Sample records for anticancer agent podophyllotoxin

  1. Anticancer Properties of an Important Drug Lead Podophyllotoxin Can Be Efficiently Mimicked by Diverse Heterocyclic Scaffolds Accessible via One-Step Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Magedov, Igor V.; Frolova, Liliya; Manpadi, Madhuri; Bhoga, Uma devi; Tang, Hong; Evdokimov, Nikolai M.; George, Olivia; Georgiou, Kathy Hadje; Renner, Steffen; Getlic, Matthäus; Kinnibrugh, Tiffany L.; Fernandes, Manuel A.; Van slambrouck, Severine; Steelant, Wim F. A.; Shuster, Charles B.; Rogelj, Snezna; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Kornienko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Structural simplification of an antimitotic natural product podophyllotoxin with mimetic heterocyclic scaffolds constructed using multicomponent reactions led to the identification of compounds exhibiting low nanomolar antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing properties. The most potent compounds were found in the dihydropyridopyrazole, dihydropyridonaphthalene, dihydropyridoindole and dihydropyridopyrimidine scaffold series. Biochemical mechanistic studies performed with dihydropyridopyrazole compounds showed that these heterocycles inhibit in vitro tubulin polymerization and disrupt the formation of mitotic spindles in dividing cells at low nanomolar concentrations, in a manner similar to podophyllotoxin itself. Separation of a racemic dihydropyridonaphthalene into individual enantiomers demonstrated that only the optical antipode matching the absolute configuration of podophyllotoxin possessed potent anticancer activity. Computer modeling, performed using the podophyllotoxin binding site on beta-tubulin, provided a theoretical understanding of these successful experimental findings. PMID:21615090

  2. Synthesis and antitumor activity of novel per-butyrylated glycosides of podophyllotoxin and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zi, Cheng-Ting; Yang, Dan; Dong, Fa-Wu; Li, Gen-Tao; Li, Yan; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2015-04-01

    A series of perbutyrylated glycosides of podophyllotoxin and its derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro. Most of them exhibit cytotoxic activity against a panel of five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, SW480) using MTT assays. Among the synthesized compounds, epipodophyllotoxin ?-d-galactopyranoside 8b, epipodophyllotoxin ?-d-arabinopyranoside 8e, and podophyllotoxin ?-d-glucopyranoside 11a show the highest potency of anticancer activity with their IC50 values ranging from 0.14 to 1.69?M. Structure activity relationship analysis indicates that the type of glycosidic linkage, the configuration at C-4 of the podophyllotoxin scaffold, and the substitution at 4'-position (OH vs OCH3) can all have significant effect on the potency of their anticancer activity. Several compounds are more active than the control drugs Etoposide and Cisplatin, suggesting their potential as anticancer agents for further development. PMID:25744190

  3. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  4. Novel antibodies as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Zafir-Lavie, I; Michaeli, Y; Reiter, Y

    2007-05-28

    In recent years antibodies, whether generated by traditional hybridoma technology or by recombinant DNA strategies, have evolved from Paul Ehrlich's 'magic bullets' to a modern age 'guided missile'. In the recent years of immunologic research, we are witnessing development in the fields of antigen screening and protein engineering in order to create specific anticancer remedies. The developments in the field of recombinant DNA, protein engineering and cancer biology have let us gain insight into many cancer-related mechanisms. Moreover, novel techniques have facilitated tools allowing unique distinction between malignantly transformed cells, and regular ones. This understanding has paved the way for the rational design of a new age of pharmaceuticals: monoclonal antibodies and their fragments. Antibodies can select antigens on both a specific and a high-affinity account, and further implementation of these qualities is used to target cancer cells by specifically identifying exogenous antigens of cancer cell populations. The structure of the antibody provides plasticity resonating from its functional sites. This review will screen some of the many novel antibodies and antibody-based approaches that are being currently developed for clinical applications as the new generation of anticancer agents. PMID:17530025

  5. Podophyllotoxin and essential oil profile of Juniperus and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Podophyllotoxin is currently in high demand as the lead chemical precursor for the anti-cancer drugs etoposide and teniposide. The primary species in commercial bulk isolation of podophyllotoxin is an endangered medicinal plant gathered in the wild in the Himalayan region. Because of the threats t...

  6. Encapsulation of podophyllotoxin and etoposide in biodegradable poly-D,L-lactide nanoparticles improved their anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ramdhan; Kumar, Dharmesh; Kumari, Avnesh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy podophyllotoxin (PODO) and etoposide (ETOPO) were encapsulated in poly-d,l-lactide nanoparticles (PLA NPs). The size of synthesised PODO-loaded PLA NPs and ETOPO-loaded PLA NPs was 100?±?17?nm and 163?±?20?nm and their encapsulation efficiency was 17 and 48%, respectively. In vitro release studies showed initial burst release followed by slow and sustained release. In vitro cytotoxicity of synthesised NPs was assessed using A549 and CHO-K1 cells. Blank PLA NPs did not show any toxicity. While PODO-loaded PLA NPs showed higher in vitro cytotoxicity in comparison to ETOPO-loaded PLA NPs against both cell lines. Also, the cytotoxicity of both PODO-loaded PLA NPs and ETOPO-loaded PLA NPs was higher compared to pure drugs. Hence, this study documents the improvement in efficacy of these molecules upon encapsulation in PLA NPs and could be an important strategy for better therapeutics. PMID:24102094

  7. Novel antibodies as anticancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Zafir-Lavie; Y Michaeli; Y Reiter

    2007-01-01

    In recent years antibodies, whether generated by traditional hybridoma technology or by recombinant DNA strategies, have evolved from Paul Ehrlich's ‘magic bullets’ to a modern age ‘guided missile’. In the recent years of immunologic research, we are witnessing development in the fields of antigen screening and protein engineering in order to create specific anticancer remedies. The developments in the field

  8. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2012-08-29

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797. PMID:22891988

  9. Benzothiazoles: search for anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Noolvi, Malleshappa N; Patel, Harun M; Kaur, Manpreet

    2012-08-01

    Novel derivatives of 2-amino benzothiazoles 4(a-j) have been synthesized and tested for their antitumor activity using National Cancer Institute (NCI) disease oriented antitumor screen protocol against nine panel of cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized compounds, two compounds were granted NSC code and screened at National Cancer Institute (NCI)-USA for anticancer activity at a single high dose (10(-5) M) and five dose in full NCI 60 cell panel. Among the selected compounds, 7-chloro-N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-amine (4i) with GI(50) values of 7.18 × 10(-8) M against Non-Small Cell HOP-92 Lung Cancer cell line proved to be the most active members in this study. Virtual screening was carried out through docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to predict if these compounds have analogous binding mode to the EGFR inhibitors. PMID:22703845

  10. Organoiridium Complexes: Anticancer Agents and Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus Iridium is a relatively rare precious heavy metal, only slightly less dense than osmium. Researchers have long recognized the catalytic properties of square-planar IrI complexes, such as Crabtree’s hydrogenation catalyst, an organometallic complex with cyclooctadiene, phosphane, and pyridine ligands. More recently, chemists have developed half-sandwich pseudo-octahedral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl IrIII complexes containing diamine ligands that efficiently catalyze transfer hydrogenation reactions of ketones and aldehydes in water using H2 or formate as the hydrogen source. Although sometimes assumed to be chemically inert, the reactivity of low-spin 5d6 IrIII centers is highly dependent on the set of ligands. Cp* complexes with strong ?-donor C?C-chelating ligands can even stabilize IrIV and catalyze the oxidation of water. In comparison with well developed Ir catalysts, Ir-based pharmaceuticals are still in their infancy. In this Account, we review recent developments in organoiridium complexes as both catalysts and anticancer agents. Initial studies of anticancer activity with organoiridium complexes focused on square-planar IrI complexes because of their structural and electronic similarity to PtII anticancer complexes such as cisplatin. Recently, researchers have studied half-sandwich IrIII anticancer complexes. These complexes with the formula [(Cpx)Ir(L?L?)Z]0/n+ (with Cp* or extended Cp* and L?L? = chelated C?N or N?N ligands) have a much greater potency (nanomolar) toward a range of cancer cells (especially leukemia, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma) than cisplatin. Their mechanism of action may involve both an attack on DNA and a perturbation of the redox status of cells. Some of these complexes can form IrIII-hydride complexes using coenzyme NAD(P)H as a source of hydride to catalyze the generation of H2 or the reduction of quinones to semiquinones. Intriguingly, relatively unreactive organoiridium complexes containing an imine as a monodentate ligand have prooxidant activity, which appears to involve catalytic hydride transfer to oxygen and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. In addition, researchers have designed inert IrIII complexes as potent kinase inhibitors. Octahedral cyclometalated IrIII complexes not only serve as cell imaging agents, but can also inhibit tumor necrosis factor ?, promote DNA oxidation, generate singlet oxygen when photoactivated, and exhibit good anticancer activity. Although relatively unexplored, organoiridium chemistry offers unique features that researchers can exploit to generate novel diagnostic agents and drugs with new mechanisms of action. PMID:24555658

  11. Organoiridium complexes: anticancer agents and catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Sadler, Peter J

    2014-04-15

    Iridium is a relatively rare precious heavy metal, only slightly less dense than osmium. Researchers have long recognized the catalytic properties of square-planar Ir(I) complexes, such as Crabtree's hydrogenation catalyst, an organometallic complex with cyclooctadiene, phosphane, and pyridine ligands. More recently, chemists have developed half-sandwich pseudo-octahedral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Ir(III) complexes containing diamine ligands that efficiently catalyze transfer hydrogenation reactions of ketones and aldehydes in water using H2 or formate as the hydrogen source. Although sometimes assumed to be chemically inert, the reactivity of low-spin 5d(6) Ir(III) centers is highly dependent on the set of ligands. Cp* complexes with strong ?-donor C^C-chelating ligands can even stabilize Ir(IV) and catalyze the oxidation of water. In comparison with well developed Ir catalysts, Ir-based pharmaceuticals are still in their infancy. In this Account, we review recent developments in organoiridium complexes as both catalysts and anticancer agents. Initial studies of anticancer activity with organoiridium complexes focused on square-planar Ir(I) complexes because of their structural and electronic similarity to Pt(II) anticancer complexes such as cisplatin. Recently, researchers have studied half-sandwich Ir(III) anticancer complexes. These complexes with the formula [(Cp(x))Ir(L^L')Z](0/n+) (with Cp* or extended Cp* and L^L' = chelated C^N or N^N ligands) have a much greater potency (nanomolar) toward a range of cancer cells (especially leukemia, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma) than cisplatin. Their mechanism of action may involve both an attack on DNA and a perturbation of the redox status of cells. Some of these complexes can form Ir(III)-hydride complexes using coenzyme NAD(P)H as a source of hydride to catalyze the generation of H2 or the reduction of quinones to semiquinones. Intriguingly, relatively unreactive organoiridium complexes containing an imine as a monodentate ligand have prooxidant activity, which appears to involve catalytic hydride transfer to oxygen and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. In addition, researchers have designed inert Ir(III) complexes as potent kinase inhibitors. Octahedral cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes not only serve as cell imaging agents, but can also inhibit tumor necrosis factor ?, promote DNA oxidation, generate singlet oxygen when photoactivated, and exhibit good anticancer activity. Although relatively unexplored, organoiridium chemistry offers unique features that researchers can exploit to generate novel diagnostic agents and drugs with new mechanisms of action. PMID:24555658

  12. Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Nakao, Toshiya; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Teramachi, Hitomi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21-85 years) and 73 years (range, 30-90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3-3,585 days) and 219 days (24-3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4-5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence. PMID:25295117

  13. Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients

    PubMed Central

    KIMURA, MICHIO; USAMI, EISEKI; IWAI, MINA; NAKAO, TOSHIYA; YOSHIMURA, TOMOAKI; MORI, HIROMI; SUGIYAMA, TADASHI; TERAMACHI, HITOMI

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21–85 years) and 73 years (range, 30–90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3–3,585 days) and 219 days (24–3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4–5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence. PMID:25295117

  14. Designed TPR Modules as Novel Anticancer Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cortajarena,A.; Yi, F.; Regan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Molecules specifically designed to modulate protein-protein interactions have tremendous potential as novel therapeutic agents. One important anticancer target is the chaperone Hsp90, whose activity is essential for the folding of many oncogenic proteins, including HER2, IGFIR, AKT, RAF-1, and FLT-3. Here we report the design and characterization of new tetratricopeptide repeat modules, which bind to the C-terminus of Hsp90 with higher affinity and with greater specificity than natural Hsp90-binding co-chaperones. Thus, when these modules are introduced into the cell, they out-compete endogenous co-chaperones for binding, thereby inhibiting Hsp90 function. The effect of Hsp90 inhibition in this fashion is dramatic; HER2 levels are substantially decreased and BT474 HER2 positive breast cancer cells are killed. Our designs thus provide new tools with which to dissect the mechanism of Hsp90-mediated protein folding and also open the door to the development of an entirely new class of anticancer agents.

  15. Plant-based anticancer molecules: A chemical and biological profile of some important leads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vandana Srivastava; Arvind Singh Negi; J. K. Kumar; M. M. Gupta; Suman P. S. Khanuja

    2005-01-01

    A number of natural products, with diverse chemical structures, have been isolated as anticancer agents. Several potential lead molecules such as camptothecin, vincristine, vinblastine, taxol, podophyllotoxin, combretastatins, etc. have been isolated from plants and many of them have been modified to yield better analogues for activity, toxicity or solubility. Several successful molecules like topotecan, irinotecan, taxotere, etoposide, teniposide, etc. also

  16. Anti-cancer agents counteracting tumor glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Granchi, Carlotta

    2012-01-01

    Can we consider cancer as a “metabolic disease”? Tumors are the result of a metabolic selection, forming tissues composed of heterogeneous cells that generally express an overactive metabolism as a common feature. In fact, cancer cells have to deal with increased needs for both energy and biosynthetic intermediates, in order to support their growth and invasiveness. However, their high proliferation rate often generates regions that are not sufficiently oxygenated. Therefore, their carbohydrate metabolism has to rely mostly on a glycolytic process that is uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation. This metabolic switch, also known as the “Warburg Effect”, constitutes a fundamental adaptation of the tumor cells to a relatively hostile environment, and supports the evolution of aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. As a result, tumor glycolysis may constitute an attractive target for cancer therapy. This approach has often raised concerns that anti-glycolytic agents may cause serious side effects on normal cells. Actually, the key for a selective action against cancer cells can be found in their hyperbolic addiction to glycolysis, which may be exploited to generate new anti-cancer drugs showing minimal toxicity. In fact, there is growing evidence that supports many glycolytic enzymes and transporters as suitable candidate targets for cancer therapy. Herein we review some of the most relevant anti-glycolytic agents that have been investigated so far for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22684868

  17. Production of Podophyllotoxin in Juniperus Chinensis Callus Cultures Treated with Oligosaccharides and a Biogenetic Precursor in Honour of Professor G. H. Neil Towers 75th Birthday

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Muranaka; Masaru Miyata; Kazutaka Ito; Sanro Tachibana

    1998-01-01

    Calli were induced from the leaves of young trees of Juniperus chinensis on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with napthalenacetic acid and kinetin and subcultured on the same medium. Podophyllotoxin, a strong anti-tumor agent, was isolated from the extractives of calli and found that calli produced podophyllotoxin. The podophyllotoxin in the calli derived from the leaves constituted 0.005% of dry

  18. Plant Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the innate immune defense mechanism of many organisms and are promising candidates to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria to animals and humans. AMPs also display anticancer activities because of their ability to inactivate a wide range of cancer cells. Cancer remains a cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, the development of methods for its control is desirable. Attractive alternatives include plant AMP thionins, defensins, and cyclotides, which have anticancer activities. Here, we provide an overview of plant AMPs anticancer activities, with an emphasis on their mode of action, their selectivity, and their efficacy. PMID:25815333

  19. Nephrotoxicity of recent anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Lameire, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients may develop a variety of kidney lesions that impair not only their immediate survival but also limit the adequate treatment of the underlying malignant process. This review summarizes the nephrotoxic potential of some of the most recently developed anti-cancer drugs, focusing on those interfering with the vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Thrombotic microangiopathy (haemolytic-uraemic syndrome), proteinuria, hypertension and magnesium depletion are the most common side effects. Also the risk for developing acute kidney injury in patients with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy is discussed.

  20. Biomarkers of occupational exposure do anticancer agents: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Suspiro, A; Prista, J

    2011-11-10

    The majority of anticancer agents has in common DNA-damaging properties and affects not only target-cells but also non-tumour cells. Its genotoxicity has been demonstrated in experimental models and in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Health care personnel involved in the preparation and administration of chemotherapy is therefore at risk for adverse health effects, since most environmental sampling studies demonstrated that there is widespread contamination of work surfaces and equipments with anticancer drugs. Adherence to safety guidelines and proper use of personal protective equipment are insufficient to prevent significant absorption, as evidenced by the presence of detectable amounts of drugs in urine samples and increased frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers. In this minireview, a critical appraisal of the most important biomarkers used for the evaluation of occupational exposure to anticancer agents as well as a summary of the key findings from several studies published in this field is performed. PMID:21911042

  1. Insight into the reactive form of the anticancer agent iproplatin.

    PubMed

    Volckova, Erika; Weaver, Evelyne; Bose, Rathindra N

    2008-05-01

    The reaction of iproplatin with reduced glutathione at different mole ratios yielded cis-di(isopropylamine)chloro-glutathionatoplatinum(II), not the expected cis-dichloro- species, indicating a mode of action of this anticancer agent that is different from that of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). PMID:17707553

  2. Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. Natural occurring agents such as dietary phytochemicals, tea polyphenols and resveratrol show chemopreventive activity in animal models. Moreover, clinical trials for testing the safety and efficacy of a variety of natural agents in preventing or treating human malignancy have been ongoing. Here, we summarize experimental data on the chemopreventive or tumor suppressive effects of several natural compounds including curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and vitamin D. PMID:24520533

  3. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

  4. Fucoidan as a marine anticancer agent in preclinical development.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jong-Young

    2014-02-01

    Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug. PMID:24477286

  5. Development of Computer-Assisted Biohazard Safety Cabinet for Preparation and Verification of Injectable Anticancer Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Okayasu; Mitsuhiro Nakamura; Tadashi Sugiyama; Koichi Chigusa; Kiyoshi Sakurai; Katsuhiko Matsuura; Mayumi Yamamoto; Yasutomi Kinosada; Yoshinori Itoh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Medication errors associated with anticancer agents may cause fatal events. Therefore, exact verification of the prescription order and accurate preparation of the mixture of anticancer injections are required for safe management in cancer chemotherapy. Methods: A computer-assisted biohazard safety cabinet was newly developed for verification and preparation of anticancer agents. Using a barcode reader, information on prescription orders was

  6. Rational Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Third Generation ?-Noscapine Analogues as Potent Tubulin Binding Anti-Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Manchukonda, Naresh Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Santoshi, Seneha; Lopus, Manu; Joseph, Silja; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Systematic screening based on structural similarity of drugs such as colchicine and podophyllotoxin led to identification of noscapine, a microtubule-targeted agent that attenuates the dynamic instability of microtubules without affecting the total polymer mass of microtubules. We report a new generation of noscapine derivatives as potential tubulin binding anti-cancer agents. Molecular modeling experiments of these derivatives 5a, 6a-j yielded better docking score (-7.252 to -5.402 kCal/mol) than the parent compound, noscapine (-5.505 kCal/mol) and its existing derivatives (-5.563 to -6.412 kCal/mol). Free energy (?Gbind) calculations based on the linear interaction energy (LIE) empirical equation utilizing Surface Generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvent model predicted the tubulin-binding affinities for the derivatives 5a, 6a-j (ranging from -4.923 to -6.189 kCal/mol). Compound 6f showed highest binding affinity to tubulin (-6.189 kCal/mol). The experimental evaluation of these compounds corroborated with theoretical studies. N-(3-brormobenzyl) noscapine (6f) binds tubulin with highest binding affinity (KD, 38 ± 4.0 µM), which is ~ 4.0 times higher than that of the parent compound, noscapine (KD, 144 ± 1.0 µM) and is also more potent than that of the first generation clinical candidate EM011, 9-bromonoscapine (KD, 54 ± 9.1 µM). All these compounds exhibited substantial cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 72.9 µM; compound 6f showed prominent anti-cancer efficacy with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 26.9 µM in cancer cells of different tissues of origin. These compounds perturbed DNA synthesis, delayed the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase, and induced apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Collectively, the study reported here identified potent, third generation noscapinoids as new anti-cancer agents. PMID:24205049

  7. Chromatin modifying agents - the cutting edge of anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kwa, Faith A A; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Licciardi, Paul; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-07-01

    Chromatin modifying compounds are emerging as the next generation of anticancer therapies. By altering gene expression they could be able to correct uncontrolled proliferation and, in certain cases, aberrant apoptotic pathways, which are hallmarks of malignant cells. The modulation of gene expression is regulated via chromatin remodelling processes that include DNA methylation and chromatin modifications. The identification of aberrant methylation of genes and dysregulated histone acetylation status in cancer cells provides a basis for novel epigenetic therapies. Currently available chromatin modifying agents, a group that includes DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors, exert anticancer effects by reactivating tumour suppressor genes, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. It is anticipated that massive parallel sequencing will identify new epigenetic targets for drug development. PMID:21664485

  8. Discovery of new anticancer agents from higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Chai, Hee-Byung; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Small organic molecules derived from higher plants have been one of the mainstays of cancer chemotherapy for approximately the past half a century. In the present review, selected single chemical entity natural products of plant origin and their semi-synthetic derivatives currently in clinical trials are featured as examples of new cancer chemotherapeutic drug candidates. Several more recently isolated compounds obtained from plants showing promising in vivo biological activity are also discussed in terms of their potential as anticancer agents, with many of these obtained from species that grow in tropical regions. Since extracts of only a relatively small proportion of the ca. 300,000 higher plants on earth have been screened biologically to date, bioactive compounds from plants should play an important role in future anticancer drug discovery efforts. PMID:22202049

  9. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils....

  10. Monofunctional and Higher-Valent Platinum Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2013-01-01

    Platinum compounds represent one of the great success stories of metals in medicine. Following the serendipitous discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin by Rosenberg, a large number of cisplatin variants have been prepared and tested for their ability to kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. These efforts continue today with increased realization that new strategies are needed to overcome issues of toxicity and resistance inherent to treatment by the approved platinum anticancer agents. One approach has been the use of so-called “non-traditional” platinum(II) and platinum(IV) compounds that violate the structure-activity relationships that governed platinum drug-development research for many years. Another is the use of specialized drug delivery strategies. Here we describe recent developments from our laboratory involving monofunctional platinum(II) complexes together with an historical account of the manner by which we came to investigate these compounds and their relationship to previously studied molecules. We also discuss work carried out using platinum(IV) prodrugs and the development of nanoconstructs designed to deliver them in vivo. PMID:23738524

  11. A potent anticancer agent of shikonin derivative targeting tubulin.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Shahla Karim; Ma, Lin; Xu, Guo-Hua; Bai, Li-Fei; Zhao, Hua; Tang, Cheng-Yi; Pang, Yan-Jun; Yang, Rong-Wu; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Gui-Hua; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a shikonin ester derivative, compound , was selected to evaluate its anticancer activities and we found that compound exhibited better antitubulin activities against the human HepG2 cell line with an IC50 value of 1.097??M. Furthermore, the inhibition of tubulin polymerization results indicated that compound demonstrated the most potent antitubulin activity (IC50 ?=?13.88), which was compared with shikonin and colchicine as positive controls (IC50 ?=?25.28??M and 22.56??M), respectively. Compound was simulated to have good binding site with tubulin and arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase, which also induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells, in which P53 and members of Bcl-2 protein family were both involved in the progress of apoptosis revealed by western blot. Confocal microscopy observations revealed compound targeted tubulin and altered its polymerization by interfering with microtubule organization. Based on these results, compound functions as a potent anticancer agent targeting tubulin. Chirality 27:274-280, 2015.. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25663187

  12. Comprehensive Review on Betulin as a Potent Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Kie?bus, Micha?; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Numerous plant-derived substances, and their derivatives, are effective antitumour and chemopreventive agents. Yet, there are also a plethora of tumour types that do not respond, or become resistant, to these natural substances. This requires the discovery of new active compounds. Betulin (BE) is a pentacyclic triterpene and secondary metabolite of plants abundantly found in the outer bark of the birch tree Betulaceae sp. BE displays a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties, among which the anticancer and chemopreventive activity attract most of the attention. In this vein, BE and its natural and synthetic derivatives act specifically on cancer cells with low cytotoxicity towards normal cells. Although the antineoplastic mechanism of action of BE is not well understood yet, several interesting aspects of BE's interactions are coming to light. This review will summarize the anticancer and chemopreventive potential of BE in vitro and in vivo by carefully dissecting and comparing the doses and tumour lines used in previous studies, as well as focusing on mechanisms underlying its activity at cellular and molecular level, and discuss future prospects. PMID:25866796

  13. Jasmonates--a new family of anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Flescher, Eliezer

    2005-10-01

    Since salicylate, a plant stress hormone, suppresses the growth of various types of cancer cells, it was deemed of interest to investigate whether the jasmonate family of plant stress hormones is endowed with anti-cancer activities. Cell lines representing a wide spectrum of malignancies, including prostate, breast and lung, exhibit sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ). Jasmonates induced death in leukemic cells isolated from the blood of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and increased significantly the survival of lymphoma-bearing mice. Among the naturally occurring jasmonates, MJ is the most active, while the synthetic methyl-4,5-didehydrojasmonate, was approximately 29-fold more active than MJ. The cytotoxic activity of MJ is independent of transcription and translation. Studies have suggested several mechanisms of action. It appears that while prolonged exposures to relatively low concentrations of jasmonates induce growth arrest and re-differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells, higher concentrations of MJ induce direct perturbation of cancer cell mitochondria, leading to the release of cytochrome c and eventual cell death. A most important characteristic of jasmonates is their ability to selectively kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Even within a mixed population of normal and leukemic cells derived from the blood of CLL patients, MJ killed preferentially the leukemic cells. In conclusion, jasmonates present a unique class of anti-cancer compounds which deserves continued research at the basic and pharmaceutical levels in order to yield novel chemotherapeutic agents against a range of neoplastic diseases. PMID:16162967

  14. Podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin Production in Hairy Root Cultures of Liunm mucronatum ssp. mucronatum

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Afsaneh; Jafari, Morad; Nejhad, Nasim Mohammad; Hossenian, Farah

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Two bacterial strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, A13 and 9534 were evaluated for induction of transformed hairy roots in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, a high value medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: The hairy roots were successfully initiated, through infecting the hypocotyl and root explants and the A13 strain performed a high transformation frequency for hairy roots induction. Transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the rol genes. Growth kinetics of transgenic roots induced by two strains indicated a similar pattern of growth, with maximum growth occurring between 42 to 56 days. The lignan contents in hairy roots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: Transformed cultures showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in lignan content. The highest amount of Podophyllotoxin (PTOX, 5.78 mg/g DW) and 6-methoxy podophyllotoxin (MPTOX, 49.19 mg/g DW) was found in transformed lines induced by strain A13, which was four times higher than those of non-transformed roots. The results showed that hairy root cultures of L. mucronatum are rich sources of MPTOX. Conclusion: hairy root cultures from L. mucronatum can be used as a useful system for scale-up producing MPTOX and precursors for the production of antitumor agents in substitution with PTOX by considering the appropriate optimizations in future studies. PMID:24914281

  15. Immunomodulating tellurium compounds as anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sredni, Benjamin

    2012-02-01

    Tellurium is a rare element, which has been regarded as a toxic, non-essential trace element; its biological role, if any, has not been clearly established to date. The investigation of therapeutic activities of tellurium compounds is rather limited in the literature, despite the relative abundance of tellurium in the human body. Nevertheless, the varied activities of tellurium agents in both malignant and normal cells are extremely exciting, though very complex. Not surprisingly, an increased interest in tellurium among biological chemists and pharmacists has fuelled the search for more and more diverse tellurium compounds. The present review will focus on two small inorganic tellurium complexes, ammonium trichloro(dioxoethylene-O,O')tellurate (AS101) and Octa-O-bis-(R,R)-tartarate ditellurane (SAS), thoroughly investigated by us, converging at their anti-cancer properties, and elucidating their mechanism of action. AS101 is probably the most extensively studied synthetic tellurium compound from the standpoint of its biological activity. It is a potent immunomodulator (both in vitro and in vivo) with a variety of potential therapeutic applications. It is probably the only tellurium compound to be tested in phase I/II clinical studies in cancer patients. The effects of AS101 and SAS are primarily caused by their specific Te(IV) redox-modulating activities enabling the inactivation of cysteine proteases such as cathepsin B, inhibition of specific tumor survival proteins like survivin, or obstruction of tumor IL-10 production. All of these have profound consequences regarding anti-tumor activity or sensitization of tumors to chemotherapy. These properties, coupled with the excellent safety profile of the compounds, suggest promising anti-cancer therapeutic potential for tellurium compounds such as AS101 or SAS. PMID:22202556

  16. Anticancer agents are potent neurotoxins in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rzeski, Wojciech; Pruskil, Susanne; Macke, Alexander; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Reiher, Anne Katrin; Hoerster, Friederike; Jansma, Corina; Jarosz, Bozena; Stefovska, Vanya; Bittigau, Petra; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2004-09-01

    Neurotoxicity of anticancer agents complicates treatment of children with cancer. We investigated neurotoxic effects of common cytotoxic drugs in neuronal cultures and in the developing rat brain. When neurons were exposed to cisplatin (5-100 microM), cyclophosphamide (5-100 microM), methotrexate (5-100 microM), vinblastin (0.1-1 microM), or thiotepa (5-100 microM), a concentration-dependent neurotoxic effect was observed. Neurotoxicity was potentiated by nontoxic glutamate concentrations. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK 801 (10 microM), the AMPA receptor antagonists GYKI 52466 (10 microM) and NBQX (10 microM), and the pancaspase inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO (1 nM) ameliorated neurotoxicity of cytotoxic drugs. To investigate neurotoxicity in vivo, we administered to 7-day-old rats the following: cisplatin (5-15 mg/kg i.p.), cyclophosphamide (200-600 mg/kg i.p.), thiotepa (15-45 mg/kg), or ifosfamide (100-500 mg/kg) and their brains were analyzed at 4 to 24 hours. Cytotoxic drugs produced widespread lesions within cortex, thalamus, hippocampal dentate gyrus, and caudate nucleus in a dose-dependent fashion. Early histological analysis demonstrated dendritic swelling and relative preservation of axonal terminals, which are morphological features indicating excitotoxicity. After longer survival periods, degenerating neurons displayed morphological features consistent with active cell death. These results demonstrate that anticancer drugs are potent neurotoxins in vitro and in vivo; they activate excitotoxic mechanisms but also trigger active neuronal death. PMID:15349862

  17. Quinones derived from plant secondary metabolites as anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Wu, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Shan; Huang, Ming-Qing; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-03-01

    Quinones are plant-derived secondary metabolites that present some anti-proliferation and anti-metastasis effects in various cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. This review focuses on the anti-cancer prospects of plant-derived quinones, namely, aloe-emodin, juglone, ?-lapachol, plumbagin, shikonin, and thymoquinone. We intend to summarize their anti-cancer effects and investigate the mechanism of actions to promote the research and development of anti-cancer agents from quinones. PMID:22931417

  18. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis).

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Carvalho, Camila R; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (-)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (-)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

  19. Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Creeping Juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Charles L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Carvalho, Camila R.; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Rosa, Luiz H.

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (?)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (?)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

  20. Apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells induced by podophyllotoxin

    PubMed Central

    JI, CHEN-FENG; JI, YU-BIN

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that podophyllotoxin and its derivatives exhibit antitumor effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanism induced by podophyllotoxin. SGC-7901 cells were treated with varying concentrations of podophyllotoxin. MTT assays and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the effects of podophyllotoxin on the proliferation and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, while fluorescence inverted microscopy was used to observe the morphology of SGC-7901 cells that had been dyed with Hoechst 33258. In addition, laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to analyze the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of SGC-7901 cells dyed with Rhodamine 123. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of cytochrome c (cyt-c), caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the SGC-7901 cells. The results indicated that podophyllotoxin was capable of inhibiting growth and inducing the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner, causing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. After 48 h of treatment, the apoptotic morphology of SGC-7901 cells was clear, exhibiting cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasms and apoptotic bodies. Following 24 h of treatment, the MMP of the SGC-7901 cells decreased. In addition, after 48 h, the expression of cyt-c was shown to be upregulated, while the expression levels of pro-caspase-9 and pro-caspase-3 in the SGC-7901 cells were shown to be downregulated. In conclusion, apoptosis can be induced in SGC-7901 cells by podophyllotoxin, potentially via a mitochondrial pathway, indicating that podophyllotoxin may be a potent agent for cancer treatment. PMID:24940431

  1. Monofunctional and Higher-Valent Platinum Anticancer Agents

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Justin J.

    Platinum compounds represent one of the great success stories of metals in medicine. Following the serendipitous discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin by Rosenberg, a large number of cisplatin variants have ...

  2. Targeting Mitochondrial DNA with a Platinum-Based Anticancer Agent

    E-print Network

    Wisnovsky, Simon P.

    An analog of the anticancer drug cisplatin (mtPt) was delivered to mitochondria of human cells using a peptide specifically targeting this organelle. mtPt induces apoptosis without damaging nuclear DNA, indicating that ...

  3. Compound A398, a Novel Podophyllotoxin Analogue: Cytotoxicity and Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Alethéia L.; Faheina-Martins, Glaúcia V.; Maia, Raquel C.; Araújo, Demetrius A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology research, cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, there is a demand for the development of more selective and effective antitumor agents. This study showed that A398, a novel podophyllotoxin analogue, was cytotoxic to the HT-29, MCF-7, MOLT-4 and HL-60 tumor cell lines, being less active in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal cell lines FGH and IEC-6. Tests using the HepG2 lineage indicated that its metabolites do not contribute to its cytotoxicity. In the HL-60 cells, A398 induced apoptosis in a time and concentration-dependent manner, promoting mitochondrial depolarization, inhibition of Bcl-2, phosphatidylserine exposure, activation of caspases -8, -9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. The production of reactive oxygen species does not seem to be a crucial event for the apoptotic process. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38 resulted in an increased percentage of death induced by A398. These results indicate that the compound induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic death pathways with the mechanism involving the inhibition of the MAPKs and Bcl-2. Taken together, our findings suggest that A398 has an anticancer potential, proving itself to be a candidate for preclinical studies. PMID:25221997

  4. A review of ceramide analogs as potential anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiawang; Beckman, Barbara S.; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ceramide serves as a central mediator in sphingolipid metabolism and signaling pathways, regulating many fundamental cellular responses. It is referred to as a “tumor suppressor lipid”, since it powerfully potentiates signaling events which drive apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagic responses. In the typical cancer cell, ceramide levels and signaling are usually suppressed by over-expression of ceramide-metabolizing enzymes or down-regulation of ceramide-generating enzymes. However, chemotherapeutic drugs as well as radiotherapy increase intracellular ceramide levels while exogenously treating cancer cells with short-chain ceramides leads to anti-cancer effects. All evidence currently points to the fact that the up-regulation of ceramide level is a promising anti-cancer target. In this review, we exhibited a full scroll of anti-cancer ceramide analogs as down-stream receptor agonists and ceramide metabolizing enzyme inhibitors. PMID:23919551

  5. Nanomicellar carriers for targeted delivery of anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Huang, Yixian; Li, Song

    2014-01-01

    Clinical application of anticancer drugs is limited by problems such as low water solubility, lack of tissue-specificity and toxicity. Formulation development represents an important approach to these problems. Among the many delivery systems studied, polymeric micelles have gained considerable attention owing to ease in preparation, small sizes (10–100 nm), and ability to solubilize water-insoluble anticancer drugs and accumulate specifically at the tumors. This article provides a brief review of several promising micellar systems and their applications in tumor therapy. The emphasis is placed on the discussion of the authors’ recent work on several nanomicellar systems that have both a delivery function and antitumor activity, named dual-function drug carriers. PMID:24341817

  6. Discovery of anticancer agents of diverse natural origin*

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Chai, Hee-Byung; Orjala, Jimmy; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Soejarto, D. Doel; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Kroll, David J.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kramer, Robert A.; Rose, William C.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Vite, Gregory D.; Emanuel, Stuart; Jarjoura, David; Cope, Frederick O.

    2009-01-01

    A collaborative multidisciplinary research project is described in which new natural product anticancer drug leads are obtained from a diverse group of organisms, constituted by tropical plants, aquatic cyanobacteria, and filamentous fungi. Information is provided on how these organisms are collected and processed. The types of bioassays are indicated in which crude extracts of these acquisitions are tested. Progress made in the isolation of lead bioactive secondary metabolites from three tropical plants is discussed. PMID:20046887

  7. Cysteine-modifying agents: a possible approach for effective anticancer and antiviral drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Casini, Angela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2002-01-01

    Modification of cysteine residues in proteins, due to a) the participation of the thiol moiety of this amino acid in oxido-reduction reactions, b) its ability to strongly coordinate transition metal ions, or c) its nucleophilic nature and facile reaction with electrophiles, may be critically important for the design of novel types of pharmacological agents. Application of such procedures recently led to the design of novel antivirals, mainly based on the reaction of zinc finger proteins with disulfides and related derivatives. This approach was particularly successful for developing novel antiviral agents for human immunodeficiency virus and human papilloma virus. Several new anticancer therapeutic approaches, mainly targeting tubulin, have also been reported. Thus, this unique amino acid offers very interesting possibilities for developing particularly useful pharmacological agents, which generally possess a completely different mechanism of action compared with classic agents in clinical use, thus avoiding major problems such as multidrug resistance (for antiviral and anticancer agents) or high toxicity. PMID:12426135

  8. Substituted ajoenes as novel anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Roger; Kaschula, Catherine H; Parker, Iqbal M; Caira, Mino R; Richards, Philip; Travis, Susan; Taute, Francois; Qwebani, Thozama

    2008-10-01

    A new synthesis of the ajoene pharmacophore core is presented involving the regioselective radical addition of a thiyl radical to a terminal alkyne as the key step. The synthesis allows structural variation of the two end groups on sulfur, and a range of novel derivatives varying the R(1) group (sulfoxide end) has been prepared and tested against CT-1 transformed fibroblast cells for anti-cancer activity. The results indicate comparable or even improved activity compared to the parent natural product ajoene isomers. This opens up the way to systematically studying the biology of the ajoene core. PMID:18774712

  9. [Prevention and management of nephrotoxicity from anti-cancer agents].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Jun; Kawai, Koji

    2003-06-01

    Nephrotoxicity is an inherent adverse effect of certain anticancer drugs. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced renal dysfunction generally include damage to vascular or structures of the kidneys, hemolytic uremic syndrome and prerenal perfusion deficits. Patients with cancer are frequently at risk of renal impairment secondary to disease-related and iatrogenic causes. This article reviews the prevention and management of anticancer drug-induced renal dysfunction. Cisplatin and carboplatin cause dose-related renal dysfunction. In addition to elevation of serum creatinine levels and uremia, electrolyte abnormalities, such as hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia, are well known adverse effects of cisplatin. Methotrexate can cause elevation of serum creatinine levels, uremia and hematuria. Acute renal failure is reported after high dose methotrexate therapy. Urinary alkalization and hydration confer protection against methotrexate-induced renal dysfunction. Dose- and age-related proximal tubular damage is an adverse effect of ifosfamide. In addition to renal wasting of electrolytes, glucose and amino acids, Fanconi syndrome and rickets after ifosfamide administration have been reported in the literature. Hemolytic uremia is a rare but serious adverse effect of gemcitabine. PMID:12806945

  10. Sustainable bioproduction of phytochemicals by plant in vitro cultures: anticancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wink; A. Wilhelm Alfermann; Rochus Franke; Bernhard Wetterauer; Melanie Distl; Oliver Krohn; Elisabeth Fuss; Hermann Garden; Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh; Eckart Wildi; Peter Ripplinger

    2005-01-01

    Due to their complex structure with several chiral centres important anticancer agents are still extracted from plants and not synthesized chemically on a commercial scale. Sustainable biopro- duction of the compounds of interest may be achieved by plant in vitro cultures. Undifferen- tiated callus and suspension cultures, which can be cultivated in large bioreactors easily, very often fail to accumulate

  11. 1. (a) Why are DNA-targeted drugs largely used as anticancer agents and not as, say, antibacterial or antifungal agents?

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    CHEM 4170 Homework 4 1. (a) Why are DNA-targeted drugs largely used as anticancer agents and not as, say, antibacterial or antifungal agents? (b) Provide an explanation for how anticancer drugs can-damaging drugs mentioned in Question 1). (b) However, some medicinal chemists believe that these compounds

  12. Novel N-substituted sophoridinol derivatives as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chong-Wen; Zhang, Cai-Xia; Li, Ying-Hong; Tang, Sheng; Deng, Hong-Bin; Zhao, Wu-Li; Wang, Zhen; Shao, Rong-Guang; Song, Dan-Qing

    2014-06-23

    Using sophoridine (1) as the lead compound, a series of new N-substituted sophoridinic acid derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity. SAR analysis indicated that introduction of a chlorobenzyl on the 12-nitrogen atom of sophoridinol might significantly enhance the antiproliferative activity. Of the newly synthesized compounds, sophoridinol analogue 9k exhibited a potent effect against six human tumor cell lines (liver, colon, breast, lung, glioma and nasopharyngeal). The mode of action of 9k was to inhibit the DNA topoisomerase I activity, followed by the G0/G1 phase arrest. It also showed a moderate oral bioavailability and good safety in vivo. Therefore, compound 9k has been selected as a novel-scaffold lead for further structural optimizations or as a chemical probe for exploring anticancer pathways of this kinds of compounds. PMID:24826818

  13. Design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of novel berberine derivatives prepared via CuAAC “click” chemistry as potential anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Yan, Tian-Hua; Yan, Lan; Li, Qian; Wang, Rui-Lian; Hu, Zhen-Lin; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Sun, Qing-Yan; Cao, Yong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel derivatives of phenyl-substituted berberine triazolyls has been designed and synthesized via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry in an attempt to develop antitumor agents. All of the compounds were evaluated for anticancer activity against a panel of three human cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 (breast), SW-1990 (pancreatic), and SMMC-7721 (liver) and the noncancerous human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cell lines. The results indicated that most of the compounds displayed notable anticancer activities against the MCF-7 cells compared with berberine. Among these derivatives, compound 16 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against the SW-1990 and SMMC-7721 cell lines, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 8.54±1.97 ?M and 11.87±1.83 ?M, respectively. Compound 36 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with an IC50 value of 12.57±1.96 ?M. Compound 16 and compound 36 exhibited low cytotoxicity in the HUVEC cell line, with IC50 values of 25.49±3.24 ?M and 30.47±3.47 ?M. Furthermore, compounds 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 32, and 36 exhibited much better selectivity than berberine toward the normal cell line HUVEC. PMID:25120353

  14. Design and synthesis of celastrol derivatives as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Jian; Wang, Jing; Tong, Xu; Shi, Jing-Bo; Liu, Xin-Hua; Li, Jun

    2015-05-01

    A series of celastrol derivatives as potential telomerase inhibitors were designed and synthesized. The bioassays demonstrated that title compounds displayed potent anticancer activities against SGC-7901, SMMC-7721, MGC-803 and HepG-2 cell lines, among them, compounds 3c and 3d which containing hydrophilicity moieties exhibited high anti-proliferative activities (IC50 = 0.10-1.22 ?M). The preliminary mechanism of antitumor action indicated that title compound 3c could induce significant SMMC-7721 cells apoptosis. A modified TRAP assay showed that compounds 3c and 3d displayed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values at 0.11 and 0.34 ?M, respectively. And there was a good correlation between telomerase inhibition and anti-proliferative inhibition of SMMC-7721 cells. Moreover, molecular docking indicated that the active compound 3c was nicely bound into the telomerase hTERT active site, hydrophobic, van der Waals and two hydrogen bond interactions with conserved residues ASP 628 and TYR 949 were found. PMID:25812966

  15. Novel shikonin derivatives targeting tubulin as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Jing; Lin, Hong-Yan; Han, Hong-Wei; Liu, Hong-Chang; Huang, Shou-Cheng; Shahla, Baloch K; Kulek, Andrew; Qi, Jin-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ling, Li-Jun; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report the identification of a new shikonin-phenoxyacetic acid derivative, as an inhibitor of tubulin. A series of compounds were prepared; among them, compound 16 [(R)-1-(5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)-4-methylpent-3-enyl 2-(4- phenoxyphenyl) acetate] potently inhibited the function of microtubules, inducing cell growth inhibition, apoptosis of cancer cell lines in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Molecular docking involving 16 at the vinblastine binding site of tubulin indicated that a phenoxy moiety interacted with tubulin via hydrogen bonding with asparaginate (Asn) and tyrosine (Tyr). Analysis of microtubules with confocal microscopy demonstrated that 16 altered the microtubule architecture and exhibited a significant reduction in microtubule density. Cell cycle assay further proved that HepG2 cells were blocked in G2/M phase. Our study provides a new, promising compound for the development of tubulin inhibitors by proposing a new target for the anticancer activity of shikonin. PMID:24797889

  16. Thioaryl naphthylmethanone oxime ether analogs as novel anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Bandana; Akhtar, Tahseen; Rai, Byanju; Yadav, Manisha; Akhtar Siddiqui, Jawed; Dhar Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Thakur, Ravi; Singh, Anup Kumar; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Harish; Khan, Kainat; Pal, Subhashis; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Lal, Jawahar; Konwar, Rituraj; Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Datta, Dipak; Mishra, Durga Prasad; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Kumar, Atul

    2014-10-01

    Employing a rational design of thioaryl naphthylmethanone oxime ether analogs containing functional properties of various anticancer drugs, a series of compounds were identified that displayed potent cytotoxicity toward various cancer cells, out of which 4-(methylthio)phenyl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone O-2-(diethylamino)ethyl oxime (MND) exhibited the best safety profile. MND induced apoptosis, inhibited migration and invasion, strongly inhibited cancer stem cell population on a par with salinomycin, and demonstrated orally potent tumor regression in mouse MCF-7 xenografts. Mechanistic studies revealed that MND strongly abrogated EGF-induced proliferation, migration, and tyrosine kinase (TK) signaling in breast cancer cells. However, MND failed to directly inhibit EGFR or other related receptor TKs in a cell-free system. Systematic investigation of a putative target upstream of EGFR revealed that the biological effects of MND could be abrogated by pertussis toxin. Together, MND represents a new nonquinazoline potential drug candidate having promising antiproliferative activity with good safety index. PMID:25198997

  17. Unconventional Anticancer Agents: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Kuo, Joyce; Cassileth, Barrie R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose A substantial number of cancer patients turn to treatments other than those recommended by mainstream oncologists in an effort to sustain tumor remission or halt the spread of cancer. These unconventional approaches include botanicals, high-dose nutritional supplementation, off-label pharmaceuticals, and animal products. The objective of this study was to review systematically the methodologies applied in clinical trials of unconventional treatments specifically for cancer. Methods MEDLINE 1966 to 2005 was searched using approximately 200 different medical subject heading terms (eg, alternative medicine) and free text words (eg, laetrile). We sought prospective clinical trials of unconventional treatments in cancer patients, excluding studies with only symptom control or nonclinical (eg, immune) end points. Trial data were extracted by two reviewers using a standardized protocol. Results We identified 14,735 articles, of which 214, describing 198 different clinical trials, were included. Twenty trials were phase I, three were phase I and II, 70 were phase II, and 105 were phase III. Approximately half of the trials investigated fungal products, 20% investigated other botanicals, 10% investigated vitamins and supplements, and 10% investigated off-label pharmaceuticals. Only eight of the phase I trials were dose-finding trials, and a mere 20% of phase II trials reported a statistical design. Of the 27 different agents tested in phase III, only one agent had a prior dose-finding trial, and only for three agents was the definitive study initiated after the publication of phase II data. Conclusion Unconventional cancer treatments have not been subject to appropriate early-phase trial development. Future research on unconventional therapies should involve dose-finding and phase II studies to determine the suitability of definitive trials. PMID:16382123

  18. The application of click chemistry in the synthesis of agents with anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Nan; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between alkynes and azides (click chemistry) to form 1,2,3-triazoles is the most popular reaction due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. This reaction has the potential to shorten procedures, and render more efficient lead identification and optimization procedures in medicinal chemistry, which is a powerful modular synthetic approach toward the assembly of new molecular entities and has been applied in anticancer drugs discovery increasingly. The present review focuses mainly on the applications of this reaction in the field of synthesis of agents with anticancer activity, which are divided into four groups: topoisomerase II inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and antimicrotubule agents. PMID:25792812

  19. Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Shabbeer, Shabana; Sobolewski, Michelle; Kachhap, Sushant; Davidson, Nancy; Carducci, Michael A.; Khan, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, various dietary components that can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines (PCa). When tested at higher doses (15-20 ug/mL), FE continued to be growth inhibitory to PCa cell lines but not to either primary prostate or htert-immortalized prostate cells. At least part of the growth inhibition is due to induction of cell death, as seen by incorporation of Ethidium Bromide III into cancer cells exposed to FE. Molecular changes induced in PCa cells are: in DU-145 cells: down regulation of mutant p53, and in PC-3 cells up regulation of p21 and inhibition of TGF-? induced phosphorylation of Akt. The surprising finding of our studies is that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously up regulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential. PMID:19197146

  20. Cellular accumulation of the anticancer agent cisplatin: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Gately, D. P.; Howell, S. B.

    1993-01-01

    Acquired resistance to cisplatin (DDP) is a major clinical problem in the treatment of ovarian, testicular, and head and neck carcinomas; decreased accumulation of DDP is the most consistently observed alteration in resistant cells. It has been postulated that DDP enters the cell by passive diffusion based on the observations that DDP accumulation is proportional to the drug concentration, accumulation is not saturable, and that structural analogs of DDP do not inhibit accumulation. However, recent studies show that DDP accumulation can be specifically stimulated or inhibited by pharmacological agents and the activation of signal transduction pathways. This paper reviews the existing data on the mechanism of DDP accumulation and develops the postulate that some component of transport occurs through a gated ion channel. PMID:8512802

  1. Current development of the second generation of mTOR inhibitors as anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Yu; Huang, Shi-Le

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine protein kinase, acts as a “master switch” for cellular anabolic and catabolic processes, regulating the rate of cell growth and proliferation. Dysregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway occurs frequently in a variety of human tumors, and thus, mTOR has emerged as an important target for the design of anticancer agents. mTOR is found in two distinct multiprotein complexes within cells, mTORC1 and mTORC2. These two complexes consist of unique mTOR-interacting proteins and are regulated by different mechanisms. Enormous advances have been made in the development of drugs known as mTOR inhibitors. Rapamycin, the first defined inhibitor of mTOR, showed effectiveness as an anticancer agent in various preclinical models. Rapamycin analogues (rapalogs) with better pharmacologic properties have been developed. However, the clinical success of rapalogs has been limited to a few types of cancer. The discovery that mTORC2 directly phosphorylates Akt, an important survival kinase, adds new insight into the role of mTORC2 in cancer. This novel finding prompted efforts to develop the second generation of mTOR inhibitors that are able to target both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Here, we review the recent advances in the mTOR field and focus specifically on the current development of the second generation of mTOR inhibitors as anticancer agents. PMID:22059905

  2. Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Juniperus virginiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaves (needles) of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) contain two important natural products: essential oil and podophyllotoxin. The hypothesis of this study was that it may be possible to extract both essential oil and podophyllotoxin from the leaves of the tree, by using a dual extra...

  3. Essential Oils and Their Constituents as Anticancer Agents: A Mechanistic View

    PubMed Central

    Mantha, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring natural plant products as an option to find new chemical entities as anticancer agents is one of the fastest growing areas of research. Recently, in the last decade, essential oils (EOs) have been under study for their use in cancer therapy and the present review is an attempt to collect and document the available studies indicating EOs and their constituents as anticancer agents. This review enlists nearly 130 studies of EOs from various plant species and their constituents that have been studied so far for their anticancer potential and these studies have been classified as in vitro and in vivo studies for EOs and their constituents. This review also highlights in-depth various mechanisms of action of different EOs and their constituents reported in the treatment strategies for different types of cancer. The current review indicates that EOs and their constituents act by multiple pathways and mechanisms involving apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic, increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), DNA repair modulation, and others to demonstrate their antiproliferative activity in the cancer cell. The effect of EOs and their constituents on tumour suppressor proteins (p53 and Akt), transcription factors (NF-?B and AP-1), MAPK-pathway, and detoxification enzymes like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase has also been discussed. PMID:25003106

  4. Expression of sulfotransferase SULT1A1 in cancer cells predicts susceptibility to the novel anticancer agent NSC-743380

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Wu, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoying; Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Rui-Yu; Sun, Xiaoping; Wei, Caimiao; Baggerly, Keith A.; Roth, Jack A.; Wang, Michael; Swisher, Stephen G.; Fang, Bingliang

    2015-01-01

    The small molecule anticancer agent NSC-743380 modulates functions of multiple cancer-related pathways and is highly active in a subset of cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 cell line panel. It also has promising in vivo anticancer activity. However, the mechanisms underlying NSC-743380's selective anticancer activity remain uncharacterized. To determine biomarkers that may be used to identify responders to this novel anticancer agent, we performed correlation analysis on NSC-743380's anticancer activity and the gene expression levels in NCI-60 cell lines and characterized the functions of the top associated genes in NSC-743380–mediated anticancer activity. We found sulfotransferase SULT1A1 is causally associated with NSC-743380's anticancer activity. SULT1A1 was expressed in NSC-743380–sensitive cell lines but was undetectable in resistant cancer cells. Ectopic expression of SULT1A1 in NSC743380 resistant cancer cells dramatically sensitized the resistant cells to NSC-743380. Knockdown of the SULT1A1 in the NSC-743380 sensitive cancer cell line rendered it resistance to NSC-743380. The SULT1A1 protein levels in cell lysates from 18 leukemia cell lines reliably predicted the susceptibility of the cell lines to NSC-743380. Thus, expression of SULT1A1 in cancer cells is required for NSC-743380's anticancer activity and can be used as a biomarker for identification of NSC-743380 responders. PMID:25514600

  5. Evolution in medicinal chemistry of ursolic acid derivatives as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wang, Ailan; Zhou, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yunquan; Zhou, Jia

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is a renewed interest in common dietaries and plant-based traditional medicines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the search for potential anticancer agents from natural sources, ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in various medicinal herbs and fruits, exhibits powerful biological effects including its attractive anticancer activity against various types of cancer cells. However, the limited solubility, rapid metabolism and poor bioavailability of UA restricted its further clinical applications. In the past decade, with substantial progress toward the development of new chemical entities for the treatment of cancer, numerous UA derivatives have been designed and prepared to overcome its disadvantages. Despite extensive effort, discovery of effective UA derivatives has so far met with only limited success. This review summarizes the current status of the structural diversity and evolution in medicinal chemistry of UA analogues and provides a detailed discussion of future direction for further research in the chemical modifications of UA. PMID:25617694

  6. Synthesis of xanthone derivatives based on ?-mangostin and their biological evaluation for anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiang; Jo, Minmi; Lee, Bit; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Kiho; Jung, Jae-Kyung; Seo, Seung-Yong; Kwak, Young-Shin

    2014-05-01

    A xanthone-derived natural product, ?-mangostin is isolated from various parts of the mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae), a well-known tropical fruit. Novel xanthone derivatives based on ?-mangostin were synthesized and evaluated as anti-cancer agents by cytotoxicity activity screening using 5 human cancer cell lines. Some of these analogs had potent to moderate inhibitory activities. The structure-activity relationship studies revealed that phenol groups on C3 and C6 are critical to anti-proliferative activity and C4 modification is capable to improve both anti-cancer activity and drug-like properties. Our findings provide new possibilities for further explorations to improve potency. PMID:24717154

  7. Polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Dinarvand, R; Sepehri, N; Manoochehri, S; Rouhani, H; Atyabi, F

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of anticancer agents may be hindered by low solubility in water, poor permeability, and high efflux from cells. Nanomaterials have been used to enable drug delivery with lower toxicity to healthy cells and enhanced drug delivery to tumor cells. Different nanoparticles have been developed using different polymers with or without surface modification to target tumor cells both passively and/or actively. Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), a biodegradable polyester approved for human use, has been used extensively. Here we report on recent developments concerning PLGA nanoparticles prepared for cancer treatment. We review the methods used for the preparation and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles and their applications in the delivery of a number of active agents. Increasing experience in the field of preparation, characterization, and in vivo application of PLGA nanoparticles has provided the necessary momentum for promising future use of these agents in cancer treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side effects. PMID:21720501

  8. [Studies of combined treatment of radiofrequency hyperthermia with anticancer agents or irradiation for invasive bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Uchibayashi, T; Lee, S W; Hisazumi, H; Naito, K; Endo, Y; Noguchi, M; Tanaka, M; Sasaki, T

    1993-12-01

    Using an in vitro colony forming assay system, the cytotoxic effects of anticancer agents alone, adriamycin (ADM) and bleomycin (BLM), and the combined effects of hyperthermia and anticancer agents on cultivated KK-47 cells were investigated. When the hyperthermia was combined with various concentrations of ADM ranging from 0.005 to 0.1 microgram/ml and BLM from 0.01 to 1.0 microgram/ml, enhanced cell killing effects were obtained at the concentration of less than 0.02 microgram/ml of ADM and with an increase of BLM concentration. In DNA specimens obtained from the livers of chick embryos inoculated with human tumor cultivated cells, the polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify a DNA fragment specific to the beta-globin gene. By detecting these amplified DNA fragments, the feasibility of efficiently detecting metastatic cells present in chick embryo was demonstrated in vivo. Hyperthermic therapy showed inhibitory effects on the growth of metastasized cultivated cells in a thermal dose-dependent manner. Combination therapy of ADM, mitomycin and carboplatin and hyperthermia had an enhanced inhibitory activity on the growth of metastasized cultivated human tumor cells derived from bladder cancer. Hyperthermia using radiofrequency-capacitive heating in combination with irradiation or anticancer agents, was performed in a total of 56 patients with T2 to T4 invasive urinary bladder cancer. A tumor regression rate of 50 percent or more was obtained in 21 of these 56 patients. We have to follow up the patients for longer periods more precisely to evaluate the role of these treatments. PMID:7506870

  9. Xanthones from Mangosteen Extracts as Natural Chemopreventive Agents: Potential Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Shan, T.; Ma, Q.; Guo, K.; Liu, J.; Li, W.; Wang, F.; Wu, E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the treatment and management of malignant tumors still remain a formidable challenge for public health. New strategies for cancer treatment are being developed, and one of the most promising treatment strategies involves the application of chemopreventive agents. The search for novel and effective cancer chemopreventive agents has led to the identification of various naturally occurring compounds. Xanthones, from the pericarp, whole fruit, heartwood, and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn., GML), are known to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacologic properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral activities. The potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities of xanthones have been demonstrated in different stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression) and are known to control cell division and growth, apoptosis, inflammation, and metastasis. Multiple lines of evidence from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that xanthones inhibit proliferation of a wide range of human tumor cell types by modulating various targets and signaling transduction pathways. Here we provide a concise and comprehensive review of preclinical data and assess the observed anticancer effects of xanthones, supporting its remarkable potential as an anticancer agent. PMID:21902651

  10. Structure-Activity Relationships of Orotidine-5?-Monophosphate Decarboxylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, A.; Konforte, D; Poduch, E; Furlonger, C; Wei, L; Liu, Y; Lewis, M; Pai, E; Paige, C; Kotra, L

    2009-01-01

    A series of 6-substituted and 5-fluoro-6-substituted uridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their potential as anticancer agents. The designed molecules were synthesized from either fully protected uridine or the corresponding 5-fluorouridine derivatives. The mononucleotide derivatives were used for enzyme inhibition investigations against ODCase. Anticancer activities of all the synthesized derivatives were evaluated using the nucleoside forms of the inhibitors. 5-Fluoro-UMP was a very weak inhibitor of ODCase. 6-Azido-5-fluoro and 5-fluoro-6-iodo derivatives are covalent inhibitors of ODCase, and the active site Lys145 residue covalently binds to the ligand after the elimination of the 6-substitution. Among the synthesized nucleoside derivatives, 6-azido-5-fluoro, 6-amino-5-fluoro, and 6-carbaldehyde-5-fluoro derivatives showed potent anticancer activities in cell-based assays against various leukemia cell lines. On the basis of the overall profile, 6-azido-5-fluoro and 6-amino-5-fluoro uridine derivatives exhibited potential for further investigations.

