, in the last decade, essential oils (EOs) have been under study for their use in cancer therapy and the present review is an attempt to collect and document the available studies indicating EOs and their constituents as anticancer agents. This review enlists nearly 130 studies of EOs from various plant species and their constituents that have been studied so far for their anticancer potential and these studies have been classified as in vitro and in vivo studies for EOs and their constituents. This review also highlights in-depth various mechanisms of action of different EOs and their constituents reported in the treatment strategies for different types of cancer. The current review indicates that EOs and their constituents act by multiple pathways and mechanisms involving apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic, increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), DNA repair modulation, and others to demonstrate their antiproliferative activity in the cancer cell. The effect of EOs and their constituents on tumour suppressor proteins (p53 and Akt), transcription factors (NF-?B and AP-1), MAPK-pathway, and detoxification enzymes like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase has also been discussed. PMID:25003106

Mantha, Anil K.



Design and synthesis of pyrimidine molecules endowed with thiazolidin-4-one as new anticancer agents.  


Design and synthesis of new pyrimidine derivatives clubbed with thiazolidin-4-one from 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine and their in vitro anticancer activities were screened at National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA against full NCI 60 cell lines. Compound 2 (NSC: 765735) exhibited remarkable growth inhibition at single dose (10 ?M) and encourage chosen for broadcast at 10-fold dilutions of five different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ?M). The compound 2 was found better quality for Lung cancer cell line (HOP-92) by viewing growth inhibition (GI50 0.52) and no cytotoxicity seen (LC50 > 100). Molecular docking study was performed using Maestro 9.0 (Schrodinger Inc. USA) to provide binding mode into binding sites of CDK2. Compound 2 could be used as a lead compound for developing new potential anticancer agents. PMID:25010935

Rashid, Mohd; Husain, Asif; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Mishra, Ravinesh; Hussain, Afzal; Afzal, Obaid



Synthesis of xanthone derivatives based on ?-mangostin and their biological evaluation for anti-cancer agents.  


A xanthone-derived natural product, ?-mangostin is isolated from various parts of the mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae), a well-known tropical fruit. Novel xanthone derivatives based on ?-mangostin were synthesized and evaluated as anti-cancer agents by cytotoxicity activity screening using 5 human cancer cell lines. Some of these analogs had potent to moderate inhibitory activities. The structure-activity relationship studies revealed that phenol groups on C3 and C6 are critical to anti-proliferative activity and C4 modification is capable to improve both anti-cancer activity and drug-like properties. Our findings provide new possibilities for further explorations to improve potency. PMID:24717154

Fei, Xiang; Jo, Minmi; Lee, Bit; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Kiho; Jung, Jae-Kyung; Seo, Seung-Yong; Kwak, Young-Shin



Compound A398, a Novel Podophyllotoxin Analogue: Cytotoxicity and Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in oncology research, cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, there is a demand for the development of more selective and effective antitumor agents. This study showed that A398, a novel podophyllotoxin analogue, was cytotoxic to the HT-29, MCF-7, MOLT-4 and HL-60 tumor cell lines, being less active in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal cell lines FGH and IEC-6. Tests using the HepG2 lineage indicated that its metabolites do not contribute to its cytotoxicity. In the HL-60 cells, A398 induced apoptosis in a time and concentration-dependent manner, promoting mitochondrial depolarization, inhibition of Bcl-2, phosphatidylserine exposure, activation of caspases -8, -9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. The production of reactive oxygen species does not seem to be a crucial event for the apoptotic process. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38 resulted in an increased percentage of death induced by A398. These results indicate that the compound induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic death pathways with the mechanism involving the inhibition of the MAPKs and Bcl-2. Taken together, our findings suggest that A398 has an anticancer potential, proving itself to be a candidate for preclinical studies. PMID:25221997

Silveira, Alethéia L.; Faheina-Martins, Glaúcia V.; Maia, Raquel C.; Araújo, Demetrius A. M.



Polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of anticancer agents may be hindered by low solubility in water, poor permeability, and high efflux from cells. Nanomaterials have been used to enable drug delivery with lower toxicity to healthy cells and enhanced drug delivery to tumor cells. Different nanoparticles have been developed using different polymers with or without surface modification to target tumor cells both passively and/or actively. Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), a biodegradable polyester approved for human use, has been used extensively. Here we report on recent developments concerning PLGA nanoparticles prepared for cancer treatment. We review the methods used for the preparation and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles and their applications in the delivery of a number of active agents. Increasing experience in the field of preparation, characterization, and in vivo application of PLGA nanoparticles has provided the necessary momentum for promising future use of these agents in cancer treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side effects. PMID:21720501

Dinarvand, R; Sepehri, N; Manoochehri, S; Rouhani, H; Atyabi, F



PST-Gold nanoparticle as an effective anticancer agent with immunomodulatory properties.  


Polysaccharide PST001, which is isolated from the seed kernels of Tamarindus indica (Ti), is an antitumor and immunomodulatory compound. Gold nanoparticles have been used for various applications in cancer. In the present report, a novel strategy for the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles using anticancer polysaccharide PST001 was employed and the nanoparticles' antitumor activity was evaluated. PST-Gold nanoparticles were prepared such that PST001 acted both as a reducing agent and as a capping agent. PST-Gold nanoparticles showed high stability, no obvious aggregation for months and a wide range of pH tolerance. PST-Gold nanoparticles not only retained the antitumor effect of PST001 but also showed an enhanced effect even at a low concentration. It was also found that the nanoparticles exerted their antitumor effects through the induction of apoptosis. In vivo assays on BALB/c mice revealed that PST-Gold nanoparticles exhibited immunomodulatory effects. Evaluation of biochemical, hematological and histopathological features of mice revealed that PST-Gold nanoparticles could be administered safely without toxicity. Using the polysaccharide PST001 for the reduction and stabilization of gold nanoparticles does not introduce any environmental toxicity or biological hazards, and these particles are more effective than the parent polysaccharide. Further studies should be employed to exploit these particles as anticancer agents with imaging properties. PMID:23298585

Joseph, Manu M; Aravind, S R; Varghese, Sheeja; Mini, S; Sreelekha, T T



DFT-based QSAR study and molecular design of AHMA derivatives as potent anticancer agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of 3-(9-acridinylamino)-5-hydroxymethylaniline (AHMA) derivatives and their alkylcarbamates as potent anticancer agents has been studied using density functional theory (DFT), molecular mechanics (MM+), and statistical methods. In the best established QSAR equation, the energy (ENL) of the next lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (NLUMO) and the net charges (QFR) of the first atom of the substituent R, as well as the steric parameter (MR2) of subsituent R2 are the main independent factors contributing to the anticancer activity of the compounds. A new scheme determining outliers by ?leave-one-out? (LOO) cross-validation coefficient (q2n-i) was suggested and successfully used. The fitting correlation coefficient (R2) and the ?LOO? cross-validation coefficient (q2) values for the training set of 25 compounds are 0.881 and 0.829, respectively. The predicted activities of 5 compounds in the test set using this QSAR model are in good agreement with their experimental values, indicating that this model has excellent predictive ability. Based on the established QSAR equation, 10 new compounds with rather high anticancer activity much greater than that of 34 compounds have been designed and await experimental verification.

Chen, Jincan; Shen, Yong; Liao, Siyan; Chen, Lanmei; Zheng, Kangcheng


Structure-Activity Relationships of Orotidine-5?-Monophosphate Decarboxylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Agents  

SciTech Connect

A series of 6-substituted and 5-fluoro-6-substituted uridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their potential as anticancer agents. The designed molecules were synthesized from either fully protected uridine or the corresponding 5-fluorouridine derivatives. The mononucleotide derivatives were used for enzyme inhibition investigations against ODCase. Anticancer activities of all the synthesized derivatives were evaluated using the nucleoside forms of the inhibitors. 5-Fluoro-UMP was a very weak inhibitor of ODCase. 6-Azido-5-fluoro and 5-fluoro-6-iodo derivatives are covalent inhibitors of ODCase, and the active site Lys145 residue covalently binds to the ligand after the elimination of the 6-substitution. Among the synthesized nucleoside derivatives, 6-azido-5-fluoro, 6-amino-5-fluoro, and 6-carbaldehyde-5-fluoro derivatives showed potent anticancer activities in cell-based assays against various leukemia cell lines. On the basis of the overall profile, 6-azido-5-fluoro and 6-amino-5-fluoro uridine derivatives exhibited potential for further investigations.

Bello, A.; Konforte, D; Poduch, E; Furlonger, C; Wei, L; Liu, Y; Lewis, M; Pai, E; Paige, C; Kotra, L



Honey as a Potential Natural Anticancer Agent: A Review of Its Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The main treatment for cancer is by using chemotherapy and radiotherapy which themselves are toxic to other viable cells of the body. Recently, there are many studies focusing on the use of natural products for cancer prevention and treatment. Of these natural products, honey has been extensively researched. The mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of honey as chemopreventive and therapeutic agent has not been completely understood. The possible mechanisms are due to its apoptotic, antiproliferative, antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and immunomodulatory activities. We collate the findings of several studies published in the literature in order to understand the mechanism of its action. PMID:24363771

Ahmed, Sarfraz



Endophyte fungal isolates from Podophyllum peltatum produce podophyllotoxin.  


The lignan podophyllotoxin (1) is highly valued as the precursor to clinically useful anticancer drugs. Substantial drug development of this compound class continues, including potential new use for inflammatory disease. We have isolated two endophyte fungi, both strains of Phialocephala fortinii, from rhizomes of the plant Podophyllum peltatum. The fungi were identified through DNA sequencing and morphology. Both strains of fungi are slow-growing and produce 1 at low but measurable amounts in broth culture. The compound was confirmed through matching HPLC retention times, absorption spectra, and MS data to authentic 1. The yield of 1 has ranged from 0.5 to 189 microg/L in 4 weeks of culture. These fungi have implications for the sustained production of 1 independent of wild populations of the source plants. PMID:16933860

Eyberger, Amy L; Dondapati, Rajeswari; Porter, John R



Mechanism of Action of Phenethylisothiocyanate and Other Reactive Oxygen Species-Inducing Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing anticancer agents such as phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC) activate stress pathways for killing cancer cells. Here we demonstrate that PEITC-induced ROS decreased expression of microRNA 27a (miR-27a)/miR-20a:miR-17-5p and induced miR-regulated ZBTB10/ZBTB4 and ZBTB34 transcriptional repressors, which, in turn, downregulate specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors (TFs) Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 in pancreatic cancer cells. Decreased expression of miR-27a/miR-20a:miR-17-5p by PEITC-induced ROS is a key step in triggering the miR-ZBTB Sp cascade leading to downregulation of Sp TFs, and this is due to ROS-dependent epigenetic effects associated with genome-wide shifts in repressor complexes, resulting in decreased expression of Myc and the Myc-regulated miRs. Knockdown of Sp1 alone by RNA interference also induced apoptosis and decreased pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion, indicating that downregulation of Sp transcription factors is an important common mechanism of action for PEITC and other ROS-inducing anticancer agents. PMID:24732804

Jutooru, Indira; Guthrie, Aaron S.; Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Pathi, Satya; Kim, KyoungHyun; Burghardt, Robert; Jin, Un-Ho



Potential use of Folate-appended Methyl-?-Cyclodextrin as an Anticancer Agent  

PubMed Central

To obtain a tumor cell-selectivity of methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M-?-CyD), we newly synthesized folate-appended M-?-CyD (FA-M-?-CyD), and evaluated the potential of FA-M-?-CyD as a novel anticancer agent in vitro and in vivo. Potent antitumor activity and cellular association of FA-M-?-CyD were higher than those of M-?-CyD in KB cells, folate receptor (FR)-positive cells. FA-M-?-CyD drastically inhibited the tumor growth after intratumoral or intravenous injection to FR-positive Colon-26 cells-bearing mice. The antitumor activity of FA-M-?-CyD was comparable and superior to that of doxorubicin after both intratumoral and intravenous administrations, respectively, at the same dose, in the tumor-bearing mice. All of the tumor-bearing mice after an intravenous injection of FA-M-?-CyD survived for at least more than 140 days. Importantly, an intravenous administration of FA-M-?-CyD to tumor-bearing mice did not show any significant change in blood chemistry values. These results strongly suggest that FA-M-?-CyD has the potential as a novel anticancer agent. PMID:23346361

Onodera, Risako; Motoyama, Keiichi; Okamatsu, Ayaka; Higashi, Taishi; Arima, Hidetoshi



Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini) which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF)-?B and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies. PMID:24734105

Tan, C. K.; Hashimi, Saeed M.; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Wei, Ming Q.



Highly Adaptable Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells as a Functional Model for Testing Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance. PMID:25279830

Singh, Balraj; Shamsnia, Anna; Raythatha, Milan R.; Milligan, Ryan D.; Cady, Amanda M.; Madan, Simran; Lucci, Anthony



Unifying mechanism for anticancer agents involving electron transfer and oxidative stress: clinical implications.  


Extensive evidence supports involvement of electron transfer (ET), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) in the mechanism of many anticancer drugs. The common ET functionalities, usually present in the drug metabolites, are quinones (or precursors), metal complexes (or complexors), aromatic nitro compounds (or reduced hydroxylamine and nitroso derivatives), and conjugated imines (or iminium species). The ET agents function catalytically in redox cycling with formation of ROS from oxygen. Electrochemical data add support to the mechanistic viewpoint. The generated metabolites generally possess reduction potentials amenable to ET in vivo, thus giving rise to ROS. The resulting OS is a participant in destruction of the cancer cell. It is important to recognize that drug action is often multipronged. The various modes of action are summarized. Most research has been devoted to development of new and improved chemotherapeutic agents. The need for more attention to measures for cancer prevention is addressed. One of the most promising involves use of antioxidants. PMID:17383109

Kovacic, Peter



Synthesis and insecticidal activity of new oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin-based phenazines against Mythimna separata Walker.  


To discover new natural-product-based insecticidal agents, a series of novel oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin-based phenazines modified in the C, D and E rings of podophyllotoxin were prepared and tested as insecticidal agents against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) in vivo at 1mg/mL. The steric configuration of IIIc was unambiguously confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds IIIa-d, and IIIi exhibited an equal or higher insecticidal activity than toosendanin. PMID:25467160

Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Yu, Xiang; Xu, Hui



Two new podophyllotoxin glucosides from Sinopodophyllum emodi (Wall.) Ying.  


Two new aryltetralin-type lignans, isopodophyllotoxin 7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 4-demethyl-picropodophyllotoxin 7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with eight known podophyllotoxin derivatives: 4-demethyl-podophyllotoxin 7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), podophyllotoxin 7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), deoxypodophyllotoxin (5), picropodophyllotoxin (6), podophyllotoxin (7), 4-demethyl-picropodophyllotoxin (8), 4-demethyl-podophyllotoxin (9), and 4-demethyl-deoxypodophyllotoxin (10), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi (Wall.) Ying (Berberidaceae). Their structures were identified based on NMR spectral data and chemical evidence. PMID:11411537

Zhao, C; Huang, J; Nagatsu, A; Ogihara, Y



Development of Taxol and other endophyte produced anti-cancer agents.  


Taxol is a powerful and complex anti-cancer compound that was first isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia. Although it offered huge potential as an anti-cancer agent, it experienced a long development period, attributed to by its low availability from its traditional source. Research into alternate sources and methods of production for Taxol have been crucial in meeting with demand for the drug. Three main avenues of research have resulted. Firstly, chemical syntheses of this complex diterpene consist of multiple steps and are not economically feasible due to their low yield. Developments have therefore concentrated on enhancing production in vivo. Efforts have been made to understand the enzymatic steps involved in the synthesis within the yew and innovations to produce Taxol and Taxol-like substances in high yield from cell cultures of Taxus species. An alternative stream of research focuses on endophytes as the producer of Taxol. Endophytes can be isolated from the yew tree and produce Taxol in culture. Encouraging findings with endophytes resulted in much interest in the prospect of using endophytes as the producer of Taxol and Taxol-like substances. This review also discusses patents and the future prospects of each of the main streams of production. PMID:18289120

Miller, Kristin; Neilan, Brett; Sze, Daniel M Y



A new design for nucleolipid-based Ru(III) complexes as anticancer agents.  


In continuation with our studies concerning the synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of nucleolipidic Ru(III) complexes, a novel design for this family of potential anticancer agents is presented here. As a model compound, a new uridine-based nucleolipid has been prepared, named HoUrRu, following a simple and versatile synthetic procedure, and converted into a Ru(III) salt. Stable formulations of this highly functionalized Ru(III) complex have been obtained by co-aggregation with either the zwitterionic lipid POPC or the cationic DOTAP, which have been subjected to an in-depth microstructural characterization, including DLS, SANS and EPR measurements. The in vitro bioactivity profile of HoUrRu, as a pure compound or in formulation with POPC or DOTAP, reveals high antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 and WiDr human cancer cell lines. PMID:24121739

Montesarchio, Daniela; Mangiapia, Gaetano; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Musumeci, Domenica; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; D'Errico, Gerardino; Paduano, Luigi



Investigation of Degradation Properties of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Matrix for Anticancer Agent Delivery  

SciTech Connect

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLA{sub 50}GA{sub 50}) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It offers tremendous potential as a basis for drug delivery, either as drug delivery system alone or in conjugate with a medical device. The PLA{sub 50}GA{sub 50} is the material of choice for relatively shorter-duration applications, while the homopolymer PLA (poly-L-lactide) and PGA (polyglycolide) are preferred for longer term delivery of drugs. This paper discusses the degradation properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLA{sub 50}GA{sub 50}) at inherent viscosity of 0.89 dL/g as preliminary studies for anticancer agent delivery.

Ghani, S. M.; Mohamed, M. S. W.; Yahya, A. F.; Noorsal, K. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim Kedah (Malaysia)



Characterization of a Gene Cluster Responsible for the Biosynthesis of Anticancer Agent FK228 in Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of anticancer agent FK228 has been identified, cloned, and partially characterized in Chromobacterium violaceum no. 968. First, a genome-scanning approach was applied to identify three distinctive C. violaceum no. 968 genomic DNA clones that code for portions of nonribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase. Next, a gene replacement system developed originally for Pseudo-

Yi-Qiang Cheng; Min Yang; Andrea M. Matter



A monofunctional platinum(II)-based anticancer agent from a salicylanilide derivative: Synthesis, antiproliferative activity, and transcription inhibition.  


Cationic monofunctional platinum(II)-based anticancer agents with a general formula of cis-[Pt(NH3)2(N-donor)Cl](+) have recently drawn significant attention due to their unique mode of action, distinctive anticancer spectrum, and promising antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. Understanding the mechanism of action of novel monofunctional platinum compounds through rational drug design will aid in the further development of active agents. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated a monofunctional platinum-based anticancer agent SA-Pt containing a bulky salicylanilide moiety. The antiproliferative activity of SA-Pt was close to that of cisplatin. Mechanism studies revealed that SA-Pt entered HeLa cells more efficiently than cisplatin, blocked the cell cycle at the S-phase, and induced apoptosis. The compound bound to DNA as effectively as cisplatin, but did not block RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription as strongly as cisplatin, indicating that once the compound formed Pt-DNA lesions, the salicylanilide group was more easily recognized and removed. This study not only enriches the family of monofunctional platinum-based anticancer agents but also guides the design of more potent monofunctional platinum complexes. PMID:25450026

Wang, Beilei; Wang, Zhigang; Ai, Fujin; Tang, Wai Kin; Zhu, Guangyu



Design, synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of sulfanilamide-imines derivatives as potential anticancer agents.  


A series of sulfanilamide Schiff base derivatives (1 to 15) have been designed as potential antitubulin agents depending on the chemical structures of combretastatine A-4 and isoquinoline sulfamate (antimitotic agents under investigation). The designed compounds were synthesized by microwave chemical synthesis, their purity was confirmed by melting point and HPLC and chemical structures were determined by FT-IR, UV, and 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The synthesized compounds have been docked in the colchicine binding site of ?-tubulin using molecular modeling programs and the antitumor activities were screened on human breast and lung cancer cells by cell counting assay. Some tested compounds showed potent and selective activity against breast cancer (MCF-7) with IC50 range of 90 to 166 ?M. With regarding broad-spectrum activity, compounds 4, 8, and 13 have shown potent antitumor activity against human breast and human lung cells with IC50 range of 96 to 140 ?M. The obtained results suggest that the sulfanilamide Schiff base derivatives might potentially constitute an interesting novel class of anticancer agents, which deserve further studies. PMID:23708566

Mohamed, Sofian S; Tamer, Abdalkarem R; Bensaber, Salah M; Jaeda, Mousa I; Ermeli, Nouri B; Allafi, Aemen Ali; Mrema, Ibrahim A; Erhuma, Mabrouk; Hermann, Anton; Gbaj, Abdul M



Analysis of FDA-Approved Anti-Cancer Agents in the NCI60 Panel of Human Tumor Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Since the early 1990's the Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has utilized a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines representing 9 tissue types to screen for potential new anti-cancer agents. To date, about 100,000 compounds and 50,000 natural product extracts have been screened. Early in this program it was discovered that the pattern of growth inhibition in these cell lines was similar for compounds of similar mechanism. The development of the COMPARE algorithm provided a means by which investigators, starting with a compound of interest, could identify other compounds whose pattern of growth inhibition was similar. With extensive molecular characterization of these cell lines, COMPARE and other user-defined algorithms have been used to link patterns of molecular expression and drug sensitivity. We describe here results of screening current FDA-approved anti-cancer agents in the NCI60 screen, with an emphasis on those agents that target signal transduction. We have analyzed results from agents with mechanisms of action presumed to be similar; we have also performed hierarchical clustering of all of these agents. The addition of data from recently approved anti-cancer agents will increase the utility of the NCI60 databases to the cancer research community. These data are freely accessible to the public on the DTP web site ( The FDA-approved anti-cancer agents are themselves available from the NCI as a plated set of compounds for research use. PMID:20442306

Holbeck, Susan L.; Collins, Jerry M.; Doroshow, James H.



Assessment of antimicrobial (host defense) peptides as anti-cancer agents.  


Cationic antimicrobial (host defense) peptides (CAPs) are able to kill microorganisms and cancer cells, leading to their consideration as novel candidate therapeutic agents in human medicine. CAPs can physically associate with anionic membrane structures, such as those found on cancer cells, causing pore formation, intracellular disturbances, and leakage of cell contents. In contrast, normal cells are less negatively-charged and are typically not susceptible to CAP-mediated cell death. Because the interaction of CAPs with cells is based on charge properties rather than cell proliferation, both rapidly dividing and quiescent cancer cells, as well as multidrug-resistant cancer cells, are targeted by CAPs, making CAPS potentially valuable as anti-cancer agents. CAPs often exist as families of peptides with slightly different amino acid sequences. In addition, libraries of synthetic peptide variants based on naturally occurring CAP templates can be generated in order to improve upon their action. High-throughput screens are needed to quickly and efficiently assess the suitability of each CAP variant. Here we present the methods for assessing CAP-mediated cytotoxicity against cancer cells (suspension and adherent) and untransformed cells (measured using the tritiated thymidine-release or MTT assay), and for discriminating between cell death caused by necrosis (measured using lactate dehydrogenase- or (51)Cr-release assays), or apoptosis and necrosis (single-stranded DNA content measured by flow cytometry). In addition the clonogenic assay, which assesses the ability of single transformed cells to multiply and produce colonies, is described. PMID:24146403

Douglas, Susan; Hoskin, David W; Hilchie, Ashley L



Design of enzymatically cleavable prodrugs of a potent platinum-containing anticancer agent.  


Using a versatile synthetic approach, a new class of potential ester prodrugs of highly potent, but systemically too toxic, platinum-acridine anticancer agents was generated. The new hybrids contain a hydroxyl group, which has been masked with a cleavable lipophilic acyl moiety. Both butanoic (butyric) and bulkier 2-propanepentanoic (valproic) esters were introduced. The goals of this design were to improve the drug-like properties (e.g., logD) and to reduce the systemic toxicity of the pharmacophore. Two distinct pathways by which the target compounds undergo effective ester hydrolysis, the proposed activating step, have been confirmed: platinum-assisted, self-immolative ester cleavage in a low-chloride environment (LC-ESMS, NMR spectroscopy) and enzymatic cleavage by human carboxylesterase-2 (hCES-2) (LC-ESMS). The valproic acid ester derivatives are the first example of a metal-containing agent cleavable by the prodrug-converting enzyme. They show excellent chemical stability and reduced systemic toxicity. Preliminary results from screening in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549, NCI-H1435) suggest that the mechanism of the valproic esters may involve intracellular deesterification. PMID:25303639

Ding, Song; Pickard, Amanda J; Kucera, Gregory L; Bierbach, Ulrich



Antitumor Activity of Artemisinin and Its Derivatives: From a Well-Known Antimalarial Agent to a Potential Anticancer Drug  

PubMed Central

Improvement of quality of life and survival of cancer patients will be greatly enhanced by the development of highly effective drugs to selectively kill malignant cells. Artemisinin and its analogs are naturally occurring antimalarials which have shown potent anticancer activity. In primary cancer cultures and cell lines, their antitumor actions were by inhibiting cancer proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In xenograft models, exposure to artemisinins substantially reduces tumor volume and progression. However, the rationale for the use of artemisinins in anticancer therapy must be addressed by a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in their cytotoxic effects. The primary targets for artemisinin and the chemical base for its preferential effects on heterologous tumor cells need yet to be elucidated. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent advances and new development of this class of drugs as potential anticancer agents. PMID:22174561

Crespo-Ortiz, Maria P.; Wei, Ming Q.



Podophyllotoxin from suspension culture of Linum album.  


Callus and suspension cultures of Linum album as an Iranian species for synthesis of aryltetralin lactone were used. After cultivation period; we can isolate and characterize podophyllotoxin as glycosides compounds. Maximal product yield is 0.5% of the dry weight in dark grown cultures. PMID:18629714

Sedaghat, Soheila; Ezatzadeh, Elham; Alfermann, A Wilhelm



Detection and identification of Podophyllotoxin produced by cell cultures derived from podophyllum hexandrum royle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenylpropanoid derived lignan podophyllotoxin, occurring inPodophyllum species, is used as a starting compound for the chemical synthesis of the antitumour agents etoposide (VP-16-213) and teniposide (VM-26). At present, the availability of this lignan becomes increasingly limited. As an alternative source, cell cultures originating fromPodophyllum hexandrum Royle were initiated. Analysis of the cell extracts using different HPLC systems as well

Wim van Uden; Niesko Pras; Jan F. Visser; Theo M. Malingré



The anticancer agent prodigiosin is not a multidrug resistance protein substrate.  


The brilliant red pigments prodiginines are natural secondary metabolites that are produced by select species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These molecules have received significant attention due to their reported antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. In this study, a Serratia marcescens SER1 strain was isolated and verified using 16s rDNA. The prodigiosin was purified using silica chromatography and was analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The cell cytotoxic effects of the purified prodigiosin on multiple drug resistant cell lines that overexpress MDR1, BCRP, or MRP2 pumps were analyzed. Prodigiosin had nearly identical cytotoxic effects on the resistant cells in comparison to their parental lines. In agreement with the same prodigiosin cytotoxicity, FACS analysis of prodigiosin accumulation and efflux in MDR overexpressing cell lines also indicated that this pro-apoptotic agent operates independently of the presence of the MDR1, BCRP, or MRP transporter and may be a potential treatment for malignant cancer cells that overexpress multidrug resistance transporters. PMID:23373476

Elahian, Fatemeh; Moghimi, Bahareh; Dinmohammadi, Farideh; Ghamghami, Mahsa; Hamidi, Mehrdad; Mirzaei, Seyed Abbas



The Anticancer Agent Prodigiosin Is Not a Multidrug Resistance Protein Substrate  

PubMed Central

The brilliant red pigments prodiginines are natural secondary metabolites that are produced by select species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These molecules have received significant attention due to their reported antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. In this study, a Serratia marcescens SER1 strain was isolated and verified using 16s rDNA. The prodigiosin was purified using silica chromatography and was analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The cell cytotoxic effects of the purified prodigiosin on multiple drug resistant cell lines that overexpress MDR1, BCRP, or MRP2 pumps were analyzed. Prodigiosin had nearly identical cytotoxic effects on the resistant cells in comparison to their parental lines. In agreement with the same prodigiosin cytotoxicity, FACS analysis of prodigiosin accumulation and efflux in MDR overexpressing cell lines also indicated that this pro-apoptotic agent operates independently of the presence of the MDR1, BCRP, or MRP transporter and may be a potential treatment for malignant cancer cells that overexpress multidrug resistance transporters. PMID:23373476

Elahian, Fatemeh; Moghimi, Bahareh; Dinmohammadi, Farideh; Ghamghami, Mahsa; Hamidi, Mehrdad



[Phase I study of a new anticancer agent CAM--results of cooperative study].  


CAM is a derivative compound of mycophenolic acid produced by Penicillium brevicompactum, and is a new oral Purine antagonistic anticancer agent. The Phase I study was carried out cooperatively in ten hospitals. The results are as follows: The administration method was single administration and the starting dose was 200 mg/m2 (1n). The dose level was escalated according to varied Fibonacci formula. The number of total cases was thirty-one: three cases at 1n level, four at 2n, six at 3.3n, six at 7n and seven at 9n. Side effects were observed in five of thirteen cases over 7n dose levels, such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia and diarrhea. Leukopenia was developed in only one case at 7n dose level. Other side effects such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and disturbances of liver function and renal function were not observed. It was estimated from above results that a dose limiting factor of CAM is nausea and vomiting. A subtoxic dose was 7n (1,400 mg/m2) and a maximum tolerated dose was 9n (1,800 mg/m2) which corresponded to 2,200-3,000 mg as a single administration. PMID:7184385

Saito, T; Nakao, I; Wakui, A; Majima, H; Koyama, Y; Furue, H; Itoh, I; Ota, K; Taguchi, T; Masaoka, T; Kimura, I



Design, synthesis and ex vivo evaluation of colon-specific azo based prodrugs of anticancer agents.  


Colon-specific azo based prodrugs of anticancer agents like methotrexate (6), gemcitabine (7) and analogue of oxaliplatin (RTB-4) (8) were synthesized and characterized by modern analytical techniques. The prepared prodrugs were stable in acidic (pH 1.2) and basic (pH 7.4) buffers which showed their stability in upper GIT environment. Further, an assay was performed which demonstrated the presence of azoreductase enzyme in the rat fecal material, rat cecum content and other parts of intestinal content which reduce specifically the azo bond and release the drug. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was also performed which clearly indicated that these azo based prodrugs are active against human colorectal cancer cell lines (COLO 205, COLO 320 DM and HT-29). The release behavior of prodrugs (10, 11 and 15) was 60-70% after 24h incubation at 37°C. Therefore, the synthesized azo linked prodrugs of methotrexate, gemcitabine and RTB-4 are the potential candidates for colon targeted drug delivery system with minimal undesirable side effects. PMID:23968824

Sharma, Rajiv; Rawal, Ravindra K; Gaba, Tripti; Singla, Nishu; Malhotra, Manav; Matharoo, Sahil; Bhardwaj, T R



Parthenium hysterophorus: A Probable Source of Anticancer, Antioxidant and Anti-HIV Agents  

PubMed Central

The present work reports the anticancer, antioxidant, lipo-protective, and anti-HIV activities of phytoconstituents present in P. hysterophorus leaf. Dried leaf samples were sequentially extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents. Ethanol fraction showed noticeable cytotoxic activity (81–85%) in SRB assay against MCF-7 and THP-1 cancer cell lines at 100??g/ml concentration, while lower activity was observed with DU-145 cell line. The same extract exhibited 17–98% growth inhibition of HL-60 cancer cell lines in MTT assay, showing concentration dependent response. Ethanol extract caused 12% reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and 10% increment in sub G1 population of HL-60 cell lines. Several leaf fractions, namely, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous fractions exhibited considerable reducing capability at higher concentrations. Most of the extracts demonstrated appreciable (>75%) metal ion chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities at 200?µg/ml. All the extracts except aqueous fraction accounted for about 70–80% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate indicating protective response against membrane damage. About 40% inhibition of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was observed in hexane fraction in anti-HIV assay at 6.0?µg/ml concentration. The study showed that phytochemicals present in P. hysterophorus leaf have considerable potential as cytotoxic and antioxidant agents with low to moderate anti-HIV activity. PMID:24350290

Kumar, Shashank; Chashoo, Gousia; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.



Antigen shedding may improve efficiencies for delivery of antibody-based anticancer agents in solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Recombinant immunotoxins (RIT) are targeted anti-cancer agents that are composed of a targeting antibody fragment and a protein toxin fragment. SS1P is a RIT that targets mesothelin on the surface of cancer cells and is being evaluated in patients with mesothelioma. Mesothelin, like many other target antigens, is shed from the cell surface. However, whether antigen shedding positively or negatively affects the delivery of RIT remains unknown. In this study, we used experimental data with SS1P to develop a mathematical model that describes the relationship between tumor volume changes and the dose level of the administered RIT, while accounting for the potential effects of antigen shedding. We found that antigen shedding is a favorable biological process for targeted therapy of solid tumors. Shed antigens acted as a protective reservoir of RIT and buffered against the well-known binding site barrier effect, promoting a more uniform distribution of RIT in the tumor. In addition, our model reproduced the decrease in tumor size upon RIT treatment in animal experiments. Our findings therefore can be used to study the delivery efficacy of RITs and also antibody drug conjugates currently in clinical trials. PMID:22562466

Pak, Youngshang; Zhang, Yujian; Pastan, Ira; Lee, Byungkook



Ginsenosides as Anticancer Agents: In vitro and in vivo Activities, Structure–Activity Relationships, and Molecular Mechanisms of Action  

PubMed Central

Conventional chemotherapeutic agents are often toxic not only to tumor cells but also to normal cells, limiting their therapeutic use in the clinic. Novel natural product anticancer compounds present an attractive alternative to synthetic compounds, based on their favorable safety and efficacy profiles. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the anticancer potential of Panax ginseng, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. The anti-tumor efficacy of ginseng is attributed mainly to the presence of saponins, known as ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on how ginsenosides exert their anticancer effects by modulation of diverse signaling pathways, including regulation of cell proliferation mediators (CDKs and cyclins), growth factors (c-myc, EGFR, and vascular endothelial growth factor), tumor suppressors (p53 and p21), oncogenes (MDM2), cell death mediators (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, caspases, and death receptors), inflammatory response molecules (NF-?B and COX-2), and protein kinases (JNK, Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase). We also discuss the structure–activity relationship of various ginsenosides and their potentials in the treatment of various human cancers. In summary, recent advances in the discovery and evaluation of ginsenosides as cancer therapeutic agents support further pre-clinical and clinical development of these agents for the treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:22403544

Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen



[Timeline from discovery of 5-FU to development of an oral anticancer agent S-1 and its drug concept].  


C. Heidelberger et al left great gifts to us. Approximately 50 years have elapsed since their discovery of 5-FU in 1957 before eventually elucidating the mechanisms by which the drug exerts its pharmacological actions and provokes its adverse reactions. Namely, 5-FU is a typical antimetabolite with strong time dependency, and continuous venous infusion(CVI) is considered to be its optimal regimen. The following facts may be mentioned to explain why such a long period of time has been spent to reach this level of research: 1) 5-FU, when administered to the living individual, is mostly inactivated by hepatic catabolic enzymes without delay and is then excreted in the urine, thus making it difficult to precisely analyze the relationship of blood 5-FU concentrations with concentration persistence, anticancer activity, and adverse reactions; and 2) unlike other anticancer agents, an antimetabolite 5-FU separately generates metabolites which show anticancer activity and adverse reactions, as well as metabolites which show adverse reactions only. For the last 30 years, we paid attention especially to 5-FU among chemotherapeutic agents for cancer and have sought for a long-lasting therapeutic modality which maintains quality of life of the patient and patient compliance by considering the balancing between its effects and adverse reactions. Consequently, we concretized an innovative therapeutic drug, TS-1 (S-1). We have a long history of research before developing S-1, which is represented by a series of investigations consisting in the developments of Futrafur (FT)--an oral anticancer agent of a 5-FU derivative (prodrug)-in 1970 subsequent to the above discovery of 5-FU, of UFT(FT: Ura=1 : 4) in 1976, and of S-1 in 1999. To date, we took the initiative in the world to devise S-1, the first self-rescuing concept(SRC)-based anticancer agent with dual actions, i.e., enhancement of pharmacological actions of 5-FU and reduction of its adverse reactions, by making use of the biochemical and enzymological properties of 5-FU and by combining FT, which is gradually converted to 5-FU in the body, with a 5-FU's effect-enhancing substance and a 5-FU's adverse reaction-reducing substance. S-1 is an oral anticancer agent in capsule, in which the following 2 modulators for 5-FU are combined to FT: one is CDHP(5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine) which increases blood concentrations and enhances pharmacological actions of 5-FU by potently inhibiting the degradation of 5-FU; and another is Oxo(potassium oxonate) which is localized in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral administration and reduces GI toxicities provoked by 5-FU. S-1 is an oral anticancer agent in which these 3 components, FT, CDHP, and Oxo, are combined at a molar ratio of 1 : 0.4 : 1. Our conception to develop an SRC-based therapeutic drug and the preclinical concepts validated by numerous basic studies were demonstrated also in the clinical trials. In January 1999, S-1 was approved for the treatment of advanced and recurrent gastric cancers through the priority review system. From 2001 to 2005, S-1 was approved for the treatment of head and neck cancer, colon cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. S-1 has been applied to acquire its expanded indications for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and biliary tract cancer. We are confident that the combined regimen of S-1 with other anticancer agents and with other therapeutic modalities will contribute to the routine medical practice of cancer treatment in the future. PMID:16897967

Shirasaka, Tetsuhiko; Taguchi, Tetsuo



Immune mechanisms regulating pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEGylated liposomal anticancer agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology has made significant advances in drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer. Among various nanoparticle (NP) platforms, liposomes have been most widely used as a NP drug carrier for cancer therapy. High variation in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of liposome-based therapeutics has been reported. However, the interaction of liposome-based therapeutics with the immune system, specifically the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), and underlying molecular mechanisms for variable responses to liposomal drugs remain poorly understood. The objective of this dissertation was to elucidate immune mechanisms for the variable responses to PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD; DoxilRTM), a clinically relevant NP, in animal models and in patients. In vitro, in vivo and clinical systems were investigated to evaluate the effects of chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5), heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment, and genetic variations on PK and PD of PLD. Results showed that there was a significantly positive linear relationship between PLD exposure (AUC) and total amount of CCL2 and CCL5, most prevalent chemokines in plasma, in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Consistent with these findings, preclinical studies using mice bearing SKOV3 orthotopic ovarian cancer xenografts demonstrated that PLD induced the production and secretion of chemokines into plasma. In addition, in vitro studies using human monocytic THP-1 cells demonstrated that PLD altered monocyte migration towards CCL2 and CCL5. The PK and efficacy studies of PLD in murine models of breast cancer showed that heterogeneous tumor microenvironment was associated with significantly different tumor delivery and efficacy of PLD, but not small molecule doxorubicin between two breast tumor models. A candidate genetic locus that was associated with clearance of PLD in 23 inbred mouse strains contains a gene that encodes for engulfment adapter PTB domain containing 1 (Gulp1). By using integrated approaches, we were able to identify the immunological mechanisms at the molecular, tissue, and clinical levels that may contribute to inter-individual variability in PK and PD of PLD. This dissertation research has a potential to make an impact on development of future NP-based anticancer therapeutics as well as on clinical use of PLD (DoxilRTM) and other PEGylated liposomal anticancer agents.

Song, Gina


MDR1 (ABCB1) G1199A (Ser400Asn) polymorphism alters transepithelial permeability and sensitivity to anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Purpose P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by MDR1 (or ABCB1), is important in anticancer drug delivery and resistance. We evaluated alterations in P-gp-mediated transport of anticancer agents due to the MDR1 G1199A polymorphism. Methods Using stable recombinant epithelial cells expressing wild-type (MDR1wt) or G1199A (MDR11199A), anticancer drug sensitivity and transepithelial permeability were evaluated. Results The recombinant cells MDR1wt and MDR11199A displayed comparable doxorubicin resistance. However, MDR11199A cells displayed greater resistance to vinblastine, vincristine, paclitaxel, and VP-16 (11-, 2.9-, 1.9-, and 2.9-fold, respectively). Alterations in transepithelial permeability paralleled these changes. Efflux of doxorubicin was similar between MDR1wt- and MDR11199A-expressing cells, while P-gp-mediated transport was greater for vinblastine and vincristine in MDR11199A cells (2.9- and 2.0-fold, respectively). Conclusions The occurrence and magnitude of the MDR1 G1199A effect is drug specific. Overall, the MDR1 G1199A polymorphism may impact anticancer efficacy through modulation of drug distribution and delivery to target tumor cells. PMID:19123050

Woodahl, Erica L.; Crouthamel, Matthew H.; Bui, Tot; Shen, Danny D.



Blechnum Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent  

PubMed Central

Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn. Methods Five solvent fractions were obtained from the methanol extract of B. orientale through successive partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Total phenolic content was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals. Cytotoxic activity was tested against four cancer cell lines and a non-malignant cell using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Standard phytochemical screening tests for saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids were also conducted. Results The ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions possessed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 8.6-13.0 ?g/ml) and cytotoxic activity towards human colon cancer cell HT-29 (IC50 27.5-42.8 ?g/ml). The three extracts were also effective against all Gram-positive bacteria tested: Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Stapylococcus epidermidis(minimum inhibitory concentration MIC 15.6-250 ?g/ml; minimum bactericidal concentration MBC 15.6-250 ?g/ml). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed highest total phenolic content (675-804 mg gallic acid equivalent/g). Conclusions The results indicate that this fern is a potential candidate to be used as an antioxidant agent, for colon cancer therapy and for treatment of MRSA infections and other MSSA/Gram-positive bacterial infectious diseases. PMID:20429956



Anti-Cancer Agents that Inhibit Cell Motility, Angiogenesis, and Metastasis

The National Cancer Institute's Urologic Oncology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize anti-cancer drugs.


The prince and the pauper. A tale of anticancer targeted agents  

PubMed Central

Cancer rates are set to increase at an alarming rate, from 10 million new cases globally in 2000 to 15 million in 2020. Regarding the pharmacological treatment of cancer, we currently are in the interphase of two treatment eras. The so-called pregenomic therapy which names the traditional cancer drugs, mainly cytotoxic drug types, and post-genomic era-type drugs referring to rationally-based designed. Although there are successful examples of this newer drug discovery approach, most target-specific agents only provide small gains in symptom control and/or survival, whereas others have consistently failed in the clinical testing. There is however, a characteristic shared by these agents: -their high cost-. This is expected as drug discovery and development is generally carried out within the commercial rather than the academic realm. Given the extraordinarily high therapeutic drug discovery-associated costs and risks, it is highly unlikely that any single public-sector research group will see a novel chemical "probe" become a "drug". An alternative drug development strategy is the exploitation of established drugs that have already been approved for treatment of non-cancerous diseases and whose cancer target has already been discovered. This strategy is also denominated drug repositioning, drug repurposing, or indication switch. Although traditionally development of these drugs was unlikely to be pursued by Big Pharma due to their limited commercial value, biopharmaceutical companies attempting to increase productivity at present are pursuing drug repositioning. More and more companies are scanning the existing pharmacopoeia for repositioning candidates, and the number of repositioning success stories is increasing. Here we provide noteworthy examples of known drugs whose potential anticancer activities have been highlighted, to encourage further research on these known drugs as a means to foster their translation into clinical trials utilizing the more limited public-sector resources. If these drug types eventually result in being effective, it follows that they could be much more affordable for patients with cancer; therefore, their contribution in terms of reducing cancer mortality at the global level would be greater. PMID:18947424

Dueñas-González, Alfonso; García-López, Patricia; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Medina-Franco, Jose Luis; González-Fierro, Aurora; Candelaria, Myrna



Organometallic Palladium Complexes with a Water-Soluble Iminophosphorane Ligand as Potential Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

The synthesis and characterization of a new water-soluble iminophosphorane ligand TPA=N-C(O)-2BrC6H4 (C,N-IM; TPA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) 1 is reported. Oxidative addition of 1 to Pd2(dba)3 affords the orthopalladated dimer [Pd(?-Br){C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}]2 (2) as a mixture of cis and trans isomers (1:1 molar ratio) where the iminophosphorane moeity behaves as a C,N-pincer ligand. By addition of different neutral or monoanionic ligands to 2, the bridging bromide can be cleaved and a variety of hydrophilic or water-soluble mononuclear organometallic palladium(II) complexes of the type [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(L-L)] (L-L = acac (3); S2CNMe2 (4); 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid disodium salt C12H6N2(C6H4SO3Na)2 (5)); [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(L)Br] (L = P(mC6H4SO3Na)3 (6); P(3-Pyridyl)3 (7)) and, [Pd(C6H4(C(O)N=TPA)-2}(TPA)2Br] (8) are obtained as single isomers. All new complexes were tested as potential anticancer agents and their cytotoxicity properties were evaluated in vitro against human Jurkat-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, normal T-lymphocytes (PBMC) and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. Compounds [Pd(?-Br){C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}]2 (2) and [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(acac)] 3 (which has been crystallographically characterized) display the higher cytotoxicity against the above mentioned cancer cell lines while being less toxic to normal T-lymphocytes (peripheral blood mononuclear cells: PBMC). In addition, 3 is very toxic to cisplatin resistant Jurkat shBak indicating a cell death pathway that may be different to that of cisplatin. The interaction of 2 and 3 with plasmid (pBR322) DNA is much weaker than that of cisplatin pointing to an alternative biomolecular target for these cytotoxic compounds. All the compounds show an interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) faster than that of cisplatin. PMID:23066172

Carreira, Monica; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Sanaú, Mercedes; Marzo, Isabel; Contel, María



Novel analogs of D-e-MAPP and B13. Part 1: synthesis and evaluation as potential anticancer agents.  


A series of novel isosteric analogs of the ceramidase inhibitors, (1S,2R)-N-myristoylamino-phenylpropanol-1 (d-e-MAPP) and (1R,2R)-N-myristoylamino-4'-nitro-phenylpropandiol-1,3 (B13), with modified targeting and physicochemical properties were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential anticancer agents. When MCF7 cells were treated with the analogs, results indicated that the new analogs were of equal or greater potency compared to the parent compounds. Their activity was predominantly defined by the nature of the modification of the N-acyl hydrophobic interfaces: N-acyl analogs (class A), urea analogs (class B), N-alkyl analogs (class C, lysosomotropic agents), and omega-cationic-N-acyl analogs (class D, mitochondriotropic agents). The most potent compounds belonged to either class D, the aromatic ceramidoids, or to class C, the aromatic N-alkylaminoalcohols. Representative analogs selected from this study were also evaluated by the National Cancer Institute In Vitro Anticancer Drug Discovery Screen. Again, results showed a similar class-dependent activity. In general, the active analogs were non-selectively broad spectrum and had promising activity against all cancer cell lines. However, some active analogs of the d-e-MAPP family were selective against different types of cancer. Compounds LCL85, LCL120, LCL385, LCL284, and LCL204 were identified to be promising lead compounds for therapeutic development. PMID:17869115

Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Mayroo, Nalini; Bai, AiPing; Bielawski, Jacek; Liu, Xiang; Norris, James S; Hannun, Yusuf A; Bielawska, Alicja



Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)—mebendazole as an anti-cancer agent  

PubMed Central

Mebendazole, a well-known anti-helminthic drug in wide clinical use, has anti-cancer properties that have been elucidated in a broad range of pre-clinical studies across a number of different cancer types. Significantly, there are also two case reports of anti-cancer activity in humans. The data are summarised and discussed in relation to suggested mechanisms of action. Based on the evidence presented, it is proposed that mebendazole would synergise with a range of other drugs, including existing chemotherapeutics, and that further exploration of the potential of mebendazole as an anti-cancer therapeutic is warranted. A number of possible combinations with other drugs are discussed in the Appendix. PMID:25075217

Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P



Discovery of 4-Substituted Methoxybenzoyl-Aryl-Thiazole as Novel Anticancer Agents: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

A series of 4-substituted methoxylbenzoyl-aryl-thiazoles (SMART) have been discovered and synthesized as a result of structural modifications of the lead compound 2-arylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid amides (ATCAA). The antiproliferative activity of the SMART agents against melanoma and prostate cancer cells was improved from ?M to low nM range compared with ATCAA series. The structure-activity relationship was discussed from modifications of “A”, “B” “C” rings and the linker. Preliminary mechanism of action studies indicated that these compounds exert their anticancer activity through inhibition of tubulin polymerization. PMID:19243174

Lu, Yan; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhao; Ross, Charles R.; Chen, Jianjun; Dalton, James; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane.D.



Synthesis and biological evaluation of 9?- and 9?-hydroxyamino-parthenolides as novel anticancer agents.  


A series of 9?-hydroxyamino-parthenolides 3-10, 9?-hydroxyamino-parthenolides 11-13 and 9?-hydroxy-1?,10?-epoxyamino-parthenolides 15-19 were efficiently synthesized starting from 9?-hydroxyparthenolide 1 and 9?-hydroxyparthenolide 2, which were isolated from Anvillea radiata. Compounds 1-13 and 15-19 were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity by the MTT colorimetric assay against one murine and six human cancer cell lines. This work provides new details about the structural requisites for anticancer activity. PMID:24998377

Moumou, Mohamed; El Bouakher, Abderrahman; Allouchi, Hassan; El Hakmaoui, Ahmed; Benharref, Ahmed; Mathieu, Véronique; Guillaumet, Gérald; Akssira, Mohamed



Novel lycorine derivatives as anticancer agents: synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation.  


Lycorine, which is the most abundant alkaloid isolated from the Amaryllidaceae family of plants, reportedly exhibits promising anticancer activities. Herein, a series of novel lycorine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activities against seven different cancer cell lines, including A549, HCT116, SK-OV-3, NCI-H460, K562, MCF-7 and HL-60. The results indicated that compounds bearing diverse amine substituents at the C-2 position demonstrated good anticancer activities. The selectivity towards different cancer cell lines of the synthesized derivatives is discussed. PMID:24566315

Wang, Peng; Yuan, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Xue; Li, Yun-Ping; Shang, Lu-Qing; Yin, Zheng



Marine natural products and related compounds as anticancer agents: an overview of their clinical status.  


Marine ecosystems constitute a huge reservoir of biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently during the last past few decades, several marine-derived molecules have been approved for anticancer treatment or are under clinical trials. This review reports the present state of the art of the sixteen molecules approved or currently on the clinical pipeline for anticancer chemotherapy. The molecules are classified according to their current status in the phase (approved / phase IV / phase III / phase II / phase I) and data are updated to April 2012. PMID:23140351

Petit, Karina; Biard, Jean-François



Methylselenocysteine - a Promising Antiangiogenic Agent for Overcoming Drug Delivery Barriers in Solid Malignancies for Therapeutic Synergy with Anticancer Drugs  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite progress, chemotherapeutic response in solid malignancies has remained limited. While initial results of the use of antiangiogenic agents in combination chemotherapy indicated an enhanced therapeutic response, recent data indicates that the surviving cancer is not only able to surmount therapy, but is actually able to adapt a more aggressive metastatic phenotype. Thus, selecting an antiangiogenic agent that is less likely to lead to tumor resurgence is a key to future therapeutic success of antiangiogenic agents, in a combinatorial setting. Areas covered Against the broad spectrum of currently used antiangiogenic agents in the clinic, the putative benefits of the use of organo selenium (Se) compounds, such as methylselenocysteine (MSC), are discussed in this reiew. Expert opinion MSC, being part of the mammalian physiology, is a well tolerated, versatile and economical antiangiogenic agent. It down regulates multiple key upstream tumor survival markers, and enhances tumor drug delivery, at a given systemic dose of an anticancer agent, while protecting normal tissue from cytotoxic adverse effects. Further clinical trials, especially in poorly differentiated cancers, are warranted. PMID:21473705

Bhattacharya, Arup



Bromelain's activity and potential as an anti-cancer agent: Current evidence and perspectives.  


The medicinal qualities of pineapple are recognized in many traditions in South America, China and Southeast Asia. These qualities are attributed to bromelain, a 95%-mixture of proteases. Medicinal qualities of bromelain include anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, fibrinolytic and anti-cancer functions. Existing evidence derived from clinical observations as well as from mouse- and cell-based models suggests that bromelain acts systemically, affecting multiple cellular and molecular targets. In recent years, studies have shown that bromelain has the capacity to modulate key pathways that support malignancy. It is now possible to suggest that the anti-cancer activity of bromelain consists in the direct impact on cancer cells and their micro-environment, as well as in the modulation of immune, inflammatory and haemostatic systems. This review will summarize existing data relevant to bromelain's anti-cancer activity and will suggest mechanisms which account for bromelain's effect, in the light of research involving non-cancer models. The review will also identify specific new research questions that will need to be addressed in order for a full assessment of bromelain-based anti-cancer therapy. PMID:19700238

Chobotova, Katya; Vernallis, Ann B; Majid, Fadzilah Adibah Abdul



Amide coupling reaction for the synthesis of bispyridine-based ligands and their complexation to platinum as dinuclear anticancer agents.  


Amide coupling reactions can be used to synthesize bispyridine-based ligands for use as bridging linkers in multinuclear platinum anticancer drugs. Isonicotinic acid, or its derivatives, are coupled to variable length diaminoalkane chains under an inert atmosphere in anhydrous DMF or DMSO with the use of a weak base, triethylamine, and a coupling agent, 1-propylphosphonic anhydride. The products precipitate from solution upon formation or can be precipitated by the addition of water. If desired, the ligands can be further purified by recrystallization from hot water. Dinuclear platinum complex synthesis using the bispyridine ligands is done in hot water using transplatin. The most informative of the chemical characterization techniques to determine the structure and gross purity of both the bispyridine ligands and the final platinum complexes is (1)H NMR with particular analysis of the aromatic region of the spectra (7-9 ppm). The platinum complexes have potential application as anticancer agents and the synthesis method can be modified to produce trinuclear and other multinuclear complexes with different hydrogen bonding functionality in the bridging ligand. PMID:24893964

Apps, Michael G; Johnson, Ben W; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Brown, Sarah D; Wheate, Nial J



Thiazolidine-2,4-diones as multi-targeted scaffold in medicinal chemistry: Potential anticancer agents.  


A variety of substituents on the thiazolidine-2,4-dione(TZD) nucleus have provided a wide spectrum of biological activities by the using of different mechanism on various target sites. PPAR? ligands have recently been demonstrated to affect cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of different cell types. Currently, some of the TZDs are designed for the treatment of human cancers expressing high levels of PPAR? because it is assumed that activation of PPAR? mediates their anticancer activity. Another site for TZDs is survival signaling pathways under growth factor loops have been implicated in cancer development, progression, and metastasis. The Raf/MEK/ERK, Wnt and PI3K/Akt signalling cascades are the most commonly up-regulated in human cancers. In the present review, various derivatives of thiazolidine-2,4-diones its SAR and different signaling pathways involved to produce anticancer activity been highlighted. PMID:25440883

Asati, Vivek; Mahapatra, Debarshi Kar; Bharti, Sanjay K



Characterization of human adenovirus serotypes 5, 6, 11, and 35 as anticancer agents  

SciTech Connect

Human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) has been the most popular platform for the development of oncolytic Ads. Alternative Ad serotypes with low seroprevalence might allow for improved anticancer efficacy in Ad5-immune patients. We studied the safety and efficacy of rare serotypes Ad6, Ad11 and Ad35. In vitro cytotoxicity of the Ads correlated with expression of CAR and CD46 in most but not all cell lines. Among CAR-binding viruses, Ad5 was often more active than Ad6, among CD46-binding viruses Ad35 was generally more cytotoxic than Ad11 in cell culture studies. Ad5, Ad6, and Ad11 demonstrated similar anticancer activity in vivo, whereas Ad35 was not efficacious. Hepatotoxicity developed only in Ad5-injected mice. Predosing with Ad11 and Ad35 did not increase infection of hepatocytes with Ad5-based vector demonstrating different interaction of these Ads with Kupffer cells. Data obtained in this study suggest developing Ad6 and Ad11 as alternative Ads for anticancer treatment.

Shashkova, Elena V.; May, Shannon M. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Barry, Michael A., E-mail: mab@mayo.ed [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Translational Immunovirology Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Cancer Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States)



Structure-Activity Relationship for Fe(III)-Salen-Like Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R2train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q2LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R.; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R.; Matin, Maryam M.; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan



An efficient in vitro system for somatic embryogenesis and podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.  


Podophyllum hexandrum Royle known as Indian mayapple is an important medicinal plant found only in higher altitudes (2,700 to 4,200 m) of the Himalayas. The highly valued anticancer drug Podophyllotoxin is obtained from the roots of this plant. Due to over exploitation, this endemic plant species is on the verge of extinction. In vitro culture for efficient regeneration and the production of podophyllotoxin is an important research priority for this plant. Hence, in the present study, an efficient plant regeneration system for mass multiplication through somatic embryogenesis was developed. We have screened P. hexandrum seeds collected from three different regions in the Himalayas to find their regenerative potentials. These variants showed variation in germination percentage as well as somatic embryogenic frequency. The seeds collected from the Milam area of Pithoragarh district showed better germination response (99.3%) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with Gibberellic acid (GA3 [5 mg/l]) and higher direct somatic embryogenic frequency (89.6%). Maximum production of embryogenic callus (1.2 g fresh weight [FW]) was obtained when cotyledons containing the direct somatic embryo clusters were cultured in MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D [1.5 mg/l]) after 4 week of culture in complete darkness. In the present investigation, somatic embryogenesis was accomplished either by direct organogenesis or callus mediated pathways. The latter method resulted in a higher frequency of somatic embryo induction in hormone-free MS medium yielding 47.7 embryos/50 mg of embryogenic callus and subsequent germination in MS medium supplemented with GA3 (5 mg/l). Seventy-nine percent of embryos attained complete maturity and germinated into normal plants with well-developed roots. Systematic histological analysis revealed the origin of somatic embryo and their ontogenesis. The higher level of podophyllotoxin (1.8 mg/g dry weight [DW]) was recorded in germinated somatic embryos when compared to field grown plants. The present system can be widely used for mass propagation, transgenic recovery, and podophyllotoxin production for commercial utilization. PMID:24633328

Rajesh, Manoharan; Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Jeyaraj, Murugaraj; Chackravarthy, Rajan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Selvaraj, N; Ganapathi, Andy



Synthesis of highly functionalized 2,4-diaminoquinazolines as anticancer and anti-HIV agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel polyhalo 2,4-diaminoquinazolines 3a–3d were prepared by reacting polyhaloisophthalonitriles with guanidine carbonate under solvent-free conditions and in the absence of a catalyst with good yields (74–95%). A series of highly functionalized 2,4-diaminoquinazolines 4–5 were then synthesized based on 3a–3c. The anticancer activities of compounds 3–5 were evaluated in vitro against human cell lines such as Skov-3, HL-60, A431, A549, and

Sheng-Jiao Yan; Han Zheng; Chao Huang; Yu-Yun Yan; Jun Lin



[A case of leiomyosarcoma of the scrotum: chemotherapy with anti-cancer agents was effective for the lung metastasis].  


A 59-year-old male was referred to our hospital with the chief complaint of a painless scrotal mass. A 6 X 4.5 X 4 cm elastic hard mass with irregular surface was palpable in the right scrotum. We diagnosed a tumor in the right scrotum and resected the tumor surgically. Histopathologically, the tumor was liposarcoma of the right scrotum. Lung tumors were found 20 months after resection of the origin. Systemic chemotherapy with new anti-cancer agents (Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine) was performed. The main tumor was reduced to 56% in its diameter after 6 courses of chemotherapy. Exclusion of the right middle and lower pulmonary lobe was performed. The final pathological diagnosis of the lung tumor was metastatic liposarcoma. PMID:17040063

Kitsukawa, Shin-ichi; Samejimai, Takeshi; Noda, Kenjiro; Ito, Takaaki; Furukawa, Kinya; Saito, Makoto



Curr. Med. Chem. -Anti-Cancer Agents, 2005, 5, 327-338 327 1568-0118/05 $50.00+.00 2005 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.  

E-print Network

Curr. Med. Chem. - Anti-Cancer Agents, 2005, 5, 327-338 327 1568-0118/05 $50.00+.00 © 2005 Bentham therapies. Key Words: Neomycin, aminoglycosides, neomycin-BQQ, Watson-Hoogsteen groove, groove binder solutions, or in the presence of divalent cations [9]. H-DNA has been shown to exist in E. Coli

Stuart, Steven J.


RasGRPs are targets of the anti-cancer agent ingenol-3-angelate.  


Ingenol-3-angelate (I3A) is a non-tumor promoting phorbol ester-like compound identified in the sap of Euphoria peplus. Similar to tumor promoting phorbol esters, I3A is a diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue that binds with high affinity to the C1 domains of PKCs, recruits PKCs to cellular membranes and promotes enzyme activation. Numerous anti-cancer activities have been attributed to I3A and ascribed to I3A's effects on PKCs. We show here that I3A also binds to and activates members of the RasGRP family of Ras activators leading to robust elevation of Ras-GTP and engagement of the Raf-Mek-Erk kinase cascade. In response to I3A, recombinant proteins consisting of GFP fused separately to full-length RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 were rapidly recruited to cell membranes, consistent with direct binding of the compound to RasGRP's C1 domain. In the case of RasGRP3, IA3 treatment led to positive regulatory phosphorylation on T133 and activation of the candidate regulatory kinase PKC?. I3A treatment of select B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines resulted in quantitative and qualitative changes in Bcl-2 family member proteins and induction of apoptosis, as previously demonstrated with the DAG analogue bryostatin 1 and its synthetic analogue pico. Our results offer further insights into the anticancer properties of I3A, support the idea that RasGRPs represent potential cancer therapeutic targets along with PKC, and expand the known range of ligands for RasGRP regulation. PMID:23991094

Song, Xiaohua; Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Sun, Lucy; Dower, Nancy A; Kedei, Noemi; Yang, Jing; Kelsey, Jessica S; Lewin, Nancy E; Esch, Tim E; Blumberg, Peter M; Stone, James C



Lappaol F, a novel anticancer agent isolated from plant arctium Lappa L.  


In an effort to search for new cancer-fighting therapeutics, we identified a novel anticancer constituent, Lappaol F, from plant Arctium Lappa L. Lappaol F suppressed cancer cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner in human cancer cell lines of various tissue types. We found that Lappaol F induced G(1) and G(2) cell-cycle arrest, which was associated with strong induction of p21 and p27 and reduction of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Depletion of p21 via genetic knockout or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approaches significantly abrogated Lappaol F-mediated G(2) arrest and CDK1 and cyclin B1 suppression. These results suggest that p21 seems to play a crucial role in Lappaol F-mediated regulation of CDK1 and cyclin B1 and G(2) arrest. Lappaol F-mediated p21 induction was found to occur at the mRNA level and involved p21 promoter activation. Lappaol F was also found to induce cell death in several cancer cell lines and to activate caspases. In contrast with its strong growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells, Lappaol F had minimal cytotoxic effects on nontumorigenic epithelial cells tested. Importantly, our data also demonstrate that Lappaol F exhibited strong growth inhibition of xenograft tumors in nude mice. Lappaol F was well tolerated in treated animals without significant toxicity. Taken together, our results, for the first time, demonstrate that Lappaol F exhibits antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo and has strong potential to be developed as an anticancer therapeutic. PMID:24222662

Sun, Qing; Liu, Kanglun; Shen, Xiaoling; Jin, Weixin; Jiang, Lingyan; Saeed Sheikh, M; Hu, Yingjie; Huang, Ying



Mechanistic investigation of anticancer agents that damage DNA and interact with the estrogen receptor  

E-print Network

One of the primary goals of cancer chemotherapy is the design of antitumor agents that achieve selective targeting of tumor cells while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. We have synthesized a series of DNA damaging ...

Gopal, Sreeja



Bcl-2 attenuates anticancer agents-induced apoptosis by sustained activation of Akt/protein kinase B in U937 cells.  


Aberrant overexpression of antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family contributes to resistance to anticancer therapeutic drugs. Thus, this protein represent attractive target for novel anticancer agents. In the present study, we determined the effect of the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 on caspase-3 activation, PLC-gamma1 degradation and Akt activation during the various anticancer agents-induced apoptosis. Treatment with chrysin for 12 h produced morphological features of apoptosis in U937 cells, which was associated with caspase-3 activation and PLC-gamma1 degradation. Induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by down-regulation of XIAP and inactivation of Akt. Chrysin-induced caspase-3 activation, PLC-gamma1 degradation and apoptosis were significantly attenuated in Bcl-2 overexpressing U937/Bcl-2 cells. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 appeared to inhibit ceramide-, and Akt specific inhibitor (SH-6)-induced apoptosis by sustained Akt activation. Thus, our findings imply that some of the biological functions of Bcl-2 may be attributed to their ability to inhibit anticancer agents-induced apoptosis through the sustained Akt activation. PMID:16215670

Woo, K J; Yoo, Y H; Park, J-W; Kwon, T K



Protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin on podophyllotoxin toxicity in vitro and in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Podophyllotoxin (POD) is a naturally occurring lignan with pronounced antineoplastic and antiviral properties. POD binds to tubulin and prevents the formation of mitotic spindle. Although cases of overdose or accidental ingestion are quite often, no specific therapy is currently available to treat the POD intoxication. In the current investigation, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin (CUR) on podophyllotoxin toxicity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that CUR could protect POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering the G2/M arrest and decrease the changes of membrane potential and microtubule structure in Vero cells. A significant decrease of mortality rates was observed in Swiss mice treated by intragastrical administration of POD + CUR as compared with POD alone. The POD + CUR group also exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde level but elevated superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels as compared to the POD group. Histological examination of the liver and kidney demonstrated less morphological changes in the treatment of POD + CUR as compared with POD alone. The mechanism of the protective effects might be due to the competitive binding of CUR with POD in the same colchicines binding site as revealed by the tubulin polymerization assay and the molecular docking analysis, and the antioxidant activity against the oxidative stress induced by POD. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo data indicated the promising role of CUR as a protective agent against the POD poisoning. Highlights: ? A potential antidote to treat the podophyllotoxin (POD) intoxication is found. ? Curcumin showed promising effects against POD poisoning in vitro and in vivo. ? The mechanisms lie in the antioxidant activity and competitive binding with tubulin.

Li, Juan; Dai, Cai-Xia; Sun, Hua [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jin, Lu [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); State Key Laboratory of New Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Guo, Chong-Yi; Cao, Wei; Wu, Jie; Tian, Hai-Yan [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Luo, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of New Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of New Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Ye, Wen-Cai [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, Ren-Wang, E-mail: [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)



miR-137 restoration sensitizes multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADM cells to anticancer agents by targeting YB-1.  


Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle to successful treatment in breast cancer patients. The aims of this study were to investigate whether miR-137 was involved in the regulation of MDR, and to explore the mechanism of miR-137 on the sensitivity of MCF-7/ADM cells. miR-137 was downregulated in MCF-7/ADM cells, and its expression was found to inversely correlate with Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) levels in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, YB-1 was confirmed as a target of miR-137 by luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis. Moreover, elevated expression of miR-137 reduced the protein expression levels of YB-1 and P-gp, mimicking the effect of YB-1 knockdown in the sensitivity of MCF-7/ADM cells to anticancer agents, whereas restoration of YB-1 diminished this effect. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that miR-137 was involved in MDR in cancer through modulation of P-gp by targeting YB-1, suggesting that miR-137 might be a potential target for preventing and reversing MDR in tumor cells. PMID:23178914

Zhu, Xiaolan; Li, Yuefeng; Shen, Huiling; Li, Hao; Long, Lulu; Hui, Lulu; Xu, Wenlin



Activation of apoptosis by caspase-3-dependent specific RelB cleavage in anticancer agent-treated cancer cells: Involvement of positive feedback mechanism.  


DTCM-glutarimide (DTCM-G) is a newly found anti-inflammatory agent. In the course of experiments with lymphoma cells, we found that DTCM-G induced specific RelB cleavage. Anticancer agent vinblastine also induced the specific RelB cleavage in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. The site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that the Asp205 site in RelB was specifically cleaved possibly by caspase-3 in vinblastine-treated HT1080 cells. Moreover, the cells stably overexpressing RelB Asp205Ala were resistant to vinblastine-induced apoptosis. Thus, the specific Asp205 cleavage of RelB by caspase-3 would be involved in the apoptosis induction by anticancer agents, which would provide the positive feedback mechanism. PMID:25511695

Kuboki, Mizuki; Ito, Ayumi; Simizu, Siro; Umezawa, Kazuo



The potential of acridine carboxamide Pt complexes as anti-cancer agents : a review.  


There has been a concerted attempt to produce more effective anti-tumour agents based on the widely-used cancer chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. One interesting approach is to attach a DNA-affinic chemical group to the cisplatin molecule. This could result in a more efficient binding to the biological target, DNA, and produce a different spectrum of Pt-DNA crosslinks that may permit an agent to overcome cisplatin resistance. Acridine Pt complexes, have activity against cisplatin-resistant cells, have a differing DNA sequence selectivity compared to cisplatin and hence, are strong candidates for development as anti-tumour agents. The properties of acridine Pt analogues, especially 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes, are reviewed here and the sequence specific interaction of acridine carboxamide Pt complexes with DNA is explored. The 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes have a reduced reaction at runs of consecutive guanine nucleotides compared with cisplatin, and form adducts at novel DNA sequences, especially 5'-CGA. The activity of the 9-aminoacridine Pt complexes against cisplatin-resistant cell lines is due to their ability to escape the DNA repair capacity of the cells, through the production of variant DNA adducts. The future prospects for development of acridine carboxamide Pt complexes as cancer chemotherapeutic agents are discussed. PMID:24102313

Murray, Vincent; Chen, John K; Galea, Anne M



Novel benzenesulfonylureas containing thiophenylpyrazoline moiety as potential antidiabetic and anticancer agents.  


In the present study a library of twenty six benzenesulfonylureas containing thiophenylpyrazoline moiety has been synthesized. All the compounds were docked against PPAR-? target. Most of the compounds displayed higher dock score than standard drugs, glibenclamide and rosiglitazone. All the synthesized compounds were primarily evaluated for their antidiabetic effect by oral glucose tolerance test. Further assessment of antidiabetic potential of sixteen active compounds was then done on STZ induced diabetic model. The results of in vivo activity by both the methods were found to be consistent with each other as well as with docking studies. Change in body weight of STZ induced animals post treatment was also assessed at the end of study. In vitro PPAR-? transactivation assay was performed on active compounds in order to validate docking results and the most active compound 3 k was also shown to elevate gene expression of PPAR-?. Furthermore, the compounds were screened by National Cancer Institute, Bethesda for anticancer effect and two compounds 3h and 3 i were selected at one dose level since they exhibited sensitivity towards tumor cell lines (mainly melanoma). PMID:25442322

Kharbanda, Chetna; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Javed, Kalim; Shafi, Syed; Ali, Yakub; Alam, Perwez; Pasha, M A Q; Dhulap, Abhijeet; Bano, Sameena; Nazreen, Syed; Haider, Saqlain



Characterization of in vitro and in vivo metabolic pathways of the investigational anticancer agent, 2-methoxyestradiol.  


The aim of this study was to characterize the metabolic pathways of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2), an investigational anticancer drug. In vitro metabolism studies were performed by incubation of 2ME2 with human liver microsomes under various conditions and metabolite identification was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In microsomal mixtures, four major oxidative metabolites and two glucuronic acid conjugates were observed originating from 2ME2. Human liver S9 protein fraction was used to screen for in vitro sulfation but no prominent conjugates were observed. The total hepatic clearance as estimated using the well-stirred model was approximately 712 mL/min. In vivo metabolism, assessed using 24-h collections of urine from cancer patients treated with 2ME2 revealed that <0.01% of the total administered dose of 2ME2 is excreted unchanged in urine and about 1% excreted as glucuronides. Collectively, this suggests that glucuronidation and subsequent urinary excretion are elimination pathways for 2ME2. PMID:17252610

Lakhani, Nehal J; Sparreboom, Alex; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D; Venitz, Jürgen; Dahut, William L; Figg, William D



Iron(iii)-binding of the anticancer agents doxorubicin and vosaroxin.  


The Fe(iii)-binding constant of vosaroxin, an anticancer quinolone derivative, has been determined spectrophotometrically and compared with the analogous Fe(iii) complex formed with doxorubicin. The in vivo metabolic stability and iron coordination properties of the quinolones compared to the anthracylines may provide significant benefit to cardiovascular safety. The mechanism of action of both molecules target the topoisomerase II enzyme. Both doxorubicin (Hdox, log??FeL3 = 33.41, pM = 17.0) and vosaroxin (Hvox, log??FeL3 = 33.80(3), pM = 15.9) bind iron(iii) with comparable strength; at physiological pH however, [Fe(vox)3] is the predominant species in contrast to a mixture of species observed for the Fe:dox system. Iron(iii) nitrate and gallium(iii) nitrate at a 1?:?3 ratio with vosaroxin formed stable tris(vosaroxacino)-iron(iii) and tris(vosaroxino)gallium(iii) complexes that were isolated and characterized. Their redox behavior was studied by CV, and their stereochemistry was further explored in temperature dependent (1)H NMR studies. The molecular pharmacology of their interaction with iron(iii) may be one possible differentiation in the safety profile of quinolones compared to anthracyclines in relation to cardiotoxicity. PMID:25534904

Mjos, Katja Dralle; Cawthray, Jacqueline F; Jamieson, Gene; Fox, Judith A; Orvig, Chris



Synthesis of novel 1,2,4-triazoles, triazolothiadiazines and triazolothiadiazoles as potential anticancer agents.  


A series of new N-substituted-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles (3a,b and 7a-d), triazolo[1,3,4]thiadiazines (5a,b) and triazolo[1,3,4]thiadiazoles (4a-d, 6 and 8a-d) have been synthesized starting from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds was confirmed on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analyses. All the compounds were screened for their in vitro anticancer activity against 6 human cancer cell lines and normal fibroblasts. Seven of the tested compounds (3a,b, 4c, 5a and 8b-d) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against most cell lines. Among these derivatives compound 4c exhibited equivalent cytotoxic effect to the standard CHS 828 against gastric cancer cell line (IC50 = 25 nM). Normal fibroblast cells (WI38) were affected to a much lesser extent (IC50 > 10,000 nM). PMID:25147148

Kamel, Mona M; Megally Abdo, Nadia Y



FPDHP, a novel anticancer agent, induces cell detachment and caspase-dependent apoptosis in Caki cells.  


The inhibition of topoisomerase can suppress the growth of cancer cells and induce apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer effects and mechanisms of action of a novel topoisomerase inhibitor, 4-(furan-2-yl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-1,10-phenanthroline (FPDHP). FPDHP suppressed the growth of Caki, A549, HT29 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in the Caki cells. In particular, FPDHP also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and the downregulation of the protein expression levels of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) and the phosphorylation of Akt in Caki cells. Notably, the overexpression of cFLIP, but not that of Akt, in part, blocked the FPDHP-mediated apoptosis in Caki cells. In addition, FPDHP was further shown to induce the caspase-independent detachment of Caki cells from the culture dish; higher populations of apoptotic cells were observed in the detached cells than in the attached cells. To the best of our knoweledge, these results collectively demonstrate for the first time that FPDHP has a killing effect on Caki cells, which is mediated through both caspase-dependent apoptosis and caspase-independent cell detachment. PMID:25092524

Park, Jun Soo; Kim, Wan Tae; Kim, Shin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Lee, Eung-Seok; Park, Jong Wook



A new paradigm for the development of anticancer agents from natural products  

PubMed Central

A novel pharmacology paradigm has been developed which quickly and efficiently moves prospective anticancer drugs from the discovery phase through pharmacology testing and into therapeutic trial assessment. Following discovery, the drug is first assessed in a clonogenic assay which determines the cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of the drug at 3 different exposure durations: 2h, 24h and continuous (168 h). Second, pharmacokinetic information is obtained in both plasma and tumor for the drug administered at the maximum tolerated dose given intravenously. The first study defines the time-concentration profile required to obtain a specific cell survival for the tumor cells; the second study determines the concentration-time profile that can be obtained in both plasma and tumor at the maximum tolerated dose of the drug. The integration of this information determines whether a successful therapeutic trial is possible. Only when a drug shows therapeutic efficacy is a proteomics-based mechanism of action study initiated. Two drugs have been assessed in this paradigm: salicortin and fascaplysin A. PMID:16528970

Subramanian, Balanehru; Nakeff, Alexander; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Valeriote, Fred



KDM4 histone demethylase inhibitors for anti-cancer agents: a patent review.  


Introduction: As epigenetic modulators, histone demethylases can be a therapeutic target in the area of oncology. KDM4 subfamily proteins are histone demethylases with a Jumonji domain. The subfamily consists of five functional members: KDM4A, KDM4B, KDM4C, KDM4D, and KDM4E. The role of the KDM4 subfamily proteins is reported in oncogenesis, and their overexpression in various tumor types is observed. Small molecule inhibitors for KDM4 proteins have great potential in anti-cancer therapy. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the patents for KDM4 inhibitors is provided in this paper. Small molecule structural information and pharmacological effects are presented in the content. Expert opinion: The status of KDM4 inhibitor development is still in the early stages with small numbers of patents and journal articles. Future KDM4 inhibitor development should focus on obtaining selectivity between KDM4 subtypes, development of small molecules with in vivo activity, and extension of the therapeutic area of KDM4 inhibitors other than use in cancer therapy. PMID:25468267

Chin, Young-Won; Han, Sun-Young



CRM1 is a direct cellular target of the natural anti-cancer agent plumbagin.  


Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, has been shown to exert anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities in vitro as well as in animal tumor models. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-tumor action still remains unclear. CRM1 is a nuclear export receptor involved in the active transport of tumor suppressors whose function is altered in cancer due to increased expression and overactive transport. We showed that CRM1 is a direct cellular target of plumbagin. The nuclei of cells incubated with plumbagin accumulated tumor-suppressor proteins and inhibited the interactions between CRM1 and these proteins. Particularly, we demonstrated that plumbagin could specifically react with the conserved Cys(528) of CRM1 but not with a Cys(528) mutant peptide through Mass spectrometric analysis. More importantly, cancer cells that are transfected with mutant CRM1 (C528S) are resistant to the inhibitory effects of plumbagin, demonstrating that the inhibition is through direct interaction with Cys(528) of CRM1. The inhibition of nuclear traffic by plumbagin may account for its therapeutic properties in cancer and inflammatory diseases. Our findings could contribute to the development of a new class of CRM1 inhibitors. PMID:24739265

Liu, Xuejiao; Niu, Mingshan; Xu, Xiaoyu; Cai, Wei; Zeng, Lingyu; Zhou, Xiuping; Yu, Rutong; Xu, Kailin



Potential Anticancer Heterometallic Fe-Au and Fe-Pd Agents: Initial Mechanistic Insights  

PubMed Central

A series of gold(III) and palladium(II) heterometallic complexes with new iminophosphorane ligands derived from ferrocenyl-phosphanes [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-Ph}2Fe] (1), [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-CH2-2-NC5H4}2Fe] (2) and [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-CH2-2-NC5H4}Fe(Cp)] (3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Ligands 2 and 3 afford stable coordination complexes [AuCl2(3)]ClO4, [{AuCl2}2(2)](ClO4)2, [PdCl2(3)] and [{PdCl2}2(2)]. The complexes have been evaluated for their antripoliferative properties in human ovarian cancer cells sensitive and resistant to cisplatin (A2780S/R), in human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and in a non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293T). The highly cytotoxic trimetallic derivatives M2Fe (M = Au, Pd) are more cytotoxic to cancer cells than their corresponding monometallic fragments. Moreover, these complexes were significantly more cytotoxic than cisplatin in the resistant A2780R and the MCF7 cell lines. Studies of the interactions of the trimetallic compounds with DNA and the zinc-finger protein PARP-1 indicate that they exert anticancer effects in vitro based on different mechanisms of actions with respect to cisplatin. PMID:23786413

Lease, Nicholas; Vasilevski, Vadim; Carreira, Monica; de Almeida, Andreia; Sanaú, Mercedes; Hirva, Pipsa; Casini, Angela; Contel, Maria



Anti-cancer agents based on 6-trifluoromethoxybenzimidazole derivatives and method of making  


The present disclosure relates to novel compounds having the structural Formulas (1a,1b), stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof as chemotherapy agents for treating of cancer, particularly androgen-independent prostate cancer. The disclosure also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

Gakh, Andrei A; Vovk, Mykhaylo V; Mel'nychenko, Nina V; Sukach, Volodymyr A



Improved podophyllotoxin production by transformed cultures of Linum album.  


Various cell and hairy root cultures of L. album were developed and analyzed for podophyllotoxin content. Transformed callus and hairy root cultures developed from infection of stem portions of in vitro-germinated L. album plant with Agrobacterium rhizogenes NCIM 5140 strain were selected on the basis of high podophyllotoxin content and growth. Based on the integration of Ri T(L)-DNA and T(R)-DNA, integration of only the ags and not the rol gene in transformed cell culture indicated fragmented integration pattern. The effect of different cultivation media and carbon source on growth and podophyllotoxin production were studied in shake-flask suspension cultures. Detailed batch growth and production kinetics with sugar consumption profile were also established. Maximum volumetric productivity of 4.40 and 2.75 mg/L per day was obtained in cell suspension and hairy root cultures, respectively. PMID:18932162

Baldi, Ashish; Srivastava, Ashok K; Bisaria, Virendra S



Podophyllotoxin derivatives show activity against Brontispa longissima larvae.  


In an attempt to find biorational insecticides, eleven podophyllotoxin analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the fifth-instar larvae of Brontispa longissima in vivo for the first time. Among all of the tested compounds, deoxypodophyllotoxin (3) and beta-apopicropodophyllin (4) showed more promising and pronounced insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia toosendan, and important SAR information has been revealed. Together, these preliminary results may be useful in guiding further modification of podophyllotoxins in the development of potential new insecticides. PMID:20839628

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying-Qian; Yang, Liu; Feng, Gang



Synthesis and insecticidal activity of novel hydrazone compounds derived from a naturally occurring lignan podophyllotoxin against Mythimna separata (Walker).  


In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, a series of novel hydrazone derivatives of podophyllotoxin, which is a naturally occurring aryltetralin lignan and isolated as the main secondary metabolite from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum species, were synthesized and evaluated as insecticidal agents against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) in vivo at 1mg/mL. Especially compounds 8i, 8j, 8t, and 8u showed the more potent insecticidal activity with the final mortality rates greater than 60%. PMID:24810569

Wang, Yi; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Chun; Xu, Hui



Discovery of Akt Kinase Inhibitors through Structure-Based Virtual Screening and Their Evaluation as Potential Anticancer Agents.  