  11. DFT-based QSAR study and molecular design of AHMA derivatives as potent anticancer agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jincan; Shen, Yong; Liao, Siyan; Chen, Lanmei; Zheng, Kangcheng

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of 3-(9-acridinylamino)-5-hydroxymethylaniline (AHMA) derivatives and their alkylcarbamates as potent anticancer agents has been studied using density functional theory (DFT), molecular mechanics (MM+), and statistical methods. In the best established QSAR equation, the energy (ENL) of the next lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (NLUMO) and the net charges (QFR) of the first atom of the substituent R, as well as the steric parameter (MR2) of subsituent R2 are the main independent factors contributing to the anticancer activity of the compounds. A new scheme determining outliers by ?leave-one-out? (LOO) cross-validation coefficient (q2n-i) was suggested and successfully used. The fitting correlation coefficient (R2) and the ?LOO? cross-validation coefficient (q2) values for the training set of 25 compounds are 0.881 and 0.829, respectively. The predicted activities of 5 compounds in the test set using this QSAR model are in good agreement with their experimental values, indicating that this model has excellent predictive ability. Based on the established QSAR equation, 10 new compounds with rather high anticancer activity much greater than that of 34 compounds have been designed and await experimental verification.

  12. Genetic and epigenetic studies for determining molecular targets of natural product anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujiong; Li, Yong; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, William C S

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is a disease caused by a series of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Therefore, agents targeting the genetic and/or epigenetic machinery offer potential for the development of anticancer drugs. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that some common natural products [such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), curcumin, genistein, sulforaphane (SFN) and resveratrol] have anticancer properties through the mechanisms of altering epigenetic processes [including DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, microRNA (miRNA) regulation] and targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs). These bioactive compounds are able to revert epigenetic alterations in a variety of cancers in vitro and in vivo. They exert anticancer effects by targeting various signaling pathways related to the initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. It appears that natural products hold great promise for cancer prevention and treatment by altering various epigenetic modifications. This review aims to discuss our current understanding of genetic and epigenetic targets of natural products and the effects of some common natural products on cancer chemoprevention and treatment. PMID:23597195

  13. Honey as a Potential Natural Anticancer Agent: A Review of Its Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sarfraz

    2013-01-01

    The main treatment for cancer is by using chemotherapy and radiotherapy which themselves are toxic to other viable cells of the body. Recently, there are many studies focusing on the use of natural products for cancer prevention and treatment. Of these natural products, honey has been extensively researched. The mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of honey as chemopreventive and therapeutic agent has not been completely understood. The possible mechanisms are due to its apoptotic, antiproliferative, antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and immunomodulatory activities. We collate the findings of several studies published in the literature in order to understand the mechanism of its action. PMID:24363771

  14. Systemic use of tumor necrosis factor alpha as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicholas J; Zhou, Shibin; Diaz, Luis A; Holdhoff, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) has been discussed as a potential anticancer agent for many years, however initial enthusiasm about its clinical use as a systemic agent was curbed due to significant toxicities and lack of efficacy. Combination of TNF-? with chemotherapy in the setting of hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (ILP), has provided new insights into a potential therapeutic role of this agent. The therapeutic benefit from TNF-? in ILP is thought to be not only due to its direct anti-proliferative effect, but also due to its ability to increase penetration of the chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor tissue. New concepts for the use of TNF-? as a facilitator rather than as a direct actor are currently being explored with the goal to exploit the ability of this agent to increase drug delivery and to simultaneously reduce systemic toxicity. This review article provides a comprehensive overview on the published previous experience with systemic TNF-?. Data from 18 phase I and 10 phase II single agent as well as 18 combination therapy studies illustrate previously used treatment and dose schedules, response data as well as the most prominently observed adverse effects. Also discussed, based on recent preclinical data, is a potential future role of systemic TNF-? in combination with liposomal chemotherapy to facilitate increased drug uptake into tumors. PMID:22036896

  15. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Tan, C. K.; Hashimi, Saeed M.; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Wei, Ming Q.

    2014-01-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini) which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF)-?B and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies. PMID:24734105

  16. Highly Adaptable Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells as a Functional Model for Testing Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Balraj; Shamsnia, Anna; Raythatha, Milan R.; Milligan, Ryan D.; Cady, Amanda M.; Madan, Simran; Lucci, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance. PMID:25279830

  17. New synthetic aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts as anticancer chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Doona; Yang, Jee Sun; Oh, Changmok; Cui, Shuolin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Won, Misun; Lee, Jang-ik; Kim, Hwan Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2013-11-01

    RhoB is expressed during tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. In malignant progression, the expression levels of RhoB are commonly attenuated. RhoB is known to be linked to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathways. Based on aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts that induce apoptosis via up-regulation of RhoB, we synthesized novel aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts. These new synthetic compounds were evaluated for their biological activities using an in vitro RhoB promoter assay in HeLa cells, and in a growth inhibition assay using human cancer cell lines including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. Compound 5b (ethyl-dimethyl-{3-[methyl-(tetradecane-1-sulfonyl)-amino]-propyl}-ammonium; iodide) was the most promising anticancer agent in the series, based upon the potency of growth inhibition and RhoB promotion. These new aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts could be a valuable series for development of new anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24095759

  18. In vivo evaluation of Eclipta alba extract as anticancer and multidrug resistance reversal agent.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Harshita; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the anticancer and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal potential of hydro-alcoholic Eclipta alba extract (EAE) through in vivo experiments. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were used for liver cancer induction in animal model, whereas for MDR induction, AAF was used. The level of antioxidant enzymes was studied in serum along with biochemical parameters. Cancer and MDR-induced liver cells have higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, in turn, are responsible for the maintenance of the cancer phenotype. Treatment with EAE declines the ROS level and revealed the ROS scavenging properties. Alfa feto protein levels were found to increase significantly in cancer-induced animals confirming induction and progression of liver cancer, EAE treatment was found to bring back the altered levels within normal range indicating the therapeutic effect of plant extract over liver cancer. Zymogram showed the inhibition of MMPs and RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-kB was markedly decreased upon EAE treatment. Further, our results showed that EAE could significantly inhibit mdr1 gene encode P-glycoprotein expression. Our data suggest that EAE is a novel anticancer and potent MDR reversal agent and may be a potential adjunctive agent for tumor chemotherapy. PMID:24896195

  19. Immuno-chemotherapeutic platinum(IV) prodrugs of cisplatin as multimodal anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Yeo, Charmian Hui Fang; Ang, Wee Han

    2014-06-23

    There is growing consensus that the clinical therapeutic efficacy of some chemotherapeutic agents depends on their off-target immune-modulating effects. Pt anticancer drugs have previously been identified to be potent immunomodulators of both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Nevertheless, there has been little development in the rational design of Pt-based chemotherapeutic agents to exploit their immune-activating capabilities. The FPR1/2 formyl peptide receptors are highly expressed in immune cells, as well as in many metastatic cancers. Herein, we report a rationally designed multimodal Pt(IV) prodrug containing a FPR1/2-targeting peptide that combines chemotherapy with immunotherapy to achieve therapeutic synergy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:24844571

  20. Enzyme-Assisted Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Podophyllotoxin and (-)-Picropodophyllin

    E-print Network

    Berkowitz, David

    , Nebraska 68588-0304 Received October 11, 1999 Described is the first catalytic, asymmetric synthesis neat dimethyl acetylene dicarboxylate as the dienophile, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. Reduction is converted to (-)- picropodophyllin in two steps (lactonization, SEM deprotection) or to (-)-podophyllotoxin

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 positively regulates Akt signalling and enhances survival of erythroleukemia cells exposed to anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Julian; Liagre, Bertrand; Ghezali, Lamia; Beneytout, Jean-Louis; Leger, David Yannick

    2013-07-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been found to be highly expressed in many types of cancers and to contribute to tumorigenesis via the inhibition of apoptosis, increased angiogenesis and invasiveness. In hematological malignancies, COX-2 expression was found to correlate with poor patient prognosis. However, the exact role of COX-2 expression in these malignancies, and particularly in erythroleukemias, remains unclear. The aim of this work was to describe and understand the relationships between COX-2 expression and apoptosis rate in erythroleukemia cells after apoptosis induction by several anticancer agents. We used three different erythroleukemia cell lines in which COX-2 expression was modulated by transfection with either COX-2 siRNA or COX-2 cDNA. These cellular models were then treated with apoptosis inducers and apoptosis onset and intensity was followed. Cell signalling was evaluated in unstimulated transfected cells or after apoptosis induction. We found that COX-2 inhibition rendered erythroleukemia cells more sensitive to apoptosis induction and that in cells overexpressing COX-2 apoptosis induction was reduced. We demonstrated that COX-2 inhibition decreased the pro-survival Akt signalling and activated the negative regulator of Akt signalling, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Conversely, in COX-2 overexpressing cells, Akt signalling was activated and PTEN was inhibited. In these last cells, inhibition of casein kinase 2 or Akt signalling restored sensitivity to apoptotic agents. Our findings highlighted that COX-2 can positively regulate Akt signalling mostly through PTEN inhibition, partly via casein kinase 2 activation, and enhances survival of erythroleukemia cells exposed to anticancer agents. PMID:23435965

  2. An efficient in vitro system for somatic embryogenesis and podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Manoharan; Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Jeyaraj, Murugaraj; Chackravarthy, Rajan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Selvaraj, N; Ganapathi, Andy

    2014-09-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royle known as Indian mayapple is an important medicinal plant found only in higher altitudes (2,700 to 4,200 m) of the Himalayas. The highly valued anticancer drug Podophyllotoxin is obtained from the roots of this plant. Due to over exploitation, this endemic plant species is on the verge of extinction. In vitro culture for efficient regeneration and the production of podophyllotoxin is an important research priority for this plant. Hence, in the present study, an efficient plant regeneration system for mass multiplication through somatic embryogenesis was developed. We have screened P. hexandrum seeds collected from three different regions in the Himalayas to find their regenerative potentials. These variants showed variation in germination percentage as well as somatic embryogenic frequency. The seeds collected from the Milam area of Pithoragarh district showed better germination response (99.3%) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with Gibberellic acid (GA3 [5 mg/l]) and higher direct somatic embryogenic frequency (89.6%). Maximum production of embryogenic callus (1.2 g fresh weight [FW]) was obtained when cotyledons containing the direct somatic embryo clusters were cultured in MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D [1.5 mg/l]) after 4 week of culture in complete darkness. In the present investigation, somatic embryogenesis was accomplished either by direct organogenesis or callus mediated pathways. The latter method resulted in a higher frequency of somatic embryo induction in hormone-free MS medium yielding 47.7 embryos/50 mg of embryogenic callus and subsequent germination in MS medium supplemented with GA3 (5 mg/l). Seventy-nine percent of embryos attained complete maturity and germinated into normal plants with well-developed roots. Systematic histological analysis revealed the origin of somatic embryo and their ontogenesis. The higher level of podophyllotoxin (1.8 mg/g dry weight [DW]) was recorded in germinated somatic embryos when compared to field grown plants. The present system can be widely used for mass propagation, transgenic recovery, and podophyllotoxin production for commercial utilization. PMID:24633328

  3. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of arylcinnamide hybrid derivatives as novel anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Chayah, Mariem; Camacho, M Encarnacion; Prencipe, Filippo; Hamel, Ernest; Consolaro, Francesca; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2014-06-23

    The combination of two pharmacophores into a single molecule represents one of the methods that can be adopted for the synthesis of new anticancer molecules. A series of novel antiproliferative agents designed by a pharmacophore hybridization approach, combining the arylcinnamide skeleton and an ?-bromoacryloyl moiety, was synthesized and evaluated for its antiproliferative activity against a panel of seven human cancer cell lines. In addition, the new derivatives were also active on multidrug-resistant cell lines over-expressing P-glycoprotein. The biological effects of various substituents on the N-phenyl ring of the benzamide portion were also described. In order to study the possible mechanism of action, we observed that 4p slightly increased the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production in HeLa cells, but, more importantly, a remarkable decrease of intracellular reduced glutathione content was detected in treated cells compared with controls. These results were confirmed by the observation that only thiol-containing antioxidants were able to significantly protect the cells from induced cell death. Altogether our results indicate that the new derivatives are endowed with good anticancer activity in vitro, and their properties may result in the development of new cancer therapeutic strategies. PMID:24858544

  4. A Possible Anticancer Agent, Type III Interferon, Activates Cell Death Pathways and Produces Antitumor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Masatoshi; Kawamura, Kiyoko; Li, Quanhai; Tada, Yuji; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Shimada, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Recently identified interleukin-28 and -29 belong to a novel type III interferon (IFN) family, which could have distinct biological properties from type I and II IFNs. Type I IFNs, IFN-?/?, have been clinically applied for treating a certain kind of malignancies for over 30 years, but a wide range of the adverse effects hampered the further clinical applications. Type III IFNs, IFN-?s, have similar signaling pathways as IFN-?/? and inhibits proliferation of tumor cells through cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Restricted patterns of type III IFN receptor expression in contrast to ubiquitously expressed IFN-?/? receptors suggest that type III IFNs have limited cytotoxicity to normal cells and can be a possible anticancer agent. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the IFN-?s-mediated tumor cell death and discuss the functional difference between type I and III IFNs. PMID:22013482

  5. Investigation of Degradation Properties of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Matrix for Anticancer Agent Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, S. M.; Mohamed, M. S. W.; Yahya, A. F.; Noorsal, K. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim Kedah (Malaysia)

    2010-03-11

    Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLA{sub 50}GA{sub 50}) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It offers tremendous potential as a basis for drug delivery, either as drug delivery system alone or in conjugate with a medical device. The PLA{sub 50}GA{sub 50} is the material of choice for relatively shorter-duration applications, while the homopolymer PLA (poly-L-lactide) and PGA (polyglycolide) are preferred for longer term delivery of drugs. This paper discusses the degradation properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLA{sub 50}GA{sub 50}) at inherent viscosity of 0.89 dL/g as preliminary studies for anticancer agent delivery.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some hydrazone derivatives as new anticandidal and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Alt?ntop, Mehlika Dilek; Özdemir, Ahmet; Turan-Zitouni, Gülhan; Ilg?n, Sinem; Atl?, Özlem; ??can, Gökalp; Kaplanc?kl?, Zafer As?m

    2012-12-01

    New hydrazone derivatives were synthesized via the nucleophilic addition-elimination reaction of 2-[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thio)]acetohydrazide with aromatic aldehydes/ketones. The compounds were tested in vitro against various Candida species and compared with ketoconazole. Genotoxicity of the most effective anticandidal compounds was evaluated by umuC and Ames assays. All compounds were also investigated for their cytotoxic effects on NIH3T3 and A549 cell lines. Compound 8 was the most effective antifungal derivative against C. albicans (ATCC-90028) with a MIC value of 0.05 mg/mL. Compound 5 can be identified as the most promising anticancer agent against A549 cancer cell lines due to its inhibitory effect on A549 cell lines and low toxicity to NIH3T3 cells. PMID:23142671

  7. Assessment of antimicrobial (host defense) peptides as anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Susan; Hoskin, David W; Hilchie, Ashley L

    2014-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial (host defense) peptides (CAPs) are able to kill microorganisms and cancer cells, leading to their consideration as novel candidate therapeutic agents in human medicine. CAPs can physically associate with anionic membrane structures, such as those found on cancer cells, causing pore formation, intracellular disturbances, and leakage of cell contents. In contrast, normal cells are less negatively-charged and are typically not susceptible to CAP-mediated cell death. Because the interaction of CAPs with cells is based on charge properties rather than cell proliferation, both rapidly dividing and quiescent cancer cells, as well as multidrug-resistant cancer cells, are targeted by CAPs, making CAPS potentially valuable as anti-cancer agents. CAPs often exist as families of peptides with slightly different amino acid sequences. In addition, libraries of synthetic peptide variants based on naturally occurring CAP templates can be generated in order to improve upon their action. High-throughput screens are needed to quickly and efficiently assess the suitability of each CAP variant. Here we present the methods for assessing CAP-mediated cytotoxicity against cancer cells (suspension and adherent) and untransformed cells (measured using the tritiated thymidine-release or MTT assay), and for discriminating between cell death caused by necrosis (measured using lactate dehydrogenase- or (51)Cr-release assays), or apoptosis and necrosis (single-stranded DNA content measured by flow cytometry). In addition the clonogenic assay, which assesses the ability of single transformed cells to multiply and produce colonies, is described. PMID:24146403

  8. Design of Enzymatically Cleavable Prodrugs of a Potent Platinum-Containing Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Song; Pickard, Amanda J.; Kucera, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a versatile synthetic approach, a new class of potential ester prodrugs of highly potent, but systemically too toxic, platinum–acridine anticancer agents was generated. The new hybrids contain a hydroxyl group, which has been masked with a cleavable lipophilic acyl moiety. Both butanoic (butyric) and bulkier 2-propanepentanoic (valproic) esters were introduced. The goals of this design were to improve the drug-like properties (e.g., logD) and to reduce the systemic toxicity of the pharmacophore. Two distinct pathways by which the target compounds undergo effective ester hydrolysis, the proposed activating step, have been confirmed: platinum-assisted, self-immolative ester cleavage in a low-chloride environment (LC-ESMS, NMR spectroscopy) and enzymatic cleavage by human carboxylesterase-2 (hCES-2) (LC-ESMS). The valproic acid ester derivatives are the first example of a metal-containing agent cleavable by the pro-drug-converting enzyme. They show excellent chemical stability and reduced systemic toxicity. Preliminary results from screening in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549, NCI-H1435) suggest that the mechanism of the valproic esters may involve intracellular deesterification. PMID:25303639

  9. Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro-oxidant effects of dietary polyphenols observed in vitro have any relevance in vivo, especially in the potential anticancer effect of dietary polyphenols? Apparently, more carefully-designed in vivo studies are needed to answer these questions. PMID:22035889

  10. Antitumor Activity of Artemisinin and Its Derivatives: From a Well-Known Antimalarial Agent to a Potential Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Crespo-Ortiz, Maria P.; Wei, Ming Q.

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of quality of life and survival of cancer patients will be greatly enhanced by the development of highly effective drugs to selectively kill malignant cells. Artemisinin and its analogs are naturally occurring antimalarials which have shown potent anticancer activity. In primary cancer cultures and cell lines, their antitumor actions were by inhibiting cancer proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In xenograft models, exposure to artemisinins substantially reduces tumor volume and progression. However, the rationale for the use of artemisinins in anticancer therapy must be addressed by a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in their cytotoxic effects. The primary targets for artemisinin and the chemical base for its preferential effects on heterologous tumor cells need yet to be elucidated. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent advances and new development of this class of drugs as potential anticancer agents. PMID:22174561

  11. Protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin on podophyllotoxin toxicity in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juan; Dai, Cai-Xia; Sun, Hua [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jin, Lu [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); State Key Laboratory of New Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Guo, Chong-Yi; Cao, Wei; Wu, Jie; Tian, Hai-Yan [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Luo, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of New Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of New Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Ye, Wen-Cai [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, Ren-Wang, E-mail: trwjiang@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Podophyllotoxin (POD) is a naturally occurring lignan with pronounced antineoplastic and antiviral properties. POD binds to tubulin and prevents the formation of mitotic spindle. Although cases of overdose or accidental ingestion are quite often, no specific therapy is currently available to treat the POD intoxication. In the current investigation, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin (CUR) on podophyllotoxin toxicity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that CUR could protect POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering the G2/M arrest and decrease the changes of membrane potential and microtubule structure in Vero cells. A significant decrease of mortality rates was observed in Swiss mice treated by intragastrical administration of POD + CUR as compared with POD alone. The POD + CUR group also exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde level but elevated superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels as compared to the POD group. Histological examination of the liver and kidney demonstrated less morphological changes in the treatment of POD + CUR as compared with POD alone. The mechanism of the protective effects might be due to the competitive binding of CUR with POD in the same colchicines binding site as revealed by the tubulin polymerization assay and the molecular docking analysis, and the antioxidant activity against the oxidative stress induced by POD. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo data indicated the promising role of CUR as a protective agent against the POD poisoning. Highlights: ? A potential antidote to treat the podophyllotoxin (POD) intoxication is found. ? Curcumin showed promising effects against POD poisoning in vitro and in vivo. ? The mechanisms lie in the antioxidant activity and competitive binding with tubulin.

  12. The Anticancer Agent Prodigiosin Is Not a Multidrug Resistance Protein Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Elahian, Fatemeh; Moghimi, Bahareh; Dinmohammadi, Farideh; Ghamghami, Mahsa; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    The brilliant red pigments prodiginines are natural secondary metabolites that are produced by select species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These molecules have received significant attention due to their reported antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. In this study, a Serratia marcescens SER1 strain was isolated and verified using 16s rDNA. The prodigiosin was purified using silica chromatography and was analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The cell cytotoxic effects of the purified prodigiosin on multiple drug resistant cell lines that overexpress MDR1, BCRP, or MRP2 pumps were analyzed. Prodigiosin had nearly identical cytotoxic effects on the resistant cells in comparison to their parental lines. In agreement with the same prodigiosin cytotoxicity, FACS analysis of prodigiosin accumulation and efflux in MDR overexpressing cell lines also indicated that this pro-apoptotic agent operates independently of the presence of the MDR1, BCRP, or MRP transporter and may be a potential treatment for malignant cancer cells that overexpress multidrug resistance transporters. PMID:23373476

  13. Design, synthesis and ex vivo evaluation of colon-specific azo based prodrugs of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajiv; Rawal, Ravindra K; Gaba, Tripti; Singla, Nishu; Malhotra, Manav; Matharoo, Sahil; Bhardwaj, T R

    2013-10-01

    Colon-specific azo based prodrugs of anticancer agents like methotrexate (6), gemcitabine (7) and analogue of oxaliplatin (RTB-4) (8) were synthesized and characterized by modern analytical techniques. The prepared prodrugs were stable in acidic (pH 1.2) and basic (pH 7.4) buffers which showed their stability in upper GIT environment. Further, an assay was performed which demonstrated the presence of azoreductase enzyme in the rat fecal material, rat cecum content and other parts of intestinal content which reduce specifically the azo bond and release the drug. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was also performed which clearly indicated that these azo based prodrugs are active against human colorectal cancer cell lines (COLO 205, COLO 320 DM and HT-29). The release behavior of prodrugs (10, 11 and 15) was 60-70% after 24h incubation at 37°C. Therefore, the synthesized azo linked prodrugs of methotrexate, gemcitabine and RTB-4 are the potential candidates for colon targeted drug delivery system with minimal undesirable side effects. PMID:23968824

  14. Parthenium hysterophorus: A Probable Source of Anticancer, Antioxidant and Anti-HIV Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shashank; Chashoo, Gousia; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the anticancer, antioxidant, lipo-protective, and anti-HIV activities of phytoconstituents present in P. hysterophorus leaf. Dried leaf samples were sequentially extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents. Ethanol fraction showed noticeable cytotoxic activity (81–85%) in SRB assay against MCF-7 and THP-1 cancer cell lines at 100??g/ml concentration, while lower activity was observed with DU-145 cell line. The same extract exhibited 17–98% growth inhibition of HL-60 cancer cell lines in MTT assay, showing concentration dependent response. Ethanol extract caused 12% reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and 10% increment in sub G1 population of HL-60 cell lines. Several leaf fractions, namely, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous fractions exhibited considerable reducing capability at higher concentrations. Most of the extracts demonstrated appreciable (>75%) metal ion chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities at 200?µg/ml. All the extracts except aqueous fraction accounted for about 70–80% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate indicating protective response against membrane damage. About 40% inhibition of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was observed in hexane fraction in anti-HIV assay at 6.0?µg/ml concentration. The study showed that phytochemicals present in P. hysterophorus leaf have considerable potential as cytotoxic and antioxidant agents with low to moderate anti-HIV activity. PMID:24350290

  15. In Vitro inhibition of translation initiation by N,N’-diarylureas – Potential anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Denoyelle, Séverine; Chen, Ting; Chen, Limo; Wang, Yibo; Klosi, Edvin; Halperin, José; Aktas, Bertal H.; Chorev, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Symmetrical N,N’-diarylureas: 1,3-bis(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-, 1,3-bis[4-chloro-3(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]- and 1,3-bis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]urea, were identified as potent activators of the eIF2? kinase heme regulated inhibitor. They reduce the abundance of the eIF2·GTP·tRNAiMet ternary complex and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. An optimization process was undertaken to improve their solubility while preserving their biological activity. Non-symmetrical hybrid ureas were generated by combining one of the hydrophobic phenyl moieties present in the symmetrical ureas with the polar 3-hydroxy-tolyl moiety. O-alkylation of the later added potentially solubilizing charge bearing groups. The new non-symmetrical N,N’-diarylureas were characterized by ternary complex reporter gene and cell proliferation assays, demonstrating good bioactivities. A representative sample of these compounds potently induced phosphorylation of eIF2? and expression of CHOP at the protein and mRNA levels. These inhibitors of translation initiation may become leads for the development of potent, non-toxic, and target specific anti-cancer agents. PMID:22153346

  16. Benzquinamide inhibits P-glycoprotein mediated drug efflux and potentiates anticancer agent cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, R; Croop, J M; Gatmaitan, Z; Budding, M; Steiglitz, K; Arceci, R; Arias, I M

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that efflux of cytotoxic drugs from multidrug resistant (MDR) cell lines can be quantitated at the single cell level using a sensitive fluorescence microscopy technique. Based on the structure of compounds which inhibited the efflux of Rhodamine-123 (Rho-123) using this methodology, we hypothesized that the antiemetic, antihistaminic agent benzquinamide (BZQ) would interfere with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug transport and potentiate the effects of anticancer agents in MDR cell lines. We show that BZQ interferes with P-gp mediated drug efflux and increases drug accumulation in MDR cells using Rho-123 as a fluorescent probe. BZQ increases the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents to both human and hamster MDR cell lines in vitro. A slight increase in cytotoxicity to chemotherapeutic agents is also observed in the parental cell lines with BZQ. BZQ increases [3H]daunorubicin accumulation and inhibits the binding of [125I]iodoaryl azidoprazosin to the P-gp in MDR cells. BZQ is a new agent to increase the cytotoxic effects of anticancer agents in MDR cells and may ultimately prove useful as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:1362504

  17. Ginsenosides as Anticancer Agents: In vitro and in vivo Activities, Structure–Activity Relationships, and Molecular Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2012-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapeutic agents are often toxic not only to tumor cells but also to normal cells, limiting their therapeutic use in the clinic. Novel natural product anticancer compounds present an attractive alternative to synthetic compounds, based on their favorable safety and efficacy profiles. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the anticancer potential of Panax ginseng, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. The anti-tumor efficacy of ginseng is attributed mainly to the presence of saponins, known as ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on how ginsenosides exert their anticancer effects by modulation of diverse signaling pathways, including regulation of cell proliferation mediators (CDKs and cyclins), growth factors (c-myc, EGFR, and vascular endothelial growth factor), tumor suppressors (p53 and p21), oncogenes (MDM2), cell death mediators (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, caspases, and death receptors), inflammatory response molecules (NF-?B and COX-2), and protein kinases (JNK, Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase). We also discuss the structure–activity relationship of various ginsenosides and their potentials in the treatment of various human cancers. In summary, recent advances in the discovery and evaluation of ginsenosides as cancer therapeutic agents support further pre-clinical and clinical development of these agents for the treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:22403544

  18. Immune mechanisms regulating pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEGylated liposomal anticancer agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gina

    Nanotechnology has made significant advances in drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer. Among various nanoparticle (NP) platforms, liposomes have been most widely used as a NP drug carrier for cancer therapy. High variation in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of liposome-based therapeutics has been reported. However, the interaction of liposome-based therapeutics with the immune system, specifically the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), and underlying molecular mechanisms for variable responses to liposomal drugs remain poorly understood. The objective of this dissertation was to elucidate immune mechanisms for the variable responses to PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD; DoxilRTM), a clinically relevant NP, in animal models and in patients. In vitro, in vivo and clinical systems were investigated to evaluate the effects of chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5), heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment, and genetic variations on PK and PD of PLD. Results showed that there was a significantly positive linear relationship between PLD exposure (AUC) and total amount of CCL2 and CCL5, most prevalent chemokines in plasma, in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Consistent with these findings, preclinical studies using mice bearing SKOV3 orthotopic ovarian cancer xenografts demonstrated that PLD induced the production and secretion of chemokines into plasma. In addition, in vitro studies using human monocytic THP-1 cells demonstrated that PLD altered monocyte migration towards CCL2 and CCL5. The PK and efficacy studies of PLD in murine models of breast cancer showed that heterogeneous tumor microenvironment was associated with significantly different tumor delivery and efficacy of PLD, but not small molecule doxorubicin between two breast tumor models. A candidate genetic locus that was associated with clearance of PLD in 23 inbred mouse strains contains a gene that encodes for engulfment adapter PTB domain containing 1 (Gulp1). By using integrated approaches, we were able to identify the immunological mechanisms at the molecular, tissue, and clinical levels that may contribute to inter-individual variability in PK and PD of PLD. This dissertation research has a potential to make an impact on development of future NP-based anticancer therapeutics as well as on clinical use of PLD (DoxilRTM) and other PEGylated liposomal anticancer agents.

  19. Rational design of biaryl pharmacophore inserted noscapine derivatives as potent tubulin binding anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Santoshi, Seneha; Manchukonda, Naresh Kumar; Suri, Charu; Sharma, Manya; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Joseph, Silja; Lopus, Manu; Kantevari, Srinivas; Baitharu, Iswar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-03-01

    We have strategically designed a series of noscapine derivatives by inserting biaryl pharmacophore (a major structural constituent of many of the microtubule-targeting natural anticancer compounds) onto the scaffold structure of noscapine. Molecular interaction of these derivatives with ?,?-tubulin heterodimer was investigated by molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation. The predictive binding affinity indicates that the newly designed noscapinoids bind to tubulin with a greater affinity. The predictive binding free energy (?Gbind, pred) of these derivatives (ranging from -5.568 to -5.970 kcal/mol) based on linear interaction energy (LIE) method with a surface generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvation model showed improved binding affinity with tubulin compared to the lead compound, natural ?-noscapine (-5.505 kcal/mol). Guided by the computational findings, these new biaryl type ?-noscapine congeners were synthesized from 9-bromo-?-noscapine using optimized Suzuki reaction conditions for further experimental evaluation. The derivatives showed improved inhibition of the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549), compared to natural noscapine. The cell cycle analysis in MCF-7 further revealed that these compounds alter the cell cycle profile and cause mitotic arrest at G2/M phase more strongly than noscapine. Tubulin binding assay revealed higher binding affinity to tubulin, as suggested by dissociation constant (Kd) of 126 ± 5.0 µM for 5a, 107 ± 5.0 µM for 5c, 70 ± 4.0 µM for 5d, and 68 ± 6.0 µM for 5e compared to noscapine (Kd of 152 ± 1.0 µM). In fact, the experimentally determined value of ?Gbind, expt (calculated from the Kd value) are consistent with the predicted value of ?Gbind, pred calculated based on LIE-SGB. Based on these results, one of the derivative 5e of this series was used for further toxicological evaluation. Treatment of mice with a daily dose of 300 mg/kg and a single dose of 600 mg/kg indicates that the compound does not induce detectable pathological abnormalities in normal tissues. Also there were no significant differences in hematological parameters between the treated and untreated groups. Hence, the newly designed noscapinoid, 5e is an orally bioavailable, safe and effective anticancer agent with a potential for the treatment of cancer and might be a candidate for clinical evaluation. PMID:25481458

  20. Protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin on podophyllotoxin toxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Dai, Cai-Xia; Sun, Hua; Jin, Lu; Guo, Chong-Yi; Cao, Wei; Wu, Jie; Tian, Hai-Yan; Luo, Cheng; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2012-12-01

    Podophyllotoxin (POD) is a naturally occurring lignan with pronounced antineoplastic and antiviral properties. POD binds to tubulin and prevents the formation of mitotic spindle. Although cases of overdose or accidental ingestion are quite often, no specific therapy is currently available to treat the POD intoxication. In the current investigation, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin (CUR) on podophyllotoxin toxicity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that CUR could protect POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering the G2/M arrest and decrease the changes of membrane potential and microtubule structure in Vero cells. A significant decrease of mortality rates was observed in Swiss mice treated by intragastrical administration of POD+CUR as compared with POD alone. The POD+CUR group also exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde level but elevated superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels as compared to the POD group. Histological examination of the liver and kidney demonstrated less morphological changes in the treatment of POD+CUR as compared with POD alone. The mechanism of the protective effects might be due to the competitive binding of CUR with POD in the same colchicines binding site as revealed by the tubulin polymerization assay and the molecular docking analysis, and the antioxidant activity against the oxidative stress induced by POD. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo data indicated the promising role of CUR as a protective agent against the POD poisoning. PMID:23088858

  1. Bioprospecting for podophyllotoxin in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L. (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (c...

  2. Structural elaboration of a natural product: identification of 3,3'-diindolylmethane aminophosphonate and urea derivatives as potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Kandekar, Somnath; Preet, Ranjan; Kashyap, Maneesh; Renu Prasad, M U; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Jain, Vaibhav; Choudhuri, Maitrayee; Kundu, Chanakya N; Guchhait, Sankar K; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2013-11-01

    An approach involving rational structural elaboration of the biologically active natural product diindolylmethane (DIM) with the incorporation of aminophosphonate and urea moieties toward the discovery of potent anticancer agents was considered. A four-step approach for the synthesis of DIM aminophosphonate and urea derivatives was established. These novel compounds showed potent anticancer activities in two representative kidney and colon cancer cell lines, low toxicity to normal cells, higher potency than the parent natural product DIM and etoposide, and potent inhibition of cancer cell migration. Biophysical and immunological studies, including DAPI nuclear staining, western blot analysis with apoptotic protein markers, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and comet assays of the two most potent compounds revealed good efficacies in apoptosis and DNA damage. It was found that down-regulation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B p65) could be an important mode of action in apoptosis, and the two most potent derivatives were found to be more potent than parent compound DIM in the down-regulation of NF-?B. Our results show the importance of structural elaboration of DIM by rational incorporation of aminophosphonate and urea moieties to produce potent anticancer agents; they also suggest that this approach using other structurally simple bioactive natural products as scaffolds holds promise for future drug discovery and development. PMID:23983049

  3. Anti-Cancer Agents that Inhibit Cell Motility, Angiogenesis, and Metastasis

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Urologic Oncology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize anti-cancer drugs.

  4. The prince and the pauper. A tale of anticancer targeted agents

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas-González, Alfonso; García-López, Patricia; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Medina-Franco, Jose Luis; González-Fierro, Aurora; Candelaria, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    Cancer rates are set to increase at an alarming rate, from 10 million new cases globally in 2000 to 15 million in 2020. Regarding the pharmacological treatment of cancer, we currently are in the interphase of two treatment eras. The so-called pregenomic therapy which names the traditional cancer drugs, mainly cytotoxic drug types, and post-genomic era-type drugs referring to rationally-based designed. Although there are successful examples of this newer drug discovery approach, most target-specific agents only provide small gains in symptom control and/or survival, whereas others have consistently failed in the clinical testing. There is however, a characteristic shared by these agents: -their high cost-. This is expected as drug discovery and development is generally carried out within the commercial rather than the academic realm. Given the extraordinarily high therapeutic drug discovery-associated costs and risks, it is highly unlikely that any single public-sector research group will see a novel chemical "probe" become a "drug". An alternative drug development strategy is the exploitation of established drugs that have already been approved for treatment of non-cancerous diseases and whose cancer target has already been discovered. This strategy is also denominated drug repositioning, drug repurposing, or indication switch. Although traditionally development of these drugs was unlikely to be pursued by Big Pharma due to their limited commercial value, biopharmaceutical companies attempting to increase productivity at present are pursuing drug repositioning. More and more companies are scanning the existing pharmacopoeia for repositioning candidates, and the number of repositioning success stories is increasing. Here we provide noteworthy examples of known drugs whose potential anticancer activities have been highlighted, to encourage further research on these known drugs as a means to foster their translation into clinical trials utilizing the more limited public-sector resources. If these drug types eventually result in being effective, it follows that they could be much more affordable for patients with cancer; therefore, their contribution in terms of reducing cancer mortality at the global level would be greater. PMID:18947424

  5. Are platinum agents, paclitaxel and irinotecan effective for clear cell carcinoma of the ovary? DNA damage detected with ?H2AX induced by anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Differences in the incidences and types of DNA damage induced by antitumor agents for clear cell carcinoma (CCC) were determined in 2 ovarian CCC cell lines using ?H2AX. Material and methods The antitumor activity of anticancer agents, CDDP, CBDCA, PTX and SN-38, was examined using ovarian clear cell carcinoma cultured cell lines (OVISE and RMG-I). After culture, each cell line was treated with each anticancer agent, the cells were collected, fixed, and then reacted with the anti-?H2AX antibody. ?H2AX and nuclear DNA were then simultaneously detected by flow cytometry using FITC and propidium iodide, respectively, to determine ?H2AX in each cell cycle phase. Results After administration of CDDP, DNA damage was frequent in S-phase cells, while cell-cycle arrest occurred in the G1 and G2/M phases and ?H2AX did not increase in CDDP-resistant cells. Sensitivities to CDDP and CBDCA differed between the two cell lines. The antitumor effect of PTX is induced by G2/M arrest, and combination treatment with CBDCA, inducing DNA damage in G2/M-phase cells, might be effective. Conclusions This is the first study in Japan to evaluate the antitumor activity of anticancer agents by focusing on the relationship between the cell cycle and DNA damage using ?H2AX as an indicator. The immunocytochemical method used in this study detects ?H2AX, which indicates DNA damage even at very low concentrations and with high sensitivity. Therefore, a promising method of easily and rapidly identifying agents potentially effective against CCC. PMID:22691365

  6. Organometallic Palladium Complexes with a Water-Soluble Iminophosphorane Ligand as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Monica; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Sanaú, Mercedes; Marzo, Isabel; Contel, María

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new water-soluble iminophosphorane ligand TPA=N-C(O)-2BrC6H4 (C,N-IM; TPA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) 1 is reported. Oxidative addition of 1 to Pd2(dba)3 affords the orthopalladated dimer [Pd(?-Br){C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}]2 (2) as a mixture of cis and trans isomers (1:1 molar ratio) where the iminophosphorane moeity behaves as a C,N-pincer ligand. By addition of different neutral or monoanionic ligands to 2, the bridging bromide can be cleaved and a variety of hydrophilic or water-soluble mononuclear organometallic palladium(II) complexes of the type [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(L-L)] (L-L = acac (3); S2CNMe2 (4); 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid disodium salt C12H6N2(C6H4SO3Na)2 (5)); [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(L)Br] (L = P(mC6H4SO3Na)3 (6); P(3-Pyridyl)3 (7)) and, [Pd(C6H4(C(O)N=TPA)-2}(TPA)2Br] (8) are obtained as single isomers. All new complexes were tested as potential anticancer agents and their cytotoxicity properties were evaluated in vitro against human Jurkat-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, normal T-lymphocytes (PBMC) and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. Compounds [Pd(?-Br){C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}]2 (2) and [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(acac)] 3 (which has been crystallographically characterized) display the higher cytotoxicity against the above mentioned cancer cell lines while being less toxic to normal T-lymphocytes (peripheral blood mononuclear cells: PBMC). In addition, 3 is very toxic to cisplatin resistant Jurkat shBak indicating a cell death pathway that may be different to that of cisplatin. The interaction of 2 and 3 with plasmid (pBR322) DNA is much weaker than that of cisplatin pointing to an alternative biomolecular target for these cytotoxic compounds. All the compounds show an interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) faster than that of cisplatin. PMID:23066172

  7. Novel Analogs of D-e-MAPP and B13. Part 1. Synthesis and Evaluation as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Zdzislaw M.; Mayroo, Nalini; Bai, AiPing; Bielawski, Jacek; Liu, Xiang; Norris, James S.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Bielawska, Alicja

    2008-01-01

    A series of novel isosteric analogs of the ceramidase inhibitors, (1S, 2R)-N-myristoylamino-phenylpropanol-1 (D-e-MAPP) and (1R, 2R)-N-myristoylamino-4?-nitro-phenylpropandiol-1, 3 (B13), with modified targeting and physicochemical properties were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential anticancer agents. When MCF7 cells were treated with the analogs, results indicated that the new analogs were of equal or greater potency compared to the parent compounds. Their activity was predominantly defined by the nature of the modification of the N-acyl hydrophobic interfaces: N-acyl analogs (class A), urea analogs (class B), N-alkyl analogs (class C, lysosomotropic agents) and ?-cationic-N-acyl analogs (class D, mitochondriotropic agents). The most potent compounds belonged to either class D, the aromatic ceramidoids, or to class C, the aromatic N-alkylaminoalcohols. Representative analogs selected from this study were also evaluated by the National Cancer Institute in Vitro Anticancer Drug Discovery Screen. Again, results showed a similar class-dependent activity. In general, the active analogs were non-selectively broad spectrum and had promising activity against all cancer cell lines. However, some active analogs of the D-e-MAPP family were selective against different types of cancer. Compounds LCL85, 120, 385, 284, and 204 were identified to be promising lead compounds for therapeutic development. PMID:17869115

  8. Exploring Polymeric Micelles for Improved Delivery of Anticancer Agents: Recent Developments in Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chalet; Wang, Yingzhe; Fan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    As versatile drug delivery systems, polymeric micelles have demonstrated particular strength in solubilizing hydrophobic anticancer drugs while eliminating the use of toxic organic solvents and surfactants. However, the true promise of polymeric micelles as drug carriers for cancer therapy resides in their potential ability to preferentially elevate drug exposure in the tumor and achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy, which still remains to be fully exploited. Here, we review various micellar constructs that exhibit the enhanced permeation and retention effect in the tumor, the targeting ligands that potentiate the anticancer efficacy of micellar drugs, and the polyplex micelle systems suitable for the delivery of plasmid DNA and small interference RNA. Together, these preclinical studies in animal models help us further explore polymeric micelles as emerging drug carriers for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:24300405

  9. Recent developments of metal N-heterocyclic carbenes as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Aher, Sainath Babaji; Muskawar, Prashant Narayan; Thenmozhi, K; Bhagat, Pundlik Rambhau

    2014-06-23

    Metal based anticancer drugs have demonstrated their crucial role in preventing all types of cancers whereas their effectiveness is selective with respect to the cancer cells rather than the normal cells. Recently metal N-heterocyclic carbenes have established their selective performance for cancer cells excluding normal healthy cells based on which they are widely utilised for targeting cancer cells specifically which leads to cell death or cell growth inhibition. This is mainly due to their ionic character which helps them to localise in cancer cells with the help of enhanced expression of Organic Cation Transporters (OCT). Also their unique mechanism of action involving DNA binding, less recognizable by DNA repair machinery, mitochondria targeting gives them a new area for anticancer drug development. This review summarises the medicinal as well as pharmacological approach to the anticancer properties of metal NHC complexes. PMID:24858545

  10. Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)—mebendazole as an anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2014-01-01

    Mebendazole, a well-known anti-helminthic drug in wide clinical use, has anti-cancer properties that have been elucidated in a broad range of pre-clinical studies across a number of different cancer types. Significantly, there are also two case reports of anti-cancer activity in humans. The data are summarised and discussed in relation to suggested mechanisms of action. Based on the evidence presented, it is proposed that mebendazole would synergise with a range of other drugs, including existing chemotherapeutics, and that further exploration of the potential of mebendazole as an anti-cancer therapeutic is warranted. A number of possible combinations with other drugs are discussed in the Appendix. PMID:25075217

  11. Bidirectional Functions of Arsenic as a Carcinogen and an Anti-Cancer Agent in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y.; Kato, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Bidirectional cancer-promoting and anti-cancer effects of arsenic for cancer cells have been revealed in previous studies. However, each of these effects (cancer-promoting or anti-cancer) was found in different cells at different treated-concentration of arsenic. In this study, we for the first time indicated that arsenic at concentration of 3 µM, equal to average concentration in drinking water in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, simultaneously expressed its bidirectional effects on human squamous cell carcinoma HSC5 cells with distinct pathways. Treatment with 3 µM of arsenic promoted cell invasion via upregulation of expression of MT1-MMP and downregulation of expression of p14ARF and simultaneously induced cell apoptosis through inhibition of expression of N-cadherin and increase of expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) at both transcript and protein levels in HSC5 cells. We also showed that inhibition of MT1-MMP expression by NSC405020 resulted in decrease of arsenic-mediated invasion of HSC5 cells involving decrease in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK). Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings suggested that arsenic expressed bidirectional effects as a carcinogen and an anti-cancer agent in human squamous cell carcinoma HSC5 cells with distinct pathways. Our results might play an important scientific evident for further studies to find out a better way in treatment of arsenic-induced cancers, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24816914

  12. Discovery of 4-Substituted Methoxybenzoyl-Aryl-Thiazole as Novel Anticancer Agents: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhao; Ross, Charles R.; Chen, Jianjun; Dalton, James; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane.D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of 4-substituted methoxylbenzoyl-aryl-thiazoles (SMART) have been discovered and synthesized as a result of structural modifications of the lead compound 2-arylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid amides (ATCAA). The antiproliferative activity of the SMART agents against melanoma and prostate cancer cells was improved from ?M to low nM range compared with ATCAA series. The structure-activity relationship was discussed from modifications of “A”, “B” “C” rings and the linker. Preliminary mechanism of action studies indicated that these compounds exert their anticancer activity through inhibition of tubulin polymerization. PMID:19243174

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 9?- and 9?-hydroxyamino-parthenolides as novel anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Moumou, Mohamed; El Bouakher, Abderrahman; Allouchi, Hassan; El Hakmaoui, Ahmed; Benharref, Ahmed; Mathieu, Véronique; Guillaumet, Gérald; Akssira, Mohamed

    2014-08-15

    A series of 9?-hydroxyamino-parthenolides 3-10, 9?-hydroxyamino-parthenolides 11-13 and 9?-hydroxy-1?,10?-epoxyamino-parthenolides 15-19 were efficiently synthesized starting from 9?-hydroxyparthenolide 1 and 9?-hydroxyparthenolide 2, which were isolated from Anvillea radiata. Compounds 1-13 and 15-19 were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity by the MTT colorimetric assay against one murine and six human cancer cell lines. This work provides new details about the structural requisites for anticancer activity. PMID:24998377

  14. DNA modifications by a novel bifunctional trinuclear platinum phase I anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Brabec, V; Kaspárková, J; Vrána, O; Nováková, O; Cox, J W; Qu, Y; Farrell, N

    1999-05-25

    The DNA-binding profile of a novel, trinuclear platinum Phase I clinical agent (BBR3464) is summarized. The structure of BBR3464 is best described as two trans-[PtCl(NH3)2] units linked by a tetra-amine [trans-Pt(NH3)2{H2N(CH2)6NH2}2]2+ unit. The +4 charge of BBR3464, the presence of at least two Pt coordination units capable of binding to DNA, and the consequences of such DNA binding are remarkable departures from the cisplatin structural paradigm. The chemical and biological features argue that the drug should be considered the first clinical representative of an entirely new structural class of DNA-modifying anticancer agents. The high charge on BBR3464 facilitates rapid binding to DNA with a t1/2 of approximately 40 min, significantly faster than the neutral cisplatin. The melting temperature of DNA adducted by BBR3464 increased at low ionic strength but decreased in high salt for the same rb. This unusual behavior is in contrast to that of cisplatin. BBR3464 produces an unwinding angle of 14 degrees in negatively supercoiled pSP73 plasmid DNA, indicative of bifunctional DNA binding. Quantitation of interstrand DNA-DNA cross-linking in plasmid pSP73 DNA linearized by EcoRI indicated approximately 20% of the DNA to be interstrand cross-linked. While this is significantly higher than the value for cisplatin, it is, interestingly, lower than that for dinuclear platinum compounds such as [{trans-PtCl(NH3)2}2H2N(CH2)6NH2]2+ (BBR3005) where interstrand cross-linking efficiency may be as high as 70-90%. Either the presence of charge in the linker backbone or the increased distance between platinating moieties may contribute to this relatively decreased ability of BBR3464 to induce DNA interstrand cross-linking. Fluorescence experiments with ethidium bromide were consistent with the formation of long-range delocalized lesions on DNA produced by BBR3464. The sequence preference for BBR3464 on plasmid DNA was determined to the exact base pair by assaying extension of the polynucleotide by VentR(exo+) DNA polymerase. Strong sequence preference for single dG or d(GG) sites was suggested. The presence of relatively few blocks on DNA in comparison to either cisplatin or BBR3005 was indicative of high sequence selectivity. The following appropriate sequence where stop sites occur was chosen: [sequence: see text] molecular modeling on 1,4 interstrand (G'30 to G33) and 1,5 intrastrand (G33 to G29) cross-links further confirmed the similarity in energy between the two forms of cross-link. Finally, immunochemical analysis confirmed the unique nature of the DNA adducts formed by BBR3464. This analysis showed that antibodies raised to cisplatin-adducted DNA did not recognize DNA modified by BBR3464. In contrast, DNA modified by BBR3464 inhibited the binding of antibodies raised to transplatin-adducted DNA. Thus, the bifunctional binding of BBR3464 contains few similarities to that of cisplatin but may have a subset of adducts recognized as being similar to the transplatinum species. In summary, the results point to a unique profile of DNA binding for BBR3464, strengthening the original hypothesis that modification of DNA binding in manners distinct from that of cisplatin will also lead to a distinct and unique profile of antitumor activity. PMID:10346899

  15. Molecular designing and in silico evaluation of darunavir derivatives as anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Mahto, Manoj kumar; Yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Kilaru, Ravendra Babu; Chamarthi, Naga Raju; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2014-01-01

    Darunavir is a synthetic nonpeptidic protease inhibitor which has been tested for anticancer properties. To deduce and enhance the anticancer activity of the Darunavir, we have modified its reactive moiety in an effective way. We designed 9 analogues in ChemBioOffice 2010 and minimized using the LigPrep tool of Schrödinger 2011. These analogues can obstruct the activity of other signalling pathways which are implicated in many tumors. Results of the QikProp showed that all the analogues lied in the specified range of all the pharmacokinetic (ADMET) properties required to become the successful drug. Docking study was performed to test its anticancer activity against the biomarkers of the five main types of cancers i.e. bone, brain, breast, colon and skin cancer. Grid was generated for each oncoproteins by specifying the active site amino acids. The binding model of best scoring analogue with each protein was assessed from their G-scores and disclosed by docking analysis using the XP visualizer tool. An analysis of the receptor-ligand interaction studies revealed that these nine Darunavir analogues are active against all cancer biomarkers and have the features to prove themselves as anticancer drugs, further to be synthesized and tested against the cell lines. PMID:24966524

  16. Next Generation Sequencing in Predicting Gene Function in Podophyllotoxin Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Kim, Kye-Won; Lee, Choonseok; Costa, Michael A.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Podophyllum species are sources of (?)-podophyllotoxin, an aryltetralin lignan used for semi-synthesis of various powerful and extensively employed cancer-treating drugs. Its biosynthetic pathway, however, remains largely unknown, with the last unequivocally demonstrated intermediate being (?)-matairesinol. Herein, massively parallel sequencing of Podophyllum hexandrum and Podophyllum peltatum transcriptomes and subsequent bioinformatics analyses of the corresponding assemblies were carried out. Validation of the assembly process was first achieved through confirmation of assembled sequences with those of various genes previously established as involved in podophyllotoxin biosynthesis as well as other candidate biosynthetic pathway genes. This contribution describes characterization of two of the latter, namely the cytochrome P450s, CYP719A23 from P. hexandrum and CYP719A24 from P. peltatum. Both enzymes were capable of converting (?)-matairesinol into (?)-pluviatolide by catalyzing methylenedioxy bridge formation and did not act on other possible substrates tested. Interestingly, the enzymes described herein were highly similar to methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzymes from alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas candidates more similar to lignan biosynthetic enzymes were catalytically inactive with the substrates employed. This overall strategy has thus enabled facile further identification of enzymes putatively involved in (?)-podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and underscores the deductive power of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics to probe and deduce medicinal plant biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23161544

  17. Repurposing drugs in oncology (ReDO)—cimetidine as an anti-cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2014-01-01

    Cimetidine, the first H2 receptor antagonist in widespread clinical use, has anti-cancer properties that have been elucidated in a broad range of pre-clinical and clinical studies for a number of different cancer types. These data are summarised and discussed in relation to a number of distinct mechanisms of action. Based on the evidence presented, it is proposed that cimetidine would synergise with a range of other drugs, including existing chemotherapeutics, and that further exploration of the potential of cimetidine as an anti-cancer therapeutic is warranted. Furthermore, there is compelling evidence that cimetidine administration during the peri-operative period may provide a survival benefit in some cancers. A number of possible combinations with other drugs are discussed in the supplementary material accompanying this paper. PMID:25525463

  18. Structure-Activity Relationship for Fe(III)-Salen-Like Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R.; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R.; Matin, Maryam M.; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R2train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q2LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

  19. Characterization of human adenovirus serotypes 5, 6, 11, and 35 as anticancer agents

    SciTech Connect

    Shashkova, Elena V.; May, Shannon M. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Barry, Michael A., E-mail: mab@mayo.ed [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Translational Immunovirology Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Cancer Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States)

    2009-11-25

    Human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) has been the most popular platform for the development of oncolytic Ads. Alternative Ad serotypes with low seroprevalence might allow for improved anticancer efficacy in Ad5-immune patients. We studied the safety and efficacy of rare serotypes Ad6, Ad11 and Ad35. In vitro cytotoxicity of the Ads correlated with expression of CAR and CD46 in most but not all cell lines. Among CAR-binding viruses, Ad5 was often more active than Ad6, among CD46-binding viruses Ad35 was generally more cytotoxic than Ad11 in cell culture studies. Ad5, Ad6, and Ad11 demonstrated similar anticancer activity in vivo, whereas Ad35 was not efficacious. Hepatotoxicity developed only in Ad5-injected mice. Predosing with Ad11 and Ad35 did not increase infection of hepatocytes with Ad5-based vector demonstrating different interaction of these Ads with Kupffer cells. Data obtained in this study suggest developing Ad6 and Ad11 as alternative Ads for anticancer treatment.

  20. Meta-analysis of inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability of liposomal and non-liposomal anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Ryan F.; Sidone, Brian J.; Caron, Whitney P.; Walsh, Mark D.; Zamboni, Beth A.; Ramanathan, Ramesh K.; Zamboni, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-patient pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of liposomal and small molecule (SM) anticancer agents. Methods Inter-patient PK variability of 9 liposomal and SM formulations of the same drug were evaluated. PK variability was measured as coefficient of variance (CV%) of area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) and the fold-difference between AUCmax and AUCmin (AUC range). Results CV% of AUC and AUC ranges were 2.7-fold (P<0.001) and 16.7-fold (P=0.13) greater, respectively, for liposomal compared with SM drugs. There was an inverse linear relationship between the clearance (CL) of liposomal agents and PK variability with a lower CL associated with greater PK variability (R2 = 0.39). PK variability of liposomal agents was greater when evaluated from 0–336 h compared with 0–24 h. Conclusion PK variability of liposomes is significantly greater than SM. The factors associated with the PK variability of liposomal agents needs to be evaluated. PMID:23891988

  1. Synthesis and characterization of celecoxib derivatives as possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-HCV agents.