Akt acts as a pivotal regulator in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and represents a potential drug target for cancer therapy. To search for new inhibitors of Akt kinase, we performed a structure-based virtual screening using the DOCK 4.0 program and the X-ray crystal structure of human Akt kinase. From the virtual screening, 48 compounds were selected and subjected to the Akt kinase inhibition assay. Twenty-six of the test compounds showed more potent inhibitory effects on Akt kinase than the reference compound, H-89. These 26 compounds were further evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and HEK-293 normal human embryonic kidney cells. Twelve compounds were found to display more potent or comparable cytotoxic activity compared to compound H-89 against HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained with Compounds a46 and a48 having IC50 values (for HCT-116) of 11.1 and 9.5 µM, respectively, and selectivity indices (IC50 for HEK-293/IC50 for HCT-116) of 12.5 and 16.1, respectively. Through structure-based virtual screening and biological evaluations, we have successfully identified several new Akt inhibitors that displayed cytotoxic activity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. Especially, Compounds a46 and a48 may serve as useful lead compounds for further development of new anticancer agents. PMID:25648320

Chuang, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Leu, Yu-Ling; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Chen, Chien-Shu



HS-133, a novel fluorescent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor as a potential imaging and anticancer agent for targeted therapy  

PubMed Central

As PI3K/Akt signaling is frequently deregulated in a wide variety of human tumors, PI3K inhibitors are an emerging class of drugs for cancer treatment. The monitoring of the drug behavior and distribution in the biological system can play an important role for targeted therapy and provide information regarding the response or resistance to available therapies. In this study, therefore, we have developed a family of xanthine derivatives, serving as a dual function exhibiting fluorescence, as well as inhibiting PI3K. Among them, HS-133 showed anti-proliferative effects and was monitored for its subcellular localization by a fluorescence microscopy. HS-133 suppressed the PI3K/Akt pathway and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. The induction of apoptosis by HS-133 was confirmed by the increases of the cleaved PARP, caspase-3, and caspase-8. Furthermore, HS-133 decreased the protein expression of HIF-1? and VEGF, as well inhibited the tube formation and migration of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo imaging also showed that tumors were visualized fluorescent with HS-133, and its oral administration significantly inhibited the growth of tumor in SkBr3 mouse xenograft models. Thus, we suggest that HS-133 may be used as a fluorescent anticancer agent against human breast cancer. PMID:25338206

Lee, Hyunseung; Son, Mi Kwon; Yun, Sun-Mi; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Kyeong-Ryoon; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Donghee; Hong, Sungwoo; Hong, Soon-Sun



Gold-Containing Indoles as Anti-Cancer Agents that Potentiate the Cytotoxic Effects of Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

This report describes the design and application of several distinct gold-containing indoles as anti-cancer agents. When used individually, all gold-bearing compounds display cytostatic effects against leukemia and adherent cancer cell lines. However, two gold-bearing indoles show unique behavior by increasing the cytotoxic effects of clinically relevant levels of ionizing radiation. Quantifying the amount of DNA damage demonstrates that each gold-indole enhances apoptosis by inhibiting DNA repair. Both Au(I)-indoles were tested for inhibitory effects against various cellular targets including thioredoxin reductase, a known target of several gold compounds, and various ATP-dependent kinases. While neither compound significantly inhibits the activity of thioreoxin reductase, both showed inhibitory effects against several kinases associated with cancer initiation and progression. The inhibition of these kinases provides a possible mechanism for the ability of these Au(I)-indoles potentiate the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Clinical applications of combining Au(I)-indoles with ionizing radiation are discussed as a new strategy to achieve chemosensitization of cancer cells. PMID:22289037

Craig, Sandra; Gao, Lei; Lee, Irene; Gray, Thomas; Berdis, Anthony J.



2D and 3D-QSAR study on 4-anilinoquinozaline derivatives as potent apoptosis inducer and efficacious anticancer agent  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death that plays an important role in tumor biology. Methods In this study, apoptosis-inducing activity is predicted by using a QSAR modeling approach for a series of 4-anilinoquinozaline derivatives. 2D-QSAR model for the prediction of apoptosis-inducing activity was obtained by applying multiple linear regression giving r2 = 0.8225 and q2 = 0.7626, principal component regression giving r2 = 0.7539 and q2 = 0.6669 and partial least squares giving r2 = 0.8237 and q2 = 0.6224. Results QSAR study revealed that alignment-independent descriptors and distance-based topology index are the most important descriptors in predicting apoptosis-inducing activity. 3D-QSAR study was performed using k-nearest neighbor molecular field analysis (kNN-MFA) approach for both electrostatic and steric fields. Three different kNN-MFA 3D-QSAR methods (SW-FB, SA, and GA) were used for the development of models and tested successfully for internal (q2 > 0.62) and external (predictive r2 > 0.52) validation criteria. Thus, 3D-QSAR models showed that electrostatic effects dominantly determine the binding affinities. Conclusions The QSAR models developed in this study would be useful for the development of new apoptosis inducer as anticancer agents. PMID:22373168



Insights into the reactivity of gold-dithiocarbamato anticancer agents toward model biomolecules by using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.  


Some gold(III)-dithiocarbamato derivatives of either single amino acids or oligopeptides have shown promise as potential anticancer agents, but their capability to interact with biologically relevant macromolecules is still poorly understood. We investigated the affinity of the representative complex [Au(III)Br2(dtc-Sar-OCH3)] (dtc: dithiocarbamate; Sar: sarcosine (N-methylglycine)) with selected model molecules for histidine-, methionine-, and cysteine-rich proteins (that is, 1-methylimidazole, dimethylsulfide, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, respectively). In particular, detailed mono- and multinuclear NMR studies, in combination with multiple (13)C/(15)N enrichments, allowed interactions to be followed over time and indicated somewhat unexpected reaction pathways. Whereas dimethylsulfide proved to be unreactive, a sudden multistep redox reaction occurred in the presence of the other potential sulfur donor, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (confirmed if glutathione was used instead). On the other hand, 1-methylimidazole underwent an unprecedented acid-base reaction with the gold(III) complex, rather than the expected coordination to the metal center by replacing, for instance, a bromide. Our results are discussed herein and compared with the data available in the literature on related complexes; our findings confirm that the peculiar reactivity of gold(III)-dithiocarbamato complexes can lead to novel reaction pathways and, therefore, to new cytotoxic mechanisms in cancer cells. PMID:24038383

Boscutti, Giulia; Marchiò, Luciano; Ronconi, Luca; Fregona, Dolores



Podophyllotoxin-resistant mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells: cross-resistance studies with various microtubule inhibitors and podophyllotoxin analogues.  


The cross-resistances of several mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells which have been obtained after one and two selection steps in the presence of the microtubule inhibitor podophyllotoxin (PodRI and PodRII mutants, respectively) towards various other inhibitors of microtubule assembly (e.g., colchicine, Colcemid, vinblastine, griseofulvin, maytansine, steganacin, nocodazole, and taxol) have been examined. Based upon their specific patterns of cross-resistance/sensitivity to various microtubule inhibitors, both the PodRI and PodRII classes of mutants appear to be of more than one kind. Studies on the binding of [3H]podophyllotoxin to cytoplasmic extracts indicate that one of the PodRII mutants which has been shown previously to be affected in a Mr 66,000 to 68,000 microtubule-associated protein shows reduced binding of the drug in comparison to the parental PodS and PodRI cells. The different PodRI and PodRII mutants exhibited proportionally increased cross-resistances to various podophyllotoxin analogues (e.g., deoxypodophyllotoxin, epipodophyllotoxin, beta-peltatin, 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin, alpha-peltatin, podophyllotoxin-beta-D-glucoside, beta-peltatin-beta-D-glucoside, picropodophyllotoxin, and podophyllic acid) which possess microtubule-inhibitory activity. However, with the exception of one PodRI class of mutant, none of the mutants exhibited any cross-resistance to 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin thenylidine-beta-D-glucoside and 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin ethylidine-beta-D-glucoside, the 2 podophyllotoxin analogues which lack microtubule-inhibitory activity. The cross-resistance studies with these mutants, which, based upon the biochemical studies and their highly specific patterns of cross-resistance, are presumably affected in microtubules, provide some very novel insights into the mechanisms of action of various microtubule inhibitors. The results presented in this paper also show that the cross-resistance studies with the set of podophyllotoxin-resistant mutants provide a sensitive and highly specific screening procedure for identifying compounds which possess podophyllotoxin-like activity and for investigating the structure-activity relationship among them. The results of structure-activity relationship studies for the various podophyllotoxin analogues examined are discussed. PMID:6848174

Gupta, R S



Synthesis and biological evaluation of thiazoline derivatives as new antimicrobial and anticancer agents.  


N'-(3,4-Diarylthiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-(arylthio)acetohydrazides were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 cells. Compound 22 bearing 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazole and p-chlorophenyl moieties was found to be the most promising antibacterial agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas compound 23 bearing 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazole and p-bromophenyl moieties was the most promising antifungal agent against Candida albicans. The most effective derivatives were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against C6 glioma cells. The results indicated that compound 17 bearing 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazole and nonsubstituted phenyl moieties (IC?? = 8.3 ± 2.6 ?g/mL) was more effective than cisplatin (IC?? = 13.7 ± 1.2 ?g/mL) against C6 glioma cells. Compound 17 also exhibited DNA synthesis inhibitory activity on C6 cells. Furthermore, compound 17 showed low toxicity to NIH/3T3 cells (IC?? = 416.7 ± 28.9 ?g/mL). PMID:24480358

Alt?ntop, Mehlika Dilek; Kaplanc?kl?, Zafer As?m; Ciftçi, Gül?en Akal?n; Demirel, Rasime



In Vitro Evaluation of Oxoplatin: An Oral Platinum(IV) Anticancer Agent  

PubMed Central

Platinum(IV) compounds like oxoplatin (cis, cis, trans-diammine-dichlorido-dihydroxido-platinum(IV)) show increased stability and therefore can be applied orally. In a panel of 38 human cancer cell lines this drug induced S-phase arrest and cell death with IC50 values 2.5-fold higher than cisplatin. Oxoplatin may be converted to cisplatin by intracellular reducing agents, however, exposure to 0.1 M HCl mimicking gastric acid yielded cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) exhibiting twofold increased activity. Similar results were obtained for another platinum(IV) compound, JM 149 (ammine-dichlorido-(cyclohexylamine)-dihydroxido-platinum(IV)), but not for its parent drug JM 216/satraplatin. Genome-wide expression profiling of H526 small cell lung cancer cells treated with these platinum species revealed clear differences in the expression pattern of affected genes between oxoplatin and cisplatin. In conclusion, oxoplatin constitutes a potent oral agent that is either reduced or converted to distinct active compounds, for example, by gastric acid or acidic areas prevailing in solid tumors, in dependence of the respective pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:19587824

Olszewski, Ulrike; Ach, Florian; Ulsperger, Ernst; Baumgartner, Gerhard; Zeillinger, Robert; Bednarski, Patrick; Hamilton, Gerhard



Antiproliferation activity of Devil's club (Oplopanax horridus) and anticancer agents on human pancreatic cancer multicellular spheroids.  


Devil's club (DC, Oplopanax horridus) is an important medicinal herb of the Pacific Northwest which has significant antiproliferation activity against a variety of human tumor cell lines in vitro. This study compared the antiproliferation activity of DC extract alone, and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents gemcitabine (GEM), cisplatin (CDDP), and paclitaxel (PTX) on human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 3D spheroids and 2D monolayer cells. 3D tumor spheroids were prepared with a rotary cell culture system. PANC-1 3D spheroids were significantly more resistant to killing by DC extract, GEM and PTX compared to 2D cells, with IC50 levels closer to that observed in vivo. DC extract significantly enhanced the antiproliferation activity of CDDP and GEM at some concentrations. The bioactive compound identified as a polyacetylene showed strong antiproliferation activity against PANC-1 2D cells and 3D spheroids with IC50 at 0.73±0.04 and 3.15±0.16?M, respectively. 3D spheroids and 2D cells differentially expressed a number of apoptosis related genes. Cell cycle analysis showed that the proportion of cells in S phase was increased and in G2/M phase reduced in 3D spheroids compared to 2D cells. DC extract can potentially be used to enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents against pancreatic cancer cells. Use of 3D spheroid model for screening of natural products can potentially increase the efficiency in discovering in vivo bioactive compounds. PMID:24215675

Tai, J; Cheung, S S C; Ou, D; Warnock, G L; Hasman, D



Sulfo-quinovosyl-acyl-glycerol (SQAG), a eukaryotic DNA polymerase inhibitor and anti-cancer agent.  


It was found that a class of sulfolipids known as sulfo-quinovosyl-acyl-glycerols (SQAGs) from ferns and algae are potent inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerase alpha and beta and effective anti-neoplastic agents. In developing a procedure for the chemical synthesis of sulfolipids, many derivatives and stereoisomers of SQAGs have been obtained including sulfo-quinovosyl-monoacyl-glycerols (SQMGs) and sulfo-quinovosyl-diacyl-glycerols (SQDGs). This review describes studies on the structure-function relationship between synthetic SQAGs and DNA polymerase alpha and beta, and the relationship to cytotoxic activity. The major action was probably dependent on the fatty acid effect, which was reported previously, although each of the SQAGs was a much stronger inhibitor than just the fatty acid present in the SQAGs. The inhibitory effect could be influenced by the chain size of fatty acids in the SQAGs. The sulfonyl group in quinovose was also needed to inhibit the enzymes. Lineweaver-Burk plots of SQAGs indicated that DNA polymerase alpha was non-competitively inhibited, but the SQAGs were effective as antagonists of both the template-primer DNA-binding and the nucleotide substrate-binding of DNA polymerase beta. Based on these results, the molecular actions of SQAGs and drug design strategies for developing new anti-neoplastic agents were discussed. PMID:16305483

Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kasai, Nobuyuki; Iijima, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakaguchi, Kengo



Characterisation of cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by the topoisomerase II-directed bisdioxopiperazine anti-cancer agent ICRF-187 (dexrazoxane) in yeast and mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bisdioxopiperazine anti-cancer agents are inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II, sequestering this protein as a non-covalent protein clamp on DNA. It has been suggested that such complexes on DNA represents a novel form of DNA damage to cells. In this report, we characterise the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by the bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-187 by a combination of genetic and

Lars H Jensen; Marielle Dejligbjerg; Lasse T Hansen; Morten Grauslund; Peter B Jensen; Maxwell Sehested



Uncovering Pandora’s vase: the growing problem of new toxicities from novel anticancer agents. The case of sorafenib and sunitinib  

Microsoft Academic Search

As newer, molecularly targeted, anticancer drugs are entering clinical practice, a wide array of previously unrecognised and\\u000a ill defined side effects of these drugs are increasingly observed. Sorafenib and sunitinib are two of these novel agents,\\u000a acting on tumour angiogenesis as well as on other key proliferative pathways; recently approved for the treatment of advanced\\u000a kidney cancer, they may cause

C. Porta; C. Paglino; I. Imarisio; L. Bonomi



Activation of the anti-cancer agent upamostat by the mARC enzyme system.  


Upamostat (Mesupron®) is a new small molecule serine protease inhibitor. The drug candidate was developed to inhibit the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system, which plays a major role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Upamostat is currently in clinical development as an anti-metastatic and non-cytotoxic agent against pancreatic and breast cancer. Upamostat is the orally available amidoxime- (i.e. hydroxyamidine-) prodrug of the pharmacologically active form, WX-UK1. In this study, the reductive enzymatic activation of upamostat to its corresponding amidine WX-UK1 was analyzed. The recently discovered molybdenum enzyme "mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component" (mARC) catalyses together with its electron transport proteins cytochrome b? and NADH cytochrome b? reductase the reduction of N-hydroxylated prodrugs. In vitro biotransformation assays with porcine subcellular fractions and the reconstituted human enzymes demonstrate an mARC-dependent N-reduction of upamostat. PMID:23379481

Froriep, Danilo; Clement, Bernd; Bittner, Florian; Mendel, Ralf R; Reichmann, Debora; Schmalix, Wolfgang; Havemeyer, Antje



Synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of novel chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potent anticancer agents.  


A series of new chiral thiosemicarbazones derived from homochiral amines in both enantiomeric forms were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against A549 (human alveolar adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and HGC-27 (human stomach carcinoma) cell lines. Some of compounds showed inhibitory activities on the growth of cancer cell lines. Especially, compound exhibited the most potent activity (IC50 4.6??M) against HGC-27 as compared with the reference compound, sindaxel (IC50 10.3??M), and could be used as a lead compound to search new chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as antiproliferative agents. Chirality 27:177-188, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25399965

Ta?demir, Demet; Karaküçük-?yido?an, Ay?egül; Ula?li, Mustafa; Ta?kin-Tok, Tu?ba; Oruç-Emre, Em?ne Elç?n; Bayram, Hasan



Synthesis and cytotoxic activity on human cancer cells of carbamate derivatives of 4?-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)podophyllotoxin.  


Carbamate derivatives of 4?-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)podophyllotoxin were synthesized by means of click chemistry, and their cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines HL-60, A-549, HeLa, and HCT-8 were evaluated. Some compounds were more potent than the anticancer drug etoposide. 4'-O-Demethyl-4?-[(4-hydroxymethyl)-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin cyclopentyl carbamate, the most potent compound, induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by apoptosis in A-549 cells. Furthermore, this compound inhibited the formation of microtubules in A-549 cells and caused the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase-II. PMID:23711769

Liu, Jian-Fei; Sang, Chun-Yan; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Yang, Xuan; Hui, Lin; Zhang, Jin-Bang; Chen, Shi-Wu



Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrenyl derivatives as anticancer agents.  


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread in nature with a toxicity range from non-toxic to extremely toxic. A series of pyrenyl derivatives has been synthesized following a four-step strategy where the pyrene nucleus is attached with a basic heterocyclic moiety through a carbon linker. Virtual screening of the physicochemical properties and druggability has been carried out. The cytotoxicity of the compounds (1-8) have been evaluated in vitro against a small panel of human cancer cell lines which includes two liver cancer (HepG2 and Hepa 1-6), two colon cancer (HT-29 and Caco-2) and one each for cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. The IC50 data indicate that compound 6 and 8 are the most effective cytotoxic agents in the present set of pyrenyl derivatives, suggesting that having a 4-carbon linker is more effective than a 5-carbon linker and the presence of amide carbonyl groups in the linker severely reduces the efficacy of the compound. The compounds showed selectivity toward cancer cells at lower doses (<5 ?M) when compared with the normal hepatocytes. The mechanism of action supports the cell death through apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner without cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), even though the compounds cause plasma membrane morphological changes. The compounds, whether highly cytotoxic or mildly cytotoxic, localize to the membrane of cells. The compounds with either a piperidine ring (6) or an N-methyl piperazine (8) in the side chain were both capable of circumventing the drug resistance in SKOV3-MDR1-M6/6 ovarian cancer cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Qualitative structure-activity relationship has also been studied. PMID:25462285

Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Sanchez, Jorge L; Guerrero, Adrian M; Chang, Fang-Mei; Granados, Jose C; Short, John D; Banik, Bimal K



Discovery of water-soluble anticancer agents (edotides) from a vegetable found in Benin City, Nigeria.  


Cancer claims the lives of more than six million people each year in the world. About 1,268,000 new cancer cases, and 553,400 deaths were reported in the United States in 2001. Current treatment approaches have yielded significant progress in the fight against cancer, but the incidence of developing certain types of cancer continues to rise. This is especially true in the African-American communities. African Americans are about 33% more likely to die of cancer than are whites and more than twice likely to die of cancer as are Asian-Islander, American-Indians, and Hispanics. This increase coupled with the harsh side effects of some of the cancer chemotherapies have led to the search for more natural biological products, especially those derived from plant products, currently known as herbal medicine. There is a need for a continued search for novel natural products that may be used as cancer chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect(s) of a novel water-soluble leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on human breast cancer cell DNA synthesis. MCF-7 cell line, considered a suitable model, was used in this study. Treatment of cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of water-soluble VA extract potently inhibited DNA synthesis in a concentration-dependent fashion both in the absence and presence of serum. Fractions of VA extract separated using preparative reverse-phase chromatography also inhibited DNA synthesis (P < 0.005). These results suggest that VA vegetable, if incorporated in the diet, may prevent or delay the on-set of breast cancer. PMID:12626774

Izevbigie, Ernest B



NF-?B-dependent and -independent epigenetic modulation using the novel anti-cancer agent DMAPT.  


The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) is constitutively active in several cancers and is a target of therapeutic development. We recently developed dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT), a clinical grade water-soluble analog of parthenolide, as a potent inhibitor of NF-?B and demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities in multiple cancers. In this study, we show DMAPT is an epigenetic modulator functioning in an NF-?B-dependent and -independent manner. DMAPT-mediated NF-?B inhibition resulted in elevated histone H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), which could be recapitulated through genetic ablation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B or inhibitor-of-kappaB alpha super-repressor overexpression. DMAPT treatment and p65 ablation increased the levels of H3K36 trimethylases NSD1 (KMT3B) and SETD2 (KMT3A), suggesting that NF-?B directly represses their expression and that lower H3K36me3 is an epigenetic marker of constitutive NF-?B activity. Overexpression of a constitutively active p65 subunit of NF-?B reduced NSD1 and H3K36me3 levels. NSD1 is essential for DMAPT-induced expression of pro-apoptotic BIM, indicating a functional link between epigenetic modification and gene expression. Interestingly, we observed enhanced H4K20 trimethylation and induction of H4K20 trimethylase KMT5C in DMAPT-treated cells independent of NF-?B inhibition. These results add KMT5C to the list NF-?B-independent epigenetic targets of parthenolide, which include previously described histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC-1) and DNA methyltransferase 1. As NSD1 and SETD2 are known tumor suppressors and loss of H4K20 trimethylation is an early event in cancer progression, which contributes to genomic instability, we propose DMAPT as a potent pharmacologic agent that can reverse NF-?B-dependent and -independent cancer-specific epigenetic abnormalities. PMID:25611383

Nakshatri, H; Appaiah, H N; Anjanappa, M; Gilley, D; Tanaka, H; Badve, S; Crooks, P A; Mathews, W; Sweeney, C; Bhat-Nakshatri, P



Synthesis and evaluation of 3-(benzylthio)-5-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1,2,4-triazol-4-amines as Bcl-2 inhibitory anticancer agents.  


A series of substituted 3-(benzylthio)-5-(1H-indol-3-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amines has been synthesised and tested in vitro as potential pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-inhibitory anticancer agents. Synthesis of the target compounds was readily accomplished in good yields through a cyclisation reaction between indole-3-carboxylic acid hydrazide and carbon disulfide under basic conditions, followed by S-benzylation. Active compounds, such as the nitrobenzyl analogue 6c, were found to exhibit sub-micromolar IC50 values in Bcl-2 expressing human cancer cell lines. Molecular modelling and ELISA studies further implicated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 as a candidate molecular target underpinning anticancer activity. PMID:23474389

Hamdy, Rania; Ziedan, Noha; Ali, Samia; El-Sadek, Mohamed; Lashin, Elsaid; Brancale, Andrea; Jones, Arwyn T; Westwell, Andrew D



Synthesis and evaluation of (Z)-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile analogs as anti-cancer and anti-microbial agents.  


In the present study, a series of (Z)-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile analogs were synthesized and then evaluated in terms of their cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines, e.g. lung cancer (A549), ovarian cancer (SK-OV-3), skin cancer (SK-MEL-2), and colon cancer (HCT15), as well as anti-microbial activities against three microbes, e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Aspergillus niger. The title compounds were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation reaction of benzyl cyanide or p-nitrobenzyl cyanide with substituted benzaldehydes in good yields. Most of the compounds exhibited significant suppressive activities against the growth of all cancer cell lines. Compound 3c was most active in inhibiting the growth of A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15 cells lines with IC50 values of 0.57, 0.14, 0.65, and 0.34 mg/mL, respectively, followed by compounds 3f, 3i, and 3h. Compound 3c exhibited 2.4 times greater cytotoxic activity against HCT15 cells, whereas it showed similar potency against SK-OV-3 cells to that of the standard anti-cancer agent doxorubicin. Structure-activity relationship study revealed that electron-donating groups at the para-position of phenyl ring B were more favorable for improved cytotoxic activity, whereas the presence of electron-withdrawing groups was unfavorable compare to unsubstituted acrylonitrile. An optimal electron density on phenyl ring A of (Z)-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile analogs was crucial for their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines used in the present study. Qualitative structure-cytotoxic activity relationships were studied using physicochemical parameters; a good correlation between calculated polar surface area (PSA), a lipophobic parameter, and cytotoxic activity was found. Moreover, all compounds showed significant anti-bacterial activities against S. typhi, whereas compound 3k showed potent inhibition against both S. aureus and S. typhi bacterial strains. PMID:24113364

Alam, Mohammad Sayed; Nam, Young-Joo; Lee, Dong-Ung



Anti-cancer agents based on 4-(hetero)Ary1-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl Amino derivatives and a method of making  


The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. ##STR00001## In particular, the invention relates N-substituted derivatives of 4-(hetero)aryl-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl amines having the structural Formula (I) and (II), stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. Meaning of R1 and R2 in the Formula (I) and (II) are defined in claim 1. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

Gakh, Andrei A.; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A.; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V.



Next generation sequencing in predicting gene function in podophyllotoxin biosynthesis.  


Podophyllum species are sources of (-)-podophyllotoxin, an aryltetralin lignan used for semi-synthesis of various powerful and extensively employed cancer-treating drugs. Its biosynthetic pathway, however, remains largely unknown, with the last unequivocally demonstrated intermediate being (-)-matairesinol. Herein, massively parallel sequencing of Podophyllum hexandrum and Podophyllum peltatum transcriptomes and subsequent bioinformatics analyses of the corresponding assemblies were carried out. Validation of the assembly process was first achieved through confirmation of assembled sequences with those of various genes previously established as involved in podophyllotoxin biosynthesis as well as other candidate biosynthetic pathway genes. This contribution describes characterization of two of the latter, namely the cytochrome P450s, CYP719A23 from P. hexandrum and CYP719A24 from P. peltatum. Both enzymes were capable of converting (-)-matairesinol into (-)-pluviatolide by catalyzing methylenedioxy bridge formation and did not act on other possible substrates tested. Interestingly, the enzymes described herein were highly similar to methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzymes from alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas candidates more similar to lignan biosynthetic enzymes were catalytically inactive with the substrates employed. This overall strategy has thus enabled facile further identification of enzymes putatively involved in (-)-podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and underscores the deductive power of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics to probe and deduce medicinal plant biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23161544

Marques, Joaquim V; Kim, Kye-Won; Lee, Choonseok; Costa, Michael A; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G



Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 1-hydroxyl-3-aminoalkoxy xanthone derivatives as potent anticancer agents.  


A series of novel 1-hydroxyl-3-aminoalkoxy xanthone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for in vitro anticancer activity against four selected human cancer cell lines (nasopharyngeal neoplasm CNE, liver cancer BEL-7402, gastric cancer MGC-803, lung adenocarcinoma A549). Most of the synthesized compounds exhibit effective cytotoxic activity against the four tested cancer cell lines with the IC50 values at micromolar concentration level. Some preliminary structure-activity relationships were also discussed. In this series of derivatives, compound 3g shows excellent broad spectrum anticancer activity with IC50 values ranging from 3.57 to 20.07 ?M. The in vitro anticancer activity effect and action mechanism of compound 3g on human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cell were further investigated. The results showed that compound 3g exhibits dose- and time-dependent anticancer effects on MGC-803 cells through apoptosis, which might be associated with its decreasing intracellular calcium and the mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:25113877

Yang, Zheng-Min; Huang, Jun; Qin, Jiang-Ke; Dai, Zhi-Kai; Lan, Wen-Li; Su, Gui-Fa; Tang, Huang; Yang, Feng



Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (E)-N-Aryl-2-arylethene-sulfonamide Analogues as Potent and Orally Bioavailable Microtubule-targeted Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

A series of novel (E)-N-aryl-2-arylethenesulfonamides (6) were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity. Some of the compounds in this series showed potent cytotoxicity against a wide spectrum of cancer cell-lines (IC50 values ranging from 5 to 10 nM) including all drug resistant cell-lines. Nude mice xenograft assays with compound (E)-N-(3-Amino-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2?,4?,6?-trimethoxyphenyl)ethenesulfonamide (6t) showed dramatic reduction in tumor size indicating their in vivo potential as anticancer agents. A preliminary drug development study with compound 6t is predicted to have increased blood-brain barrier permeability relative to many clinically used anti-mitotic agents. Mechanistic studies indicate that 6t and some other analogs disrupted microtubule formation, formation of mitotic spindles and arrest of cells in mitotic phase. Compound 6t inhibited purified tubulin polymerization in vitro and in vivo and circumvented drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein. Compound 6t specifically competed with colchicine binding to tubulin and with similar avidity as podophylltoxin indicating its binding site on tubulin. PMID:23750455

Ramana Reddy, M. V.; Mallireddigari, Muralidhar R.; Pallela, Venkat R.; Cosenza, Stephen C.; Billa, Vinay K.; Akula, Balaiah; Venkata Subbaiah, D. R. C.; Bharathi, E. Vijaya; Padgaonkar, Amol; Lv, Hua; Gallo, James M.; Reddy, E. Premkumar



From COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide to potent anti-cancer agent: synthesis, in vitro, in vivo and pharmacokinetic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor nimesulide inhibits the proliferation of various types of cancer cells mainly via COX-2 independent mechanisms, which makes it a good lead compound for anti-cancer drug development. In the presented study, a series of new nimesulide analogs were synthesized based on the structure–function analysis generated previously. Some of them displayed very potent anti-cancer activity with IC50s around 100nM to 200nM to inhibit SKBR-3 breast cancer cell growth. CSUOH0901 (NSC751382) from the compound library also inhibits the growth of the 60 cancer cell lines used at National Cancer Institute Developmental therapeutics Program (NCIDTP) with IC50s around 100nM to 500nM. Intraperitoneal injection with a dosage of 5mg/kg/d of CSUOH0901 to nude mice suppresses HT29 colorectal xenograft growth. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrate the good bioavailability of the compound. PMID:22119125

Chennamaneni, Snigdha; Yi, Xin; Liu, lili; Pink, John J.; Dowlati, Afshin; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Aimin; Su, Bin



Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of shikonin and alkannin derivatives as potential anticancer agents via a prodrug approach.  


To minimize the cytotoxicity of shikonin and alkannin that arises through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alkylation of the naphthazarin ring, two series of novel core-scaffold-modified shikonin and alkannin derivatives were designed. These derivatives, which differ in their configurational and positional isomerism (R-, S-, and 2- and 6-isomers) were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess (>99 % ee). The selectivity of the dimethylated derivatives was significantly higher than the parent shikonin in vitro, but some side effects were still observed in vivo. Surprisingly, the dimethylated diacetyl derivatives with poor anticancer activity in vitro showed tumor-inhibiting effects similar to paclitaxel without any toxicity in vivo. The anticancer activity of these derivatives is in agreement with their low ROS generation and alkylating capacity, emphasizing their potential as prodrugs. This strategy provides means to address the nonspecific cytotoxicity of naphthazarin analogues toward normal cells. PMID:25234005

Wang, Ru-Bing; Zhou, Wen; Meng, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Xu; Ding, Jing; Xu, Yan; Song, Hua-Long; Yang, Kai; Cui, Jia-Hua; Li, Shao-Shun



N-Phenyl-2-p-tolylthiazole-4-carboxamide derivatives: Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation as anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): According to the prevalence of neoplastic diseases, there is a deep necessity for discovery of novel anticancer drugs in the field of medicinal chemistry. In the current study, a new series of phenylthiazole derivatives (compounds 4a-4f) was synthesized and their anticancer activity was assessed in vitro. Materials and Methods: All synthesized derivatives were evaluated towards three human cancerous cell lines of SKNMC (Neuroblastoma), Hep-G2 (Human hepatocarcinoma) and MCF-7 cell (Breast cancer) using MTT assay and obtained values (IC50 ± SD) were compared with doxorubicin. Results: Unfortunately, none of the synthesized compounds showed superior activity than doxorubicin against cancerous cell lines. MCF-7 cell line was the most resistant cell line against tested compounds. Compounds 4c with para nitro (IC50 = 10.8 ± 0.08 µM) and 4d with meta chlorine (IC50 = 11.6 ± 0.12 µM) moieties exerted the highest cytotoxic effects towards SKNMC and Hep-G2 cell lines respectively. Conclusion: A new series of phenylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and their anticancer activity was assessed against cancerous cell lines. More structural modifications and derivatization is necessary to achieve to the more potent compounds. PMID:25429341

Mohammadi-Farani, Ahmad; Foroumadi, Alireza; Kashani, Monireh Rezvani; Aliabadi, Alireza



Synthetic strategies for the design of platinum anticancer drug candidates  

E-print Network

Chapter 1. The Synthetic Chemistry of Platinum Anticancer Agents Since the inception of cisplatin as a clinically approved anticancer agent, a large number of platinum compounds have been synthesized with the aim of finding ...

Wilson, Justin Jeff



KCN1, a Novel Synthetic Sulfonamide Anticancer Agent: In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activities and Preclinical Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity and pharmacological properties of 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]-N-phenylbenzenesulfonamide, KCN1. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activity of KCN1 on cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of pancreatic cancer cells, using the MTT and BrdUrd assays, and flow cytometry. The in vivo anti-cancer effects of KCN1 were evaluated in two distinct xenograft models of pancreatic cancer. We also developed an HPLC method for the quantitation of the compound, and examined its stability in mouse plasma, plasma protein binding, and degradation by mouse S9 microsomal enzymes. Furthermore, we examined the pharmacokinetics of KCN1 following intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in mice. Results showed that, in a dose-dependent manner, KCN1 inhibited cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, and showed in vivo anticancer efficacy in mice bearing Panc-1 or Mia Paca-2 tumor xenografts. The HPLC method provided linear detection of KCN1 in all of the matrices in the range from 0.1 to 100 µM, and had a lower limit of detection of 0.085 µM in mouse plasma. KCN1 was very stable in mouse plasma, extensively plasma bound, and metabolized by S9 microsomal enzymes. The pharmacokinetic studies indicated that KCN1 could be detected in all of the tissues examined, most for at least 24 h. In conclusion, our preclinical data indicate that KCN1 is a potential therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, providing a basis for its future development. PMID:23028659

Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Xu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Xu; Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Wu, Xuming; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Ruiwen



Antineoplastic and antiviral activities of podophyllotoxin related lignans.  


28 cyclolignans, most of them derived from podophyllotoxin, have been evaluated for their antineoplastic and antiviral activities. They were subjected to screening against P-388 murine leukemia, A-549 human lung carcinoma, and HT-29 colon carcinoma, while antiviral assays were performed on herpes simplex virus type I infecting fibroblasts of monkey kidney (HSV/CV-1) and on vesicular stomatitis virus infecting fibroblasts of hamster kidney (VSV/BHK). A number of substances were active in both groups of assays at concentrations below 1 microM; deoxypodophyllotoxin (1) being the most potent compound in all cases. PMID:8179476

Gordaliza, M; Castro, M A; García-Grávalos, M D; Ruiz, P; Miguel del Corral, J M; San Feliciano, A



Endophytic fungi: novel sources of anticancer lead molecules.  


Cancer is a major killer disease all over the world and more than six million new cases are reported every year. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutic compounds, as a tremendous chemical diversity is found in millions of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anti-cancer agents. These include vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, and taxol. Production of a plant-based natural drug is always not up to the desired level. It is produced at a specific developmental stage or under specific environmental condition, stress, or nutrient availability; the plants may be very slow growing taking several years to attain a suitable growth phase for product accumulation and extraction. Considering the limitations associated with the productivity and vulnerability of plant species as sources of novel metabolites, microorganisms serve as the ultimate, readily renewable, and inexhaustible source of novel structures bearing pharmaceutical potential. Endophytes, the microorganisms that reside in the tissues of living plants, are relatively unstudied and offer potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry. They develop special mechanisms to penetrate inside the host tissue, residing in mutualistic association and their biotransformation abilities opens a new platform for synthesis of novel secondary metabolites. They produce metabolites to compete with the epiphytes and also with the plant pathogens to maintain a critical balance between fungal virulence and plant defense. It is therefore necessary that the relationship between the plants and endophytes during the accumulation of these secondary metabolites is studied. Insights from such research would provide alternative methods of natural product drug discovery which could be reliable, economical, and environmentally safe. PMID:22622838

Chandra, Sheela



Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Dibenzo[c,h][1,6]naphthyridines as Topoisomerase I Inhibitors and Potential Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Indenoisoquinoline topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors are a novel class of anticancer agents. Modifications of the indenoisoquinoline A, B and D rings have been extensively studied in order to optimize Top1 inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. To improve understanding of the forces that stabilize drug-Top1-DNA ternary complexes, the five-membered cyclopentadienone C-ring of the indenoisoquinoline system was replaced by six-membered nitrogen heterocyclic rings, resulting in dibenzo[c,h][1,6]naphthyridines that were synthesized by a novel route and tested for Top1 inhibition. This resulted in several compounds that have unique DNA cleavage site selectivities and potent antitumor activities in a number of cancer cell lines. PMID:21090809

Kiselev, Evgeny; Dexheimer, Thomas; Pommier, Yves; Cushman, Mark



Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Carbohydrate-Substituted Indenoisoquinoline Topoisomerase I Inhibitors and Improved Syntheses of the Experimental Anticancer Agents Indotecan (LMP400) and Indimitecan (LMP776)  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrate moieties were strategically transported from the indolocarbazole topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitor class to the indenoisoquinoline system in search of structurally novel and potent Top1 inhibitors. The syntheses and biological evaluation of 20 new indenoisoquinolines glycosylated with linear and cyclic sugar moieties are reported. Aromatic ring substitution with 2,3-dimethoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy or 3-nitro groups exerted strong effects on antiproliferative and Top1 inhibitory activities. While the length of the carbohydrate side chain clearly correlated with antiproliferative activity, the relationship between stereochemistry and biological activity was less clearly defined. Twelve of the new indenoisoquinolines exhibit Top1 inhibitory activity equal to or better than that of camptothecin. An advanced synthetic intermediate from this study was also used to efficiently prepare indotecan (LMP400) and indimitecan (LMP776), two anticancer agents currently under investigation in a Phase I clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health. PMID:24517248



Anti-cancer agents based on N-acyl-2, 3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b] quinoline derivatives and a method of making  


The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. In particular, the invention relates to N-acyl derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolines having the structural Formula (I), ##STR00001## stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. The meaning of R1 is independently selected from H; C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl substituents; R2 is selected from C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl; substituted or non-substituted, fused or non-fused to substituted or non-substituted aromatic ring, aryl or heteroaryl groups. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

Gakh, Andrei; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V



Synthesis and anticancer activity of some novel indolo[3,2-b]andrographolide derivatives as apoptosis-inducing agents.  


A series of novel indolo[3,2-b]andrographolide derivatives were designed, synthesized and screened in vitro against three human cancer cell lines MCF7 (human breast cancer), HCT116 (human colon cancer), and DU145 (human prostate cancer). Fourteen compounds 6b, 6e, 6i, 6j, 6l, 6m, 6n, 12a, 12b, 13a, 13b, 15a, 17a, and 17b exhibited better anti-cancer activities than andrographolide for all three human cancer lines, with compound 6l displaying best activity with IC50 values of 1.85, 1.22 and 1.24 ?M against MCF7, HCT116 and DU145 respectively. Preliminary anti-cancer mechanistic investigation was performed in terms of the cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis assays of compound 6l against HCT116 using flow cytometry, and the results suggested that compound 6l inhibited tumor proliferation through inducing early and late cellular apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner and causing cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. PMID:25506809

Song, Yaping; Xin, Zhengyuan; Wan, Yumeng; Li, Jiabin; Ye, Boping; Xue, Xiaowen



Design, synthesis and molecular modeling of pyrazole-quinoline-pyridine hybrids as a new class of antimicrobial and anticancer agents.  


A new series of pyrazole-quinoline-pyridine hybrids were designed based on molecular hybridization technique and synthesized by a base-catalyzed cyclocondensation reaction through one-pot multicomponent reaction. All compounds were tested for in vitro antibacterial and anticancer activities. Enzyme inhibitory activities of all compounds were carried out against FabH and EGFR. Of the compounds studied, majority of the compounds showed effective antibacterial as well as anticancer activity against used strains and cancer cell lines respectively. Compound 7k (IC?? = 0.51 ± 0.05 ?M) against EGFR and 7b displayed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC?? of 3.1 ?M against FabH as compared to other member of the series. In the molecular modeling study, compound 7k was bound in to the active pocket of EGFR with three hydrogen bond and one ?-cation interaction with minimum binding energy ?Gb = -54.6913 kcal/mol, as well as compound 7b was bound in to the active site of FabH with hydrogen bond and ?-sigma interactions with minimum binding energy ?Gb = -45.9125 kcal/mol. PMID:24607998

Sangani, Chetan B; Makawana, Jigar A; Zhang, Xin; Teraiya, Shashikant B; Lin, Lin; Zhu, Hai-Liang



Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.  


Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:24793775

Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R



Inhibitory effects of podophyllotoxin derivatives on herpes simplex virus replication.  


Podophyllotoxin and its derivatives were examined for inhibitory effects on the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), including acyclovir-resistant virus and clinical isolates. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (RD4-6266) proved to be a highly potent and selective inhibitor of all HSV strains in MRC-5 cells. EC50 values of RD4-6283 (in which the methylenedioxy ring A is modified) for HSV-1 and -2 were inferior to those of deoxypodophyllotoxin. However, podorhizol (RD4-6277) and 5'-methoxy-podorhizol (RD4-6276), in which ring C is absent, did not inhibit HSV replication. Moreover, RD4-6266 also inhibited the production of infectious virus particles of HSV-1 KOS strain and HSV-2 G strain. In contrast, none of the podophyllotoxin derivatives were found to have an antiviral effect against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus or human cytomegalovirus in doses not toxic to the cells. PMID:9875405

Sudo, K; Konno, K; Shigeta, S; Yokota, T



Azide derivatized anticancer agents of Vitamin K 3: X-ray structural, DSC, resonance spectral and API studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compound 1 [1-imino (acetyl hydrazino)-Vitamin K 3], displays valence tautomerically related electronic isomers as Form I and Form II. Form I exhibits 2D packing fragment with 1D ribbon chains of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and shows EPR silent features. While Form II is EPR active and exhibits biradical nature with double quantum transitions at g = 2.0040. 1H NMR of compound 2, [1-imino (hydrazino carboxylate)-Vitamin K 3] and Form II exhibit ? delocalization via resonance assisted H-bonding [RAHB] effect compared to Form I. Molecular interactions in Form I and II are visualized by DSC. The electronic structures of compounds 1 and 2 have been correlated to their API values by measuring anticancer activities, mitochondrial potentials and DNA shearing patterns. Form II and compound 2 indicate mitochondria mediated apoptosis (˜75% cell death) while Form I causes 35% cell death.

Badave, Kirti; Patil, Yogesh; Gonnade, Rajesh; Srinivas, Darbha; Dasgupta, Rajan; Khan, Ayesha; Rane, Sandhya



Schiff's base derivatives bearing nitroimidazole and quinoline nuclei: new class of anticancer agents and potential EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  


New Schiff's base derivatives 5a-j have been synthesized by reaction between 2-phenoxyquinoline-3-carbaldehydes 3a-j and 2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide 4 in presence of nickel(II) nitrate as a catalyst in ethanol under reflux in good yield (78-92%). All compounds were tested for anticancer and inhibition of EGFR. Of the compounds studied, majority of the compounds showed effective antiproliferation and inhibition of EGFR and HER-2 activities. Compound 5h showed most effective inhibition (IC50=0.12±0.05 ?M) by binding in to the active pocket of EGFR receptor with minimum binding energy (?Gb=-58.3691 kcal/mol). The binding was stabilized by two hydrogen bonds, two ?-cation and one ?-sigma interactions. Compound 5d showed most effective inhibition (IC50=0.37±0.04 ?M). PMID:24630412

Makawana, Jigar A; Sangani, Chetan B; Lin, Lin; Zhu, Hai-Liang



Schiff's base derivatives bearing nitroimidazole moiety: new class of antibacterial, anticancer agents and potential EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  


New Schiff's base derivatives 5a-5h have been synthesized by reaction between 1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanone 3 and various benzohydrazide 4a-4h in presence of nickel (II) nitrate as a catalyst in ethanol at room temperature in good yield (54-88%). All compounds were tested for antibacterial as well as anticancer and inhibition of EGFR. Of the compounds studied, compounds 5d, 5f and 5g in the case of antiproliferation and inhibition of EGFR as well as compounds 5b, 5c, 5e and 5h in the case of antibacterial activity were found to be most effective compounds in the series. Compound 5f shows effective inhibition (IC50=0.21±0.02 ?M) by binding in to the active pocket of EGFR receptor with minimum binding energy (?Gb=-49.4869 kcal/mol). PMID:24144854

Makawana, Jigar A; Sun, Juan; Zhu, Hai-Liang



Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin in Linum species.  