    PubMed

    Küçükgüzel, ? Güniz; Co?kun, ?nci; Ayd?n, Sevil; Aktay, Göknur; Gürsoy, ?ule; Çevik, Özge; Özakp?nar, Özlem Bingöl; Özsavc?, Derya; ?ener, Azize; Kaushik-Basu, Neerja; Basu, Amartya; Talele, Tanaji T

    2013-01-01

    A series of novel N-(3-substituted aryl/alkyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidene)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides 2a-e were synthesized by the addition of ethyl a-bromoacetate and anhydrous sodium acetate in dry ethanol to N-(substituted aryl/alkylcarbamothioyl)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoro-methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzene sulfonamides 1a-e, which were synthesized by the reaction of alkyl/aryl isothiocyanates with celecoxib. The structures of the isolated products were determined by spectral methods and their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activities evaluated. The compounds were also tested for gastric toxicity and selected compound 1a was screened for its anticancer activity against 60 human tumor cell lines. These investigations revealed that compound 1a exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and further did not cause tissue damage in liver, kidney, colon and brain compared to untreated controls or celecoxib. Compounds 1c and 1d displayed modest inhibition of HCV NS5B RdRp activity. In conclusion, N-(ethylcarbamothioyl)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide (1a) may have the potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. PMID:23519201

  2. Curcumin-I Knoevenagel's condensates and their Schiff's bases as anticancer agents: synthesis, pharmacological and simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Haque, Ashanul; Saleem, Kishwar; Hsieh, Ming Fa

    2013-07-01

    Pyrazolealdehydes (4a-d), Knoevenagel's condensates (5a-d) and Schiff's bases (6a-d) of curcumin-I were synthesized, purified and characterized. Hemolysis assays, cell line activities, DNA bindings and docking studies were carried out. These compounds were lesser hemolytic than standard drug doxorubicin. Minimum cell viability (MCF-7; wild) observed was 59% (1.0 ?g/mL) whereas the DNA binding constants ranged from 1.4×10(3) to 8.1×10(5) M(-1). The docking energies varied from -7.30 to -13.4 kcal/mol. It has been observed that DNA-compound adducts were stabilized by three governing forces (Van der Wall's, H-bonding and electrostatic attractions). It has also been observed that compounds 4a-d preferred to enter minor groove while 5a-d and 6a-d interacted with major grooves of DNA. The anticancer activities of the reported compounds might be due to their interactions with DNA. These results indicated the bright future of the reported compounds as anticancer agents. PMID:23643901

  3. Benzylidine pregnenolones and their oximes as potential anticancer agents: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Banday, Abid H; Akram, S M M; Shameem, Shameem A

    2014-06-01

    The present study reveals the anticancer activity of benzylidine pregnenolones and their oxime derivatives. The synthesis of the analogs of both series is very simple and involves aldol condensation in the first step followed by nucleophillic addition of hydroxylamine across carbonyl in the second step. Quantitative yields of more than 80% are obtained in both the steps. All the compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activities against a panel of six human cancer cell lines. Amongst all the compounds of both the series screened for their cytotoxic activity, compound 3e, 3f and 4e are very potent especially against HCT-15 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. PMID:24699163

  4. Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of novel pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives as potential anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Linyi

    2014-01-01

    A new series of 4-substituted 2-amino pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives has been designed and synthesized as potential anticancer agents. These compounds were prepared from a common intermediate, 4-chloro-8-methoxy pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidin-2-amine, followed by palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions or nucleophilic aromatic substitutions at the C-4 position. Evaluation of the representative analogs using the US National Cancer Institute’s 60 human cancer cell line (NCI 60) panel identified some of these compounds as exhibiting highly selective activities against breast cancer and renal cancer cell lines. A structure–activity relationship (SAR) study was explored to facilitate further development of this new class of compounds. PMID:25429348

  5. Polymer design and incorporation methods for polymeric micelle carrier system containing water-insoluble anti-cancer agent camptothecin.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Masayuki; Opanasopit, Praneet; Okano, Teruo; Kawano, Kumi; Maitani, Yoshie

    2004-07-01

    A water-insoluble anti-cancer agent, camptothecin (CPT) was incorporated to a polymeric micelle carrier system forming from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate) block copolymers. Incorporation efficiency and stability were analyzed in correlation with chemical structures of the inner core-forming hydrophobic blocks as well as with incorporation methods. Among three incorporation methods (dialysis, emulsion and evaporation methods), an evaporation method brought about much higher CPT yields with less aggregation than the other two methods. By the evaporation method, CPT was incorporated to polymeric micelles in considerably high yields and with high stability using block copolymers possessing high contents of benzyl and methylnaphtyl ester groups as hydrophobic moieties. This indicates importance of molecular design of the hydrophobic block chain to obtain targeting using polymeric micelle carriers as well as importance of the drug incorporation method. PMID:15545087

  6. Novel thiophene derivatives with sulfonamide, isoxazole, benzothiazole, quinoline and anthracene moieties as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mostafa M; Bashandy, Mahmoud S; Alsaid, Mansour S

    2014-12-01

    A novel series of thiophenes having biologically active sulfonamide 2-11, 3-methylisoxazole 12, 4-methoxybenzo[d] thiazole 13, quinoline 14, 15, benzoylphenylamino 16, and anthracene-9,10-dione 17 moieties were prepared. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral data. All newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Most of the screened compounds showed cytotoxic activities compared to doxorubicin as a positive control. Compounds 6, 7, 9 and 13 (IC50 values 10.25, 9.70, 9.55 and 9.39 ?mol L-1) revealed higher cytotoxic activities than that of doxorubicin (IC50 = 32.00 ?mol L-1). Also, compounds 5, 8 and 10 were found nearly as active as doxorubicin (IC50 28.85, 23.48 and 27.51 ?mol L-1). PMID:25531783

  7. Anticancer agent xanthohumol inhibits IL-2 induced signaling pathways involved in T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Gao, Xiaohua; Deeb, Dorrah; Arbab, Ali S; Dulchavsky, Scott A; Gautam, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone present in hops exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activity. In the present study we show that XN inhibits the proliferation of mouse lymphoma cells and IL-2 induced proliferation and cell cycle progression in mouse splenic T cells. The suppression of T cell proliferation by XN was due to the inhibition of IL-2 induced Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/STAT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) signaling pathways. XN also inhibited proliferation-related cellular proteins such as c-Myc, c-Fos and NF-kappaB and cyclin D1. Thus, understanding of IL-2 induced cell signaling pathways in normal T cells, which are constitutively turned on in T cell lymphomas may facilitate development of XN for the treatment of hematologic cancers. PMID:22946339

  8. Synthesis and characterization of 2-substituted benzimidazoles and their evaluation as anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mohammad; Khan, Azmat Ali; Al-Resayes, Saud I; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Saxena, Ajit Kumar; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Trzesowska-Kruszynska, Agata; Kruszynski, Rafal

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we report a series of benzimidazole derivatives synthesized from benzene-1,2-diamine and aryl-aldehydes at room temperature. The synthesized compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and various spectroscopic studies viz., IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, ESI-MS as well by X-ray single X-ray crystallographic study. Interaction of these compounds with CT-DNA has been examined with fluorescence experiments and showed significant binding ability. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antitumor activities against various human cancer cell lines viz., Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), Human leukemia cell line (THP-1), Human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) and adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell lines (A-549). Interestingly, all the compounds showed significant anticancer activity. PMID:25706598

  9. Synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of Hedgehog enzyme inhibitors SANT-1 and GANT-61 as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chenna, Venugopal; Hu, Chaoxin; Khan, Saeed R

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-related death is one of the most common causes of mortality in society. Small molecules have the capability to disrupt aberrant signaling pathways in tumors, leading to anticancer activities. Therefore the search for new molecules for cancer treatment continues to draw attention to the scientific research community. Synthesis and biological evaluation of hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitors SANT-1 and GANT-61 are disclosed. These molecules have been synthesized from common precursors using simple conversions, our synthesis features Vils-Meier-Haack reaction, imine formation reaction and N-arylation reaction. These drugs were evaluated using a Hh reporter assay to confirm pathway inhibitory activity, and tested for cell viability against pancreatic and prostate cancer cells. These methodologies can be applied to make potent analogs of both inhibitors. PMID:24521409

  10. Mechanistic investigation of anticancer agents that damage DNA and interact with the estrogen receptor

    E-print Network

    Gopal, Sreeja

    2009-01-01

    One of the primary goals of cancer chemotherapy is the design of antitumor agents that achieve selective targeting of tumor cells while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. We have synthesized a series of DNA damaging ...

  11. Activation of apoptosis by caspase-3-dependent specific RelB cleavage in anticancer agent-treated cancer cells: involvement of positive feedback mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kuboki, Mizuki; Ito, Ayumi; Simizu, Siro; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-16

    DTCM-glutarimide (DTCM-G) is a newly found anti-inflammatory agent. In the course of experiments with lymphoma cells, we found that DTCM-G induced specific RelB cleavage. Anticancer agent vinblastine also induced the specific RelB cleavage in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. The site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that the Asp205 site in RelB was specifically cleaved possibly by caspase-3 in vinblastine-treated HT1080 cells. Moreover, the cells stably overexpressing RelB Asp205Ala were resistant to vinblastine-induced apoptosis. Thus, the specific Asp205 cleavage of RelB by caspase-3 would be involved in the apoptosis induction by anticancer agents, which would provide the positive feedback mechanism. PMID:25511695

  12. Synthesis, biological evaluation and modeling studies of terphenyl topoisomerase II? inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jin; Zhao, Baobing; Zhong, Wanxia; Shen, Yuemao; Lin, Houwen

    2015-04-13

    We report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel terphenyls. Compound 17 had the most potent anticancer activity, indicating that the phenolic hydroxyl was a key group. A DNA relaxation test showed that compound 17 had a strong inhibitory effect on TOP2?, but not on TOP1, which was consistent with the docking analysis results. We performed a 3D-QSAR study using CoMFA and CoMSIA to determine, for the first time, the chemical-biological relationship in the inhibition of TOP by terphenyls. The CoMFA and CoMSIA model had good modeling statistics: leave-one-out q(2) of 0.605 and 0.622, r(2) of 0.998 and 0.994, and r(2)pred (test set) of 0.742 and 0.660. These results suggest that the ortho-phenolic hydroxyl on ring A is important for producing terphenyls with more efficacious activity. PMID:25800514

  13. Discovery and optimization of novel dual dithiocarbamates as potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ri-Dong; Wang, Hui-Ling; Li, Ying-Bo; Wang, Zhong-Qing; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yi-Tao; Ge, Ze-Mei; Li, Run-Tao

    2015-03-26

    A series of dual dithiocarbamates were synthesized and evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activities on human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H460. Nine compounds exhibited significant antiproliferative activities with IC50 less than 1 ?M. Among them, compound 14m showed the highest inhibitory activity against H460 cell and inhibited the growth of nine types of tumor cells with IC50 values less than 1 ?M. It also achieved IC50 of 54 nM and 23 nM against HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship study indicated that: a) when the methyl group (region A) is substituted with benzene rings, ortho substitution on the benzene ring is favored for activity; b) substitution with heterocyclic structures at region A exhibited greater impact on the anti-tumor activity of compounds, in which pyridine ring, thiazole ring, coumarin and benzo[b]thiophene are favored and quinoline ring is the most favored; c) substitution with different amines (region B) also showed marked effect on the activity of compounds and dimethylamine and morpholine are preferred to other tested amines. PMID:25725374

  14. Synthesis of novel anticancer agents through opening of spiroacetal ring of diosgenin.

    PubMed

    Hamid, A A; Hasanain, Mohammad; Singh, Arjun; Bhukya, Balakishan; Omprakash; Vasudev, Prema G; Sarkar, Jayanta; Chanda, Debabrata; Khan, Feroz; Aiyelaagbe, O O; Negi, Arvind S

    2014-09-01

    Diosgenin has been modified to furostane derivatives after opening the F-spiroacetal ring. The aldehyde group at C26 in derivative 8 was unexpectedly transformed to the ketone 9. The structure of ketone 9 was confirmed by spectroscopy and finally by X-ray crystallography. Five of the diosgenin derivatives showed significant anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines. The most potent molecule of this series i.e. compound 7, inhibited cellular growth by arresting the population at G0/G1 phase of cell division cycle. Cells undergo apoptosis after exposure to the derivative 7 which was evident by increase in sub G0 population in cell cycle analysis. Docking experiments showed caspase-3 and caspase-9 as possible molecular targets for these compounds. This was further validated by cleavage of PARP, a caspase target in apoptotic pathway. Compound 7 was found non-toxic up to 1000mg/kg dose in acute oral toxicity in Swiss albino mice. PMID:24929045

  15. Synthesis of xanthohumol analogues and discovery of potent thioredoxin reductase inhibitor as potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoxin; Duan, Dongzhu; Ge, Chunpo; Yao, Juan; Liu, Yaping; Li, Xinming; Fang, Jianguo

    2015-02-26

    The selenoprotein thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are attractive targets for anticancer drugs development. Xanthohumol (Xn), a naturally occurring polyphenol chalcone from hops, has received increasing attention because of its multiple pharmacological activities. We synthesized Xn and its 43 analogues and discovered that compound 13n displayed the highest cytotoxicity toward HeLa cells (IC50 = 1.4 ?M). Structure-activity relationship study indicates that the prenyl group is not necessary for cytotoxicity, and introducing electron-withdrawing group, especially on the meta-position, is favored. In addition, methylation of the phenoxyl groups generally improves the potency. Mechanistic study revealed that 13n selectively inhibits TrxR and induces reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in HeLa cells. Cells overexpressing TrxR are resistant to 13n insult, while knockdown of TrxR sensitizes cells to 13n treatment, highlighting the physiological significance of targeting TrxR by 13n. The clarification of the structural determinants for the potency would guide the design of novel potent molecules for future development. PMID:25629304

  16. Selective inhibitors of glutathione transferase p1 with trioxane structure as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Maria; Teusch, Nicole; Schenk, Tobias; Sheikh, Miriam; Aricioglu, Rocky Z; Borowski, Swantje H; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Baumann, Ulrich; Griesbeck, Axel G; Pietsch, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The response to chemotherapy in cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance. Although chemoresistance is a multifactorial phenomenon, many studies have demonstrated that altered drug metabolism through the expression of phase?II conjugating enzymes, including glutathione transferases (GSTs), in tumor cells can be directly correlated with resistance against a wide range of marketed anticancer drugs. In particular, overexpression of glutathione transferase?P1 (GSTP1) appears to be a factor for poor prognosis during cancer therapy. Former and ongoing clinical trials have confirmed GSTP1 inhibition as a principle for antitumor therapy. A new series of 1,2,4-trioxane GSTP1 inhibitors were designed via a type?II photooxygenation route of allylic alcohols followed by acid-catalyzed peroxyacetalization with aldehydes. A set of novel inhibitors exhibit low micromolar to high nanomolar inhibition of GSTP1, revealing preliminary SAR for further lead optimization. Importantly, high selectivity over another two human GST classes (GSTA1 and GSTM2) has been achieved. The trioxane GSTP1 inhibitors may therefore serve as a basis for the development of novel drug candidates in overcoming chemoresistance. PMID:25694385

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel sesquiterpene mustards as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan-Zhen; Gu, Xue-Yan; Peng, Shou-Jiao; Fang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Huang, De-Jun; Chen, Jian-Jun; Gao, Kun

    2015-04-13

    Several novel series of sesquiterpene mustards (SMs) bearing nitrogen mustard and glutathione (GSH)-reactive ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone groups were successfully prepared for the first time and showed excellent antiproliferative activities in vitro. Among them, compounds 2e and 2g displayed the highest antiproliferative properties with IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 8.7 ?M. The selectivity of these two compounds was evaluated by SRB method against human cancer and normal hepatic cells (HepG2 and L02). The induction of apoptosis and effects on the cell cycle distribution with compounds 2e and 2g were investigated by Hoechst 33,258 staining and flow cytometry, which exhibited that they could induce selective cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 and L02 cells. In addition, further investigation showed that compounds 2e and 2g could obviously inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells by inducing significant DNA cross-linking and depleting GSH in cell media. The good cytotoxicity and selectivity of compounds 2e and 2g pointed them as promising leads for anticancer drug design. PMID:25771034

  18. Polygonum cuspidatum extracts as bioactive antioxidaion, anti-tyrosinase, immune stimulation and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Wei-Ting; Liu, Yung-Chuan; David Wang, Hui-Min

    2015-04-01

    In our study, it was applied for the technology of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction to achieve biological constitutes from a Taiwan native plant, Polygonum cuspidatum. We developed bioactive effects of P. cuspidatum extracts via multiple examinations that established bio-purposes at a range of dosage ranges. The research of P. cuspidatum extracts indicated that they possessed anti-oxidative properties on radical-scavenging abilities, reducing activities and metal chelating powers in dose-dependant manners. The extracts also had minor in vitro mushroom tyrosinase suppression and decreased cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin production in B16-F10 cells. Immunologically, P. cuspidatum extracts enhanced the release of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) induced by THP-1 macrophage cell line. In addition, the cell proliferation showed anti-proliferation in dose-dependent manner on human skin melanoma cells, A375 and A375.S2, of the extracts suggesting biological constitutes employed the anti-cancer possessions. This is the first statement presenting bioactivities on P. cuspidatum extracts including anti-oxidation, immune stimulation, anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanoma as far as we know. PMID:25311751

  19. Potential Anticancer Heterometallic Fe-Au and Fe-Pd Agents: Initial Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Lease, Nicholas; Vasilevski, Vadim; Carreira, Monica; de Almeida, Andreia; Sanaú, Mercedes; Hirva, Pipsa; Casini, Angela; Contel, Maria

    2013-01-01

    A series of gold(III) and palladium(II) heterometallic complexes with new iminophosphorane ligands derived from ferrocenyl-phosphanes [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-Ph}2Fe] (1), [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-CH2-2-NC5H4}2Fe] (2) and [{Cp-P(Ph2)=N-CH2-2-NC5H4}Fe(Cp)] (3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Ligands 2 and 3 afford stable coordination complexes [AuCl2(3)]ClO4, [{AuCl2}2(2)](ClO4)2, [PdCl2(3)] and [{PdCl2}2(2)]. The complexes have been evaluated for their antripoliferative properties in human ovarian cancer cells sensitive and resistant to cisplatin (A2780S/R), in human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and in a non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293T). The highly cytotoxic trimetallic derivatives M2Fe (M = Au, Pd) are more cytotoxic to cancer cells than their corresponding monometallic fragments. Moreover, these complexes were significantly more cytotoxic than cisplatin in the resistant A2780R and the MCF7 cell lines. Studies of the interactions of the trimetallic compounds with DNA and the zinc-finger protein PARP-1 indicate that they exert anticancer effects in vitro based on different mechanisms of actions with respect to cisplatin. PMID:23786413

  20. Immune cell-based screening assay for response to anticancer agents: applications in pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Amber; Fedoriw, Yuri; Richards, Kristy; Damania, Blossom; Parks, Bethany; Suzuki, Oscar; Benton, Cristina S; Chan, Emmanuel; Thomas, Russell S; Wiltshire, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Interpatient variability in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely due to complex genetic differences and is difficult to ascertain in humans. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at examining interstrain differences in viability on normal, noncancerous immune cells following chemotherapeutic cytotoxic insult. Drug effects were investigated by comparing selective chemotherapeutic agents, such as BEZ-235 and selumetinib, against conventional cytotoxic agents targeting multiple pathways, including doxorubicin and idarubicin. Methods Splenocytes were isolated from 36 isogenic strains of mice using standard procedures. Of note, the splenocytes were not stimulated to avoid attributing responses to pathways involved with cellular stimulation rather than toxicity. Cells were incubated with compounds on a nine-point logarithmic dosing scale ranging from 15 nM to 100 ?M (37°C, 5% CO2). At 4 hours posttreatment, cells were labeled with antibodies and physiological indicator dyes and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. Cellular phenotypes (eg, viability) were collected and analyzed using flow cytometry. Dose-response curves with response normalized to the zero dose as a function of log concentration were generated using GraphPad Prism 6. Results Phenotypes were quantified using flow cytometry, yielding interstrain variation for measured endpoints in different immune cells. The flow cytometry assays produced over 16,000 data points that were used to generate dose-response curves. The more targeted agents, BEZ-235 and selumetinib, were less toxic to immune cells than the anthracycline agents. The calculated heritability for the viability of immune cells was higher with anthracyclines than the novel agents, making them better suited for downstream genetic analysis. Conclusion Using this approach, we identify cell lines of variable sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents and aim to identify robust, replicable endpoints of cellular response to drugs that provide the starting point for identifying candidate genes and cellular toxicity pathways for future validation in human studies.

  1. Zampanolide and dactylolide: cytotoxic tubulin-assembly agents and promising anticancer leads

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Covering: through January 2014 Zampanolide is a marine natural macrolide and a recent addition to the family of microtubule-stabilizing cytotoxic agents. Zampanolide exhibits unique effects on tubulin assembly and is more potent than paclitaxel against several multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines. A high-resolution crystal structure of ??-tubulin in complex with zampanolide explains how taxane-site microtubule-stabilizing agents promote microtubule assemble and stability. This review provides an overview of current developments of zampanolide and its related but less potent analogue dactylolide, covering their natural sources and isolation, structure and conformation, cytotoxic potential, structure–activity studies, mechanism of action, and syntheses. PMID:24945566

  2. Modulation of the anti-cancer efficacy of microtubule-targeting agents by cellular growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Jay F; Dowling, Melissa L; Kim, Mijin; Voong, Ranh; Solin, Lawrence J; Kao, Gary D

    2010-05-15

    Mitotic spindle-disrupting agents target and disrupt microtubule dynamics. These agents include clinically important chemotherapies, including taxanes (paclitaxel (Taxol), docetaxel (Taxotere)) and vinca alkaloids (vincristine (Oncovin), vinblastine). Taxanes are a standard component of treatment for many malignancies, often in conjunction with other cytotoxic agents. However, the optimal sequencing of these treatments and whether efficacy may be influenced by in vitro cellular growth conditions remain incompletely investigated. Yet such preclinical investigations may guide clinical decision making. We therefore studied the effect of cell density on rapid killing by paclitaxel and vincristine. Breast, ovarian and prostate cancer cells were sensitive to rapid killing by either agent when grown at low density, but were markedly resistant when grown at high density, i.e. nearly confluent. The resistance of densely growing cells to rapid killing by these drugs translated to increased clonogenic survival. Pretreatment of densely growing cancer cells with cisplatin followed by paclitaxel, partially reversed the treatment resistance. Gene ontology associations from microarray analyses of cells grown at low and high density, suggested roles for membrane signal transduction and adhesion, but potentially also DNA damage repair and metabolism. Taken together, the treatment resistance at higher cell density may be associated with a lower proportion of active cycling in cells growing at high density as well as transduction of survival signals induced by increased cell-cell adhesion. Collectively these findings suggest mechanisms by which growth conditions may contribute to resistance to rapid killing by microtubule-disrupting drugs. PMID:20234172

  3. Anti-cancer agents based on 6-trifluoromethoxybenzimidazole derivatives and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gakh, Andrei A; Vovk, Mykhaylo V; Mel'nychenko, Nina V; Sukach, Volodymyr A

    2012-10-23

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds having the structural Formulas (1a,1b), stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof as chemotherapy agents for treating of cancer, particularly androgen-independent prostate cancer. The disclosure also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  4. A modified HSP70 inhibitor shows broad activity as an anticancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Balaburski, Gregor M.; Leu, Julia I-Ju; Beeharry, Neil; Hayik, Seth; Andrake, Mark D.; Zhang, Gao; Herlyn, Meenhard; Villanueva, Jessie; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Yen, Tim; George, Donna L.; Murphy, Maureen E.

    2013-01-01

    The stress-induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that plays a key role in refolding misfolded proteins and promoting cell survival following stress. HSP70 is marginally expressed in non-transformed cells, but is greatly overexpressed in tumor cells. Silencing HSP70 is uniformly cytotoxic to tumor but not normal cells; therefore, there has been great interest in the development of HSP70 inhibitors for cancer therapy. Here we report that the HSP70 inhibitor 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) binds to the substrate-binding domain of HSP70, and requires the C-terminal helical ‘lid’ of this protein (amino acids 573-616) in order to bind. Using molecular modeling and in silico docking, we have identified a candidate binding site for PES in this region of HSP70, and we identify point mutants that fail to interact with PES. A preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis has revealed a derivative of PES, 2-(3-chlorophenyl) ethynesulfonamide (PES-Cl), which shows increased cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit autophagy, along with significantly improved ability to extend the life of mice with pre-B cell lymphoma, compared to the parent compound (p=0.015). Interestingly, we also show that these HSP70 inhibitors impair the activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in cell-free extracts, and induce G2/M arrest and genomic instability in cancer cells. PES-Cl is thus a promising new anti-cancer compound with several notable mechanisms of action. PMID:23303345

  5. Fluorine-Containing Taxoid Anticancer Agents and Their Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Joshua; Vineberg, Jacob G.; Zuniga, Edison S.; Ojima, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    A long-standing problem of conventional chemotherapy is the lack of tumor-specific treatments. Traditional chemotherapy relies on the premise that rapidly proliferating cancer cells are more likely to be killed by a cytotoxic agent. In reality, however, cytotoxic agents have very little or no specificity, which leads to systemic toxicity, causing undesirable severe side effects. Consequently, various “molecularly targeted cancer therapies” have been developed for use in specific cancers, including tumor-targeting drug delivery systems. In general, such a drug delivery system consists of a tumor recognition moiety and a cytotoxic “warhead” connected through a “smart” linker to form a conjugate. When a multi-functionalized nanomaterial is used as the vehicle, a “Trojan Horse” approach can be used for mass delivery of cytotoxic “warheads” to maximize the efficacy. Exploitation of the special properties of fluorine has proven successful in the development of new and effective biochemical tools as well as therapeutic agents. Fluorinated congeners can also serve as excellent probes for the investigation of biochemical mechanisms. 19F-NMR can provide unique and powerful tools for mechanistic investigations in chemical biology. This account presents our recent progress, in perspective, on the molecular approaches to the design and development of novel tumor-targeted drug delivery systems for new generation chemotherapy by exploiting the unique nature of fluorine. PMID:23935213

  6. Fluorine-Containing Taxoid Anticancer Agents and Their Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Joshua; Vineberg, Jacob G; Zuniga, Edison S; Ojima, Iwao

    2013-08-01

    A long-standing problem of conventional chemotherapy is the lack of tumor-specific treatments. Traditional chemotherapy relies on the premise that rapidly proliferating cancer cells are more likely to be killed by a cytotoxic agent. In reality, however, cytotoxic agents have very little or no specificity, which leads to systemic toxicity, causing undesirable severe side effects. Consequently, various "molecularly targeted cancer therapies" have been developed for use in specific cancers, including tumor-targeting drug delivery systems. In general, such a drug delivery system consists of a tumor recognition moiety and a cytotoxic "warhead" connected through a "smart" linker to form a conjugate. When a multi-functionalized nanomaterial is used as the vehicle, a "Trojan Horse" approach can be used for mass delivery of cytotoxic "warheads" to maximize the efficacy. Exploitation of the special properties of fluorine has proven successful in the development of new and effective biochemical tools as well as therapeutic agents. Fluorinated congeners can also serve as excellent probes for the investigation of biochemical mechanisms. (19)F-NMR can provide unique and powerful tools for mechanistic investigations in chemical biology. This account presents our recent progress, in perspective, on the molecular approaches to the design and development of novel tumor-targeted drug delivery systems for new generation chemotherapy by exploiting the unique nature of fluorine. PMID:23935213

  7. Anti-cancer agents based on 6-trifluoromethoxybenzimidazole derivatives and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gakh, Andrei A.; Vovk, Mykhaylo V.; Mel'nychenko, Nina V.; Sukach, Volodymyr A.

    2012-08-14

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds having the structural Formulas (1a,1b), stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof as chemotherapy agents for treating of cancer, particularly androgen-independent prostate cancer. The disclosure also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds. embedded image

  8. Gold-Containing Indoles as Anti-Cancer Agents that Potentiate the Cytotoxic Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Sandra; Gao, Lei; Lee, Irene; Gray, Thomas; Berdis, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the design and application of several distinct gold-containing indoles as anti-cancer agents. When used individually, all gold-bearing compounds display cytostatic effects against leukemia and adherent cancer cell lines. However, two gold-bearing indoles show unique behavior by increasing the cytotoxic effects of clinically relevant levels of ionizing radiation. Quantifying the amount of DNA damage demonstrates that each gold-indole enhances apoptosis by inhibiting DNA repair. Both Au(I)-indoles were tested for inhibitory effects against various cellular targets including thioredoxin reductase, a known target of several gold compounds, and various ATP-dependent kinases. While neither compound significantly inhibits the activity of thioreoxin reductase, both showed inhibitory effects against several kinases associated with cancer initiation and progression. The inhibition of these kinases provides a possible mechanism for the ability of these Au(I)-indoles potentiate the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Clinical applications of combining Au(I)-indoles with ionizing radiation are discussed as a new strategy to achieve chemosensitization of cancer cells. PMID:22289037

  9. Discovery of Akt Kinase Inhibitors through Structure-Based Virtual Screening and Their Evaluation as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Leu, Yu-Ling; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Chen, Chien-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Akt acts as a pivotal regulator in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and represents a potential drug target for cancer therapy. To search for new inhibitors of Akt kinase, we performed a structure-based virtual screening using the DOCK 4.0 program and the X-ray crystal structure of human Akt kinase. From the virtual screening, 48 compounds were selected and subjected to the Akt kinase inhibition assay. Twenty-six of the test compounds showed more potent inhibitory effects on Akt kinase than the reference compound, H-89. These 26 compounds were further evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and HEK-293 normal human embryonic kidney cells. Twelve compounds were found to display more potent or comparable cytotoxic activity compared to compound H-89 against HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained with Compounds a46 and a48 having IC50 values (for HCT-116) of 11.1 and 9.5 µM, respectively, and selectivity indices (IC50 for HEK-293/IC50 for HCT-116) of 12.5 and 16.1, respectively. Through structure-based virtual screening and biological evaluations, we have successfully identified several new Akt inhibitors that displayed cytotoxic activity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. Especially, Compounds a46 and a48 may serve as useful lead compounds for further development of new anticancer agents. PMID:25648320

  10. Antiproliferation activity of Devil's club (Oplopanax horridus) and anticancer agents on human pancreatic cancer multicellular spheroids.

    PubMed

    Tai, J; Cheung, S S C; Ou, D; Warnock, G L; Hasman, D

    2014-03-15

    Devil's club (DC, Oplopanax horridus) is an important medicinal herb of the Pacific Northwest which has significant antiproliferation activity against a variety of human tumor cell lines in vitro. This study compared the antiproliferation activity of DC extract alone, and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents gemcitabine (GEM), cisplatin (CDDP), and paclitaxel (PTX) on human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 3D spheroids and 2D monolayer cells. 3D tumor spheroids were prepared with a rotary cell culture system. PANC-1 3D spheroids were significantly more resistant to killing by DC extract, GEM and PTX compared to 2D cells, with IC50 levels closer to that observed in vivo. DC extract significantly enhanced the antiproliferation activity of CDDP and GEM at some concentrations. The bioactive compound identified as a polyacetylene showed strong antiproliferation activity against PANC-1 2D cells and 3D spheroids with IC50 at 0.73±0.04 and 3.15±0.16?M, respectively. 3D spheroids and 2D cells differentially expressed a number of apoptosis related genes. Cell cycle analysis showed that the proportion of cells in S phase was increased and in G2/M phase reduced in 3D spheroids compared to 2D cells. DC extract can potentially be used to enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents against pancreatic cancer cells. Use of 3D spheroid model for screening of natural products can potentially increase the efficiency in discovering in vivo bioactive compounds. PMID:24215675

  11. Formulation of sustained release nanoparticles loaded with a tripentone, a new anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Malzert-Fréon, A; Vrignaud, S; Saulnier, P; Lisowski, V; Benoît, J P; Rault, S

    2006-08-31

    The purpose of the present work is to develop nanoparticles of a new antitubulin agent of the family of tripentones by means of a phase inversion process. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and zeta-potential measurements were used to characterize tripentone loaded nanoparticles. From interfacial tension measurements and from the study of the rheological interfacial properties of the tripentone at the Labrafac-Solutol interface, the fraction of tripentone initially present in Labrafac would stay in the oily core of nanocapsules. Moreover, the interpenetration of some tripentone molecules within the surfactant units helps to the stabilization of the formulated nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and was found to be above 95%. In vitro release studies were carried out in blank nanoparticles containing phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 37 degrees C. The drug release kinetics was measured by HPLC. Antiproliferative activity studies on L1210 cells showed that the cytotoxic activity of tripentone was totally recovered after encapsulation of the antitubulin agent in lipid nanoparticles. This study shows that lipid nanocapsules could be a promising and effective carrier for tripentone delivery in the treatment of cancers. PMID:16723200

  12. Uncovering Pandora’s vase: the growing problem of new toxicities from novel anticancer agents. The case of sorafenib and sunitinib

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Porta; C. Paglino; I. Imarisio; L. Bonomi

    2007-01-01

    As newer, molecularly targeted, anticancer drugs are entering clinical practice, a wide array of previously unrecognised and\\u000a ill defined side effects of these drugs are increasingly observed. Sorafenib and sunitinib are two of these novel agents,\\u000a acting on tumour angiogenesis as well as on other key proliferative pathways; recently approved for the treatment of advanced\\u000a kidney cancer, they may cause

  13. Dual targeting of heat shock proteins 90 and 70 promotes cell death and enhances the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic agents in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Sato, Fuminori; Sato, Ryuta; Matsubara, Takanori; Hirai, Kenichi; Yamasaki, Mutsushi; Shin, Toshitaka; Shimada, Tatsuo; Nomura, Takeo; Mori, Kenichi; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2014-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are molecular chaperones that stabilize numerous vital proteins, may be attractive targets for cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible anticancer effect of single or dual targeting of HSP90 and HSP70 and the combination treatment with HSP inhibitors and chemotherapeutic agents in bladder cancer cells. The expression of HSP90 and the anticancer effect of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) coupled with cisplatin, docetaxel, or gemcitabine were examined using immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, cell growth, flow cytometry, immunoblots and caspase-3/7 assays. The expression of HSP70 under HSP90 inhibition and the additive effect of HSP70 inhibitor pifithrin-? (PFT-?) were examined by the same assays and transmission electron microscopy. HSP90 was highly expressed in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. 17-AAG enhanced the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of each chemotherapeutic agent. 17-AAG also suppressed Akt activity but induced the upregulation of HSP70. PFT-? enhanced the effect of 17-AAG or chemotherapeutic agents; the triple combination of 17-AAG, PFT-? and a chemotherapeutic agent showed the most significant anticancer effect on the T24 cell line. The combination of 17-AAG and PFT-? markedly suppressed Akt and Bad activities. With HSP90 suppression, HSP70 overexpression possibly contributes to the avoidance of cell death and HSP70 may be a key molecule for overcoming resistance to the HSP90 inhibitor. The dual targeting of these two chaperones and the combination with conventional anticancer drugs could be a promising therapeutic option for patients with advanced bladder cancer. PMID:24718854

  14. Dual targeting of heat shock proteins 90 and 70 promotes cell death and enhances the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic agents in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    MA, LIANG; SATO, FUMINORI; SATO, RYUTA; MATSUBARA, TAKANORI; HIRAI, KENICHI; YAMASAKI, MUTSUSHI; SHIN, TOSHITAKA; SHIMADA, TATSUO; NOMURA, TAKEO; MORI, KENICHI; SUMINO, YASUHIRO; MIMATA, HIROMITSU

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are molecular chaperones that stabilize numerous vital proteins, may be attractive targets for cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible anticancer effect of single or dual targeting of HSP90 and HSP70 and the combination treatment with HSP inhibitors and chemotherapeutic agents in bladder cancer cells. The expression of HSP90 and the anticancer effect of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) coupled with cisplatin, docetaxel, or gemcitabine were examined using immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, cell growth, flow cytometry, immunoblots and caspase-3/7 assays. The expression of HSP70 under HSP90 inhibition and the additive effect of HSP70 inhibitor pifithrin-? (PFT-?) were examined by the same assays and transmission electron microscopy. HSP90 was highly expressed in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. 17-AAG enhanced the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of each chemotherapeutic agent. 17-AAG also suppressed Akt activity but induced the upregulation of HSP70. PFT-? enhanced the effect of 17-AAG or chemotherapeutic agents; the triple combination of 17-AAG, PFT-? and a chemotherapeutic agent showed the most significant anticancer effect on the T24 cell line. The combination of 17-AAG and PFT-? markedly suppressed Akt and Bad activities. With HSP90 suppression, HSP70 overexpression possibly contributes to the avoidance of cell death and HSP70 may be a key molecule for overcoming resistance to the HSP90 inhibitor. The dual targeting of these two chaperones and the combination with conventional anticancer drugs could be a promising therapeutic option for patients with advanced bladder cancer. PMID:24718854

  15. Synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of novel chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ta?demir, Demet; Karaküçük-?yido?an, Ay?egül; Ula?li, Mustafa; Ta?kin-Tok, Tu?ba; Oruç-Emre, Em?ne Elç?n; Bayram, Hasan

    2015-02-01

    A series of new chiral thiosemicarbazones derived from homochiral amines in both enantiomeric forms were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against A549 (human alveolar adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and HGC-27 (human stomach carcinoma) cell lines. Some of compounds showed inhibitory activities on the growth of cancer cell lines. Especially, compound exhibited the most potent activity (IC50 4.6??M) against HGC-27 as compared with the reference compound, sindaxel (IC50 10.3??M), and could be used as a lead compound to search new chiral thiosemicarbazone derivatives as antiproliferative agents. Chirality 27:177-188, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25399965

  16. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of A Novel Class of Anticancer Agents: Anthracenylisoxazole Lexitropsin Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaochun; Li, Chun; Mosher, Michael D.; Rider, Kevin C.; Zhou, Peiwen; Crawford, Ronald L.; Fusco, William; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Natale, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro anti-tumor 60 cell lines screen of a novel series of anthracenyl isoxazole amides (AIMs)¥ (22–33) is described. The molecules consist of an isoxazole that pre-organizes a planar aromatic moiety and a simple amide and/or lexitropsin-oligopeptide. The new conjugate molecules were prepared via doubly activated amidation modification of Weinreb’s amide formation technique, using SmCl3 as an activating agent which produces improved yields for sterically hindered 3-aryl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic esters. The results of the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) 60 cell line screening assay show a distinct structure activity relationship (SAR), wherein a trend of the highest activity for molecules with one N-methylpyrrole peptide. Evidence consistent with a mechanism of action via the interaction of these compounds with G-quadruplex (G4) DNA, and a structural based rational for the observed selectivity of the AIMs for G4 over B-DNA is presented. PMID:19167892

  17. DNA interaction studies of new nano metal based anticancer agent: validation by spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Sharma, Girish Chandra; Arjmand, Farukh; Azam, Ameer

    2010-05-01

    A new nano dimensional heterobimetallic Cu-Sn containing complex as a potential drug candidate was designed, synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral methods. The electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance parameters of the complex revealed that the Cu(II) ion exhibits a square pyramidal geometry with the two pyrazole nitrogen atoms, the amine nitrogen atom and the carboxylate oxygen of the phenyl glycine chloride ligand located at the equatorial sites and the coordinated chloride ion occupying an apical position. 119Sn NMR spectral data showed a hexa-coordinated environment around the Sn(IV) metal ion. TEM, AFM and XRD measurements illustrate that the complex could induce the condensation of CT-DNA to a particulate nanostructure. The interaction of the Cu-Sn complex with CT-DNA was investigated by UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetric measurements. The results indicated that the complex interacts with DNA through an electrostatic mode of binding with an intrinsic binding constant Kb = 8.42 × 104 M - 1. The Cu-Sn complex exhibits effective cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA by an oxidative cleavage mechanism, monitored at different concentrations both in the absence and in the presence of reducing agents.

  18. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel ursolic acid derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Hua, Shi-Xian; Huang, Ri-Zhen; Ye, Man-Yi; Pan, Ying-Ming; Yao, Gui-Yang; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Heng-Shan

    2015-05-01

    A series of novel ursolic acid (UA) derivatives modified at the C-3 and the C-28 positions were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potential antitumor agents. The in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated against five cancer cell lines (MGC-803, HCT-116, T24, HepG2 and A549 cell lines) and a normal cell (HL-7702) by MTT assay. The screening results indicated that some of these target compounds displayed moderate to high levels of antiproliferative activities compared with ursolic acid and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and exhibited much lower cytotoxicity than 5-FU, indicating that the targeted compounds had selective and significant effect on the cell lines. The induction of apoptosis and affects on the cell cycle distribution of compound 6r were investigated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining and flow cytometry, which revealed that the antitumor activity of 6r was possibly achieved through the induction of cell apoptosis by G1 cell-cycle arrest. Western blot and qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) experiments demonstrated that compound 6r may induce apoptosis through both of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway. PMID:25841199

  19. Psoralea glandulosa as a Potential Source of Anticancer Agents for Melanoma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Alejandro; Cardile, Venera; González, César; Montenegro, Ivan; Villena, Joan; Caggia, Silvia; Graziano, Adriana; Russo, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological activity of the resinous exudate of aerial parts from Psoralea glandulosa, and its active components (bakuchiol (1), 3-hydroxy-bakuchiol (2) and 12-hydroxy-iso-bakuchiol (3)) against melanoma cells (A2058). In addition, the effect in cancer cells of bakuchiol acetate (4), a semi-synthetic derivative of bakuchiol, was examined. The results obtained show that the resinous exudate inhibited the growth of cancer cells with IC50 value of 10.5 ?g/mL after 48 h of treatment, while, for pure compounds, the most active was the semi-synthetic compound 4. Our data also demonstrate that resin is able to induce apoptotic cell death, which could be related to an overall action of the meroterpenes present. In addition, our data seem to indicate that the apoptosis correlated to the tested products appears, at least in part, to be associated with an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that P. glandulosa may be considered a source of useful molecules in the development of analogues with more potent efficacy against melanoma cells. PMID:25860949

  20. Cell cycle regulation in the G1 phase: a promising target for the development of new chemotherapeutic anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Owa, T; Yoshino, H; Yoshimatsu, K; Nagasu, T

    2001-10-01

    As a result of substantial advances in recent cancer biology, cell cycle regulation in the G1 phase has attracted a great deal of attention as a promising target for the research and treatment of cancer. Many of the important genes associated with G1 regulation have been shown to play a key role in proliferation, differentiation and oncogenic transformation and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Currently, a variety of "cytostatic" agents that affects G1 progression and/or G1/S transition are being evaluated in clinical trials. Flavopiridol is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). UCN-01 was originally found to be a PKC-selective protein kinase antagonist. More recent studies have revealed that this agent can also inhibit several CDKs and the checkpoint kinase CHK1. FR901228, MS-27-275 and SAHA are histone deacetylase inhibitors that induce changes in the transcription of specific genes via the hyperacetylation of histones. The proteasome inhibitor PS-341 disrupts the degradation process of intracellular proteins, including cell cycle regulatory proteins such as cyclins. R115777, SCH66336 and BMS-214662 are non-peptidic farnesyl transferase inhibitors that prevent p21 ras oncogene activation. Rapamycin derivative CCI-779 downregulates signals through S6 kinase and FRAP (FKBP-rapamycin associating protein), affecting the expression levels of mRNAs important for progression from G1 to S phase. 17-Allylaminogeldanamycin targets the Hsp-90 (heat shock protein-90) family of cellular chaperones regulating the function of signaling proteins. TNP-470 (AGM-1470), a fumagillin derivative shows antiangiogenic action through binding to MetAP-2 (methionine aminopeptidase-2). The antitumor sulfonamide E7070, causing a cellular accumulation in the G1 phase, has been shown to suppress the activation of CDK2 and cyclin E expression in HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line highly sensitive to the drug. With respect to several growth factor receptors such as EGFR, PDGFR, bFGFR and VEGFR, potent and specific inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases have been also examined as hopeful drug candidates. In this report, we review the current status of extensive efforts directed towards the discovery and development of new chemotherapeutic anticancer agents targeting cell cycle regulation in the G1 phase, with particular focus on the compounds undergoing clinical investigations. PMID:11562278

  1. Anticancer chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Despite troubled beginnings, anticancer chemotherapy has made significant contribution to the control of cancer in man, particularly within the last two decades. Early conceptual observations awakened the scientific community to the potentials of cancer chemotherapy. There are now more than 50 agents that are active in causing regression of clinical cancer. Chemotherapy's major conceptual contributions are two-fold. First, there is now proof that patients with overt metastatic disease can be cured, and second, to provide a strategy for control of occult metastases. In man, chemotherapy has resulted in normal life expectancy for some patients who have several types of metastatic cancers, including choriocarcinoma, Burkitt's lymphomas, Wilm's tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkins disease, diffuse histiocytic lymphoma and others. Anticancer chemotherapy in Veterinary medicine has evolved from the use of single agents, which produce only limited remissions, to the concept of combination chemotherapy. Three basic principles underline the design of combination chemotherapy protocols; the fraction of tumor cell killed by one drug is independent of the fraction killed by another drug; drugs with different mechanisms of action should be chosen so that the antitumor effects will be additive; and since different classes of drugs have different toxicities the toxic effects will not be additive.

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrenyl derivatives as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Sanchez, Jorge L; Guerrero, Adrian M; Chang, Fang-Mei; Granados, Jose C; Short, John D; Banik, Bimal K

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread in nature with a toxicity range from non-toxic to extremely toxic. A series of pyrenyl derivatives has been synthesized following a four-step strategy where the pyrene nucleus is attached with a basic heterocyclic moiety through a carbon linker. Virtual screening of the physicochemical properties and druggability has been carried out. The cytotoxicity of the compounds (1-8) have been evaluated in vitro against a small panel of human cancer cell lines which includes two liver cancer (HepG2 and Hepa 1-6), two colon cancer (HT-29 and Caco-2) and one each for cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. The IC50 data indicate that compound 6 and 8 are the most effective cytotoxic agents in the present set of pyrenyl derivatives, suggesting that having a 4-carbon linker is more effective than a 5-carbon linker and the presence of amide carbonyl groups in the linker severely reduces the efficacy of the compound. The compounds showed selectivity toward cancer cells at lower doses (<5 ?M) when compared with the normal hepatocytes. The mechanism of action supports the cell death through apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner without cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), even though the compounds cause plasma membrane morphological changes. The compounds, whether highly cytotoxic or mildly cytotoxic, localize to the membrane of cells. The compounds with either a piperidine ring (6) or an N-methyl piperazine (8) in the side chain were both capable of circumventing the drug resistance in SKOV3-MDR1-M6/6 ovarian cancer cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Qualitative structure-activity relationship has also been studied. PMID:25462285

  3. NF-?B-dependent and -independent epigenetic modulation using the novel anti-cancer agent DMAPT.

    PubMed

    Nakshatri, H; Appaiah, H N; Anjanappa, M; Gilley, D; Tanaka, H; Badve, S; Crooks, P A; Mathews, W; Sweeney, C; Bhat-Nakshatri, P

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) is constitutively active in several cancers and is a target of therapeutic development. We recently developed dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT), a clinical grade water-soluble analog of parthenolide, as a potent inhibitor of NF-?B and demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities in multiple cancers. In this study, we show DMAPT is an epigenetic modulator functioning in an NF-?B-dependent and -independent manner. DMAPT-mediated NF-?B inhibition resulted in elevated histone H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), which could be recapitulated through genetic ablation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B or inhibitor-of-kappaB alpha super-repressor overexpression. DMAPT treatment and p65 ablation increased the levels of H3K36 trimethylases NSD1 (KMT3B) and SETD2 (KMT3A), suggesting that NF-?B directly represses their expression and that lower H3K36me3 is an epigenetic marker of constitutive NF-?B activity. Overexpression of a constitutively active p65 subunit of NF-?B reduced NSD1 and H3K36me3 levels. NSD1 is essential for DMAPT-induced expression of pro-apoptotic BIM, indicating a functional link between epigenetic modification and gene expression. Interestingly, we observed enhanced H4K20 trimethylation and induction of H4K20 trimethylase KMT5C in DMAPT-treated cells independent of NF-?B inhibition. These results add KMT5C to the list NF-?B-independent epigenetic targets of parthenolide, which include previously described histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC-1) and DNA methyltransferase 1. As NSD1 and SETD2 are known tumor suppressors and loss of H4K20 trimethylation is an early event in cancer progression, which contributes to genomic instability, we propose DMAPT as a potent pharmacologic agent that can reverse NF-?B-dependent and -independent cancer-specific epigenetic abnormalities. PMID:25611383

  4. Cytotoxic podophyllotoxin type-lignans from the steam bark of Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sepúlveda, Andrés M; Mendieta-Serrano, Mario; Mojica, Mayra Y Antúnez; Salas-Vidal, Enrique; Marquina, Silvia; Villarreal, María Luisa; Puebla, Ana María; Delgado, Jorge I; Alvarez, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of the steam bark of B. fagaroides var. fagaroides displayed potent cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines, namely KB (ED50 = 9.6 × 10(-2) ?g/mL), PC-3 (ED50 = 2.5 × 10(-1) ?g/mL), MCF-7 (ED50 = 6.6 ?g/mL), and HF-6 (ED50 = 7.1 × 10(-3) ?g/mL). This extract also showed anti-tumour activity when assayed on mice inoculated with L5178Y lymphoma cells. Bioactivity-directed isolation of this extract, afforded seven podophyllotoxin-type lignans identified as podophyllotoxin (1), ?-peltatin-A-methylether (2), 5'-desmethoxy-?-peltatin-A-methylether (3), desmethoxy-yatein (4), desoxypodophyllotoxin (5), burseranin (6), and acetyl podophyllotoxin (7) by 1D and 2DNMR and FAB-MS analyses, and comparison with reported values. All the isolated compounds showed potent cytotoxic activity in the cell lines tested, especially compound 3, which exhibited greater activity than camptothecin and podophyllotoxin against PC-3 (ED50= 1.0 × 10(-5) ?g/mL), and KB (ED50 = 1.0 × 10(-5) ?g/mL). This is the first report of the isolation of podophyllotoxin and its acetate in a Bursera species. PMID:22878225

  5. Endophytic fungi: novel sources of anticancer lead molecules.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sheela

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is a major killer disease all over the world and more than six million new cases are reported every year. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutic compounds, as a tremendous chemical diversity is found in millions of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anti-cancer agents. These include vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, and taxol. Production of a plant-based natural drug is always not up to the desired level. It is produced at a specific developmental stage or under specific environmental condition, stress, or nutrient availability; the plants may be very slow growing taking several years to attain a suitable growth phase for product accumulation and extraction. Considering the limitations associated with the productivity and vulnerability of plant species as sources of novel metabolites, microorganisms serve as the ultimate, readily renewable, and inexhaustible source of novel structures bearing pharmaceutical potential. Endophytes, the microorganisms that reside in the tissues of living plants, are relatively unstudied and offer potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry. They develop special mechanisms to penetrate inside the host tissue, residing in mutualistic association and their biotransformation abilities opens a new platform for synthesis of novel secondary metabolites. They produce metabolites to compete with the epiphytes and also with the plant pathogens to maintain a critical balance between fungal virulence and plant defense. It is therefore necessary that the relationship between the plants and endophytes during the accumulation of these secondary metabolites is studied. Insights from such research would provide alternative methods of natural product drug discovery which could be reliable, economical, and environmentally safe. PMID:22622838

  6. Cannabinoids: potential anticancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Guzmán

    2003-01-01

    Cannabinoids — the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives — exert palliative effects in cancer patients by preventing nausea, vomiting and pain and by stimulating appetite. In addition, these compounds have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumour cells in culture and animal models by modulating key cell-signalling pathways. Cannabinoids are usually well tolerated, and do not

  7. Alleviation of Podophyllotoxin Toxicity Using Coexisting Flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Sun, Hua; Jin, Lu; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Guo, Chong-Yi; Ding, Ke; Luo, Cheng; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2013-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin (POD) is a lignan-type toxin existing in many herbs used in folk medicine. Until now, no effective strategy is available for the management of POD intoxication. This study aims to determine the protective effects of ?avonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) on POD-induced toxicity. In Vero cells, both ?avonoids protected POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering alleviating G2/M arrest, decreasing ROS generation and changes of membrane potential, and recovering microtubule structure. In Swiss mice, the group given both POD and ?avonoids group had significantly lower mortality rate and showed less damages in the liver and kidney than the group given POD alone. As compared to the POD group, the POD plus ?avonoids group exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde levels, and increases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. Histological examination of the liver and kidney showed less pathological changes in the treatment of POD plus ?avonoids group. The protective mechanisms were due to the antioxidant activity of ?avonoids against the oxidative stress induced by POD and the competitive binding of ?avonoids against POD for the same colchicines-binding sites. The latter binding was confirmed by the tubulin assembly assay in combination with molecular docking analyses. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that the coexisting flavonoids have great protective effects against the POD toxicity, and results of this study highlighted the great potential of searching for effective antidotes against toxins based on the pharmacological clues. PMID:23991049

  8. Absolute configuration of podophyllotoxin related lignans from Bursera fagaroides using vibrational circular dichroism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Velázquez-Jiménez; J. Martín Torres-Valencia; Carlos M. Cerda-García-Rojas; Juan D. Hernández-Hernández; Luisa U. Román-Marín; J. Jesús Manríquez-Torres; Mario A. Gómez-Hurtado; Alejandro Valdez-Calderón; Virginia Motilva; Sofía García-Mauriño; Elena Talero; Javier Ávila; Pedro Joseph-Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the dried exudate of Bursera fagaroides (Burseraceae) showed significant cytotoxic activity in the HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) test system. The extract provided four podophyllotoxin related lignans, identified as (7?R,8R,8?R)-(?)-deoxypodophyllotoxin (3), (7?R,8R,8?R)-(?)-morelensin (4), (8R,8?R)-(?)-yatein (5), and (8R,8?R)-(?)-5?-desmethoxyyatein (6), whose spectroscopic and chiroptical properties were compared with those of (7R,7?R,8R,8?R)-(?)-podophyllotoxin (1) and its acetyl derivative (2). Their absolute

  9. Gold(III) complexes with 2-substituted pyridines as experimental anticancer agents: solution behavior, reactions with model proteins, antiproliferative properties.

    PubMed

    Maiore, Laura; Cinellu, Maria Agostina; Nobili, Stefania; Landini, Ida; Mini, Enrico; Gabbiani, Chiara; Messori, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    Gold(III) compounds form a family of promising cytotoxic and potentially anticancer agents that are currently undergoing intense preclinical investigations. Four recently synthesized and characterized gold(III) derivatives of 2-substituted pyridines are evaluated here for their biological and pharmacological behavior. These include two cationic adducts with 2-pyridinyl-oxazolines, [Au(pyox(R))Cl(2)][PF(6)], [pyox(R)=(S)-4-benzyl-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole, I; (S)-4-iso-propyl-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole, II] and two neutral complexes [Au(N,N'OH)Cl(2)], III, and [Au(N,N',O)Cl], IV, containing the deprotonated ligand N-(1-hydroxy-3-iso-propyl-2-yl)pyridine-2-carboxamide, N,N'H,OH, resulting from ring opening of bound pyox(R) ligand of complex II by hydroxide ions. The solution behavior of these compounds was analyzed. These behave as classical prodrugs: activation of the metal center typically takes place through release of the labile chloride ligands while the rest of the molecule is not altered; alternatively, activation may occur through gold(III) reduction. All compounds react eagerly with the model protein cyt c leading to extensive protein metalation. ESI MS experiments revealed details of gold-cyt c interactions and allowed us to establish the nature of protein bound metal containing fragments. The different behavior displayed by I and II compared to III and IV is highlighted. Remarkable cytotoxic properties, against the reference human ovarian carcinoma cell lines A2780/S and A2780/R were disclosed for all tested compounds with IC(50) values ranging from 1.43 to 6.18 ?M in the sensitive cell line and from 1.59 to 10.86 ?M in the resistant one. The common ability of these compounds to overcome cisplatin resistance is highlighted. The obtained results are thoroughly discussed in the frame of current knowledge on cytotoxic gold compounds. PMID:22173093

  10. Thymoquinone as an anticancer agent: evidence from inhibition of cancer cells viability and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Attoub, Samir; Sperandio, Olivier; Raza, Haider; Arafat, Kholoud; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Sultan, Mahmood Ahmed; Al Safi, Maha; Takahashi, Takashi; Adem, Abdu

    2013-10-01

    Phytochemical compounds are emerging as a new generation of anticancer agents with limited toxicity in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential impact of thymoquinone (TQ), the major constituent of black seed, on survival, invasion of cancer cells in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Exposure of cells derived from lung (LNM35), liver (HepG2), colon (HT29), melanoma (MDA-MB-435), and breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) tumors to increasing TQ concentrations resulted in a significant inhibition of viability through the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation leading to DNA damage and activation of the mitochondrial-signaling proapoptotic pathway. We provide evidence that TQ at non-toxic concentrations inhibited the invasive potential of LNM35, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB231-1833 cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that TQ synergizes with DNA-damaging agent cisplatin to inhibit cellular viability. The anticancer activity of thymoquinone was also investigated in athymic mice inoculated with the LNM35 lung cells. Administration of TQ (10 mg/kg/i.p.) for 18 days inhibited the LNM35 tumor growth by 39% (P < 0.05). Tumor growth inhibition was associated with significant increase in the activated caspase-3. The in silico target identification suggests several potential targets of TQ mainly HDAC2 proteins and the 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. In this context, we demonstrated that TQ treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of HDAC2 proteins. In view of the available experimental findings, we contend that thymoquinone and/or its analogues may have clinical potential as an anticancer agent alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin. PMID:22788741

  11. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of anthrapyrazoles linked with netropsin-like oligopyrrole carboxamides as anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Wu, Xing; Guziec, Lynn J.; Guziec, Frank S.; Chee, Gaik-Lean; Yalowich, Jack C.; Hasinoff, Brian B.

    2010-01-01

    Anticancer drugs that bind to DNA and inhibit DNA-processing enzymes represent an important class of anticancer drugs. Combilexin molecules, which combine DNA minor groove binding and intercalating functionalities, have the potential for increased DNA binding affinity and increased selectivity due to their dual mode of DNA binding. This study describes the synthesis of DNA minor groove binder netropsin analogs containing either one or two N-methylpyrrole carboxamide groups linked to DNA-intercalating anthrapyrazoles. Those hybrid molecules which had both two N-methylpyrrole groups and terminal (dimethylamino)alkyl side chains displayed submicromolar cytotoxicity towards K562 human leukemia cells. The combilexins were also evaluated for DNA binding by measuring the increase in DNA melting temperature, for DNA topoisomerase II?-mediated double strand cleavage of DNA, for inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II? decatenation activity, and for inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I relaxation of DNA. Several of the compounds stabilized the DNA-topoisomerase II? covalent complex indicating that they acted as topoisomerase II? poisons. Some of the combilexins had higher affinity for DNA than their parent anthrapyrazoles. In conclusion, a novel group of compounds combining DNA intercalating anthrapyrazole groups and minor groove binding netropsin analogs have been designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated as possible novel anticancer agents. PMID:20471276

  12. Anti-cancer agents based on 4-(hetero)Ary1-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl Amino derivatives and a method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gakh, Andrei A.; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A.; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V.

    2013-01-29

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. ##STR00001## In particular, the invention relates N-substituted derivatives of 4-(hetero)aryl-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl amines having the structural Formula (I) and (II), stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. Meaning of R1 and R2 in the Formula (I) and (II) are defined in claim 1. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  13. Structure-Based Lead Optimization and Biological Evaluation of BAX Direct Activators as Novel Potential Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Stornaiuolo, Mariano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Passacantilli, Sara; Grassia, Gianluca; Coluccia, Antonio; La Pietra, Valeria; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Cassese, Hilde; Di Maro, Salvatore; Brancaccio, Diego; Taliani, Sabrina; Ialenti, Armando; Silvestri, Romano; Martini, Claudia; Novellino, Ettore; Marinelli, Luciana

    2015-03-12

    The first direct activator of BAX, a pro-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family, has been recently identified. Herein, a structure-based lead optimization turned out into a small series of analogues, where 8 is the most potent compound published so far. 8 was used as pharmacological tool to ascertain, for the first time, the anticancer potential of BAX direct activators and the obtained results would suggest that BAX direct activators are potential future anticancer drugs rather than venoms. PMID:25668341

  14. D-ring substituted 1,2,3-triazolyl 20-keto pregnenanes as potential anticancer agents: Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Banday, Abid H; Shameem, Shameem A; Gupta, B D; Kumar, H M Sampath

    2010-12-01

    A facile synthesis of 21-triazolyl derivatives of pregnenolone and their potential antitumour activity is reported. The scheme involves the transformation of the starting pregnenolone acetate into pregnenolone, conversion of pregnenolone to 21-bromo pregnenolone and finally the one-pot, two-step in situ conversion of the bromo derivative to the 21-triazolyl pregnenolone using the 'click chemistry' approach. These derivatives were screened for their anticancer activity against seven human cancer cell lines. The compounds especially 5a, 5b, 5c, 5e, 5g and 5h exhibited significant anticancer activity with compound 5e as the most active in this study. PMID:20206643

  15. Neoglycans, Carbodiimide-modified Glycosaminoglycans: A New Class of Anticancer Agents That Inhibit Cancer Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Y. Pumphrey; Allison M. Theus; Shulin Li; Rudolph S. Parrish; Ralph D. Sanderson

    2002-01-01

    The soluble form of the syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan acts as a tumor suppressor molecule that inhibits growth and induces apop- tosis of some cancer cell lines in vitro. Analogs of syndecan-1 were pro- duced by carbodiimide (EDAC) conjugation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains to a protein scaffold, thereby generating synthetic proteoglycans that were evaluated for anticancer properties. Surprisingly, when analyz-

  16. Antitumor agents 287. Substituted 4-amino-2H-pyran-2-one (APO) analogs reveal a new scaffold from neo-tanshinlactone with in vitro anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yizhou; Nakagawa-Goto, Kyoko; Lai, Chin-Yu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    4-Amino-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (ABO) and 4-amino-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (ATBO) analogs were found to be significant in vitro anticancer agents in our previous research. Our continuing study has now discovered a new simplified (monocyclic rather than tricyclic) class of cytotoxic agents, 4-amino-2H-pyran-2-one (APO) analogs. By incorporating various substituents on the pyranone ring, we have established preliminary structure-activity relationships (SAR). Analogs 19, 20, 23, and 26–30 displayed significant tumor cell growth inhibitory activity in vitro. The most active compound 27 exhibited ED50 values of 0.059–0.090 ?M. PMID:21420855

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel bromophenol derivatives incorporating indolin-2-one moiety as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Yu; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ning; Li, Xiang-Qian; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Luo, Jiao; Yang, Meng; Jin, Shui-Hua; Shi, Da-Yong

    2015-01-01

    A series of bromophenol derivatives containing indolin-2-one moiety were designed and evaluated that for their anticancer activities against A549, Bel7402, HepG2, HeLa and HCT116 cancer cell lines using MTT assay in vitro. Among them, seven compounds (4g-4i, 5h, 6d, 7a, 7b) showed potent activity against the tested five human cancer cell lines. Wound-healing assay demonstrated that compound 4g can be used as a potent compound for inactivating invasion and metastasis by inhibiting the migration of cancer cells. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of bromophenol derivatives had been discussed, which were useful for exploring and developing bromophenol derivatives as novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25648512

  18. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Bromophenol Derivatives Incorporating Indolin-2-One Moiety as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Yu; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ning; Li, Xiang-Qian; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Luo, Jiao; Yang, Meng; Jin, Shui-Hua; Shi, Da-Yong

    2015-01-01

    A series of bromophenol derivatives containing indolin-2-one moiety were designed and evaluated that for their anticancer activities against A549, Bel7402, HepG2, HeLa and HCT116 cancer cell lines using MTT assay in vitro. Among them, seven compounds (4g–4i, 5h, 6d, 7a, 7b) showed potent activity against the tested five human cancer cell lines. Wound-healing assay demonstrated that compound 4g can be used as a potent compound for inactivating invasion and metastasis by inhibiting the migration of cancer cells. The structure–activity relationships (SARs) of bromophenol derivatives had been discussed, which were useful for exploring and developing bromophenol derivatives as novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25648512

  19. Synthetic strategies for the design of platinum anticancer drug candidates

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Justin Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1. The Synthetic Chemistry of Platinum Anticancer Agents Since the inception of cisplatin as a clinically approved anticancer agent, a large number of platinum compounds have been synthesized with the aim of finding ...

  20. P5.02Development of Novel Anticancer Agents that Target Prohibitins and the Translation Initiation Factor eIF4A.

    PubMed

    Désaubry, L; Zhao, Q; Basmadjian, C; Thuaud, F; Ribeiro, N; Nebigil, C; Eggermont, A; Robert, C; Vagner, S

    2015-03-01

    Flavaglines are a family of anticancer natural products that relieve the resistance to certain cancer chemotherapies and display a strong cytotoxicity that is specific to cancer cells [1]. We identified the first synthetic flavaglines that inhibit cell proliferation and viability (IC50 ? 1 nM) at lower doses than did the parent natural compounds [1]. These synthetic flavaglines retain their potency against multiresistant cell lines, induce apoptosis independently of "classical" apoptosis pathways and potentiates the effects of chemotherapeutic agents. Not only flavaglines are not toxic to non-cancer cells, but they can protect normal cells from various stresses. Indeed, we demonstrated that these compounds could protect myocardial and neuronal cells from anthracyclines and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity [1, 2]. Flavaglines can exert their anticancer activity via several mechanisms. We demonstrated that they bind to prohibitins-1 and -2, (PHB1 and PHB2) which are pleiotropic proteins that act as a hub for many signaling pathways to regulate metabolism, cell migration, division and survival (3). We demonstrated that the binding of flavaglines to PHBs prevents interaction between PHBs and CRaf and, thereby, inhibits CRaf activation and subsequently CRaf-MEK-ERK signaling, which is critical to survival and proliferation of cancer cells (4). Flavaglines also directly inhibit another emerging target in oncology, the translation initiation factor eIF4A. In vivo data indicate that inhibition of eIF4A by flavaglines could overcome most of the resistance mechanisms arising in BRAF(V600)-metastatic melanoma (5). Flavaglines thus appear as appealing potential anticancer agents, warranting further investigations especially in the context of cancer depending on the MAP-kinase pathway. annonc;26/suppl_2/ii25-a/SA2MDV094F1F1sa2-MDV094F1FIGURE Anticancer mechanisms of flavaglines. (A) Inhibition of the activation of CRAF by Ras. (B, C) Translocation of AIF and caspase-12 to induce apoptosis. (D) Inhibition of eIF4A overcoming resistance to therapies targeting BRAF or MEK. PMID:25795853

  1. Current challenges for the early clinical development of anticancer drugs in the era of molecularly targeted agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Le Tourneau; Véronique Diéras; Patricia Tresca; Wulfran Cacheux; Xavier Paoletti

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of molecularly targeted agents in oncology has not only revolutionized the care of cancer patients, but also\\u000a changed the daily practice of medical oncologists. Molecularly targeted agents indeed often differ from traditional cytotoxic\\u000a agents by their administration schedules and routes, their toxicity profiles, and\\/or the assessment of their antitumor activity.\\u000a In addition, the observation that molecularly targeted agents

  2. Preclinical pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic models to predict synergistic effects of co-administered anti-cancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosalaram Goteti; C. Edwin Garner; Lucas Utley; Jing Dai; Susan Ashwell; Demetri T. Moustakas; Mithat Gönen; Gary K. Schwartz; Steven E. Kern; Sonya Zabludoff; Patrick J. Brassil

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic (PK\\/PD) models have been shown to be useful in predicting tumor growth rates in mouse xenografts.\\u000a We applied novel PK\\/PD models to the published anticancer combination therapies of tumor growth inhibition to simulate synergistic\\u000a changes in tumor growth rates. The parameters from the PK\\/PD model were further used to estimate clinical doses of the combination.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A PK\\/PD model was

  3. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Carbohydrate-Substituted Indenoisoquinoline Topoisomerase I Inhibitors and Improved Syntheses of the Experimental Anticancer Agents Indotecan (LMP400) and Indimitecan (LMP776)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate moieties were strategically transported from the indolocarbazole topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitor class to the indenoisoquinoline system in search of structurally novel and potent Top1 inhibitors. The syntheses and biological evaluation of 20 new indenoisoquinolines glycosylated with linear and cyclic sugar moieties are reported. Aromatic ring substitution with 2,3-dimethoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy or 3-nitro groups exerted strong effects on antiproliferative and Top1 inhibitory activities. While the length of the carbohydrate side chain clearly correlated with antiproliferative activity, the relationship between stereochemistry and biological activity was less clearly defined. Twelve of the new indenoisoquinolines exhibit Top1 inhibitory activity equal to or better than that of camptothecin. An advanced synthetic intermediate from this study was also used to efficiently prepare indotecan (LMP400) and indimitecan (LMP776), two anticancer agents currently under investigation in a Phase I clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health. PMID:24517248

  4. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their analogues as inhibitors of aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3: new lead compounds for the development of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gobec, Stanislav; Brozic, Petra; Rizner, Tea Lanisnik

    2005-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like indomethacin, flufenamic acid, and related compounds have been recently identified as potent inhibitors of AKR1C3. We report that some other NSAIDs (diclofenac and naproxen) also inhibit AKR1C3, with the IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. In order to obtain more information about the structure-activity relationship and to identify new leads, a series of compounds designed on the basis of NSAIDs were synthesized and screened on AKR1C3. The most active compounds were 2-[(2,2-diphenylacetyl)amino]benzoic acid 4 (IC(50)=11microM) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid 10 (IC(50)=0.68microM). These compounds represent promising starting points for the development of new anticancer agents. PMID:16183274

  5. Anti-cancer agents based on N-acyl-2, 3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b] quinoline derivatives and a method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gakh, Andrei; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. In particular, the invention relates to N-acyl derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolines having the structural Formula (I), ##STR00001## stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. The meaning of R1 is independently selected from H; C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl substituents; R2 is selected from C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl; substituted or non-substituted, fused or non-fused to substituted or non-substituted aromatic ring, aryl or heteroaryl groups. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  6. Discovery of (E)-3-((styrylsulfonyl)methyl)pyridine and (E)-2-((styrylsulfonyl)methyl)pyridine derivatives as anticancer agents: synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tiangong; Goh, Aik Wye; Yu, Mingfeng; Adams, Julian; Lam, Frankie; Teo, Theodosia; Li, Peng; Noll, Ben; Zhong, Longjin; Diab, Sarah; Chahrour, Osama; Hu, Anran; Abbas, Abdullahi Y; Liu, Xiangrui; Huang, Shiliang; Sumby, Christopher J; Milne, Robert; Midgley, Carol; Wang, Shudong

    2014-03-27

    ON01910.Na is a highly effective anticancer agent that induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Clinical studies with ON01910 in cancer patients have shown efficacy along with an impressive safety profile. While ON01910 is highly active against cancer cells, it has a low oral availability and requires continuous intravenous infusion or multiple gram doses to ensure sufficient drug exposure for biological activity in patients. We have identified two novel series of styrylsulfonyl-methylpyridines. Lead compounds 8, 9a, 18 and 19a are highly potent mitotic inhibitors and selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells. Impressively, these compounds possess excellent pharmaceutical properties and two lead drug candidates 9a and 18 demonstrated antitumor activities in animal models. PMID:24471873

  7. Cyclin-dependent kinase-2 as a target for cancer therapy: progress in the development of CDK2 inhibitors as anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Tahir Ali; Qian, Haiyan; Pan, Youlu; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) is a member of protein kinase family. It plays an important role in regulating various events of eukaryotic cell division cycle. Accumulated evidences indicated that over expression of CDK2 should cause the abnormal regulation of cell-cycle, which would be directly associated with hyperproliferation in cancer cells. Therefore, CDK2 was regarded as a potentially therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Knowledge of crystallography and availability of X-ray crystal structure of CDK2 have enabled us to understand the mode of CDK2 inhibition, which facilitated the development of numerous CDK2 inhibitors. Some of the CDK2 inhibitors were investigated clinically for their potential as anti-cancer agents. In this review, we present the structure, functions and activation of CDK2 by cyclin binding with special focus on recent advances in the development of different classes of CDK2 inhibitors. We also summarize different strategies to achieve subtype specificity either by targeting a binding pocket other than ATP, i.e. allosteric ligand binding site or by natural protein inhibitors capable to disrupt CDK2-cyclin complexes. It is possible to develop pharmacologically relevant cytotoxic agents by specifically inhibiting CDK2 activity with lesser toxicity than traditional chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25386824

  8. Recent trends in 1,2,3-Triazolo-nucleosides as promising anti-infective and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Raic-Malic, Silvana; Mescic, Andrijana

    2015-01-01

    The concept of click chemistry represented by the formation of the 1,2,3-triazole core has found wide application in drug discovery, particularly in the early discovery phases and the lead optimization process. 1,2,3-Triazoles ha ve attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their wide range of biological activities against various viruses, malignant cells, microorganisms and their inhibitory activities against several enzymes. This review emphasizes the recent advances on diverse and potent biological profiles of 1,2,3-triazolo-nucleosides, along with emerging application of click chemistry in their synthesis, and their perspective in the development of new bioactive chemical entities in the future. The work is primarily addressed to antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer potency of this important structural motifs in which the 1,2,3-triazole ring acts as a nucleobase surrogate or is linked to a nucleobase or a sugar/sugar mimic moiety. PMID:25723510

  9. Azide derivatized anticancer agents of Vitamin K 3: X-ray structural, DSC, resonance spectral and API studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badave, Kirti; Patil, Yogesh; Gonnade, Rajesh; Srinivas, Darbha; Dasgupta, Rajan; Khan, Ayesha; Rane, Sandhya

    2011-12-01

    Compound 1 [1-imino (acetyl hydrazino)-Vitamin K 3], displays valence tautomerically related electronic isomers as Form I and Form II. Form I exhibits 2D packing fragment with 1D ribbon chains of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and shows EPR silent features. While Form II is EPR active and exhibits biradical nature with double quantum transitions at g = 2.0040. 1H NMR of compound 2, [1-imino (hydrazino carboxylate)-Vitamin K 3] and Form II exhibit ? delocalization via resonance assisted H-bonding [RAHB] effect compared to Form I. Molecular interactions in Form I and II are visualized by DSC. The electronic structures of compounds 1 and 2 have been correlated to their API values by measuring anticancer activities, mitochondrial potentials and DNA shearing patterns. Form II and compound 2 indicate mitochondria mediated apoptosis (˜75% cell death) while Form I causes 35% cell death.

  10. The anti-cancer agent guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane: Ensuing energetic and oxidative stress implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L., E-mail: gilbertopardo@infomed.sld.cu [Centro de Estudio para las Investigaciones y Evaluaciones Biologicas, Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos, Universidad de La Habana, ave. 23 21425 e/214 and 222, La Coronela, La Lisa, CP 13600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Nunez-Figueredo, Yanier [Centro para las Investigaciones y Desarrollo de Medicamentos, Ave 26, No. 1605 Boyeros y Puentes Grandes, CP 10600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Tudella, Valeria G. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos, Universidad de La Habana, ave. 23 21425 e/214 and 222, La Coronela, La Lisa, CP 13600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Rodrigues, Fernando P.; Pestana, Cezar R. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Uyemura, Sergio A.; Leopoldino, Andreia M. [Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Alberici, Luciane C.; Curti, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 {mu}M) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mitochondria, isolated from rat liver. In HepG2 cells GA decreased viability, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted ATP and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In isolated rat-liver mitochondria GA promoted membrane fluidity increase, cyclosporine A/EGTA-insensitive membrane permeabilization, uncoupling (membrane potential dissipation/state 4 respiration rate increase), Ca{sup 2+} efflux, ATP depletion, NAD(P)H depletion/oxidation and ROS levels increase. All effects in cells, except mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, as well as NADPH depletion/oxidation and permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, were partly prevented by the a NAD(P)H regenerating substrate isocitrate. The results suggest the following sequence of events: 1) GA interaction with mitochondrial membrane promoting its permeabilization; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation; 3) NAD(P)H oxidation/depletion due to inability of membrane potential-sensitive NADP{sup +} transhydrogenase of sustaining its reduced state; 4) ROS accumulation inside mitochondria and cells; 5) additional mitochondrial membrane permeabilization due to ROS; and 6) ATP depletion. These GA actions are potentially implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds. - Graphical abstract: Guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane and induces cancer cell death Display Omitted Highlights: > We addressed the involvement of mitochondria in guttiferone (GA) toxicity toward cancer cells. > GA promoted membrane permeabilization, membrane potential dissipation, NAD(P)H depletion, ROS accumulation and ATP depletion. > These actions could be implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds.

  11. Topical treatment of genital warts in men, an open study of podophyllotoxin cream compared with solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Strand; R M Brinkeborn; A Siboulet

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a 0.15% and a 0.3% cream formulation of podophyllotoxin in comparison with the 0.5% solution in the treatment of condylomata acuminata and to compare the treatment modalities regarding side effects. DESIGN--The study was designed as an open randomised trial. Ninety male patients with signs of penile HPV infection, with either acuminate or papular lesions,

  12. Resistance to the microtubule inhibitor podophyllotoxin: selection and partial characterization of mutants in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S

    1981-01-01

    Stable mutants two- to fourfold more resistant to the microtubule inhibitor podophyllotoxin (PodRI) have been selected in a single step in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Mutants showing higher levels of resistance to the drug can be obtained in a second-step selection using the PodRI mutants (PodRII class). Prior treatment of cells with the mutagen ethylmethane sulfonate markedly enhanced the frequency of both PodRI and PodRII mutants in culture. The spontaneous rate of mutation of PodRI as determined by fluctuation analysis was found to be 1 - 2 x 10(-5) and 4 x 10(-7) mutations/cell/generation at 20 and 30 ng/ml podophyllotoxin, respectively. Somatic cell hybrids between PodRI x PodS and PodRII x PodS showed intermediate levels of resistance to the drug, indicating that the PodR phenotype behaves codominantly under these conditions. Cross-resistance studies with various PodRI and PodRII mutants show that they are not cross-resistant to other microtubule inhibitors, e.g., colchicine, colcemid, griseofulvin, vinblastin, that have been examined, or to a compound such as VP16-213, which is a podophyllotoxin derivative which lacks microtubule inhibitory activity. These results indicate that the lesion in PodR mutants is highly specific and probably does not involve a permeability alteration. PMID:7194518

  13. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target

    E-print Network

    Fedeles, Bogdan I.

    The antitumor agent 11? (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive ...

  14. Atypical fluoroquinolone gold(III) chelates as potential anticancer agents: relevance of DNA and protein interactions for their mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Gouvea, Ligiane R; Garcia, Luciene S; Lachter, Daniela R; Nunes, Paula Roberta; de Castro Pereira, Flávia; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P; Louro, Sônia R W; Barbeira, Paulo Jorge S; Teixeira, Letícia R

    2012-09-01

    Quinolones are known for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Gold(III) compounds constitute an emerging class of biologically active substances, of special interest as potential anticancer agents. In this work three gold(III) complexes of the fluoroquinolones antimicrobial agents norfloxacin (NOR), levofloxacin (LEVO) and sparfloxacin (SPAR) were prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, NOR, LEVO and SPAR act as bidentate neutral ligands bound to gold(III) through the nitrogen atoms of the piperazine ring, which is an unusual mode of coordination for this class of compounds. Two chloride ions occupy the remaining coordination sites. The cytotoxic activity of the fluoroquinolones and their gold(III) complexes was tested against the A20 (murine lymphoma), B16-F10 (murine melanoma) and K562 (human myeloid leukemia) tumor cell lines as well as the L919 (murine lung fibroblasts) and MCR-5 (human lung fibroblasts) normal cells lines. All complexes were more active than their corresponding free ligands. Complex [AuCl(2)(LEVO)]Cl was selected for DNA fragmentation and cell cycle analysis. Spectroscopic titration with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) showed that the complexes can bind weakly to CT DNA, probably by an external contact (electrostatic or groove binding). The complexes exhibit good binding propensity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) having relatively high binding constant values. PMID:22835721

  15. Utilization of microbial iron assimilation processes for the development of new antibiotics and inspiration for the design of new anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Helen; Xu, Yanping; Wu, Chunrui; Walz, Andrew J.; Vergne, Anne; Roosenberg, John M.; Moraski, Garrett; Minnick, Albert A.; McKee-Dolence, Julia; Hu, Jingdan; Fennell, Kelley; Dolence, E. Kurt; Dong, Li; Franzblau, Scott; Malouin, Francois; Möllmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes rapidly develop resistance to antibiotics. To keep ahead in the “microbial war”, extensive interdisciplinary research is needed. A primary cause of drug resistance is the overuse of antibiotics that can result in alteration of microbial permeability, alteration of drug target binding sites, induction of enzymes that destroy antibiotics (ie., beta-lactamase) and even induction of efflux mechanisms. A combination of chemical syntheses, microbiological and biochemical studies demonstrate that the known critical dependence of iron assimilation by microbes for growth and virulence can be exploited for the development of new approaches to antibiotic therapy. Iron recognition and active transport relies on the biosyntheses and use of microbe-selective iron-chelating compounds called siderophores. Our studies, and those of others, demonstrate that siderophores and analogs can be used for iron transport-mediated drug delivery (“Trojan Horse” antibiotics) and induction of iron limitation/starvation (Development of new agents to block iron assimilation). Recent extensions of the use of siderophores for the development of novel potent and selective anticancer agents are also described. PMID:19130268

  16. Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development †

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

    2014-01-01

    The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. PMID:24424355

  17. Redesigning the DNA-Targeted Chromophore in Platinum–Acridine Anticancer Agents: A Structure–Activity Relationship Study

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Liu, Fang; Bartenstein, Thomas F.; Haines, Laura G.; Levine, Keith E.; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Platinum–acridine hybrid agents show low-nanomolar potency in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but high systemic toxicity in vivo. To reduce the promiscuous genotoxicity of these agents and improve their pharmacological properties, a modular build–click–screen approach was used to evaluate a small library of twenty hybrid agents containing truncated and extended chromophores of varying basicities. Selected derivatives were resynthesized and tested in five NSCLC cell lines representing large cell, squamous cell, and adenocarcinomas. 7-Aminobenz[c]acridine was identified as a promising scaffold in a hybrid agent (P1–B1) that maintained submicromolar activity in several of the DNA-repair proficient and p53-mutant cancer models, while showing improved tolerability in mice by 32-fold compared to the parent platinum–acridine (P1–A1). The distribution and DNA/RNA adduct levels produced by the acridine- and benz[c]acridine-based analogues in NCI-H460 cells (confocal microscopy, ICP-MS), and their ability to bind G-quadruplex forming DNA sequences (CD spectroscopy, HR-ESMS) were studied. P1–B1 emerges as a less genotoxic, more tolerable, and potentially more target-selective hybrid agent than P1–A1. PMID:25302716

  18. Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex, a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Fuad; Azzam, Naiel; Fares, Basem; Larsen, Stig; Lindkaer-Jensen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Some cases of breast cancer are composed of clones of hormonal-independent growing cells, which do not respond to therapy. In the present study, the effect of Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex (BP-C1) on growth of human breast-cancer cells was tested. BP-C1 is a novel anti-cancer complex of benzene-poly-carboxylic acids with a very low concentration of cis-diammineplatinum (II) dichloride. Human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and T47D, were used. Cell viability was detected by XTT assay and apoptosis was detected by Flow Cytometry and by annexin V/FITC/PI assay. Caspases were detected by western blot analysis and gene expression was measured by using the Applied Biosystems® TaqMan® Array Plates. The results showed that exposure of the cells to BP-C1 for 48 h, significantly (P<0.001) reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and activated caspase 8 and caspace 9. Moreover, gene expression experiments indicated that BP-C1 increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (CASP8AP1, TNFRSF21, NFkB2, FADD, BCL10 and CASP8) and lowered the level of mRNA transcripts of inhibitory apoptotic genes (BCL2L11, BCL2L2 and XIAP. These findings may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of human cancer using BP-C1 analog. PMID:24523856

  19. An Ideal Selective Anti-Cancer Agent In Vitro: I - Tissue Culture Study of Human Lung Cancer Cells A549

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FATEN A. KHORSHID; SABAH S. MUSHREF; NAGWA T. HEFFNY

    2005-01-01

    Management of cancer is one of the challenging problems in medical practice as there are no available medical modalities that can se- lectively kill cancer cells without adverse effect on normal living cells or the functions of vital organs. Tissue culture of human lung cancer cells (A549) was used in studying the effect of agent, PM 701, to test its

  20. Improved clearance of radioiodinated hypericin as a targeted anticancer agent by using a duodenal drainage catheter in rats.

    PubMed

    Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Verbruggen, Alfons; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2013-12-01

    We sought to reduce the radioactive intestinal waste after intravenous injection of necrosis avid iodine-131-labeled hypericin in dual-targeting anticancer radiotherapy and to study its pharmacokinetics in rats using a newly designed catheter. Iodine-123-labeled hypericin was prepared with iodogen as oxidant and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. After iodine-123-labeled hypericin administration, duodenal juice was collected via a catheter from groups of rats (n?=?5) at intervals of 0-4, 4-8 or 20-24?h. The content was assessed by gamma-counting. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of iodine-123-labeled hypericin were investigated in rats without (n?=?5) and with continuous catheterization (n?=?5) for 9?h. After labeling, a high radiochemical yield was obtained with iodine-123-labeled hypericin (>95%), as confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the duodenal aspirate from animals with intermittent catheterization during 24?h, radioactivity accounted for 46% of the total with two peaks at 3?h and 8?h, suggesting enterohepatic circulation. Rats with 9?h of catheterization exhibited one peak representing 20% of the radioactivity. Major metabolites appeared to be conjugated iodine-123-labeled hypericin forms. In rats without and with catheter, iodine-123-labeled hypericin showed exponential elimination from plasma with no significant dehalogenation. Delayed iodine-123-labeled hypericin excretion, a higher maximum concentration (Cmax), larger area under concentration-time curve [AUC(0-?)] and a longer mean residence time were observed in non-catheterized animals (P?

  1. The cancer preventative agent resveratrol is converted to the anticancer agent piceatannol by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G A Potter; L H Patterson; E Wanogho; P J Perry; P C Butler; T Ijaz; K C Ruparelia; J H Lamb; P B Farmer; L A Stanley; M D Burke

    2002-01-01

    Resveratrol is a cancer preventative agent that is found in red wine. Piceatannol is a closely related stilbene that has antileukaemic activity and is also a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Piceatannol differs from resveratrol by having an additional aromatic hydroxy group. The enzyme CYP1B1 is overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumours and catalyses aromatic hydroxylation reactions. We report here

  2. CoMFA and CoMSIA studies of 1,2-dihydropyridine derivatives as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ismail; Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed A O; Hany, Marwa S; El-Sharif, Shaimaa A; El-Naggar, Mahmoud A M; Rashied, Rasha M H; Piazza, Gary A; Abadi, Ashraf H

    2012-05-01

    Taking advantage of our in-house experimental data on 3-cyano-2-imino-1, 2-dihydropyridine and 3-cyano-2- oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine derivatives as inhibitors of the growth of the human HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma tumor cell line, we have established a highly significant CoMFA and CoMSIA models (q2cv=0.70/0.639). The models were investigated to assure their stability and predictivity (r2pred=0.65/0.61) and successfully applied to design two new potential cell growth inhibitory agents with IC50s in the submicromolar range. PMID:22530888

  3. Two Case Reports of Resensitization to Previous Chemotherapy with the Novel Hypoxia-Activated Hypomethylating Anticancer Agent RRx-001 in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reid, T.; Dad, S.; Korn, R.; Oronsky, B.; Knox, S.; Scicinski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of chemoresistance is a persistent problem during the treatment of cancer. Although reversion or modification of acquired chemoresistance has been previously observed, no systematic exploration has been undertaken. Here, we report a case study of 2 male patients, 62 and 66 years old, both with histologically proven, radiologically progressing, extensively pretreated, metastatic and refractory (?2 conventional regimens and drug therapy) colorectal adenocarcinoma that was previously treated with FOLFIRI. The patients were resensitized to FOLFIRI after exposure to RRx-001 in the context of a phase-1 study. RRx-001 is a novel, hypomethylating and free-radical-inducing anticancer agent that activates nitrite reduction to NO under hypoxia and has an impact on epigenetic pathways. The repression of DNA methyltransferase 1 by RRx-001 may lead to demethylation and reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, leading to resensitization. These examples provide insight into a nascent strategy to improve the prognosis in heavily pretreated cancer patients and suggest routes for further exploration. PMID:24575021

  4. Elucidating the in vivo fate of nanocrystals using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model: a case study with the anticancer agent SNX-2112

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Dong; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Huailing; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Yifei; Wu, Baojian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction SNX-2112 is a promising anticancer agent but has poor solubility in both water and oil. In the study reported here, we aimed to develop a nanocrystal formulation for SNX-2112 and to determine the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the prepared nanocrystals. Methods Nanocrystals of SNX-2112 were prepared using the wet-media milling technique and characterized by particle size, differential scanning calorimetry, drug release, etc. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was undertaken to evaluate the drug’s disposition in rats following administration of drug cosolvent or nanocrystals. Results The optimized SNX-2112 nanocrystals (with poloxamer 188 as the stabilizer) were 203 nm in size with a zeta potential of ?11.6 mV. In addition, the nanocrystals showed a comparable release profile to the control (drug cosolvent). Further, the rat PBPK model incorporating the parameters of particulate uptake (into the liver and spleen) and of in vivo drug release was well fitted to the experimental data following administration of the drug nanocrystals. The results reveal that the nanocrystals rapidly released drug molecules in vivo, accounting for their cosolvent-like pharmacokinetic behaviors. Due to particulate uptake, drug accumulation in the liver and spleen was significant at the initial time points (within 1 hour). Conclusion The nanocrystals should be a good choice for the systemic delivery of the poorly soluble drug SNX-2112. Also, our study contributes to an improved understanding of the in vivo fate of nanocrystals.

  5. Integration-mediated prediction enrichment of quantitative model for Hsp90 inhibitors as anti-cancer agents: 3D-QSAR study.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kuldeep K; Singh, Supriya; Saxena, Anil K

    2011-05-01

    The present study describes a systematic 3D-QSAR study consisting of pharmacophore modeling, docking, and integration of ligand-based and structure-based drug design approaches, applied on a dataset of 72 Hsp90 inhibitors as anti-cancer agents. The best pharmacophore model, with one H-bond donor (HBD), one H-bond acceptor (HBA), one hydrophobic_aromatic (Hy_Ar), and two hydrophobic_aliphatic (Hy_Al) features, was developed using the Catalyst/HypoGen algorithm on a training set of 35 compounds. The model was further validated using test set, external set, Fisher's randomization method, and ability of the pharmacophoric features to complement the active site amino acids. Docking analysis was performed using Hsp90 chaperone (PDB-Id: 1uyf) along with water molecules reported to be crucial for binding and catalysis (Sgobba et al. ChemMedChem 4:1399-1409, 2009). Furthermore, an integration of the ligand-based as well as structure-based drug design approaches was done leading to the integrated model, which was found to be superior over the best pharmacophore model in terms of its predictive ability on internal [integrated model 2: R ((train)) = 0.954, R ((test)) = 0.888; Hypo-01: R ((train)) = 0.912 and R ((test)) = 0.819] as well as on external data set [integrated model 2: R ((ext.set)) = 0.801; Hypo-01: R ((ext.set)) = 0.604]. PMID:20740314

  6. Sulfur-substituted naphthalimides as photoactivatable anticancer agents: DNA interaction, fluorescence imaging, and phototoxic effects in cultured tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ingo; Xu, Yufang; Liu, Jianwen; Kokoschka, Malte; Harlos, Melanie; Sheldrick, William S; Qian, Xuhong

    2008-08-01

    A series of sulfur-substituted naphthalimides (1-5) was prepared and investigated as antitumor drugs. Initial DNA interaction studies (by the fluorescence quenching method, UV/vis and CD spectroscopy, thermal denaturation, topoisomerase Western blot analysis, and DNA photocleavage experiments) expectedly suggested the DNA and topoisomerase as main targets of the agents. Fluorescence spectroscopic and microscopic experiments indicated a significant sensitivity of the emission intensities of 3 and 5 to the cellular environment and confirmed the cellular uptake and biodistribution into cell compartments for 1-3 and 5. A comparative evaluation of the antiproliferative effects under different experimental setups (concerning drug exposure period and an additional short-time UV irradiation) revealed significant phototoxic effects for the environmentally sensitive compounds 3 and 5 and strongly suggested the further development of sulfur-substituted naphthalimides for potential use in photodynamic tumor therapy. PMID:18644732

  7. Design, synthesis and structural studies of meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts: potential anticancer agents against ‘human colon cancer’

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Benzimidazole derivatives are structurally bioisosteres of naturally occurring nucleotides, which makes them compatible with biopolymers of living systems. This property gives benzimidazole a biological and clinical importance. In the last decade, this class of compounds has been reported to possess anti-allergic, anti-diabatic, anti-HIV, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-mycobacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-protozoal, and anti-viral properties. The researchers are now interested to explore their potential as anti-cancer agents. In the present study, an effort was made to further explore this area of research. Furthermore, in order to increase the solubility and efficacy of these heterocycles, the interest is now shifted to the salts of these compounds. With this background, we planned to synthesize a series of meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts to assess their anti-proliferation efficacy on human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116). Results A number of N-alkylbenzimidazoles were synthesized by reactions of benzimidazole with alkyl halides (i-PrBr, PrBr, EthBr, Pent-2-ylBr, BuBr, BenzCl, HeptBr). The subsequent treatment of the resulting N-alkylbenzimidazoles with 1,3-(bromomethylene)benzene afforded corresponding bis-benzimidazolium salts. All synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques (Additional file 1: NMR & FT-IR) and microanalysis. Molecular structures of selected compounds were established through single crystal x-ray diffraction studies. All the compounds were assessed for their anti-proliferation test on human colorectal cancer cell line (HCT 116). Results showed that the compounds exhibited dose dependent cytotoxicity towards the colon cancer cells with IC50 ranges between 0.1 to 17.6 ?M. The anti-proliferation activity of all compounds was more pronounced than that of standard reference drug 5-flourouracil (IC50 =19.2 ?M). Conclusions All the synthesized bis-benzimidazolium salts showed potential anticancer activity. Out of them, some of these salts showed IC50 value as low as 0.1–0.2 ?M. Based on the results it can be concluded that, the bis-benzimidazolium salts could probably be the potential source of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22809051

  8. PT-ACRAMTU, a platinum–acridine anticancer agent, lengthens and aggregates, but does not stiffen or soften DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Samrat; Snyder, Matthew J.; Rosile, David; Binz, Kristen L.; Roll, Eric H.; Suryadi, Jimmy; Bierbach, Ulrich; Guthold, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the dose-dependent change in conformational and mechanical properties of DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU ([PtCl(en)(ACRAMTU-S)](NO3)2, (en = ethane-1,2-diamine, ACRAMTU = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea. PT-ACRAMTU is the parent drug of a family of nonclassical platinum-based agents that show potent activity in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Its acridine moiety intercalates between DNA bases, while the platinum group forms monoadducts with DNA bases. AFM images show that PT-ACRAMTU causes some DNA looping and aggregation at drug-to-base pair ratio (rb) of 0.1 and higher. Very significant lengthening of the DNA was observed with increasing doses of PT-ACRAMTU, and reached saturation at an rb of 0.15. At rb of 0.1, lengthening was 0.6 nm per drug molecule, which is more than one fully stretched base pair stack can accommodate, indicating that ACRAMTU also disturbs the stacking of neighboring base pair stacks. Analysis of the AFM images based on the worm-like chain (WLC) model showed that PT-ACRAMTU did not change the flexibility of (non-aggregated) DNA, despite the extreme lengthening. The persistence length of untreated DNA and DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU was in the range of 49 to 65 nm. Potential consequences of the perturbations caused by this agent for the recognition and processing of the DNA adducts it forms are discussed. PMID:23636685

  9. Using immunoadjuvant agent glycated chitosan to enhance anti-cancer stem like cell immunity induced by HIFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-L.; Chen, W.-R.; Liu, R.-S.; Yang, F.-Y.; Wang, C.-Y.; Lee, Y.-J.

    2013-02-01

    Thermal therapy is based on the observation that tumor cells are sensitive to increased temperature, which is important for tumor control. In this study, the high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system was used to simulate thermal therapy on breast cancer control in the small animal model. Additionally, the immunoadjuvant agent, so called glycated chitosan (GC), was used to enhance the immunological effects on tumor control. The bioluminescent imaging showed that tumor metastasis was apparently suppressed by a combined treatment using HIFU and GC, but not in HIFU or GC alone. Using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, lung metastasis of 4T1-3R tumor cells further agree the observations obtained from non-invasive in vivo imaging. We also found that plasma collected from mice treated with combined HIFU and GC could significantly suppress the viability of cultured 4T1 cells compared to untreated or single treated group. In summary, these results suggest that the HIFU therapy combined with GC can enhance the tumor immunogenicity and tumor control.

  10. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) modulators from natural products as anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Hye; Kim, Jinwoong; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2014-04-01

    Natural products are rich sources of gene modulators that may be useful in prevention and treatment of cancer. Recently, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) activated gene-1 (NAG-1) has been focused as a target of action against diverse cancers like colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and breast. A variety of natural agents have been reported to play a pivotal role in regulation of NAG-1 through multiple transcriptional mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to review the NAG-1 modulators derived from natural products including plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. Plant extracts belonging to the families of Fabaceae (Astragalus membranaceus), Ranunculaceae (Coptis chinensis), Menispermaceae (Coscinium fenestratum), Umbelliferae (Pleurospermum kamtschaticum), Lamiaceae (Marubium vulgare), and Rosaceae (Prunus serotina) increased the protein expression of NAG-1 in human colon cancer or hepatocarcinoma cells. Phytochemicals in the class of flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, and 2'-hydroxyflavanone), isoflavonoids (formononetin and genistein), catechins (epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate), stilbenoids (resveratrol and pinosylvin), phenolics (6-gingerol), phloroglucinols (rottlerin and aspidin PB), terpenoids (18 ?-glycyrrhetinic acid, platycodin D, pseudolaric acid B, and xanthorrhizol), alkaloids (berberine, capsaicin, and indole-3-carbinol), lignans (isochaihulactone), anthraquinones (damnacanthal), and allyl sulfides (diallyl disulfide) elicited NAG-1 overexpression in various cancer cells. Pectenotoxin-2 from marine organisms and prodigiosin and anisomycin from microorganisms were also reported as NAG-1 modulators. Several transcription factors including EGR-1, p53, ATF-3, Sp1 and PPAR? were involved in natural products-induced NAG-1 transcriptional signaling pathway. PMID:24530873

  11. QSAR modeling on benzo[c]phenanthridine analogues as topoisomerase I inhibitors and anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Thai, Khac-Minh; Bui, Quang-Huynh; Tran, Thanh-Dao; Huynh, Thi-Ngoc-Phuong

    2012-01-01

    Benzo[c]phenanthridine (BCP) derivatives were identified as topoisomerase I (TOP-I) targeting agents with pronounced antitumor activity. In this study, hologram-QSAR, 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR models were developed for BCPs on topoisomerase I inbibitory activity and cytotoxicity against seven tumor cell lines including RPMI8402, CPT-K5, P388, CPT45, KB3-1, KBV-1and KBH5.0. The hologram, 2D, and 3D-QSAR models were obtained with the square of correlation coefficient R² = 0.58-0.77, the square of the crossvalidation coefficient q² = 0.41-0.60 as well as the external set's square of predictive correlation coefficient r² = 0.5-0.80. Moreover, the assessment method based on reliability test with confidence level of 95% was used to validate the predictive power of QSAR models and to prevent over-fitting phenomenon of classical QSAR models. Our QSAR model could be applied to design new analogues of BCPs with higher antitumor and topoisomerase I inhibitory activity. PMID:22580401

  12. Human ovarian cancer multicellular spheroids: a model for testing antiproliferation activity of Devil's club (Oplopanax horridus) and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Tai, Joseph; Cheung, Susan S C; Hasman, David

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to employ an ovarian cancer Ovcar 10 three-dimensional model to assess the antiproliferation activity of the medicinal plant Devil's club, Oplopanax horridus, and its active compound, alone and in combination, with chemotherapeutic agents compared to Ovcar 10 two-dimensional cells grown as monolayer cells. Ovcar 10 three-dimensional spheroids were prepared with a rotary cell culture system. Cell counting kit-8 assessed the antiproliferation activity. Apoptosis-related gene expression in three-dimensional spheroids and two- dimensional cells was analyzed with an apoptosis antibody array. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle. Ovcar 10 cells formed compact three-dimensional spheroids after 5 days of culture in a rotary culture system. Ovcar 10 three-dimensional spheroids were significantly more resistant to killing by Devil's club extract, its active compound alone, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel, but not cisplatin compared to two-dimensional cells, with IC50 levels closer to that observed in vivo. Devil's club extract and its active compound alone significantly enhanced the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin and gemcitabine at some concentrations, but did not affect the activity of paclitaxel. A number of apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed in three-dimensional spheroids, two-dimensional cells, and cells treated with Devil's club extract compared to untreated controls. In three-dimensional spheroids, the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase was slightly increased and the S phase was slightly decreased compared to two-dimensional cells. Ovcar 10 cells in three-dimensional spheroids altered the expression of multiple apoptosis-related genes, which may have contributed to the increased resistance of the cells to some drugs. PMID:24922275

  13. Carboxymethylcellulose-tetrahydrocurcumin conjugates for colon-specific delivery of a novel anti-cancer agent, 4-amino tetrahydrocurcumin.

    PubMed

    Plyduang, Thipapun; Lomlim, Luelak; Yuenyongsawad, Supreeya; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2014-10-01

    Several curcumin derivatives are now becoming increasingly of interest because of their bioactive attributes, especially their action as antioxidants and anti-carcinogenic activities. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), an active metabolite of curcumin, was selected to be a proper starting material for the work presented here as it is stable in physiological pH and has the typical pharmacological properties of curcumin. We have now reported that novel synthesized water-soluble polymeric macromolecule prodrugs can specifically deliver the drug to the colon. To study the drug loading and drug release, THC was conjugated with a hydrophilic polymer, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with the degree of substitution (DS) values of 0.7 and 1.2. THC was also attached to two different spacers including p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) via an azo bond that was cleaved by the azoreductase activities of colonic bacteria. The novel active molecule, 4-amino-THC, was readily released from the conjugates in the colon (>62% within 24h) with only very small amounts released in the upper GI tract (<12% over 12h). The polymer conjugates showed chemical stability at various pH values along the gastrointestinal tract and increased water solubility of up to 5mg/mL. 4-Amino-THC demonstrated cytotoxic ability against the human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT-29) with an IC50 of 28.67 ± 1.01 ?g/mL, and even greater selectivity (? 4 folds) to inhibit HT-29 cells than to normal human colon epithelial cell lines while curcumin was a non-selective agent against both cell lines. Our study has demonstrated that the use of THC-CMC conjugates may be a promising colon-specific drug delivery system with its sustained release in the colon to be an effective treatment for colonic cancer. PMID:24859389

  14. Biological evaluation of morin and its new oxovanadium(IV) complex as antioxidant and specific anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Naso, Luciana G; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Etcheverry, Susana B; Valcarcel, María; Roura, Meritxell; Salado, Clarisa; Ferrer, Evelina G; Williams, Patricia A M

    2013-11-25

    It is known that flavonoids possess, among others, antioxidant and antitumoral properties that depend on their molecular structure. The central objective if this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of the flavonol morin and its new oxovanadium(IV) complex (VOmor) that was synthesized in order to modify the morin chemical structure. Two osteoblast (UMR106 and MC3T3E1), two breast tumor (T47D and SKBR3) and breast epithelial cell lines in culture were used for the antitumoral determinations. Additionally, a comparative study of their antioxidant capacities using different radicals (DPPH, ABTS(+), OH, O2(-), ROO) was performed. Selected mechanisms of action were studied using the breast cancer cell lines. Results obtained show that morin and its complex behaved as good antioxidant agents for some of the radicals and that the complexation improved the behavior with respect to OH and O2(-) radicals being morin more effective as ROO scavenger. A considerable variation in sensitivity was observed in the breast cancer cells but non-specificity was found for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Moreover, the compounds did not affect the normal proliferation of the breast epithelial mammal cells. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that the complex did not generate reactive oxygen species in the cells (confirming the in vitro studies) and did not produce any damage of DNA. The plasmatic membrane was observed to be damaged only in the SKBR3 cell line. In contrast, the perturbation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of caspase 3/7 for the breast tumor cells revealed an apoptotic cell death process. All these results collectively suggested that VOmor complex could serve as promising pharmacologically active substance against breast cancer treatment. PMID:24125835

  15. Artemisinin-derived dimer phosphate esters as potent anti-cytomegalovirus (anti-CMV) and anti-cancer agents: a structure-activity study.

    PubMed

    Mott, Bryan T; He, Ran; Chen, Xiaochun; Fox, Jennifer M; Civin, Curt I; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Posner, Gary H

    2013-07-01

    We recently reported the anti-cancer and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity of artemisinin-derived trioxane diphenylphosphate dimer 838. To probe the relationship between chemical structure and anti-CMV and anti-cancer activities, we now report synthesis and evaluation of a series of eight new dimer phosphate ester analogs of 838. This series of novel molecules was screened against human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) infected with CMV and against the human Jurkat T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. This SAR study confirms the very high anti-CMV and anti-cancer potencies of dimer diphenyl phosphate ester 838 without its being toxic to normal cells. PMID:23673218

  16. Artemisinin-Derived Dimer Phosphate Esters as Potent Anti-Cytomegalovirus (Anti-CMV) and Anti-Cancer Agents: A Structure-Activity Study

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Bryan T.; He, Ran; Chen, Xiaochun; Fox, Jennifer M.; Civin, Curt I.; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Posner, Gary H.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported the anti-cancer and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity of artemisinin-derived trioxane diphenylphosphate dimer 838. To probe the relationship between chemical structure and anti-CMV and anti-cancer activities, we now report synthesis and evaluation of a series of eight new dimer phosphate ester analogs of 838. This series of novel molecules was screened against human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) infected with CMV and against the human Jurkat T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. This SAR study confirms the very high anti-CMV and anti-cancer potencies of dimer diphenyl phosphate ester 838 without its being toxic to normal cells. PMID:23673218

  17. Pharmacogenomics: road to anticancer therapeutics nirvana?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apurva A Desai; Federico Innocenti; Mark J Ratain

    2003-01-01

    Interindividual differences in the toxicity and response to anticancer therapies are currently observed for essentially all available treatment regimens. Such ‘unpredictable’ drug responses are particularly dangerous in the context of anticancer agents that have narrow therapeutic indices. Pharmacogenomics attempts to elucidate the inherited basis of interindividual differences in drug response, with the eventual goal of minimizing such variability through the

  18. A quantitative LC-MS/MS method for determination of SP-141, a novel pyrido[b]indole anticancer agent, and its application to a mouse PK study.

    PubMed

    Nag, Subhasree; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Patil, Shivaputra; Deokar, Hemantkumar; Buolamwini, John K; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, a specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of SP-141, a novel pyrido[b]indole anticancer agent. After a liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane-dichloromethane-2-propanol (20:10:1, v/v/v) mixture, the analyte was separated on a Kinetex C18 column (50×2.1mm, 2.6?m) with mobile phases comprising of water (0.1% formic acid, v/v) and acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The test compound (SP-141) and the internal standard (SP-157) were analyzed in the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the mass transitions m/z 325.1 ? 282.0. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.648-162ng/mL with coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.999 in mouse plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 0.648ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day assay precisions (coefficient of variation, %CV) were less than 4.2% and accuracies (relative error, %RE) ranged from -6.1% to 2.1%. The extraction recoveries were between 97.1 and 103.1% and the relative matrix effect was minimal. In addition, SP-141 was found to be stable in the plasma after three freeze-thaw cycles, at 37°C and 4°C for 24h, and at -80°C for 4 weeks. It was also stable in the stock solution at room temperature for 24h and after preparation in the autosampler for 36h. The validated method was successfully applied to an initial pharmacokinetic study of SP-141 in CD-1 mice following intraperitoneal and intravenous administrations. PMID:25195025

  19. Preparation, characterization, and anti-tumor property of podophyllotoxin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R. R.; Qin, L. L.; Wang, M.; Wu, S. M.; Wang, S. L.; Zhang, R.; Liu, Z. X.; Sun, X. Y.; Yao, S. D.

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to develop an alternative formulation of podophyllotoxin suitable for drug release and delivery, podophyllotoxin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (PPT-SLNs) were constructed, characterized and examined for in vitro cytotoxicity and tumor inhibition. The SLNs were prepared by using a solvent emulsification-evaporation method, and their size was around 50 nm. TEM detection showed that the SLNs were homogeneous and spherical in shape, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement revealed a new conformation of PPT-SLNs. An in vitro drug release study showed that PPT was released from the SLNs in a slow but time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the treatment of 293T and HeLa cells with PPT-SLNs demonstrated that PPT-SLNs were less toxic to normal cells and more effective in anti-tumor potency compared with unconjugated PPT. A colony forming efficiency assay showed an effective long-term cancer growth suppression of PPT-SLNs; in addition, they can also enhance the apoptotic and cellular uptake processes on tumor cells compared with PPT. These results collectively demonstrated that this SLN formulation has a potential application as an alternative delivery system for anti-tumor drugs.