Three extraction methods for analysis of podophyllotoxin and its derivatives from Linum species were compared. No statistical difference on the percentage of recovery were found between the methods. The "glycosidase-method" showed the best result with respect to the accuracy studies; the "acetone-method" has an advantage compared to the other methods due to its capability to calculate the aglycone, lignan glycoside and total lignan. The content of podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin in Linum mucronatum subsp. mucronatum Bertol, Linum arboreum L., and the endemic Turkey species of Linum flavum subsp. scabrinerve Davis were determined. This is the first report on the analysis of podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin of natural collected Linum flavum subsp. scabrinerve and Linum arboreum. PMID:15137970

Kartal, Murat; Konuklugil, Belma; Indrayanto, Gunawan; Alfermann, A W



The anti-cancer agent guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane: Ensuing energetic and oxidative stress implications  

SciTech Connect

Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 {mu}M) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mitochondria, isolated from rat liver. In HepG2 cells GA decreased viability, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted ATP and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In isolated rat-liver mitochondria GA promoted membrane fluidity increase, cyclosporine A/EGTA-insensitive membrane permeabilization, uncoupling (membrane potential dissipation/state 4 respiration rate increase), Ca{sup 2+} efflux, ATP depletion, NAD(P)H depletion/oxidation and ROS levels increase. All effects in cells, except mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, as well as NADPH depletion/oxidation and permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, were partly prevented by the a NAD(P)H regenerating substrate isocitrate. The results suggest the following sequence of events: 1) GA interaction with mitochondrial membrane promoting its permeabilization; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation; 3) NAD(P)H oxidation/depletion due to inability of membrane potential-sensitive NADP{sup +} transhydrogenase of sustaining its reduced state; 4) ROS accumulation inside mitochondria and cells; 5) additional mitochondrial membrane permeabilization due to ROS; and 6) ATP depletion. These GA actions are potentially implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds. - Graphical abstract: Guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane and induces cancer cell death Display Omitted Highlights: > We addressed the involvement of mitochondria in guttiferone (GA) toxicity toward cancer cells. > GA promoted membrane permeabilization, membrane potential dissipation, NAD(P)H depletion, ROS accumulation and ATP depletion. > These actions could be implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds.

Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L., E-mail: [Centro de Estudio para las Investigaciones y Evaluaciones Biologicas, Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos, Universidad de La Habana, ave. 23 21425 e/214 and 222, La Coronela, La Lisa, CP 13600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Nunez-Figueredo, Yanier [Centro para las Investigaciones y Desarrollo de Medicamentos, Ave 26, No. 1605 Boyeros y Puentes Grandes, CP 10600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Tudella, Valeria G. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos, Universidad de La Habana, ave. 23 21425 e/214 and 222, La Coronela, La Lisa, CP 13600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Rodrigues, Fernando P.; Pestana, Cezar R. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Uyemura, Sergio A.; Leopoldino, Andreia M. [Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Alberici, Luciane C.; Curti, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)



Podophyllum peltatum possesses a ?-glucosidase with high substrate specificity for the aryltetralin lignan podophyllotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ?-glucosidase with high specificity for podophyllotoxin-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside was purified from the leaves of Podophyllum peltatum. The 65-kDa polypeptide had optimum activity at pH 5.0 and was essentially inactive at pH 6.5 or above. Maximum catalytic activity of this glucosidase was obtained at 45 °C, but the enzyme was not heat stable. This ?-glucosidase displayed higher substrate specificity for podophyllotoxin-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside than

Franck E Dayan; Jeanne M Kuhajek; Camilo Canel; Susan B Watson; Rita M Moraes



Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target  

E-print Network

The antitumor agent 11? (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive ...

Fedeles, Bogdan I.


Utilization of microbial iron assimilation processes for the development of new antibiotics and inspiration for the design of new anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic microbes rapidly develop resistance to antibiotics. To keep ahead in the “microbial war”, extensive interdisciplinary research is needed. A primary cause of drug resistance is the overuse of antibiotics that can result in alteration of microbial permeability, alteration of drug target binding sites, induction of enzymes that destroy antibiotics (ie., beta-lactamase) and even induction of efflux mechanisms. A combination of chemical syntheses, microbiological and biochemical studies demonstrate that the known critical dependence of iron assimilation by microbes for growth and virulence can be exploited for the development of new approaches to antibiotic therapy. Iron recognition and active transport relies on the biosyntheses and use of microbe-selective iron-chelating compounds called siderophores. Our studies, and those of others, demonstrate that siderophores and analogs can be used for iron transport-mediated drug delivery (“Trojan Horse” antibiotics) and induction of iron limitation/starvation (Development of new agents to block iron assimilation). Recent extensions of the use of siderophores for the development of novel potent and selective anticancer agents are also described. PMID:19130268

Zhu, Helen; Xu, Yanping; Wu, Chunrui; Walz, Andrew J.; Vergne, Anne; Roosenberg, John M.; Moraski, Garrett; Minnick, Albert A.; McKee-Dolence, Julia; Hu, Jingdan; Fennell, Kelley; Dolence, E. Kurt; Dong, Li; Franzblau, Scott; Malouin, Francois; Möllmann, Ute



Temperature-triggered tumor-specific delivery of anticancer agents by cRGD-conjugated thermosensitive liposomes.  


One of the most effective methods to treat cancer is the specific delivery of anticancer drugs to the target site. To achieve this goal, we designed an anticancer drug with mild hyperthermia-mediated triggering and tumor-specific delivery. To enhance the thermosensitive drug release, we incorporated elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), which is known to be a thermally responsive phase transition peptide into the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-based liposome surface. Additionally, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) binds to ?v?3 integrin, which is overexpressed in angiogenic vasculature and tumor cells, was introduced on the liposome. ELP-modified liposomes with the cRGD targeting moiety were prepared using a lipid film hydration method, and doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the liposome by the ammonium sulfate-gradient method. The cRGD-targeted and ELP-modified DOX-encapsulated liposomes (RELs) formed spherical vesicles with a mean diameter of 181 nm. The RELs showed 75% and 83% DOX release at 42°C and 45°C, respectively. The stability of RELs was maintained up to 12h without the loss of their thermosensitive function for drug release. Flow cytometry results showed that the cellular uptake of DOX in RELs into ?v?3 integrin-overexpressing U87MG and HUVEC cells was 8-fold and 10-fold higher, respectively, than that of non-targeting liposomes. Confocal microscopy revealed that REL released DOX only under the mild hyperthermia condition at 42°C by showing the localization of DOX in nuclei and the liposomes in the cytosol. The cell cytotoxicity results demonstrated that REL can efficiently kill U87MG cells through cRGD targeting and thermal triggering. The in vivo tumoral accumulation measurement showed that the tumor-targeting effect of RELs was 5-fold higher than that of non-targeting liposomes. This stable, target-specific, and thermosensitive liposome shows promise to enhance therapeutic efficacy if it is applied along with a relevant external heat-generating medical system. PMID:24441178

Kim, Min Sang; Lee, Don-Wook; Park, Kitae; Park, Sang-Jun; Choi, Eun-Jung; Park, Eun Sung; Kim, Hyun Ryoung



Development and validation of a rapid HPLC method for quantitation of SP-141, a novel pyrido[b]indole anticancer agent, and an initial pharmacokinetic study in mice.  


There is an increasing interest in targeting the MDM2 oncogene for cancer therapy. SP-141, a novel designed small molecule MDM2 inhibitor, exerts excellent in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. To facilitate the preclinical development of this candidate anticancer agent, we have developed an HPLC method for the quantitative analysis of SP-141. The method was validated to be precise, accurate, and specific, with a linear range of 16.2-32,400?ng/mL in plasma, 16.2-6480?ng/mL in homogenates of brain, heart, liver, kidneys, lungs, muscle and tumor, and 32.4-6480?ng/mL in spleen homogenates. The lower limit of quantification was 16.2?ng/mL in plasma and all the tissue homogenates, except for spleen homogenates, where it was 32.4?ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (coefficient of variation) were between 0.86 and 13.39%, and accuracies (relative errors) ranged from -8.50 to 13.92%. The relative recoveries were 85.6-113.38%. SP-141 was stable in mouse plasma, modestly plasma bound and metabolized by S9 microsomal enzymes. We performed an initial pharmacokinetic study in tumor-bearing nude mice, demonstrating that SP-141 has a short half-life in plasma and wide tissue distribution. In summary, this HPLC method can be used in future preclinical and clinical investigations of SP-141. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25294254

Nag, Subhasree; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Wang, Ming-Hai; Sharma, Horrick; Patil, Shivaputra; Buolamwini, John K; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen



Heritable and cancer risks of exposures to anticancer drugs: inter-species comparisons of covalent deoxyribonucleic acid-binding agents.  


In the past years, several methodologies were developed for potency ranking of genotoxic carcinogens and germ cell mutagens. In this paper, we analyzed six sub-classes of covalent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding antineoplastic drugs comprising a total of 37 chemicals and, in addition, four alkyl-epoxides, using four approaches for the ranking of genotoxic agents on a potency scale: the EPA/IARC genetic activity profile (GAP) database, the ICPEMC agent score system, and the analysis of qualitative and quantitative structure-activity and activity-activity relationships (SARs, AARs) between types of DNA modifications and genotoxic endpoints. Considerations of SARs and AARs focused entirely on in vivo data for mutagenicity in male germ cells (mouse, Drosophila), carcinogenicity (TD50s) and acute toxicity (LD50s) in rodents, whereas the former two approaches combined the entire database on in vivo and in vitro mutagenicity tests. The analysis shows that the understanding and prediction of rank positions of individual genotoxic agents requires information on their mechanism of action. Based on SARs and AARs, the covalent DNA binding antineoplastic drugs can be divided into three categories. Category 1 comprises mono-functional alkylating agents that primarily react with N7 and N3 moieties of purines in DNA. Efficient DNA repair is the major protective mechanism for their low and often not measurable genotoxic effects in repair-competent germ cells, and the need of high exposure doses for tumor induction in rodents. Due to cell type related differences in the efficiency of DNA repair, a strong target cell specificity in various species regarding the potency of these agents for adverse effects is found. Three of the four evaluation systems rank category 1 agents lower than those of the other two categories. Category 2 type mutagens produce O-alkyl adducts in DNA in addition to N-alkyl adducts. In general, certain O-alkyl DNA adducts appear to be slowly repaired, or even not at all, which make this kind of agents potent carcinogens and germ cell mutagens. Especially the inefficient repair of O-alkyl-pyrimidines causes the high mutational response of cells to these agents. Agents of this category give high potency scores in all four expert systems. The major determinant for the high rank positions on any scale of genotoxic of category 3 agents is their ability to induce primarily structural chromosomal changes. These agents are able to cross-link DNA. Their high intrinsic genotoxic potency appears to be related to the number of DNA cross-links per target dose unit they can induce. A confounding factor among category 3 agents is that often the genotoxic endpoints occur close to or at toxic levels, and that the width of the mutagenic dose range, i.e., the dose area between the lowest observed effect level and the LD50, is smaller (usually no more than 1 logarithmic unit) than for chemicals of the other two categories. For all three categories of genotoxic agents, strong correlations are observed between their carcinogenic potency, acute toxicity and germ cell specificity. PMID:9685708

Vogel, E W; Barbin, A; Nivard, M J; Stack, H F; Waters, M D; Lohman, P H



Marine-sourced anti-cancer and cancer pain control agents in clinical and late preclinical development.  


The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. PMID:24424355

Newman, David J; Cragg, Gordon M



Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development †  

PubMed Central

The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. PMID:24424355

Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.



Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of new nitro-substituted thiazolyl hydrazone derivatives as anticandidal and anticancer agents.  


Fourteen new thiazolyl hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anticandidal activity using a broth microdilution assay. Among the synthesized compounds, 2-[2-((5-(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene)hydrazinyl]-4-(4-fluorophenyl)thiazole and 2-[2-((5-(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene) hydrazinyl]-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)thiazole were found to be the most effective antifungal compounds against Candida utilis, with a MIC value of 250 µg/mL, when compared with fluconazole (MIC=2 µg/mL). Additionally, the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 and NIH/3T3 cell lines. As a result, 2-[2-((5-(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene)hydrazinyl]-4-(4-chlorophenyl)thiazole was identified as the most promising anticancer compound against MCF-7 cancer cells due to its inhibitory effects (IC50=125 µg/mL) and relatively low toxicity towards the NIH/3T3 cell line (IC50>500 µg/mL). PMID:25232704

Alt?ntop, Mehlika Dilek; Özdemir, Ahmet; Turan-Zitouni, Gülhan; Ilg?n, Sinem; Atl?, Özlem; Demirci, Fatih; Kaplanc?kl?, Zafer As?m



General pharmacology of CKD-732, a new anticancer agent: effects on central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory system.  


CKD-732 [6-O-(4-dimethylaminoethoxy) cinnamoyl fumagillol hemioxalate] is a new fumagillin anticancer drug that belongs to an angiogenesis inhibitor. Its effect on the central nervous system (CNS), general behavior, cardiovascular-respiratory system and the other organ systems were studied. CKD-732 was intravenously administered with the dosages of 10, 30, 40 or 50 mg/kg and the highest dosage of 50 mg/kg prolonged the hexobarbital-induced sleep time. CKD-732 at the dosage of 50 mg/kg, also, caused the decrease of body temperature from 15 to 120 min after the administration, which was recovered at 240 min. In the study of the effects on gastric secretion, CKD-732 induced the increase of pH and decrease of total acidity. However, CKD-732 showed no effect on general behavior, spontaneous locomotor activity, motor coordination, analgesia, convulsion, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac functions except for heart rate of isolated rat heart, respiration, isolated smooth muscle, intestinal charcoal transport and renal function. Based on the results, we suggested that CKD-732 is safe general pharmacologically at clinical supposed dose (1.75 mg/kg) and demonstrated to have much better safety than other fumagillin derivatives. PMID:15684472

Kim, Eun-Joo; Shin, Won-Ho



Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex, a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Some cases of breast cancer are composed of clones of hormonal-independent growing cells, which do not respond to therapy. In the present study, the effect of Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex (BP-C1) on growth of human breast-cancer cells was tested. BP-C1 is a novel anti-cancer complex of benzene-poly-carboxylic acids with a very low concentration of cis-diammineplatinum (II) dichloride. Human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and T47D, were used. Cell viability was detected by XTT assay and apoptosis was detected by Flow Cytometry and by annexin V/FITC/PI assay. Caspases were detected by western blot analysis and gene expression was measured by using the Applied Biosystems® TaqMan® Array Plates. The results showed that exposure of the cells to BP-C1 for 48 h, significantly (P<0.001) reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and activated caspase 8 and caspace 9. Moreover, gene expression experiments indicated that BP-C1 increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (CASP8AP1, TNFRSF21, NFkB2, FADD, BCL10 and CASP8) and lowered the level of mRNA transcripts of inhibitory apoptotic genes (BCL2L11, BCL2L2 and XIAP. These findings may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of human cancer using BP-C1 analog. PMID:24523856

Fares, Fuad; Azzam, Naiel; Fares, Basem; Larsen, Stig; Lindkaer-Jensen, Steen



High-level expression and bulk crystallization of recombinant L-methionine gamma-lyase, an anticancer agent.  


L-Methionine gamma-lyase is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme which has tumor selective anticancer activity. An efficient production process for the recombinant enzyme was constructed by using the overexpression plasmid in Escherichia coli, large-scale cultivation, and practical crystallization on an industrial scale. The plasmid was optimized with a promoter and the region of the ribosome-binding site. Plasmid pMGLTrc03, which has a trc promoter and a spacing of 12 nucleotides between the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the ATG translation initiation codon, was selected as the most suitable plasmid. The transformants produced the enzyme, which intracellularly accumulated at 2.1 mg/ml as an active form and accounted for 43% of the total proteins in the soluble fraction by simple batch fermentation using a 500-l fermentor. The crystals were directly obtained from crude enzyme with 87% yield by a crystallization in the presence of 9.0% polyethylene glycol 6000, 3.6% ammonium sulfate, and 0.18 M sodium chloride using a 100-l crystallizer. After recrystallization, the enzyme was purified by anion-exchange column chromatography to remove endotoxins and by gel filtration for polishing. We prepared 600 g of purified enzyme with a low endotoxin content of sufficient quality for therapeutical use, with a 41% overall yield in the purification process. PMID:16012835

Takakura, Tomoaki; Ito, Takaomi; Yagi, Shigeo; Notsu, Yoshihide; Itakura, Takashi; Nakamura, Takumi; Inagaki, Kenji; Esaki, Nobuyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M; Takimoto, Akio



Discovery and development of anticancer agents from marine sponges: perspectives based on a chemistry-experimental therapeutics collaborative program.  


A collaborative program was initiated in 1990 between the natural product chemistry laboratory of Dr. Phillip Crews at the University of California Santa Cruz and the experimental therapeutics laboratory of Dr. Fred Valeriote at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. The program focused on the discovery and development of anticancer drugs from sponge extracts. A novel in vitro disk diffusion, solid tumor selective assay was used to examine 2,036 extracts from 683 individual sponges. The bioassay-directed fractionation discovery component led to the identification of active pure compounds from many of these sponges. In most cases, pure compound was prepared in sufficient quantities to both chemically identify the active compound(s) as well as pursue one or more of the biological development components. The latter included IC50, clonogenic survival-concentration exposure, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic assessment studies. Solid tumor selective compounds included fascaplysin and 10-bromofascaplysin (Fascaplysinopsis), neoamphimedine, 5-methoxyneoamphimedine and alpkinidine (Xestospongia), makaluvamine C and makaluvamine H (Zyzzya), psymberin (Psammocinia and Ircinia), and ethylplakortide Z and ethyldidehydroplakortide Z (Plakortis). These compounds or analogs thereof continue to have therapeutic potential. PMID:23350352

Valeriote, Frederick A; Tenney, Karen; Media, Joseph; Pietraszkiewicz, Halina; Edelstein, Matthew; Johnson, Tyler A; Amagata, Taro; Crews, Phillip



An Ideal Selective Anti-Cancer Agent In Vitro: I - Tissue Culture Study of Human Lung Cancer Cells A549  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of cancer is one of the challenging problems in medical practice as there are no available medical modalities that can se- lectively kill cancer cells without adverse effect on normal living cells or the functions of vital organs. Tissue culture of human lung cancer cells (A549) was used in studying the effect of agent, PM 701, to test its




In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of a plant based antiarthritic and anticancer therapeutic agent Boswelic acids in rodents.  


The genotoxic potential of anti-inflammatory/anti-arthritic and anticancer plant based drug molecule Boswelic acids (BA) was studied by in vivo system. Systematic literature survey revealed that studies on the genotoxicity of BA are not available. Although reports on genotoxicity of Boswellia serrata dry extract and modified 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswelic acid are available and these studies were conducted in in vitro systems. The earlier general toxicity study of BA has been conducted by us, revealed it to be non toxic. The genotoxicity was carried out in Wistar rats using different cytogenetic assay system-abnormalities viz. chromosomal aberrations; sperm morphology, micronuclei and comet assays. Six groups of animals, each comprised of five rats, were taken for each study. Group1-4 received BA at 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o., respectively prepared as 2% gum acacia suspension, fifth group received a positive control cyclophosphamide (CP) 40 mg/kg p.o. or metronedazole (MTZ) 130 mg/kg p.o. or mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) 0.864 mg/kg p.o. (as per the experiment requirement) whereas the sixth group kept as vehicle control. The results on the bases of the data obtained revealed that BA is quite safe as it did not show any genotoxicity at any dose level up to 1000 mg/kg. The positive controls used in different experiments showed highly significant abnormal cytogenetic changes in comparison to the control group. PMID:19679457

Sharma, R; Singh, S; Singh, G D; Khajuria, A; Sidiq, T; Singh, S K; Chashoo, G; Pagoch, S S; Kaul, A; Saxena, A K; Johri, R K; Taneja, S C



The Efficacy of Topoisomerase II-Targeted Anticancer Agents Reflects the Persistence of Drug-Induced Cleavage Complexes in Cells†  

PubMed Central

Genistein, a widely consumed bioflavonoid with chemopreventative properties in adults, and etoposide, a commonly prescribed anticancer drug, are well-characterized topoisomerase II poisons. Although both compounds display similar potencies against human topoisomerase II? and ? in vitro and induce comparable levels of DNA cleavage complexes in cultured human cells, their cytotoxic and genotoxic effects differ significantly. As determined by assays that monitored viability or the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, etoposide was much more toxic in CEM cells than genistein. Further studies that characterized the simultaneous treatment of cells with genistein and etoposide indicate that the differential actions of the two compounds are not related to the effects of genistein on cellular processes outside of its activity against topoisomerase II. Rather, they appear to result from a longer persistence of cleavage complexes induced by etoposide as compared to genistein. Parallel in vitro studies with purified type II enzymes led to similar conclusions regarding cleavage complex persistence. Isoform-specific differences were observed in vitro and in cells treated with etoposide. To this point, the t1/2 of etoposide-induced DNA cleavage complexes formed with topoisomerase II? in CEM cells was ?5 times longer than those formed with topoisomerase II?. The cytotoxicity of etoposide following four treatment-recovery cycles was similar to that induced by continuous exposure to the drug over an equivalent time period. Taken together, these findings suggest that it may be possible to preferentially target topoisomerase II? with etoposide by employing a schedule that utilizes pulsed drug treatment-recovery cycles. PMID:18922022

Bandele, Omari J.; Osheroff, Neil



Isophilippinolide A arrests cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis for anticancer inhibitory agents in human melanoma cells.  


Three new butanolides, isophilippinolide A, philippinolide A, and philippinolide B, and an amide, cinnaretamine, were isolated from the roots of Cinnamomum philippinense to be identified by spectroscopic analysis. Four isolated compounds were screened to examine their radical-scavenging ability, metal-chelating power, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Cinnaretamine showed powerful antioxidative properties in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and a reducing activity; all compounds presented minor inhibition of metal-chelating capacities. The effects of anti-tyrosinase of C. philippinense constituents were determined by the level of the suppression of hydroxylation that turned from L-tyrosine to L-dopa through an in vitro mushroom tyrosinase assay, and all testing samples illustrated slight mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Isophilippinolide A exhibited inhibitory effectivenesses against the A375.S2 melanoma cell line in a cell viability assay at concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ?M for 24 h. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analyses were applied to assess cell cycle accumulative distribution. It was discovered that isophilippinolide A caused sub-G1 phase accumulation in positive correlation for apoptosis to inhibit cell growth. Further investigation revealed that isophilippinolide A induced A375.S2 cells with an increase of caspase-dependent apoptotic proteins to trigger correlated pathway mechanisms according to Western blotting results. Finally, isophilippinolide A displayed only low cytotoxicities to human normal epidermal cells (melanocytes) and dermal cells (fibroblasts). Altogether, the results implied C. philippinense compounds could be considered functional ingredients in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceutical products, particularly for their anticancer ability on human skin melanoma cells. PMID:24359513

Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Chung-Yi; Wu, Pei-Fang



Improved clearance of radioiodinated hypericin as a targeted anticancer agent by using a duodenal drainage catheter in rats.  


We sought to reduce the radioactive intestinal waste after intravenous injection of necrosis avid iodine-131-labeled hypericin in dual-targeting anticancer radiotherapy and to study its pharmacokinetics in rats using a newly designed catheter. Iodine-123-labeled hypericin was prepared with iodogen as oxidant and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. After iodine-123-labeled hypericin administration, duodenal juice was collected via a catheter from groups of rats (n?=?5) at intervals of 0-4, 4-8 or 20-24?h. The content was assessed by gamma-counting. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of iodine-123-labeled hypericin were investigated in rats without (n?=?5) and with continuous catheterization (n?=?5) for 9?h. After labeling, a high radiochemical yield was obtained with iodine-123-labeled hypericin (>95%), as confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the duodenal aspirate from animals with intermittent catheterization during 24?h, radioactivity accounted for 46% of the total with two peaks at 3?h and 8?h, suggesting enterohepatic circulation. Rats with 9?h of catheterization exhibited one peak representing 20% of the radioactivity. Major metabolites appeared to be conjugated iodine-123-labeled hypericin forms. In rats without and with catheter, iodine-123-labeled hypericin showed exponential elimination from plasma with no significant dehalogenation. Delayed iodine-123-labeled hypericin excretion, a higher maximum concentration (Cmax), larger area under concentration-time curve [AUC(0-?)] and a longer mean residence time were observed in non-catheterized animals (P?

Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Verbruggen, Alfons; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng



Newly synthesized water soluble cholinium-purpurin photosensitizers and their stabilized gold nanoparticles as promising anticancer agents.  


For possible future use in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and/or Photothermal Therapy (PTT) of cancer and screening of cancer cells a new type of ionic liquid photosensitizer -Cholinium-Purpurin-18 (Chol-Pu-18) - was synthesized and small gold (Au) nanoparticles, stabilized by this photosensitizer were prepared without adding any particular reducing agents and CTAB. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used for characterization of the nanoparticles and FAB-MS and NMR of the ionic liquid choline hydroxide, purpurin carboxylate and their ionic liquid type of photosensitizer were obtained. PMID:19325790

Demberelnyamba, Dorjnamjin; Ariunaa, Mama; Shim, Young Key



Newly Synthesized Water Soluble Cholinium-Purpurin Photosensitizers and Their Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles as Promising Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

For possible future use in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and/or Photothermal Therapy (PTT) of cancer and screening of cancer cells a new type of ionic liquid photosensitizer –Cholinium-Purpurin-18 (Chol-Pu-18) – was synthesized and small gold (Au) nanoparticles, stabilized by this photosensitizer were prepared without adding any particular reducing agents and CTAB. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used for characterization of the nanoparticles and FAB-MS and NMR of the ionic liquid choline hydroxide, purpurin carboxylate and their ionic liquid type of photosensitizer were obtained. PMID:19325790

Demberelnyamba, Dorjnamjin; Ariunaa, Mama; Shim, Young Key



Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 6-Hydroxy-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one Schiff Bases as Potential Anticancer Agents.  


With the aim of discovering new anticancer agents, we have designed and synthesized novel 6-hydroxy-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one Schiff bases. The synthesis started with the selective nitration at 5-position of 6-hydroxybenzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-one (1) leading to the nitro derivative 2. The nitro group of 2 was reduced to give the amino intermediate 3. Schiff bases 4a-r were obtained from coupling reactions between 3 and various benzaldehydes and heteroaromatic aldehydes. All the new compounds were fully identified and characterized by NMR (1H and 13C) and specifically for 4q by X-ray crystallography. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated against cancer cell lines (ACP-03, SKMEL-19 and HCT-116) by using MTT assay. Schiff bases 4b and 4o exhibited promising cytotoxicity against ACP-03 and SKMEL-19, respectively, with IC50 values lower than 5 ?M. This class of compounds can be considered as a good starting point for the development of new lead molecules in the fight against cancer. PMID:25633329

Chazin, Eliza de Lucas; Sanches, Paola de Souza; Lindgren, Eric Brazil; Vellasco Júnior, Walcimar Trindade; Pinto, Laine Celestino; Burbano, Rommel Mario Rodríguez; Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Leal, Kátia Zaccur; Gomes, Claudia Regina Brandão; Wardell, James Lewis; Wardell, Solange Maria Silva Veloso; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Vasconcelos, Thatyana Rocha Alves



ICAM-3 endows anticancer drug resistance against microtubule-damaging agents via activation of the ICAM-3-AKT/ERK-CREB-2 pathway and blockage of apoptosis.  


In a previous study, we showed that induction of ICAM-3 endows radioresistance in cervical cancer [1]. To ascertain whether ICAM-3 also promotes anticancer drug resistance, mock control (H1299/pcDNA3) or ICAM-3-expressing stable transfectants (H1299/ICAM-3) of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, NCI-H1299, were generated and treated with the microtubule-damaging agents, paclitaxel (TXL) and vincristine (VCS). TXL-/VCS-treated H1299/ICAM-3 cells showed significantly lower levels of apoptosis, activation of caspases-3, 8 or 9, and decrease in anti-apoptotic protein levels, compared to H1299/pcDNA3 cells. Our data clearly indicate that ICAM-3 promotes drug resistance via inhibition of apoptosis. We additionally showed that Akt, ERK, and CREB-2 are located downstream of ICAM-3, and activation of the ICAM-3-Akt/ERK-CREB-2 pathway induces resistance against TXL and VCS. ICAM-3-expressing stable NCI-H460/ICAM-3 transfectant cells and radioresistant SiHa cells endogenously overexpressing ICAM-3 additionally showed drug resistance against TXL and VCS via activation of the ICAM-3-Akt/ERK-CREB-2 pathway. The finding that ICAM-3 endows drug resistance as well as radioresistance supports its potential utility as a major therapeutic target against cancer. PMID:24177012

Ahn, Kwang-Chul; Choi, Jae Yeon; Kim, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Kim, Wun-Jae; Park, Jong Kuk; Um, Hong-Duck



Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Quantitation of BA-TPQ, a Novel Iminoquinone Anticancer Agent, and an Initial Pharmacokinetic Study in Mice  

PubMed Central

We herein describe the development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitation of 7-(benzylamino)-1, 3, 4, 8-tetrahydropyrrolo [4, 3, 2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one (BA-TPQ), a newly synthesized iminoquinone anticancer agent. BA-TPQ was extracted from plasma and tissue samples by first precipitating proteins with acetonitrile followed by a liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was carried out using a gradient flow rate on a Zorbax SB C-18 column, and the effluent was monitored by UV detection at 346 nm. The method was found to be precise, accurate, and specific, with a linear range from 3.91 to 1955.0 ng/mL in plasma, 19.55 to 1955.0 ng/mL in spleen, brain, and liver homogenates, and 19.55 to 3910.0 ng/mL in heart, lung and kidney homogenates. The method was stable under all relevant conditions. Using this method, we also carried out an initial study determining plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of BA-TPQ in mice following intravenous administration. In summary, this simple and sensitive HPLC method can be used in future preclinical and clinical studies of BA-TPQ. PMID:20845374

Wang, Wei; Xu, Hongxia; Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Zhang, Xu; Gurpinar, Evrim; Yang, Xinyi; Sommers, Charnell I.; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Zhang, Ruiwen



Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel series of bisintercalating DNA-binding piperazine-linked bisanthrapyrazole compounds as anticancer agents.  


A series of bisintercalating DNA binding bisanthrapyrazole compounds containing piperazine linkers were designed by molecular modeling and docking techniques. Because the anthrapyrazoles are not quinones they are unable to be reductively activated like doxorubicin and other anthracyclines and thus they should not be cardiotoxic. The concentration dependent increase in DNA melting temperature was used to determine the strength of DNA binding and the bisintercalation potential of the compounds. Compounds with more than a three-carbon linker that could span four DNA base pairs achieved bisintercalation. All of the bisanthrapyrazoles inhibited human erythroleukemic K562 cell growth in the low to submicromolar concentration range. They also strongly inhibited the decatenation activity of topoisomerase II? and the relaxation activity of topoisomerase I. However, as measured by their ability to induce double strand breaks in plasmid DNA, the bisanthrapyrazole compounds did not act as topoisomerase II? poisons. In conclusion, a novel group of bisanthrapyrazole compounds were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated as potential anticancer agents. PMID:22041173

Zhang, Rui; Wu, Xing; Yalowich, Jack C; Hasinoff, Brian B



On the improvement of the podophyllotoxin production by phenylpropanoid precursor feeding to cell cultures of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the production of the cytotoxic lignan podophyllotoxin, seven precursors from the phenylpropanoid-routing and one related compound were fed to cell suspension cultures derived from the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. These cell cultures were able to convert only coniferin into podophyllotoxin, maximally a 12.8 fold increase in content was found. Permeabilization using isopropanol, in combination with

Wim van Uden; Niesko Pras; Theo M. Malingré



Podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in Juniperus bermudiana and 12 other Juniperus species: optimization of extraction, method validation, and quantification.  


The lignans podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin are secondary metabolites with potent pharmaceutical applications in cancer therapy. However, the supply of podophyllotoxin from its current natural source, Podophyllum hexandrum, is becoming increasingly problematic, and alternative sources are therefore urgently needed. So far, podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin have been found in some Juniperus species, although at low levels in most cases. Moreover, extraction protocols deserve optimization. This study aimed at developing and validating an efficient extraction protocol of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin from Juniperus species and applying it to 13 Juniperus species, among which some had never been previously analyzed. Juniperus bermudiana was used for the development and validation of an extraction protocol for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin allowing extraction yields of up to 22.6 mg/g DW of podophyllotoxin and 4.4 mg/g DW deoxypodophyllotoxin, the highest values found in leaf extract of Juniperus. The optimized extraction protocol and HPLC separation from DAD or MS detections were established and validated to investigate podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin contents in aerial parts of 12 other Juniperus species. This allowed either higher yields to be obtained in some species reported to contain these two compounds or the occurrence of these compounds in some other species to be reported for the first time. This efficient protocol allows effective extraction of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin from aerial parts of Juniperus species, which could therefore constitute interesting alternative sources of these valuable metabolites. PMID:21702435

Renouard, Sullivan; Lopez, Tatiana; Hendrawati, Oktavia; Dupre, Patricia; Doussot, Joël; Falguieres, Annie; Ferroud, Clotilde; Hagege, Daniel; Lamblin, Frédéric; Laine, Eric; Hano, Christophe



Anti-cancer Effects of Novel Flavonoid Vicenin-2 as a Single Agent and in Synergistic Combination with Docetaxel in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of novel flavonoid vicenin-2 (VCN-2), an active constituent of the medicinal herb Ocimum Sanctum Linn or Tulsi, as a single agent and in combination with docetaxel (DTL) in carcinoma of prostate (CaP). VCN-2 effectively induced anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effect in CaP cells (PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP) irrespective of their androgen responsiveness or p53 status. VCN-2 inhibited EGFR/Akt/mTOR/ p70S6K pathway along with decreasing c-Myc, cyclin D1, cyclin B1, CDK4, PCNA and hTERT in vitro. VCN-2 reached a level of 2.6 ± 0.3 micromol/L in serum after oral administration in mice which reflected that VCN-2 is orally absorbed. The i.v. administration of docetaxel (DTL), current drug of choice in androgen-independent CaP, is associated with dose-limiting toxicities like febrile neutropenia which has lead to characterization of alternate routes of administration and potential combinatorial regimens. In this regard, VCN-2 in combination with DTL synergistically inhibited the growth of prostate tumors in vivo with a greater decrease in the levels of AR, pIGF1R, pAkt, PCNA, cyclin D1, Ki67, CD31, and increase in E-cadherin. VCN-2 has been investigated for radioprotection and anti-inflammatory properties. This is the first study on the anti-cancer effects of VCN-2. In conclusion, our investigations collectively provide strong evidence that VCN-2 is effective against CaP progression along with indicating that VCN-2 and DTL co-administration is more effective than either of the single agents in androgen-independent prostate cancer. PMID:21803027

Nagaprashantha, Lokesh Dalasanur; Vatsyayan, Rit; Singhal, Jyotsana; Fast, Spence; Roby, Rhonda; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.



Anti-cancer effects of novel flavonoid vicenin-2 as a single agent and in synergistic combination with docetaxel in prostate cancer.  


The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of novel flavonoid vicenin-2 (VCN-2), an active constituent of the medicinal herb Ocimum Sanctum Linn or Tulsi, as a single agent and in combination with docetaxel (DTL) in carcinoma of prostate (CaP). VCN-2 effectively induced anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effect in CaP cells (PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP) irrespective of their androgen responsiveness or p53 status. VCN-2 inhibited EGFR/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway along with decreasing c-Myc, cyclin D1, cyclin B1, CDK4, PCNA and hTERT in vitro. VCN-2 reached a level of 2.6±0.3?mol/l in serum after oral administration in mice which reflected that VCN-2 is orally absorbed. The i.v. administration of docetaxel (DTL), current drug of choice in androgen-independent CaP, is associated with dose-limiting toxicities like febrile neutropenia which has lead to characterization of alternate routes of administration and potential combinatorial regimens. In this regard, VCN-2 in combination with DTL synergistically inhibited the growth of prostate tumors in vivo with a greater decrease in the levels of AR, pIGF1R, pAkt, PCNA, cyclin D1, Ki67, CD31, and increase in E-cadherin. VCN-2 has been investigated for radioprotection and anti-inflammatory properties. This is the first study on the anti-cancer effects of VCN-2. In conclusion, our investigations collectively provide strong evidence that VCN-2 is effective against CaP progression along with indicating that VCN-2 and DTL co-administration is more effective than either of the single agents in androgen-independent prostate cancer. PMID:21803027

Nagaprashantha, Lokesh Dalasanur; Vatsyayan, Rit; Singhal, Jyotsana; Fast, Spence; Roby, Rhonda; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S



Proteomic changes induced by podophyllotoxin in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.  


Podophyllotoxin, a kind of lignan extracted from the Podophyllum plant, has been shown to inhibit the growth of various carcinoma cells. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the inhibition of cell growth and changes in protein expression induced by podophyllotoxin were investigated in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Our results demonstrate that Podophyllotoxin inhibits HeLa cell growth and induces apoptosis. By using proteomic techniques, seven proteins were found to be significantly regulated by podophyllotoxin compared to the untreated control; among them, four were down-regulated and three were up-regulated. All of the seven proteins were identified with peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) after in-gel trypsin digestion. Five of these proteins are involved in protein metabolism, and the other two play roles in cell communication and signaling transduction pathways. It is suggested that the effect of podophyllotoxin on the growth of tumor cells is significantly related to the metabolism-associated proteins. PMID:23336514

Wang, Bochan; Chen, Lifeng; Zhen, Hong; Zhou, Li; Shi, Ping; Huang, Zhiwei



Comparative chemogenomics to examine the mechanism of action of DNA-targeted platinum-acridine anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Platinum-based drugs have been used to successfully treat diverse cancers for several decades. Cisplatin, the original compound of this class, cross-links DNA, resulting in cell cycle arrest and cell death via apoptosis. Cisplatin is effective against several tumor types, yet it exhibits toxic side effects and tumors often develop resistance. To mitigate these liabilities while maintaining potency, we generated a library of non-classical platinum-acridine hybrid agents and assessed their mechanisms of action using a validated genome-wide screening approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the distantly related yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemogenomic profiles from both S. cerevisiae and S. pombe demonstrate that several of the platinum-acridines damage DNA differently than cisplatin based on their requirement for distinct modules of DNA repair. PMID:22928710

Cheung-Ong, Kahlin; Song, Kyung Tae; Ma, Zhidong; Shabtai, Daniel; Lee, Anna Y.; Gallo, David; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Brown, Grant W.; Bierbach, Ulrich; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey



PT-ACRAMTU, a platinum–acridine anticancer agent, lengthens and aggregates, but does not stiffen or soften DNA  

PubMed Central

We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the dose-dependent change in conformational and mechanical properties of DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU ([PtCl(en)(ACRAMTU-S)](NO3)2, (en = ethane-1,2-diamine, ACRAMTU = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea. PT-ACRAMTU is the parent drug of a family of nonclassical platinum-based agents that show potent activity in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Its acridine moiety intercalates between DNA bases, while the platinum group forms monoadducts with DNA bases. AFM images show that PT-ACRAMTU causes some DNA looping and aggregation at drug-to-base pair ratio (rb) of 0.1 and higher. Very significant lengthening of the DNA was observed with increasing doses of PT-ACRAMTU, and reached saturation at an rb of 0.15. At rb of 0.1, lengthening was 0.6 nm per drug molecule, which is more than one fully stretched base pair stack can accommodate, indicating that ACRAMTU also disturbs the stacking of neighboring base pair stacks. Analysis of the AFM images based on the worm-like chain (WLC) model showed that PT-ACRAMTU did not change the flexibility of (non-aggregated) DNA, despite the extreme lengthening. The persistence length of untreated DNA and DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU was in the range of 49 to 65 nm. Potential consequences of the perturbations caused by this agent for the recognition and processing of the DNA adducts it forms are discussed. PMID:23636685

Dutta, Samrat; Snyder, Matthew J.; Rosile, David; Binz, Kristen L.; Roll, Eric H.; Suryadi, Jimmy; Bierbach, Ulrich; Guthold, Martin



Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) modulators from natural products as anti-cancer agents.  


Natural products are rich sources of gene modulators that may be useful in prevention and treatment of cancer. Recently, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) activated gene-1 (NAG-1) has been focused as a target of action against diverse cancers like colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and breast. A variety of natural agents have been reported to play a pivotal role in regulation of NAG-1 through multiple transcriptional mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to review the NAG-1 modulators derived from natural products including plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. Plant extracts belonging to the families of Fabaceae (Astragalus membranaceus), Ranunculaceae (Coptis chinensis), Menispermaceae (Coscinium fenestratum), Umbelliferae (Pleurospermum kamtschaticum), Lamiaceae (Marubium vulgare), and Rosaceae (Prunus serotina) increased the protein expression of NAG-1 in human colon cancer or hepatocarcinoma cells. Phytochemicals in the class of flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, and 2'-hydroxyflavanone), isoflavonoids (formononetin and genistein), catechins (epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate), stilbenoids (resveratrol and pinosylvin), phenolics (6-gingerol), phloroglucinols (rottlerin and aspidin PB), terpenoids (18 ?-glycyrrhetinic acid, platycodin D, pseudolaric acid B, and xanthorrhizol), alkaloids (berberine, capsaicin, and indole-3-carbinol), lignans (isochaihulactone), anthraquinones (damnacanthal), and allyl sulfides (diallyl disulfide) elicited NAG-1 overexpression in various cancer cells. Pectenotoxin-2 from marine organisms and prodigiosin and anisomycin from microorganisms were also reported as NAG-1 modulators. Several transcription factors including EGR-1, p53, ATF-3, Sp1 and PPAR? were involved in natural products-induced NAG-1 transcriptional signaling pathway. PMID:24530873

Yang, Min Hye; Kim, Jinwoong; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I



Inhibitory effects of trehalose on malignant melanoma cell growth: implications for a novel topical anticancer agent on the ocular surface.  