  20. Anticancer Studies of Aqueous Extract of Roots and Leaves of Pandanus Odoratissimus f. ferreus (Y. Kimura) Hatus: An In Vitro Approach.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gunti Gowtham; Varghese, Hyma Sara; Kotagiri, Sarita; Vrushabendra Swamy, B M; Swamy, Archana; Pathan, Rafi Khan

    2014-10-01

    A number of medicinal plant extracts are being used against various diseases in different systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha, but only a few of them have been scientifically explored. The objective of the present study was to explore the dose-dependent in vitro anticancer effects of the extracts of Pandanus odoratissimus whose scientific documentation as an anticancer agent is lacking despite being used traditionally. The dried parts of roots and leaves were extracted with methanol (MEPO) and water (AEPO). The extracts were then subjected to in vitro cytotoxic and antimitotic screening by brine shrimp lethality assay and onion root tip method, respectively. Further, the behavior of the extracts on calu-6 (non-small cell lung cancer cell lines), PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and WI (lung fibroblast cell lines) was studied using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay followed by flow cytometric analysis on calu-6 cell lines. AEPO showed significant cytotoxic and antimitotic activities. It showed 100% lethality of brine shrimps at 80 ?g/ml and an LC50 of 33.33 ?g/ml, which was eightfold higher than that of synthetic standard podophyllotoxin (4.16 ?g/ml). AEPO at 10 mg/ml concentration showed significant antimitotic activity by showing 3% mitotic index. which was more than that of standard cyclophosphamide with 4% mitotic index in comparison to control. There was a significant reduction in cell proliferation of calu-6 cells, ranging from 56 to 35%, after 24-48 h of treatment with 200 ?g/ml (P < 0.001) of AEPO, while AEPO remained unaffected on PBMC and WI-38 cel lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed that AEPO at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml significantly increased the number of cells in sub G0-G1 phase, indicating the cells entering in to apoptotic phase. These results suggest that aqueous extract of P. odoratissimus possesses better anticancer activity. The plant has the potential to be used in anticancer therapy, and this study scientifically validated the folklore use of this plant. PMID:25379472

  1. Anticancer Studies of Aqueous Extract of Roots and Leaves of Pandanus Odoratissimus f. ferreus (Y. Kimura) Hatus: An In Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Gunti Gowtham; Varghese, Hyma Sara; Kotagiri, Sarita; Vrushabendra Swamy, B. M.; Swamy, Archana; Pathan, Rafi Khan

    2014-01-01

    A number of medicinal plant extracts are being used against various diseases in different systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha, but only a few of them have been scientifically explored. The objective of the present study was to explore the dose-dependent in vitro anticancer effects of the extracts of Pandanus odoratissimus whose scientific documentation as an anticancer agent is lacking despite being used traditionally. The dried parts of roots and leaves were extracted with methanol (MEPO) and water (AEPO). The extracts were then subjected to in vitro cytotoxic and antimitotic screening by brine shrimp lethality assay and onion root tip method, respectively. Further, the behavior of the extracts on calu-6 (non-small cell lung cancer cell lines), PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and WI (lung fibroblast cell lines) was studied using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay followed by flow cytometric analysis on calu-6 cell lines. AEPO showed significant cytotoxic and antimitotic activities. It showed 100% lethality of brine shrimps at 80 ?g/ml and an LC50 of 33.33 ?g/ml, which was eightfold higher than that of synthetic standard podophyllotoxin (4.16 ?g/ml). AEPO at 10 mg/ml concentration showed significant antimitotic activity by showing 3% mitotic index. which was more than that of standard cyclophosphamide with 4% mitotic index in comparison to control. There was a significant reduction in cell proliferation of calu-6 cells, ranging from 56 to 35%, after 24-48 h of treatment with 200 ?g/ml (P < 0.001) of AEPO, while AEPO remained unaffected on PBMC and WI-38 cel lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed that AEPO at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml significantly increased the number of cells in sub G0–G1 phase, indicating the cells entering in to apoptotic phase. These results suggest that aqueous extract of P. odoratissimus possesses better anticancer activity. The plant has the potential to be used in anticancer therapy, and this study scientifically validated the folklore use of this plant. PMID:25379472

  2. Facile synthesis of new 4-aza-podophyllotoxin analogs via microwave-assisted multi-component reactions and evaluation of their cytotoxic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Shi; Xiao-Ning Zeng; Ge Zhang; Ning Ma; Bo Jiang; Shujiang Tu

    2011-01-01

    A series of new 4-aza-podophyllotoxin analogs containing thiazole unit were synthesized via multi-component reactions of aldehydes, tetronic acid and 2-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-5-amine under microwave irradiation. The method not only provides a valuable tool in design and synthesis of new 4-aza-podophyllotoxin analogs but also has the advantages of atom-economy, environmental-friendliness, good yields and operational simplicity. More importantly, the preliminary evaluation on the cytotoxic

  3. Genetic and Pharmacological Screens Converge in Identifying FLIP, BCL2, and IAP Proteins as Key Regulators of Sensitivity to the TRAIL-Inducing Anticancer Agent ONC201/TIC10.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joshua E; Prabhu, Varun V; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, A Pieter J; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T; Fritz, Jennifer L; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-04-15

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small-molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway-inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 silencing did not affect MAPK signaling in the presence or absence of ONC201, but instead reduced expression of the antiapoptotic proteins FLIP, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. In parallel to this work, we also conducted a synergy screen in which ONC201 was combined with approved small-molecule anticancer drugs. In multiple cancer cell populations, ONC201 synergized with diverse drug classes, including the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. Notably, combining ONC201 and sorafenib led to synergistic induction of TRAIL and its receptor DR5 along with a potent induction of cell death. In a mouse xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma, we demonstrated that ONC201 and sorafenib cooperatively and safely triggered tumor regressions. Overall, our results established a set of determinants for ONC201 sensitivity that may predict therapeutic response, particularly in settings of sorafenib cotreatment to enhance anticancer responses. Cancer Res; 75(8); 1668-74. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25681273

  4. Anticancer chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This document examines chemotherapeutic agents for use in veterinary oncology. It lists some of the most common categories of chemotherapeutic drugs, such as alkylating agents and corticosteroids. For each category, the paper lists some example drugs, gives their mode of action, tumors usually susceptible to the drug, and common side effects. A brief discussion of mechanisms of drug resistance is also provided. (MHB)

  5. Production of podophyllotoxin from roots and plantlets of Hyptis suaveolens cultivated in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Velóz, Rafael A.; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyptis suaveolens was an important source of food and medicines in pre-hispanic M?xico and is actually used popularly to treat respiratory and skin diseases, fever, pain, and cramps, between other ailments. In 2008 the presence of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) was reported in this plant. Objective: To establish in vitro cultures of H. suaveolens able to produce PTOX. Materials and Methods: Explants of H. suaveolens were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of the phytohormones 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and kinetin (Kin), in order to induce the production of podophyllotoxin. Root cultures without hormones were also established and the quantification of PTOX was performed by HPLC analysis. Results: The presence of growth regulators during in vitro cultivation of H. suaveolens, provoked morphological variations in explants, and induced the accumulation of different levels of PTOX. Roots grown without phytohormones accumulated PTOX at 0.013% dry weight (DW), while in three of the callus cultures cell lines growing together with roots, PTOX accumulated at concentrations of 0.003, 0.005 and 0.006% DW when NAA was combined with either Kin or BAP. In wild plant material PTOX was present in trace amounts in the aerial parts, while in the roots it was found at 0.005% DW. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that although it is possible to obtain PTOX in a variety of in vitro cultures of H. suaveolens, in vitro roots grown without the addition of growth regulators were better producers of PTOX. PMID:23798883

  6. Simultaneous determination of the novel thiosemicarbazone anti-cancer agent, Bp4eT, and its main phase I metabolites in plasma: application to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Stariat, Ján; Suprunová, Vlasta; Roh, Jaroslav; Šesták, Vít; Eisner, Tomáš; Filipský, Tomáš; Mlad?nka, P?emysl; Nobilis, Milan; Šim?nek, Tomáš; Klimeš, Ji?í; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R; Kova?íková, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Novel thiosemicarbazone metal chelators are extensively studied anti-cancer agents with marked and selective activity against a wide variety of cancer cells, as well as human tumor xenografts in mice. This study describes the first validated LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 2-benzoylpyridine 4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Bp4eT) and its main metabolites (E/Z isomers of the semicarbazone structure, M1-E and M1-Z, and the amidrazone metabolite, M2) in plasma. Separation was achieved using a C18 column with ammonium formate/acetonitrile mixture as the mobile phase. Plasma samples were treated using solid-phase extraction on 96-well plates. This method was validated over the concentration range of 0.18-2.80 ?M for Bp4eT, 0.02-0.37 ?M for both M1-E and M1-Z, and 0.10-1.60 ?M for M2. This methodology was applied to the analysis of samples from in vivo experiments, allowing for the concentration-time profile to be simultaneously assessed for the parent drug and its metabolites. The current study addresses the lack of knowledge regarding the quantitative analysis of thiosemicarbazone anti-cancer drugs and their metabolites in plasma and provides the first pharmacokinetic data on a lead compound of this class. PMID:24254882

  7. Metformin may function as anti-cancer agent via targeting cancer stem cells: the potential biological significance of tumor-associated miRNAs in breast and pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bin; Azmi, Asfar S; Ali, Shadan; Zaiem, Feras; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2014-06-01

    Metformin is one of the most used diabetic drugs for the management of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) in the world. Increased numbers of epidemiological and clinical studies have provided convincing evidence supporting the role of metformin in the development and progression of a variety of human tumors including breast and pancreatic cancer. Substantial pre-clinical evidence from in vitro and in vivo experimental studies strongly suggests that metformin has an anti-cancer activity mediated through the regulation of several cell signaling pathways including activation of AMP kinase (AMPK), and other direct and indirect mechanisms; however, the detailed mechanism(s) has not yet been fully understood. The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has gained significant attention in recent years due its identification and defining its clinical implications in many different tumors including breast cancer and pancreatic cancer. In this review, we will discuss the protective role of metformin in the development of breast and pancreatic cancers. We will further discuss the role of metformin as an anti-cancer agent, which is in part mediated through targeting CSCs. Finally, we will discuss the potential role of metformin in the modulation of tumor-associated or CSC-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) as part of the novel mechanism of action of metformin in the development and progression of breast and pancreatic cancers. PMID:25333034

  8. Increased expression of the major heat shock protein Hsp72 in human prostate carcinoma cells is dispensable for their viability but confers resistance to a variety of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gabai, Vladimir L; Budagova, Karine R; Sherman, Michael Y

    2005-05-01

    The major heat shock protein Hsp72 is expressed at high levels in various types of cancer. Here we attempt to clarify the role of Hsp72 in prostate cancer cells by studying the effects of specific downregulation of this protein using siRNA and antisense RNA approaches. Contrary to previous reports, specific depletion of Hsp72 did not reduce viability of the prostate carcinoma cell lines PC-3 and DU-145. However, even short-term downregulation of Hsp72 in these cells made them more sensitive to hyperthermia, inhibitors of proteasome and Hsp90, and tumor necrosis factor. Interestingly, prolonged downregulation of Hsp72 in PC-3 cells over 3 weeks aggravated these effects, as well as enhanced the sensitivity of cells to oxidative stress, radiation, cis-platinum, vinblastin and taxol. The increased sensitivity to the anticancer agents was due to increased apoptosis, as well as other types of cell death, which resulted in the loss of clonogenic survival. Prolonged downregulation of Hsp72 led to severe suppression of the major survival pathways, ERK and NF-kappaB, which may be responsible for enhanced sensitivity of prostate carcinoma cells to a variety of anticancer treatments, as well as reduction of the cell's capability of forming colonies in soft agar. PMID:15735699

  9. Facile synthesis of new 4-aza-podophyllotoxin analogs via microwave-assisted multi-component reactions and evaluation of their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Ge; Ma, Ning; Jiang, Bo; Tu, Shujiang

    2011-12-01

    A series of new 4-aza-podophyllotoxin analogs containing thiazole unit were synthesized via multi-component reactions of aldehydes, tetronic acid and 2-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-5-amine under microwave irradiation. The method not only provides a valuable tool in design and synthesis of new 4-aza-podophyllotoxin analogs but also has the advantages of atom-economy, environmental-friendliness, good yields and operational simplicity. More importantly, the preliminary evaluation on the cytotoxic activity of this type of new 4-aza-podophyllotoxin analogs has resulted in the finding of several compounds with potent and efficacious cytotoxicity to three carcinoma cell lines M14, MCF7 and SW1116. PMID:22004717

  10. Tubulins - the target for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vindya, N G; Sharma, Nishant; Yadav, Mukesh; Ethiraj, K R

    2015-01-01

    Tubulin has picked up great focus as a major target in drug discovery and consequently, tubulin inhibitors have pulling in a considerable attention as anticancer agents. Numerable naturally occurring agents have focused on tubulin system act as an imperative target of cancer chemotherapy. Substantial number of tubulin inhibitors has been discovered so far and these agents are classified as indicated by their interaction. They are colchicine site binder, vinca- alkaloid related drugs and those interacting with the Taxol binding site and functioning as stabilising agents. We review the recent advances in the advancement of tubulin interfering agents and will render the current trend in the improvement of tubulin inhibitors as anticancer agents. PMID:25579568

  11. Utility of L-norephedrine in the semisynthesis of novel thiourea and thiazolidine derivatives as a new class of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mostafa M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Alsaid, Mansour S

    2014-01-01

    The natural alkaloid 1-norephedrine 1 was utlized in the synthesis of some novel thiourea derivatives 2, 5 and thiazolidinones 4a,b and 6, 7. Structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectral data. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for anticancer activity against the human breast (MCF-7), human liver (HEPG2) and human colon (HCT116) cancer cell lines. Thiazolidinone derivative 7 was the most active against all the cell lines with values IC50 = 2.60, 2.80 and 2.60 microg/mL compared with doxorubicin (IC50 = 5.40, 2.97 and 5.26 microg/mL). Thiazolidinone derivative 6 exhibited higher activity with IC50 value (3.20 microg/mL) against HCT116 when compared with doxorubicin with IC50 value (5.26 microg/mL) as positive control. PMID:25272887

  12. Pharmacogenomics: road to anticancer therapeutics nirvana?

    PubMed

    Desai, Apurva A; Innocenti, Federico; Ratain, Mark J

    2003-09-29

    Interindividual differences in the toxicity and response to anticancer therapies are currently observed for essentially all available treatment regimens. Such 'unpredictable' drug responses are particularly dangerous in the context of anticancer agents that have narrow therapeutic indices. Pharmacogenomics attempts to elucidate the inherited basis of interindividual differences in drug response, with the eventual goal of minimizing such variability through the use of 'individualized' treatments. There are several emerging examples of genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes, DNA repair genes and drug targets that have been shown to influence the toxicity and efficacy of anticancer treatment. This review discusses the role of genetic variants of UGT1A1, TS and EGFR to exemplify the potential impact of phramacogenomics on the field of anticancer therapeutics. PMID:14528287

  13. An efficient synthesis of [1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]thieno[3,4-b]quinolin-8(5H)-ones as novel thiazapodophyllotoxin analogues with potential anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Tuanjie; Lu, Ting; Yu, Chenxia; Yao, Changsheng

    2015-04-01

    A catalyst-free synthesis of 6,9-dihydro-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]thieno[3,4-b]quinolin-8(5H)-ones as novel analogues of podophyllotoxins was developed by a three-component reaction of aldehydes, ethyl 2,4-dioxotetrahydrothiophene-3-carboxylate and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)aniline. This methodology not only provides new chemical library for the screening of anticancer activity, but also features excellent isolated yields, short reaction time, simple work up procedure and little environmental impact. PMID:25759030

  14. New anticancer strategies targeting HIF-1.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Eun-Jin; Chun, Yang-Sook; Park, Jong-Wan

    2004-09-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which is present at high levels in human tumors, plays crucial roles in tumor promotion by up-regulating its target genes, which are involved in anaerobic energy metabolism, angiogenesis, cell survival, cell invasion, and drug resistance. Therefore, it is apparent that the inhibition of HIF-1 activity may be a strategy for treating cancer. Recently, many efforts to develop new HIF-1-targeting agents have been made by both academic and pharmaceutical industry laboratories. The future success of these efforts will be a new class of HIF-1-targeting anticancer agents, which would improve the prognoses of many cancer patients. This review focuses on the potential of HIF-1 as a target molecule for anticancer therapy, and on possible strategies to inhibit HIF-1 activity. In addition, we introduce YC-1 as a new anti-HIF-1, anticancer agent. Although YC-1 was originally developed as a potential therapeutic agent for thrombosis and hypertension, recent studies demonstrated that YC-1 suppressed HIF-1 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cancer cells. Moreover, it halted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice without serious toxicity during the treatment period. Thus, we propose that YC-1 is a good lead compound for the development of new anti-HIF-1, anticancer agents. PMID:15313402

  15. A highly tumor-targeted nanoparticle of podophyllotoxin penetrated tumor core and regressed multidrug resistant tumors.

    PubMed

    Roy, Aniruddha; Ernsting, Mark J; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2015-06-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) exhibited significant activity against P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cell lines; however, due to its poor solubility and high toxicity, PPT cannot be dosed systemically, preventing its clinical use for MDR cancer. We developed a nanoparticle dosage form of PPT by covalently conjugating PPT and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with acetylated carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Ac) using one-pot esterification chemistry. The polymer conjugates self-assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) of variable sizes (20-120 nm) depending on the PPT-to-PEG molar ratio (2-20). The conjugate with a low PPT/PEG molar ratio of 2 yielded NPs with a mean diameter of 20 nm and released PPT at ?5%/day in serum, while conjugates with increased PPT/PEG ratios (5 and 20) produced bigger particles (30 nm and 120 nm respectively) that displayed slower drug release (?2.5%/day and ?1%/day respectively). The 20 nm particles exhibited 2- to 5-fold enhanced cell killing potency and 5- to 20-fold increased tumor delivery compared to the larger NPs. The biodistribution of the 20 nm PPT-NPs was highly selective to the tumor with 8-fold higher accumulation than all other examined tissues, while the larger PPT-NPs (30 and 120 nm) exhibited increased liver uptake. Within the tumor, >90% of the 20 nm PPT-NPs penetrated to the hypovascular core, while the larger particles were largely restricted in the hypervascular periphery. The 20 nm PPT-NPs displayed significantly improved efficacy against MDR tumors in mice compared to the larger PPT-NPs, native PPT and the standard taxane chemotherapies, with minimal toxicity. PMID:25818440

  16. Proteins differentially expressed in elicited cell suspension culture of Podophyllum hexandrum with enhanced podophyllotoxin content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Podophyllotoxin (PTOX), the precursor for semi-synthesis of cancer therapeutics like etoposide, teniposide and etophos, is primarily obtained from an endangered medicinal herb, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. PTOX, a lignan is biosynthetically derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the P. hexandrum cell proteome potentially related to PTOX accumulation in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation. High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by colloidal Coomassie staining and mass spectrometric analysis was used to detect statistically significant changes in cell’s proteome. Result The HPLC analysis showed approximately 7–8 fold change in accumulation of PTOX, in the 12day old cell suspension culture (i.e. after 9days of elicitation) elicited with 100??M MeJA as compared to the control. Using 2-DE a total of 233 spots was detected, out of which 105 spots were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS/MS. Data were subjected to functional annotation from a biological point of view through KEGG. The phenylpropanoid and monolignol pathway enzymes were identified, amongst these, chalcone synthase, polyphenol oxidase, caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases, caffeic acid-O-methyl transferase etc. are noted as important. The relation of other differentially accumulated proteins with varied effects caused by elicitors on P. hexandrum cells namely stress and defense related protein, transcription and DNA replication and signaling are also discussed. Conclusions Elicitor-induced PTOX accumulation in P. hexandrum cell cultures provides a responsive model system to profile modulations in proteins related to phenylpropanoid/monolignol biosynthesis and other defense responses. Present findings form a baseline for future investigation on a non-sequenced medicinal herb P. hexandrum at molecular level. PMID:22621772

  17. Diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside obtained as a new anticancer agent from Dioscorea futschauensis induces apoptosis on human colon carcinoma HCT-15 cells via mitochondria-controlled apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, San-Long; Cai, Bing; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2004-06-01

    Diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DRG) is a well-known pentacyclic triterpene glycoside newly isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea futschauensis R. Kunth (Dioscoreaceae) by our group. In the present work, the inhibitory effect of DRG on the cell proliferation of human cancer cell lines was examined to reveal for the first time that DRG shows stronger anticancer activity than that of the positive control cisplatin. DRG inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells, A431, A2780, A549, K562, and HCT-15, with IC50 (micromol L(-1)) values of 9.33 +/- 0.22, 18.7 +/- 0.16, 9.98 +/- 0.38, 6.44 +/- 0.10, and 5.86 +/- 0.14 respectively. It was then found, by morphological observation, "DNA ladder" detection and flow cytometric analysis, that DRG exerts its anticancer effect through inducing apoptosis on HCT-15 cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that DRG triggers a mitochondria-controlled apoptotic pathway to induce apoptosis on HCT-15 cells, which involves the reduction of the mitochondrial potential (deltapsim), the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and the down-regulation of the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression level. The present results reasonably suggest that regulating the balance of Bcl-2/Bax expression level plays a key role in the DRG-induced apoptosis. Such findings provide novel knowledge to elucidate the biological properties of DRG, even though DRG was discovered early in the late 1960s. These results suggest that DRG may be a good candidate as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat human colon carcinoma. PMID:15008458

  18. Anticancer drug renal toxicity and elimination: dosing guidelines for altered renal function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Polly E. Kintzel; Robert T. Dorr

    1995-01-01

    The narrow therapeutic index of anticancer drugs presents a clinical dilemma when these agents are administered to patients with impaired or unstable renal function. The purpose of this review is to (i) describe the nephrotoxicity of certain anticancer drugs, (ii) evaluate the fraction of renal clearance for pertinent anticancer drugs, and (iii) make general recommendations for the dosing of these

  19. Computational selection and experimental validation of allosteric ribozymes that sense a specific sequence of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNAs as universal anticancer therapy agents.

    PubMed

    Penchovsky, Robert; Kostova, Gergana T

    2013-12-01

    High expression levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase messenger RNAs in differentiated cells can be used as a common marker for cancer development. In this paper, we describe a novel computational method for selection of allosteric ribozymes that sense a specific sequence of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNAs. The in silico selection employed is based on computing secondary structures of RNA using the partition function in combination with a random search algorithm. We selected one of the ribozymes for experimental validation. The obtained results demonstrate that the tested ribozyme has a high-speed (?1.8 per minute) of self-cleavage and is very selective. It can distinguish well between perfectly matching effector and the closest expressed RNA sequence in the human cell with 10 mismatches, with a ?300-fold difference under physiologically relevant conditions. The presented algorithm is universal since the allosteric ribozymes can be designed to sense any specific RNA or DNA sequence of interest. Such designer ribozymes may be used for monitoring the expression of mRNAs in the cell and for developing novel anticancer gene therapies. PMID:24206267

  20. Computational Selection and Experimental Validation of Allosteric Ribozymes That Sense a Specific Sequence of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase mRNAs as Universal Anticancer Therapy Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kostova, Gergana T.

    2013-01-01

    High expression levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase messenger RNAs in differentiated cells can be used as a common marker for cancer development. In this paper, we describe a novel computational method for selection of allosteric ribozymes that sense a specific sequence of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNAs. The in silico selection employed is based on computing secondary structures of RNA using the partition function in combination with a random search algorithm. We selected one of the ribozymes for experimental validation. The obtained results demonstrate that the tested ribozyme has a high-speed (?1.8 per minute) of self-cleavage and is very selective. It can distinguish well between perfectly matching effector and the closest expressed RNA sequence in the human cell with 10 mismatches, with a ?300-fold difference under physiologically relevant conditions. The presented algorithm is universal since the allosteric ribozymes can be designed to sense any specific RNA or DNA sequence of interest. Such designer ribozymes may be used for monitoring the expression of mRNAs in the cell and for developing novel anticancer gene therapies. PMID:24206267

  1. Clinical experience with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, a novel taxane anticancer agent, and management of adverse events in females with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    TAKASHIMA, SEIKI; KIYOTO, SACHIKO; TAKAHASHI, MINA; HARA, FUMIKATA; AOGI, KENJIRO; OHSUMI, SHOZO; MUKAI, RYOKO; FUJITA, YORIKO

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) is currently approved in Japan for treatment of breast cancer. However, apart from phase I clinical trials, data regarding Japanese patients are scant. In the present study, the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel therapy were retrospectively analyzed in 22 patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer who were treated at the National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center between November 2010 and June 2012. The nab-paclitaxel was administered once every three weeks. The median age of the patients was 59 years. The tumors were estrogen-receptor positive and/or progesterone-receptor positive in 63.6% patients. None of the patients had HER2-positive breast cancer. The median number of treatment cycles was six (range, two to 12). Six patients exhibited a partial response; the response rate was 27.3% and the clinical benefit rate was 31.8%. The response rate and clinical benefit rate were higher in patients who received nab-paclitaxel as first- or second-line treatment. The median time to treatment failure was 127 days (range, 27–257). Major adverse events were peripheral neuropathy (59%; Grade 3, 9%), myalgia (59%), rash (45%), and nausea and vomiting (50%). The results suggest that nab-paclitaxel is a well-tolerated and clinically useful anticancer preparation. PMID:25789050

  2. Fucoidan extract enhances the anti-cancer activity of chemotherapeutic agents in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyuan; Teruya, Kiichiro; Yoshida, Toshihiro; Eto, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan, a fucose-rich polysaccharide isolated from brown alga, is currently under investigation as a new anti-cancer compound. In the present study, fucoidan extract (FE) from Cladosiphon navae-caledoniae Kylin was prepared by enzymatic digestion. We investigated whether a combination of FE with cisplatin, tamoxifen or paclitaxel had the potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. These co-treatments significantly induced cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, as well as cell cycle modifications in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. FE enhanced apoptosis in cancer cells that responded to treatment with three chemotherapeutic drugs with downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. The combination treatments led to an obvious decrease in the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in MDA-MB-231 cells, but increased the phosphorylation of ERK in MCF-7 cells. In addition, we observed that combination treatments enhanced intracellular ROS levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in breast cancer cells, suggesting that induction of oxidative stress was an important event in the cell death induced by the combination treatments. PMID:23303302

  3. The direct mapping of the uptake of platinum anticancer agents in individual human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells using a hard X-ray microprobe.

    PubMed

    Ilinski, Petr; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Yun, Wenbing; Legnini, Daniel; Talarico, Teresa; Cholewa, Marian; Webster, Lorraine K; Deacon, Glen B; Rainone, Silvina; Phillips, Don R; Stampfl, Anton P J

    2003-04-15

    Uptake of platinum-based anticancer compounds into individual human ovarian andenocarcinoma cells was measured using an X-ray microprobe. The uptake of cisplatin, a platinum-based compound, in drug-resistant cells is decreased by approximately 50% after 24 h, compared with the uptake of the drug in nonresistant cells over the same time period. The Pt103 derivative of the drug, in contrast, showed an increased uptake by an order of magnitude in resistant cells over the same time period. Increased uptake appears to allow Pt103 to overcome the resistance mechanism developed by the cell. This work additionally shows that the X-ray microprobe is able to directly quantify Pt drug uptake on a subcellular level and can measure the mass of Pt down to a detectable limit of 20 attograms of Pt (2 x 10(-17) grams or 6 x 10(4) Pt atoms) in 1 s. Such exquisite elemental sensitivity combined with high spatial resolution paves the way for quantitative submicron three-dimensional mapping of elemental distributions within individual cells. PMID:12702562

  4. New anticancer agents: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antitumor and antimetastatic actions of various compounds isolated from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    In this review, in the search for the development of new anticancer drugs, the effects of compounds isolated from various medicinal plants on tumor growth and metastasis, using mice bearing a highly metastatic drug-resistant mouse tumor, were studied. The antitumor and antimetastatic actions of stilbene derivatives isolated from Polygonum and Cassia species were examined. Among the stilbene derivatives, resveratrol and cassiagrol A (stilbene dimer) displayed antitumor and antimetastatic actions through the inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization in in vitro and in vivo models. It was found that two chalcone derivatives from Angelica keiskei roots also inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in tumor-bearing mice through the inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization and/or the inhibition of immune suppression caused by tumors. Recently, basidiomycete fungi have been used for the treatment of cancer. Then, the low molecular weight substances were isolated from Agaricus blazei and Ganoderma lucidum as antitumor and antimetastatic substances. It is suggested that these substances of basidiomycete also inhibited tumor growth and metastasis to the lung through the inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization and/or the inhibition of immune suppression caused by tumors. PMID:15796155

  5. N-(5-Mercapto-1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-Phenylacetamide Derivatives: Synthesis and In-vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Farani, Ahmad; Heidarian, Neda; Aliabadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    A new series of N-(5-Mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-phenylacetamide derivatives (3a-3j) were synthesized via an amidation reaction using EDC and HOBt in acetonitrile solvent at room temperature condition. Chemical structures were characterized by 1H NMR, IR and MS spectroscopic methods and related melting points were also determined. The anticancer activity was evaluated using MTT procedure in-vitro. All compounds were tested against SKNMC (Neuroblastoma), HT-29 (Colon cancer) and PC3 (Prostate cancer) cell lines. According to the toxicological data, none of the synthesized derivatives exerted superior activity than doxorubicin as reference drug. Derivatives with Ortho chlorine (compound 3d), meta methoxy (compound 3h) and meta fluorine (compound 3b) substituents on the phenyl ring exhibited the best cytotoxic activity against SKNMC (IC50 = 4.5 ± 0.035 µM), HT-29 (IC50 = 3.1 ± 0.030 µM) and PC3 (IC50 = 12.6 ± 0.302 µM) cell lines respectively. PMID:25237343

  6. Fabrication of hollow and porous structured GdVO4:Dy3+ nanospheres as anticancer drug carrier and MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Dongmei; Ma, Ping'an; Dai, Yunlu; Shang, Mengmeng; Geng, Dongling; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2013-01-29

    Hollow and porous structured GdVO(4):Dy(3+) spheres were fabricated via a facile self-sacrificing templated method. The large cavity allows them to be used as potential hosts for therapeutic drugs, and the porous feature of the shell allows guest molecules to easily pass through the void space and surrounding environment. The samples show strong yellow-green emission of Dy(3+) (485 nm, (4)F(9/2) ? (6)H(15/2); 575 nm, (4)F(9/2) ? (6)H(13/2)) under UV excitation. The emission intensity of GdVO(4):Dy(3+) was weakened after encapsulation of anticancer drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and gradually restored with the cumulative released time of DOX. These hollow spheres were nontoxic to HeLa cells, while DOX-loaded samples led to apparent cytotoxicity as a result of the sustained release of DOX. ICP measurement indicates that free toxic Gd ions can hardly dissolate from the matrix. The endocytosis process of DOX-loaded hollow spheres is observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Furthermore, GdVO(4):Dy(3+) hollow spheres can be used for T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These results implicate that the luminescent GdVO(4):Dy(3+) spheres with hollow and porous structure are promising platforms for drug storage/release and MR imaging. PMID:23281806

  7. Synthesis, quantitative structure-activity relationship and biological evaluation of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives possessing diphenylamine moiety as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Doaa Ezzat

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole (2a-c), 3-substituted aminomethyl-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione (4a-m) and 2-substituted thio-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole (5a, b) had been described. All the synthesized derivatives were screened for anticancer activity against HT29 and MCF7 cancer cell lines using Sulfo-Rodamine B (SRB) standard method. Most of the tested compounds exploited potent antiproliferative activity against HT29 cancer cell line rather than MCF7 cancer cell line. Compounds 2a-c, 4f and 5a exhibited potent cytotoxicity (IC(50) 1.3-2.0 µM) and selectivity against HT29 cancer cell line. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was applied to find a correlation between the experimental antiproliferative activities of the newly synthesized oxadiazole derivatives with their physicochemical parameter and topological index. PMID:23370194

  8. Development of liposomal anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiichi; Suzuki, Takuya; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Asano, Makoto; Ishihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are drug delivery systems that can alter the pharmacokinetic properties of compounds. The adverse effects of anticancer agents are a limiting factor for cancer chemotherapy, therefore, liposomal formulations have the potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer agents by enhancing their accumulation in tumors and reducing non-selective distribution to normal tissues, which is known as the enhanced permeability and retention effect. To develop a liposomal anticancer agent as a drug product, its formulation must be designed to ensure its quality until it is administered to patients and to exert maximum potency in clinical use rather than in animal experiments. The chemical stability and physicochemical stability of the ingredients are key factors in the design of liposomal formulations. Drug release rates are critical factors in the therapeutic efficacy of liposomal drug products because the encapsulated drug has no pharmacological activity, and only released drug can exert antitumor/toxic activities. Liposomes should maintain the drug in a stable state in the circulation and then promptly release it after accumulation in the target tissue in order to achieve a sufficient drug concentration. To understand the profile of the formulation and to guarantee the quality of drug product, a reliable analytical method that can determine the released and encapsulated drugs in biological fluids is required. Simple online solid phase extractions of the released and encapsulated drugs using a column-switching HPLC system meet the requirements and this system enables accurate in vitro release testing and in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation. This review introduces the process of liposomal drug product development from various viewpoints. PMID:23649329

  9. Poly l -Glutamic Acid Anti-cancer Drug Conjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack W. Singer; Marc McKennon; Gabriella Pezzoni; Stefano di Giovine; Mara Cassin; Paola Feudis; Cecilia Allievi; Patrizia Angiuli; Marco Natangelo; Enrico Vezzali; Stefano Fazioni

    \\u000a Cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents are the mainstay of anti-cancer therapy. Improvements in the therapeutic ratio of cytotoxic\\u000a anti-cancer drugs remain a major unmet need as these agents are limited by toxicity to normal organs and relatively modest\\u000a anti-tumor efficacy as a result of lack of specificity. Cytotoxic drugs target rapidly dividing cells in normal tissues with\\u000a similar effects to those in

  10. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-09-01

    A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro.

  11. Structure–activity relationship studies of naphthol AS-E and its derivatives as anticancer agents by inhibiting CREB-mediated gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingbing X.; Yamanaka, Kinrin; Xiao, Xiangshu

    2012-01-01

    CREB (cyclic AMP-response element binding protein) is a downstream transcription factor of a multitude of signaling pathways emanating from receptor tyrosine kinases or G-protein coupled receptors. CREB is not activated until it is phosphorylated at Ser133 and its subsequent binding to CREB-binding protein (CBP) through kinase-inducible domain (KID) in CREB and KID-interacting (KIX) domain in CBP. Tumor tissues from various organs present higher level of expression and activation of CREB. Thus CREB has been proposed as a promising cancer drug target. We previously described naphthol AS-E (1a) as a small molecule inhibitor of CREB-mediated gene transcription in living cells. Here we report the structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies of 1a by modifying the appendant phenyl ring. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro inhibition of KIX–KID interaction, cellular inhibition of CREB-mediated gene transcription and inhibition of proliferation of four cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468). SAR indicated that a small and electron-withdrawing group was preferred at the para-position for KIX–KID interaction inhibition. Compound 1a was selected for further biological characterization and it was found that 1a down-regulated the expression of endogenous CREB target genes. Expression of a constitutively active CREB mutant, VP16-CREB in MCF-7 cells rendered the cells resistant to 1a, suggesting that CREB was critical in mediating its anticancer activity. Furthermore, 1a was not toxic to normal human cells. Collectively, these data support that 1a represents a structural template for further development into potential cancer therapeutics with a novel mechanism of action. PMID:23102993

  12. Anticancer activity of polyoxomolybdate.

    PubMed

    Yanagie, H; Ogata, A; Mitsui, S; Hisa, T; Yamase, T; Eriguchi, M

    2006-08-01

    Anticancer polyoxomolybdates have been investigated for medical application of polyoxometalates as discrete cluster anions of metal oxides. [NH3Pri]6[Mo7O24].3H2O (PM-8) has been recognized as one of significant antitumoral polyoxomolybdates. PM-8 had shown the growth suppression against several tumors, for examples, Co-4, human colon cancer, MX-1, human breast cancer, and OAT, human lung cancer. PM-8 showed the tumor growth suppression for MKN-45 human gastric cancer in tumor bearing mice. PM-8 inhibited the cell growth of AsPC-1 which depended on the dose with showing DNA ladder formation and DNA fragmentation, and positive Hoechst staining indicating apoptosis. The ratio of apoptotic cells on flow cytometry analysis were 35%, and 57% with treatment of PM-8 after 48, and 72 h, respectively. One of the anti-tumor activity of PM-8 result from the activation of apoptotic pathway. It is thought that polyoxomolybdates will be applied as a novel anti-tumor agent especially against cancers which are difficult to be treated clinically. PMID:16860529

  13. Predictive ability of a semi-mechanistic model for neutropenia in the development of novel anti-cancer agents: two case studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Soto; Ron J. Keizer; Iñaki F. Trocóniz; Alwin D. R. Huitema; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens; Jantien Wanders; Josep María Cendrós; Rosendo Obach; Concepción Peraire; Lena E. Friberg; Mats O. Karlsson

    Summary  In cancer chemotherapy neutropenia is a common dose-limiting toxicity. An ability to predict the neutropenic effects of cytotoxic\\u000a agents based on proposed trial designs and models conditioned on previous studies would be valuable. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the ability of a semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic (PK\\/PD) model for myelosuppression to predict\\u000a the neutropenia observed in Phase I clinical

  14. Evaluation of a novel bis-naphthalimide anticancer agent, DMP 840, against human xenografts derived from adult, juvenile, and pediatric cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Houghton; Pamela J. Cheshire; James C. Hallman III; Janet L. Gross; Ronald J. McRipley; Jung-Hui Sun; Carl H. Behrens; Daniel L. Dexter; Janet A. Houghton

    1994-01-01

    The new bis-naphthalimide antitumor agent (R,R)2,2'-[1,2-ethanediylbis[imino(1-methyl-2.1- ethanediyl)]-bis{5-nitro-1H-benz[de]-isoquinoline-1,3|-|(2H) dione} dimethanesulfonate (DMP 840) was evaluated against parental and multidrug-resistant human KB cell lines in vitro and against these lines growing as xenografts in immune-deprived mice. In vitro, KB8-5 cells were 50-fold resistant to vincristine but only 16-fold resistant to DMP 840 as measured by clonogenic survival. For in vivo evaluation, DMP 840

  15. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-ultraviolet absorbance detection assay using derivatisation for the novel marine anticancer agent ES-285 x HCl [(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-octadecanol hydrochloride] and its pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    den Brok, Monique W J; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Miranda, Elena; Floriano, Pablo; Munt, Simon; Manzanares, Ignacio; Beijnen, Jos H

    2003-12-12

    ES-285 x HCl [(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-octadecanol hydrochloride] is a novel investigational anticancer agent, which has shown in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity against various tumor cell lines with selectivity for certain solid tumors. The pharmaceutical development of ES-285 x HCl warranted the availability of an assay for the quantification and purity determination of ES-285 x HCl active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and its pharmaceutical dosage form. A liquid chromatographic method (LC) comprising of derivatisation of ES-285 x HCl with phenylisothiocyanate and UV-detection was developed. The method was found to be linear, precise and accurate. The assay also proved selectivity as determined by analysing ES-285 x HCl in combination with 15 analogues and in combination with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, the excipient used in the lyophilised pharmaceutical dosage form. Stress testing showed that the degradation products were separated from the parent compound, confirming its stability indicating capacity. The method was found robust as determined with design of experiments (DoE), which made it possible to predict system suitability responses in worst case experimental conditions and to define criteria for system suitability testing. PMID:14661748

  16. Docetaxel nanotechnology in anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengxiang; Astruc, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Taxanes have been recognized as a family of very efficient anticancer drugs, but the formulation in use for the two main taxanes-Taxol for paclitaxel and Taxotere for docetaxel-have shown dramatic side effects. Whereas several new formulations for paclitaxel have recently appeared, such as Abraxane and others currently in various phases of clinical trials, there is no new formulation in clinical trials for the other main taxane, docetaxel, except BIND-014, a polymeric nanoparticle, which recently entered phase I clinical testing. Therefore, we review herein the state of the art and recent abundance in published results of academic approaches toward nanotechnology-based drug-delivery systems containing nanocarriers and targeting agents for docetaxel formulations. These efforts will certainly enrich the spectrum of docetaxel treatments in the near future. Taxotere's systemic toxicity, low water solubility, and other side effects are significant problems that must be overcome. To avoid the limitations of docetaxel in clinical use, researchers have developed efficient drug-delivery assemblies that consist of a nanocarrier, a targeting agent, and the drug. A wide variety of such engineered nanosystems have been shown to transport and eventually vectorize docetaxel more efficiently than Taxotere in vitro, in vivo, and in pre-clinical administration. Recent progress in drug vectorization has involved a combined therapy and diagnostic ("theranostic") approach in a single drug-delivery vector and could significantly improve the efficiency of such an anticancer drug as well as other drug types. PMID:22517723

  17. An Improved High Yield Total Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Study of the Marine Alkaloid Neoamphimedine: An ATP-Competitive Inhibitor of Topoisomerase II? and Potent Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linfeng; Abraham, Adedoyin D.; Zhou, Qiong; Ali, Hadi; O’Brien, Jeremy V.; Hamill, Brayden D.; Arcaroli, John J.; Messersmith, Wells A.; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we characterized neoamphimedine (neo) as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of the ATPase domain of human Topoisomerase II?. Thus far, neo is the only pyridoacridine with this mechanism of action. One limiting factor in the development of neo as a therapeutic agent has been access to sufficient amounts of material for biological testing. Although there are two reported syntheses of neo, both require 12 steps with low overall yields (?6%). In this article, we report an improved total synthesis of neo achieved in 10 steps with a 25% overall yield. In addition, we report an expanded cytotoxicity study using a panel of human cancer cell lines, including: breast, colorectal, lung, and leukemia. Neo displays potent cytotoxicity (nM IC50 values) in all, with significant potency against colorectal cancer (lowest IC50 = 6 nM). We show that neo is cytotoxic not cytostatic, and that neo exerts cytotoxicity by inducing G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:25244109

  18. Dendrimer-encapsulated naphthalocyanine as a single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform for near-infrared fluorescence imaging and combinatorial anticancer phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taratula, Olena; Schumann, Canan; Duong, Tony; Taylor, Karmin L.; Taratula, Oleh

    2015-02-01

    Multifunctional theranostic platforms capable of concurrent near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and phototherapies are strongly desired for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the integration of separate imaging and therapeutic components into nanocarriers results in complex theranostic systems with limited translational potential. A single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform, therefore, was developed for concurrent NIR fluorescence imaging and combinatorial phototherapy with dual photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal (PTT) therapeutic mechanisms. The transformation of a substituted silicon naphthalocyanine (SiNc) into a biocompatible nanoplatform (SiNc-NP) was achieved by SiNc encapsulation into the hydrophobic interior of a generation 5 polypropylenimine dendrimer following surface modification with polyethylene glycol. Encapsulation provides aqueous solubility to SiNc and preserves its NIR fluorescence, PDT and PTT properties. Moreover, an impressive photostability in the dendrimer-encapsulated SiNc has been detected. Under NIR irradiation (785 nm, 1.3 W cm-2), SiNc-NP manifested robust heat generation capability (?T = 40 °C) and efficiently produced reactive oxygen species essential for PTT and PDT, respectively, without releasing SiNc from the nanopaltform. By varying the laser power density from 0.3 W cm-2 to 1.3 W cm-2 the therapeutic mechanism of SiNc-NP could be switched from PDT to combinatorial PDT-PTT treatment. In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that phototherapy mediated by SiNc can efficiently destroy chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cells. Remarkably, solid tumors treated with a single dose of SiNc-NP combined with NIR irradiation were completely eradicated without cancer recurrence. Finally, the efficiency of SiNc-NP as an NIR imaging agent was confirmed by recording the strong fluorescence signal in the tumor, which was not photobleached during the phototherapeutic procedure.Multifunctional theranostic platforms capable of concurrent near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and phototherapies are strongly desired for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the integration of separate imaging and therapeutic components into nanocarriers results in complex theranostic systems with limited translational potential. A single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform, therefore, was developed for concurrent NIR fluorescence imaging and combinatorial phototherapy with dual photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal (PTT) therapeutic mechanisms. The transformation of a substituted silicon naphthalocyanine (SiNc) into a biocompatible nanoplatform (SiNc-NP) was achieved by SiNc encapsulation into the hydrophobic interior of a generation 5 polypropylenimine dendrimer following surface modification with polyethylene glycol. Encapsulation provides aqueous solubility to SiNc and preserves its NIR fluorescence, PDT and PTT properties. Moreover, an impressive photostability in the dendrimer-encapsulated SiNc has been detected. Under NIR irradiation (785 nm, 1.3 W cm-2), SiNc-NP manifested robust heat generation capability (?T = 40 °C) and efficiently produced reactive oxygen species essential for PTT and PDT, respectively, without releasing SiNc from the nanopaltform. By varying the laser power density from 0.3 W cm-2 to 1.3 W cm-2 the therapeutic mechanism of SiNc-NP could be switched from PDT to combinatorial PDT-PTT treatment. In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that phototherapy mediated by SiNc can efficiently destroy chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cells. Remarkably, solid tumors treated with a single dose of SiNc-NP combined with NIR irradiation were completely eradicated without cancer recurrence. Finally, the efficiency of SiNc-NP as an NIR imaging agent was confirmed by recording the strong fluorescence signal in the tumor, which was not photobleached during the phototherapeutic procedure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S5: Size distribution of SiNc-NP measured by dynamic light scattering (Fig. S1); absorption spectra of free SiNc 2 in THF before and after ir

  19. Developing Exposure/Response Models for Anticancer Drug Treatment: Special Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Mould, DR; Walz, A-C; Lave, T; Gibbs, JP; Frame, B

    2015-01-01

    Anticancer agents often have a narrow therapeutic index (TI), requiring precise dosing to ensure sufficient exposure for clinical activity while minimizing toxicity. These agents frequently have complex pharmacology, and combination therapy may cause schedule-specific effects and interactions. We review anticancer drug development, showing how integration of modeling and simulation throughout development can inform anticancer dose selection, potentially improving the late-phase success rate. This article has a companion article in Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics with practical examples.

  20. Dendrimer-encapsulated naphthalocyanine as a single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform for near-infrared fluorescence imaging and combinatorial anticancer phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Taratula, Olena; Schumann, Canan; Duong, Tony; Taylor, Karmin L; Taratula, Oleh

    2015-02-19

    Multifunctional theranostic platforms capable of concurrent near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and phototherapies are strongly desired for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the integration of separate imaging and therapeutic components into nanocarriers results in complex theranostic systems with limited translational potential. A single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform, therefore, was developed for concurrent NIR fluorescence imaging and combinatorial phototherapy with dual photodynamic (PDT) and photothermal (PTT) therapeutic mechanisms. The transformation of a substituted silicon naphthalocyanine (SiNc) into a biocompatible nanoplatform (SiNc-NP) was achieved by SiNc encapsulation into the hydrophobic interior of a generation 5 polypropylenimine dendrimer following surface modification with polyethylene glycol. Encapsulation provides aqueous solubility to SiNc and preserves its NIR fluorescence, PDT and PTT properties. Moreover, an impressive photostability in the dendrimer-encapsulated SiNc has been detected. Under NIR irradiation (785 nm, 1.3 W cm(-2)), SiNc-NP manifested robust heat generation capability (?T = 40 °C) and efficiently produced reactive oxygen species essential for PTT and PDT, respectively, without releasing SiNc from the nanopaltform. By varying the laser power density from 0.3 W cm(-2) to 1.3 W cm(-2) the therapeutic mechanism of SiNc-NP could be switched from PDT to combinatorial PDT-PTT treatment. In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that phototherapy mediated by SiNc can efficiently destroy chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cells. Remarkably, solid tumors treated with a single dose of SiNc-NP combined with NIR irradiation were completely eradicated without cancer recurrence. Finally, the efficiency of SiNc-NP as an NIR imaging agent was confirmed by recording the strong fluorescence signal in the tumor, which was not photobleached during the phototherapeutic procedure. PMID:25422147

  1. Discovery and Optimization of a Series of 2-Aryl-4-Amino-5-(3?,4?,5?-trimethoxybenzoyl)Thiazoles as Novel Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Preti, Delia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Porcù, Elena; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    A new series of tubulin polymerization inhibitors based on the 2-aryl/heteroaryl-4-amino-5-(3?,4?,5?-trimethoxybenzoyl)thiazole scaffold was synthesized and evaluated for growth inhibition activity on a panel of cancer cell lines, cell cycle effects, and in vivo potency. Structure–activity relationships were elucidated with various substitutions at the 2-position of the thiazole skeleton. Hydrophobic moieties, such as phenyl and 3-thienyl, were well tolerated at this position, and variation of the phenyl substituents had remarkable effects on potency. The most active compound (3b) induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway with activation of caspase-3. We also showed that it has potential antivascular activity since it reduced in vitro endothelial cell migration and disrupted capillary-like tube formation at noncytotoxic concentrations. Furthermore, compound 3b significantly reduced the growth of the HT-29 xenograft in a nude mouse model, suggesting that 3b is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:22578111

  2. Preclinical discovery of candidate genes to guide pharmacogenetics during phase I development: the example of the novel anticancer agent ABT-751

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, Federico; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Obel, Jennifer; Xiong, Julia; Mirkov, Snezana; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Katz, David A.; Carr, Robert A.; Zhang, Wei; Das, Soma; Adjei, Araba; Moyer, Ann M.; Chen, Pei Xian; Krivoshik, Andrew; Medina, Diane; Gordon, Gary B.; Ratain, Mark J.; Sahelijo, Leonardo; Weinshilboum, Richard M.; Fleming, Gini F.; Bhathena, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Objective ABT-751, a novel orally available antitubulin agent, is mainly eliminated as inactive glucuronide (ABT-751G) and sulfate (ABT-751S) conjugates. We performed a pharmacogenetic investigation of ABT-751 pharmacokinetics using in-vitro data to guide the selection of genes for genotyping in a phase I trial of ABT-751. Methods UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes were screened for ABT-751 metabolite formation in vitro. Forty-seven cancer patients treated with ABT-751 were genotyped for 21 variants in these genes. Results UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A8, UGT2B7, and SULT1A1 were found to be involved in the formation of inactive ABT-751 glucuronide (ABT-751G) and sulfate (ABT-751S). SULT1A1 copy number (> 2) was associated with an average 34% increase in ABT-751 clearance (P= 0.044), an 18% reduction in ABT-751 AUC (P = 0.045), and a 50% increase in sulfation metabolic ratios (P=0.025). UGT1A8 rs6431558 was associated with a 28% increase in glucuronidation metabolic ratios (P =0.022), and UGT1A4*2 was associated with a 65% decrease in ABT-751 Ctrough (P = 0.009). Conclusion These results might represent the first example of a clinical pharmacokinetic effect of the SULT1A1 copy number variant on the clearance of a SULT1A1 substrate. A-priori selection of candidate genes guided by in-vitro metabolic screening enhanced our ability to identify genetic determinants of interpatient pharmacokinetic variability. PMID:23670235

  3. Applying linear interaction energy method for binding affinity calculations of podophyllotoxin analogues with tubulin using continuum solvent model and prediction of cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Afroz; Naik, Pradeep Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin and its analogues have important therapeutic value in the treatment of cancer, due to their ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells in a proliferation-independent manner. These ligands bind to colchicine binding site of tubulin near the alpha- and beta-tubulin interface and interfere with tubulin polymerization. The binding free energies of podophyllotoxin-based inhibitors of tubulin were computed using a linear interaction energy (LIE) method with a surface generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvation model. A training set of 76 podophyllotoxin analogues was used to build a binding affinity model for estimating the free energy of binding for 36 inhibitors (test set) with diverse structural modifications. The average root mean square error (RMSE) between the experimental and predicted binding free energy values was 0.56kcal/mol which is comparable to the level of accuracy achieved by the most accurate methods, such as free energy perturbation (FEP) or thermodynamic integration (TI). The squared correlation coefficient between experimental and SGB-LIE estimates for the free energy for the test set compounds is also significant (R(2)=0.733). On the basis of the analysis of the binding energy, we propose that the three-dimensional conformation of the A, B, C and D rings is important for interaction with tubulin. On the basis of this insight, 12 analogues of varying ring modification were taken, tested with LIE methodology and then validated with their experimental potencies of tubulin polymerization inhibition. Low levels of RMSE for the majority of inhibitors establish the structure-based LIE method as an efficient tool for generating more potent and specific inhibitors of tubulin by testing rationally designed lead compounds based on podophyllotoxin derivatization. PMID:19286405

  4. The anticancer agent di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) overcomes prosurvival autophagy by two mechanisms: persistent induction of autophagosome synthesis and impairment of lysosomal integrity.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Elaine; Richardson, Des R; Jansson, Patric J

    2014-11-28

    Autophagy functions as a survival mechanism during cellular stress and contributes to resistance against anticancer agents. The selective antitumor and antimetastatic chelator di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) causes lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death. Considering the integral role of lysosomes in autophagy and cell death, it was important to assess the effect of Dp44mT on autophagy to further understand its mechanism of action. Notably, Dp44mT affected autophagy by two mechanisms. First, concurrent with its antiproliferative activity, Dp44mT increased the expression of the classical autophagic marker LC3-II as a result of induced autophagosome synthesis. Second, this effect was supplemented by a reduction in autophagosome degradation as shown by the accumulation of the autophagic substrate and receptor p62. Conversely, the classical iron chelator desferrioxamine induced autophagosome accumulation only by inhibiting autophagosome degradation. The formation of redox-active iron or copper Dp44mT complexes was critical for its dual effect on autophagy. The cytoprotective antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited Dp44mT-induced autophagosome synthesis and p62 accumulation. Importantly, Dp44mT inhibited autophagosome degradation via lysosomal disruption. This effect prevented the fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes to form autolysosomes, which is crucial for the completion of the autophagic process. The antiproliferative activity of Dp44mT was suppressed by Beclin1 and ATG5 silencing, indicating the role of persistent autophagosome synthesis in Dp44mT-induced cell death. These studies demonstrate that Dp44mT can overcome the prosurvival activity of autophagy in cancer cells by utilizing this process to potentiate cell death. PMID:25301941

  5. Anti-Cancer Potential of a Novel SERM Ormeloxifene

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Rishi Kumar; Sundram, Vasudha; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Jaggi, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Ormeloxifene is a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) that is used as an oral contraceptive. Recent studies have shown its potent anti-cancer activities in breast, head and neck, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Several in vivo and clinical studies have reported that ormeloxifene possesses an excellent therapeutic index and has been well-tolerated, without any haematological, biochemical or histopathological toxicity, even with chronic administration. A reasonably long period of time and an enormous financial commitment are required to develop a lead compound into a clinically approved anti-cancer drug. For these reasons and to circumvent these obstacles, ormeloxifene is a promising candidate on a fast track for the development or repurposing established drugs as anti-cancer agents for cancer treatment. The current review summarizes recent findings on ormeloxifene as an anti-cancer agent and future prospects of this clinically safe pharmacophore. PMID:23895678

  6. Aurora-kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Taylor; Nicholas Keen

    2004-01-01

    Errors in mitosis can provide a source of the genomic instability that is typically associated with tumorigenesis. Many mitotic regulators are aberrantly expressed in tumour cells. These proteins could therefore make useful therapeutic targets. The kinases Aurora-A, -B and -C represent a family of such targets and several small-molecule inhibitors have been shown to block their function. Not only have

  7. Cardiotoxicity of the Anticancer Therapeutic Agent Bortezomib

    PubMed Central

    Nowis, Dominika; M?czewski, Micha?; Mackiewicz, Urszula; Kujawa, Marek; Ratajska, Anna; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Wilczy?ski, Grzegorz M.; Malinowska, Monika; Bil, Jacek; Salwa, Pawe?; Bugajski, Marek; Wójcik, Cezary; Si?ski, Maciej; Abramczyk, Piotr; Winiarska, Magdalena; D?browska-Iwanicka, Anna; Duszy?ski, Jerzy; Jakóbisiak, Marek; Golab, Jakub

    2010-01-01

    Recent case reports provided alarming signals that treatment with bortezomib might be associated with cardiac events. In all reported cases, patients experiencing cardiac problems were previously or concomitantly treated with other chemotherapeutics including cardiotoxic anthracyclines. Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish which components of the therapeutic regimens contribute to cardiotoxicity. Here, we addressed the influence of bortezomib on cardiac function in rats that were not treated with other drugs. Rats were treated with bortezomib at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg thrice weekly. Echocardiography, histopathology, and electron microscopy were used to evaluate cardiac function and structural changes. Respiration of the rat heart mitochondria was measured polarographically. Cell culture experiments were used to determine the influence of bortezomib on cardiomyocyte survival, contractility, Ca2+ fluxes, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy. Our findings indicate that bortezomib treatment leads to left ventricular contractile dysfunction manifested by a significant drop in left ventricle ejection fraction. Dramatic ultrastructural abnormalities of cardiomyocytes, especially within mitochondria, were accompanied by decreased ATP synthesis and decreased cardiomyocyte contractility. Monitoring of cardiac function in bortezomib-treated patients should be implemented to evaluate how frequently cardiotoxicity develops especially in patients with pre-existing cardiac conditions, as well as when using additional cardiotoxic drugs. PMID:20519734

  8. Ferrocene Functionalized Endocrine Modulators as Anticancer Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillard, Elizabeth A.; Vessières, Anne; Jaouen, Gerard

    We present here some of our studies on the synthesis and behaviour of ferrocenyl selective endocrine receptor modulators against cancer cells, particularly breast and prostate cancers. The proliferative/anti-proliferative effects of compounds based on steroidal and non-steroidal endocrine modulators have been extensively explored in vitro. Structure-activity relationship studies of such molecules, particularly the hydroxyferrocifens and ferrocene phenols, have shown the effect of (1) the presence and the length of the N,N-dimethylamino side chain, (2) the presence and position of the phenol group, (3) the role of the ferrocenyl moiety, (4) that of conjugation, (5) phenyl functionalisation and (6) the placement of the phenyl group. Compounds possessing a ferrocene moiety linked to a p-phenol by a conjugated ?-system are among the most potent of the series, with IC50 values ranging from 0.090 to 0.6µM on hormone independent breast cancer cells. Based on the SAR data and electrochemical studies, we have proposed an original mechanism to explain the unusual behaviour of these bioorganometallic species and coin the term "kronatropic" to qualify this effect, involving ROS production and bio-oxidation. In addition, the importance of formulation is underlined. We also discuss the behaviour of ferrocenyl androgens and anti-androgens for possible use against prostate cancers. In sum, ferrocene has proven to be a fascinating substituent due to its vast potential for oncology.

  9. Cell Death Signaling and Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Vacchelli, Erika; Kroemer, Guido

    2011-01-01

    For a long time, it was commonly believed that efficient anticancer regimens would either trigger the apoptotic demise of tumor cells or induce a permanent arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, i.e., senescence. The recent discovery that necrosis can occur in a regulated fashion and the increasingly more precise characterization of the underlying molecular mechanisms have raised great interest, as non-apoptotic pathways might be instrumental to circumvent the resistance of cancer cells to conventional, pro-apoptotic therapeutic regimens. Moreover, it has been shown that some anticancer regimens engage lethal signaling cascades that can ignite multiple oncosuppressive mechanisms, including apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. Among these signaling pathways is mitotic catastrophe, whose role as a bona fide cell death mechanism has recently been reconsidered. Thus, anticancer regimens get ever more sophisticated, and often distinct strategies are combined to maximize efficacy and minimize side effects. In this review, we will discuss the importance of apoptosis, necrosis, and mitotic catastrophe in the response of tumor cells to the most common clinically employed and experimental anticancer agents. PMID:22655227

  10. Anticancer Polymeric Nanomedicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Tong; Jianjun Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Polymers play important roles in the design of delivery nanocarriers for cancer therapies. Polymeric nanocarriers with anticancer drugs conjugated or encapsulated, also known as polymeric nanomedicines, form a variety of different architectures including polymer?drug conjugates, micelles, nanospheres, nanogels, vesicles, and dendrimers. This review focuses on the current state of the preclinical and clinical investigations of polymer?drug conjugates and polymeric micelles.