Purpose. To investigate the inhibitory effects of trehalose on malignant melanoma cell growth. Methods. We cultured human malignant melanoma cells in a medium containing trehalose (control/2.5%/5.0%/7.5%/10.0%) and used the MTT assay to evaluate the growth activities. Subsequently, trehalose was topically instilled on subconjunctivally inoculated melanoma cells in F334/NJcl-rmu/rmu rats, followed by a histopathological evaluation of tumor growth. Using flow cytometry, we compared the distribution of the cell cycle, rate of apoptotic cells, and intracellular factors related to the cell cycle in cultured melanoma cells after trehalose treatment. Results. The MTT study showed that proliferation of melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by ??5% of trehalose concentrations in the culture media. Subconjunctivally inoculated melanoma cell masses were significantly smaller in eyes administered trehalose as compared to controls. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that the trehalose groups had increased rates of G2/M phase cells and apoptotic cells in the cell culture. These cells also exhibited increased expressions of cell-cycle inhibitory factors. Conclusions. The current results show trehalose inhibits malignant melanoma cell growth by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, suggesting trehalose as a potential candidate for a topical agent to inhibit proliferation of malignant tumor cells of the ocular surface. PMID:24558596

Kudo, Takashi; Takeuchi, Kimio; Ebina, Yu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru



Using immunoadjuvant agent glycated chitosan to enhance anti-cancer stem like cell immunity induced by HIFU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal therapy is based on the observation that tumor cells are sensitive to increased temperature, which is important for tumor control. In this study, the high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system was used to simulate thermal therapy on breast cancer control in the small animal model. Additionally, the immunoadjuvant agent, so called glycated chitosan (GC), was used to enhance the immunological effects on tumor control. The bioluminescent imaging showed that tumor metastasis was apparently suppressed by a combined treatment using HIFU and GC, but not in HIFU or GC alone. Using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, lung metastasis of 4T1-3R tumor cells further agree the observations obtained from non-invasive in vivo imaging. We also found that plasma collected from mice treated with combined HIFU and GC could significantly suppress the viability of cultured 4T1 cells compared to untreated or single treated group. In summary, these results suggest that the HIFU therapy combined with GC can enhance the tumor immunogenicity and tumor control.

Chen, Y.-L.; Chen, W.-R.; Liu, R.-S.; Yang, F.-Y.; Wang, C.-Y.; Lee, Y.-J.



Hemi-synthesis and biological activity of new analogues of podophyllotoxin.  


Various 4-analogues of podophyllotoxin and epipodophyllotoxin were obtained via the formation of the corresponding 4-keto derivatives. Methyloximation of podophyllotoxone, followed by subsequent catalytic hydrogenation, gave stereoselective access to 4-alpha-amino-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin and from there, to the corresponding acetamido and formamido derivatives. Base-catalyzed isomerisation of 4-alpha-amino-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin led to the corresponding picropodophyllin isomer while the 4-beta-amino afforded a neopodophyllotoxin-like derivative. On the other hand, oxirane and hydroxymethyl-containing analogues were prepared from podophyllotoxin and 4-epi-4'-demethyl-podophyllotoxin, using a Takai olefination strategy. In the latter series, carboxaldehyde- and carboxylic acid-containing derivatives were also synthesized. PMID:12213460

Roulland, Emmanuel; Magiatis, Prokopios; Arimondo, Paola; Bertounesque, Emmanuel; Monneret, Claude



Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target.  


The antitumor agent 11? (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11? against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action that likely explains this activity. Cellular fractionation experiments indicated that mitochondria are the major intracellular sink for 11?; flow cytometry studies showed that 11? exposure rapidly induced oxidative stress, mitochondria being an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, 11? inhibited oxygen consumption both in intact HeLa cells and in isolated mitochondria. Specifically, 11? blocked uncoupled oxygen consumption when mitochondria were incubated with complex I substrates, but it had no effect on oxygen consumption driven by substrates acting downstream of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Moreover, 11? enhanced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria, suggesting that complex I inhibition is responsible for ROS production. At the cellular level, the presence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E) significantly reduced the toxicity of 11?, implicating ROS production as an important contributor to cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings establish complex I inhibition and ROS generation as a new mechanism of action for 11?, which supplements conventional DNA adduct formation to promote cancer cell death. PMID:21832047

Fedeles, Bogdan I; Zhu, Angela Y; Young, Kellie S; Hillier, Shawn M; Proffitt, Kyle D; Essigmann, John M; Croy, Robert G



Human ovarian cancer multicellular spheroids: a model for testing antiproliferation activity of Devil's club (Oplopanax horridus) and anticancer agents.  


This study was conducted to employ an ovarian cancer Ovcar 10 three-dimensional model to assess the antiproliferation activity of the medicinal plant Devil's club, Oplopanax horridus, and its active compound, alone and in combination, with chemotherapeutic agents compared to Ovcar 10 two-dimensional cells grown as monolayer cells. Ovcar 10 three-dimensional spheroids were prepared with a rotary cell culture system. Cell counting kit-8 assessed the antiproliferation activity. Apoptosis-related gene expression in three-dimensional spheroids and two- dimensional cells was analyzed with an apoptosis antibody array. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle. Ovcar 10 cells formed compact three-dimensional spheroids after 5 days of culture in a rotary culture system. Ovcar 10 three-dimensional spheroids were significantly more resistant to killing by Devil's club extract, its active compound alone, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel, but not cisplatin compared to two-dimensional cells, with IC50 levels closer to that observed in vivo. Devil's club extract and its active compound alone significantly enhanced the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin and gemcitabine at some concentrations, but did not affect the activity of paclitaxel. A number of apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed in three-dimensional spheroids, two-dimensional cells, and cells treated with Devil's club extract compared to untreated controls. In three-dimensional spheroids, the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase was slightly increased and the S phase was slightly decreased compared to two-dimensional cells. Ovcar 10 cells in three-dimensional spheroids altered the expression of multiple apoptosis-related genes, which may have contributed to the increased resistance of the cells to some drugs. PMID:24922275

Tai, Joseph; Cheung, Susan S C; Hasman, David



Biological evaluation of morin and its new oxovanadium(IV) complex as antioxidant and specific anti-cancer agents.  


It is known that flavonoids possess, among others, antioxidant and antitumoral properties that depend on their molecular structure. The central objective if this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of the flavonol morin and its new oxovanadium(IV) complex (VOmor) that was synthesized in order to modify the morin chemical structure. Two osteoblast (UMR106 and MC3T3E1), two breast tumor (T47D and SKBR3) and breast epithelial cell lines in culture were used for the antitumoral determinations. Additionally, a comparative study of their antioxidant capacities using different radicals (DPPH, ABTS(+), OH, O2(-), ROO) was performed. Selected mechanisms of action were studied using the breast cancer cell lines. Results obtained show that morin and its complex behaved as good antioxidant agents for some of the radicals and that the complexation improved the behavior with respect to OH and O2(-) radicals being morin more effective as ROO scavenger. A considerable variation in sensitivity was observed in the breast cancer cells but non-specificity was found for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Moreover, the compounds did not affect the normal proliferation of the breast epithelial mammal cells. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that the complex did not generate reactive oxygen species in the cells (confirming the in vitro studies) and did not produce any damage of DNA. The plasmatic membrane was observed to be damaged only in the SKBR3 cell line. In contrast, the perturbation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of caspase 3/7 for the breast tumor cells revealed an apoptotic cell death process. All these results collectively suggested that VOmor complex could serve as promising pharmacologically active substance against breast cancer treatment. PMID:24125835

Naso, Luciana G; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Etcheverry, Susana B; Valcarcel, María; Roura, Meritxell; Salado, Clarisa; Ferrer, Evelina G; Williams, Patricia A M



Affitoxin – A Novel Recombinant, HER2-Specific, Anti-Cancer Agent for Targeted Therapy of HER2-Positive Tumors  

PubMed Central

Expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is amplified in 25 – 30% of breast cancers and has been associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we report the construction, purification, and characterization of Affitoxin – a novel class of HER2-specific cytotoxic molecules combining HER2-specific Affibody molecule as a targeting moiety and PE38KDEL, which is a truncated version of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), as a cell killing agent. It is highly soluble and does not require additional refolding, oxidation, or reduction steps during its purification. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology and competitive binding assays, we have shown that Affitoxin binds specifically to HER2 with nanomolar affinity. We have also observed a high correlation between HER2 receptor expression and retention of Affitoxin bound to the cell surface. Affitoxin binding and internalization is followed by PE activity domain-mediated ADP-ribosylation of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and, consequently, inhibition of protein synthesis as shown by protein expression analysis of HER2-positive cells treated with Affitoxin. Measured IC50 value for HER2-negative cells MDA-MB468 (65±2.63 pM) was more than 20 times higher than the value for low HER2 level-expressing MCF7 cells (2.56±0.1 pM), and almost three orders of magnitude higher for its HER2-overexpressing derivative MCF7/HER2 (62.7±5.9 fM). These studies suggest that Affitoxin is an attractive PE38-based candidate for treatment of HER2-positive tumors. PMID:19752752

Zielinski, Rafal; Lyakhov, Ilya; Jacobs, Amy; Chertov, Oleg; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Francella, Nicholas; Stephen, Andrew; Fisher, Robert; Blumenthal, Robert; Capala, Jacek



Alleviation of Podophyllotoxin Toxicity Using Coexisting Flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis  

PubMed Central

Podophyllotoxin (POD) is a lignan-type toxin existing in many herbs used in folk medicine. Until now, no effective strategy is available for the management of POD intoxication. This study aims to determine the protective effects of ?avonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) on POD-induced toxicity. In Vero cells, both ?avonoids protected POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering alleviating G2/M arrest, decreasing ROS generation and changes of membrane potential, and recovering microtubule structure. In Swiss mice, the group given both POD and ?avonoids group had significantly lower mortality rate and showed less damages in the liver and kidney than the group given POD alone. As compared to the POD group, the POD plus ?avonoids group exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde levels, and increases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. Histological examination of the liver and kidney showed less pathological changes in the treatment of POD plus ?avonoids group. The protective mechanisms were due to the antioxidant activity of ?avonoids against the oxidative stress induced by POD and the competitive binding of ?avonoids against POD for the same colchicines-binding sites. The latter binding was confirmed by the tubulin assembly assay in combination with molecular docking analyses. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that the coexisting flavonoids have great protective effects against the POD toxicity, and results of this study highlighted the great potential of searching for effective antidotes against toxins based on the pharmacological clues. PMID:23991049

Li, Juan; Sun, Hua; Jin, Lu; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Guo, Chong-Yi; Ding, Ke; Luo, Cheng; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Ren-Wang



Biosynthesis of podophyllotoxin in Linum album cell cultures.  


Cell cultures of Linum album Kotschy ex Boiss. (Linaceae) showing high accumulation of the lignan podophyllotoxin (PTOX) were established. Enzymological studies revealed highest activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, 4-hydroxycinnamate:CoA ligase and cinnamoyl-CoA:NADP oxidoreductase immediately prior to PTOX accumulation. To investigate PTOX biosynthesis, feeding experiments were performed with [2-(13)C]3',4'-dimethoxycinnamic acid, [2-(13)C]3',4'-methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA), [2-(13)C]3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamic acid, [2-(13)C]sinapic acid, [2-(13)C]- and [2,3-(13)C(2)]ferulic acid. Analysis of the metabolites by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry revealed incorporation of label from ferulic acid into PTOX and deoxypodophyllotoxin (DOP). In addition, MDCA was also unambiguously incorporated intact into PTOX. These observations suggest that in L. album both ferulic acid and methylenedioxy-substituted cinnamic acid can be incorporated into lignans. Furthermore, it appears that, in this species, the hydroxylation of DOP is a rate-limiting point in the pathway leading to PTOX. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at PMID:12355164

Seidel, Véronique; Windhövel, Jörg; Eaton, Graham; Alfermann, A Wilhelm; Arroo, Randolph R J; Medarde, Manuel; Petersen, Maike; Woolley, Jack G



Podophyllotoxin induces CREB phosphorylation and CRE-driven gene expression via PKA but not MAPKs  

Microsoft Academic Search

CRE-driven luciferase reporter is commonly used in drug screening systems involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In\\u000a a screen campaign designed to search for melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonists, podophyllotoxin, a microtubules disruptor,\\u000a was found to induce cAMPresponsive element (CRE)-driven reporter expression. MC4R was not involved because podophyllotoxin\\u000a induced CREB activation and CRE-driven transcription in cells not expressing MC4R. Previous studies indicated

Ya Qiong Chen; Xin Xie



A Combined DNA-Affinic Molecule and N-Mustard Alkylating Agent Has an Anti-Cancer Effect and Induces Autophagy in Oral Cancer Cells.  


Although surgery or the combination of chemotherapy and radiation are reported to improve the quality of life and reduce symptoms in patients with oral cancer, the prognosis of oral cancer remains generally poor. DNA alkylating agents, such as N-mustard, play an important role in cancer drug development. BO-1051 is a new 9-anilinoacridine N-mustard-derivative anti-cancer drug that can effectively target a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibit tumorigenesis in vivo. However, the underlying mechanism of BO-1051-mediated tumor suppression remains undetermined. In the present study, BO-1051 suppressed cell viability with a low IC(50) in oral cancer cells, but not in normal gingival fibroblasts. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the tumor suppression by BO-1051 was accompanied by cell cycle arrest and downregulation of stemness genes. The enhanced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the formation of acidic vesicular organelles indicated that BO-1501 induced autophagy. The expression of checkpoint kinases was upregulated as demonstrated with Western blot analysis, showing that BO-1051 could induce DNA damage and participate in DNA repair mechanisms. Furthermore, BO-1051 treatment alone exhibited a moderate tumor suppressive effect against xenograft tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. Importantly, the combination of BO-1051 and radiation led to a potent inhibition on xenograft tumorigenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that BO-1051 exhibited a cytotoxic effect via cell cycle arrest and the induction of autophagy. Thus, the combination of BO-1051 and radiotherapy may be a feasible therapeutic strategy against oral cancer in the future. PMID:22489152

Lo, Wen-Liang; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Lee, Tsung-Heng; Su, Tsann-Long; Chien, Yueh; Chen, Yi-Wei; Huang, Pin-I; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Kao, Shou-Yen; Lo, Jeng-Fan



4'-Demethyl-deoxypodophyllotoxin glucoside isolated from Podophyllum hexandrum exhibits potential anticancer activities by altering Chk-2 signaling pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  


We investigated the root of Podophyllum hexandrum as a potential source of lead bioactive metabolites with anticancer activity. The present study led to the isolation of six known aryltetralin-type lignans designated as 4'-demethyl-deoxypodophyllotoxin (1), podophyllotoxin (2), 4'-demethyl-podophyllotoxin (3), podophyllotoxin-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (4), 4'-demethyl-deoxypodophyllotoxin-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (5), 4'-demethyl-podophyllotoxin-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (6), along with three known flavones Kaempferol (7), Quercetin (8), Astragalin (9) from the root of P. hexandrum. Compounds (1-9) exhibited the remarkable cytotoxic potential in diverse cancer cell lines. 5 therapeutic potential was extensively studied first time which exhibiting antiproliferative and ROS generating activity than its non-glycoside analogue 1. Furthermore, 5 augmented the apoptotic cascades in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, viz. nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, probably by destabilizing the micro-tubular protein tubulin. Strikingly, our docking study and in vitro assays demonstrate that 5 binds to and modulate checkpoint kinase-2, a key cell cycle regulatory protein in normal and cancer cells. PMID:25446499

Zilla, Mahesh K; Nayak, Debasis; Amin, Hina; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Rah, Bilal; Chakraborty, Souneek; Kitchlu, Surender; Goswami, Anindya; Ali, Asif



Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins.  


Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1-7). Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that modulate sirtuins, and these modulators have enabled a greater understanding of the biological function and molecular mechanisms of sirtuins. This review highlights the possibility of sirtuins, especially SIRT1 and SIRT2, for cancer therapy targets, and focuses on the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulators both in cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:25486244

Kozako, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Arima, Naomichi; Honda, Shin-Ichiro; Soeda, Shinji



Platinum Complexes as Anticancer Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of inorganic chemistry to medicine is a rapidly developing field, and novel therapeutic and diagnostic metal complexes are now having an impact on medical practice. Advances in biocoordinati on chemistry are crucial for improving the design of compounds to reduce toxic side effects and understand their mechanisms of action. Cisplatin, as one of the leading metal-based drugs, is

Irena Kostova



CYP3A4 overexpression enhances apoptosis induced by anticancer agent imidazoacridinone C-1311, but does not change the metabolism of C-1311 in CHO cells  

PubMed Central

Aim: To examine whether CYP3A4 overexpression influences the metabolism of anticancer agent imidazoacridinone C-1311 in CHO cells and the responses of the cells to C-1311. Methods: Wild type CHO cells (CHO-WT), CHO cells overexpressing cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) [CHO-HR] and CHO cells coexpressing CPR and CYP3A4 (CHO-HR-3A4) were used. Metabolic transformation of C-1311 and CYP3A4 activity were measured using RP-HPLC. Flow cytometry analyses were used to examine cell cycle, caspase-3 activity and cell apoptosis. The expression of pH 6.0-dependent ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) was studied to evaluate accelerated senescence. ROS generation was analyzed with CM-H2 DCFDA staining. Results: CYP3A4 overexpression did not change the metabolism of C-1311 in CHO cells: the levels of all metabolites of C-1311 increased with the exposure time to a similar extent, and the differences in the peak level of the main metabolite M3 were statistically insignificant among the three CHO cell lines. In CHO-HR-3A4 cells, C-1311 effectively inhibited CYP3A4 activity without affecting CYP3A4 protein level. In the presence of C-1311, CHO-WT cells underwent rather stable G2/M arrest, while the two types of transfected cells only transiently accumulated at this phase. C-1311-induced apoptosis and necrosis in the two types of transfected cells occurred with a significantly faster speed and to a greater extent than in CHO-WT cells. Additionally, C-1311 induced ROS generation in the two types of transfected cells, but not in CHO-WT cells. Moreover, CHO-HR-3A4 cells that did not die underwent accelerated senescence. Conclusion: CYP3A4 overexpression in CHO cells enhances apoptosis induced by C-1311, whereas the metabolism of C-1311 is minimal and does not depend on CYP3A4 expression. PMID:24292379

Paw?owska, Monika; Augustin, Ewa; Mazerska, Zofia



Synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one analogs and their biological evaluation as anticancer agents: mTOR inhibitors.  


A microwave assisted strategy for synthesis of series of 1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones has been developed and their biological evaluation as anticancer agents is described. The synthetic protocol involves simple procedure by oxidative coupling of 4-amino-1-methyl-3-propyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide with different aldehydes in presence of K2S2O8 offering 5-substituted-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one compounds in excellent yields. The in vitro anticancer activity screening against human cancer cell lines HeLa, CAKI-I, PC-3, MiaPaca-2, A549 gave good results. The in detailed mechanistic correlation studies of compound 3m revealed that the compound shows anticancer activity through apoptosis mechanism and also inhibits mTOR with nonomolar potency. The design was based on docking with mTOR protein. The concentration dependent cell cycle analysis, western blotting experiment and nuclear cell morphology studies have been described. PMID:24780597

Reddy, G Lakshma; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Srinivas, M; Pathania, Anup Singh; Mahajan, Priya; Nargotra, Amit; Bhushan, Shashi; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Sawant, Sanghapal D



Increased podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum cell suspension cultures after feeding coniferyl alcohol as a ?-cyclodextrin complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspension cultures, derived from roots of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), accumulate podophyllotoxin. In this study the use of ß-cyclodextrin in feeding the poorly water-soluble precursor coniferyl alcohol to these cultures is described. By complexation with ß-cyclodextrin, a solution of 3 mM coniferyl alcohol could be fed, resulting in enhanced podophyllotoxin accumulation. The same concentration of non-complexed suspended coniferyl alcohol

Herman J. Woerdenbag; Wim van Uden; Henderik W. Frijlink; Coenraad F. Lerk; Niesko Pras; Theo M. Malingré



Meta-Analysis of 5% Imiquimod and 0.5% Podophyllotoxin in the Treatment of Condylomata Acuminata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted disease caused by human papillomaviruses. Podophyllotoxin 0.5%, approved for patient self-administration, has been used most extensively in the treatment of genital warts. Imiquimod, a novel immune response modifier capable of inducing interferon-? and a variety of cytokines, has been examined as a potential treatment for genital warts. But 0.5% podophyllotoxin and 5%

Jun Yan; Sheng-Li Chen; Hai-Na Wang; Tai-Xiang Wu



Anticancer chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

This document examines chemotherapeutic agents for use in veterinary oncology. It lists some of the most common categories of chemotherapeutic drugs, such as alkylating agents and corticosteroids. For each category, the paper lists some example drugs, gives their mode of action, tumors usually susceptible to the drug, and common side effects. A brief discussion of mechanisms of drug resistance is also provided. (MHB)

Weller, R.E.



Anticancer Studies of Aqueous Extract of Roots and Leaves of Pandanus Odoratissimus f. ferreus (Y. Kimura) Hatus: An In Vitro Approach.  


A number of medicinal plant extracts are being used against various diseases in different systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha, but only a few of them have been scientifically explored. The objective of the present study was to explore the dose-dependent in vitro anticancer effects of the extracts of Pandanus odoratissimus whose scientific documentation as an anticancer agent is lacking despite being used traditionally. The dried parts of roots and leaves were extracted with methanol (MEPO) and water (AEPO). The extracts were then subjected to in vitro cytotoxic and antimitotic screening by brine shrimp lethality assay and onion root tip method, respectively. Further, the behavior of the extracts on calu-6 (non-small cell lung cancer cell lines), PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and WI (lung fibroblast cell lines) was studied using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay followed by flow cytometric analysis on calu-6 cell lines. AEPO showed significant cytotoxic and antimitotic activities. It showed 100% lethality of brine shrimps at 80 ?g/ml and an LC50 of 33.33 ?g/ml, which was eightfold higher than that of synthetic standard podophyllotoxin (4.16 ?g/ml). AEPO at 10 mg/ml concentration showed significant antimitotic activity by showing 3% mitotic index. which was more than that of standard cyclophosphamide with 4% mitotic index in comparison to control. There was a significant reduction in cell proliferation of calu-6 cells, ranging from 56 to 35%, after 24-48 h of treatment with 200 ?g/ml (P < 0.001) of AEPO, while AEPO remained unaffected on PBMC and WI-38 cel lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed that AEPO at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml significantly increased the number of cells in sub G0-G1 phase, indicating the cells entering in to apoptotic phase. These results suggest that aqueous extract of P. odoratissimus possesses better anticancer activity. The plant has the potential to be used in anticancer therapy, and this study scientifically validated the folklore use of this plant. PMID:25379472

Raj, Gunti Gowtham; Varghese, Hyma Sara; Kotagiri, Sarita; Vrushabendra Swamy, B M; Swamy, Archana; Pathan, Rafi Khan



Synthesis and evaluation of N-((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)nicotinamides as potential anticancer agents that inhibit tubulin polymerization.  


A series of N-((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)nicotinamides (4) was synthesized and tested for their anticancer activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. Some of the representative compounds such as 4a, 4b, 4f, 4g, 4i and 4t were selected for the five dose study and amongst them 4g and 4i displayed significant anticancer activity with GI50 values ranging from 0.25 to 8.34 and 1.42 to 5.86?M, respectively. Cell cycle analysis revealed that these compounds induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in MCF-7 cells. The most active compound in this series 4g also inhibited tubulin polymerization with IC50 value 1.93?M superior to that of E7010. Moreover, assay to investigate the effect on caspase-9, Hoechst staining and DNA fragmentation analysis suggested that these compounds induced cell death by apoptosis. Docking experiments showed that they interact and bind efficiently with tubulin protein. Overall, the results demonstrate that N-((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)nicotinamide scaffold possess anticancer property by inhibiting the tubulin polymerization. PMID:24835786

Kamal, Ahmed; Reddy, N V Subba; Nayak, V Lakshma; Bolla, Narasimha Rao; Subba Rao, A V; Prasad, B



Absolute configuration of podophyllotoxin related lignans from Bursera fagaroides using vibrational circular dichroism.  


The ethanol extract from the dried exudate of Bursera fagaroides (Burseraceae) showed significant cytotoxic activity in the HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) test system. The extract provided four podophyllotoxin related lignans, identified as (7'R,8R,8'R)-(-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin (3), (7'R,8R,8'R)-(-)-morelensin (4), (8R,8'R)-(-)-yatein (5), and (8R,8'R)-(-)-5'-desmethoxyyatein (6), whose spectroscopic and chiroptical properties were compared with those of (7R,7'R,8R,8'R)-(-)-podophyllotoxin (1) and its acetyl derivative (2). Their absolute configurations were assigned by comparison of the vibrational circular dichroism spectra of 1 and 3 with those obtained by density functional theory calculations. PMID:21840559

Velázquez-Jiménez, René; Torres-Valencia, J Martín; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Hernández-Hernández, Juan D; Román-Marín, Luisa U; Manríquez-Torres, J Jesús; Gómez-Hurtado, Mario A; Valdez-Calderón, Alejandro; Motilva, Virginia; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Talero, Elena; Avila, Javier; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro



Dirigent-mediated podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in Linum flavum and Podophyllum peltatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the importance of the antitumor\\/antiviral lignans, podophyllotoxin and 5-methoxypodophyllotoxin, as biotechnological targets, their biosynthetic pathways were investigated in Podophyllum peltatum and Linum flavum. Entry into their pathways was established to occur via dirigent mediated coupling of E-coniferyl alcohol to afford (+)-pinoresinol; the encoding gene was cloned and the recombinant protein subsequently obtained. Radiolabeled substrate studies using partially purified enzyme

Zhi-Qiang Xia; Michael A Costa; John Proctor; Laurence B Davin; Norman G Lewis



Optimization of culture parameters for production of podophyllotoxin in suspension culture of Podophyllum hexandrum.  


The root explants of the germinated seedlings of Podophyllum hexandrum were grown in MS medium supplemented with indole acetic acid (IAA) (2 mg/L) and activated charcoal (0.5%), and healthy callus culture was obtained after incubation for 3 wk at 20 degrees C. The cultivation of plant cells in shake flask was associated with problems such as clumping of cells and browning of media, which were solved by the addition of pectinase and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The effect of major media components and carbon source was studied on the growth and podophyllotoxin production in suspension culture. It was found that glucose was a better carbon source than sucrose and that NH4+:NO3- ratio (total nitrogen concentration of 60 mM) and PO4(3-) did not have much effect on the growth and product formation. The relative effect of culture parameters (inoculum level, pH, IAA, glucose, NH4+:NO3- ratio, and PO4(3-)) on the overall growth and product response of the plant cell suspension culture was further investigated by Plackett-Burman design. This indicated that inoculum level, glucose, IAA, and pH had significant effects on growth and production of podophyllotoxin. To identify the exact optimum concentrations of these parameters on culture growth and podophyllotoxin production, central composite design experiments were formulated. The overall response equations with respect to growth and podophyllotoxin production as a function of these culture parameters were developed and used to determine the optimum concentrations of these parameters, which were pH 6.0, 1.25 mg/L of IAA, 72 g/L of glucose, and inoculum level of 8 g/L. PMID:12396139

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Srivastava, A K; Bisaria, V S



Application of ultrasound as pretreatment for extraction of podophyllotoxin from rhizomes of Podophyllum peltatum.  


The effect of high-power ultrasound pretreatment on the extraction of podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum peltatum was investigated. Direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn was applied at 24 kHz and a number of factors were investigated: particle size (0.18-0.6 mm), type of solvent (0-100% aqueous ethanol), ultrasonic treatment time (2-40 min), and power of ultrasound (0-100% power intensity, maximum power: 78 W). The optimal condition of ultrasound was achieved with 0.425-0.6 mm particle size, 10 min sonication time, 35 W ultrasound power, and water as the medium. There was no obvious degradation of podophyllotoxin with ultrasound under the applied conditions, and an improvement in extractability was observed. The SEM microscopic structure change of treated samples disclosed the effect of ultrasound on the tissue cells. The increased pore volume and surface area after ultrasonic treatment also confirmed the positive effect of ultrasound pretreatment on the extraction yield of podophyllotoxin from the plant cells. PMID:21664168

Zhao, Shuna; Baik, Oon Doo



Advances in chalcones with anticancer activities.  


Chalcones are naturally occurring compounds exhibiting broad spectrum biological activities including anticancer activity through multiple mechanisms. Literature on anticancer chalcones highlights the employment of three pronged strategies, namely; structural manipulation of both aryl rings, replacement of aryl rings with heteroaryl scaffolds, molecular hybridization through conjugation with other pharmacologically interesting scaffolds for enhancement of anticancer properties. Methoxy substitutions on both the aryl rings (A and B) of the chalcones, depending upon their positions in the aryl rings appear to influence anticancer and other activities. Similarly, heterocyclic rings either as ring A or B in chalcones, also influence the anticancer activity shown by this class of compounds. Hybrid chalcones formulated by chemically linking chalcones to other prominent anticancer scaffolds such as pyrrol[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines, benzothiazoles, imidazolones have demonstrated synergistic or additive pharmacological activities. The successful application of these three pronged strategies for discovering novel anticancer agents based on chalcone scaffold has resulted in many novel and chemically diverse chalcones with potential therapeutic application for many types of cancer. This review summarizes the concerted efforts expended on the design and development of anticancer chalcones recorded in recent literature and also provides an overview of the patents published in this area between 2007 and 2014 (WO2013022951, WO201201745 & US2012029489). PMID:25138130

Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Moorthy, Narayana S H Narayana; Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Vanam, Uma; Manivannan, Elangovan; Karunagaran, Devarajan; Trivedi, Piyush



Synthesis and pharmacological evaluations of novel 2H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)-one derivatives as a new class of anti-cancer agents.  


The synthesis of novel 2H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)-one derivatives has been carried out using trifluoroacetic anhydride/phosphoric acid mediated C-C bond forming reaction as a key step. This method does not require the use of environmentally harmful AlCl(3) or moisture sensitive acid chloride. A number of compounds containing the benzooxazinone moiety attached to a five-membered central heterocyclic ring was synthesized and tested for their anti-cancer properties in vitro against three cell lines e.g. A549 (lung), DLD-1 (colorectal adenocarcinoma) and MV4-11 (acute myeloid leukemia). Some of them showed anti-cancer activities along with a number of reference compounds tested. Few of them showed promising anti-leukemic properties. A brief Structure-Activity-Relationship study within the series is presented. An imidazole derivative 9c containing benzene ring with a para-CF(3) group at C-2 position was identified as a potent anti-leukemic agent. PMID:21862183

Rajitha, Chittipaka; Dubey, P K; Sunku, Venkataiah; Piedrafita, F Javier; Veeramaneni, Venugopal Rao; Pal, Manojit



Novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to produce podophyllic acid and picropodophyllotoxin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066. Part I: process development.  


A novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin (1) to produce picropodophyllotoxin (2) and podophyllic acid (3) was developed in this work. Eight bacteria which could modify the structure of podophyllotoxin were screened out from the tested fourteen bacteria. The highest conversion of podophyllotoxin (i.e., 70.2 +/- 8.0%) was obtained when Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066 was used as biocatalyst, so P. aeruginosa was selected as a typical biocatalyst in the following study. Product (2) and (3) were separated through D312 macroporous resin and sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatograph. On the basis of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, ESI-MS and Elemental Analysis, product (2) and (3) were identified as picropodophyllotoxin (2) and podophyllic acid (3), respectively. This suggested the site-specific isomerization and hydrolization of podophyllotoxin occurred during its biotransformation process by P. aeruginosa. For the first time, podophyllotoxin was biotransformed into its hydrolytic derivate (i.e., podophyllic acid). PMID:19115065

Tang, Ya-Jie; Li, Yan; Zhong, Jian-Jiang



Tubulins - the target for anticancer therapy.  


Tubulin has picked up great focus as a major target in drug discovery and consequently, tubulin inhibitors have pulling in a considerable attention as anticancer agents. Numerable naturally occurring agents have focused on tubulin system act as an imperative target of cancer chemotherapy. Substantial number of tubulin inhibitors has been discovered so far and these agents are classified as indicated by their interaction. They are colchicine site binder, vinca- alkaloid related drugs and those interacting with the Taxol binding site and functioning as stabilising agents. We review the recent advances in the advancement of tubulin interfering agents and will render the current trend in the improvement of tubulin inhibitors as anticancer agents. PMID:25579568

Vindya, N G; Sharma, Nishant; Yadav, Mukesh; Ethiraj, K R



Efficacy of a Non-Hypercalcemic Vitamin-D2 Derived Anti-Cancer Agent (MT19c) and Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis in an Ovarian Cancer Xenograft Model  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous vitamin-D analogs exhibited poor response rates, high systemic toxicities and hypercalcemia in human trials to treat cancer. We identified the first non-hypercalcemic anti-cancer vitamin D analog MT19c by altering the A-ring of ergocalciferol. This study describes the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of MT19c in both in vitro and in vivo models. Methodology/Principal Finding Antitumor efficacy of MT19c was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell (SKOV-3) xenografts in nude mice and a syngenic rat ovarian cancer model. Serum calcium levels of MT19c or calcitriol treated animals were measured. In-silico molecular docking simulation and a cell based VDR reporter assay revealed MT19c–VDR interaction. Genomewide mRNA analysis of MT19c treated tumors identified drug targets which were verified by immunoblotting and microscopy. Quantification of cellular malonyl CoA was carried out by HPLC-MS. A binding study with PPAR-Y receptor was performed. MT19c reduced ovarian cancer growth in xenograft and syngeneic animal models without causing hypercalcemia or acute toxicity. MT19c is a weak vitamin-D receptor (VDR) antagonist that disrupted the interaction between VDR and coactivator SRC2-3. Genome-wide mRNA analysis and western blot and microscopy of MT19c treated xenograft tumors showed inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) activity. MT19c reduced cellular levels of malonyl CoA in SKOV-3 cells and inhibited EGFR/phosphoinositol-3kinase (PI-3K) activity independently of PPAR-gamma protein. Significance Antitumor effects of non-hypercalcemic agent MT19c provide a new approach to the design of vitamin-D based anticancer molecules and a rationale for developing MT19c as a therapeutic agent for malignant ovarian tumors by targeting oncogenic de novo lipogenesis. PMID:22509304

Moore, Richard G.; Lange, Thilo S.; Robinson, Katina; Kim, Kyu K.; Uzun, Alper; Horan, Timothy C.; Kawar, Nada; Yano, Naohiro; Chu, Sharon R.; Mao, Quanfu; Brard, Laurent; DePaepe, Monique E.; Padbury, James F.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Brodsky, Alexander; Shen, Tun-Li; Singh, Rakesh K.



Structure-activity study of the inhibition of microtubule assembly in vitro by podophyllotoxin and its congeners.  


This study investigates the inhibition of microtubule assembly in vitro by podophyllotoxin and its derivatives, which include in part the antitumor compounds 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin ethylidene beta-D-glucoside (VP-16-213) and 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin thenylidene beta-D-glucoside (VM-26); the cyclic ethers, cyclic sulfides, and cyclic sulfones of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin; epipodophyllotoxin; picropodophyllotoxin; and several 4'-demethyl compounds. The inhibitory activity of these derivatives is sensitive to the configuration and size of substituents at position 4 in ring C and to steric features of substituents at position 12 in ring D. Decreasing activity correlates with the increasing size of the substituent at position 12, as indexed by their van der Waals radii. These results suggest that rings C and D of these drugs are involved in their interaction with the podophyllotoxin-binding site in tubulin. PMID:679171

Loike, J D; Brewer, C F; Sternlicht, H; Gensler, W J; Horwitz, S B



Utility of L-norephedrine in the semisynthesis of novel thiourea and thiazolidine derivatives as a new class of anticancer agents.  


The natural alkaloid 1-norephedrine 1 was utlized in the synthesis of some novel thiourea derivatives 2, 5 and thiazolidinones 4a,b and 6, 7. Structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectral data. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for anticancer activity against the human breast (MCF-7), human liver (HEPG2) and human colon (HCT116) cancer cell lines. Thiazolidinone derivative 7 was the most active against all the cell lines with values IC50 = 2.60, 2.80 and 2.60 microg/mL compared with doxorubicin (IC50 = 5.40, 2.97 and 5.26 microg/mL). Thiazolidinone derivative 6 exhibited higher activity with IC50 value (3.20 microg/mL) against HCT116 when compared with doxorubicin with IC50 value (5.26 microg/mL) as positive control. PMID:25272887

Ghorab, Mostafa M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Alsaid, Mansour S



CIP-36, a novel topoisomerase II-targeting agent, induces the apoptosis of multidrug-resistant cancer cells in vitro.  


The need to overcome cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) has fueled considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic antitumor agents with cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines with MDR. In this study, we aimed to investigate CIP-36, a novel podophyllotoxin derivative, for its inhibitory effects on human cancer cells from multiple sources, particularly cells with MDR in vitro. The human leukemia cell line, K562, and the adriamycin-resistant subline, K562/A02, were exposed to CIP-36 or anticancer agents, and various morphological and biochemical properties were assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining under a fluorescence microscope. Subsequently, cytotoxicity, cell growth curves and the cell cycle were analyzed. Finally, the effects of CIP-36 on topoisomerase II? (Topo II?) activity were determined. Treatment with CIP-36 significantly inhibited the growth of the K562 and MDR K562/A02 cells. Our data demonstrated that CIP-36 induced apoptosis, inhibited cell cycle progression and inhibited Topo II? activity. These findings suggest that CIP-36 has the potential to overcome the multidrug resistance of K562/A02 cells by mediating Topo II? activity. PMID:25592869

Cao, Bo; Chen, Hong; Gao, Ying; Niu, Cong; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Ling



Thermal chemistry of podophyllotoxin in ethanol and a comparison of the cytostatic activity of the thermolysis products.  


Podophyllotoxin (1) in buffered ethanolic solution is degraded by two pathways. One leads to (a) picropodophyllin (2), which undergoes dehydration to give alpha-apopicropodophyllin (5), which rearranges to give beta-apopicropodophyllin (6), (b) the ethyl ether of picropodophyllotoxin, 8, and (c) the ethyl ether of epipicropodophyllotoxin, 7. The other pathway leads directly to epipodophyllotoxin (10) and the corresponding ethyl ether, 9, and possibly, via a transient 3,4-dehydropodophyllotoxin (5'), to beta-apopicropodophyllin (6). The 1H NMR spectra of these compounds are described, their in vitro cytostatic activity compared, and their syntheses, including that of podophyllotoxin ethyl ether, reported. PMID:3820102

Buchardt, O; Jensen, R B; Hansen, H F; Nielsen, P E; Andersen, D; Chinoin, I



4-Aza-2,3-dehydro-4-deoxypodophyllotoxins: simple aza-podophyllotoxin analogues possessing potent cytotoxicity.  


4-Aza-2,3-dehydro-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin analogues 3a-n were synthesized through quinolines 2a-n. Comparison of their cytotoxicity against P-388 leukemia cells revealed that the steric effects of the ring B substituents on the activity are greater than the electronic effects, while the presence of a methoxy group on the ring E is not essential to exhibit potent cytotoxicity. Analogues 3a and 3b proved to be more than twice as cytotoxic as natural podophyllotoxin (1). PMID:10714489

Hitotsuyanagi, Y; Fukuyo, M; Tsuda, K; Kobayashi, M; Ozeki, A; Itokawa, H; Takeya, K



Synthesis and discovery of 18?-GAMG as anticancer agent in vitro and in vivo via down expression of protein p65.  


Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a natural product with favorable antitumor activity. But, glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide (GAMG) showed stronger antitumor activity than GA. It is of our interest to generate and identify novel compounds with regulation telomerase for cancer therapy. So, in this study, 18?-GAMG was synthesized via biotransformation. In vitro studies showed that it displayed potent anticancer activity and high selectivity on tumor liver cell SMMC-7721 versus human normal liver cell L-02. The further results in vivo confirmed that it could significantly improve pathological changes of N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat hepatic tumor. Western blot and immunofluorescence results indicated that the expression of p65-telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) was clearly down-regulated treated with it. Taken together, this study for the first time identified an active compound with high selectivity on tumor liver cell in mice. Furthermore, the title compound could inhibit the expression of protein p65 and TERT. These data support further studies to assess the rational design of more efficient p65 modulators in the future. PMID:25407586

Tang, Wen-Jian; Yang, Yong-An; Xu, He; Shi, Jing-Bo; Liu, Xin-Hua



Semi-synthesis of acylated triterpenes from olive-oil industry wastes for the development of anticancer and anti-HIV agents.  


A broad set of potential bioactive conjugate compounds has been semi-synthesized through solution- and solid-phase organic procedures, coupling two natural pentacyclic triterpene acids, oleanolic (OA) and maslinic acids (MA), at the hydroxyl groups of the A-ring of the triterpene skeleton, with 10 different acyl groups. These acyl OA and MA derivatives have been tested for their anti-proliferative (against the b16f10 murine melanoma cancer cells) and antiviral (as inhibitors of the HIV-1-protease) effects. Several derivatives have shown high levels of early and total apoptosis (up to 90%). Most of the compounds that exhibited anti-proliferative effects also generated ROS, probably involving the activation of an intrinsic apoptotic route. The only four compounds that did not cause the release of ROS could be related to the participation of a probable extrinsic activation of the apoptosis mechanism. A great number of these acyl OA and MA derivatives have proved to be potent inhibitors of the HIV-1-protease, the most active inhibitors having IC50 values between 0.31 and 15.6 ?M, these values being between 4 and 186 times lower than their non-acylated precursors. The potent activities exhibited in the apoptosis-activation processes and in the inhibition of the HIV-1-protease by some OA and MA acylated derivatives imply that these compounds could be used as new, safe, and effective anticancer and/or antiviral drugs. PMID:24480359

Parra, Andres; Martin-Fonseca, Samuel; Rivas, Francisco; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; Medina-O'Donnell, Marta; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Lupiañez, Jose A; Albericio, Fernando



A quantitative chemical proteomics approach to profile the specific cellular targets of andrographolide, a promising anticancer agent that suppresses tumor metastasis.  


Drug target identification is a critical step toward understanding the mechanism of action of a drug, which can help one improve the drug's current therapeutic regime and expand the drug's therapeutic potential. However, current in vitro affinity-chromatography-based and in vivo activity-based protein profiling approaches generally face difficulties in discriminating specific drug targets from nonspecific ones. Here we describe a novel approach combining isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation with clickable activity-based protein profiling to specifically and comprehensively identify the protein targets of andrographolide (Andro), a natural product with known anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects, in live cancer cells. We identified a spectrum of specific targets of Andro, which furthered our understanding of the mechanism of action of the drug. Our findings, validated through cell migration and invasion assays, showed that Andro has a potential novel application as a tumor metastasis inhibitor. Moreover, we have unveiled the target binding mechanism of Andro with a combination of drug analog synthesis, protein engineering, and mass-spectrometry-based approaches and determined the drug-binding sites of two protein targets, NF-?B and actin. PMID:24445406

Wang, Jigang; Tan, Xing Fei; Nguyen, Van Sang; Yang, Peng; Zhou, Jing; Gao, Mingming; Li, Zhengjun; Lim, Teck Kwang; He, Yingke; Ong, Chye Sun; Lay, Yifei; Zhang, Jianbin; Zhu, Guili; Lai, Siew-Li; Ghosh, Dipanjana; Mok, Yu Keung; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong



New anticancer agents: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antitumor and antimetastatic actions of various compounds isolated from medicinal plants.  


In this review, in the search for the development of new anticancer drugs, the effects of compounds isolated from various medicinal plants on tumor growth and metastasis, using mice bearing a highly metastatic drug-resistant mouse tumor, were studied. The antitumor and antimetastatic actions of stilbene derivatives isolated from Polygonum and Cassia species were examined. Among the stilbene derivatives, resveratrol and cassiagrol A (stilbene dimer) displayed antitumor and antimetastatic actions through the inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization in in vitro and in vivo models. It was found that two chalcone derivatives from Angelica keiskei roots also inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in tumor-bearing mice through the inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization and/or the inhibition of immune suppression caused by tumors. Recently, basidiomycete fungi have been used for the treatment of cancer. Then, the low molecular weight substances were isolated from Agaricus blazei and Ganoderma lucidum as antitumor and antimetastatic substances. It is suggested that these substances of basidiomycete also inhibited tumor growth and metastasis to the lung through the inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization and/or the inhibition of immune suppression caused by tumors. PMID:15796155

Kimura, Yoshiyuki



An anticancer agent, pyrvinium pamoate inhibits the NADH-fumarate reductase system--a unique mitochondrial energy metabolism in tumour microenvironments.  


Increased glycolysis is the principal explanation for how cancer cells generate energy in the absence of oxygen. However, in actual human tumour microenvironments, hypoxia is often associated with hypoglycemia because of the poor blood supply. Therefore, glycolysis cannot be the sole mechanism for the maintenance of the energy status in cancers. To understand energy metabolism in cancer cells under hypoxia-hypoglycemic conditions mimicking the tumour microenvironments, we examined the NADH-fumarate reductase (NADH-FR) system, which functions in parasites under hypoxic condition, as a candidate mechanism. In human cancer cells (DLD-1, Panc-1 and HepG2) cultured under hypoxic-hypoglycemic conditions, NADH-FR activity, which is composed of the activities of complex I (NADH-ubiquinone reductase) and the reverse reaction of complex II (quinol-FR), increased, whereas NADH-oxidase activity decreased. Pyrvinium pamoate (PP), which is an anthelmintic and has an anti-cancer effect within tumour-mimicking microenvironments, inhibited NADH-FR activities in both parasites and mammalian mitochondria. Moreover, PP increased the activity of complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase) in mitochondria from human cancer cells cultured under normoxia-normoglycemic conditions but not under hypoxia-hypoglycemic conditions. These results indicate that the NADH-FR system may be important for maintaining mitochondrial energy production in tumour microenvironments and suggest its potential use as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:22528668

Tomitsuka, Eriko; Kita, Kiyoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu



Anticancer drug renal toxicity and elimination: dosing guidelines for altered renal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrow therapeutic index of anticancer drugs presents a clinical dilemma when these agents are administered to patients with impaired or unstable renal function. The purpose of this review is to (i) describe the nephrotoxicity of certain anticancer drugs, (ii) evaluate the fraction of renal clearance for pertinent anticancer drugs, and (iii) make general recommendations for the dosing of these

Polly E. Kintzel; Robert T. Dorr



Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro.

Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain



Design and synthesis of C3-pyrazole/chalcone-linked beta-carboline hybrids: antitopoisomerase?I, DNA-interactive, and apoptosis-inducing anticancer agents.  


A series of ?-carboline hybrids bearing a substituted phenyl and a chalcone/(N-acetyl)-pyrazole moiety at the C1 and C3 positions, respectively, was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for anticancer activity. These new hybrid molecules showed significant cytotoxic activity, with IC50 values ranging from <2.0??M to 80??M, and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) associated with substitutions at positions?1 and 3 of these hybrids was clearly addressed. Further, induction of apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin?V-FITC, Hoechst staining, and DNA fragmentation analysis. In addition, DNA photocleavage studies proved that two of the hybrids, (E)-1-(furan-2-yl)-3-(1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (7?d) and 1-(3-(furan-2-yl)-5-(1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanone (8?d) could effectively cleave pBR322 plasmid DNA upon irradiation with UV light. Active hybrid 8?d inhibited DNA topoisomerase?I activity efficiently and preserved DNA in the supercoiled form. To further corroborate the biological activities, as well as to understand the nature of the interaction of these hybrids with DNA, spectroscopic studies were also performed. Unlike simple ?-carboline alkaloids, the binding mode of these new hybrid molecules with DNA was not similar, and both biophysical as well as molecular docking studies speculated a combilexin-type of interaction with DNA. Further, an in silico study of these ?-carboline hybrids revealed their drug-like properties. PMID:24470122

Kamal, Ahmed; Srinivasulu, Vunnam; Nayak, V Lakshma; Sathish, Manda; Shankaraiah, Nagula; Bagul, Chandrakant; Reddy, N V Subba; Rangaraj, Nandini; Nagesh, Narayana



Synthesis and antimitotic and tubulin interaction profiles of novel pinacol derivatives of podophyllotoxins.  


Several pinacol derivatives of podophyllotoxins bearing different side chains and functions at C-7 were synthesized through reductive cross-coupling of podophyllotoxone and several aldehydes and ketones. While possessing a hydroxylated chain at C-7, the compounds retained their respective hydroxyl group with either the 7? (podo) or 7? (epipodo) configuration. Along with pinacols, some C-7 alkylidene and C-7 alkyl derivatives were also prepared. Cytotoxicities against neoplastic cells followed by cell cycle arrest and cellular microtubule disruption were evaluated and mechanistically characterized through tubulin polymerization inhibition and assays of binding to the colchicine site. Compounds of the epipodopinacol (7?-OH) series behaved similarly to podophyllotoxin in all the assays and proved to be the most potent inhibitors. Significantly, 7?-isopropyl-7-deoxypodophyllotoxin (20), without any hydroxyl function, appeared as a promising lead compound for a novel type of tubulin polymerization inhibitors. Experimental results were in overall agreement with modeling and docking studies performed on representative compounds of each series. PMID:22607205

Abad, Andrés; López-Pérez, José L; del Olmo, Esther; García-Fernández, Luis F; Francesch, Andrés; Trigili, Chiara; Barasoain, Isabel; Andreu, José M; Díaz, J Fernando; San Feliciano, Arturo



Alpha-Helical Cationic Anticancer Peptides: A Promising Candidate of Novel Anticancer Drugs.  


Cancer has become a great concern in public health. The harmful side effects and multidrug resistance of traditional chemotherapy prompt urgent needs for novel anticancer drugs or therapeutic approaches. Anticancer peptides (ACPs) have become promising molecules as new anticancer agents due to the unique mechanism and several extraordinary properties. Most ?-helical ACPs target on cell membrane and the interactions between ACPs and cell membrane components are believed to be a key factor in the selective killing of cancer cells. In this review, we focus on the exploitation of the structure and function of ?-helical ACPs, including the distinction of cancer cells and normal cells, the proposed anticancer mechanisms, and the influence of physicochemical parameters of ?-helical ACPs on the biological activities and selectivity against cancer cells. In addition, the design and modification methods to optimize the cell selectivity of ?-helical ACPs are also considered. Finally, the suitability of ACPs as cancer therapeutics is also discussed. PMID:25382016

Huang, Yibing; Feng, Q I; Yan, Qiuyan; Hao, Xueyu; Chen, Yuxin



A Novel Use of Gentamicin in the ROS-Mediated Sensitization of NCI-H460 Lung Cancer Cells to Various Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are used for the treatment of severe Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections. While bactericidal effects of aminoglycosides are due to binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, aminoglycosides can affect protein synthesis, intracellular calcium levels and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in eukaryotic cells. While aminoglycosides can be cytotoxic at high concentrations, our results show that at much lower doses, gentamicin can be implemented as a sensitizing agent for the NSCLC cell line NCI-H460, increasing the efficacy of camptothecin, digitoxin and vinblastine in vitro. We have also established that this sensitization is reliant on the ROS response generated by gentamicin. PMID:24093441

Cuccarese, Michael F.; Singh, Amit; Amiji, Mansoor; O’Doherty, George A.



Dendrimer-encapsulated naphthalocyanine as a single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform for near-infrared fluorescence imaging and combinatorial anticancer phototherapy.  


Multifunctional theranostic platforms capable of concurrent near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and phototherapies are strongly desired for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the integration of separate imaging and therapeutic components into nanocarriers results in complex theranostic systems with limited translational potential. A single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform, therefore, was developed for concurrent NIR fluorescence imaging and combinatorial phototherapy with dual photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal (PTT) therapeutic mechanisms. The transformation of a substituted silicon naphthalocyanine (SiNc) into a biocompatible nanoplatform (SiNc-NP) was achieved by SiNc encapsulation into the hydrophobic interior of a generation 5 polypropylenimine dendrimer following surface modification with polyethylene glycol. Encapsulation provides aqueous solubility to SiNc and preserves its NIR fluorescence, PDT and PTT properties. Moreover, an impressive photostability in the dendrimer-encapsulated SiNc has been detected. Under NIR irradiation (785 nm, 1.3 W cm(-2)), SiNc-NP manifested robust heat generation capability (?T = 40 °C) and efficiently produced reactive oxygen species essential for PTT and PDT, respectively, without releasing SiNc from the nanopaltform. By varying the laser power density from 0.3 W cm(-2) to 1.3 W cm(-2) the therapeutic mechanism of SiNc-NP could be switched from PDT to combinatorial PDT-PTT treatment. In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that phototherapy mediated by SiNc can efficiently destroy chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cells. Remarkably, solid tumors treated with a single dose of SiNc-NP combined with NIR irradiation were completely eradicated without cancer recurrence. Finally, the efficiency of SiNc-NP as an NIR imaging agent was confirmed by recording the strong fluorescence signal in the tumor, which was not photobleached during the phototherapeutic procedure. PMID:25422147

Taratula, Olena; Schumann, Canan; Duong, Tony; Taylor, Karmin L; Taratula, Oleh



An estrogen analogue and promising anticancer agent refrains from inducing morphological damage and reactive oxygen species generation in erythrocytes, fibrin and platelets: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background 2-Methoxyestradiol is known to have antitumour and antiproliferative action in vitro and in vivo. However, when 2-methoxyestradiol is orally administered, it is rapidly oxidized by the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, 2-methoxyestradiol never reaches high enough concentrations in the tissue to be able to exert these antitumour properties. This resulted in the in silico-design of 2-methoxyestradiol analogues in collaboration with the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Unit (UP) and subsequent synthesis by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Midrand, South Africa). One such a novelty-designed analogue is 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1, 3, 5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16). Methods This pilot study aimed to determine the morphological effect and possible generation of reactive oxygen species by ESE-16 on erythrocytes and platelet samples (with and without added thrombin) by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Results Erythrocytes and platelets were exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 180nM for 24 hours. Scanning- and transmission electron microscopy indicated that ESE-16 did not cause changes to erythrocytes, platelets or fibrin networks. Flow cytometry measurements of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide indicated that ESE-16 does not cause an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species in these blood samples. Conclusion Further in vivo research is warranted to determine whether this novel in silico-designed analogue may impact on development of future chemotherapeutic agents and whether it could be considered as an antitumour agent. PMID:24932135



Frequency and timing of leaf removal affect growth and podophyllotoxin content of Podophyllum peltatum in full sun.  


Podophyllotoxin is a pharmaceutical compound found in leaves and rhizomes of American mayapple (P. peltatum L.), a species being investigated as an alternative to that of the Indian mayapple (P. emodi). Leaves alone can serve as a renewable source of podophyllotoxin (and other lignans) leaving rhizomes undisturbed to produce leaf biomass in subsequent years. It is not known, however, how frequently or severely plants can be defoliated without adversely affecting future plant growth, lignan content, or podophyllotoxin yield (g.m(-2)). This study compared harvest strategies that were mild to severe in frequency and timing of leaf removal. A wild population in full sun was subjected to leaf removal treatments of varying frequency (every year, every 2nd or 3rd year) and timing (early or late). Control plots not previously harvested were included every year. Plots were 1.0 m2 and established during spring of 2001. Duration of the study was four years. P. peltatum plants did not tolerate the most severe harvest treatment: annual harvest frequency in combination with early harvest time. Early annual harvests reduced total leaf dry mass and total leaf area in a consistent and linear manner. In contrast, plants tolerated annual harvests when conducted late in the growing season and tolerated early harvests when conducted every 2nd or 3rd year. The number of sexual shoots was reduced to zero by early annual harvests. Podophyllotoxin content was 2.7 to 6.5 times greater in leaves harvested early compared to those harvested late, though content was significantly greater in only two out of four years. In conclusion, we can recommend leaf removal every year from well-established P. peltatum populations grown in full sun if harvests are conducted late in the growing season. This harvest strategy ensures maximum podophyllotoxin yield without jeopardizing future leaf biomass yield. Leaves harvested early appear to have greater podophyllotoxin content, but we discourage early harvest every year. Instead, our results indicate that leaves can be harvested early every other year without reducing long-term performance of P. peltatum populations. PMID:16791769

Cushman, Kent E; Moraes, Rita M; Gerard, Patrick D; Bedir, Ebru; Silva, Bladimiro; Khan, Ikhlas A



Discovery and Optimization of a Series of 2-Aryl-4-Amino-5-(3?,4?,5?-trimethoxybenzoyl)Thiazoles as Novel Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

A new series of tubulin polymerization inhibitors based on the 2-aryl/heteroaryl-4-amino-5-(3?,4?,5?-trimethoxybenzoyl)thiazole scaffold was synthesized and evaluated for growth inhibition activity on a panel of cancer cell lines, cell cycle effects, and in vivo potency. Structure–activity relationships were elucidated with various substitutions at the 2-position of the thiazole skeleton. Hydrophobic moieties, such as phenyl and 3-thienyl, were well tolerated at this position, and variation of the phenyl substituents had remarkable effects on potency. The most active compound (3b) induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway with activation of caspase-3. We also showed that it has potential antivascular activity since it reduced in vitro endothelial cell migration and disrupted capillary-like tube formation at noncytotoxic concentrations. Furthermore, compound 3b significantly reduced the growth of the HT-29 xenograft in a nude mouse model, suggesting that 3b is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:22578111

Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Preti, Delia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Porcù, Elena; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro



An innovative, multi-arm, complete phase 1b study of the novel anti-cancer agent tasisulam in patients with advanced solid tumors.  


Background This phase Ib study used a parallel, multi-arm design to examine tasisulam-sodium (hereafter tasisulam), a drug with complex pharmacology, combined with standard chemotherapies in patients with advanced solid tumors, with the ultimate goal of accelerating drug development. Methods Patients received escalating doses of tasisulam (3?+?3 schema; target Cmax 300-400 ?g/mL) every 28 days plus 1,000 mg/m(2) gemcitabine HCl (days 1 and 15), 60 mg/m(2) docetaxel, 200 mg/m(2)/day temozolomide, 75 mg/m(2) cisplatin, or 150 mg/day erlotinib. Following dose-escalation, patients were enrolled into specific tumor subtype arms, chosen based on the established activity of the standard agent. Because tasisulam is highly albumin-bound, patients in the tumor-specific confirmation arms were dosed targeting specific albumin-corrected exposure ranges (AUCalb) identified during dose-escalation (3,500 h*?g/mL [75th percentile] for docetaxel, temozolomide, and cisplatin; 4,000 h*?g/mL for gemcitabine and erlotinib). Results A total of 234 patients were enrolled. The safety profile of tasisulam with standard chemotherapies was sufficient to allow enrollment into the dose-confirmation phase in all arms. The primary dose-limiting toxicities were hematologic (thrombocytopenia and neutropenia). The most common grade ?3 drug-related treatment-emergent adverse event was neutropenia, with the highest incidence in the docetaxel arm. Conclusions The multi-arm design allowed the efficient determination of the maximum tolerated dose of tasisulam across multiple combinations, and a preliminary characterization of pharmacokinetics, safety, and potential efficacy. Although enrollment into all planned groups was not completed due to termination of compound development, these data support the feasibility of this approach for accelerated cancer drug development, even for drugs with complex pharmacology. PMID:25260842

Jotte, Robert M; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Braiteh, Fadi; Becerra, Carlos R; Richards, Donald A; Smith, David A; Garbo, Lawrence; Stephenson, Joe; Conkling, Paul R; Robert-Vizcarrondo, Francisco; Chen, Jian; Turner, P Kellie; Chow, Kay Hoong; Tai, D Fritz; Ilaria, Robert



Identification of novel inhibitors of human Chk1 using pharmacophore-based virtual screening and their evaluation as potential anti-cancer agents.  


Kinases are one of the major players in cancer development and progression. Serine threonine kinases such as human checkpoint kinase-1 (Chk1), Mek1 and cyclin-dependent kinases have been identified as promising targets for cancer treatment. Chk1 is an important kinase with vital role in cell cycle arrest and many potent inhibitors targeted to Chk1 have been reported and few are currently in clinical trials. Considering the emerging importance of Chk1 inhibitors in cancer treatment there is a need to widen the chemical space of Chk1 inhibitors. In this study, we are reporting an integrated in silico approach to identify novel competitive Chk1 inhibitors. A 4-features pharmacophore model was derived from a co-crystallized structure of known potent Chk1 inhibitor and subjected to screen Maybridge compound library. Hits obtained from the screening were docked into the Chk1 active site and filtered on the basis of docking score and the number of pharmacophoric features showing conserved interaction within the active site of Chk1. Further, five compounds from the top ranking hits were subjected to in vitro evaluation as Chk1 inhibitor. After the kinase assay, four compounds were found to be active against human Chk1 (IC(50) range from 4.2 to 12.5 µM). Subsequent study using the cdc25-22 mutant yeast cells revealed that one of compound (SPB07479; IC(50) = 4.24 µM) promoted the formation of multinucleated cells, therefore overriding the cell cycle checkpoint. Validation studies using normal and human cancer cell lines, indicated that SPB07479 significantly inhibited proliferation of cervical cancer cells as a single agent and chemosensitized glioma and pancreatic cancer cell lines to standard chemotherapy while sparing normal cells. Additionally SPB07479 did not show significant cytotoxicity in normal cells. In conclusion we report that SPB07479 appear promising for further development of Chk1 inhibitors. This study also highlights the role of conserved water molecules in the active site of Chk1 for the successful identification of novel inhibitors. PMID:25312395

Kumar, Vikash; Khan, Saman; Gupta, Priyanka; Rastogi, Namrata; Mishra, Durga Prasad; Ahmed, Shakil; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran



Development of synthetic lethality anticancer therapeutics.  


The concept of synthetic lethality (the creation of a lethal phenotype from the combined effects of mutations in two or more genes) has recently been exploited in various efforts to develop new genotype-selective anticancer therapeutics. These efforts include screening for novel anticancer agents, identifying novel therapeutic targets, characterizing mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapy, and improving efficacies through the rational design of combination therapy. This review discusses recent developments in synthetic lethality anticancer therapeutics, including poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors for BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutant cancers, checkpoint inhibitors for p53 mutant cancers, and small molecule agents targeting RAS gene mutant cancers. Because cancers are caused by mutations in multiple genes and abnormalities in multiple signaling pathways, synthetic lethality for a specific tumor suppressor gene or oncogene is likely cell context-dependent. Delineation of the mechanisms underlying synthetic lethality and identification of treatment response biomarkers will be critical for the success of synthetic lethality anticancer therapy. PMID:24893124

Fang, Bingliang



Relationship between podophyllotoxin accumulation and soil nutrients and the influence of Fe2+ and Mn2+ on podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in Podophyllum hexandrum tissue culture.  


Podophyllotoxin (PDT) and its derivatives, which are isolated from the Podophyllum species, are widely used in the clinical setting. The present study was designed to analyze the correlation between PDT levels in the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum (P. hexandrum) and Dysosma versipellis (D. versipellis) and the nutrients in soil. We also aimed to investigate the influence of Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) on the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol-dehydrogenase (CAD), and deoxypodophyllotoxin 6-hydroylase (DOP6H) and PDT accumulation via P. hexandrum tissue culture. The results showed that PDT accumulation was positively correlated with the NO3(-), PO4(3-), Na(+), Fe, and Mn levels and was negatively correlated with the SO4(2-) and K(+) levels, while the correlation with the Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu and Zn levels was not significant. The Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) levels were associated with the increased activity of PAL and CAD at 3-18 days; Fe(2+) enhanced the activity levels by 2.66- and 1.76-fold, respectively, and Mn(2+) was associated with a 1.68- and 1.10-fold increase in activity levels, respectively, compared with the control (CK) at 18 days. DOP6H activity was enhanced by Mn(2+), but it was not significantly affected by Fe(2+). Finally, PDT production was enhanced approximately 60% and 34% by Fe(2+) and Mn(2+), respectively, compared with CK at 16 days. These observations may be useful for the generation of PDT and related lignans via commercial cultivation as well as cell and tissue culture of P. hexandrum and other related plant resources. PMID:23906505

Li, Meng Fei; Li, Wei; Yang, De Long; Zhou, Lan Lan; Li, Tian Tian; Su, Xiao Meng



Are isothiocyanates potential anti-cancer drugs?  

PubMed Central

Isothiocyanates are naturally occurring small molecules that are formed from glucosinolate precursors of cruciferous vegetables. Many isothiocyanates, both natural and synthetic, display anticarcinogenic activity because they reduce activation of carcinogens and increase their detoxification. Recent studies show that they exhibit anti-tumor activity by affecting multiple pathways including apoptosis, MAPK signaling, oxidative stress, and cell cycle progression. This review summarizes the current knowledge on isothiocyanates and focuses on their role as potential anti-cancer agents. PMID:19417730

Wu, Xiang; Zhou, Qing-hua; Xu, Ke



Selective anticancer agents suppress aging in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Mutations of the PI3K, TOR, iNOS, and NF-?B genes increase lifespan of model organisms and reduce the risk of some aging-associated diseases. We studied the effects of inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin), TOR (rapamycin), iNOS (1400W), NF-?B (pyrrolidin dithiocarbamate and QNZ), and the combined effects of inhibitors: PI3K (wortmannin) and TOR (rapamycin), NF-?B (pyrrolidin dithiocarbamates) and PI3K (wortmannin), NF-?B (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamates) and TOR (rapamycin) on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan and quality of life (locomotor activity and fertility). Our data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of PI3K, TOR, NF-?B, and iNOS increases lifespan of Drosophila without decreasing quality of life. The greatest lifespan expanding effect was achieved by a combination of rapamycin (5 ?M) and wortmannin (5 ?M) (by 23.4%). The bioinformatic analysis (KEGG, REACTOME.PATH, DOLite, and GO.BP) showed the greatest aging-suppressor activity of rapamycin, consistent with experimental data. PMID:24096697

Danilov, Anton; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Plyusnina, Ekaterina; Kogan, Valeria; Fedichev, Peter; Moskalev, Alexey



Selective anticancer agents suppress aging in Drosophila.  


Mutations of the PI3K, TOR, iNOS, and NF-?B genes increase lifespan of model organisms and reduce the risk of some aging-associated diseases. We studied the effects of inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin), TOR (rapamycin), iNOS (1400W), NF-?B (pyrrolidin dithiocarbamate and QNZ), and the combined effects of inhibitors: PI3K (wortmannin) and TOR (rapamycin), NF-?B (pyrrolidin dithiocarbamates) and PI3K (wortmannin), NF-?B (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamates) and TOR (rapamycin) on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan and quality of life (locomotor activity and fertility). Our data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of PI3K, TOR, NF-?B, and iNOS increases lifespan of Drosophila without decreasing quality of life. The greatest lifespan expanding effect was achieved by a combination of rapamycin (5 ?M) and wortmannin (5 ?M) (by 23.4%). The bioinformatic analysis (KEGG, REACTOME.PATH, DOLite, and GO.BP) showed the greatest aging-suppressor activity of rapamycin, consistent with experimental data. PMID:24096697

Danilov, Anton; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Plyusnina, Ekaterina; Kogan, Valeria; Fedichev, Peter; Moskalev, Alexey



Aurora-kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Errors in mitosis can provide a source of the genomic instability that is typically associated with tumorigenesis. Many mitotic regulators are aberrantly expressed in tumour cells. These proteins could therefore make useful therapeutic targets. The kinases Aurora-A, -B and -C represent a family of such targets and several small-molecule inhibitors have been shown to block their function. Not only have

Stephen Taylor; Nicholas Keen



Niche for acridine derivatives in anticancer therapy.  


During the last 4 decades, intensive research has focussed on the effect of small organic molecules with antitumour activity that are able to intercalate into DNA and inhibit topoisomerase and telomerase enzymes. In this review, we describe some of the chemical and biological properties of acridine, which is a chemotherapeutic agent that has been used for cancer treatment since 1970. In addition, we summarise the progress that has been made in the development of anticancer agents based on the clinical in vivo/in vitro studies that have been conducted for 13 classes of natural and synthetic acridines. PMID:22697517

Galdino-Pitta, M R; Pitta, M G R; Lima, M C A; Galdino, L S; Pitta, R I



Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel 4-acyloxypodophyllotoxin derivatives modified in the A and C rings as insecticidal agents.  


In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, we have synthesized three series of novel 4-acyloxy compounds derived from podophyllotoxin modified in the A and C rings, which is isolated as the main secondary metabolite from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum . Their insecticidal activity was preliminarily evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata in vivo. Compound 9g displayed the best promising insecticidal activity. It revealed that cleavage of the 6,7-methylenedioxy group of podophyllotoxin will lead to a less active compound and that the C-4 position of podophyllotoxin was the important modification location. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed by genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR). For this model, the squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.914, the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)(LOO)) is 0.881, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is 0.024. Five descriptors, BEHm2, Mor14v, Wap, G1v, and RDF020e, are likely to influence the biological activity of these compounds. Among them, two important ones are BEHm2 and Mor14v. This study will pave the way for further design, structural modification, and development of podophyllotoxin derivatives as insecticidal agents. PMID:23278333

He, Shuzhen; Shao, Yonghua; Fan, Lingling; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Juanjuan; Yao, Xiaojun; Qu, Huan



Apoptosis induced by one new podophyllotoxin glucoside in human carcinoma cells.  


4-Demethyl-picropodophyllotoxin 7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4DPG), a new podophyllotoxin glucoside, was isolated from the rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi (Wall.) Ying and showed cytotoxic effects in human carcinoma cells. Among the target cells (HeLa, A2 and SH-SY5Y), the cytotoxic effects of 4DPG showed dose- and time-dependency. Furthermore, the cervical carcinoma cell line, HeLa, was more sensitive to 4DPG. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the presence of apoptotic cells with low DNA content, a decrease of cell population at the G1 phase, and a concomitant increase of cell population at the G2/M phase. 4DPG also caused DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells. Treatment with 0.1 microM 4DPG increased p53 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in HeLa cells, as well as in A2 cells. These results suggested that 4DPG-induced apoptosis might be through a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:15923073

Zhang, Qiu-Ying; Jiang, Min; Zhao, Chang-Qi; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Hui; Ding, Yu-Jia; Zhai, Yong-Gong



New compounds related to podophyllotoxin and congeners: synthesis, structure elucidation and biological testing.  


4-Azido, 4-amino, 4-amido and 4-alkoxy compounds related to the lignans podophyllotoxin and 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin have been synthesized, and their structures elucidated. The Ritter reaction was shown to be useful in the preparation of the 4-amido compounds with the required stereochemistry. A preparative method for 4-chloro-4-deoxypicrophyllotoxin, for which all earlier synthetic attempts resulted in the two dehydrated compounds, alpha- and beta-apopicropodophyllotoxin, was developed. Supplementary preliminary studies of the biological activities of some of the compounds were performed. All compounds had pronounced inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of human cervical cancer cells and TC-mouse cells with 4-amino-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin and 4-azido-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin showing the highest activity. Alkaline elution studies indicate that the toxicity of the 4'-demethoxy derivatives is due to protein-mediated DNA nicking. None of the compounds were found to have antiviral effect against herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency (HIV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in doses not toxic to the cells. PMID:8110531

Hansen, H F; Jensen, R B; Willumsen, A M; Nørskov-Lauritsen, N; Ebbesen, P; Nielsen, P E; Buchardt, O



Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian



Proteins differentially expressed in elicited cell suspension culture of Podophyllum hexandrum with enhanced podophyllotoxin content  

PubMed Central

Background Podophyllotoxin (PTOX), the precursor for semi-synthesis of cancer therapeutics like etoposide, teniposide and etophos, is primarily obtained from an endangered medicinal herb, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. PTOX, a lignan is biosynthetically derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the P. hexandrum cell proteome potentially related to PTOX accumulation in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation. High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by colloidal Coomassie staining and mass spectrometric analysis was used to detect statistically significant changes in cell’s proteome. Result The HPLC analysis showed approximately 7–8 fold change in accumulation of PTOX, in the 12day old cell suspension culture (i.e. after 9days of elicitation) elicited with 100??M MeJA as compared to the control. Using 2-DE a total of 233 spots was detected, out of which 105 spots were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS/MS. Data were subjected to functional annotation from a biological point of view through KEGG. The phenylpropanoid and monolignol pathway enzymes were identified, amongst these, chalcone synthase, polyphenol oxidase, caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases, caffeic acid-O-methyl transferase etc. are noted as important. The relation of other differentially accumulated proteins with varied effects caused by elicitors on P. hexandrum cells namely stress and defense related protein, transcription and DNA replication and signaling are also discussed. Conclusions Elicitor-induced PTOX accumulation in P. hexandrum cell cultures provides a responsive model system to profile modulations in proteins related to phenylpropanoid/monolignol biosynthesis and other defense responses. Present findings form a baseline for future investigation on a non-sequenced medicinal herb P. hexandrum at molecular level. PMID:22621772



Replacement of the lactone moiety on podophyllotoxin and steganacin analogues with a 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole via ruthenium-catalyzed click chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steganacin and podophyllotoxin are two naturally occurring lignans first isolated from plant sources, which share the capability to disrupt tubulin assembly. Although not strictly essential for its activity, the lactone ring on both structures represents Achilles’ heel, as it is a potential site of metabolic degradation and epimerization on its C2 carbon brings about a significant loss in potency. In

Daniela Imperio; Tracey Pirali; Ubaldina Galli; Francesca Pagliai; Laura Cafici; Pier Luigi Canonico; Giovanni Sorba; Armando A. Genazzani; Gian Cesare Tron



Synthesis of novel 4?-(acyloxy)-2'(2',6')-(di)halogenopodophyllotoxin derivatives as insecticidal agents.  


In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, we have prepared three series of novel 4?-(acyloxy)-2'(2',6')-(di)halogenopodophyllotoxin derivatives modified in the C and E rings of podophyllotoxin, which is a naturally occurring aryltetralin lignan isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum . Their structures were well characterized by (1)H NMR, HRMS, ESI-MS, optical rotation, and mp. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5s, 6b, 6d, and 7q were unambiguously confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata Walker, in vivo at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. These derivatives likely displayed the antimolting hormone effect. Among all the derivatives, especially compounds 5a, 5n, 7f, 7n, and 7w exhibited the most potent insecticidal activity with final mortality rates of 70% or so. This suggested that a chlorine or bromine atom introduced at the C2' or C2' and C6' positions on the E ring of podophyllotoxin was necessary for obtaining the potent compounds. This will pave the way for further design, structural modification, and development of podophyllotoxin derivatives as insecticidal agents. PMID:23915199

Che, Zhiping; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Fan, Lingling; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui



N-Hydroxyethyl-4-aza-didehydropodophyllotoxin derivatives as potential antitumor agents  

PubMed Central

Three different series of N-hydroxyethyl aza-podophyllotoxin derivatives containing (i) a five-membered methylenedioxy ring (7a–f), (ii) a five-membered ring with no heteroatom (8a–f) or (iii) a six membered ethylenedioxy ring (9a–f) as ring A were synthesized using a convenient one-pot multi-component reaction. Further variation on ring E was done by decorating it with methoxy and hydroxy groups at different positions. Calculation of log P values of these compounds indicates them to be better soluble than corresponding non-hydroxy derivatives. These novel aza-podophyllotoxin derivatives were screened for their cytostatic and cytotoxic activities on National Cancer Institute’s 60 human tumor cell lines to study the structure activity relationship. The overall anticancer activity of these compounds was in the order of 8a–f > 9a–f > 7a–f. Furthermore, the compounds having 3?-methoxy and 3?,4?,5?-trimethoxy substitution at ring E were the most active within the series. The cytotoxicity of all the active compounds was low, while their antiproliferative (or cytostatic) activity was high, providing a wide therapeutic window for their potential application as anticancer drugs. PMID:21601635

Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Vineet; Alegria, Antonio E.; Malhotra, Sanjay V.



Design and synthesis of 6,7-methylenedioxy-4-substituted phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one derivatives as novel anticancer agents that induce apoptosis with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase  

PubMed Central

Novel 6,7-methylenedioxy-4-substituted phenylquinolin-2-one derivatives 12a–n were designed and prepared through an intramolecular cyclization reaction and evaluated for in vitro anticancer activity. Among the synthesized compounds, 6,7-methylenedioxy-4-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)quinolin-2(1H)-one (12e) displayed potent cytotoxicity against several different tumor cell lines at a sub-micromolar level. Furthermore, results of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis suggested that 12e induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by apoptosis in HL-60 and H460 cells. This action was confirmed by Hoechst staining and caspase-3 activation. Due to their easy synthesis and remarkable biological activities, 4-phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one analogs (4-PQs) are promising new anticancer leads based on the quinoline scaffold. Accordingly, compound 12e was identified as a new lead compound that merits further optimization and development as an anticancer candidate. PMID:23867385

Chen, Yi-Fong; Lin, Yi-Chien; Huang, Po-Kai; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Huang, Li-Jiau



[Anticancer activity of oxovanadium compounds].  


Cytotoxic and antitumor activity of the biligand vanadyl derivative of L-malic acid (bis(L-malato)oxovanadium(IV) (VO(mal)2) was investigated in comparison with inorganic vanadium(IV) compound--vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) and also with oxovanadium monocomplex with L-malic acid (VO(mal)) and vanadyl biscomplex with acetylacetonate. In this purpose the effect of vanadyl compounds on growth of normal human skin fibroblasts and tumor cells of different lines: mouse fibrosarcoma (L929), rat pheochromocytome (PC12), human liver carcinoma (HepG2), virus transformated mouse fibroblast (NIN 3T3), virus transformated cells of human kidney (293) were investigated. The results showed that VO(mal)2 was not toxic for normal human skin fibroblasts but considerably inhibited growth of cancer cells in culture. Cytotoxic antitumor effect of vanadium complexes was found to be dependent on incubation time and concentration and on type of cells and nature of ligands of the central group of the complex (VO2+). These studies provide evidence that VO(mal)2 may be considered as a potential antitumor agent due to its low toxicity in non-tumor cells and significant anticancer activity. PMID:23987068

Abakumova, O Iu; Podobed, O V; Beliaeva, N F; Tochilkin, A I



Anticancer effects of fucoidan.  


Recently, there has been an increased interest in the pharmacologically active natural compounds isolated and used for remedies of various kinds of diseases, including cancer. The great deal of interest has been developed to isolate bioactive compounds from marine resources because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds and has been used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products. Fucoidan has various biological activities including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antitumor activities. So this chapter deals with anticancer effects of fucoidan. PMID:25081084

Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Kim, Se-Kwon



Apoptin towards safe and efficient anticancer therapies.  


The chicken anemia virus derived protein apoptin harbors cancer-selective cell killing characteristics, essentially based on phosphorylation-mediated nuclear transfer in cancer cells and efficient cytoplasmic degradation in normal cells. Here, we describe a growing set of preclinical experiments underlying the promises of the anti-cancer potential of apoptin. Various non-replicative oncolytic viral vector systems have revealed the safety and efficacy of apoptin. In addition, apoptin enhanced the oncolytic potential of adenovirus, parvovirus and Newcastle disease virus vectors. Intratumoral injection of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains and plasmid-based systems expressing apoptin resulted in significant tumor regression. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments showed that recombinant membrane-transferring PTD4- or TAT-apoptin proteins have potential as a future anticancer therapeutics. In xenografted hepatoma and melanoma mouse models PTD4-apoptin protein entered both cancer and normal cells, but only killed cancer cells. Combinatorial treatment of PTD4-apoptin with various (chemo)therapeutic compounds revealed an additive or even synergistic effect, reducing the side effects of the single (chemo)therapeutic treatment. Degradable polymeric nanocapsules harboring MBP-apoptin fusion-protein induced tumor-selective cell killing in-vitro and in-vivo and revealed the potential of polymer-apoptin protein vehicles as an anticancer agent.Besides its direct use as an anticancer therapeutic, apoptin research has also generated novel possibilities for drug design. The nuclear location domains of apoptin are attractive tools for targeting therapeutic compounds into the nucleus of cancer cells. Identification of cancer-related processes targeted by apoptin can potentially generate novel drug targets. Recent breakthroughs important for clinical applications are reported inferring apoptin-based clinical trials as a feasible reality. PMID:25001531

Backendorf, Claude; Noteborn, Mathieu H M



Novel anticancer therapeutics targeting telomerase.  


Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of human chromosomes. Telomeres shorten with each successive cell division in normal human cells whereas, in tumors, they are continuously elongated by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Telomerase is overexpressed in 80-95% of cancers and is present in very low levels or is almost undetectable in normal cells. Because telomerase plays a pivotal role in cancer cell growth it may serve as an ideal target for anticancer therapeutics. Inhibition of telomerase may lead to a decrease of telomere length resulting in cell senescence and apoptosis in telomerase positive tumors. Several strategies of telomerase inhibition are reviewed, including small molecule inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, immunotherapies and gene therapies, targeting the hTERT or the ribonucleoprotein subunit hTER. G-quadruplex stabilizers, tankyrase and HSP90 inhibitors targeting telomere and telomerase assembly, and T-oligo approach are also covered. Based on this review, the most promising current telomerase targeting therapeutics are the antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor GRN163L and immunotherapies that use dendritic cells (GRVAC1), hTERT peptide (GV1001) or cryptic peptides (Vx-001). Most of these agents have entered phase I and II clinical trials in patients with various tumors, and have shown good response rates as evidenced by a reduction in tumor cell growth, increased overall disease survival, disease stabilization in advanced staged tumors and complete/partial responses. Most therapeutics have shown to be more effective when used in combination with standard therapies, resulting in concomitant telomere shortening and tumor mass shrinkage, as well as preventing tumor relapse and resistance to single agent therapy. PMID:22841437

Ruden, Maria; Puri, Neelu



Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review  

PubMed Central

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi



Melatonin anticancer effects: review.  


Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi



Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 16 using a Pd-Catalyzed Diyne-Coupling as Macrocyclization Method and Synthesis of C20-epi-Bryostatin 7 as a Potent Anticancer Agent  

PubMed Central

Asymmetric total synthesis of bryostatin 16 was achieved in 26 steps in the longest linear sequence/39 total steps from aldehyde 10. A Pd-catalyzed alkyne-alkyne coupling was employed for the first-time as a macrocyclization method in a natural product synthesis. A route to convert bryostatin 16 to a new family of bryostatin analogues was developed. Toward the end, 20-epi-bryostatin 7, was synthesized from a bryostatin 16-like intermediate; and the key step involves a Re-catalyzed epoxidation/ring-opening reaction. Preliminary biological studies indicated that this new analogue exhibits nanomolar anti-cancer activity against several cancer cell lines. PMID:21043491

Trost, Barry M.; Dong, Guangbin



Antitumor Agents 293. Non-toxic Dimethyl-4,4?-dimethoxy-5,6,5?,6?-dimethylenedioxybiphenyl-2,2?-dicarboxylate (DDB) Analogs Chemosensitize Multidrug Resistant Cancer Cells to Clinical Anticancer Drugs  

PubMed Central

Novel dimethyl-4,4?-dimethoxy-5,6,5?,6?-dimethylenedioxybiphenyl-2,2?-dicarboxylate (DDB) analogs were designed and synthesized to improve their chemosensitizing action on KBvin (vincristine resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells, a multi-drug resistant cell line over-expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that aromatic and bulky aliphatic side chains at the 2,2?-positions effectively and significantly sensitized P-gp overexpressing multidrug resistant (MDR) cells to anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (TAX), vincristine (VCR), and doxorubicin (DOX). DDB derivatives 16 and 23 showed 5–10 times more effective reversal ability than verapamil (VRP) for TAX and VCR. Analog 6 also exhibited five times greater chemosensitizing effect against DOX than VRP. Importantly, no cytotoxicity was observed by the active DDB analogs against both non-MDR and MDR cells, suggesting that DDB analogs serve as the novel lead compounds for the development of chemosensitizers to overcome MDR phenotype. The mechanism of action studies demonstrated that effective inhibition of P-glycoprotein by DDB analogs dramatically elevated cellular concentration of anticancer drugs. PMID:22612652

Hung, Hsin-Yi; Ohkoshi, Emika; Goto, Masuo; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Nakagawa-Goto, Kyoko; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung



Fenbendazole as a Potential Anticancer Drug  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To evaluate the anticancer activity of fenbendazole, a widely used antihelminth with mechanisms of action that overlap with those of the hypoxia-selective nitroheterocyclic cytotoxins/radiosensitizers and the taxanes. Materials and Methods We used EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells in cell culture and as solid tumors in mice to examine the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of fenbendazole as a single agent and in combination regimens. Results Intensive treatments with fenbendazole were toxic to EMT6 cells in vitro; toxicity increased with incubation time and under conditions of severe hypoxia. Fenbendazole did not alter the dose-response curves for radiation or docetaxel; instead, the agents produced additive cytotoxicities. Febendazole in maximally-intensive regimens did not alter the growth of EMT6 tumors, or increase the antineoplastic effects of radiation. Conclusion These studies provided no evidence that fenbendazole would have value in cancer therapy, but suggested that this general class of compounds merits further investigation. PMID:23393324




Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by a new podophyllotoxin glucoside in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.  