  11. Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

  12. Bcl2 family proteins as targets for anticancer drug design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziwei Huang

    2000-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are key regulators of programmed cell death or apoptosis that is implicated in many human diseases, particularly cancer. In recent years, they have attracted intensive interest in both basic research to understand the fundamental principles of cell survival and cell death and drug discovery to develop a new class of anticancer agents. The Bcl-2 family includes both

  13. Design and synthesis of 6,7-methylenedioxy-4-substituted phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one derivatives as novel anticancer agents that induce apoptosis with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fong; Lin, Yi-Chien; Huang, Po-Kai; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Huang, Li-Jiau

    2013-01-01

    Novel 6,7-methylenedioxy-4-substituted phenylquinolin-2-one derivatives 12a–n were designed and prepared through an intramolecular cyclization reaction and evaluated for in vitro anticancer activity. Among the synthesized compounds, 6,7-methylenedioxy-4-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)quinolin-2(1H)-one (12e) displayed potent cytotoxicity against several different tumor cell lines at a sub-micromolar level. Furthermore, results of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis suggested that 12e induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by apoptosis in HL-60 and H460 cells. This action was confirmed by Hoechst staining and caspase-3 activation. Due to their easy synthesis and remarkable biological activities, 4-phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one analogs (4-PQs) are promising new anticancer leads based on the quinoline scaffold. Accordingly, compound 12e was identified as a new lead compound that merits further optimization and development as an anticancer candidate. PMID:23867385

  14. Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W M; Gohel, Mayur Danny I

    2005-01-01

    "Lingzhi" (Ganoderma lucidum), a popular medicinal mushroom, has been used in China for longevity and health promotion since ancient times. Investigations into the anticancer activity of lingzhi have been performed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, supporting its application for cancer treatment and prevention. The proposed anticancer activity of lingzhi has prompted its usage by cancer patients. It remains debatable as to whether lingzhi is a food supplement for health maintenance or actually a therapeutic "drug" for medical proposes. Thus far there has been no report of human trials using lingzhi as a direct anticancer agent, despite some evidence showing the usage of lingzhi as a potential supplement to cancer patients. Cellular immune responses and mitogenic reactivity of cancer patients have been enhanced by lingzhi, as reported in two randomized and one nonrandomized trials, and the quality of life of 65% of lung cancer patients improved in one study. The direct cytotoxic and anti-angiogenesis mechanisms of lingzhi have been established by in vitro studies; however, clinical studies should not be neglected to define the applicable dosage in vivo. At present, lingzhi is a health food supplement to support cancer patients, yet the evidence supporting the potential of direct in vivo anticancer effects should not be underestimated. Lingzhi or its products can be classified as an anticancer agent when current and more direct scientific evidence becomes available. PMID:16351502

  15. Anticancer effects of fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the pharmacologically active natural compounds isolated and used for remedies of various kinds of diseases, including cancer. The great deal of interest has been developed to isolate bioactive compounds from marine resources because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds and has been used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products. Fucoidan has various biological activities including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antitumor activities. So this chapter deals with anticancer effects of fucoidan. PMID:25081084

  16. Apoptin towards safe and efficient anticancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Backendorf, Claude; Noteborn, Mathieu H M

    2014-01-01

    The chicken anemia virus derived protein apoptin harbors cancer-selective cell killing characteristics, essentially based on phosphorylation-mediated nuclear transfer in cancer cells and efficient cytoplasmic degradation in normal cells. Here, we describe a growing set of preclinical experiments underlying the promises of the anti-cancer potential of apoptin. Various non-replicative oncolytic viral vector systems have revealed the safety and efficacy of apoptin. In addition, apoptin enhanced the oncolytic potential of adenovirus, parvovirus and Newcastle disease virus vectors. Intratumoral injection of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains and plasmid-based systems expressing apoptin resulted in significant tumor regression. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments showed that recombinant membrane-transferring PTD4- or TAT-apoptin proteins have potential as a future anticancer therapeutics. In xenografted hepatoma and melanoma mouse models PTD4-apoptin protein entered both cancer and normal cells, but only killed cancer cells. Combinatorial treatment of PTD4-apoptin with various (chemo)therapeutic compounds revealed an additive or even synergistic effect, reducing the side effects of the single (chemo)therapeutic treatment. Degradable polymeric nanocapsules harboring MBP-apoptin fusion-protein induced tumor-selective cell killing in-vitro and in-vivo and revealed the potential of polymer-apoptin protein vehicles as an anticancer agent.Besides its direct use as an anticancer therapeutic, apoptin research has also generated novel possibilities for drug design. The nuclear location domains of apoptin are attractive tools for targeting therapeutic compounds into the nucleus of cancer cells. Identification of cancer-related processes targeted by apoptin can potentially generate novel drug targets. Recent breakthroughs important for clinical applications are reported inferring apoptin-based clinical trials as a feasible reality. PMID:25001531

  17. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed. PMID:24980757

  18. Synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of N-benzylidene-2-((5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)acetohydrazide derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Shi, Jing; Wang, She-Feng; Yin, Yong; Yang, Yu-Shun; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2014-01-01

    A series of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (6a-6x) containing pyridine and acylhydrazone moieties were synthesized and developed as potential telomerase inhibitors. The bioassay tests demonstrated that compounds 6n, 6o, 6q, 6s and 6t exhibited significant broad-spectrum anticancer activity with IC?? range from 0.76 to 9.59 ?M against the four cancer cell lines (HEPG2, MCF7, SW1116 and BGC823). Moreover, all the title compounds were assayed for telomerase inhibition using the TRAP-PCR-ELISA assay. Compound 6s showed the highest anticancer activity with IC?? of 0.76-1.54 ?M against the tested cancer cell lines and exhibited the most potent telomerase inhibitory activity with IC?? of 1.18 ± 0.14 ?M. The docking simulation was carried out to investigate a possible binding mode of compound 6s into the active site of telomerase (pdb. 3DU6) while the QSAR model was built to check the previous work as well as to introduce new directions. PMID:24286761

  19. Autophagy modulation as a target for anticancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Xu, Huai-long; Liu, Yong-xi; An, Na; Zhao, Si; Bao, Jin-ku

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involving the engulfment and degradation of non-essential or abnormal cellular organelles and proteins, is crucial for homeostatic maintenance in living cells. This highly regulated, multi-step process has been implicated in diverse diseases including cancer. Autophagy can function as either a promoter or a suppressor of cancer, which makes it a promising and challenging therapeutic target. Herein, we overview the regulatory mechanisms and dual roles of autophagy in cancer. We also describe some of the representative agents that exert their anticancer effects by regulating autophagy. Additionally, some emerging strategies aimed at modulating autophagy are discussed as having the potential for future anticancer drug discovery. In summary, these findings will provide valuable information to better utilize autophagy in the future development of anticancer therapeutics that meet clinical requirements. PMID:23564085

  20. Anticancer siRNA delivery by new anticancer molecule: a novel combination strategy for cancer cell killing.

    PubMed

    Muktapuram, Prathap Reddy; Gara, Rishi Kumar; Sharma, Komal; Rohit, Chilappa; Srinivas, Kolupula; Mishra, Durga Prasad; Bathula, Surendar Reddy

    2012-10-01

    The present report describes development of a novel, bifunctional molecule possessing both selective antiproliferative activity and siRNA transfection ability. We synthesized a series of cationic lipo-benzamides and screened for in vitro anticancer activities against a panel of cancer and non-cancer cells. The molecule with a ten carbon chain-length (C10M) significantly inhibited proliferation of cancer cells via arresting the cell cycle predominantly in the G1 phase; but did not affect non-cancerous cells. C10M effectively mediated siRNA delivery in vitro. The combined anticancer effect of the delivery of C10M together with its survivin-targeting siRNA cargo was significantly (p < 0.05) superior to that of agent alone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dual-purpose molecule with intrinsic anticancer activity and suitability for use in siRNA delivery. PMID:22926227

  1. Design, microwave-mediated synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 4-aryl(alkyl)amino-3-nitroquinoline and 2,4-diaryl(dialkyl)amino-3-nitroquinolines as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Monika; Rana, Anil; Alex, Jimi Marin; Negi, Arvind; Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Raj

    2015-02-01

    Design, microwave-assisted synthesis of novel 4-aryl (alkyl)amino-3-nitroquinoline (1a-1l) and 2,4-diaryl (dialkyl)amino-3-nitroquinolines (2a-2k and 3a) via regioselective and complete nucleophilic substitution of 2,4-dichloro-3-nitroquinoline, respectively in water are presented. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for the first time for antiproliferative activity against EGFR overexpressing human lung (A-549 and H-460) and colon (HCT-116-wild type and HCT-116-p53 null) cancer cell lines. Some notions about structure-activity relationships (SAR) are presented. Compounds 2e, 2f, 2j and 3a overall exhibited excellent anticancer activity comparable to erlotinib which was used as a positive control. Molecular modeling studies disclosed the recognition pattern of the compounds and also supported the observed SAR. PMID:25462621

  2. Increase of miR-199a-5p by protoporphyrin IX, a photocatalyzer, directly inhibits E2F3, sensitizing mesenchymal tumor cells to anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Min; Heo, Mi Jeong; Lee, Chan Gyu; Yang, Yoon Mee; Kim, Sang Geon

    2015-02-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) has been used for photodynamic therapy. Mesenchymal cancer cells adapt to tumor microenvironments for growth and metastasis possibly in association with miRNA dysregulation. In view of the effect of PPIX on cancer-related genes, and its potential to inhibit tumor growth and migration/invasion, this study investigated whether PPIX enables mesenchymal liver tumor to restore dysregulated miRNAs, and if so, whether it sensitizes the cancer cells to chemotherapy. In addition, we explored new target(s) of the miRNA(s) that contribute to the anti-cancer effects. Of the ten miRNAs predicted by the 3'-UTR of HIF-1? mRNA, PPIX treatment increased miR-199a-5p, leading to the inhibition of E2F3 expression which is upregulated in mesenchymal liver tumor. miR-199a-5p levels were downregulated in HCC with E2F3 overexpression. An approach modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition provided the expected changes in miR-199a-5p and E2F3 in vivo. PPIX prevented tumor cell growth and migration/invasion, and had a synergistic anti-cancer effect when combined with chemotherapeutics. In a xenograft model, PPIX treatment decreased overall growth and average tumor volume, which paralleled E2F3 inhibition. Overall, PPIX inhibited growth advantage and migratory ability of cancer cells and sensitized mesenchymal liver tumor cells to chemotherapeutics. PMID:25714015

  3. Ribonucleases as potential modalities in anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ardelt, Wojciech; Ardelt, Barbara; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Antitumor ribonucleases are small (10–28 kDa) basic proteins. They were found among members of both, ribonuclease A and T1 superfamilies. Their cytotoxic properties are conferred by enzymatic activity, i.e., the ability to catalyze cleavages of phosphodiester bonds in RNA. They bind to negatively charged cell membrane, enter cells by endocytosis and translocate to cytosol where they evade mammalian protein ribonuclease inhibitor and degrade RNA. Here, we discuss structures, functions and mechanisms of antitumor activity of several cytotoxic ribonucleases with particular emphasis to the amphibian Onconase, the only enzyme of this class that reached clinical trials. Onconase is the smallest, very stable, less catalytically efficient and more cytotoxic than most RNase A homologues. Its cytostatic, cytotoxic and anticancer effects were extensively studied. It targets tRNA, rRNA, mRNA as well as the non-coding RNA (microRNAs). Numerous cancer lines are sensitive to Onconase; their treatment with 10 – 100 nM enzyme leads to suppression of cell cycle progression, predominantly through G1, followed by apoptosis or cell senescence. Onconase also has anticancer properties in animal models. Many effects of this enzyme are consistent with the microRNAs, one of its critical targets. Onconase sensitizes cells to a variety of anticancer modalities and this property is of particular interest, suggesting its application as an adjunct to chemotherapy or radiotherapy in treatment of different tumors. Cytotoxic RNases as exemplified by Onconase represent a new class of antitumor agents, with an entirely different mechanism of action than the drugs currently used in the clinic. Further studies on animal models including human tumors grafted on severe combined immunodefficient (SCID) mice and clinical trials are needed to explore clinical potential of cytotoxic RNases. PMID:19825371

  4. Anticancer Drug Development: The Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Connors

    1996-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy celebrated its fiftieth anniversary last year. It was in 1945 that wartime research on the nitrogen mustards, which uncovered their potential use in the treatment of leukaemias and other cancers, was first made public. Fifty years later, more than sixty drugs have been registered in the USA for the treatment of cancer, but there are still lessons to be learnt. One problem, paradoxically, is that many anticancer agents produce a response in several different classes of the disease. This means that once a new agent has been shown to be effective in one cancer, much effort is devoted to further investigations of the same drug in various combinations for different disorders. While this approach has led to advances in the treatment of many childhood cancers and some rare diseases, a plethora of studies on metastatic colon cancer, for example, has yielded little benefit. 5-fluorouracil continues to be used in trials, yet there is no evidence for an increase in survival. The lesson to be learnt is that many common cancers are not adequately treated by present-day chemotherapy, and most trials of this sort are a waste of time. Significant increases in survival will only occur if the selectivity of present-day anticancer agents can be increased or new classes of more selective agents can be discovered. There are two fundamental problems in drug development: a lack of suitable laboratory tests and the difficulty of conducting early clinical trials. Firstly, no existing laboratory method can accurately predict which chemical will be effective against a particular class of human cancer. At best, tests can demonstrate a general 'anticancer' property. This is well exemplified by the discovery of cisplatin. The fact that cisplatin caused regression in a number of transplanted rodent tumours created no great excitement amongst chemotherapists. It was only later when it was tested clinically against ovarian cancer that results were sufficiently positive to encourage others to investigate. Only then was it discovered that metastatic teratoma was extraordinarily sensitive to the drug. This finding was made as a result of phase II trials and no laboratory model could have predicted it. The lesson to be learnt is that new drugs should be tested extensively in phase II trials before they are discarded. The second problem concerns early clinical trials. Because new drugs can only be tested against advanced and usually heavily pretreated disease, it is unlikely that dramatic responses will occur. The methods used to detect responses in solid tumours and metastases are crude, and it is likely that many useful drugs are missed. New techniques are needed to detect small but important responses. In addition to these technical problems, clinical trials are expensive and the time required for preclinical pharmacology and toxicology is lengthy. In the early days, drugs could enter clinical trials after fairly simple toxicological studies. The thalidomide disaster in the 1960s, however, led to the setting up of regulatory bodies to scrutinize drugs before clinical trials. This proved detrimental for cancer drug development because a series of fairly long-term tests is now required. These must be carried out in both rodents and one other species, usually the dog. This approach was probably a good thing for most medicines where a large margin of safety is required between the therapeutic dose and the dose which causes side effects, but was inappropriate for anticancer agents which are tested at the maximum possible dose which gives manageable side effects. These new regulations meant that the cost of one clinical trial after the 1970s was equivalent to the cost of ten before that time. Solutions to these problems are available, although to put them into practice would require the cooperation of government regulatory authorities, the pharmaceutical industry and other organisations such as the US National Cancer Institute (NCI), the UK Cancer Research Campaign (CRC) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EOR

  5. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy) Acetamide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz

    2014-01-01

    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a–j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenoxy)acetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. PMID:25197642

  6. Protein in blood exerts natural anti-cancer protection

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers from Thomas Jefferson University’s Kimmel Cancer Center have discovered that decorin, a naturally occurring protein that circulates in the blood, acts as a potent inhibitor of tumor growth modulating the tumor microenvironment. The study, published June 24 online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggests it may be possible to harness the power of this naturally occurring anticancer agent as a way to treat cancer, including metastases.

  7. Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Bravo-San Pedro, José-Manuel; Buqué, Aitziber; Senovilla, Laura; Baracco, Elisa Elena; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apte, Ron N; Aranda, Fernando; Ayyoub, Maha; Beckhove, Philipp; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bracci, Laura; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Estaban; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Clayton, Aled; Colombo, Mario P; Coussens, Lisa; Dhodapkar, Madhav V; Eggermont, Alexander M; Fearon, Douglas T; Fridman, Wolf H; Fu?íková, Jitka; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hoos, Axel; Hosmalin, Anne; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kärre, Klas; Kepp, Oliver; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John M; Klein, Eva; Knuth, Alexander; Lewis, Claire E; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T; Lugli, Enrico; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Mavilio, Domenico; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Moretta, Lorenzo; Odunsi, Adekunke; Okada, Hideho; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Peter, Marcus E; Pienta, Kenneth J; Porgador, Angel; Prendergast, George C; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rizvi, Naiyer; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Schreiber, Hans; Seliger, Barbara; Shiku, Hiroshi; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Smyth, Mark J; Speiser, Daniel E; Spisek, Radek; Srivastava, Pramod K; Talmadge, James E; Tartour, Eric; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H; Van Den Eynde, Benoît J; Vile, Richard; Wagner, Hermann; Weber, Jeffrey S; Whiteside, Theresa L; Wolchok, Jedd D; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zou, Weiping; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-12-30

    During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches. PMID:25537519

  8. Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Pedro, José-Manuel Bravo-San; Buqué, Aitziber; Senovilla, Laura; Baracco, Elisa Elena; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apte, Ron N.; Aranda, Fernando; Ayyoub, Maha; Beckhove, Philipp; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bracci, Laura; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Estaban; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Clayton, Aled; Colombo, Mario P.; Coussens, Lisa; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Fridman, Wolf H.; Fu?íková, Jitka; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hoos, Axel; Hosmalin, Anne; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kärre, Klas; Kepp, Oliver; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John M.; Klein, Eva; Knuth, Alexander; Lewis, Claire E.; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T.; Lugli, Enrico; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Mavilio, Domenico; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Moretta, Lorenzo; Odunsi, Adekunke; Okada, Hideho; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Peter, Marcus E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Porgador, Angel; Prendergast, George C.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rizvi, Naiyer; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Schreiber, Hans; Seliger, Barbara; Shiku, Hiroshi; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Smyth, Mark J.; Speiser, Daniel E.; Spisek, Radek; Srivastava, Pramod K.; Talmadge, James E.; Tartour, Eric; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Van Den Eynde, Benoît J.; Vile, Richard; Wagner, Hermann; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zou, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into “passive” and “active” based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches. PMID:25537519

  9. Semi-synthetic mithramycin SA derivatives with improved anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Daniel; Chen, Jhong-Min; Bae, Younsoo; Rohr, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    Mithramycin (MTM) is a potent anti-cancer agent that has recently garnered renewed attention. This manuscript describes the design and development of mithramycin derivatives through a combinational approach of biosynthetic analogue generation followed by synthetic manipulation for further derivatization. Mithramycin SA is a previously discovered analogue produced by the M7W1 mutant strain alongside the improved mithramycin analogues mithramycin SK and mithramycin SDK. Mithramycin SA shows decreased anti-cancer activity compared to mithramycin and has a shorter, two carbon aglycon side chain that is terminated in a carboxylic acid. The aglycon side chain is responsible for an interaction with the DNA-phosphate backbone as mithramycin interacts with its target DNA. It was therefore decided to further functionalize this side chain through reactions with the terminal carboxylic acid in an effort to enhance the interaction with the DNA phosphate backbone and improve the anti-cancer activity. This side chain was modified with a variety of molecules increasing the anti-cancer activity to a comparable level to mithramycin SK. This work shows the ability to transform the previously useless mithramycin SA into a valuable molecule and opens the door to further functionalization and semi-synthetic modification for the development of molecules with increased specificity and/or drug formulation. PMID:23331575

  10. Synergistic Anti-Cancer Effect of Phenformin and Oxamate

    PubMed Central

    Miskimins, W. Keith; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Kim, Ji Yeon; Ryu, Sun; Jung, Yuh-Seog; Choi, Joon Young

    2014-01-01

    Phenformin (phenethylbiguanide; an anti-diabetic agent) plus oxamate [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor] was tested as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic combination. In in vitro studies, phenformin was more potent than metformin, another biguanide, recently recognized to have anti-cancer effects, in promoting cancer cell death in the range of 25 times to 15 million times in various cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer effect of phenformin was related to complex I inhibition in the mitochondria and subsequent overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Addition of oxamate inhibited LDH activity and lactate production by cells, which is a major side effect of biguanides, and induced more rapid cancer cell death by decreasing ATP production and accelerating ROS production. Phenformin plus oxamate was more effective than phenformin combined with LDH knockdown. In a syngeneic mouse model, phenformin with oxamate increased tumor apoptosis, reduced tumor size and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared to control. We conclude that phenformin is more cytotoxic towards cancer cells than metformin. Furthermore, phenformin and oxamate have synergistic anti-cancer effects through simultaneous inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and LDH in the cytosol, respectively. PMID:24465604

  11. Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyeong Jin; Kang, Joo-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400°C, and then reacted with drug solution to simultaneously form drug-incorporated LDH. Thus prepared MTX/LDH (ML), 5-FU/LDH (FL), and (MTX + 5-FU)/LDH (MFL) nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, and so forth. The nanohybrids were administrated to the human cervical adenocarcinoma, HeLa cells, in concentration-dependent manner, comparing with drug itself to verify the enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion. All the nanohybrids successfully accommodated intended drug molecules in their house-of-card-like structures during reconstruction reaction. It was found that the anticancer efficacy of MFL nanohybrid was higher than other nanohybrids, free drugs, or their mixtures, which means the multidrug-incorporated LDH nanohybrids could be potential drug delivery carriers for efficient cancer treatment via combination therapy. PMID:24860812

  12. Anticancer activity of Amauroderma rude.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chunwei; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Xiangling; Li, Haoran; Li, Xiang-Min; Pan, Hong-Hui; Cai, Mian-Hua; Zhong, Hua-Mei; Yang, Burton B

    2013-01-01

    More and more medicinal mushrooms have been widely used as a miraculous herb for health promotion, especially by cancer patients. Here we report screening thirteen mushrooms for anti-cancer cell activities in eleven different cell lines. Of the herbal products tested, we found that the extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity in killing most of these cancer cell lines. Amauroderma rude is a fungus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family. The Amauroderma genus contains approximately 30 species widespread throughout the tropical areas. Since the biological function of Amauroderma rude is unknown, we examined its anti-cancer effect on breast carcinoma cell lines. We compared the anti-cancer activity of Amauroderma rude and Ganoderma lucidum, the most well-known medicinal mushrooms with anti-cancer activity and found that Amauroderma rude had significantly higher activity in killing cancer cells than Ganoderma lucidum. We then examined the effect of Amauroderma rude on breast cancer cells and found that at low concentrations, Amauroderma rude could inhibit cancer cell survival and induce apoptosis. Treated cancer cells also formed fewer and smaller colonies than the untreated cells. When nude mice bearing tumors were injected with Amauroderma rude extract, the tumors grew at a slower rate than the control. Examination of these tumors revealed extensive cell death, decreased proliferation rate as stained by Ki67, and increased apoptosis as stained by TUNEL. Suppression of c-myc expression appeared to be associated with these effects. Taken together, Amauroderma rude represented a powerful medicinal mushroom with anti-cancer activities. PMID:23840494

  13. Anti-cancer pyrimidines in diverse scaffolds: a review of patent literature.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Kaur, Prabhkirat; Sharma, Sahil; Singh, Gurpreet; Mehndiratta, Samir; Bedi, Preet M S; Nepali, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Pyrimidine ring is the building unit of DNA and RNA and thus pyrimidine based chemical architectures exhibit diverse pharmacological activities. Among the reported medicinal attributes of pyrimidines, anticancer activity is the most extensively reported. The anticancer potential of pyrimidines in fused scaffolds has also been evidenced through number of research article and patent literature. The pyrimidines based scaffolds have exerted their cell killing effects through varied mechanisms which indicate their potential to interact with diverse enzymes/ targets/receptors. This review article strictly focuses on the patent literature from 2009 onwards. The structure of the potent compounds, their IC50 values, models/assays used for the anticancer evaluation and the enzymes/ receptors/ targets involved have been presented in this compilation. Significant number of patents i.e. 59 have been published on pyrimidine based anticancer agents from 2009-2014 (from 2009 through the present date) which clearly indicate that this heterocycle is an area of focus at present for researchers all over the globe. Moreover, out of the 59 patents published during this period, 32 have been published from 2012 onwards which further highlights the present interest of the researcher towards pyrimidine based anticancer agents. The promising activity displayed by these pyrimidine based scaffolds clearly places them in forefront as potential future drug candidates. The present compilation can be extremely beneficial for the medicinal chemists working on design and synthesis of anticancer drugs. PMID:25230072

  14. Potential Anti-cancer Drugs Commonly Used for Other Indications.

    PubMed

    Hanusova, Veronika; Skalova, Lenka; Kralova, Vera; Matouskova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    An increasing resistance of mammalian tumor cells to chemotherapy along with the severe side effects of commonly used cytostatics has raised the urgency in the search for new anti-cancer agents. Several drugs originally approved for indications other than cancer treatment have recently been found to have a cytostatic effect on cancer cells. These drugs could be expediently repurposed as anti-cancer agents, since they have already been tested for toxicity in humans and animals. The groups of newly recognized potential cytostatics discussed in this review include benzimidazole anthelmintics (albendazole, mebendazole, flubendazole), anti-hypertensive drugs (doxazosin, propranolol), psychopharmaceuticals (chlorpromazine, clomipramine) and antidiabetic drugs (metformin, pioglitazone). All these drugs have a definite potential to be used especially in combinations with other cytostatics; the chemotherapy targeting of multiple sites now represents a promising approach in cancer treatment. The present review summarizes recent information about the anti-cancer effects of selected drugs commonly used for other medical indications. Our aim is not to collect all the reported results, but to present an overview of various possibilities. Advantages, disadvantages and further perspectives regarding individual drugs are discussed and evaluated. PMID:25544649

  15. Anticancer activity of bisphosphonates in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gnant, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Despite progress in surgical and adjuvant therapy, a subset of patients with early stage breast cancer experience disease recurrence and/or distant metastases. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow are believed to be the source of late relapses in bone and other tissues. Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis, and agents that modify the bone microenvironment could therefore affect the disease course. Bisphosphonates are an effective bone-targeted therapeutic option for preventing cancer treatment- induced bone loss (CTIBL) in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Bisphosphonates inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby inhibiting the release of growth factors necessary to promote cancer cell growth, differentiation, and tumor formation in bone. Preclinical and clinical data also suggest anticancer synergy between cytotoxic chemotherapy agents and bisphosphonates. Recent trials of zoledronic acid in the adjuvant setting in breast cancer have demonstrated reduced disease recurrence in bone and other sites. Currently, several ongoing clinical trials are evaluating whether antiresorptives can inhibit disease recurrence and the development of bone metastases from breast cancer. Based on recent data, the role of bisphosphonates in the breast cancer setting is expected to expand in the future. With recent changes to treatment guidelines, routine use of bisphosphonates to prevent bone loss during adjuvant therapy is likely to become standard practice, especially for patients receiving endocrine therapy. Furthermore, the use of zoledronic acid to reduce the risk of recurrence is emerging based on ongoing clinical research. PMID:21864231

  16. Anticancer principles from medicinal piper ( hú ji?o) plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper ( Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  17. Efficacy of Acylfulvene Illudin analogues against a metastatic lung carcinoma MV522 xenograft nonresponsive to traditional anticancer agents: retention of activity against various mdr phenotypes and unusual cytotoxicity against ERCC2 and ERCC3 DNA helicase-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Kelner, M J; McMorris, T C; Estes, L; Starr, R J; Rutherford, M; Montoya, M; Samson, K M; Taetle, R

    1995-11-01

    Four second-generation Illudin analogues were synthesized and tested for antitumor activity using a metastatic lung carcinoma xenograft model resistant to conventional antitumor agents. One analogue, the parent illudofulvene-derivative called Acylfulvene, inhibited xenograft primary tumor growth and prolonged life span of tumor-bearing animals when administered i.p. or i.v. The efficacy of Acylfulvene exceeded that of mitomycin C, cisplatin, paclitaxol, the parent compound Illudin S, and an earlier analogue, dehydroilludin M. Promising features of this new analogue are: (a) the retention of in vitro activity against a variety of mdr tumor phenotypes including gp170+, gp150+, GSHTR-Pi, topoisomerase I, and topoisomerase II mutants; and (b) an apparent selective cytotoxicity toward cells deficient in either ERCC2 or ERCC3 DNA helicase activity. PMID:7585533

  18. EF24 and RAD001 potentiates the anticancer effect of platinum-based agents in human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) cells and protects nonmalignant mesothelial (MET-5A) cells.

    PubMed

    Onen, H I; Yilmaz, A; Alp, E; Celik, A; Demiroz, S M; Konac, E; Kurul, I C; Menevse, E S

    2015-02-01

    The most widespread neoplasm of the pleura is malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) with low prevalence rate. The mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway, inhibited by RAD001, was shown to be deregulated in MPM development and considered a novel target for the MPM therapy. The EF24, a curcumin analog, also affects several signaling pathways and kills cancer cells as a single agent or in combination with classical drugs. We aimed to evaluate possible effects of RAD001, EF24, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin treatments on both malignant pleural mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) and nonmalignant mesothelial (Met-5A) cell lines. The effects of the agents on MSTO-211H and Met-5A cells were evaluated in terms of cell viability, cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis rate, quantitation of apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and cleaved caspase 3 levels. Moreover, quantitative messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis of apoptotic (CASP9) and antiapoptotic (BCL2L1 and BCL2) genes were also performed. We found that both EF24 and RAD001 alone treatments decreased only MSTO-211H cell viability, but cisplatin and oxaliplatin affected both cell lines. Pretreatment with EF24 or RAD001 followed by cisplatin increased the effects of cisplatin alone application. EF24 and RAD001 pretreatment decreased DNA fragmentation rate when compared with cisplatin alone treatment in Met-5A cells. Sequential treatments resulted in a significant increase of CASP9 mRNA expression in MSTO-211H cells but not in Met-5A cells. Our preliminary results suggest that pretreatment with EF24 or RAD001 may reduce cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on nonmalignant mesothelial cells and increase cell death response of MPM cells. Further analyses using animal models are needed to confirm these findings in vivo. PMID:25028262

  19. Clinical Pharmacology and Anticancer Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Rodríguez-Antona; Julia Kirchheiner

    \\u000a Anticancer drugs are usually aggressive and during treatment result in toxicity, not only in the tumoral cells, but also in\\u000a normal tissues. There exists a large inter-patient variability in human response to chemotherapy, leading to toxicity for\\u000a some patients, lack of efficacy for others, and a satisfactory response in only a fraction of patients. One of the major objectives\\u000a of

  20. Evaluation of anticancer activity of celastrol liposomes in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Joy; Suri, Krishna; Huang, Yi; Molinaro, Roberto; Borsoi, Carlotta; Scott, Bronwyn; Boom, Kathryn; Paolino, Donatella; Fresta, Massimo; Wang, Jianghua; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Context Celastrol, a natural compound derived from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii, is known to have anticancer activity, but is not soluble in water. Objective Formation of celastrol liposomes, to avoid the use of toxic solubilizing agents. Materials and methods Two different formulations of pegylated celastrol liposomes were fabricated. Liposomal characteristics and serum stability were determined using dynamic light scattering. Drug entrapment efficacy and drug release were measured spectrophotometrically. Cellular internalization and anticancer activity was measured in prostate cancer cells. Results Liposomal celastrol displayed efficient serum stability, cellular internalization and anticancer activity, comparable to that of the free drug reconstituted in dimethyl sulfoxide. Discussion and conclusion Liposomal celastrol can decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells, while eliminating the need for toxic solubilizing agents. PMID:24654943

  1. Synthesis and biological studies of the thiols-triggered anticancer prodrug for a more effective cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanzhen; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Ya; Peng, Shoujiao; Gu, Xueyan; Sun, Meng; Gao, Kun; Fang, Jianguo

    2015-02-18

    A novel anticancer prodrug compound , which was designed to be triggered by thiols and release the chemotherapeutic agent mechlorethamine, was successfully prepared and evaluated for the first time. The activation of compound was determined by NMR analysis and denaturing alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. A fluorescence image and comet assay indicated that the inducible reactivity of could be accomplished in cell media. The anticancer activities are also discussed. PMID:25581090

  2. Sequence Effect of Self-Assembling Peptides on the Complexation and In Vitro Delivery of the Hydrophobic Anticancer Drug Ellipticine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan Yu Fung; Hong Yang; P. Chen; Shuguang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A special class of self-assembling peptides has been found to be capable of stabilizing the hydrophobic anticancer agent ellipticine in aqueous solution. Here we study the effect of peptide sequence on the complex formation and its anticancer activity in vitro. Three peptides, EAK16-II, EAK16-IV and EFK16-II, were selected to have either a different charge distribution (EAK16-II vs. EAK16-IV) or a

  3. Genetic Interactions of STAT3 and Anticancer Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bingliang

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. This review focuses on functional regulation of STAT3 activity; possible interactions of the STAT3, RAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and reduction-oxidation pathways; and molecular mechanisms that modulate therapeutic efficacies of STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:24662938

  4. Some Novel Adenosine Mimics: Synthesis and Anticancer Potential against Cervical Cancer caused by Human Papilloma Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarika Sinha; Richa Srivastava; Bhupesh Prusty; B. C. Das; Ramendra K. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Two novel adenosine analogs, viz. 9-(1?-?-D-arabinofuranosyl)-6-nitro-1,3-dideazapurine or Ara-NDDP (1) and 9-(5?-deoxy-5?-S-(propionic acid) (1?-?-D-ribofuranosyl) adenine or SAH analog (2), indigenously synthesized, have been found to be potential anticancer agents against cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus.

  5. Metabolomics-edited transcriptomics analysis of Se anticancer action in human lung cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa W. M. Fan; Laura L. Bandura; Richard M. Higashi

    2005-01-01

       Transcriptomic analysis is an essential tool for systems biology but it has been stymied by a lack of global understanding of genomic functions, resulting in the inability to link functionally disparate gene expression events. Using the anticancer agent selenite and human lung cancer A549 cells as a model system, we demonstrate that these difficulties can be overcome by a progressive

  6. Dihydromyricetin prevents cardiotoxicity and enhances anticancer activity induced by adriamycin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Peihua; Fu, Yingying; Wang, Jincheng; Dai, Jiabin; Shao, Jinjin; Yang, Xiaochun; Chang, Linlin; Weng, Qinjie; Yang, Bo; He, Qiaojun

    2015-02-20

    Adriamycin, a widely used anthracycline antibiotic in multiple chemotherapy regimens, has been challenged by the cardiotoxicity leading to fatal congestive heart failure in the worst condition. The present study demonstrated that Dihydromyricetin, a natural product extracted from ampelopsis grossedentat, exerted cardioprotective effect against the injury in Adriamycin-administrated ICR mice. Dihydromyricetin decreased ALT, LDH and CKMB levels in mice serum, causing a significant reduction in the toxic death triggered by Adriamycin. The protective effects were also indicated by the alleviation of abnormal electrocardiographic changes, the abrogation of proliferation arrest and apoptotic cell death in primary myocardial cells. Further study revealed that Dihydromyricetin-rescued loss of anti-apoptosis protein ARC provoked by Adriamycin was involved in the cardioprotection. Intriguingly, the anticancer activity of Adriamycin was not compromised upon the combination with Dihydromyricetin, as demonstrated by the enhanced anticancer effect achieved by Adriamycin plus Dihydromyricetin in human leukemia U937 cells and xenograft models, in a p53-dependent manner. These results collectively promised the potential value of Dihydromyricetin as a rational cardioprotective agent of Adriamycin, by protecting myocardial cells from apoptosis, while potentiating anticancer activities of Adriamycin, thus further increasing the therapeutic window of the latter one. PMID:25226612

  7. Identification of potential anticancer compounds from Oplopanax horridus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyu; Huang, Wei-Hua; Du, Guang-Jian; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Calway, Tyler; Yu, Chunhao; Nass, Rachael; Zhao, Jing; Du, Wei; Li, Shao-Ping; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-08-15

    Oplopanax horridus is a plant native to North America. Previous reports have demonstrated that this herb has antiproliferative effects on cancer cells but study mostly focused on its extract or fractions. Because there has been limited phytochemical study on this herb, its bioactive compounds are largely unknown. We recently isolated and identified 13 compounds, including six polyynes, three sesquiterpenes, two steroids, and two phenolic acids, of which five are novel compounds. In this study, we systemically evaluated the anticancer effects of compounds isolated from O. horridus. Their antiproliferative effects on a panel of human colorectal and breast cancer cells were determined using the MTS assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry. The in vivo antitumor effect was examined using a xenograft tumor model. Among the 13 compounds, strong antiproliferative effects were observed from falcarindiol and a novel compound oplopantriol A. Falcarindiol showed the most potent antiproliferative effects, significantly inducing pro-apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases. The anticancer potential of falcarindiol was further verified in vivo, significantly inhibiting HCT-116 tumor growth in an athymic nude mouse model at 15 mg/kg. We also analyzed the relationship between polyyne structures and their pharmacological activities. We observed that both the terminal hydroxyl group and double bond obviously affected their anticancer potential. Results from this study supplied valuable information for future semi-synthesis of polyyne derivatives to develop novel cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:23746754

  8. Nanocarriers for anticancer drugs--new trends in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Drbohlavova, Jana; Chomoucka, Jana; Adam, Vojtech; Ryvolova, Marketa; Eckschlager, Tomas; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene

    2013-06-01

    This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for targeted drug delivery used in cancer therapy and summarizes advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Particularly, the attention was paid to polymeric nanocarriers, liposomes, micelles, polyethylene glycol, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), dendrimers, gold and magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes. Further, this paper briefly focuses on several anticancer agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, camptothecin, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, cisplatin, curcumin, and geldanamycin) and on the influence of their combination with nanoparticulate transporters to their properties such as cytotoxicity, short life time and/or solubility. PMID:23687925

  9. [The role and mechanism of anticancer of dihydroartemisinin].

    PubMed

    Jia, Lifeng; Li, Xiaoming

    2013-09-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, has recently shown antitumor activity in various cancer cells including cancers of cervix, pancreas, prostate, liver and neuroblastoma. Numerous studies in vivo and in vitro indicate that DHA possesses unique antitumor features and appears to be a promising chemotherapeutic agents. Here we systematically review the advances in research of anticancer of dihydroartemisinin, as well as summarize the mechanisms of its inducing apoptosis,delay cell-cycle, inhibitory cell proliferation and downregulate angiogenesis. PMID:24459940

  10. PARP inhibitors: current status and implications for anticancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) comprise of a large family of 17 proteins encoded by various genes which participate in genome maintenance, apoptosis, inflammatory responses and the regulation of gene expression programs. PARP inhibitors, as therapeutic agents, come into play acting on both PARP 1 and PARP 2. These drugs seem to target tumor cells in a moment of vulnerability when they are undergoing DNA repair. In the past few years this class of anti-cancer drug has been discovered to show a promising niche in the clinic. PMID:24289880

  11. Targeting cancer chemotherapeutic agents by use of lipiodol contrast medium

    SciTech Connect

    Konno, T. (Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    Arterially administered Lipiodol Ultrafluid contrast medium selectively remained in various malignant solid tumors because of the difference in time required for the removal of Lipiodol contrast medium from normal capillaries and tumor neovasculature. Although blood flow was maintained in the tumor, even immediately after injection Lipiodol contrast medium remained in the neovasculature of the tumor. To target anti-cancer agents to tumors by using Lipiodol contrast medium as a carrier, the characteristics of the agents were examined. Anti-cancer agents had to be soluble in Lipiodol, be stable in it, and separate gradually from it so that the anti-cancer agents would selectively remain in the tumor. These conditions were found to be necessary on the basis of the measurement of radioactivity in VX2 tumors implanted in the liver of 16 rabbits that received arterial injections of 14C-labeled doxorubicin. Antitumor activities and side effects of arterial injections of two types of anti-cancer agents were compared in 76 rabbits with VX2 tumors. Oily anti-cancer agents that had characteristics essential for targeting were compared with simple mixtures of anti-cancer agents with Lipiodol contrast medium that did not have these essential characteristics. Groups of rabbits that received oily anti-cancer agents responded significantly better than groups that received simple mixtures, and side effects were observed more frequently in the groups that received the simple mixtures. These results suggest that targeting of the anti-cancer agent to the tumor is important for treatment of solid malignant tumors.

  12. PP2A-Mediated Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunping

    2013-01-01

    PP2A is a family of mammalian serine/threonine phosphatases that is involved in the control of many cellular functions including protein synthesis, cellular signaling, cell cycle determination, apoptosis, metabolism, and stress responses through the negative regulation of signaling pathways initiated by protein kinases. Rapid progress is being made in the understanding of PP2A complex and its functions. Emerging studies have correlated changes in PP2A with human diseases, especially cancer. PP2A is comprised of 3 subunits: a catalytic subunit, a scaffolding subunit, and a regulatory subunit. The alternations of the subunits have been shown to be in association with many human malignancies. Therapeutic agents targeting PP2A inhibitors or activating PP2A directly have shed light on the therapy of cancers. This review focuses on PP2A structure, cancer-associated mutations, and the targeting of PP2A-related molecules to restore or reactivate PP2A in anticancer therapy, especially in digestive system cancer therapy. PMID:24307892

  13. Functional and structural characteristics of anticancer peptide Pep27 analogues

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Gun; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Park, Yoonkyung; Kim, Hai-Young; Lee, Weontae; Lim, Sung-Chul; Seo, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Cheol-Hee

    2005-01-01

    Background A secreted peptide Pep27 initiates the cell death program in S. pneumoniae through signal transduction. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relation between the structure and cytotoxic activity of Pep27 and its analogues on cancer cells. Results Pep27anal2 characterized substituting (2R?W), (4E?W), (11S?W) and (13Q?W) in native Pep27, exhibited greater hydrophobicity and anticancer activity than Pep27 and other analogues. The IC50 values of Pep27anal2 were approximately 10 – 30 ?M in a number of cell lines (AML-2, HL-60, Jurkat, MCF-7 and SNU-601). Confocal microscopy showed that Pep27anal2-FITC was localized in the plasma membrane, and then moving from the membrane to subcellular compartments with the initiation of membrane blebbing. Flow cytometric analysis using propidium iodide and Annexin V also revealed that Pep27anal2 induced apoptosis with minor membrane damage. Electron microscopy revealed that Pep27 induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. The anticancer activity of Pep27anal2 was neither abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) nor related to cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The 3D solution structures of these two Pep27 peptides revealed that both form a random coil conformation in water; however, they adopted stable ?-helical conformations in solutions. Conclusion The results indicate that Pep27anal2 can penetrate the plasma membrane, and then induce apoptosis in both caspase-and cytochrome c-independent manner. The hydrophobicity of Pep27anal2 appears to play an important role in membrane permeabilization and/or anticancer properties. The structure-functional relationships of these peptides are also discussed. It is proposed that Pep27anal2 is a potential candidate for anticancer therapeutic agents. PMID:16004618

  14. Terrestrial Plant-Derived Anticancer Agents and Plant Species Used in Anticancer Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spiridon E. Kintzios

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of death and the number of new cases, as well as the number of individuals living with cancer, is expanding continuously. Due to the enormous propensity of plants that synthesize mixtures of structurally diverse bioactive compounds, the plant kingdom is potentially a very diverse source of chemical constituents with tumor cytotoxic activity. Despite the successful

  15. Development and characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles for the delivery of anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Harshita; Kumar, Krishan; Choudhary, Chetan; Mishra, Pawan K; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2014-11-19

    The aim of the study was to prepare chemotherapeutic agent-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of drug, for better therapeutic activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have inherent anticancer properties, hence it was envisaged that by loading the anticancer drug into zinc oxide nanoparticles, enhanced anticancer activity might be observed. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Starch was used as the stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles prepared were characterized for size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. Further, cell line studies were performed to evaluate cellular uptake and cytotoxicity profile using MCF-7 cells. A hemolysis study was performed to check the acute toxicity of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were found to be 476.4 ± 2.51 nm in size, with low PDI (0.312 ± 0.02) and high entrapment efficiency (> 85%). The nanoparticles were stable, and did not form aggregates on storage in the dispersed form. A cytotoxicity study demonstrated that drug-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited higher anticancer activity as compared to either blank zinc oxide nanoparticles and doxorubicin (DOX) alone, or their mixture. A hemolytic test revealed that the prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles caused negligible hemolysis. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded with DOX resulted in better uptake of the chemotherapeutic agent, and at the same time, showed low toxicity towards normal cells. PMID:25406734

  16. Targeting protein-protein interactions as an anticancer strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei A.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and convergence of cancer genomics, targeted therapies, and network oncology have significantly expanded the landscape of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in cancer for therapeutic discovery. Extensive biological and clinical investigations have led to the identification of protein interaction hubs and nodes that are critical for the acquisition and maintaining characteristics of cancer essential for cell transformation. Such cancer enabling PPIs have become promising therapeutic targets. With technological advances in PPI modulator discovery and validation of PPI-targeting agents in clinical settings, targeting PPI interfaces as an anticancer strategy has become a reality. Future research directed at genomics-based PPI target discovery, PPI interface characterization, PPI-focused chemical library design, and patient-genomic subpopulation-driven clinical studies is expected to accelerate the development of the next generation of PPI-based anticancer agents for personalized precision medicine. Here we briefly review prominent PPIs that mediate cancer-acquired properties, highlight recognized challenges and promising clinical results in targeting PPIs, and outline emerging opportunities. PMID:23725674

  17. Phytochemicals as Anticancer and Chemopreventive Topoisomerase II Poisons.

    PubMed

    Ketron, Adam C; Osheroff, Neil

    2014-03-01

    Phytochemicals are a rich source of anticancer drugs and chemopreventive agents. Several of these chemicals appear to exert at least some of their effects through interactions with topoisomerase II, an essential enzyme that regulates DNA supercoiling and removes knots and tangles from the genome. Topoisomerase II-active phytochemicals function by stabilizing covalent protein-cleaved DNA complexes that are intermediates in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. As a result, these compounds convert topoisomerase II to a cellular toxin that fragments the genome. Because of their mode of action, they are referred to as topoisomerase II poisons as opposed to catalytic inhibitors. The first sections of this article discuss DNA topology, the catalytic cycle of topoisomerase II, and the two mechanisms (interfacial vs. covalent) by which different classes of topoisomerase II poisons alter enzyme activity. Subsequent sections discuss the effects of several phytochemicals on the type II enzyme, including demethyl-epipodophyllotoxins (semisynthetic anticancer drugs) as well as flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, catechins, isothiocyanates, and curcumin (dietary chemopreventive agents). Finally, the leukemogenic potential of topoisomerase II-targeted phytochemicals is described. PMID:24678287

  18. Developments in the chemistry and nanodelivery of platinum anticancer agents

    E-print Network

    Johnstone, Timothy Charles

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half of all patients receiving cancer chemotherapy are treated with a platinum-containing drug. Despite this intense clinical use, only three platinum complexes, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, are ...

  19. MRP Subfamily Transporters and Resistance to Anticancer Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Kruh; Hao Zeng; Philip A. Rea; Guosheng Liu; Zhe-Sheng Chen; Kun Lee; Martin G. Belinsky

    2001-01-01

    The MRP subfamily of ABC transporters from mammals consists of at least seven members, six of which have been implicated in the transport of amphipathic anions. MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3 bear a close structural resemblance, confer resistance to a variety of natural products as well as methotrexate, and have the facility for transporting glutathione and glucuronate conjugates. MRP1 is a

  20. Synthesis of nitroaromatic compounds as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marcela Silva; de Andrade Sena, Camila Filizzola; Silva, Bruno Leonardo; de Souza, Cristina Maria; Ramos, Jonas Pereira; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Alves, Ricardo Jose; de Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven nitrated and non-nitrated compounds have been synthesized and tested for their growth inhibitory activity on three human cancer cells lines. Fourteen compounds were able to inhibit more than 50% of the growth of at least one of the cancer cell lines and five compounds exhibited high antiproliferative activity on human cancer cell lines (IC50 < 8.5 ?M). The cytotoxicity of the compounds on Vero cell line was established in vitro to evaluate the selectivity. All active compounds have a good leaving group (bromide or chloride) at the benzylic position, indicating that the mechanism of action of these compounds is related to their alkylating properties. Two compounds (3 and 24) were selected for further studies in mice with Ehrlich solid tumors and display significant antitumor effects in vivo. PMID:25403167

  1. Folate-mediated delivery of macromolecular anticancer therapeutic agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingjuan Lu; Philip S Low

    2002-01-01

    The receptor for folic acid constitutes a useful target for tumor-specific drug delivery, primarily because: (1) it is upregulated in many human cancers, including malignancies of the ovary, brain, kidney, breast, myeloid cells and lung, (2) access to the folate receptor in those normal tissues that express it can be severely limited due to its location on the apical (externally-facing)

  2. 7-Azaindenoisoquinolines as Topoisomerase I Inhibitors and Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kiselev, Evgeny; DeGuire, Sean; Morrell, Andrew; Agama, Keli; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Pommier, Yves; Cushman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A series of 7-azaindenoisoquinoline topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors have been prepared to investigate the effect of increased electron affinity of the aromatic system on the ability to stabilize the Top1-DNA cleavage complex. Ab initio calculations suggest that introduction of nitrogen into the aromatic system of the indenoisoquinolines would facilitate charge transfer complex formation with DNA, thus improving the ?-? stacking interactions. The present study shows that 7-azaindenoisoquinolines demonstrate improved water solubility without any decrease in Top1 inhibitory activity or cytotoxicity. Analysis of the biological results reveals that smaller lactam ring substituents enable intercalation into both free DNA and Top1-DNA cleavage complex, whereas larger substituents only allow binding to the cleavage complex, but not free DNA. Free DNA binding suppresses Top1-catalyzed DNA cleavage at high drug concentrations, whereas DNA-cleavage and inhibition of re-ligation occurs at low drug concentration. PMID:21823606

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of spiroisoxazoline oxindoles as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carlos J A; Amaral, Joana D; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Moreira, Rui; Santos, Maria M M

    2014-01-01

    Restoring p53 levels through disruption of p53-MDM2 interaction has been proved to be a valuable approach in fighting cancer. We herein report the synthesis and evaluation of eighteen spiroisoxazoline oxindoles derivatives as p53-MDM2 interaction inhibitors. Seven compounds showed an antiproliferative profile superior to the p53-MDM2 interaction inhibitor nutlin-3, and induced cell death by apoptosis. Moreover, proof-of-concept was demonstrated by inhibition of the interaction between p53 and MDM2 in a live-cell bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. PMID:24268795

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabinoids as Anti-cancer Agents

    E-print Network

    Sreevalsan, Sandeep

    2013-05-31

    from 1983-87 to 1998-2002 with more than 45% increase in men and 25% in women (34). This increase is attributed to the high prevalence of obesity owing to the increased availability and consumption of food products due to an improved economy...). In Spain there was an, 87% increase in colon cancer rates in men and 35% increase in women and these increases also correlated with increased westernization in Spain which was delayed until the mid-1970s (34). Among other developed nations, Japan recorded...

  5. [Anticancer propaganda: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Demin, E V; Merabishvili, V M

    2014-01-01

    The authors raise a very important problem of anticancer propaganda aimed at the early detection of cancer to be solved nowadays by means of screening and constructive interaction between oncologists and the public. To increase the level of knowledge of the population in this area it is necessary to expand the range of its adequate awareness of tumor diseases. Only joint efforts can limit the destructive effect of cancer on people's minds, so that every person would be responsible for his own health, clearly understanding the advantages of early visit to a doctor. This once again highlights the need of educational work with the public, motivational nature of which allows strengthening the value of screening in the whole complex of measures to fight cancer. PMID:24772625

  6. Bisphosphonamidate Clodronate Prodrug Exhibits Potent Anticancer Activity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Marie R.; Zhao, Ming; Rudek, Michelle A.; Hann, Christine L.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.

    2011-01-01

    Bisphoshonates are used clinically to treat disorders of calcium metabolism, hypercalcemia and osteoporosis, and malignant bone disease. Although these agents are commonly used in cancer patients and have potential direct anticancer effects, their use for the treatment of extraskeletal disease is limited as a result of poor cellular uptake. We have designed and synthesized bisphosphonamidate prodrugs that undergo intracellular activation to release the corresponding bisphosphonate and require only two enzymatic activation events to unmask multiple negative charges. We demonstrate efficient bisphosphonamidate activation and significant enhancement in anticancer activity of two bisphosphonamidate prodrugs in vitro compared to the parent bisphosphonate. These data suggest a novel approach to optimizing the anticancer activities of commonly used bisphosphonates. PMID:21863853

  7. Synthesis and anticancer activity of epipolythiodiketopiperazine alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Nicolas

    The epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) alkaloids are a highly complex class of natural products with potent anticancer activity. Herein, we report the application of a flexible and scalable synthesis, allowing the construction ...

  8. Pyrrolizines: Promising scaffolds for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Belal, Amany; El-Gendy, Bahaa El-Dien M

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolizine derivatives constitute a class of heterocyclic compounds which can serve as promising scaffolds for anticancer drugs. The unique antitumor properties of mitomycin C inspired chemists to develop different pyrrolizine systems and assess their potential antitumor activities against a wide variety of cancer types. Here we review the different classes of pyrrolizines that possess anticancer potency, with an emphasis on their structure activity relationships, in an effort to pave the way for further development in this promising area of research. PMID:24331756

  9. Nanoscale coordination polymers for anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rachel Huxford

    This dissertation reports the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) for anticancer drug delivery. Nanoparticles have been explored in order to address the limitations of small molecule chemotherapeutics. NCPs have been investigated as drug delivery vehicles as they can exhibit the same beneficial properties as the bulk metal-organic frameworks as well as interesting characteristics that are unique to nanomaterials. Gd-MTX (MTX = methotrexate) NCPs with a MTX loading of 71.6 wt% were synthesized and stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid bilayer containing anisamide (AA), a small molecule that targets sigma receptors which are overexpressed in many cancer tissues. Functionalization with AA allows for targeted delivery and controlled release to cancer cells, as shown by enhanced efficacy against leukemia cells. The NCPs were doped with Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and this formulation was utilized as an optical imaging agent by confocal microscopy. NCPs containing the chemotherapeutic pemetrexed (PMX) were synthesized using different binding metals. Zr-based materials could not be stabilized by encapsulation with a lipid bilayer, and Gd-based materials showed that PMX had degraded during synthesis. However, Hf-based NCPs containing 19.7 wt% PMX were stabilized by a lipid coating and showed in vitro efficacy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Enhanced efficacy was observed for formulations containing AA. Additionally, NCP formulations containing the cisplatin prodrug disuccinatocisplatin were prepared; one of these formulations could be stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid layer. Coating with a lipid layer doped with AA rendered this formulation an active targeting agent. The resulting formulation proved more potent than free cisplatin in NSCLC cell lines. Improved NCP uptake was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and competitive binding assays. Finally, a Pt(IV) oxaliplatin prodrug was synthesized and incorporated in different NCPs using various binding metals. A moderate drug loading of 44.9 wt% was determined for Zr-based NCPs. This drug loading, along with a diameter less than 200 nm, make these particles promising candidates for further stabilization via lipid encapsulation.

  10. Anticancer potential of Syzygium aromaticum L. in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parvinnesh S.; Febriyanti, Raden M.; Sofyan, Ferry F.; Luftimas, Dimas E.; Abdulah, Rizky

    2014-01-01

    Background: The common treatment for cancer is unfavorable because it causes many detrimental side effects, and lately, there has been a growing resistance toward anticancer drugs, which worsens the future of cancer treatment. Therefore, the focus has now shifted toward natural products, such as spices and plants, among many others, to save the future of cancer treatment. Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) are spices with the highest antioxidant content among natural products. Besides acting as an antioxidant, cloves also possess many other functions, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiseptic, which makes them an ideal natural source to be developed as an anticancer agent. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of cloves toward MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of water extract, ethanol extract, and essential oil of cloves were investigated for their anticancer potential in vitro through a brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) and an MTT assay. Results: In both BSLT and MTT assays, the essential oil showed the highest cytotoxic effect, followed by ethanol and water extract. The LD50 concentration of essential oil in the 24 hours BSLT was 37 ?g/mL. Furthermore, the IC50 values in the 24 hours and 48 hours MTT assays of the essential oil were 36.43 ?g/mL and 17.6 ?g/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Cloves are natural products with excellent cytotoxicity toward MCF-7 cells; thus, they are promising sources for the development of anticancer agents. PMID:25276075

  11. Serendipity in anticancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave-Thomas, Emily; Yu, Bo; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2012-01-01

    It was found that the discovery of 5.8% (84/1437) of all drugs on the market involved serendipity. Of these drugs, 31 (2.2%) were discovered following an incident in the laboratory and 53 (3.7%) were discovered in a clinical setting. In addition, 263 (18.3%) of the pharmaceuticals in clinical use today are chemical derivatives of the drugs discovered with the aid of serendipity. Therefore, in total, 24.1% (347/1437) of marketed drugs can be directly traced to serendipitous events confirming the importance of this elusive phenomenon. In the case of anticancer drugs, 35.2% (31/88) can be attributed to a serendipitous event, which is somewhat larger than for all drugs. The therapeutic field that has benefited the most from serendipity are central nervous system active drugs reflecting the difficulty in designing compounds to pass the blood-brain-barrier and the lack of laboratory-based assays for many of the diseases of the mind. PMID:22247822

  12. Anti-Cancer Effects of Xanthones from Pericarps of Mangosteen

    PubMed Central

    Akao, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Iinuma, Munekazu; Nozawa, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a tree found in South East Asia, and its pericarps have been used as traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that they contain a variety of secondary metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated xanthones. Recent studies revealed that these xanthones exhibited a variety of biological activities containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. We previously investigated the anti-proliferative effects of four prenylated xanthones from the pericarps; ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, and methoxy-?-mangostin in various human cancer cells. These xanthones are different in the number of hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for methoxy-?-mangostin, the other three xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at low concentrations from 5 to 20 ?M in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study focused on the mechanism of ?-mangostin-induced growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown that the anti-proliferative effects of the xanthones were associated with cell-cycle arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by ?-mangostin and ?-Mangostin, and S arrest by ?-mangostin. ?-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic pathway following the down-regulation of signaling cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine kinase Akt. Synergistic effects by the combined treatment of ?-mangostin and anti-cancer drug 5-FU was to be noted. ?-Mangostin was found to have a cancer preventive effect in rat carcinogenesis bioassay and the extract from pericarps, which contains mainly ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin, exhibited an enhancement of NK cell activity in a mouse model. These findings could provide a relevant basis for the development of xanthones as an agent for cancer prevention and the combination therapy with anti-cancer drugs. PMID:19325754

  13. Anti-cancer therapies that utilize cell penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Benjamin G; Schroeder, Joyce A

    2010-06-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are 9-35mer cationic and/or amphipathic peptides that are rapidly internalized across cell membranes. Importantly, they can be linked to a variety of cargo, including anti-cancer therapeutics, making CPPs an efficient, effective and non-toxic mechanism for drug delivery. In this review, we discuss a number of CPP conjugated therapies (CTTs) that are either patented are in the progress of patenting, and show strong promise for clinical efficacy. The CTTs discussed here target a number of different processes specific to cancer progression, including proliferation, survival and migration. In addition, many of these CTTs also increase sensitivity to current anti-cancer therapy modalities, including radiation and other DNA damaging chemotherapies, thereby decreasing the toxic dosage required for effective treatment. Mechanistically, these CTTs function in a dominant-negative manner by blocking tumor-specific protein-protein interactions with the CPP-conjugated peptide or protein. The treatment of both cell lines and mouse models demonstrates that this method of molecular targeting results in equal if not greater efficacy than current standards of care, including DNA damaging agents and topoisomerase inhibitors. For the treatment of invasive carcinoma, these CTTs have significant clinical potential to deliver highly targeted therapies without sacrificing the patient's quality of life. PMID:19961434

  14. Sulforaphane mitigates genotoxicity induced by radiation and anticancer drugs in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Omika; Kumar, Arun; Adhikari, Jawahar S; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S; Agrawala, Paban K

    2013-12-12

    Sulforaphane, present in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is a dietary anticancer agent. Sulforaphane, added 2 or 20 h following phytohemaglutinin stimulation to cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals accidentally exposed to mixed ? and ?-radiation, reduced the micronucleus frequency by up to 70%. Studies with whole blood cultures obtained from healthy volunteers confirmed the ability of sulforaphane to ameliorate ?-radiation-induced genotoxicity and to reduce micronucleus induction by other DNA-damaging anticancer agents, such as bleomycin and doxorubicin. This reduction in genotoxicity in lymphocytes treated at the G(0) or G(1) stage suggests a role for sulforaphane in modulating DNA repair. Sulforaphane also countered the radiation-induced increase in lymphocyte HDAC activity, to control levels, when cells were treated 2 h after exposure, and enhanced histone H4 acetylation status. Sulforaphane post-irradiation treatment enhanced the CD 34(+)Lin(-) cell population in culture. Sulforaphane has therapeutic potential for management of the late effects of radiation. PMID:24004877

  15. Anti-cancer effects of 20(S)-protopanoxadiol on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines Reh and RS4;11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua SunQiong; Qiong Wang; Xinmin Liu; Nicolaas H. C. Brons; Ning Wang; André Steinmetz; Yali Lv; Yonghong Liao; Huyong Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Although the treatment outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been improved in the past decades by combination\\u000a chemotherapy, toxic side-effects of chemotherapeutics remain a major problem. Therefore, new alternative agents with low toxicity\\u000a are urgently needed. Natural products provide a rich source of screening potential anti-cancer drugs. 20(S)-protopanoxadiol\\u000a (PPD), a major gastrointestinal metabolic product of ginsenosides, exhibits promising anti-cancer

  16. Anticancer Activity of 2?, 3?, 19?, 23?-Tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic Acid (THA), a Novel Triterpenoid Isolated from Sinojackia sarcocarpa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ouchen Wang; Sujun Liu; Jiawei Zou; Liting Lu; Lin Chen; Sunquan Qiu; He Li; Xincheng Lu

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundNatural products represent an important source for agents of cancer prevention and cancer treatment. More than 60% of conventional anticancer drugs are derived from natural sources, particularly from plant-derived materials. In this study, 2?, 3?, 19?, 23?-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (THA), a novel triterpenoid from the leaves of Sinojackia sarcocarpa, was isolated, and its anticancer activity was investigated both in vitro and

  17. The prediction of Raman spectra of platinum(II) anticancer drugs by density functional theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danuta Michalska; Rafa? Wysoki?ski

    2005-01-01

    We present the method of theoretical calculations of the Raman intensities and the simulated Raman spectra of platinum(II) complexes. Theoretical Raman spectra of the anticancer agents: cisplatin (1), carboplatin (2), cis-[Pt(orotato)(NH3)2] (3), cis-[PtCl2(NH3)(2-picoline)], ZD0473 (4), and the two transient species of 4 (the hydrolysis products) were calculated by density functional mPW1PW method with several basis sets. For comparison, the experimental

  18. Does P-glycoprotein play a role in anticancer drug pharmacokinetics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Sparreboom; Kees Nooter

    2000-01-01

    The multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein is a drug efflux transport protein abundantly present in various types of human cancer. The protein is encoded by the MDR1 gene and its function is sensitive to modulation by competitive inhibition. Clinical studies have indicated that inhibitors of P-glycoprotein function dramatically decrease the systemic clearance of anticancer agents, necessitating dose reduction. This dose reduction not only

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-?B activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking I?B-? degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3?. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  20. A structural insight into hydroxamic acid based histone deacetylase inhibitors for the presence of anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Rajak, H; Singh, A; Raghuwanshi, K; Kumar, R; Dewangan, P K; Veerasamy, R; Sharma, P C; Dixit, A; Mishra, P

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been actively explored as anti-cancer agents due to their ability to prevent deacetylation of histones, resulting in uncoiling of chromatin and stimulation of a range of genes associated in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. During the past several years, many HDACi have entered pre-clinical or clinical research as anti-cancer agents with satisfying results. Out of these, more than 8 novel hydroxamic acid based HDACi i.e., belinostat, abexinostat, SB939, resminostat, givinostat, quisinostat, pentobinostat, CUDC-101 are in clinical trials and one of the drug vorinostat (SAHA) has been approved by US FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). It is clear from the plethora of new molecules and the encouraging results from clinical trials that this class of HDAC inhibitors hold a great deal of promise for the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this review, we classified the hydroxamic acid based HDACi on the basis of their structural features into saturated, unsaturated, branched, un-branched and 5, 6-membered cyclic ring linker present between zinc binding group and connecting unit. The present article enlists reports on hydroxamic acid based HDACi designed and developed using concepts of medicinal chemistry, demonstrating that hydroxamate derivatives represent a versatile class of compounds leading to novel imaging and therapeutic agents. This article will also provide a complete insight into various structural modifications required for optimum anticancer activity. PMID:23895688

  1. Iron Chelators with Topoisomerase-Inhibitory Activity and Their Anticancer Applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Iron and topoisomerases are abundant and essential cellular components. Iron is required for several key processes such as DNA synthesis, mitochondrial electron transport, synthesis of heme, and as a co-factor for many redox enzymes. Topoisomerases serve as critical enzymes that resolve topological problems during DNA synthesis, transcription, and repair. Neoplastic cells have higher uptake and utilization of iron, as well as elevated levels of topoisomerase family members. Separately, the chelation of iron and the cytotoxic inhibition of topoisomerase have yielded potent anticancer agents. Recent Advances: The chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and dexrazoxane both chelate iron and target topoisomerase 2 alpha (top2?). Newer chelators such as di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and thiosemicarbazone -24 have recently been identified as top2? inhibitors. The growing list of agents that appear to chelate iron and inhibit topoisomerases prompts the question of whether and how these two distinct mechanisms might interplay for a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic outcome. Critical Issues: While iron chelation and topoisomerase inhibition each represent mechanistically advantageous anticancer therapeutic strategies, dual targeting agents present an attractive multi-modal opportunity for enhanced anticancer tumor killing and overcoming drug resistance. The commonalities and caveats of dual inhibition are presented in this review. Future Directions: Gaps in knowledge, relevant biomarkers, and strategies for future in vivo studies with dual inhibitors are discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000. PMID:22900902

  2. Safe and targeted anticancer therapy for ovarian cancer using a novel class of curcumin analogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A diagnosis of advanced ovarian cancer is the beginning of a long and arduous journey for a patient. Worldwide, approximately half of the individuals undergoing therapy for advanced cancer will succumb to the disease, or consequences of treatment. Well-known and widely-used chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin are toxic to both cancer and non-cancerous cells, and have debilitating side effects Therefore, development of new targeted anticancer therapies that can selectively kill cancer cells while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues is essential to develop more effective therapies. We have developed a new class of synthetic curcumin analogs, diarylidenyl-piperidones (DAPs), which have higher anticancer activity and enhanced bio-absorption than curcumin. The DAP backbone structure exhibits cytotoxic (anticancer) activity, whereas the N-hydroxypyrroline (-NOH) moiety found on some variants functions as a cellular- or tissue-specific modulator (antioxidant) of cytotoxicity. The anticancer activity of the DAPs has been evaluated using a number of ovarian cancer cell lines, and the safety has been evaluated in a number of non-cancerous cell lines. Both variations of the DAP compounds showed similar levels of cell death in ovarian cancer cells, however the compounds with the -NOH modification were less toxic to non-cancerous cells. The selective cytotoxicity of the DAP–NOH compounds suggests that they will be useful as safe and effective anticancer agents. This article reviews some of the key findings of our work with the DAP compounds, and compares this to some of the targeted therapies currently used in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:23663277

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the acetone extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis. Methods Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five separate methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and ten species of fungi. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma) and LS174 (human colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT method. Results Of the lichens tested, Lecanora atra had largest free radical scavenging activity (94.7% inhibition), which was greater than the standard antioxidants. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. The strong relationships between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant effect of tested extracts were observed. Extract of Cladonia furcata was the most active antimicrobial agent with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.78 to 25 mg/mL. All extracts were found to be strong anticancer activity toward both cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8.51 to 40.22 ?g/mL. Conclusions The present study shows that tested lichen extracts demonstrated a strong antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. That suggest that lichens may be used as as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents to control various human, animal and plant diseases. PMID:22013953

  4. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. PMID:25280701

  5. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. PMID:23212988

  6. New anticancer antibiotic acts through diradical rearrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, S. (C and EN, Washington, DC (US))

    1990-05-28

    This paper reports that chemists have found and characterized an anticancer antibiotic, dynemicin A, that may be the fouth of a series of antibiotics that act by metabolic rearrangement to a diradical. If true, diradical precursors may represent an antibiotic strategy that evolved widely in nature. And, there may be many more anticancer antibiotics awaiting discovery. Also, the unique internal trigger that seems to set off the dynemicin rearrangement gives chemists a new understanding of how these compounds work. If, indeed, the anthraquinone nucleus in dynemicin A binds by intercalation between strands of DNA as is now thought, chemists will learn more about how to deliver drugs to specific sites.