4-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin 7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4' DPG), a new podophyllotoxin glucoside with a chemical structure similar to that of 4-demethylpicropodophyllotoxin 7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4DPG), was isolated from the rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi (Wall.) Ying (Berberidaceae). Like 4DPG and etoposide (VP-16), 4' DPG displayed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the presence of apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation after HepG2 cells were exposed to 4' DPG (1 micromol/L). In addition, 4' DPG-driven apoptotic events were associated with upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. These results suggest that 4' DPG has prominent cytotoxic activity and induces apoptosis by increasing the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in HepG2 cells. PMID:20555416

Liu, Yanfeng; Zhao, Changqi; Li, Hongxing; Yu, Miao; Gao, Jiali; Wang, Lei; Zhai, Yonggong



Autophagy modulation as a target for anticancer drug discovery  

PubMed Central

Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involving the engulfment and degradation of non-essential or abnormal cellular organelles and proteins, is crucial for homeostatic maintenance in living cells. This highly regulated, multi-step process has been implicated in diverse diseases including cancer. Autophagy can function as either a promoter or a suppressor of cancer, which makes it a promising and challenging therapeutic target. Herein, we overview the regulatory mechanisms and dual roles of autophagy in cancer. We also describe some of the representative agents that exert their anticancer effects by regulating autophagy. Additionally, some emerging strategies aimed at modulating autophagy are discussed as having the potential for future anticancer drug discovery. In summary, these findings will provide valuable information to better utilize autophagy in the future development of anticancer therapeutics that meet clinical requirements. PMID:23564085

Li, Xin; Xu, Huai-long; Liu, Yong-xi; An, Na; Zhao, Si; Bao, Jin-ku



Discovery of diethyl 2,5-diaminothiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate derivatives as potent anticancer and antimicrobial agents and screening of anti-diabetic activity: synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation. Part 1.  


Series of diethyl 2,5-diaminothiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate (DDTD) derivatives: azomethines of DDTD (2a-l) have been synthesized and screened for their anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-diabetic activities. The novel synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR, MS and FT-IR analyses. All compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three types of cancer cell line such as T47D and MCF-7 (human breast cancer), Hela (human cervical cancer) and Ishikawa (human endometrial cancer) lines. The results showed that most compounds exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells. The majority of azomethines DDTD influenced strongly against breast cancer cells T47D and MCF-7, among them compounds 2b (2.3 ?M), 2c (12.1 ?M), 2e (13.2 ?M), 2i (14.9 ?M), 2j (16.0 ?M), 2k (7.1 ?M), 2l (8.6 ?M) manifest potent anticancer activity against cancer cell T47D than Doxorubicin (DOX, 15.5 ?M). Compound 2j has shown potent activity on all three types of cancer cells concurrently and IC50 values were considerably low in comparison with positive control DOX. In addition, all compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (Gram positive bacteria), Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 (Gram negative bacteria) and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (Fungi) strains and 2j which contains in the ring nitrofurfural fragment, showed the highest effect on the three species of microbial pathogens simultaneously. Some compounds induced enzymatic inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner on PTP-1B inhibitor. PMID:25064350

Bozorov, Khurshed; Ma, Hai-Rong; Zhao, Jiang-Yu; Zhao, Hai-Qing; Chen, Hua; Bobakulov, Khayrulla; Xin, Xue-Lei; Elmuradov, Burkhon; Shakhidoyatov, Khusnutdin; Aisa, Haji A



Podophyllotoxin content, above- and belowground biomass in relation to altitude in Podophyllum hexandrum populations from Kumaun region of the Indian Central Himalaya.  


The morphological features of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, a 'critically endangered' medicinal herb and a source of podophyllotoxin, were studied in populations growing in different parts of the Kumaun region of the Indian Central Himalaya. Plant growth performance in terms of biomass accumulation and podopyllotoxin levels in the rhizomes collected from eleven natural populations (P1 to P11, altitude ranging from 2740 to 3350 m) were analyzed. Morphological features, e. g., plant height, stem diameter and leaf area were, in general, negatively correlated with an increase in the altitude. Maximum aboveground (8.46 g/individual) and belowground (48.18 g/individual) biomass values were recorded from a population (P9) at the lowest altitude (2740 m) and, in general, the species was found to perform better at the lower altitudes. The podophyllotoxin content of rhizomes ranged between 0.36-1.08% (on dry wt. basis) in different populations, and a positive correlation was observed between podophyllotoxin content and an increase in the altitude. PMID:17394102

Nadeem, M; Palni, L M S; Kumar, A; Nandi, S K



Novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to produce podophyllic acid and picropodophyllotoxin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066, part II: process optimization.  


This work optimized the novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to produce podophyllic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066. Firstly, the biotransformation process was significantly affected by medium composition. 5 g/l of yeast extract and 5 g/l of peptone were favorable for podophyllic acid production (i.e. 25.3+/-3.7 mg/l), while not beneficial for the cell growth of P. aeruginosa. This indicated that the accumulation of podophyllic acid was not corresponded well to the cell growth of P. aeruginosa. 0 g/l of sucrose was beneficial for podophyllic acid production (i.e. 34.3+/-3.9 mg/l), which led to high podophyllotoxin conversion (i.e. 98.2+/-0.1%). 1g/l of NaCl was the best for podophyllic acid production (i.e. 47.6+/-4.0mg/l). Secondly, the production of podophyllic acid was significantly enhanced by fed-batch biotransformation. When each 100mg/l of podophyllotoxin was added to the biotransformation system after 4, 10 and 25 h of culture, respectively, podophyllic acid concentration reached 99.9+/-12.3mg/l, enhanced by 284% comparing to one-time addition (i.e. 26.0+/-2.1mg/l). The fundamental information obtained in this study provides a simple and efficient way to produce podophyllic acid. PMID:19070483

Li, Yan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mi, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Dong-Sheng; Tang, Ya-Jie



Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy) Acetamide Derivatives  

PubMed Central

The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a–j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenoxy)acetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. PMID:25197642

Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz



Anticancer Drug Development: The Way Forward.  


Cancer chemotherapy celebrated its fiftieth anniversary last year. It was in 1945 that wartime research on the nitrogen mustards, which uncovered their potential use in the treatment of leukaemias and other cancers, was first made public. Fifty years later, more than sixty drugs have been registered in the USA for the treatment of cancer, but there are still lessons to be learnt. One problem, paradoxically, is that many anticancer agents produce a response in several different classes of the disease. This means that once a new agent has been shown to be effective in one cancer, much effort is devoted to further investigations of the same drug in various combinations for different disorders. While this approach has led to advances in the treatment of many childhood cancers and some rare diseases, a plethora of studies on metastatic colon cancer, for example, has yielded little benefit. 5-fluorouracil continues to be used in trials, yet there is no evidence for an increase in survival. The lesson to be learnt is that many common cancers are not adequately treated by present-day chemotherapy, and most trials of this sort are a waste of time. Significant increases in survival will only occur if the selectivity of present-day anticancer agents can be increased or new classes of more selective agents can be discovered. There are two fundamental problems in drug development: a lack of suitable laboratory tests and the difficulty of conducting early clinical trials. Firstly, no existing laboratory method can accurately predict which chemical will be effective against a particular class of human cancer. At best, tests can demonstrate a general 'anticancer' property. This is well exemplified by the discovery of cisplatin. The fact that cisplatin caused regression in a number of transplanted rodent tumours created no great excitement amongst chemotherapists. It was only later when it was tested clinically against ovarian cancer that results were sufficiently positive to encourage others to investigate. Only then was it discovered that metastatic teratoma was extraordinarily sensitive to the drug. This finding was made as a result of phase II trials and no laboratory model could have predicted it. The lesson to be learnt is that new drugs should be tested extensively in phase II trials before they are discarded. The second problem concerns early clinical trials. Because new drugs can only be tested against advanced and usually heavily pretreated disease, it is unlikely that dramatic responses will occur. The methods used to detect responses in solid tumours and metastases are crude, and it is likely that many useful drugs are missed. New techniques are needed to detect small but important responses. In addition to these technical problems, clinical trials are expensive and the time required for preclinical pharmacology and toxicology is lengthy. In the early days, drugs could enter clinical trials after fairly simple toxicological studies. The thalidomide disaster in the 1960s, however, led to the setting up of regulatory bodies to scrutinize drugs before clinical trials. This proved detrimental for cancer drug development because a series of fairly long-term tests is now required. These must be carried out in both rodents and one other species, usually the dog. This approach was probably a good thing for most medicines where a large margin of safety is required between the therapeutic dose and the dose which causes side effects, but was inappropriate for anticancer agents which are tested at the maximum possible dose which gives manageable side effects. These new regulations meant that the cost of one clinical trial after the 1970s was equivalent to the cost of ten before that time. Solutions to these problems are available, although to put them into practice would require the cooperation of government regulatory authorities, the pharmaceutical industry and other organisations such as the US National Cancer Institute (NCI), the UK Cancer Research Campaign (CRC) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EOR




Design, synthesis and anticancer activity evaluation of novel C14 heterocycle substituted epi-triptolide.  


Two series of novel C14 heterocycle substituted epi-triptolide derivatives as potential anticancer agents were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 and PC-3 tumor cell lines. The introduction of C14?-aryl heterocycle aminomethyl substituent to the leading compound was found to be an effective modification method to retain the potent anticancer activity. Meanwhile, the series of epi-triptolide derivatives (21-40) with C14?-hydroxyl group, still retained the natural product's cytotoxicity. This is apparently challenges the classical structure-activity relationship of triptolide that considers the C14?-hydroxyl group to be essential for its anticancer activity. PMID:24378709

Xu, Hongtao; Tang, Huanyu; Feng, Huijin; Li, Yuanchao



Multinuclear platinum complexes as anti-cancer drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews investigations over the last 15 years into the development of multi-nuclear platinum complexes as anti-cancer agents, with the purpose of providing an insight into the benefits of, and reasons for, their success. The cytotoxicity of multi-nuclear platinum complexes is compared, as is their ability to overcome both natural and acquired drug resistance. Possible structure-activity relationships are outlined.

Nial J. Wheate; J. Grant Collins



Phenethyl isothiocyanate: A comprehensive review of anti-cancer mechanisms.  


The epidemiological evidence suggests a strong inverse relationship between dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables and the incidence of cancer. Among other constituents of cruciferous vegetables, isothiocyanates (ITC) are the main bioactive chemicals present. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is present as gluconasturtiin in many cruciferous vegetables with remarkable anti-cancer effects. PEITC is known to not only prevent the initiation phase of carcinogenesis process but also to inhibit the progression of tumorigenesis. PEITC targets multiple proteins to suppress various cancer-promoting mechanisms such as cell proliferation, progression and metastasis. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that combination of PEITC with conventional anti-cancer agents is also highly effective in improving overall efficacy. Based on accumulating evidence, PEITC appears to be a promising agent for cancer therapy and is already under clinical trials for leukemia and lung cancer. This is the first review which provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of PEITC as a future anti-cancer agent. PMID:25152445

Gupta, Parul; Wright, Stephen E; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Srivastava, Sanjay K



Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies.  


During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches. PMID:25537519

Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Bravo-San Pedro, José-Manuel; Buqué, Aitziber; Senovilla, Laura; Baracco, Elisa Elena; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apte, Ron N; Aranda, Fernando; Ayyoub, Maha; Beckhove, Philipp; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bracci, Laura; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Estaban; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Clayton, Aled; Colombo, Mario P; Coussens, Lisa; Dhodapkar, Madhav V; Eggermont, Alexander M; Fearon, Douglas T; Fridman, Wolf H; Fu?íková, Jitka; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hoos, Axel; Hosmalin, Anne; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kärre, Klas; Kepp, Oliver; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John M; Klein, Eva; Knuth, Alexander; Lewis, Claire E; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T; Lugli, Enrico; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Mavilio, Domenico; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Moretta, Lorenzo; Odunsi, Adekunke; Okada, Hideho; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Peter, Marcus E; Pienta, Kenneth J; Porgador, Angel; Prendergast, George C; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rizvi, Naiyer; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Schreiber, Hans; Seliger, Barbara; Shiku, Hiroshi; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Smyth, Mark J; Speiser, Daniel E; Spisek, Radek; Srivastava, Pramod K; Talmadge, James E; Tartour, Eric; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H; Van Den Eynde, Benoît J; Vile, Richard; Wagner, Hermann; Weber, Jeffrey S; Whiteside, Theresa L; Wolchok, Jedd D; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zou, Weiping; Kroemer, Guido



Addition of amino acid moieties to lapatinib increases the anti-cancer effect via amino acid transporters.  


Anti-cancer agents delivered to cancer cells often show multi-drug resistance (MDR) due to expulsion of the agents. One way to address this problem is to increase the accumulation of anti-cancer agents in cells via amino acid transporters. Thus, val-lapatinib and tyr-lapatinib were newly synthesized by adding valine and tyrosine moieties, respectively, to the parent anti-cancer agent lapatinib without stability issues in rat plasma. Val-lapatinib and tyr-lapatinib showed enhanced anti-cancer effects versus the parent lapatinib in various cancer cell lines, including human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF7) and lung cancer cells (A549), but not in non-cancerous MDCK-II cells. A glutamine uptake study revealed that both val-lapatinib and tyr-lapatinib, but not the parent lapatinib, inhibited glutamine transport in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells, suggesting the involvement of amino acid transporters. In conclusion, val-lapatinib and tyr-lapatinib have enhanced anti-cancer effects, likely due to an increased uptake of the agents into cancer cells via amino acid transporters. The present data suggest that amino acid transporters may be an effective drug delivery target to increase the uptake of anti-cancer agents, leading to one method of overcoming MDR in cancer cells. PMID:24151179

Maeng, Han-Joo; Kim, Eun-Seo; Chough, Chieyeon; Joung, Misuk; Lim, Jee Woong; Shim, Chang-Koo; Shim, Won-Sik



Mitigating the toxic effects of anticancer immunotherapy.  


Advances in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the immune system have led to the development of novel approaches for cancer therapy, including inhibition of immune checkpoints with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies. An increasing number of immunomodulatory treatments are under investigation, and are beginning to show promise in clinical trials. As more-effective therapies become available based on modulation of the immune system in order to trigger or enhance antitumour immune responses, clinicians will need to become familiar with recognizing and controlling the adverse effects arising from immune therapy. This Review describes the toxicity profiles for various anticancer therapies based on the use of agents that block immune checkpoints, immunostimulatory agents, and adoptive T-cell therapy (that is, infusion of modified autologous T cells). The management of patients receiving these treatments presents unique challenges for clinicians. Nevertheless, many of the adverse effects associated with these treatments are reversible and can be managed with supportive care either with or without cessation of therapy. This final point is extremely important given the continued development of new cancer immunotherapies, and the importance of safe and effective use of existing effective FDA-approved agents. PMID:24445516

Gangadhar, Tara C; Vonderheide, Robert H



Synergistic anti-cancer effect of phenformin and oxamate.  


Phenformin (phenethylbiguanide; an anti-diabetic agent) plus oxamate [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor] was tested as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic combination. In in vitro studies, phenformin was more potent than metformin, another biguanide, recently recognized to have anti-cancer effects, in promoting cancer cell death in the range of 25 times to 15 million times in various cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer effect of phenformin was related to complex I inhibition in the mitochondria and subsequent overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Addition of oxamate inhibited LDH activity and lactate production by cells, which is a major side effect of biguanides, and induced more rapid cancer cell death by decreasing ATP production and accelerating ROS production. Phenformin plus oxamate was more effective than phenformin combined with LDH knockdown. In a syngeneic mouse model, phenformin with oxamate increased tumor apoptosis, reduced tumor size and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared to control. We conclude that phenformin is more cytotoxic towards cancer cells than metformin. Furthermore, phenformin and oxamate have synergistic anti-cancer effects through simultaneous inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and LDH in the cytosol, respectively. PMID:24465604

Miskimins, W Keith; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Kim, Ji Yeon; Ryu, Sun; Jung, Yuh-Seog; Choi, Joon Young



Factors affecting podophyllotoxin yield in the ex situ grown Podophyllum hexandrum, an endangered alpine native of the western Himalayas.  


This study reports an appreciable yield of podophyllotoxin (PDT) in P. hexandrum plants grown ex situ under polyhouse conditions of a temperate locale. The PDT content of below-ground parts was affected by both plant age and growth period. However, only the effect of plant age on PDT content was significant. Thus, the highest amounts of PDT were recorded in the below-ground parts of 2-year-old plants harvested during the late-growth period (LGP). High total soluble sugars in the below-ground parts during the early growth period (EGP) and the highest nitrate and nitrate reductase in the leaves of 2-year-old plants during the peak-growth period (PGP) indicated higher mobilization and assimilation of starch and nitrate. Probably the surplus carbon and nitrogen gained during the PGP were diverted from aerial parts to below-ground parts during the LGP and in turn contributed to the synthesis of higher amounts of PDT. This study shows that commercial cultivation of P. hexandrum is possible under ex situ temperate conditions. PMID:21625946

Kushwaha, Rekha; Bhattacharya, Amita; Singh, Bikram; Singh, R D



Recent developments on thiourea based anticancer chemotherapeutics.  


The recent emergence of anticancer activity of thiourea derivatives have inspired the medicinal chemist to design and synthesize new thiourea derivatives. These thiourea based anticancer chemotherapeutics inhibit cancer propagation by acting as inhibitors of topoisomerase, protein tyrosine kinase, somatostatin agonists, sirtuins, and carbonic anhydrase (CA). This review summarizes the recent developments on the thiourea based anticancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:24712324

Kumar, Vikas; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh



Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400°C, and then reacted with drug solution to simultaneously form drug-incorporated LDH. Thus prepared MTX/LDH (ML), 5-FU/LDH (FL), and (MTX + 5-FU)/LDH (MFL) nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, and so forth. The nanohybrids were administrated to the human cervical adenocarcinoma, HeLa cells, in concentration-dependent manner, comparing with drug itself to verify the enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion. All the nanohybrids successfully accommodated intended drug molecules in their house-of-card-like structures during reconstruction reaction. It was found that the anticancer efficacy of MFL nanohybrid was higher than other nanohybrids, free drugs, or their mixtures, which means the multidrug-incorporated LDH nanohybrids could be potential drug delivery carriers for efficient cancer treatment via combination therapy. PMID:24860812

Lee, Gyeong Jin; Kang, Joo-Hee



Anti-Inflammatory Agents for Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is closely linked to cancer, and many anti-cancer agents are also used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, chronic inflammation increases the risk for various cancers, indicating that eliminating inflammation may represent a valid strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. This article explores the relationship between inflammation and cancer with an emphasis on epidemiological evidence, summarizes the current use of anti-inflammatory agents for cancer prevention and therapy, and describes the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of anti-inflammatory agents. Since monotherapy is generally insufficient for treating cancer, the combined use of anti-inflammatory agents and conventional cancer therapy is also a focal point in discussion. In addition, we also briefly describe future directions that should be explored for anti-cancer anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:20333321

Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Ezell, Scharri J.; Zhang, Ruiwen



Anti-cancer pyrimidines in diverse scaffolds: a review of patent literature.  


Pyrimidine ring is the building unit of DNA and RNA and thus pyrimidine based chemical architectures exhibit diverse pharmacological activities. Among the reported medicinal attributes of pyrimidines, anticancer activity is the most extensively reported. The anticancer potential of pyrimidines in fused scaffolds has also been evidenced through number of research article and patent literature. The pyrimidines based scaffolds have exerted their cell killing effects through varied mechanisms which indicate their potential to interact with diverse enzymes/ targets/receptors. This review article strictly focuses on the patent literature from 2009 onwards. The structure of the potent compounds, their IC50 values, models/assays used for the anticancer evaluation and the enzymes/ receptors/ targets involved have been presented in this compilation. Significant number of patents i.e. 59 have been published on pyrimidine based anticancer agents from 2009-2014 (from 2009 through the present date) which clearly indicate that this heterocycle is an area of focus at present for researchers all over the globe. Moreover, out of the 59 patents published during this period, 32 have been published from 2012 onwards which further highlights the present interest of the researcher towards pyrimidine based anticancer agents. The promising activity displayed by these pyrimidine based scaffolds clearly places them in forefront as potential future drug candidates. The present compilation can be extremely beneficial for the medicinal chemists working on design and synthesis of anticancer drugs. PMID:25230072

Kaur, Ramandeep; Kaur, Prabhkirat; Sharma, Sahil; Singh, Gurpreet; Mehndiratta, Samir; Bedi, Preet M S; Nepali, Kunal



Anticancer activity of Amauroderma rude.  


More and more medicinal mushrooms have been widely used as a miraculous herb for health promotion, especially by cancer patients. Here we report screening thirteen mushrooms for anti-cancer cell activities in eleven different cell lines. Of the herbal products tested, we found that the extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity in killing most of these cancer cell lines. Amauroderma rude is a fungus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family. The Amauroderma genus contains approximately 30 species widespread throughout the tropical areas. Since the biological function of Amauroderma rude is unknown, we examined its anti-cancer effect on breast carcinoma cell lines. We compared the anti-cancer activity of Amauroderma rude and Ganoderma lucidum, the most well-known medicinal mushrooms with anti-cancer activity and found that Amauroderma rude had significantly higher activity in killing cancer cells than Ganoderma lucidum. We then examined the effect of Amauroderma rude on breast cancer cells and found that at low concentrations, Amauroderma rude could inhibit cancer cell survival and induce apoptosis. Treated cancer cells also formed fewer and smaller colonies than the untreated cells. When nude mice bearing tumors were injected with Amauroderma rude extract, the tumors grew at a slower rate than the control. Examination of these tumors revealed extensive cell death, decreased proliferation rate as stained by Ki67, and increased apoptosis as stained by TUNEL. Suppression of c-myc expression appeared to be associated with these effects. Taken together, Amauroderma rude represented a powerful medicinal mushroom with anti-cancer activities. PMID:23840494

Jiao, Chunwei; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Xiangling; Li, Haoran; Li, Xiang-Min; Pan, Hong-Hui; Cai, Mian-Hua; Zhong, Hua-Mei; Yang, Burton B



Recent Trends in Targeted Anticancer Prodrug and Conjugate Design  

PubMed Central

Anticancer drugs are often nonselective antiproliferative agents (cytotoxins) that preferentially kill dividing cells by attacking their DNA at some level. The lack of selectivity results in significant toxicity to noncancerous proliferating cells. These toxicities along with drug resistance exhibited by the solid tumors are major therapy limiting factors that results into poor prognosis for patients. Prodrug and conjugate design involves the synthesis of inactive drug derivatives that are converted to an active form inside the body and preferably at the site of action. Classical prodrug and conjugate design has focused on the development of prodrugs that can overcome physicochemical (e.g., solubility, chemical instability) or biopharmaceutical problems (e.g., bioavailability, toxicity) associated with common anticancer drugs. The recent targeted prodrug and conjugate design, on the other hand, hinges on the selective delivery of anticancer agents to tumor tissues thereby avoiding their cytotoxic effects on noncancerous cells. Targeting strategies have attempted to take advantage of low extracellular pH, elevated enzymes in tumor tissues, the hypoxic environment inside the tumor core, and tumor-specific antigens expressed on tumor cell surfaces. The present review highlights recent trends in prodrug and conjugate rationale and design for cancer treatment. The various approaches that are currently being explored are critically analyzed and a comparative account of the advantages and disadvantages associated with each approach is presented. PMID:18691040

Singh, Yashveer; Palombo, Matthew; Sinko, Patrick J.



Histone deacetylase inhibitors: molecular mechanisms of action and clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a relatively new class of anti-cancer agents that play important roles in epigenetic or non-epigenetic regulation, inducing death, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Recently, their use has been clinically validated in cancer patients resulting in the approval of two HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat and depsipetide, by the FDA. Also, clinical trials of several HDAC inhibitors for use as anti-cancer drugs (alone or in combination with other anti-cancer therapeutics) are ongoing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response to HDAC inhibitors in cancer patients are not fully understood. In this review, we summarize our understanding of the molecular and biological events that underpin the anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors and the outcomes of recent clinical trials involving these drugs. PMID:21416059

Kim, Hyun-Jung; Bae, Suk-Chul



Proteomic Approaches in Understanding Action Mechanisms of Metal-Based Anticancer Drugs  

PubMed Central

Medicinal inorganic chemistry has been stimulating largely by the success of the anticancer drug, cisplatin. Various metal complexes are currently used as therapeutic agents (e.g., Pt, Au, and Ru) in the treatment of malignant diseases, including several types of cancers. Understanding the mechanism of action of these metal-based drugs is for the design of more effective drugs. Proteomic approaches combined with other biochemical methods can provide comprehensive understanding of responses that are involved in metal-based anticancer drugs-induced cell death, including insights into cytotoxic effects of metal-based anticancer drugs, correlation of protein alterations to drug targets, and prediction of drug resistance and toxicity. This information, when coupled with clinical data, can provide rational basses for the future design and modification of present used metal-based anticancer drugs. PMID:18670610

Wang, Ying; Chiu, Jen-Fu



Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity of 3 Umbilicaria species.  


The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity of the acetone extracts of the lichens Umbilicaria crustulosa, U. cylindrica, and U. polyphylla. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 5 separate methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. Of the lichens tested, U. polyphylla?had largest free radical scavenging activity (72.79% inhibition at a concentration of 1 mg/mL), which was similar as standard antioxidants in the same concentration. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. The strong relationships between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant effect of tested extracts were observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was extract of U. polyphylla?with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1.56 to 12.5 mg/mL. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma) and LS174 (human colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT method. All extracts were found to be strong anticancer activity toward both cell lines with IC?? values ranging from 28.45 to 97.82 ?g/mL. The present study shows that tested lichen extracts demonstrated a strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. That suggests that lichens may be used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer agents. PMID:22260138

Kosani?, Marijana; Rankovi?, Branislav; Stanojkovi?, Tatjana



EF24 and RAD001 potentiates the anticancer effect of platinum-based agents in human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) cells and protects nonmalignant mesothelial (MET-5A) cells.  


The most widespread neoplasm of the pleura is malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) with low prevalence rate. The mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway, inhibited by RAD001, was shown to be deregulated in MPM development and considered a novel target for the MPM therapy. The EF24, a curcumin analog, also affects several signaling pathways and kills cancer cells as a single agent or in combination with classical drugs. We aimed to evaluate possible effects of RAD001, EF24, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin treatments on both malignant pleural mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) and nonmalignant mesothelial (Met-5A) cell lines. The effects of the agents on MSTO-211H and Met-5A cells were evaluated in terms of cell viability, cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis rate, quantitation of apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and cleaved caspase 3 levels. Moreover, quantitative messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis of apoptotic (CASP9) and antiapoptotic (BCL2L1 and BCL2) genes were also performed. We found that both EF24 and RAD001 alone treatments decreased only MSTO-211H cell viability, but cisplatin and oxaliplatin affected both cell lines. Pretreatment with EF24 or RAD001 followed by cisplatin increased the effects of cisplatin alone application. EF24 and RAD001 pretreatment decreased DNA fragmentation rate when compared with cisplatin alone treatment in Met-5A cells. Sequential treatments resulted in a significant increase of CASP9 mRNA expression in MSTO-211H cells but not in Met-5A cells. Our preliminary results suggest that pretreatment with EF24 or RAD001 may reduce cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on nonmalignant mesothelial cells and increase cell death response of MPM cells. Further analyses using animal models are needed to confirm these findings in vivo. PMID:25028262

Onen, Hi; Yilmaz, A; Alp, E; Celik, A; Demiroz, Sm; Konac, E; Kurul, Ic; Menevse, Es



Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) Plants  

PubMed Central

The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung



The Potent Oxidant Anticancer Activity of Organoiridium Catalysts**  

PubMed Central

Platinum complexes are the most widely used anticancer drugs; however, new generations of agents are needed. The organoiridium(III) complex [(?5-Cpxbiph)Ir(phpy)(Cl)] (1-Cl), which contains ?-bonded biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl (Cpxbiph) and C?N-chelated phenylpyridine (phpy) ligands, undergoes rapid hydrolysis of the chlorido ligand. In contrast, the pyridine complex [(?5-Cpxbiph)Ir(phpy)(py)]+ (1-py) aquates slowly, and is more potent (in nanomolar amounts) than both 1-Cl and cisplatin towards a wide range of cancer cells. The pyridine ligand protects 1-py from rapid reaction with intracellular glutathione. The high potency of 1-py correlates with its ability to increase substantially the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells. The unprecedented ability of these iridium complexes to generate H2O2 by catalytic hydride transfer from the coenzyme NADH to oxygen is demonstrated. Such organoiridium complexes are promising as a new generation of anticancer drugs for effective oxidant therapy. PMID:24616129

Liu, Zhe; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Qamar, Bushra; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Barry, Nicolas P E; Pizarro, Ana M; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J



Cytofluorometric studies on the action of podophyllotoxin and epipodophyllotoxins (VM-26, VP-16-213) on the cell cycle traverse of human lymphoblasts  

PubMed Central

Flow microfluorometric analysis of human lymphoid cells exposed in vitro to cytostatic concentrations of podophyllotoxin (0.01-5 mug/ml for 24 h) shows that a major part of this population (40-60%) has the DNA content of cells in the G2-M part of the cell cycle, and that approximately 60% of these cells are arrested in mitosis. Although a similar pattern of DNA distribution is seen in cultures exposed to cytostatic concentrations of VM-26(0.01 mug/ml) and VP--16-213(0.1 mug/ml), no mitotic cells are seen in these cultures. Exposure to higher concentrations: of VM-26 (0.1 mug/ml) and VP-16-213 (1.0 mug/ml) inhibits cell cycle traverse, and after 24 hr of exposure a major part of the population is arrested with the DNA content of cell in the S part of the cell cycle. Exposure to higher drug concentrations leads to a reduction in the number of cells with the late S-G2DNA content. Whereas the cell cycle block induced by cytostatic concentrations of podophyllotoxin (0.01 mug/ml) is readily reversible by reincubation of cells in drug-free medium, cells blocked by VM-26 and VP-16-213 are unable to resume cell-cycle traverse under similar conditions. PMID:1057547



Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Immunoliposomes Significantly Enhance the Efficacy of Multiple Anticancer Drugs In vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported the development of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted immunoliposomes that bind and internalize in tumor cells which overexpress EGFR and\\/or mutant EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), enabling intracellular delivery of potent anticancer agents in vitro. We now describe in vivo proof-of-concept for this approach for the delivery of multiple anticancer drugs in EGFR-overexpressing tumor models. Anti-EGFR immunoliposomes were

Christoph Mamot; Daryl C. Drummond; Charles O. Noble; Verena Kallab; Zexiong Guo; Keelung Hong; Dmitri B. Kirpotin; John W. Park



Pharmacokinetic Scaling of Anticancer Drugs in Dogs.  

E-print Network

??Anticancer drugs are characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and wide inter-individual variability in therapeutic outcome, disposition, and toxicity. The accurate calculation and administration of… (more)

Achanta, Satyanarayana



Identification of potential anticancer compounds from Oplopanax horridus  

PubMed Central

Oplopanax horridus is a plant native to North America. Previous reports have demonstrated that this herb has antiproliferative effects on cancer cells but study mostly focused on its extract or fractions. Because there has been limited phytochemical study on this herb, its bioactive compounds are largely unknown. We recently isolated and identified 13 compounds, including six polyynes, three sesquiterpenes, two triterpenoids, and two phenolic acids, of which five are novel compounds. In this study, we systemically evaluated the anticancer effects of compounds isolated from O. horridus. Their antiproliferative effects on a panel of human colorectal and breast cancer cells were determined using the MTS assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry. The in vivo antitumor effect was examined using a xenograft tumor model. Among the 13 compounds, strong antiproliferative effects were observed from falcarindiol and a novel compound oplopantriol A. Falcarindiol showed the most potent antiproliferative effects, significantly inducing pro-apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases. The anticancer potential of falcarindiol was further verified in vivo, significantly inhibiting HCT-116 tumor growth in an athymic nude mouse model at 15 mg/kg. We also analyzed the relationship between polyyne structures and their pharmacological activities. We observed that both the terminal hydroxyl group and double bond obviously affected their anticancer potential. Results from this study supplied valuable information for future semi-synthesis of polyyne derivatives to develop novel cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:23746754

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyu; Huang, Wei-Hua; Du, Guang-Jian; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Calway, Tyler; Yu, Chunhao; Nass, Rachael; Zhao, Jing; Du, Wei; Li, Shao-Ping; Yuan, Chun-Su



Identification of potential anticancer compounds from Oplopanax horridus.  


Oplopanax horridus is a plant native to North America. Previous reports have demonstrated that this herb has antiproliferative effects on cancer cells but study mostly focused on its extract or fractions. Because there has been limited phytochemical study on this herb, its bioactive compounds are largely unknown. We recently isolated and identified 13 compounds, including six polyynes, three sesquiterpenes, two steroids, and two phenolic acids, of which five are novel compounds. In this study, we systemically evaluated the anticancer effects of compounds isolated from O. horridus. Their antiproliferative effects on a panel of human colorectal and breast cancer cells were determined using the MTS assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry. The in vivo antitumor effect was examined using a xenograft tumor model. Among the 13 compounds, strong antiproliferative effects were observed from falcarindiol and a novel compound oplopantriol A. Falcarindiol showed the most potent antiproliferative effects, significantly inducing pro-apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases. The anticancer potential of falcarindiol was further verified in vivo, significantly inhibiting HCT-116 tumor growth in an athymic nude mouse model at 15 mg/kg. We also analyzed the relationship between polyyne structures and their pharmacological activities. We observed that both the terminal hydroxyl group and double bond obviously affected their anticancer potential. Results from this study supplied valuable information for future semi-synthesis of polyyne derivatives to develop novel cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:23746754

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyu; Huang, Wei-Hua; Du, Guang-Jian; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Calway, Tyler; Yu, Chunhao; Nass, Rachael; Zhao, Jing; Du, Wei; Li, Shao-Ping; Yuan, Chun-Su



Gambogic acid enhances proteasome inhibitor-induced anticancer activity  

PubMed Central

Proteasome inhibition has emerged as a novel approach to anticancer therapy. Numerous natural compounds, such as gambogic acid, have been tested in vitro and in vivo as anticancer agents for cancer prevention and therapy. However, whether gambogic acid has chemosensitizing properties when combined with proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of malignant cells is still unknown. In an effort to investigate this effect, human leukemia K562 cells, mouse hepatocarcinoma H22 cells and H22 cell allografts were treated with gambogic acid, a proteasome inhibitor (MG132 or MG262) or the combination of both, followed by measurement of cellular viability, apoptosis induction and tumor growth inhibition. We report, for the first time, that: (i) the combination of natural product gambogic acid and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or MG262 results in a synergistic inhibitory effect on growth of malignant cells and tumors in allograft animal models and (ii) there was no apparent systemic toxicity observed in the animals treated with the combination. Therefore, the findings presented in this study demonstrate that natural product gambogic acid is a valuable candidate to be used in combination with proteasome inhibitors, thus representing a compelling anticancer strategy. PMID:21216092

Huang, Hongbiao; Chen, Di; Li, Shujue; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Lu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shouting; Zhao, Kai; Zhao, Canguo; Guo, Haiping; Yang, Changshan; Zhou, Ping; Dong, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Change; Guanmei; Dou, Q. Ping; Liu, Jinbao



Indigofera suffruticosa: An Alternative Anticancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabeceae) occurs in the Northeast countryside and has intensive popular use in the treatment of infectious, inflammatory and other processes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion and maceration as well as to evaluate the toxicological properties. Aqueous extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity against HEp-2 (human epidermoid cancer cell) cell lines by MTT method. From the aqueous extract by infusion, the toxicological assay showed low order of toxicity. The antitumor effect of aqueous extracts by infusion (64.53%) and maceration (62.62%) against sarcoma 180 in mice at a dose of 50 mg kg?1 (intraperitoneally), based on low order of toxicity was comparable to the control group, which showed 100% development. Considering the low order of toxicity and that it is highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumors, the aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa may be used as an alternative anticancer agent. PMID:17965767

Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; do Nascimento, Silene Carneiro



Novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to 4 ?-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivates with anti-tumor activity by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang.  


According to the structure-function relationship of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and its analogue of 4'- demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP), the 4 ?-substitution of sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds with a carbon-sulfur bond at 4 position of PTOX or DMEP is an essential modification direction for improving the anti-tumor activity. So, four novel 4 ?-sulfursubstituted podophyllum derivatives (i.e., 4? -(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MT-PTOX), 4?-(1,3,4- thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MTD-PTOX), 4?-(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4' -demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MT-DMEP), and 4?-(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MTD-DMEP)) were designed and then successfully biosynthesized in this work. In the novel sulfur-substituted biotransformation processes, PTOX and DMEP was linked with sulfur-containing compounds (i.e., 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (MT) and 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MTD)) at 4 position of cycloparaffin to produce 4-MT-PTOX (1), 4-MTD-PTOX (2), 4-MT-DMEP (3), and 4-MTD-DMEP (4) by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang, respectively, which was screened out from Diphylleia sinensis Li (Hubei, China). All the novel compounds exhibited promising in vitro bioactivity, especially 4-MT-PTOX (1). Compared with etoposide (i.e., a 50 % effective concentration [EC(50)] of 25.72, 167.97, and 1.15 M), the EC(50) values of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against tumor cell line BGC-823, A549 and HepG2 (i.e., 0.28, 0.76, and 0.42 M) were significantly improved by 91, 221 and 2.73 times, respectively. Moreover, the EC(50) value of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against the normal human cell line HK-2 (i.e., 182.4 ?M) was 19 times higher than that of etoposide (i.e., 9.17 ?M). Based on the rational design, four novel 4 ?-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivatives with superior in vitro anti-tumor activity were obtained for the first time. The correctness of structure-function relationship and rational drug design was strictly demonstrated by the in vitro biological activity tests. PMID:22214458

Bai, J-K; Zhao, W; Li, H-M; Tang, Y-J



Synthesis and anticancer activity of epipolythiodiketopiperazine alkaloids  

E-print Network

Synthesis and anticancer activity of epipolythiodiketopiperazine alkaloids Nicolas Boyer,a Karen C (ETP) alkaloids are a highly complex class of natural products with potent anticancer activity. Herein Epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP)1 alkaloids constitute a large (ca. 120 members) and diverse family of biologically active

Hergenrother, Paul J.


Terrestrial Plant-Derived Anticancer Agents and Plant Species Used in Anticancer Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is a major cause of death and the number of new cases, as well as the number of individuals living with cancer, is expanding continuously. Due to the enormous propensity of plants that synthesize mixtures of structurally diverse bioactive compounds, the plant kingdom is potentially a very diverse source of chemical constituents with tumor cytotoxic activity. Despite the successful

Spiridon E. Kintzios



Synthesis of novel 3-allylseleno-6-alkylthiopyridazines: their anticancer activity against MCF-7 cells.  


A new series of 3-allylseleno-6-alkylthiopyridazines 6a-6g was synthesized by two synthetic routes from 3,6-dichloropyridazine to develop new anticancer agents. These new compounds showed antiproliferative activities against breast cancer (MCF-7) cells in CCK-8 assays, and could be promising candidates for chemotherapy of carcinomas. Compound 6e (3-allylseleno-6-pentylthiopyridazine) showed higher potency than 5FU for inhibiting the growth of these cell lines. This suggests the potential anticancer activity of compound 6e. PMID:24068458

Kim, Chaewon; Kim, Saet-Byeul; Park, Myung-Sook



Emergence of zebrafish models in oncology for validating novel anticancer drug targets and nanomaterials  

PubMed Central

The in vivo zebrafish models have recently attracted great attention in molecular oncology to investigate multiple genetic alterations associated with the development of human cancers and validate novel anticancer drug targets. Particularly, the transparent zebrafish models can be used as a xenotransplantation system to rapidly assess the tumorigenicity and metastatic behavior of cancer stem and/or progenitor cells and their progenies. Moreover, the zebrafish models have emerged as powerful tools for an in vivo testing of novel anticancer agents and nanomaterials for counteracting tumor formation and metastases and improving the efficacy of current radiation and chemotherapeutic treatments against aggressive, metastatic and lethal cancers. PMID:22903142

Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K.



Anticancer activity of new compounds using benzimidazole as a scaffold.  