  7. Comparison of Doxorubicin anticancer drug loading on different metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Javed, Khalid Rashid; Ahmad, Munir; Ali, Salamat; Butt, Muhammad Zakria; Nafees, Muhammad; Butt, Alvina Rafiq; Nadeem, Muhammad; Shahid, Abubakar

    2015-03-01

    Nanomaterials are being vigorously investigated for their use in anticancer drug delivery regimes or as biomarkers agents and are considered to be a candidate to provide a way to combat severe weaknesses of anticancer drug pharmacokinetics, such as their nonspecificity. Because of this weakness, a bigger proportion of the drug-loaded nanomaterials flow toward healthy tissues and result in undesirable side effects. It is very important to evaluate drug loading and release efficiency of various nanomaterials to find out true pharmacokinetics of these drugs.This observational study aims to evaluate various surface functionalized and naked nanomaterials for their drug loading capability and consequently strengthens the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). We analyzed naked and coated nanoparticles of transition metal oxides for their further loading with doxorubicin, a representative water-soluble anticancer drug.Various uncoated and polyethylene glycol-coated metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded with anticancer drug using simple stirring of the nanoparticles in a saturated aqueous solution of the drug. Results showed that surface-coated nanoparticles have higher drug-loading capabilities; however, certain naked metal oxide nanoparticles, such as cobalt oxide nanoparticles, can load a sufficient amount of drug. PMID:25789952

  8. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Standardized Dichloromethane Extract from Piper umbellatum L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Paula Araújo; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; Sousa, Ilza Maria de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in anticancer drug discovery field, the worldwide cancer incidence is remarkable, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on both cancer cell and its microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment offers multiple targets for cancer therapy, including inflammation. Nowadays, almost 75% of the anticancer agents used in chemotherapy are derived from natural products, and plants are an important source of new promising therapies. Continuing our research on Piper umbellatum species, here we describe the anticancer (in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo Ehrlich solid tumor model) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models) activities of a standardized dichloromethane extract (SDE) from P. umbellatum leaves, containing 23.9% of 4-nerolidylcatechol. SDE showed in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity, reducing Ehrlich solid tumor growth by 38.7 and 52.2% when doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg, respectively, were administered daily by oral route. Daily treatments did not produce signals of toxicity. SDE also reduced paw edema and leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced inflammation models, suggesting that the anticancer activity of SDE from Piper umbellatum leaves could involve antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. These findings highlight P. umbellatum as a source of compounds against cancer and inflammation. PMID:25713595

  9. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Standardized Dichloromethane Extract from Piper umbellatum L. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Paula Araújo; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; Sousa, Ilza Maria de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in anticancer drug discovery field, the worldwide cancer incidence is remarkable, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on both cancer cell and its microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment offers multiple targets for cancer therapy, including inflammation. Nowadays, almost 75% of the anticancer agents used in chemotherapy are derived from natural products, and plants are an important source of new promising therapies. Continuing our research on Piper umbellatum species, here we describe the anticancer (in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo Ehrlich solid tumor model) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models) activities of a standardized dichloromethane extract (SDE) from P. umbellatum leaves, containing 23.9% of 4-nerolidylcatechol. SDE showed in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity, reducing Ehrlich solid tumor growth by 38.7 and 52.2% when doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg, respectively, were administered daily by oral route. Daily treatments did not produce signals of toxicity. SDE also reduced paw edema and leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced inflammation models, suggesting that the anticancer activity of SDE from Piper umbellatum leaves could involve antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. These findings highlight P. umbellatum as a source of compounds against cancer and inflammation. PMID:25713595

  10. Telomerase inhibitory effects of medicinal mushrooms and lichens, and their anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Li, Chantian; Sung, Changkeun

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase has been widely accepted as a cancer marker and a promising therapeutic target for novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro telomerase inhibitory effects of mushrooms and their anticancer properties. The inhibitory effects of mushrooms and lichens against telomerase activity of HL-60 cells were systematically assessed using polymerase chain reaction based on assay of telomeric repeat amplification protocol. Telomerase inhibitory samples were further tested for antiproliferation effects against the gastric cell line SNU-1 using the MTT method. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotus ostreatus, ethyl acetate and water extracts of Lasiosphaera fenzlii, hexane extract of Strobilomyces floccopus, water extract of Sarcodon aspratus, and hexane, ethyl acetate, and water extracts from Umbilicaria esculenta showed strong positive telomerase inhibitory activity. Hexane extract of S. floccopus and water extracts from the edible lichen U. esculenta exhibited strong anticancer effects against SNU-1 cells through antiproliferation assay. The water extract of U. esculenta has a great potential to be developed into an anticancer agent that targets telomerase. PMID:24940901

  11. Disulfiram, and disulfiram derivatives as novel potential anticancer drugs targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system in both preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Kona, F R; Buac, D; M Burger, A

    2011-03-01

    Disulfiram is a FDA approved drug for the treatment of alcoholism and available for clinical use since over 5 decades. Despite data from the 1970s and 80s that showed that disulfiram and analogs are able to enhance the activity of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and might be useful chemopreventative agents, the underlying molecular mechanisms remained unknown until recently. Large scale screening efforts for agents that can inhibit the proteasome and be used as novel anticancer drugs, revealed that disulfiram has proteasome inhibitory activity. Moreover, disulfiram was also found to have specific activity against zinc fingers and RING-finger ubiquitin E3 ligases that play an important role in cancer development. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical studies exploring disulfiram as an anticancer agent as well as research programs that focus on the development of disulfiram derivatives as inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:21247383

  12. Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel deoxoartemisinin-glycolipid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Min, Dongguk; Kim, Minkyu; Ricci, Jérémy; Jung, Sora; Kim, Kirim; Chung, Won-Yoon; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Jung, Mankil

    2014-01-01

    The practical synthesis and anticancer activity of novel deoxoartemisinin-glycolipid hybrids, which incorporate two drugs into a single molecule and can impact multiple targets simultaneously are presented. These hybrids exhibited potent in vitro anticancer activity against several human cancer cell lines. The deoxoartemisinin-glycolipid hybrids generally demonstrated better anticancer activity than either artemisinin or daumone alone and cisplatin. PMID:24614158

  13. Oral anticancer drugs: back to square one.

    PubMed

    Weitschies, W

    2013-10-01

    Szmulewitz and Ratain expressed concerns in their article "Playing Russian Roulette With Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors," published in the March 2013 issue. This Commentary is intended to add emphasis to the concerns they raised as well as to draw the attention of the clinical pharmacology community to additional critical issues related to oral administration of modern anticancer medication. PMID:24048240

  14. Aurora kinase inhibitors as anticancer molecules.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed at detectable levels in all somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases leads to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Preclinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed. PMID:20863917

  15. Recent Development in Carbohydrate Based Anticancer Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaojun Yin; Xuefei Huang

    2012-01-01

    The development of carbohydrate-based anticancer vaccines is of high current interest. Herein, the latest development in this exciting field is reviewed. After a general introduction about tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens and immune responses, the review focuses on the various strategies that have been developed to enhance the immunogenicity of these antigens. The results from animal studies and clinical trials are presented.

  16. Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Massi, Paola; Solinas, Marta; Cinquina, Valentina; Parolaro, Daniela

    2013-02-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence support an antitumourigenic effect of cannabinoids including ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC), synthetic agonists, endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid transport or degradation inhibitors. Indeed, cannabinoids possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects and they are known to interfere with tumour neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion and metastasization. However, the clinical use of ?(9)-THC and additional cannabinoid agonists is often limited by their unwanted psychoactive side effects, and for this reason interest in non-psychoactive cannabinoid compounds with structural affinity for ?(9)-THC, such as cannabidiol (CBD), has substantially increased in recent years. The present review will focus on the efficacy of CBD in the modulation of different steps of tumourigenesis in several types of cancer and highlights the importance of exploring CBD/CBD analogues as alternative therapeutic agents. PMID:22506672

  17. Auranofin displays anticancer activity against ovarian cancer cells through FOXO3 activation independent of p53.

    PubMed

    Park, See-Hyoung; Lee, Jung Han; Berek, Jonathan S; Hu, Mickey C-T

    2014-10-01

    Auranofin is a gold-containing compound classified by the World Health Organization as a clinically established rheumatoid arthritis therapeutic agent. Through drug screening for novel anticancer therapeutics, we unexpectedly identified auranofin as a potent anticancer agent against a p53-null ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line. However, the molecular mechanism underlying auranofin-mediated anticancer activity in ovarian cancer cells is basically unknown. Here, we show that auranofin inhibits proliferation and survival of SKOV3 cells in a dose? and time?dependent manner. Auranofin treatment activates the pro-apoptotic caspase-3, increases protein levels of apoptosis-inducing proteins Bax and Bim and reduces the expression of the anti-apoptotic mediator Bcl-2 in SKOV3 cells. Moreover, auranofin downregulates I?B kinase (IKK)-? and promotes nuclear localization and the activation of FOXO3 tumor suppressor, leading to cellular apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. In contrast, silencing FOXO3 diminishes the pro-apoptotic signaling of auranofin in SKOV3 cells. These results suggest that auranofin may induce caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in a FOXO3-dependent manner. The observed upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes and apoptosis in cancer cells without p53 in response to auranofin suggests a novel p53-independent mechanism underlying auranofin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25096914

  18. Quantum study of boron nitride nanotubes functionalized with anticancer molecules.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Eric; Gharbi, Tijani; Delabrousse, Eric; Picaud, Fabien

    2014-09-14

    Full DFT-D2 calculations were carried out to study the interactions between single wall (10,10) boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and different molecules, such as azomethine (C2H5N) and an anticancer agent (Pt(IV) complex) linked to an amino-derivative chain. The geometry of the (10,10) BNNT-azomethine and the BNNT-amino derivative system was optimised by considering different molecular configurations on the inner and outer surfaces of the nanotube. Simulation results showed that the most stable physisorption state for both molecules was located inside the nanotube in a parallel configuration. We showed also that the molecular chemisorption was possible only when the azomethine was present above two adjacent B and N atoms of a hexagon. The attachment of an azomethine plus a subsequent drug did not perturb the cycloaddition process. Moreover, all theoretical results showed that the therapeutic agent complex was not affected when it was attached onto BNNTs. PMID:25070038

  19. Anticancer metallodrug research analytically painting the "omics" picture--current developments and future trends.

    PubMed

    Groessl, Michael; Hartinger, Christian G

    2013-02-01

    Anticancer metallodrug development has for a long time been characterised by the similarity of new drug candidates to cisplatin and DNA as the primary target. Recent advances in bioanalytical techniques with high sensitivity and selectivity have revealed that metal-based drugs can undergo a wide range of biomolecular interactions beyond DNA and have generated interest in proteins as possible targets for metallodrugs. In fact, implementation of metallomics approaches that are able to reveal the fate of the compounds in biological systems can help to move drug development towards more targeted and rational design of novel metallodrugs. Additionally, proteomic screening and gene expression analysis can provide insight into physiological response to drug treatment and identify the reasons for drug resistance. Herein, we review selected applications which led to a better understanding of the mode of action of clinically established metal-based anticancer agents and novel metallodrug candidates. PMID:23070042

  20. Anticancer effects of different seaweeds on human colon and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Moussavou, Ghislain; Kwak, Dong Hoon; Obiang-Obonou, Brice Wilfried; Maranguy, Cyr Abel Ogandaga; Dinzouna-Boutamba, Sylvatrie-Danne; Lee, Dae Hoon; Pissibanganga, Ordelia Gwenaelle Manvoudou; Ko, Kisung; Seo, Jae In; Choo, Young Kug

    2014-09-01

    Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents. PMID:25255129

  1. A review of the anticancer and immunomodulatory effects of Lycium barbarum fruit.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wai-Man; Chan, Enoch; Kwok, Ching-Yee; Lee, Yee-Ki; Wu, Jian-Hong; Wan, Chun-Wai; Chan, Robbie Yat-Kan; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2012-12-01

    The anticancer effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have attracted the attention of the public vis-à-vis existing cancer therapies with various side effects. Lycium barbarum fruit, commonly known as Gou Qi Zi in China, is a potential anticancer agent/adjuvant. Its major active ingredients, L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), scopoletin and 2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2?G), are found to have apoptotic and antiproliferative effects on cancer cell lines. Moreover, LBP also contributes to body's immunomodulatory effects and enhances effects of other cancer therapies. It is not known whether there are any undesirable effects. Further studies on its pharmacological mechanisms and toxicology could facilitate a safe usage of this TCM herb. PMID:22189914

  2. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 ?g/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents. PMID:25630112

  3. Mevalonate pathway inhibitors affect anticancer drug-induced cell death and DNA damage response of human sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, S; Huelsenbeck, J; Fritz, G

    2011-05-01

    Lovastatin (Lov), bisphosphonates (BP) and metformin (Met) are widely used drugs, having in common that they interfere with the mevalonate pathway (MP). The MP generates isoprene moieties required for the function of regulatory GTPases controlling cell proliferation and survival. Here, we addressed the question whether MP inhibitors interfere with the anti-tumor efficacy of anticancer drugs. We comparatively analyzed the effect of equitoxic doses of Lov, BP and Met on cell viability, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and DNA damage response (DDR) of human osteo- and fibrosarcoma cells exposed to doxorubicin or cisplatin. We found that Lov, BP and Met modulated the anticancer drug sensitivity of sarcoma cells in an agent-, dose and time-dependent fashion. Mostly, the MP inhibitors increased the cytotoxicity of the anticancer drugs in an additive manner. MP modulators differed from each other regarding their impact on anticancer drug-induced DNA damage response as measured by the phosphorylation status of SAPK/JNK, Chk-1 and H2AX as well as p53 protein level. In this regard, lovastatin and metformin turned out as the most effective inhibitory drugs. The data show that MP inhibitors can affect the anti-tumor efficacy of anticancer drugs and impact the DDR of human sarcoma cells. PMID:21356574

  4. Nanotech revolution for the anti-cancer drug delivery through blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G; Salzano, G; Santini, D; Lamberti, M; Sperlongano, P; Lombardi, A; Abbruzzese, A; Addeo, R

    2012-03-01

    Nanotechnology-based drug delivery was born as a chance for pharmaceutical weapons to be delivered in the body sites where drug action is required. Specifically, the incorporation of anti-cancer agents in nanodevices of 100-300 nm allows their delivery in tissues that have a fenestrated vasculature and a reduced lymphatic drainage. These two features are typical of neoplastic tissues and, therefore, allow the accumulation of nanostructured devices in tumours. An important issue of anti-cancer pharmacological strategies is the overcoming of anatomical barriers such as the bloodbrain- barrier (BBB) that protects brain from toxicological injuries but, at the same time, makes impossible for most of the pharmacological agents with anti-cancer activity to reach tumour cells placed in the brain and derived from either primary tumours or metastases. In fact, only highly lipophilic molecules can passively diffuse through BBB to reach central nervous system (CNS). Another possibility is to use nanotechnological approaches as powerful tools to across BBB, by both prolonging the plasma half-life of the drugs and crossing fenestrations of BBB damaged by brain metastases. Moreover, modifications of nanocarrier surface with specific endogenous or exogenous ligands can promote the crossing of intact BBB as in the case of primary brain tumours. This aim can be achieved through the binding of the nanodevices to carriers or receptors expressed by the endothelial cells of BBB and that can favour the internalization of the nanostructured devices delivering anti-cancer drugs. This review summarizes the most meaningful advances in the field of nanotechnologies for brain delivery of drugs. PMID:22268384

  5. Melittin: a lytic peptide with anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-09-01

    Melittin (MEL) is a major peptide constituent of bee venom that has been proposed as one of the upcoming possibilities for anticancer therapy. Recent reports point to several mechanisms of MEL cytotoxicity in different types of cancer cells such as cell cycle alterations, effect on proliferation and/or growth inhibition, and induction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death trough several cancer cell death mechanisms, including the activation of caspases and matrix metalloproteinases. Although cytotoxic to a broad spectrum of tumour cells, the peptide is also toxic to normal cells. Therefore its therapeutic potential cannot be achieved without a proper delivery vehicle which could be overcome by MEL nanoparticles that possess the ability to safely deliver significant amount of MEL intravenously, and to target and kill tumours. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge and brings latest research findings on the anticancer potential of this lytic peptide with diverse functions. PMID:23892471

  6. Flavonoids: A versatile source of anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Chahar, Maheep K.; Sharma, Neelu; Dobhal, Mahabeer P.; Joshi, Yogesh C.

    2011-01-01

    An exponential increase in the number of studies investigating how different components of the diet interact at the molecular and cellular level to determine the fate of a cell has been witnessed. In search for anticancer drugs compelling data from laboratories, epidemiologic investigations, and human clinical trials showed that flavonoids have important effects on cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. In many molecular mechanisms of action for prevention against cancer, flavonoids play a major role by interacting between different types of genes and enzymes. Many mechanisms of action have been identified, including carcinogen inactivation, antiproliferation, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, antioxidation, and reversal of multidrug resistance or a combination of these mechanisms. This review focuses on the anticancer activity of flavonoids as well as their molecular mechanisms, including the treatment of mammary and prostate cancer. This review also highlights some advanced derivatives of flavonoids, which play an important role against cancer. PMID:22096313

  7. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of Epipolythiodiketopiperazine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nicolas; Morrison, Karen C.; Kim, Justin; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) alkaloids are a highly complex class of natural products with potent anticancer activity. Herein, we report the application of a flexible and scalable synthesis, allowing the construction of dozens of ETP derivatives. The evaluation of these compounds against cancer cell lines in culture allows for the first expansive structure–activity relationship (SAR) to be defined for monomeric and dimeric ETP-containing natural products and their synthetic cognates. Many ETP derivatives demonstrate potent anticancer activity across a broad range of cancer cell lines, and kill cancer cellsviainduction of apoptosis. Several traits thatbode well for the translational potential of the ETP class of natural products includeconcise and efficient synthetic access, potent induction of apoptotic cell death, activity against a wide range of cancer types, and a broad tolerance for modifications at multiple sitesthat should facilitate small-molecule drug development, mechanistic studies, and evaluation in vivo. PMID:23914293

  8. Anticancer drugs from marine flora: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sithranga Boopathy, N; Kathiresan, K

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease. PMID:21461373

  9. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sithranga Boopathy, N.; Kathiresan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease. PMID:21461373

  10. Calpains as potential anti-cancer targets

    PubMed Central

    Leloup, Ludovic; Wells, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The intracellular signaling cysteine proteases, calpains (specifically the ubiquitous calpains 1 and 2), are involved in numerous physiological and pathological phenomena. Several works have notably highlighted the implication of calpains in processes crucial for cancer development and progression, including cell transformation, migration and tumor invasion, apoptosis/survival, as well as angiogenesis. For these reasons, calpains are considered by several authors as potential anti-cancer targets. Areas covered in this review This review covers the literature showing how calpains are implicated in cancer formation and development, how these enzymes are deregulated in cancer cells and how these proteases could be targeted by anti-cancer drugs. Studies published in the last 10 years are focused on. Expert opinion Targeting calpain activity with specific inhibitors could be a novel approach to limiting the development of primary tumors and the formation of metastases, by inhibiting tumor cell migration and invasion, which allows dissemination as well as tumor neovascularization, which in turn allows for expansion. However, such drugs could interfere with anti-cancer treatments, as ubiquitous calpains play crucial roles in chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. For these reasons, drugs targeting calpains would have to be used selectively to avoid interferences with other treatments and physiological processes. Finally, concerning the other members of calpain family and their potential implication in cancer development, further studies will be required before considering treatments targeting their activity. PMID:21244345

  11. Neurotoxicity of Biologically Targeted Agents in Pediatric Cancer Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Elizabeth M.; Rao, Amulya A. Nageswara; Scafidi, Joseph; Packer, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Biologically targeted agents offer the promise of delivering specific anticancer effects while limiting damage to healthy tissue, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. During the past 5-10 years, these agents were examined in preclinical and adult clinical trials, and are used with increasing frequency in children with cancer. This review evaluates current knowledge about neurotoxicity from biologically targeted anticancer agents, particularly those in pediatric clinical trials. For each drug, neurotoxicity data are reviewed in adult (particularly studies of brain tumors) and pediatric studies when available. Overall, these agents are well tolerated, with few serious neurotoxic effects. Data from younger patients are limited, and more neurotoxicity may occur in the pediatric population because these agents target pathways that control not only tumorigenesis but also neural maturation. Further investigation is needed into long-term neurologic effects, particularly in children. PMID:22490765

  12. In Silico Models for Designing and Discovering Novel Anticancer Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Atul; Kapoor, Pallavi; Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, G. P. S.

    2013-10-01

    Use of therapeutic peptides in cancer therapy has been receiving considerable attention in the recent years. Present study describes the development of computational models for predicting and discovering novel anticancer peptides. Preliminary analysis revealed that Cys, Gly, Ile, Lys, and Trp are dominated at various positions in anticancer peptides. Support vector machine models were developed using amino acid composition and binary profiles as input features on main dataset that contains experimentally validated anticancer peptides and random peptides derived from SwissProt database. In addition, models were developed on alternate dataset that contains antimicrobial peptides instead of random peptides. Binary profiles-based model achieved maximum accuracy 91.44% with MCC 0.83. We have developed a webserver, which would be helpful in: (i) predicting minimum mutations required for improving anticancer potency; (ii) virtual screening of peptides for discovering novel anticancer peptides, and (iii) scanning natural proteins for identification of anticancer peptides (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/anticp/).

  13. The sulphorhodamine (SRB) assay and other approaches to testing plant extracts and derived compounds for activities related to reputed anticancer activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Houghton; Rui Fang; Isariya Techatanawat; Glyn Steventon; Peter J. Hylands; C. C. Lee

    2007-01-01

    Since the major approach in searching for potential anticancer agents over the last 50years has been based on selective cytotoxic effects on mammalian cancer cell lines, cell-based methods for cytotoxicity are described and compared. The sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay is described in detail as the preferred method and also a novel approach has been developed which is based on the

  14. Pattern Alopecia during Hormonal Anticancer Therapy in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Ik; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk; Ihm, Chull-Wan

    2014-01-01

    We report five cases of pattern alopecia in female patients who are undergoing hormonal anticancer therapy for the prevention of recurrence of breast cancer after surgery. Three patients demonstrated male pattern alopecia with receding frontal hairlines, and two patients demonstrated female pattern alopecia without receding hairlines. The detailed clinical history showed that the pattern alopecia of the patients developed after the full recovery of global hair loss of the entire scalp due to previous cytotoxic chemotherapy. All of the adjuvant hormonal anticancer drugs that were used in the patients are antiestrogenic agents, either aromatase inhibitors or selective estrogen receptor modulators. Considering androgen effect on the hair follicles of the fronto-parietal scalp, the androgen-estrogen imbalance caused by the drugs was thought to be the reason for the onset of pattern alopecia in the patients. In general, alopecia that develops during cytotoxic chemotherapy is well known to both physicians and patients; however, the diagnosis of pattern alopecia during hormonal anticancer therapy in breast cancer patients seems to be overlooked. PMID:25473228

  15. Bis-demethoxy curcumin analog nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Francis, Arul Prakash; Murthy, Prakhya Balakishna; Devas, Thiyagarajan

    2014-07-01

    We have optimized a protocol for the preparation of bisdemethoxy curcumin analog nanoparticles (BDMCA-NP) by the solvent assisted process. The structural similarities between bulk and nano BDMCA were determined by Co-TLC, NMR and F-TIR. This shows that our synthesis protocol enhanced the dispersibility and reduce the size of BDMCA without altering the integrity of functional moieties and structure, which is crucial for anticancer and antioxidant activities. The morphology and size of BDMCA-NP as determined by SEM, HRTEM and DLS was found to be around 80 nm. BDMCA-NP treated breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7) showed cell death as characterized by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis of BDMCA-NP treated MCF 7 cell lines showed an increase of cell count in G2/M phase indicates the cell cycle arrest. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of caspase 3, caspase 9, cleaved fragments of PARP and Bax proteins in the BDMCA-NP treated MCF 7 cell lines, but not in untreated cell lines. To recap, we have prepared BDMCA-NP by solvent assisted process, which exerted anticancer activity against breast cancer cells, which may be due to (i) enhanced dispersibility and surface: volume ratio, (ii) apoptosis (iii) mitochondrial pathway induced cell death, (iv) G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and (v) disassembly of mitotic spindle of the cancer cells. Thus, nano BDMCA can be used as a potent anticancer agent. PMID:24757955

  16. Pattern Alopecia during Hormonal Anticancer Therapy in Patients with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin; Kim, Ju-Ik; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk; Ihm, Chull-Wan

    2014-12-01

    We report five cases of pattern alopecia in female patients who are undergoing hormonal anticancer therapy for the prevention of recurrence of breast cancer after surgery. Three patients demonstrated male pattern alopecia with receding frontal hairlines, and two patients demonstrated female pattern alopecia without receding hairlines. The detailed clinical history showed that the pattern alopecia of the patients developed after the full recovery of global hair loss of the entire scalp due to previous cytotoxic chemotherapy. All of the adjuvant hormonal anticancer drugs that were used in the patients are antiestrogenic agents, either aromatase inhibitors or selective estrogen receptor modulators. Considering androgen effect on the hair follicles of the fronto-parietal scalp, the androgen-estrogen imbalance caused by the drugs was thought to be the reason for the onset of pattern alopecia in the patients. In general, alopecia that develops during cytotoxic chemotherapy is well known to both physicians and patients; however, the diagnosis of pattern alopecia during hormonal anticancer therapy in breast cancer patients seems to be overlooked. PMID:25473228

  17. Learning from Host-Defense Peptides: Cationic, Amphipathic Peptoids with Potent Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Willingham, Stephen B.; Czyzewski, Ann M.; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Weissman, Irving L.; Barron, Annelise E.

    2014-01-01

    Cationic, amphipathic host defense peptides represent a promising group of agents to be developed for anticancer applications. Poly-N-substituted glycines, or peptoids, are a class of biostable, peptidomimetic scaffold that can display a great diversity of side chains in highly tunable sequences via facile solid-phase synthesis. Herein, we present a library of anti-proliferative peptoids that mimics the cationic, amphipathic structural feature of the host defense peptides and explore the relationships between the structure, anticancer activity and selectivity of these peptoids. Several peptoids are found to be potent against a broad range of cancer cell lines at low-micromolar concentrations including cancer cells with multidrug resistance (MDR), causing cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. They can penetrate into cells, but their cytotoxicity primarily involves plasma membrane perturbations. Furthermore, peptoid 1, the most potent peptoid synthesized, significantly inhibited tumor growth in a human breast cancer xenotransplantation model without any noticeable acute adverse effects in mice. Taken together, our work provided important structural information for designing host defense peptides or their mimics for anticancer applications. Several cationic, amphipathic peptoids are very attractive for further development due to their high solubility, stability against protease degradation, their broad, potent cytotoxicity against cancer cells and their ability to overcome multidrug resistance. PMID:24587350

  18. Progress on understanding the anticancer mechanisms of medicinal mushroom: inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Song, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiang-Shi; Chang, Wei; Song, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer. PMID:23679238

  19. Encapsulation into carbon nanotubes and release of anticancer Cisplatin drug molecule.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Alia; Vardanega, Delphine; Tangour, Bahoueddine; Gharbi, Tijani; Picaud, Fabien

    2015-01-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been investigated to study the interactions between single-wall carbon nanotubes and an anticancer agent Pt complex (Cisplatin). The optimized diameter of the vector system has been determined to encapsulate in the best conditions the drug molecules. The simulation results show also that several drug molecules can be adsorbed inside the nanotubes, leading to an increased confinement time. Moreover, our simulations show that the release of the drug near a cell membrane model is favored, opening the way to a natural drug nanocapsule. PMID:25514358

  20. Nanoscale coordination polymers for platinum-based anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Rieter, William J; Pott, Kimberly M; Taylor, Kathryn M L; Lin, Wenbin

    2008-09-01

    Pt-containing nanoscale coordination polymer (NCP) particles with the formula of Tb2(DSCP)3(H2O)12 (where DSCP represents disuccinatocisplatin), NCP-1, were precipitated from an aqueous solution of Tb3+ ions and DSCP bridging ligands via the addition of a poor solvent. SEM and TEM images showed that as-synthesized NCP-1 exhibited a spherical morphology with a DLS diameter of 58.3 +/- 11.3 nm. NCP-1 particles were stabilized against rapid dissolution in water by encapsulation in shells of amorphous silica. The resulting silica-coated particles NCP-1' exhibited significantly longer half-lives for DSCP release from the particles (a t1/2 of 9 h for NCP-1' with 7 nm silica coating vs t1/2 of 1 h for as-synthesized NCP-1). In vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity assays with the human colon carcinoma cell line (HT-29) showed that internalized NCP-1' particles readily released the DSCP moieties which were presumably reduced to cytotoxic Pt(II) species to give the Pt-containing NCPs anticancer efficacy superior to the cisplatin standard. The generality of this degradable nanoparticle formulation should allow for the design of NCPs as effective delivery vehicles for a variety of biologically and medically important cargoes such as therapeutic and imaging agents. PMID:18686947

  1. Mitosis-targeted anti-cancer therapies: where they stand

    PubMed Central

    Chan, K-S; Koh, C-G; Li, H-Y

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of clinically targeting cancerous cells at their most vulnerable state during mitosis has instigated numerous studies into the mitotic cell death (MCD) pathway. As the hallmark of cancer revolves around cell-cycle deregulation, it is not surprising that antimitotic therapies are effective against the abnormal proliferation of transformed cells. Moreover, these antimitotic drugs are also highly selective and sensitive. Despite the robust rate of discovery and the development of mitosis-selective inhibitors, the unpredictable complexities of the human body's response to these drugs still herald the biggest challenge towards clinical success. Undoubtedly, the need to bridge the gap between promising preclinical trials and effective translational bedside treatment prompts further investigations towards mapping out the mechanistic pathways of MCD, understanding how these drugs work as medicine in the body and more comprehensive target validations. In this review, current antimitotic agents are summarized with particular emphasis on the evaluation of their clinical efficacy as well as their limitations. In addition, we discuss the basis behind the lack of activity of these inhibitors in human trials and the potential and future directions of mitotic anticancer strategies. PMID:23076219

  2. Biogenic gold nano-triangles: cargos for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Dharmatti, Roopa; Phadke, Chinmay; Mewada, Ashmi; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Sharon, Madhuri

    2014-11-01

    We present synthesis of biogenic gold nano triangles (GNTs) using Azadirachta indica leaf extract at inherent pH (5.89) and its application in efficient drug delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) (anticancer drug). The main idea was to take advantage of large surface area of GNTs which has 3 dimensions and use the plant peptides coated on these triangles as natural linkers for the attachment of DOX. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC) and dialysis methods were used for separation of the GNT from mixture of GNPs. Flocculation parameter (FP) was used to check stability of GNT which was found to be exceptionally high (0-0.75) due to the biological capping agents. DOX attachment to GNT was verified using Fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The complex thus formed was found to be less toxic to normal cells (MDCK cells) and significantly toxic for the cancerous cells (HeLa cells). Drug loading efficiency was found to be 99.81% and DOX release followed first order release kinetics. Percentage drug release was found to be more than 4.5% in both acidic (5.8) as well as physiological pH (7.2) which is suitable for tumor targeting. PMID:25280684

  3. Role of mTOR in anticancer drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Liu, Ling-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a central role in regulating protein synthesis, ribosomal protein translation, and cap-dependent translation. Deregulations in mTOR signaling are frequently associated with tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. This review highlights the role of the mTOR in anticancer drug resistance. We discuss the network of signaling pathways in which the mTOR kinase is involved, including the structure and activation of the mTOR complex and the pathways upstream and downstream of mTOR as well as other molecular interactions of mTOR. Major upstream signaling components in control of mTOR activity are PI3K/PTEN/AKT and Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways. We discuss the central role of mTOR in mediating the translation of mRNAs of proteins related to cell cycle progression, those involved in cell survival such as c-myc, hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin A, cyclin dependent kinases (cdk1/2), cdk inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, and RNA polymerases I and III. We then discuss the potential therapeutic opportunities for using mTOR inhibitors rapamycin, CCI-779, RAD001, and AP-23573 in cancer therapy as single agents or in combinations to reverse drug resistance. PMID:18440854

  4. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  5. Enhancement of anticancer efficacy using modified lipophilic nanoparticle drug encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Puiyan; Zhang, Ruizhong; Li, Vincent; Liu, Xuelai; Sun, Raymond WY; Che, Chi-Ming; Wong, Kenneth KY

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of anticancer drugs is challenging. Indeed, much research effort has been spent in the development of new drugs to improve clinical outcomes with minimal toxicity. We have previously reported that a formulation of lipid gold porphyrin nanoparticles reduced systemic drug toxicity when compared with free gold porphyrin. In this study, we investigated the delivery and treatment efficiency of PEG surface-modified lipid nanoparticles as a carrier platform. Methods We encapsulated antitumor drugs into PEG-modified lipid nanoparticles and these were characterized by size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. The delivery efficiency into tumor tissue was evaluated using a biodistribution study. To evaluate antitumor efficacy, gold porphyrin or camptothecin (a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor) were encapsulated and compared using an in vivo neuroblastoma (N2A) model. Results We showed that drug encapsulation into PEG-modified lipid nanoparticles enhanced the preferential uptake in tumor tissue. Furthermore, higher tumor killing efficiency was observed in response to treatment with PEG-modified lipid nanoparticles encapsulating gold porphyrin or camptothecin when compared with free gold porphyrin or free camptothecin. The in vivo antitumor effect was further confirmed by study of tumor inhibition and positive apoptosis activity. Surface modification of lipophilic nanoparticles with PEG increased the efficiency of drug delivery into tumor tissue and subsequently more effective antitumor activity. Conclusion This specific design of a chemotherapeutic agent using nanotechnology is important in the development of a safe and effective drug in cancer therapy. PMID:22359452

  6. Astemizole: an old anti-histamine as a new promising anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    García-Quiroz, Janice; Camacho, Javier

    2011-03-01

    Mortality-to-incidence ratio in cancer patients is extremely high, positioning cancer as a major cause of death worldwide. Despite hundreds of clinical trials for anti-cancer drugs that are currently in progress, most clinical trials for novel drug treatments fail to pass Phase I. However, previously developed drugs with novel anti-tumor properties offer a viable and cost-effective alternative to fight cancer. Histamine favors the proliferation of normal and malignant cells. Several anti-histamine drugs, including astemizole, can inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Astemizole has gained enormous interest since it also targets important proteins involved in cancer progression, namely, ether à-go-go 1 (Eag1) and Eag-related gene (Erg) potassium channels. Furthermore, Eag1 is thought to be an important marker and a therapeutic target for several different cancers. Astemizole inhibits Eag1 and Erg channel activity, and in cells expressing the Eag1 channel it decreases tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. It should be noted that some cardiovascular side effects have been reported for astemizole in a few rare cases. Nevertheless, astemizole stands as a very promising anti-cancer tool because it displays several anti-proliferative mechanisms, may serve as the basis to synthesize new anti-cancer agents, and has been previously administered clinically. In this review we will summarize the main findings relating to histamine and anti-histamines in cancer cell proliferation focusing on astemizole targets (Eag1 and Erg channels), and its anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. We will also describe the side effects of astemizole and discuss proposals to overcome such effects in cancer patients. Finally, we will remark on the relevance of developing novel astemizole-related compounds. PMID:21443504

  7. Role of ribophorin II in the response to anticancer drugs in gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, TEIN-MING; LIANG, RUEI-YUE; CHUEH, PIN JU; CHUANG, SHOW-MEI

    2015-01-01

    The identification of prognostic markers and establishing their value as therapeutic targets improves therapeutic efficacy against human cancers. Ribophorin II (RPN2) has been demonstrated to be a prognostic marker of human cancer, including breast and pancreatic cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate RPN2 expression in gastric cancer and to examine the possible correlation between RPN2 expression and the response of cells to clinical anticancer drugs, which has received little research attention at present. The gastric cancer AGS, TMC-1, SNU-1, TMK-1, SCM-1, MKN-45 and KATO III cell lines were used as a model to elucidate the role of RPN2 in the response of cells to six common chemotherapeutic agents, comprising oxaliplatin, irinotecan, doxorubicin, docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouricil. The functional role of RPN2 was assessed by silencing RPN2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the cytotoxicity was determined by an MTS assay and analysis of apoptosis. Molecular events were evaluated by western blotting. All the anticancer drugs were found to exert a concentration-dependent decrease on the cell survival rate of each of the cell lines tested, although the RPN2 levels in the various cell lines were not directly correlated with responsiveness to clinical anticancer drugs, based on the calculated IC50 values. siRNA-mediated RPN2 downregulation enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in AGS cells, but did not markedly decrease the cell survival rates of these cells in response to the tested drugs. Furthermore, RPN2 silencing in MKN-45 cells resulted in no additional increase in the cisplatin-induced apoptosis and survival rates. It was also found that RPN2 depletion increased anticancer drug-mediated cytotoxicity in gastric cancer cell lines. However, the predictive value of RPN2 expression in cancer therapy is questionable in gastric cancer models. PMID:25789057

  8. Schisandrin B Prevents Doxorubicin-Induced Chronic Cardiotoxicity and Enhances Its Anticancer Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Sun, Jie; Pan, Qiangrong; Sun, Feifei; Yan, Zhiyu; Hu, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background To mitigate the cardiotoxicity of anthracycline antibiotics without compromising their anticancer activities is still an issue to be solved. We previously demonstrated that schisandrin B (Sch B) could protect against doxorubicin (Dox)-induced acute cardiotoxicity via enhancing cardiomyocytic glutathione redox cycling that could attenuate oxidative stress generated from Dox. In this study, we attempted to prove if Sch B could also protect against Dox-induced chronic cardiotoxicity, a more clinically relevant issue, without compromising its anticancer activity. Methodology Rat was given intragastrically either vehicle or Sch B (50 mg/kg) two hours prior to i.p. Dox (2.5 mg/kg) weekly over a 5-week period with a cumulative dose of Dox 12.5 mg/kg. At the 6th and 12th week after last dosing, rats were subjected to cardiac function measurement, and left ventricles were processed for histological and ultrastructural examination. Dox anticancer activity enhanced by Sch B was evaluated by growth inhibition of 4T1, a breast cancer cell line, and S180, a sarcoma cell line, in vitro and in vivo. Principal Findings Pretreatment with Sch B significantly attenuated Dox-induced loss of cardiac function and damage of cardiomyocytic structure. Sch B substantially enhanced Dox cytotoxicities toward S180 in vitro and in vivo in mice, and increased Dox cytotoxcity against 4T1 in vitro. Although we did not observe this enhancement against the implanted 4T1 primary tumor, the spontaneous metastasis to lung was significantly reduced in combined treatment group than Dox alone group. Conclusion Sch B is capable of protecting Dox-induced chronic cardiotoxicity and enhancing its anticancer activity. To the best of our knowledge, Sch B is the only molecule ever proved to function as a cardioprotective agent as well as a chemotherapeutic sensitizer, which is potentially applicable for cancer treatment. PMID:22164272

  9. Potential anticancer activity of carvone in N2a neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Elanur; Türkez, Hasan; Keles, Mevlüt Sait

    2013-04-01

    Carvone (CVN) is a monocyclic monoterpene found in the essential oils of Mentha spicata var. crispa (Lamiaceae) and Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) plants and has been reported to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, and antitumor activities. The beneficial health properties of CVN have encouraged us to look into its anticancer activity. To the best of our knowledge, reports are not available on the anticancer activity of CVN in cultured primary rat neuron and N2a neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Therefore, the present study is an attempt toward exploring the potential anticancer activity of CVN, if any, in cultured primary rat neuron and N2a NB cells. Our results indicated that CVN (only at 25 mg/L) treatment led to an increase in the total antioxidant capacity levels in cultured primary rat neuron cells compared with control cells. Also, CVN (at concentrations higher than 100 mg/L) treatment led to an increase in the total oxidative stress levels in both cell types. The mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage (for comet assay) were not found to be significantly different from the control values in both cells (p > 0.05). On the other hand, after 24 h treatment with CVN, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that CVN application significantly reduced the cell viability rates in both cell types at concentrations higher than 100 mg/L. Summarizing, our data suggest that CVN represents little potential for promising anticancer agent to improve brain tumors therapy. PMID:23552268

  10. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24??M in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  11. Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Solowey, Elisha; Lichtenstein, Michal; Sallon, Sarah; Paavilainen, Helena; Solowey, Elaine; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined the effects of three whole plant extracts (ethanol extraction) on human tumor cells. The extracts were from Urtica membranacea (Urticaceae), Artemesia monosperma (Asteraceae), and Origanum dayi post (Labiatae). All three plant extracts exhibited dose- and time-dependent killing capabilities in various human derived tumor cell lines and primary cultures established from patients' biopsies. The killing activity was specific toward tumor cells, as the plant extracts had no effect on primary cultures of healthy human cells. Cell death caused by the whole plant extracts is via apoptosis. Plant extract 5 (Urtica membranacea) showed particularly strong anticancer capabilities since it inhibited actual tumor progression in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. Our results suggest that whole plant extracts are promising anticancer reagents. PMID:25478599

  12. Molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity of natural dietetic products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Colic; K. Pavelic

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of dietetic supplements in cancer prevention and treatment is a popular and controversial subject of research. New in vitro and in vivo research results indicate that some dietetic supplements do indeed show anticancer activity. The strongest anticancer action has been demonstrated by natural compounds with multifunctional activity. For instance, antioxidants, which also bind to and modulate the activity

  13. Ruthenium complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfei; Collins, J Grant; Keene, F Richard

    2015-04-10

    One of the major advances in medical science has been the development of antimicrobials; however, a consequence of their widespread use has been the emergence of drug-resistant populations of microorganisms. There is clearly a need for the development of new antimicrobials - but more importantly, there is the need for the development of new classes of antimicrobials, rather than drugs based upon analogues of known scaffolds. Due to the success of the platinum anticancer agents, there has been considerable interest in the development of therapeutic agents based upon other transition metals - and in particular ruthenium(ii/iii) complexes, due to their well known interaction with DNA. There have been many studies of the anticancer properties and cellular localisation of a range of ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells over the last decade. However, only very recently has there been significant interest in their antimicrobial properties. This review highlights the types of ruthenium complexes that have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and discusses the relationship between chemical structure and biological processing - including site(s) of intracellular accumulation - of the ruthenium complexes in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. PMID:25724019

  14. Anticancer activity of Pupalia lappacea on chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has enthused scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of newer anticancer agents from natural sources. Here we demonstrated the anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Pupalia lappacea (L) Juss (Amaranthaceae) (EAPL) on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia K562 cells. Methods Antiproliferative activity of EAPL was determined by MTT assay using carvacrol as a positive control. Induction of apoptosis was studied by annexin V, mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase activation and cell cycle analysis using flow cytometer and modulation in protein levels of p53, PCNA, Bax and Bcl2 ratio, cytochrome c and cleavage of PARP were studied by Western blot analysis. The standardization of the extract was performed through reverse phase-HPLC using Rutin as biomarker. Results The results showed dose dependent decrease in growth of K562 cells with an IC50 of 40?±?0.01??g/ml by EAPL. Induction of apoptosis by EAPL was dose dependent with the activation of p53, inhibition of PCNA, decrease in Bcl2/Bax ratio, decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in release of cytochrome c, activation of multicaspase and cleavage of PARP. Further HPLC standardization of EAPL showed presence 0.024% of Rutin. Conclusion Present study significantly demonstrates anticancer activity of EAPL on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (K562) cells which can lead to potential therapeutic agent in treating cancer. Rutin, a known anti cancer compound is being reported and quantified for the first time from EAPL. PMID:23351440

  15. Ocular toxicity of systemic anticancer chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afekhide Ernest OMOTI; Caroline Edijana OMOTI

    2006-01-01

    The increased use of chemotherapeutic agents has resulted in longer cancer patient survival. Consequently the ophthalmologist is seeing more patients with adverse ocular side effects secondary to these antineoplastic agents. Ocular toxicity induced by cancer chemotherapy includes a broad spectrum of disorders, reflecting the unique anatomical, physiological and biochemical features of the eye. Understanding the ocular side effects will assist

  16. Biological Agents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  17. Agent Orange

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Agent Orange American Heart Month Exposed to herbicides during service ... U.S. military sprayed millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during ...