The design and synthesis of substituted 1-(1-ethy-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl) ethanone (3a-f) and substituted 1-(2-bromoethyl)-2- (1-hydrazinylidene or ethylidene)-1H-benzimidazole (3g-j) have been successfully achieved under microwave irradiation with an aim for finding promising anticancer agents. Among the synthetic compounds, those with potential activity were selected and evaluated in-vitro for anticancer activity at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA, against 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer. The title compound 3e (NSC: 765733/1) exhibited notable growth inhibition that satisfies threshold criteria at single dose (10 µM) on all human cell lines of NCI. This compound was considered for further study at five dose levels (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µM) with GI50 values ranging from 0.19 to 92.7 µM. Compound 3e was found superior for Non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (HOP-92) and calculated end points (GI50 0.19, TGI 1.45, LC50 >100 and Log10GI50 -6.70, Log10TGI -5.84, Log10LC50 >-4.00). Docking study was performed using Maestro 9.0 to provide binding mode into binding sites of topoisomerase enzyme (PDB ID: 1SC7). Hopefully in the future, compound 3e could be used as novel template for the development of potential anticancer agents. PMID:24827531

Rashid, Mohd; Husain, Asif; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Sarafroz, Mohd



Genistein as a Potential Anticancer Agent against Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Genistein is known as the major component of isoflavone, which is present in high-soy diets. Genistein has received much attention because of its chemopreventive and therapeutic effects on various types of cancers. Numerous studies have shown that genistein has antineoplastic effects against ovarian cancer. Several epidemiological studies have shown that women who have high consumption of isoflavones have a relatively low incidence of ovarian cancer. Genistein inhibits ovarian carcinogenesis by pleiotropic mechanisms. A higher affinity to estrogen receptor ? is one probable explanation for its ability to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Genistein also targets multiple cellular signal transduction pathways associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. In addition, genistein has been suggested to have antiangiogenic and antioxidant activities. Herein, we summarize recent results from epidemiological and experimental studies to identify the role of genistein in ovarian cancer. Further studies are needed to achieve conclusive results and determine the clinical applications of genistein. PMID:24716121

Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Hee Seung; Song, Yong-Sang



Tumor-selective coronaviruses as potential anti-cancer agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite much progress in the treatment of certain types of cancer, generally the successes of cancer therapy are still largely insufficient and new treatment options are therefore urgently needed. Oncolytic virotherapy may offer an unconventional approach to selectively eradicate cancer cells, while leaving the normal tissues essentially unaffected. Several viruses are currently being analysed for their capability to kill cancer

Thomas Würdinger



Substituted ajoenes as novel anti-cancer agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new synthesis of the ajoene pharmacophore core is presented involving the regioselective radical addition of a thiyl radical to a terminal alkyne as the key step. The synthesis allows structural variation of the two end groups on sulfur, and a range of novel derivatives varying the R1 group (sulfoxide end) has been prepared and tested against CT-1 transformed fibroblast

Roger Hunter; Catherine H. Kaschula; Iqbal M. Parker; Mino R. Caira; Philip Richards; Susan Travis; Francois Taute; Thozama Qwebani



Extracts from black carrot tissue culture as potent anticancer agents.  


Black carrots contain anthocyanins possessing enhanced physiological activities. Explants of young black carrot shoots were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for callus initiation and were transferred to new MS medium supplemented with four different combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin. Subsequently, the lyophilized calli and black carrot harvested from fields were subjected to ultrasound extraction with ethanol at a ratio of 1:15 (w:v). Obtained extracts were applied to various human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 (human breast adenocarcinomas), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate adenocarcinoma), Neuro 2A (Musmusculus neuroblastoma) cancer cell lines and VERO (African green monkey kidney) normal cell line by MTT assay. The highest cytotoxic activity was achieved against Neuro-2A cell lines exhibiting viability of 38-46% at 6.25 ?g/ml concentration for all calli and natural extracts. However, a significantly high IC50 value of 170.13 ?g/ml was attained in normal cell line VERO indicating that its natural counterpart is an ideal candidate for treatment of brain cancer without causing negative effects to normal healthy cells. PMID:23828497

Sevimli-Gur, Canan; Cetin, Burcu; Akay, Seref; Gulce-Iz, Sultan; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem



Plant anticancer agents. IX. Constituents of Hyptis tomentosa.  


The twigs, leaves, and flowers of Hyptis tomentosa were found to owe their major cytotoxic activity to the presence of desoxypodophyllotoxin (4), but the two weakly cytotoxic flavones 5-hydroxy-4',6,7,8-tetramethoxy flavone (3) and 5-hydroxy-4',3,6,7,8-pentamethoxy flavone (2) also contributed to the total cytotoxicity of the crude extracts. The flavones eupatorin (6) and 5-hydroxy-3',4',6,7-tetramethoxy flavone (5) were isolated as inactive constituents, together with the lignan sesamin (1). PMID:521819

Kingston, D G; Rao, M M; Zucker, W V



Oncolytic Measles Virus Strains as Novel Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Introduction Replication-competent oncolytic measles virus (MV) strains preferentially infect and destroy a wide variety of cancer tissues. Clinical translation of engineered attenuated MV vaccine derivatives is demonstrating the therapeutic potential and negligible pathogenicity of these strains in humans. Areas covered The present review summarizes the mechanisms of MV tumor selectivity and cytopathic activity as well as the current data on the oncolytic efficacy and preclinical testing of MV strains. Investigational strategies to reprogram MV selectivity, escape antiviral immunity and modulate the immune system to enhance viral delivery and tumor oncolysis are also discussed. Expert Opinion Clinical viral kinetic data derived from non-invasive monitoring of reporter transgene expression will guide future protocols to enhance oncolytic MV efficacy. Anti-measles immunity is a major challenge of measles-based therapeutics and various strategies are being investigated to modulate immunity. These include the combination of MV therapy with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide, the use of cell carriers and the introduction of immunomodulatory transgenes and wild-type virulence genes. Available MV retargeting technologies can address safety considerations that may arise as more potent oncolytic MV vectors are being developed. PMID:23289598

Msaouel, Pavlos; Opyrchal, Mateusz; Domingo Musibay, Evidio; Galanis, Evanthia



Targeting protein-protein interactions as an anticancer strategy  

PubMed Central

The emergence and convergence of cancer genomics, targeted therapies, and network oncology have significantly expanded the landscape of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in cancer for therapeutic discovery. Extensive biological and clinical investigations have led to the identification of protein interaction hubs and nodes that are critical for the acquisition and maintaining characteristics of cancer essential for cell transformation. Such cancer enabling PPIs have become promising therapeutic targets. With technological advances in PPI modulator discovery and validation of PPI-targeting agents in clinical settings, targeting PPI interfaces as an anticancer strategy has become a reality. Future research directed at genomics-based PPI target discovery, PPI interface characterization, PPI-focused chemical library design, and patient-genomic subpopulation-driven clinical studies is expected to accelerate the development of the next generation of PPI-based anticancer agents for personalized precision medicine. Here we briefly review prominent PPIs that mediate cancer-acquired properties, highlight recognized challenges and promising clinical results in targeting PPIs, and outline emerging opportunities. PMID:23725674

Ivanov, Andrei A.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian



Characterization of two epimers, 4alpha and 4beta, of a novel podophyllotoxin-4-O-(D)-6-acetylglucopyranoside from Podophyllum hexandrum by LC-ESI-MS-MS.  


High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection interfaced to electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is applied to identify the two epimers of a novel and minor constituent, podophyllotoxin-4-O-(D)-6-acetylglucopyraniside from high-altitude Podophyllum hexandrum for the first time. This is done by matching the structural information from the tandem MS data with the reported lignan markers. The results show that LC-MS-MS is the method of choice for fast detection and detailed chemical analysis of mixtures in the crude extracts of Podophyllum. The method can be employed in the absence of reference standards for the markers and is particularly useful in view of the scarcity of these rare chemical standards. PMID:16774707

Puri, S C; Handa, G; Bhat, B A; Dhar, K L; Spiteller, Michael; Qazi, G N



Histone/protein deacetylase SIRT1 is an anticancer therapeutic target  

PubMed Central

SIRT1, a member of the NAD+-dependent histone/protein deacetylase family, is involved in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and stress response and is a potential drug target. 5-fluorouracil (FU) and the SN1-type DNA methylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) are anticancer agents. In this study, we demonstrate that sirt1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast cells are more sensitive to FU and DNA methylating agents than normal cells. Based on these findings, the chemotherapy efficacy of SIRT1 inhibitors in combination with FU or TMZ were tested with human breast cancer cells. We found that treatments combining SIRT1 inhibitors with FU or TMZ show synergistic reduction of cell viability and colony formation of breast cancer cells. Thus, inhibition of SIRT1 activity provides a novel anticancer strategy. PMID:24959376

Hwang, Bor-Jang; Madabushi, Amrita; Jin, Jin; Lin, Shiou-Yuh S; Lu, A-Lien



Comparison of cytotoxicity and DNA breakage activity of congeners of podophyllotoxin including VP16-213 and VM26: a quantitative structure-activity relationship.  


Fourteen congeners of podophyllotoxin were evaluated for their abilities to induce DNA breakage and inhibit growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Among the congeners studied were VP16-213, VM26, alpha-peltatin, beta-peltatin, and picropodophyllotoxin. Alkaline elution methods were used to assess DNA break frequencies following 1-h exposure to different concentrations of the congeners. DNA breakage was dependent upon drug concentration and was detectable when cells were exposed for 1 h to concentrations of VM26 as low as 0.05 microM. DNA breaks formed rapidly in cells after addition of drug but increased little after 30 min of continuous exposure. Repair of drug-induced DNA breaks was equally rapid with repair of 90% of the breaks occurring within 1 h following removal of the drug. Relationships between the structures of the congeners and the resulting DNA breakage activities were obtained, which correlated well with the cytotoxicity. The data suggest that a free hydroxyl group at the 4'-position is essential for DNA breakage activity, epimerization at the 4-position of the podophyllotoxin rings enhances activity, glucosylation of the hydroxyl group at the 4-position diminishes activity, aldehyde condensation with the glucose moiety greatly enhances activity, and the structure of the group associated with the resulting acetal linkage influences DNA breakage activity. These studies present quantitative data supporting and expanding upon the structure-activity relationship first proposed by Loike and Horwitz [Loike, J. D., & Horwitz, S. B. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 5443-5448]. PMID:6712942

Long, B H; Musial, S T; Brattain, M G



Development of Platinum(iv) Complexes as Anticancer Prodrugs: the Story so Far  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The serendipitous discovery of the antitumor properties of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg some forty years ago brought about a paradigm shift in the field of medicinal chemistry and challenged conventional thinking regarding the role of potentially toxic heavy metals in drugs. Platinum(II)-based anticancer drugs have since become some of the most effective and widely-used drugs in a clinician's arsenal and have saved countless lives. However, they are limited by high toxicity, severe side-effects and the incidence of drug resistance. In recent years, attention has shifted to stable platinum(IV) complexes as anticancer prodrugs. By exploiting the unique chemical and structural attributes of their scaffolds, these platinum(IV) prodrugs offer new strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells. This review summarizes the development of anticancer platinum(IV) prodrugs to date and some of the exciting strategies that utilise the platinum(IV) construct as targeted chemotherapeutic agents against cancer.

Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Ang, Wee Han



Bisphosphonamidate Clodronate Prodrug Exhibits Potent Anticancer Activity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Bisphoshonates are used clinically to treat disorders of calcium metabolism, hypercalcemia and osteoporosis, and malignant bone disease. Although these agents are commonly used in cancer patients and have potential direct anticancer effects, their use for the treatment of extraskeletal disease is limited as a result of poor cellular uptake. We have designed and synthesized bisphosphonamidate prodrugs that undergo intracellular activation to release the corresponding bisphosphonate and require only two enzymatic activation events to unmask multiple negative charges. We demonstrate efficient bisphosphonamidate activation and significant enhancement in anticancer activity of two bisphosphonamidate prodrugs in vitro compared to the parent bisphosphonate. These data suggest a novel approach to optimizing the anticancer activities of commonly used bisphosphonates. PMID:21863853

Webster, Marie R.; Zhao, Ming; Rudek, Michelle A.; Hann, Christine L.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.



Anticancer and antimicrobial activities and chemical composition of the birch mazegill mushroom Lenzites betulina (higher Basidiomycetes).  


The anticancer properties, antibiotic activity, and chemical composition of Lenzites betulina ethanol extract (EE) were evaluated. Eight compounds including 5 sterols were isolated from L. betulina, and 7 compounds were isolated from L. betulina for the first time. The EE displayed strong anticancer activity against tumor cell line MDA-MB-231, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 51.46 ?g/mL, and there was 83.15% inhibition at a concentration of 200 ?g/mL (MTT assay). The antimicrobial activity of the EE was evaluated against 6 microorganisms-Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Fusarium graminearum, Gibberella zeae, and Cercosporella albo-maculans-and the EE showed moderate antibiotic activity. These results suggest that L. betulina could be a good anticancer and antibiotic agent. PMID:25271861

Liu, Kun; Wang, Jun-Li; Zhao, Le; Wang, Qian



Anticancer and DNA binding activities of platinum (IV) complexes; importance of leaving group departure rate.  


The two six-coordinate Pt(IV) complexes, containing bidentate nitrogen donor/methyl ligands with general formula [Pt(X)2Me2((t)bu2bpy)], where (t)bu2bpy = 4,4'-ditert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine and X = Cl (C1) or Br (C2), serving as the leaving groups were synthesized for evaluation of their anticancer activities and DNA binding properties. To examine anticancer activities of the synthetic complexes, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining method were performed. The binding properties of these complexes to DNA and purine nucleotides were examined, using different spectroscopic techniques. These complexes demonstrated significant anticancer activities against three cancer cell lines Jurkat, K562, and MCF-7. On the basis of the results of EB/AO staining, C1 and C2 were also capable to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These complexes comprise halide leaving groups, displaying different departure rates; accordingly, they demonstrated slightly dissimilar anticancer activity and significantly different DNA/purine nucleotide binding properties. The results of DNA interaction studies of these complexes suggest a mixed-binding mode, comprising partial intercalation and groove binding. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that the newly synthesized Pt(IV) complexes are promising class of the potential anticancer agents which can be considered as molecular templates in designing novel platinum anticancer drugs. This study also highlights the importance of leaving group in anticancer activity and DNA binding properties of Pt(IV) complexes. PMID:24414990

Pouryasin, Zahra; Yousefi, Reza; Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Rashidi, Mehdi; Hamidizadeh, Peyman; Alavianmehr, Mohammad-Mehdi; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar



Agents, AgentsAgents, Agents Everywhere...Everywhere...  

E-print Network

AgentsArtificial Life Agents An "individualist view of the social world" (O'Sullivan andAn "individualistAgents, AgentsAgents, Agents Everywhere...Everywhere... RajaRaja SenguptaSengupta and Renand of Science SearchAn ISI Web of Science Search (Topic = Intelligent Agent* OR Software Agent* OR Multi Agent

Sengupta, Raja


Polygamain, a New Microtubule Depolymerizing Agent That Occupies a Unique Pharmacophore in the Colchicine Site  

PubMed Central

Bioassay-guided fractionation was used to isolate the lignan polygamain as the microtubule-active constituent in the crude extract of the Mountain torchwood, Amyris madrensis. Similar to the effects of the crude plant extract, polygamain caused dose-dependent loss of cellular microtubules and the formation of aberrant mitotic spindles that led to G2/M arrest. Polygamain has potent antiproliferative activities against a wide range of cancer cell lines, with an average IC50 of 52.7 nM. Clonogenic studies indicate that polygamain effectively inhibits PC-3 colony formation and has excellent cellular persistence after washout. In addition, polygamain is able to circumvent two clinically relevant mechanisms of drug resistance, the expression of P-glycoprotein and the ?III isotype of tubulin. Studies with purified tubulin show that polygamain inhibits the rate and extent of purified tubulin assembly and displaces colchicine, indicating a direct interaction of polygamain within the colchicine binding site on tubulin. Polygamain has structural similarities to podophyllotoxin, and molecular modeling simulations were conducted to identify the potential orientations of these compounds within the colchicine binding site. These studies suggest that the benzodioxole group of polygamain occupies space similar to the trimethoxyphenyl group of podophyllotoxin but with distinct interactions within the hydrophobic pocket. Our results identify polygamain as a new microtubule destabilizer that seems to occupy a unique pharmacophore within the colchicine site of tubulin. This new pharmacophore will be used to design new colchicine site compounds that might provide advantages over the current agents. PMID:22169850

Hartley, R. M.; Peng, J.; Fest, G. A.; Dakshanamurthy, S.; Frantz, D. E.; Brown, M. L.



Computational studies of the electronic, conductivities, and spectroscopic properties of hydrolysed Ru(II) anticancer complexes.  


The mechanism of activation of metal-based anticancer agents was reported to be through hydrolysis. In this study, computational method was used to gain insight to the correlation between the chemistry of the hydrolysis and the anticancer activities of selected Ru(II)-based complexes. Interestingly, we observed that the mechanism of activation by hydrolysis and their consequential anticancer activities is associated with favourable thermodynamic changes, higher hyperpolarizability (?), lower band-gap and higher first-order net current. The Fermi contact (FC) and spin dipole (SD) are found to be the two most significant Ramsey terms that determine the spin-spin couplings (J(HZ)) of most of the existing bonds in the complexes. Many of the computed properties give insights into the change in the chemistry of the complexes due to hydrolysis. Besides strong correlations of the computed properties to the anticancer activities of the complexes, using the quantum theory of atoms in a molecule (QTAIM) to analyse the spectroscopic properties shows a stronger correlation between the spectroscopic properties of Ru atom to the reported anticancer activities than the sum over of the spectroscopic properties of all atoms in the complexes. PMID:23867645

Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Ajibade, Peter A



Nanoscale coordination polymers for anticancer drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation reports the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) for anticancer drug delivery. Nanoparticles have been explored in order to address the limitations of small molecule chemotherapeutics. NCPs have been investigated as drug delivery vehicles as they can exhibit the same beneficial properties as the bulk metal-organic frameworks as well as interesting characteristics that are unique to nanomaterials. Gd-MTX (MTX = methotrexate) NCPs with a MTX loading of 71.6 wt% were synthesized and stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid bilayer containing anisamide (AA), a small molecule that targets sigma receptors which are overexpressed in many cancer tissues. Functionalization with AA allows for targeted delivery and controlled release to cancer cells, as shown by enhanced efficacy against leukemia cells. The NCPs were doped with Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and this formulation was utilized as an optical imaging agent by confocal microscopy. NCPs containing the chemotherapeutic pemetrexed (PMX) were synthesized using different binding metals. Zr-based materials could not be stabilized by encapsulation with a lipid bilayer, and Gd-based materials showed that PMX had degraded during synthesis. However, Hf-based NCPs containing 19.7 wt% PMX were stabilized by a lipid coating and showed in vitro efficacy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Enhanced efficacy was observed for formulations containing AA. Additionally, NCP formulations containing the cisplatin prodrug disuccinatocisplatin were prepared; one of these formulations could be stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid layer. Coating with a lipid layer doped with AA rendered this formulation an active targeting agent. The resulting formulation proved more potent than free cisplatin in NSCLC cell lines. Improved NCP uptake was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and competitive binding assays. Finally, a Pt(IV) oxaliplatin prodrug was synthesized and incorporated in different NCPs using various binding metals. A moderate drug loading of 44.9 wt% was determined for Zr-based NCPs. This drug loading, along with a diameter less than 200 nm, make these particles promising candidates for further stabilization via lipid encapsulation.

Phillips, Rachel Huxford


Mini Profile of Potential Anticancer Properties of Propofol  

PubMed Central

Background Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent administered to induce and maintain anesthesia. It has been recently revealed that propofol has anticancer properties including direct and indirect suppression of the viability and proliferation of cancer cells by promoting apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to establish a profile to quantitatively and functionally evaluate the anticancer properties of propofol in three cancer cell lines: non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, human colon carcinoma cell line LoVo, and human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3. We demonstrated that the expression level of caspase-3, an apoptosis biomarker, significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner after 24-h stimulation with 100 µM propofol in A549 cells, and slightly increased in LoVo cells. However, there was no change in caspase-3 expression in SK-BR-3 cells. High caspase-3 expression in A549 cells may be modulated by the ERK1/2 pathway because phosphorylated ERK1/2 dramatically reduced after propofol treatment. BAX, a major protein that promotes apoptosis in the regulation phase, was highly expressed in A549 cells after treatment with 25 µM propofol. Apoptosis induced by propofol may be associated with cancer cells carrying Kras mutations. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the anti-cancer effects of propofol, which are consistent with those of previous studies, are likely associated with the Kras mutation status. Only Kras mutation in Codon 12 instead of other Kras status has been demonstrated to play an important role in sensitizing the propofol-induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines from our study. These findings may enable us a detailed investigation of propofol/Kras-mediated cancer cell apoptosis in the future. PMID:25502773

Song, Jing; Shen, Yenji; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Qingquan



Anti-Cancer Effects of Xanthones from Pericarps of Mangosteen  

PubMed Central

Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a tree found in South East Asia, and its pericarps have been used as traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that they contain a variety of secondary metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated xanthones. Recent studies revealed that these xanthones exhibited a variety of biological activities containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. We previously investigated the anti-proliferative effects of four prenylated xanthones from the pericarps; ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, and methoxy-?-mangostin in various human cancer cells. These xanthones are different in the number of hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for methoxy-?-mangostin, the other three xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at low concentrations from 5 to 20 ?M in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study focused on the mechanism of ?-mangostin-induced growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown that the anti-proliferative effects of the xanthones were associated with cell-cycle arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by ?-mangostin and ?-Mangostin, and S arrest by ?-mangostin. ?-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic pathway following the down-regulation of signaling cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine kinase Akt. Synergistic effects by the combined treatment of ?-mangostin and anti-cancer drug 5-FU was to be noted. ?-Mangostin was found to have a cancer preventive effect in rat carcinogenesis bioassay and the extract from pericarps, which contains mainly ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin, exhibited an enhancement of NK cell activity in a mouse model. These findings could provide a relevant basis for the development of xanthones as an agent for cancer prevention and the combination therapy with anti-cancer drugs. PMID:19325754

Akao, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Iinuma, Munekazu; Nozawa, Yoshinori



Serendipity in anticancer drug discovery  

PubMed Central

It was found that the discovery of 5.8% (84/1437) of all drugs on the market involved serendipity. Of these drugs, 31 (2.2%) were discovered following an incident in the laboratory and 53 (3.7%) were discovered in a clinical setting. In addition, 263 (18.3%) of the pharmaceuticals in clinical use today are chemical derivatives of the drugs discovered with the aid of serendipity. Therefore, in total, 24.1% (347/1437) of marketed drugs can be directly traced to serendipitous events confirming the importance of this elusive phenomenon. In the case of anticancer drugs, 35.2% (31/88) can be attributed to a serendipitous event, which is somewhat larger than for all drugs. The therapeutic field that has benefited the most from serendipity are central nervous system active drugs reflecting the difficulty in designing compounds to pass the blood-brain-barrier and the lack of laboratory-based assays for many of the diseases of the mind. PMID:22247822

Hargrave-Thomas, Emily; Yu, Bo; Reynisson, Jóhannes



Unfolded protein response to autophagy as a promising druggable target for anticancer therapy  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for protein processing. In rapidly proliferating tumor cells, the ER tends to be overloaded with unfolded and misfolded proteins due to high metabolic demand. With the limited protein-folding capacity of the ER, tumor cells often suffer from more ER stress than do normal cells. Thus, cellular stress responses to cope with ER stress, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy, might be more activated in cancer cells than in normal cells. The complex signaling pathways from the UPR to autophagy provide promising druggable targets; a number of UPR/autophagy-targeted anticancer agents are currently in development in preclinical and clinical studies. In this short review we will discuss the potential anticancer efficacy of modulators of cellular stress responses, especially UPR and autophagy, on the basis of their signaling pathways. In addition, the current developmental status of the UPR/autophagy-targeted agents will be discussed. PMID:23050960

Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang



Inhibition of autophagy enhances the anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles.  


Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells and possess excellent potential as an antitumor agent. A variety of nanoparticles have been shown to induce autophagy, a critical cellular degradation process, and the elevated autophagy in most of these situations promotes cell death. Whether Ag NPs can induce autophagy and how it might affect the anticancer activity of Ag NPs has not been reported. Here we show that Ag NPs induced autophagy in cancer cells by activating the PtdIns3K signaling pathway. The autophagy induced by Ag NPs was characterized by enhanced autophagosome formation, normal cargo degradation, and no disruption of lysosomal function. Consistent with these properties, the autophagy induced by Ag NPs promoted cell survival, as inhibition of autophagy by either chemical inhibitors or ATG5 siRNA enhanced Ag NPs-elicited cancer cell killing. We further demonstrated that wortmannin, a widely used inhibitor of autophagy, significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of Ag NPs in the B16 mouse melanoma cell model. Our results revealed a novel biological activity of Ag NPs in inducing cytoprotective autophagy, and inhibition of autophagy may be a useful strategy for improving the efficacy of Ag NPs in anticancer therapy. PMID:25484080

Lin, Jun; Huang, Zhihai; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Wei; Jin, Peipei; Wei, Pengfei; Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Jiqian; Xu, Jing; Hu, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Yajuan; Gu, Ning; Wen, Longping



Self-assembling peptide-based nanoparticles enhance cellular delivery of the hydrophobic anticancer drug ellipticine through caveolae-dependent endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special class of self-assembling peptide (EAK16-II) has been found to stabilize the hydrophobic anticancer agent ellipticine (EPT) in aqueous solution. In this study, the mechanism of such peptide-EPT complexes to enhance cellular delivery and anticancer activity was evaluated. Results revealed that EAK16-II can form nanoparticles with EPT, having an average size of ?100 nm. This nanoformulation had cytotoxicity to

Roli Bawa; Shan-Yu Fung; Atsushi Shiozaki; Hong Yang; Gang Zheng; Shaf Keshavjee; Mingyao Liu


Conjugation of Vitamin E Analog ?-TOS to Pt(IV) Complexes for Dual-Targeting Anticancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

We report two platinum(IV) complexes conjugated with a vitamin E analog, ?-tocopherol succinate (?-TOS). One of the conjugates displays the activity of both cisplatin and ?TOS in cancer cells, causing damage to DNA and mitochondria simultaneously. Accordingly, it serves as promising dual-targeting anticancer agent. PMID:24452361

Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Song, Ying



The endophytic fungus Trametes hirsuta as a novel alternative source of podophyllotoxin and related aryl tetralin lignans.  


The aryl tetralin lignans are synthesized by Podophyllum sps. and are in great demand worldwide due to their use in synthesis of topoisomerase inhibitors. However, the sustained production of these aryl tetralin lignans requires large-scale harvesting from the natural environments, which has resulted in the plant-endangered status. In view of the difficulties in their total chemical synthesis, cultivation and failure of metabolic engineering approaches, there is a need to search for alternative sources of production of aryl tetralin lignans. We unequivocally established the methodology for isolation, identification, and characterization of a novel fungal endophyte (Trametes hirsuta) that produces aryl tetralin lignans consistently as shown by HPLC, LC-MS, LC/MS-MS and (1)H NMR. The lignans produced by the microorganism are biologically active, and exhibit potent antioxidant, anticancer and radioprotective properties. This strategy promises to improve the production of these therapeutically important compounds at lower costs. PMID:16375985

Puri, Satish Chandra; Nazir, Asiya; Chawla, Raman; Arora, Rajesh; Riyaz-Ul-Hasan, S; Amna, Touseef; Ahmed, Bilal; Verma, Vijeshwar; Singh, Shikha; Sagar, Ravinder; Sharma, Ashok; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi



2-(substituted phenyl)amino analogs of 1-methoxyspirobrassinol methyl ether: synthesis and anticancer activity.  


New analogs of indole phytoalexin 1-methoxyspirobrassinol methyl ether have been designed by replacement of its 2-methoxy group with 2-(substituted phenyl)amino group. Synthesized by spirocyclization methodology, trans- and cis-diastereoisomers of target compounds were isolated and evaluated as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Their molecular geometries were refined by ab initio minimizations. Pharmacophore modeling and QSAR studies were performed in order to correlate their molecular structure and biological activity. PMID:19394829

Kutschy, Peter; Salayová, Aneta; Curillová, Zuzana; Kozár, Tibor; Mezencev, Roman; Mojzis, Ján; Pilátová, Martina; Balentová, Eva; Pazdera, Pavel; Sabol, Marián; Zburová, Michaela



Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark  

PubMed Central

Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-?B activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking I?B-? degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3?. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785



Linker length in podophyllotoxin-acridine conjugates determines potency in vivo and in vitro as well as specificity against MDR cell lines.  


We have synthesized two podophyllotoxin-acridine conjugates-pACR6 and pACR8. In these compounds an 9-acridinyl moiety is beta linked to the C4 carbon of the four ring system in 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (epiDPT) via eighter an N-6-aminohexanylamide linker (pACR6) or via an N-8-aminooctanylamide linker containing two more carbon atoms (pACR8). The acridine-linker moiety occupies the position where different glucoside moieties, dispensable for activity, are normally linked to epiDPT in the well known epipodophyllotoxins VP-16 and VM-26. As with VP-16 and VM-26, pACR6 and pACR8 show evidence of being topoisomerase II poisons as they stimulate topoisomerase II mediated DNA cleavage in vitro and induce DNA damage in vivo. This in vivo DNA damage, as well as pACR6/pACR8 mediated cytotoxicity, is antagonized by the catalytic topoisomerase II inhibitors ICRF-187 and aclarubicin, demonstrating that topoisomerase II is a functional biological target for these drugs. Despite their structural similarities, pACR6 was more potent than pACR8 in stimulating topoisomerase II mediated DNA cleavage in vitro as well as DNA damage in vivo and pACR6 was accordingly more cytotoxic towards various human and murine cell lines than pACR8. Further, marked cross-resistance to pACR6 was seen among a panel of multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines over-expressing the MDR1 (multidrug resistance protein 1) ABC drug transporter, while these cell lines remained sensitive towards pACR8. pACR8 was also capable of circumventing drug resistance among at-MDR (altered topoisomerase II MDR) cell lines not over-expressing drug transporters, while pACR6 was not. Two resistant cell lines, OC-NYH/pACR6 and OC-NYH/pACR8, were developed by exposure of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) OC-NYH cells to gradually increasing concentrations of pACR6 and pACR8, respectively. Here, OC-NYH/pACR6 cells were found to over-express MDR1 and, accordingly, displayed active transport of 3H-labeled vincristine, while OC-NYH/pACR8 cells did not, further suggesting that pACR6, but not pACR8, is a substrate for MDR1. Our results show that the spatial orientation of podophyllotoxin and acridine moieties in hybrid molecules determine target interaction as well as substrate specificity in active drug transport. PMID:12375883

Rothenborg-Jensen, L; Hansen, H F; Wessel, I; Nitiss, J L; Schmidt, G; Jensen, P B; Sehested, M; Jensen, L H



Design of potent, non-toxic anticancer peptides based on the structure of the antimicrobial peptide, temporin-1CEa.  


Recent advances in the search for novel anticancer agents have indicated that the positively charged antimicrobial peptides have emerged as promising agents offering several advantages over the conventional anticancer drugs. As a naturally occurring, cationic, ?-helical antimicrobial peptide, temproin-1CEa has been proved to exhibit a potent anticancer effect and a moderate hemolytic activity. In order to reduce the hemolytic activity of temporin-1CEa and improve its anticancer potency towards a range of human breast cancer cells, in the present study, six analogs of temporin-1CEa were rationally designed and synthesized. The amphipathicity levels and ?-helical structural patterns of peptides were reserved, while their cationic property and hydrophobicity were changed. The results of MTT and hemolysis assay indicated that the analog peptides displayed an improved anticancer activity and showed an overall optimized therapeutic index. The hydrophobicity of peptides was positively correlated with their hemolytic and antitumor activities. Moreover, the data suggest a strategy of increasing the cationicity while maintaining the moderate hydrophobicity of naturally occurring amphipathic ?-helical peptides to generate analogs with improved cytotoxicity against tumor cells but decreased activity against non-neoplastic cells such as human erythrocytes. This work highlights the potential for rational design and synthesis of improved antimicrobial peptides that have the capability to be used therapeutically for treatment of cancers. PMID:23609760

Yang, Qing-Zhu; Wang, Che; Lang, Lei; Zhou, Yang; Wang, He; Shang, De-Jing



New strategies to deliver anticancer drugs to brain tumors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Malignant brain tumors are among the most challenging to treat and at present there are no uniformly successful treatment strategies. Standard treatment regimens consist of maximal surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The limited survival advantage attributed to chemotherapy is partially due to low CNS penetration of antineoplastic agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to review recent approaches to deliver anticancer drugs into primary brain tumors. METHODS Both preclinical and clinical strategies to circumvent the BBB are considered that includes chemical modification and colloidal carriers. CONCLUSION Analysis of the available data indicates that novel approaches may be useful for CNS delivery, yet an appreciation of pharmacokinetic issues, and improved knowledge of tumor biology will be needed to significantly impact drug delivery to the target site. PMID:19732031

Laquintana, Valentino; Trapani, Adriana; Denora, Nunzio; Wang, Fan; Gallo, James M.; Trapani, Giuseppe



A structural insight into hydroxamic acid based histone deacetylase inhibitors for the presence of anticancer activity.  


Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been actively explored as anti-cancer agents due to their ability to prevent deacetylation of histones, resulting in uncoiling of chromatin and stimulation of a range of genes associated in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. During the past several years, many HDACi have entered pre-clinical or clinical research as anti-cancer agents with satisfying results. Out of these, more than 8 novel hydroxamic acid based HDACi i.e., belinostat, abexinostat, SB939, resminostat, givinostat, quisinostat, pentobinostat, CUDC-101 are in clinical trials and one of the drug vorinostat (SAHA) has been approved by US FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). It is clear from the plethora of new molecules and the encouraging results from clinical trials that this class of HDAC inhibitors hold a great deal of promise for the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this review, we classified the hydroxamic acid based HDACi on the basis of their structural features into saturated, unsaturated, branched, un-branched and 5, 6-membered cyclic ring linker present between zinc binding group and connecting unit. The present article enlists reports on hydroxamic acid based HDACi designed and developed using concepts of medicinal chemistry, demonstrating that hydroxamate derivatives represent a versatile class of compounds leading to novel imaging and therapeutic agents. This article will also provide a complete insight into various structural modifications required for optimum anticancer activity. PMID:23895688

Rajak, H; Singh, A; Raghuwanshi, K; Kumar, R; Dewangan, P K; Veerasamy, R; Sharma, P C; Dixit, A; Mishra, P



Iron Chelators with Topoisomerase-Inhibitory Activity and Their Anticancer Applications  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Iron and topoisomerases are abundant and essential cellular components. Iron is required for several key processes such as DNA synthesis, mitochondrial electron transport, synthesis of heme, and as a co-factor for many redox enzymes. Topoisomerases serve as critical enzymes that resolve topological problems during DNA synthesis, transcription, and repair. Neoplastic cells have higher uptake and utilization of iron, as well as elevated levels of topoisomerase family members. Separately, the chelation of iron and the cytotoxic inhibition of topoisomerase have yielded potent anticancer agents. Recent Advances: The chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and dexrazoxane both chelate iron and target topoisomerase 2 alpha (top2?). Newer chelators such as di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and thiosemicarbazone -24 have recently been identified as top2? inhibitors. The growing list of agents that appear to chelate iron and inhibit topoisomerases prompts the question of whether and how these two distinct mechanisms might interplay for a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic outcome. Critical Issues: While iron chelation and topoisomerase inhibition each represent mechanistically advantageous anticancer therapeutic strategies, dual targeting agents present an attractive multi-modal opportunity for enhanced anticancer tumor killing and overcoming drug resistance. The commonalities and caveats of dual inhibition are presented in this review. Future Directions: Gaps in knowledge, relevant biomarkers, and strategies for future in vivo studies with dual inhibitors are discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000. PMID:22900902



Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles.  


The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. PMID:25280701

Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan



Production of recombinant immunotherapeutics for anticancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Cancer is one of the most important health problems because many cases are difficult to prevent. Cancer still has unknown mechanisms of pathogenesis, and its capacity to produce temporary or permanent damage, besides death, is very high. Although many anticancer therapies are available, finding a cure for cancer continues to be a difficult task. Thus, many efforts have been made to develop more effective treatments, such as immunotherapy based on a new class of tumor-specific products that are produced using recombinant DNA technology. These recombinant products are used with the main objectives of killing the tumor and stimulating immune cells to respond to the cancer cells. The principal recombinant products in anticancer therapy are immunostimulants, vaccines, antibodies, immunotoxins and fusion proteins. This review focuses on the general aspects of these genetically engineered products, their clinical performance, current advances and future prospects for this type of anticancer therapy. PMID:23644447

Pranchevicius, Maria-Cristina S; Vieira, Thiessa R



Magnetic polymer nanospheres for anticancer drug targeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer (PLGA) nanospheres loaded with biocom-patible magnetic fluid as a magnetic carrier and anticancer drug Taxol were prepared by the modified nanoprecipitation method with size of 200-250 nm in diameter. The PLGA polymer was utilized as a capsulation material due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. Taxol as an important anticancer drug was chosen for its significant role against a wide range of tumours. Thermal properties of the drug-polymer system were characterized using thermal analysis methods. It was determined the solubility of Taxol in PLGA nanospheres. Magnetic properties investigated using SQUID magnetometry showed superparamagnetism of the prepared magnetic polymer nanospheres.

Juríková, A.; Csach, K.; Koneracká, M.; Závišová, V.; Mú?ková, M.; Tomašovi?ová, N.; Lancz, G.; Kop?anský, P.; Timko, M.; Miškuf, J.



DNA Binding and Anticancer Activity of Novel Cyclometalated Platinum (II) Complexes.  


This study describes anticancer activity and DNA binding properties of two cyclometalated platinum (II) complexes with non-leaving lipophilic ligands; deprotonated 2-phenylpryidine (ppy): C1 and deprotonated benzo[h] quinolone (bhq): C2. Both complexes demonstrate significant anticancer activity and were capable to stimulate Caspase-III activity in Jurkat cancer cells. The results of Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide(AO/EtB), along with those of Caspase-III activity suggest that these complexes can induce apoptosis in the cancer cells. Moreover, C1 with flexible chemical structure indicates considerably higher anticancer activity than C2 which possesses a higher structural rigidity. Additionally, C2 represents a complex which is in part inducing cancer cell death due to the cell injury (necrosis). The absorption spectra of DNA demonstrate a hypochromic effect in the presence of increasing concentration of these complexes, reflecting DNA structural alteration after drug binding. Also, EtB competition assay and docking results revealed partial intercalation and DNA groove binding for the metal complexes. Overall, from the therapeutic point of view, ppy containing platinum complex (C1) is a favored anticancer agent, because it induces signaling cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells, and lacks the necrotic effect. PMID:25482721

Mohammadi, Roghayeh; Yousefi, Reza; Aseman, Marzieh Dadkhah; Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Rashidi, Mehdi



Vitamin E-based nanomedicines for anti-cancer drug delivery.  


This review aims to highlight the development of novel vitamin E conjugates for the vectorization of active pharmaceutical ingredients through nanotechnologies. The physico-chemical and biological properties of vitamin E derivatives offer multiple advantages in drug delivery like biocompatibility, improvement of drug solubility and anticancer activity. Nanomedicines have shown high potential in drug delivery since (i) they may offer better drug biopharmaceutical properties such as longer half-life or better bioavailability and (ii) they have shown benefits in cancer therapy by improving anticancer drug therapeutic index. Vitamin E-based nanomedicines were developed to combine the pharmaceutical properties of both vitamin E and nanomedicines for two purposes: (i) to improve water solubility of hydrophobic drugs and (ii) to enhance the therapeutic efficiency of anticancer agents. This review is divided into three parts: the first one describes the biology and the metabolic functions of vitamin E, the second one focuses on the anticancer activity of two vitamin E derivatives: vitamin E succinate (TOS) and vitamin E polyethylene glycol-succinate (TPGS). Finally, in the third part, we discuss vitamin E derivatives based-nanomedicines. PMID:24631865

Duhem, Nicolas; Danhier, Fabienne; Préat, Véronique



Recent Development in Carbohydrate Based Anticancer Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of carbohydrate-based anticancer vaccines is of high current interest. Herein, the latest development in this exciting field is reviewed. After a general introduction about tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens and immune responses, the review focuses on the various strategies that have been developed to enhance the immunogenicity of these antigens. The results from animal studies and clinical trials are presented.

Zhaojun Yin; Xuefei Huang



The secret ally: immunostimulation by anticancer drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently become clear that the tumour microenvironment, and in particular the immune system, has a crucial role in modulating tumour progression and response to therapy. Indicators of an ongoing immune response, such as the composition of the intratumoural immune infiltrate, as well as polymorphisms in genes encoding immune modulators, have been correlated with therapeutic outcome. Moreover, several anticancer

Lorenzo Galluzzi; Laura Senovilla; Laurence Zitvogel; Guido Kroemer



Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.  


Over the past years, several lines of evidence support an antitumourigenic effect of cannabinoids including ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC), synthetic agonists, endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid transport or degradation inhibitors. Indeed, cannabinoids possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects and they are known to interfere with tumour neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion and metastasization. However, the clinical use of ?(9)-THC and additional cannabinoid agonists is often limited by their unwanted psychoactive side effects, and for this reason interest in non-psychoactive cannabinoid compounds with structural affinity for ?(9)-THC, such as cannabidiol (CBD), has substantially increased in recent years. The present review will focus on the efficacy of CBD in the modulation of different steps of tumourigenesis in several types of cancer and highlights the importance of exploring CBD/CBD analogues as alternative therapeutic agents. PMID:22506672

Massi, Paola; Solinas, Marta; Cinquina, Valentina; Parolaro, Daniela



New microtubular agents in pediatric oncology.  


The taxanes are a new group of anticancer agents with a novel mechanism of action. They promote microtubule assembly and stabilize the microtubules. Paclitaxel (Taxol), the first agent in this group in clinical trials was isolated from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia in 1971. Both in preclinical and clinical studies, paclitaxel and its semisynthetic analog docetaxel exhibit significant antitumor activity. This review will provide an overview of the clinical experience with the group of anti-microtubular agents, the taxanes in pediatric oncology. PMID:8880393

Seibel, N L; Reaman, G H



Cullin-RING Ligases as Attractive Anti-cancer Targets  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) promotes the timely degradation of short-lived proteins with key regulatory roles in a vast array of biological processes, such as cell cycle progression, oncogenesis and genome integrity. Thus, abnormal regulation of UPS disrupts the protein homeostasis and causes many human diseases, particularly cancer. Indeed, the FDA approval of bortezomib, the first class of general proteasome inhibitor, for the treatment of multiple myeloma, demonstrated that the UPS can be an attractive anti-cancer target. However, normal cell toxicity associated with bortezomib, resulting from global inhibition of protein degradation, promotes the focus of drug discovery efforts on targeting enzymes upstream of the proteasome for better specificity. E3 ubiquitin ligases, particularly those known to be activated in human cancer, become an attractive choice. Cullin-RING Ligases (CRLs) with multiple components are the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases and are responsible for ubiquitination of ~20% of cellular proteins degraded through UPS. Activity of CRLs is dynamically regulated and requires the RING component and cullin neddylation. In this review, we will introduce the UPS and CRL E3s and discuss the biological processes regulated by each of eight CRLs through substrate degradation. We will further discuss how cullin neddylation controls CRL activity, and