  18. Polyalkoxy substituted 4H-chromenes: synthesis by domino reaction and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Shestopalov, Anatoliy M; Litvinov, Yuri M; Rodinovskaya, Lyudmila A; Malyshev, Oleg R; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V

    2012-08-13

    A series of 4H-chromenes containing various modifications in the ring B and polyalkoxy substituents in the ring E has been synthesized by Knoevenagel-Michael-hetero-Thorpe-Ziegler three-component domino reaction with the overall yield of 45-82%. The targeted molecules were evaluated in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic and microtubule destabilizing activity. The most active compounds 5{1,5} and 5{5,5} featured sesamol-derived ring B and m-methoxyphenyl or m-methoxymethylenedioxyphenyl ring E. Compounds 5{3,1}, 5{1,2}, 5{5,4}, 5{1,5}, and 5{5,5} exhibited strong cytotoxicity in the NCI60 human tumor cell line anticancer drug screen. Surprisingly, cell growth inhibition caused by these agents was more pronounced in the multidrug resistant NCI/ADR-RES cells than the parent OVCAR-8 cell line. The results suggest that polyalkoxy substited 4H-chromenes may prove to be advantageous for further design as anticancer agents. PMID:22824131

  19. Poly-cyclodextrin functionalized porous bioceramics for local chemotherapy and anticancer bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng; Abdelkarim, Mohamed; Laurent, Thomas; Tabary, Nicolas; Degoutin, Stephanie; Simon, Nicolas; Peters, Fabian; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Martel, Bernard; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

    2014-08-01

    The progress in bone cancer surgery and multimodal treatment concept achieve only modest improvement in the overall survival, due to failure in clearing out residual cancer cells at the surgical margin and extreme side-effects of adjuvant postoperative treatments. Our study aims to propose a new method based on cyclodextrin polymer (polyCD) functionalized hydroxyapatite (HA) for achieving a high local drug concentration with a sustained release profile and a better control of residual malignant cells via local drug delivery and promotion of the reconstruction of bone defects. PolyCD, a versatile carrier for therapeutic molecules, can be incorporated into HA (bone regeneration scaffold) through thermal treatment. The parameters of polyCD treatment on the macroporous HA (porosity 65%) were characterized via thermogravimetric analysis. Good cytocompatibility of polyCD functionalized bioceramics was demonstrated on osteoblast cells by cell vitality assay. An antibiotic (gentamicin) and an anticancer agent (cisplatin) were respectively loaded on polyCD functionalized bioceramics for drug release test. The results show that polyCD functionalization leads to significantly improved drug loading quantity (30% more concerning gentamicin and twice more for cisplatin) and drug release duration (7 days longer concerning gentamicin and 3 days longer for cisplatin). Conclusively, this study offers a safe and reliable drug delivery system for bioceramic matrices, which can load anticancer agents (or/and antibiotics) to reduce local recurrence (or/and infection). PMID:24347296

  20. Gut microbiome and anticancer immune response: really hot Sh*t!

    PubMed

    Viaud, S; Daillère, R; Boneca, I G; Lepage, P; Langella, P; Chamaillard, M; Pittet, M J; Ghiringhelli, F; Trinchieri, G; Goldszmid, R; Zitvogel, L

    2015-02-01

    The impact of gut microbiota in eliciting innate and adaptive immune responses beneficial for the host in the context of effective therapies against cancer has been highlighted recently. Chemotherapeutic agents, by compromising, to some extent, the intestinal integrity, increase the gut permeability and selective translocation of Gram-positive bacteria in secondary lymphoid organs. There, anticommensal pathogenic Th17 T-cell responses are primed, facilitating the accumulation of Th1 helper T cells in tumor beds after chemotherapy as well as tumor regression. Importantly, the redox equilibrium of myeloid cells contained in the tumor microenvironment is also influenced by the intestinal microbiota. Hence, the anticancer efficacy of alkylating agents (such as cyclophosphamide) and platinum salts (oxaliplatin, cis-platin) is compromised in germ-free mice or animals treated with antibiotics. These findings represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mode of action of many compounds having an impact on the host-microbe mutualism. PMID:24832470

  1. Functional vesicles formed by anticancer drug assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjun; Fang, Shuo; Zhang, Yemin; Li, Xinsong

    2015-01-15

    In this Letter, a new type of nitrogen mustard conjugate vesicles is developed to improve the stability and efficiency of anticancer drug. Benzoic acid nitrogen mustard-peptide (AAAK) conjugate was designed and synthesized, which was found to self-assemble into vesicles in water. The formation of the vesicles was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism (CD). The degradation data revealed that the benzoic acid nitrogen mustard peptide (AAAK) conjugate vesicles are more stable than the parent drug in aqueous solution. Furthermore, MTT assay revealed that the free drug conjugate has similar antitumor activity against MCF-7, Hela, HepG-2 cell lines compared with the parent drug. The benzoic acid nitrogen mustard-peptide conjugate vesicles may have potential in the treatment of cancers. PMID:25515557

  2. Nanocarriers for delivery of platinum anticancer drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Nukolova, Natalia V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2014-01-01

    Platinum based anticancer drugs have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy, and continue to be in widespread clinical use especially for management of tumors of the ovary, testes, and the head and neck. However, several dose limiting toxicities associated with platinum drug use, partial anti-tumor response in most patients, development of drug resistance, tumor relapse, and many other challenges have severely limited the patient quality of life. These limitations have motivated an extensive research effort towards development of new strategies for improving platinum therapy. Nanocarrier-based delivery of platinum compounds is one such area of intense research effort beginning to provide encouraging preclinical and clinical results and may allow the development of the next generation of platinum chemotherapy. This review highlights current understanding on the pharmacology and limitations of platinum compounds in clinical use, and provides a comprehensive analysis of various platinum–polymer complexes, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes and other nanoparticles currently under investigation for delivery of platinum drugs. PMID:24113520

  3. Nanocarriers for delivery of platinum anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Hardeep S; Nukolova, Natalia V; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2013-11-01

    Platinum based anticancer drugs have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy, and continue to be in widespread clinical use especially for management of tumors of the ovary, testes, and the head and neck. However, several dose limiting toxicities associated with platinum drug use, partial anti-tumor response in most patients, development of drug resistance, tumor relapse, and many other challenges have severely limited the patient quality of life. These limitations have motivated an extensive research effort towards development of new strategies for improving platinum therapy. Nanocarrier-based delivery of platinum compounds is one such area of intense research effort beginning to provide encouraging preclinical and clinical results and may allow the development of the next generation of platinum chemotherapy. This review highlights current understanding on the pharmacology and limitations of platinum compounds in clinical use, and provides a comprehensive analysis of various platinum-polymer complexes, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes and other nanoparticles currently under investigation for delivery of platinum drugs. PMID:24113520

  4. Biocatalysis of the anticancer sipholane triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sandeep; Shirode, Amit; Yacoub, Shenouda; Barbo, Ashley; Sylvester, Paul W; Huntimer, Eric; Halaweish, Fathi; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2007-06-01

    The Red Sea sponge Callyspongia (= Siphonochalina) siphonella is a rich source of sipholane triterpenoids. Biocatalysis of the major sipholanes, sipholenol A (1) and sipholenone A (2), respectively, by Mucor ramannianus ATCC 9628 and Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 7929 afforded four new metabolites 3 - 6 along with sipholenol G and 28-hydroxysipholenol A. Major sipholanes along with their biocatalytic products were investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the highly malignant +SA mouse mammary epithelial cell line. Sipholenone A (2) was the most active sipholane inhibiting +SA cell proliferation with an IC(50) value of 20 - 30 microM. Sipholenone A, also, showed cytotoxicity against MCF-7 at a dose of 0.9 microM and antiangiogenic activity in the CAM (chorio-allantoic membrane) assay. This is the first report on anticancer activity of these triterpenoids. PMID:17486535

  5. Anticancer activity of the phytomedicine DAS-77.

    PubMed

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Mahajan, Girish; Wani, Zahoor A; Sharma, Sadhana; Satti, Naresh K; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Mondhe, Dilip M; Saxena, Ajit K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the anticancer activity of extracts of the phytomedicine DAS-77. The sulforhodamine B (SRB) in vitro cytotoxicity assay, Sarcoma-180 (S-180) ascites and solid tumor, and L1210 lymphoid leukemia in vivo models were employed. DAS-A001 (ethanol extract, IC50 12 and 13 µg/mL with HCT-116 and PC3, respectively); DAS-A002 (hydroethanol extract, IC50 <5 and 13 µg/mL with HCT-116 and PC3, respectively); DAS-A003 (aqueous extract, IC50 <5 µg/mL with THP-1); and DAS-A004 (dichloromethane:methanol extract; IC50 <5 and 17 µg/mL with HCT-116 and PC3, respectively) demonstrated significant activity in vitro. DAS-A002 and DAS-A003 (80-120 mg/kg) elicited significant (P < .05-.001) dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth in the S-180 ascites model. Peak effects were produced at the highest dose of 120 mg/kg with inhibition values of 87.50% and 89.23% for DAS-A002 and DAS-A003, respectively, compared with a value of 97.27% for 5-FU (20 mg/kg). As regards the S-180 solid tumor model, inhibition of tumor growth was found to be 52.56% and 37.95%, respectively, for DAS-A002 and DAS-A003. The effect of DAS-A002 was comparable and not significantly different (P > .05) from that of 5-FU (20 mg/kg; 50.18% inhibition). DAS-A003 but not DAS-A002 showed significant activity in the leukemia model with 177.78% increase in mean survival time relative to 211.11% for 5-FU. Findings in this study suggest that the hydroethanol and aqueous extracts of DAS-77 possess significant anticancer activity. PMID:25351406

  6. Optimization of personalized therapies for anticancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As today, there are hundreds of targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer, many of which have companion biomarkers that are in use to inform treatment decisions. If we would consider this whole arsenal of targeted therapies as a treatment option for every patient, very soon we will reach a scenario where each patient is positive for several markers suggesting their treatment with several targeted therapies. Given the documented side effects of anticancer drugs, it is clear that such a strategy is unfeasible. Results Here, we propose a strategy that optimizes the design of combinatorial therapies to achieve the best response rates with the minimal toxicity. In this methodology markers are assigned to drugs such that we achieve a high overall response rate while using personalized combinations of minimal size. We tested this methodology in an in silico cancer patient cohort, constructed from in vitro data for 714 cell lines and 138 drugs reported by the Sanger Institute. Our analysis indicates that, even in the context of personalized medicine, combinations of three or more drugs are required to achieve high response rates. Furthermore, patient-to-patient variations in pharmacokinetics have a significant impact in the overall response rate. A 10 fold increase in the pharmacokinetics variations resulted in a significant drop the overall response rate. Conclusions The design of optimal combinatorial therapy for anticancer treatment requires a transition from the one-drug/one-biomarker approach to global strategies that simultaneously assign makers to a catalog of drugs. The methodology reported here provides a framework to achieve this transition. PMID:23587292

  7. Anticancer Properties of Distinct Antimalarial Drug Classes

    PubMed Central

    Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Guy, R. Kiplin; Chibale, Kelly; Haynes, Richard K.; Peitz, Ingmar; Kelter, Gerhard; Phillips, Margaret A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Wells, Timothy N. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. PMID:24391728

  8. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  9. The Conyza triloba Extracts with High Chlorophyll Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity Had Anticancer Activity in Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Wael M.; Hussin, Warda A.; Mahmoud, Ahmed A.; AlFredan, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of anticancer agents paradigm has been shifted to natural resources to overcome the toxicity of many synthetic agents at early clinical stages. In the present study, the antimutagenic, anticancer, phytochemistry, and free radical scavenging activities of five extracts of Conyza triloba were investigated. Extracts II (water?:?methanol), III (methylene chloride), and IV (methylene chloride?:?methanol) had the highest chlorophyll content and the highest superoxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities comparable to that of trolox. They also showed DPPH• scavenging activities better than that of ?-tocopherol. Virtually all extracts exerted a strong (>40% reduction) antimutagenic activity against sodium azide and benzopyrene. Extracts II, III, and IV showed a remarkable growth inhibition profile with GI50 of 0.07–0.87??g for Hepa1c1c7 and H4IIE1, A549, HT29, and PC3 cell lines and totally abated the growth of all cell lines, except for the breast cells, at 0.3–7.0??g. The present study found a strong correlation between the chlorophyll content of Conyza extracts and their DDPH scavenging, metal chelating, and in vitro cytotoxic and cytostatic activities most probably through triggering apoptosis. This study could offer a platform for future studies and help selecting the vital features that identify the extract with potential anticancer activities. PMID:23781512

  10. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  11. Lanostanoids from fungi: a group of potential anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Ríos, José-Luis; Andújar, Isabel; Recio, María-Carmen; Giner, Rosa-María

    2012-11-26

    Lanostanes are a group of tetracyclic triterpenoids derived from lanosterol. They have relevant biological and pharmacological properties, such as their cytotoxic effects via induction of apoptosis. This review compiles the most relevant lanostanoids studied from 2000 to 2011, principally those isolated from Ganoderma lucidum and other related fungi, such as Poria cocos, Laetiporus sulphureus, Inonotus obliquus, Antrodia camphorata, Daedalea dickinsii, and Elfvingia applanata, which have great potential as anticancer agents because of their cytotoxic or apoptotic effects. The compounds were selected on the basis of their proapoptotic mechanisms, through their ability to modify transcriptional activities via nuclear factors or genes and the activation or inhibition of pro- or antiapoptotic proteins; studies based only on their cytotoxicity were excluded from this review in the absence of complementary studies on their mechanisms of action. A total of 81 compounds from Ganoderma lucidum and other species from this genus are included, as well as 96 compounds isolated from other fungi, principally Poria cocos. Some of these compounds were found to arrest the cell cycle in the G1 phase, increase levels of p53 and Bax, or inhibit the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 or the activation of NF-?B and AP-1. Other lanostanes have inhibitory effects on the growth of androgen prostate carcinoma through increasing the expression of p21, which activates the tumor suppressor protein p53, while other compounds have been shown to selectively inhibit topo II activity without affecting topo I. General considerations concerning the chemical structure-biological activities of these compounds are also discussed. PMID:23092389

  12. Metvan: a novel oxovanadium(IV) complex with broad spectrum anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2002-12-01

    Among the 25 bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(IV) and 14 oxovanadium(IV) compounds synthesised and evaluated for anticancer activity, bis(4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) sulfatooxovanadium(IV) (metvan) was identified as the most promising multitargeted anticancer vanadium complex with apoptosis-inducing activity. At nanomolar and low micromolar concentrations, metvan induces apoptosis in human leukaemia cells, multiple myeloma cells and solid tumour cells derived from breast cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian, prostate and testicular cancer patients. It is highly effective against cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer and testicular cancer cell lines. Metvan is much more effective than the standard chemotherapeutic agents dexamethasone and vincristine in inducing apoptosis in primary leukaemia cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia or chronic acute myeloid leukaemia. Metvan-induced apoptosis is associated with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, the generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione. Treatment of leukaemia cells from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic acute myeloid leukaemia patients with metvan inhibits the constitutive expression as well as the gelatinolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -2. Treatment of human malignant glioblastoma and breast cancer cells with metvan at concentrations > 1 microM is associated with a nearly complete loss of the adhesive, migratory and invasive properties of the treated cancer cell populations. Metvan shows favourable pharmacokinetics in mice and does not cause acute or subacute toxicity at the dose levels tested (12.5 - 50 mg/kg). Therapeutic plasma concentrations > or = 5 microM, which are highly cytotoxic against human cancer cells, can be rapidly achieved and maintained in mice for at least 24 h after intraperitoneal bolus injection of a single 10 mg/kg non-toxic dose of metvan. Metvan exhibits significant antitumour activity, delays tumour progression and prolongs survival time in severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft models of human malignant glioblastoma and breast cancer. The broad spectrum anticancer activity of metvan together with favourable pharmacodynamic features and lack of toxicity warrants further development of this oxovanadium compound as a new anticancer agent. Metvan could represent the first vanadium complex as an alternative to platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:12457442

  13. Novel molecular, cytotoxical, and immunological study on promising and selective anticancer activity of Mung bean sprouts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of mung bean sprouts (MBS) and the underlying mechanisms against human cervical and hepatocarcinoma cancer cells were explored. Methods MBS cytotoxicity and MBS-induced anticancer cytokines, TNF-? and IFN-? from cancer cells, and immunological cytokines, IL-4, IFN-?, and IL-10 from peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were assessed by MTS and ELISA assays. Apoptotic cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The expression level of apoptotic genes (Bax, BCL-2, Capsases 7–9) and cell cycle regulatory genes (cyclin D, E, and A) and tumor suppressor proteins (p27, p21, and p53) was assessed by real-time qPCR in the cancer cells treated with extract IC50. Results The cytotoxicity on normal human cells was significantly different from HeLa and HepG2 cells, 163.97 ± 5.73, 13.3 ± 0.89, and 14.04 ± 1.5 mg/ml, respectively. The selectivity index (SI) was 12.44 ± 0.83 for HeLa and 11.94 ± 1.2 for HepG2 cells. Increased levels of TNF-? and IFN-? were observed in the treated HeLa and HepG2 culture supernatants when compared with untreated cells. MBS extract was shown to be an immunopolarizing agent by inducing IFN? and inhibiting IL-4 production by PBMC; this leads to triggering of CMI and cellular cytotoxicity. The extract induced apoptosis, in a dose and time dependent manner, in treated HeLa and HepG2, but not in untreated, cells (P < 0.05). The treatment significantly induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 in HeLa cells. The percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase of the treated HeLa cells increased from 62.87 ± 2.1%, in untreated cells, to 80.48 ± 2.97%. Interestingly, MBS IC50 induced the expression of apoptosis and tumor suppressor related genes in both HeLa and HepG2 cells. MBS extract succeeded in inducing cdk-inhibitors, p21, p53, and p27 in HeLa cells while it induced only p53 in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). This is a clue for the cell type- specific interaction of the studied extract. These proteins inhibit the cyclin-cdk complexes apart from the presence of some other components that might stimulate some cyclins such as cyclin E, A, and D. Conclusion MBS extract was shown to be a potent anticancer agent granting new prospects of anticancer therapy using natural products. PMID:23122182

  14. Investigations into the Mechanisms of Cell Death: The Common Link between Anticancer Nanotherapeutics and Nanotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minocha, Shalini

    Nanotoxicology and anticancer nanotherapeutics are essentially two sides of the same coin. The nanotoxicology discipline deals with the nanoparticle (NP)-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death in healthy cells, whereas anticancer agents delivered via nano-based approaches aim to induce cell death in abnormally proliferating cancer cells. The objectives of the studies presented herein were two-fold; to (a) systematically study the physico-chemical properties and cell death mechanisms of model NPs and (b) utilize the knowledge gained from cell death-nanotoxicity studies in developing a potentially novel anticancer nanotherapeutic agent. For the first objective, the effect of a distinguishing characteristic, i.e., surface carbon coating on the matched pairs of carbon-coated and non-coated copper and nickel NPs (Cu, C-Cu, Ni and C-Ni) on the physico-chemical properties and toxicity in A549 alveolar epithelial cells were evaluated. The effect of carbon coating on particle size, zeta potential, oxidation state, cellular uptake, release of soluble metal and concentration dependent toxicity of Cu and Ni NPs was systematically evaluated. A significant effect of carbon coating was observed on the physico-chemical properties, interaction with cellular membranes, and overall toxicity of the NPs. C-Cu NPs, compared to Cu NPs, showed four-fold lower release of soluble copper, ten-fold higher cellular uptake and protection against surface oxidation. In toxicity assays, C-Cu NPs induced higher mitochondrial damage than Cu NPs whereas Cu NPs were associated with a significant damage to plasma membrane integrity. Nickel and carbon coated nickel NPs were less toxic compared to Cu and C-Cu NPs. Thus, by studying the effect of carbon coating, correlations between physico-chemical properties and toxicity of NPs were established. The second objective was focused on utilizing nano-based approaches for the intracellular delivery of an anticancer agent, Cytochrome c (Cyt c), to breast cancer cells for inducing apoptosis. Cytochrome c is an endogenous mitochondrial protein and upon its release to cytosol, leads to apoptotic cell death. Although the mechanism by which Cyt c induces apoptosis theoretically makes it an attractive anti-cancer therapeutic agent, the lack of physicochemical characteristics required for successful cell permeation requires the use of delivery systems such as nanocarriers to facilitate its intracellular delivery. Cytochrome c, being a protein, is susceptible to changes in structural integrity and aggregation which might occur upon exposure to organic solvents and high shear/stress conditions, often used during nanoparticle preparation. Furthermore, successful delivery to cell cytosol requires endosomal release. Therefore, to deliver Cyt c intracellularly, while maintaining conditions for its stability, entrapment was performed using a film hydration method with 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and cholesterol (DOTAP-Chol) liposomes. It was shown that modulation of hydration buffer pH from 7 to 8.5 increased entrapment of Cyt c in DOTAP-Chol liposomes from 2% to 30%. The optimized formulation showed apoptotic activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. It was also shown that no aggregation, secondary and heme crevice structure change and deamidation was observed for Cyt c released from optimized formulation and that released Cyt c retained apoptotic activity after storage of formulation for twenty eight days at 4 °C.

  15. The continuing search for antitumor agents from higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Chai, Heebyung; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites and their semi-synthetic derivatives continue to play an important role in anticancer drug therapy. In this short review, selected single chemical entity antineoplastic agents from higher plants that are currently in clinical trials as cancer chemotherapy drug candidates are described. These compounds are representative of a wide structural diversity. In addition, the approaches taken toward the discovery of anticancer agents from tropical plants in the laboratory of the authors are summarized. The successful clinical utilization of cancer chemotherapeutic agents from higher plants has been evident for about half a century, and, when considered with the promising pipeline of new plant-derived compounds now in clinical trials, this augurs well for the continuation of drug discovery research efforts to elucidate additional candidate substances of this type. PMID:20228943

  16. Cellular responses against DNA damaged by platinum anticancer drugs

    E-print Network

    Jung, Yongwon, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    The anticancer activity of platinum-based drugs such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin is mediated by their ability to attack DNA such that generated adducts trigger numerous cellular responses. A better understanding ...

  17. OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDES AS ANTI-CANCER THERAPEUTICS AND DIAGNOSTICS

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute Laboratory of Experimental Immunology is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize anti-cancer oligodeoxynucleotides.

  18. Anticancer drug-induced kidney disorders.

    PubMed

    Kintzel, P E

    2001-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is an inherent adverse effect of certain anticancer drugs. Renal dysfunction can be categorised as prerenal uraemia, intrinsic damage or postrenal uraemia according to the underlying pathophysiological process. Renal hypoperfusion promulgates prerenal uraemia. Intrinsic renal damage results from prolonged hypoperfusion, exposure to exogenous or endogenous nephrotoxins, renotubular precipitation of xenobiotics or endogenous compounds, renovascular obstruction, glomerular disease, renal microvascular damage or disease, and tubulointerstitial damage or disease. Postrenal uraemia is a consequence of clinically significant urinary tract obstruction. Clinical signs of nephrotoxicity and methods used to assess renal function are discussed. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced renal dysfunction generally include damage to vasculature or structures of the kidneys, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and prerenal perfusion deficits. Patients with cancer are frequently at risk of renal impairment secondary to disease-related and iatrogenic causes. This article reviews the incidence, presentation, prevention and management of anticancer drug-induced renal dysfunction. Dose-related nephrotoxicity subsequent to administration of certain chloroethylnitrosourea compounds (carmustine, semustine and streptozocin) is commonly heralded by increased serum creatinine levels, uraemia and proteinuria. Additional signs of streptozocin-induced nephrotoxicity include hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia, hypouricaemia, renal tubular acidosis, glucosuria, aceturia and aminoaciduria. Cisplatin and carboplatin cause dose-related renal dysfunction. In addition to increased serum creatinine levels and uraemia, electrolyte abnormalities, such as hypomagnesaemia and hypokalaemia, are commonly reported adverse effects. Rarely, cisplatin has been implicated as the underlying cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Pharmaceutical antidotes to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity include amifostine, sodium thiosulfate and diethyldithiocarbamate. Dose- and age-related proximal tubular damage is an adverse effect of ifosfamide. In addition to renal wasting of electrolytes, glucose and amino acids, Fanconi syndrome, rickets and osteomalacia have occurred with ifosfamide treatment. High dose azacitidine causes renal dysfunction manifested by tubular acidosis, polyuria and increased urinary excretion of electrolytes, glucose and amino acids. Haemolytic uraemia is a rare adverse effect of gemcitabine. Methotrexate can cause increased serum creatinine levels, uraemia and haematuria. Acute renal failure is reported following administration of high dose methotrexate. Urinary alkalisation and hydration confer protection against methotrexate-induced renal dysfunction. Dose-related nephrotoxicity, including acute renal failure, are reported subsequent to treatment with pentostatin and diaziquone. Acute renal failure is a rare adverse effect of treatment with interferon-alpha. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome occurs with mitomycin administration. A mortality rate of 50 to 100% is reported in patients developing mitomycin-induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Capillary leak syndrome occurring with aldesleukin therapy can cause renal dysfunction. Infusion-related hypotension during infusion of high dose carmustine can precipitate renal dysfunction. PMID:11219485

  19. Software agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

    1994-01-01

    this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

  20. Polymeric Micelles in Anticancer Therapy: Targeting, Imaging and Triggered Release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Oerlemans; Wouter Bult; Mariska Bos; Gert Storm; J. Frank W. Nijsen; Wim E. Hennink

    2010-01-01

    Micelles are colloidal particles with a size around 5–100 nm which are currently under investigation as carriers for hydrophobic\\u000a drugs in anticancer therapy. Currently, five micellar formulations for anticancer therapy are under clinical evaluation, of\\u000a which Genexol-PM has been FDA approved for use in patients with breast cancer. Micelle-based drug delivery, however, can be\\u000a improved in different ways. Targeting ligands can

  1. Quantitative High-Throughput Drug Screening Identifies Novel Classes of Drugs with Anticancer Activity in Thyroid Cancer Cells: Opportunities for Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisa; He, Mei; Zhang, Yaqin; Nilubol, Naris; Shen, Min

    2012-01-01

    Context: Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis and targets for thyroid cancer and other cancers, developing a new anticancer chemical agent remains an expensive and long process. An alternative approach is the exploitation of clinically used and/or bioactive compounds. Objective: Our objective was to identify agents with an anticancer effect in thyroid cancer cell lines using quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS). Design: We used the newly assembled National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomic Center's pharmaceutical collection, which contains 2816 clinically approved drugs and bioactive compounds to perform qHTS. Results: Multiple agents, across a variety of therapeutic categories and with different modes of action, were found to have an antiproliferative effect. We found the following therapeutic categories were the most enriched categories with antiproliferative activity: cardiotonic and antiobesity agents. Sixteen agents had an efficacy of greater than 60% and a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the nanomolar range. We validated the results of the qHTS using two agents (bortezomib and ouabain) in additional cell lines representing different histological subtypes of thyroid cancer and with different mutations (BRAF V600E, RET/PTC1, p53, PTEN). Both agents induced apoptosis, and ouabain also caused cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to use qHTS of a large drug library to identify candidate drugs for anticancer therapy. Our results indicate such a screening approach can lead to the discovery of novel agents in different therapeutic categories and drugs with nonclassic chemotherapy mode of action. Our approach could lead to drug repurposing and accelerate clinical trials of compounds with well-established pharmacokinetics and toxicity profiles. PMID:22170715

  2. Part 4: Pharmacogenetic Variability in Anticancer Pharmacodynamic Drug Effects

    PubMed Central

    Deenen, Maarten J.; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2011-01-01

    Response to treatment with anticancer drugs is subject to wide interindividual variability. This variability is expressed not only as differences in severity and type of toxicity, but also as differences in effectiveness. Variability in the constitution of genes involved in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways of anticancer drugs has been shown to possibly translate into differences in treatment outcome. The overall knowledge in the field of pharmacogenetics has tremendously increased over the last couple of years, and has thereby provided opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy. In previous parts of this series, we described pharmacogenetic variability in anticancer phase I and phase II drug metabolism and drug transport. This fourth part of a four-part series of reviews is focused on pharmacodynamic variability and encompasses genetic variation in drug target genes such as those encoding thymidylate synthase, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and ribonucleotide reductase. Furthermore, genetic variability in other pharmacodynamic candidate genes involved in response to anticancer drugs is discussed, including genes involved in DNA repair such as those encoding excision repair crosscomplementing group 1 and group 2, x-ray crosscomplementing group 1 and group 3, and breast cancer genes 1 and 2. Finally, somatic mutations in KRAS and the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and implications for EGFR-targeted drugs are discussed. Potential implications and opportunities for patient and drug selection for genotype-driven anticancer therapy are outlined. PMID:21659612

  3. Canonical and new generation anticancer drugs also target energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Pacheco-Velázquez, Silvia C; López-Ramírez, Sayra Y; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Significant efforts have been made for the development of new anticancer drugs (protein kinase or proteasome inhibitors, monoclonal humanized antibodies) with presumably low or negligible side effects and high specificity. However, an in-depth analysis of the side effects of several currently used canonical (platin-based drugs, taxanes, anthracyclines, etoposides, antimetabolites) and new generation anticancer drugs as the first line of clinical treatment reveals significant perturbation of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Canonical and new generation drug side effects include decreased (1) intracellular ATP levels, (2) glycolytic/mitochondrial enzyme/transporter activities and/or (3) mitochondrial electrical membrane potentials. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative effects of these drugs are markedly attenuated in tumor rho (0) cells, in which functional mitochondria are absent; in addition, several anticancer drugs directly interact with isolated mitochondria affecting their functions. Therefore, several anticancer drugs also target the energy metabolism, and hence, the documented inhibitory effect of anticancer drugs on cancer growth should also be linked to the blocking of ATP supply pathways. These often overlooked effects of canonical and new generation anticancer drugs emphasize the role of energy metabolism in maintaining cancer cells viable and its targeting as a complementary and successful strategy for cancer treatment. PMID:24792321

  4. Glutathione-s-transferase modified electrodes for detecting anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Materon, Elsa M; Jimmy Huang, Po-Jung; Wong, Ademar; Pupim Ferreira, Antonio A; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada; Liu, Juewen

    2014-08-15

    With the fast growth of cancer research, new analytical methods are needed to measure anticancer drugs. This is usually accomplished by using sophisticated analytical instruments. Biosensors are attractive candidates for measuring anticancer drugs, but currently few biosensors can achieve this goal. In particular, it is challenging to have a general method to monitor various types of anticancer drugs with different structures. In this work, a biosensor was developed to detect anticancer drugs by modifying carbon paste electrodes with glutathione-s-transferase (GST) enzymes. GST is widely studied in the metabolism of xenobiotics and is a major contributing factor in resistance to anticancer drugs. The measurement of anticancer drugs is based on competition between 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and the drugs for the GST enzyme in the electrochemical potential at 0.1V vs. Ag/AgCl by square wave voltammetry (SWV) or using a colorimetric method. The sensor shows a detection limit of 8.8?M cisplatin and exhibits relatively long life time in daily measurements. PMID:24657642

  5. Comparison of phenanthriplatin, a novel monofunctional platinum based anticancer drug candidate, with cisplatin, a classic bifunctional anticancer drug

    E-print Network

    Li, Meiyi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair, a DNA repair mechanism, is the major repair pathway responsible for removal of platinum-based anticancer drugs. In this study, 146 bp duplexes were prepared containing either a site-specific ...

  6. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kequan; Raffoul, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted. PMID:22919383

  7. [Structure, antioxidative and anticancer properties of flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Czapli?ska, Ma?gorzata; Czepas, Jan; Gwo?dzi?ski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are compounds occuring in plants, e.g. in fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids have been identified as: flavones, flavanones, flavanols (flavan-3-ols), flavonols, anthocyanidines, isoflavonoids and neoflavonoids. Their antioxidative properties are connected with their ability to scavenge free radicals. Their antioxidant properties are linked to the ability to chelate transitional metal ions, mainly copper and iron and to increase antioxidant capacity by the stimulation of the activity of important antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Flavonoids are able to inhibit the activities of prooxidant enzymes such as cyclooxygenase, lipooxygenase, xanthine oxidase and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These compounds can also regenerate ascorbyl and tocoferoxyl radicals to corresponding vitamins. Pharmacological properties of flavonoids are manifested in different ways. They display antiviral, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Flavonoids play also a role as inhibitors of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases) and ageing. Moreover, protective effects against ionizing and UV radiation have been shown for flavonoids. In this paper the antioxidative properties and antitumour action of flavonoids, such as blockade of cell cycle, activation of apoptosis pathways and inhibition of cancerogenesis by inactivation of some carcinogens are reviewed. PMID:23373409

  8. Anticancer activity of selected Colocasia gigantia fractions.

    PubMed

    Pornprasertpol, Apichai; Sereemaspun, Amornpun; Sooklert, Kanidta; Satirapipatkul, Chutimon; Sukrong, Suchada

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the anticancer potential of the extract of Colocasia gigantea C. gigantea), a plant member of the Araceae family. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of C. gigantea extract on cervical cancer (Hela) and human white blood cells (WBC) in vitro. The authors then identified the bioactive ingredients that demonstrated cytotoxicity on tested cells and evaluated those bioactive ingredients using the bioassay-guided fractionation method. The results showed that not all parts of C. gigantea promote cytotoxic activity. The dichloromethane leaf fraction showed significant cell proliferation effect on Hela cells, but not on WBCs. Only the n-hexane tuber fraction (Fr. 1T) exhibited significant cytotoxicity on Hela cells (IC50 = 585 ?g/ml) and encouraged WBC cell proliferation. From GC-Mass spectrometry, 4,22-Stigmastadiene-3-one, Diazoprogesterone, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, hexyl ester and Oleic Acid were the components of Fr 1T that demonstrated cytotoxic potential. In conclusion, C. gigantea's Fr 1T shows potential for cervical cancer treatment. PMID:25764620

  9. Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.-P. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Robin Y. [Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Kan, L.-S. [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, S.-B. [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: sblin@ntu.edu.tw

    2008-03-15

    Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.

  10. Anti-cancer activity of curcumin loaded nanoparticles in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yallapu, Murali M; Khan, Sheema; Maher, Diane M; Ebeling, Mara C; Sundram, Vasudha; Chauhan, Neeraj; Ganju, Aditya; Balakrishna, Swathi; Gupta, Brij K; Zafar, Nadeem; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer disease in men in the Unites States and its management remains a challenge in everyday oncology practice. Thus, advanced therapeutic strategies are required to treat prostate cancer patients. Curcumin (CUR) is a promising anticancer agent for various cancer types. The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)- CUR nanoparticles (PLGA-CUR NPs) for prostate cancer treatment. Our results indicate that PLGA-CUR NPs efficiently internalize in prostate cancer cells and release biologically active CUR in cytosolic compartment of cells for effective therapeutic activity. Cell proliferation (MTS), clonogenic, and Western blot analyses reveal that PLGA-CUR NPs can effectively inhibit proliferation and colony formation ability of prostate cancer cells than free CUR. PLGA-CUR NPs showed superior tumor regression compared to CUR in xenograft mice. Further investigations reveal that PLGA-CUR NPs inhibit nuclear ?-catenin and AR expression in cells and in tumor xenograft tissues. It also suppresses STAT3 and AKT phosphorylation and leads to apoptosis via inhibition of key anti-apoptotic proteins, Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and caused induction of PARP cleavage. Additionally, significant downregulation of oncogenic miR21 and up-regulation of miR-205 was observed with PLGA-CUR NPs treatment as determined by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses. A superior anti-cancer potential was attained with PSMA antibody conjugated PLGA-CUR NPs in prostate cancer cells and a significant tumor targeting of (131)I labeled PSMA antibody was achieved with PLGA-CUR NPs in prostate cancer xenograft mice model. In conclusion, PLGA-CUR NPs can significantly accumulate and exhibit superior anticancer activity in prostate cancer. PMID:25028336

  11. From body art to anticancer activities: perspectives on medicinal properties of henna.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Rohan; Dandawate, Prasad; Vyas, Alok; Padhye, Subhash; Biersack, Bernhard; Schobert, Rainer; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2012-12-01

    Nature has been a rich source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources based on the uses of these plants in traditional medicine. Henna is one such plant commonly known as Persian Henna or Lawsonia inermis, a bushy, flowering tree, commonly found in Australia, Asia and along the Mediterranean coasts of Africa. Paste made from the leaves of Henna plant has been used since the Bronze Age to dye skin, hairs and fingernails especially at the times of festivals. In recent times henna paste has been used for body art paintings and designs in western countries. Despite such widespread use in dyeing and body art painting, Henna extracts and constituents possess numerous biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The active coloring and biologically active principle of Henna is found to be Lawsone (2- hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone) which can serve as a starting building block for synthesizing large number of therapeutically useful compounds including Atovaquone, Lapachol and Dichloroallyl lawsone which have been shown to possess potent anticancer activities. Some other analogs of Lawsone have been found to exhibit other beneficial biological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitubercular and antimalarial. The ability of Lawsone to undergo the redox cycling and chelation of trace metal ions has been thought to be partially responsible for some of its biological activities. Despite such diverse biological properties and potent anticancer activities the compound has remained largely unexplored and hence in the present review we have summarized the chemistry and biological activities of Lawsone along with its analogs and metal complexes. PMID:23140289

  12. The anticancer effect of fucoidan in PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Boo, Hye-Jin; Hong, Ji-Young; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Eun-Ji; Hyun, Jin-Won; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kwon, Jung-Mi; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2013-08-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. However, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan as an anti-cancer agent have not been fully elucidated. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect of fucoidan obtained from Undaria pinnatifida in PC-3 cells, human prostate cancer cells. Fucoidan induced the apoptosis of PC-3 cells by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) and the inactivation of p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. In addition, fucoidan also induced the up-regulation of p21Cip1/Waf and down-regulation of E2F-1 cell-cycle-related proteins. Furthermore, in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, fucoidan activated GSK-3? that resulted in the decrease of ?-catenin level, followed by the decrease of c-myc and cyclin D1 expressions, target genes of ?-catenin in PC-3 cells. These results suggested that fucoidan treatment could induce intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways via the activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, the inactivation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the down-regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data support that fucoidan might have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:23966032

  13. Influence of ascorbic acid on the activity of the investigational anticancer drug KP1019.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Caroline; Egger, Alexander E; Jakupec, Michael A; Heffeter, Petra; Galanski, Markus; Berger, Walter; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2011-12-01

    Ascorbic acid has been previously discussed to have antitumor potential through its interaction with transition metal ions such as iron and copper. Furthermore, ascorbic acid may act as a reducing agent for Ru(III) compounds such as indazolium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019), an investigational anticancer drug which is supposed to be activated by reduction, prior to binding to cellular target proteins. Therefore, we investigated the influence of ascorbic acid on the activity of this antitumor metal complex in cell culture studies. We show that co-incubation of equicytotoxic, constant amounts of KP1019 with high concentrations of ascorbic acid (50-700 ?M) increases cytotoxicity of the ruthenium anticancer drug in the human colon carcinoma cell line SW480, human cervical carcinoma KB-3-1 cells, and the multidrug-resistant subline KBC-1, whereas addition of low concentrations (2.7-50 ?M) has a strong chemoprotective effect in the human colon carcinoma cell line SW480, but not in multidrug-resistant KBC-1 cells. Although cellular uptake of KP1019 is not altered, ascorbic acid induce stronger interaction of the ruthenium compound with DNA both in SW480 cells and under cell-free conditions with plasmid DNA. Even if DNA interactions probably play a subordinate role in vivo given the extensive protein binding of the compound, our data exemplify that ascorbic acid enhances the reactivity of KP1019 with biomolecules. Moreover, we demonstrate that the levels of KP1019-generated reactive oxygen species are markedly decreased by co-incubation with ascorbic acid. Conclusively, our results indicate that application of high doses of ascorbic acid might increase the anticancer effects of KP1019. PMID:21706338

  14. Approaches to Improve the Oral Bioavailability and Effects of Novel Anticancer Drugs Berberine and Betulinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Doddapaneni, Ravi; Somagoni, Jaganmohan; Singh, Mandip

    2014-01-01

    Background The poor bioavailability of Berberine (BBR) and Betulinic acid (BA) limits the development of these promising anticancer agents for clinical use. In the current study, BBR and BA in spray dried (SD) mucoadhesive microparticle formulations were prepared. Methods A patented dual channel spray gun technology established in our laboratory was used for both formulations. Gastrointestinal (GI) permeability studies were carried out using Caco-2 cell monolayer grown in in-vitro system. The oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of SD formulations were studied in Sprague Dawley rats. A549 orthotopic and H1650 metastatic NSCLC models were utilized for the anticancer evaluations. Results Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that BBR and BA SD formulations resulted in 3.46 and 3.90 fold respectively, significant increase in plasma Cmax concentrations. AUC levels were increased by 6.98 and 7.41 fold in BBR and BA SD formulations, respectively. Compared to untreated controls groups, 49.8 & 53.4% decrease in the tumor volumes was observed in SD formulation groups of BBR and BA, respectively. Molecular studies done on excised tumor (A549) tissue suggested that BBR in SD form resulted in a significant decrease in the survivin, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, MMP-9, HIF-1?, VEGF and CD31 expressions. Cleaved caspase 3, p53 and TUNEL expressions were increased in SD formulations. The RT-PCR analysis on H1650 tumor tissue suggested that p38, Phospho-JNK, Bax, BAD, cleaved caspase 3&8 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in BA SD formulations. Chronic administration of BBR and BA SD formulations did not show any toxicity. Conclusions Due to significant increase in oral bioavailability and superior anticancer effects, our results suggest that spray drying is a superior alternative formulation approach for oral delivery of BBR and BA. PMID:24614362

  15. Potential anticancer properties of bioactive compounds of Gymnema sylvestre and its biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Aarrthy M

    2015-01-01

    Background Gymnema sylvestre is an ethno-pharmacologically important medicinal plant used in many polyherbal formulations for its potential health benefits. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were biofunctionalized using aqueous leaf extracts of G. sylvestre. The anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds and the biofunctionalized SNPs were compared using the HT29 human adenoma colon cancer cell line. Methods The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. Biofunctionalized SNPs were synthesized using silver nitrate and characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for size and shape. The characterized biofunctionalized G. sylvestre were tested for its in vitro anticancer activity against HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Results The biofunctionlized G. sylvestre SNPs showed the surface plasmon resonance band at 430 nm. The scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles of various sizes, which were further determined using the Scherrer equation. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the biofunctionalized green-synthesized SNPs (GSNPs) indicated that the sensitivity of HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells for cytotoxic drugs is higher than that of Vero cell line for the same cytotoxic agents and also higher than the bioactive compound of the aqueous extract. Conclusion Our results show that the anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds of G. sylvestre can be enhanced through biofunctionalizing the SNPs using the bioactive compounds present in the plant extract without compromising their medicinal properties. PMID:25565802

  16. Oxidant-based anticancer activity of a novel synthetic analogue of capsaicin, capsaicin epoxide.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Chochrek, Pawel; Smolag, Karolina; Rawska, Ewa; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-11-01

    Objectives Plant-derived natural substances, such as capsaicin, with potent antiproliferative activity against cancer cells in vitro are considered to be promising nutraceuticals in anticancer therapy. Nevertheless, the limited systemic bioavailability of phytochemicals may raise questions regarding the physiological relevance of their phytochemical effects in vivo. Thus, the search for novel phytochemical-based substances with more efficient anticancer action is needed. Methods In the present study, a capsaicin analogue, namely, capsaicin epoxide, was synthesized, and its cytotoxic potential against cancer cells was evaluated and compared to that of capsaicin through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and multi-caspase assays. The abilities of capsaicin and capsaicin epoxide to induce oxidative stress were estimated using redox-sensitive fluorogenic probes: 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) and dihydroethidium. Results The structure and purity of the synthesized product were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were not susceptible to treatment with the agent, whereas a cancer cell type-specific response was observed. Human breast carcinoma cells were found to be the most sensitive to capsaicin epoxide treatment compared with capsaicin treatment, and the action of capsaicin epoxide was oxidant based. Discussion Our data indicate that the antiproliferative activity of capsaicin epoxide is potentiated in vitro, when used at much lower concentrations compared with capsaicin at similar concentrations. Thus, the findings of this study may have implications for phytochemical-based anticancer drug development. PMID:25382686

  17. Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ?-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization. PMID:25051278

  18. Alteration of the effects of cancer therapy agents on breast cancer cells by the herbal medicine black cohosh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Rockwell; Yanfeng Liu; Susan A. Higgins

    2005-01-01

    Summary Recent studies have revealed that many, perhaps most, patients receiving cancer therapy are simultaneously self-medicating with one or several complementary and alternative medicines, often without discussing the use of these agents with their physicians. The effects of these agents on the efficacy and toxicity of standard anticancer therapy have not been studied. The experiments described in this report used

  19. Acute pancreatitis induced by anticancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ben Kridis, W; Khanfir, A; Frikha, M

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis is rare (1.4-2%). This report describes a 20-year-old female patient who developed acute pancreatitis while being treated for neurosarcoma of abdominal wall with the ifosfamide and doxorubicin regimen. Although it is unusual, it is important to consider chemotherapeutic agents as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24455804

  20. Anacardic acid enhances the anticancer activity of liposomal mitoxantrone towards melanoma cell lines – in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Legut, Mateusz; Lipka, Dominik; Filipczak, Nina; Piwoni, Adriana; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Gubernator, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel formulation of antineoplastic drug: mitoxantrone loaded into liposomal carriers enriched with encapsulated anacardic acid in the liposomal bilayer using a vitamin C gradient. Anacardic acid is a potent epigenetic agent with anticancer activity. This is the first liposomal formulation to combine an actively encapsulated drug and anacardic acid. The liposomes were characterized in terms of basic parameters, such as size, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio, loading time and temperature, and stability at 4°C and in human plasma in vitro. The formulation was found to be stable, and the loading process was rapid and efficient (drug-to-lipid ratio of up to 0.3 with over 90% efficiency in 5 minutes). The cytotoxicity of these formulations was assessed using the human melanoma cell lines A375 and Hs294T and the normal human dermal fibroblast line. The results showed that anacardic acid and to a smaller extent vitamin C significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the drug towards melanoma compared to ammonium sulfate liposomes. On the other hand, vitamin C and anacardic acid both protected normal cells from damage caused by the drug. The formulation combining anacardic acid, vitamin C, and mitoxantrone showed promising results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection. Therefore, it has potential for anticancer treatment. PMID:24489469

  1. Docking studies for screening anticancer compounds of Azadirachta indica using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model system

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, M; Balakrishnan, Reena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Plants have a long history of use in the treatment of cancer. Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anticancer agents. In the recent years, more emphasis has been placed on identifying plant-derived compounds that can be used as an effective treatment for life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Cancer is a disease where there is abnormal cell proliferation. The proliferation of the cancer cells are restrained by cdk/cyclin complexes, which control the normal process of cell cycle. Materials and Method: The current study involves the investigation of the anticancer property of the chemical compounds present in the leaves of Azadirachta indica by performing docking studies with the cell cycle control protein using Arguslab. Result: The compounds were docked with the cdk1 protein to identify suitable inhibitors against the protein function. Conclusion: The study were conducted on yeast Cdk protein, because these proteins showed homology with the human Cdks PMID:24678207

  2. Garcinol: Current status of its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoqun; Ho, Paul Chi-Lui; Wong, Fang Cheng; Sethi, Gautam; Wang, Ling Zhi; Goh, Boon Cher

    2015-06-28

    Garcinol is the main medicinal component of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia indica (G. indica), which has traditionally been extensively used to treat gastric ailments and skin irritation. In vitro studies of garcinol revealed its potential therapeutic effects, such as its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Similarly, in vivo studies in animal models also demonstrated the efficacy of garcinol for the treatment of various inflammatory and cancerous conditions. Despite being well tolerated in preclinical studies, the toxicological profile of garcinol remains elusive. More importantly, systematic pharmacokinetics (PK) studies of garcinol to establish an appropriate route of administration and its effective concentration range under physiological conditions have not yet been performed. PK studies play an essential role in translating the preclinical findings of garcinol from cell line models and animal species to humans, thereby facilitating dose selection, the characterization of the therapeutic index, identification of a metabolic pathway, and the determination of garcinol's potency and tolerability. This paper reviews the current studies of garcinol as a potential anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent and highlights the importance of performing preclinical PK and toxicological studies on garcinol for its development pipeline. PMID:25796441

  3. p53 and Ca2+ signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum: partners in anti-cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bittremieux, Mart; Bultynck, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Ca2+ transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the mitochondria critically controls cell survival and cell death decisions. Different oncogenes and deregulation of tumor suppressors exploit this mechanism to favor the survival of altered, malignant cells. Two recent studies of the Pinton team revealed a novel, non-transcriptional function of cytosolic p53 in cell death. During cell stress, p53 is recruited to the ER and the ER-mitochondrial contact sites. This results in augmented ER Ca2+ levels by enhancing sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity, ultimately promoting mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. The boosting of “toxic” Ca2+ signaling by p53 appears to be a critical component of the cell death-inducing properties of chemotherapeutic agents and anti-cancer treatments, like photodynamic stress. Strikingly, the resistance of p53-deficient cancer cells to these treatments could be overcome by facilitating Ca2+ transfer between the ER and the mitochondria via overexpression of SERCA or of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU). Importantly, these concepts have also been supported by in vivo Ca2+ measurements in tumor masses in mice. Collectively, these studies link for the first time the major tumor suppressor, p53, to Ca2+ signaling in dictating cell-death outcomes and by the success of anti-cancer treatments.

  4. In Search of the Active Metabolites of an Anticancer Piperazinedione, TW01003, in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Li; Chen, Ching-Kuei; Wang, Yao-Horng; Cheng, Yu-Wen

    2014-01-01

    TW01003, a piperazinedione derivative designed as an antimitotic agent, exhibited potent anticancer and antiangiogenesis activities in mice. However, oral administration of this compound in rats led to poor systemic bioavailability which suggested that in vivo efficacy might come from its metabolites. This report describes the identification of TW01003 metabolites in pig and Wistar rats. Following intravenous administration of TW01003, pig urine samples were subjected to sulfatase and glucuronidase treatment to monitor the biotransformation products. Rats were given TW01003 both intravenously and orally, and blood samples were collected and then analyzed by HPLC to quantitatively determine the metabolic transformation of TW01003 to its metabolite. A sulfate conjugate, TW01003 sulfate, was identified as the major metabolite for TW01003 after intravenous injection in both pig and rats. However, in rats, the glucuronide conjugate became major metabolite 30?min after TW01003 oral dosing. Pharmacokinetic analysis after intravenous administration of TW01003 indicated that TW01003 sulfate had a systemic bioavailability 2.5 times higher, volume of distribution three times higher, residence time seven times longer, and clearance rate 2.3 times lower compared to TW01003. Our results indicate that the potent anticancer and antiangiogenesis activities of TW01003 might not come from TW01003 per se but from its metabolites TW01003 sulfate. PMID:24864259

  5. In search of the active metabolites of an anticancer piperazinedione, TW01003, in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Li; Chen, Ching-Kuei; Wang, Yao-Horng; Cheng, Yu-Wen

    2014-01-01

    TW01003, a piperazinedione derivative designed as an antimitotic agent, exhibited potent anticancer and antiangiogenesis activities in mice. However, oral administration of this compound in rats led to poor systemic bioavailability which suggested that in vivo efficacy might come from its metabolites. This report describes the identification of TW01003 metabolites in pig and Wistar rats. Following intravenous administration of TW01003, pig urine samples were subjected to sulfatase and glucuronidase treatment to monitor the biotransformation products. Rats were given TW01003 both intravenously and orally, and blood samples were collected and then analyzed by HPLC to quantitatively determine the metabolic transformation of TW01003 to its metabolite. A sulfate conjugate, TW01003 sulfate, was identified as the major metabolite for TW01003 after intravenous injection in both pig and rats. However, in rats, the glucuronide conjugate became major metabolite 30?min after TW01003 oral dosing. Pharmacokinetic analysis after intravenous administration of TW01003 indicated that TW01003 sulfate had a systemic bioavailability 2.5 times higher, volume of distribution three times higher, residence time seven times longer, and clearance rate 2.3 times lower compared to TW01003. Our results indicate that the potent anticancer and antiangiogenesis activities of TW01003 might not come from TW01003 per se but from its metabolites TW01003 sulfate. PMID:24864259

  6. Systematic Repurposing Screening in Xenograft Models Identifies Approved Drugs with Novel Anti-Cancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roix, Jeffrey J.; Harrison, S. D.; Rainbolt, Elizabeth A.; Meshaw, Kathryn R.; McMurry, Avery S.; Cheung, Peter; Saha, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Approved drugs target approximately 400 different mechanisms of action, of which as few as 60 are currently used as anti-cancer therapies. Given that on average it takes 10–15 years for a new cancer therapeutic to be approved, and the recent success of drug repurposing for agents such as thalidomide, we hypothesized that effective, safe cancer treatments may be found by testing approved drugs in new therapeutic settings. Here, we report in-vivo testing of a broad compound collection in cancer xenograft models. Using 182 compounds that target 125 unique target mechanisms, we identified 3 drugs that displayed reproducible activity in combination with the chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Candidate drugs appear effective at dose equivalents that exceed current prescription levels, suggesting that additional pre-clinical efforts will be needed before these drugs can be tested for efficacy in clinical trials. In total, we suggest drug repurposing is a relatively resource-intensive method that can identify approved medicines with a narrow margin of anti-cancer activity. PMID:25093583

  7. Synergistic anticancer activity of photo- and chemoresponsive nanoformulation based on polylysine-functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunhui; He, Qiuming; Zhu, Anni; Li, Dan; Xu, Min; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yiyao

    2014-12-10

    Multimodal therapeutic agents based on nanomaterials for cancer combination therapy have attracted increasing attention. In this report, a novel photo- and chemoactive nanohybrid was fabricated by assembling photosensitizer Zn(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) on the biocompatible poly-l-lysine (PLL)-grafted graphene (G-PLL). This nanocomplex of G-PLL/DOX/ZnPc showed excellent physiochemical properties, including high solubility and stability in biological solutions, high drug loading efficiency, pH-triggered drug release, and ability to generalize (1)O2 under light excitation. Compared to free drug molecules, cells treated with G-PLL/DOX/ZnPc showed a higher cellular uptake. In particular, G-PLL/DOX/ZnPc elicited a remarkable synergistic anticancer activity owing to combined photodynamic and chemotherapeutic effects. The combination dose reduction indexes revealed that combining DOX with ZnPc provided strong synergistic effects (combination index < 0.1) against three cancer cell lines tested (HeLa, MCF-7, and B16). Thus, this study demonstrates programmable dual-modality therapy exemplified by G-PLL/DOX/ZnPc to synergistically treat cancers. PMID:25370358

  8. Characterization of the Phytochemical Constituents of Taif Rose and Its Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S.; Bazaid, Salih A.; Salman, Mahmood S.

    2013-01-01

    Ward Taifi (Taif rose) is considered one of the most important economic products of Taif, Saudi Arabia. In this study both fresh and dry Taif rose were biologically and phytochemically investigated. The 80% methanol extracts and n-butanol fractions of dry and fresh Taif rose had high radical scavenging activity toward artificial 1,1-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)• radical with SC50 values range 5.86?12.24?µg/ml whereas the aqueous fractions showed weak activity. All samples had in vitro anticancer activity toward HepG2 with IC50 < 20?µg/ml which fall within the criteria of the American Cancer Institute. High positive correlation appeared between the antioxidant activity and total phenolics whereas there is no correlation between total phenolics and anticancer activity. The LC-ESI(? ve)-MS analysis of all extracts indicate the presence of phenolic compounds belonging to hydrolysable tannins and flavonol glycosides. In conclusion, the presence of this is considered to be the first phytochemical report that identifies the major compounds in dry and fresh roses using HPLC-ESI-MS. The methanol extracts and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions for both fresh and dry Taif rose could be used as preventive and therapeutic effective natural agents for diseases in which free radicals involved after more in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:24282813

  9. The Comparison of Anticancer Activity of Thymoquinone and Nanothymoquinone on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Hossein; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Entezari, Maliheh; Mohsenifar, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in the world which is created by the effect of enviromental physico-chemical mutagen and carcinogen agents. The identification of new cytotoxic drugs with low side effects on immune system has developed as important area in new studies of pharmacology. Thymoquinone (TQ), derived from the medicinal spice Nigella sativa (also calledt black cumin) exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this study we employed nanogel-based nanoparticle approach to improve upon its effectiveness. Myristic acid-chitosan (MA-chitosan) nanogels were prepared by the technique of self-assembly. Thymoquinone was loaded into the nanogels. The surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was determined using SEM and TEM. The other objective of this study was to examine the in-vitro cytotoxic activity of cell death of Thymoquinone and nanothymoquinone on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7). Cytotoxicity and viability of Thymoquinone and nanothymoquinone were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and dye exclusion assay. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the particle diameter was between 150 to 200 nm. Proliferation of MCF7 cells was significantly inhibited by Thymoquinone and nanothymoquinone in a concentration-dependent manner in defined times. There were significant differences in IC50 Thymoquinone and nanothymoquinone. TQ-loaded nanoparticles proved more effective compared to TQ solution. The high drug-targeting potential and efficiency demonstrates the significant role of the anticancer properties of TQ-loaded nanoparticles.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 3-Alkylpyridine Marine Alkaloid Analogs with Promising Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Mirtes Marques Neves; de Lima, Aline Brito; Barbosa, Maria Cristina da Silva; de Camargos, Luiz Fernando; de Oliveira, Júlia Teixeira; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Villar, José Augusto Ferreira Perez; Costa, André Carvalho; da Silva, Isabella Viana Gomes; Silva, Luciana Maria; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla; dos Santos, Fabio Vieira; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Cancer continues to be one of the most important health problems worldwide, and the identification of novel drugs and treatments to address this disease is urgent. During recent years, marine organisms have proven to be a promising source of new compounds with action against tumoral cell lines. Here, we describe the synthesis and anticancer activity of eight new 3-alkylpyridine alkaloid (3-APA) analogs in four steps and with good yields. The key step for the synthesis of these compounds is a Williamson etherification under phase-transfer conditions. We investigated the influence of the length of the alkyl chain attached to position 3 of the pyridine ring on the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Biological assays demonstrated that compounds with an alkyl chain of ten carbon atoms (4c and 5c) were the most active against two tumoral cell lines: RKO-AS-45-1 and HeLa. Micronucleus and TUNEL assays showed that both compounds are mutagenic and induce apoptosis. In addition, Compound 5c altered the cellular actin cytoskeleton in RKO-AS-45-1 cells. The results suggest that Compounds 4c and 5c may be novel prototype anticancer agents. PMID:25089949

  11. Immunological monitoring of anticancer vaccines in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Ogi, Chizuru; Aruga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic anticancer vaccines operate by eliciting or enhancing an immune response that specifically targets tumor-associated antigens. Although intense efforts have been made for developing clinically useful anticancer vaccines, only a few Phase III clinical trials testing this immunotherapeutic strategy have achieved their primary endpoint. Here, we report the results of a retrospective research aimed at clarifying the design of previously completed Phase II/III clinical trials testing therapeutic anticancer vaccines and at assessing the value of immunological monitoring in this setting. We identified 17 anticancer vaccines that have been investigated in the context of a completed Phase II/III clinical trial. The immune response of patients receiving anticancer vaccination was assessed for only 8 of these products (in 15 distinct studies) in the attempt to identify a correlation with clinical outcome. Of these studies, 13 were supported by a statistical correlation study (Log-rank test), and no less than 12 identified a positive correlation between vaccine-elicited immune responses and disease outcome. Six trials also performed a Cox proportional hazards analysis, invariably demonstrating that vaccine-elicited immune responses have a positive prognostic value. However, despite these positive results in the course of early clinical development, most therapeutic vaccines tested so far failed to provide any clinical benefit to cancer patients in Phase II/III studies. Our research indicates that evaluating the immunological profile of patients at enrollment might constitute a key approach often neglected in these studies. Such an immunological monitoring should be based not only on peripheral blood samples but also on bioptic specimens, whenever possible. The evaluation of the immunological profile of cancer patients enrolled in early clinical trials will allow for the identification of individuals who have the highest chances to benefit from anticancer vaccination, thus favoring the rational design of Phase II and Phase III studies. This approach will undoubtedly accelerate the clinical development of therapeutic anticancer vaccines. PMID:24083085

  12. From antimicrobial to anticancer peptides. A review

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Diana; Veiga, A. Salomé; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the innate immune defense mechanism of many organisms. Although AMPs have been essentially studied and developed as potential alternatives for fighting infectious diseases, their use as anticancer peptides (ACPs) in cancer therapy either alone or in combination with other conventional drugs has been regarded as a therapeutic strategy to explore. As human cancer remains a cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide, an urgent need of new, selective, and more efficient drugs is evident. Even though ACPs are expected to be selective toward tumor cells without impairing the normal body physiological functions, the development of a selective ACP has been a challenge. It is not yet possible to predict antitumor activity based on ACPs structures. ACPs are unique molecules when compared to the actual chemotherapeutic arsenal available for cancer treatment and display a variety of modes of action which in some types of cancer seem to co-exist. Regardless the debate surrounding the definition of structure-activity relationships for ACPs, great effort has been invested in ACP design and the challenge of improving effective killing of tumor cells remains. As detailed studies on ACPs mechanisms of action are crucial for optimizing drug development, in this review we provide an overview of the literature concerning peptides' structure, modes of action, selectivity, and efficacy and also summarize some of the many ACPs studied and/or developed for targeting different solid and hematologic malignancies with special emphasis on the first group. Strategies described for drug development and for increasing peptide selectivity toward specific cells while reducing toxicity are also discussed. PMID:24101917

  13. Violacein anticancer activity is enhanced under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hashimi, Saeed M; Xu, Tiefeng; Wei, Ming Q

    2015-04-01

    Current cancer treatments of solid tumours such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have yet to produce effective therapeutic results due to non-specific targeting. This has led to many complications, such as toxicities in cancer patients. The ability of natural compounds in inducing programmed cell death (apoptosis), a process dysregulated in cancer cells, has been extensively studied in recent studies. This study assessed the anti-proliferative activity of violacein in a number of human cancer cell lines under normal and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we investigated its effects in a tumour?bearing subcutaneous mouse model. We also examined the ability of a tumour?targeting Salmonella strain to produce violacein for local delivery within the tumour microenvironment. The results showed that hypoxia significantly increased the cytotoxic effects of violacein. The most significant reduction in the IC50 was in the HT29 (12.6-fold) and HCT116 (4.8-fold) colon cancer cell lines, HN5 head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line (6.5-fold), and MCF-7 breast ductal carcinoma cell line (4-fold). Among the cell lines tested for active caspase-3/7 activity, violacein only increased caspase-3/7 activity in the A549 non-small lung cancer cell line. In vivo efficacy of violacein showed that HN5 tumour?bearing mice had regressed tumours during the treatment period and survival increased. The results also showed that transfer of the violacein biosynthetic cluster into the oncolytic strain VNP20009 of Salmonella resulted in the production of active violacein, suggesting targeted delivery of violacein by VNP20009. Taken together, our study has shown that hypoxia synergises the effects of violacein and the results from the in vivo administration of violacein require further investigation of violacein as an anticancer chemotherapeutic. PMID:25652759

  14. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine potentiates synergistically anti-cancer property of artemisinin by promoting ROS dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Arnab; Choudhury, Diptiman; Datta, Satabdi; Bhattacharya, Surela; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a well-known anti-malarial drug, and recently it is shown prospective to selectively kill cancer cells. But low potency makes it inappropriate for use as an anticancer drug. In this study, we modulated the ART-induced autophagy to increase Potency of ART as an anticancer agent. ART reduced the cell viability and colony forming ability of non-small lung carcinoma (A549) cells and it was non-toxic against normal lung (WI38) cells. ART induced autophagy at the early stage of treatment. Pre-treatment with chloroquine (CQ) and followed by ART treatment had synergistic combination index (CI) for cell death. Inhibition of autophagy by CQ pre-treatment led to accumulation of acidic vacuoles (AVOs) which acquainted with unprocessed damage mitochondria that subsequently promoted ROS generation, and resulted releases of Cyt C in cytosol that caused caspase-3 dependent apoptosis cell death in ART-treated A549 cells. Scavenging of ROS by antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) inhibited caspase-3 activity and rescued the cells from apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in other cancer cells SCC25 and MDA-MB-231. The appropriate manipulation of autophagy by using CQ provides a powerful strategy to increase the Potency of selective anticancer property of ART. PMID:25308836

  15. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of N-Aryl-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Mohamed Jawed; Sharma, Jyotika; Singh, Monika; Jadav, Surender Singh; Yasmin, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    In continuance of our search for anticancer agents, we report herein the synthesis and anticancer activity of some novel oxadiazole analogues. The compounds were screened for anticancer activity as per National Cancer Institute (NCI US) protocol on leukemia, melanoma, lung, colon, CNS, ovarian, renal, prostate, and breast cancers cell lines. N-(2,4-Dimethylphenyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (4s) showed maximum activity with mean growth percent (GP) of 62.61 and was found to be the most sensitive on MDA-MB-435 (melanoma), K-562 (leukemia), T-47D (breast cancer), and HCT-15 (colon cancer) cell lines with GP of 15.43, 18.22, 34.27, and 39.77, respectively. Maximum GP was observed on MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) cell line (GP = 6.82) by compound N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (4u). PMID:24977160

  16. Anticancer properties of 10-hydroxycamptothecin in a murine melanoma pulmonary metastasis model in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Fang, Yun; Lou, Chenghua

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer, including lung metastatic cancer, remains one of the most difficult types of cancer to treat. Therefore, the search for new agents for its treatment is very important. 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) was proved to have ideal anticancer activity in curing series cancer cells. In this study, the anticancer effect of HCPT on melanoma lung metastasis cancer was investigated by several administration routes, and whether the effect may be attributed to the induction of tumor cells apoptosis was determined. MTT assay results showed that HCPT exhibited selective cytotoxic activity against B16-F10 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Hoechst 33258 staining and transmission electron microscopy showed typical apoptotic morphology such as condensed chromatin, irregular nuclei, and apoptotic body formation. Flow cytometry analysis indicated a growth on apoptotic cells and a cell-cycle arrest in S phase after treatment with HCPT. In vivo melanoma pulmonary metastases were inhibited by treatment with HCPT. A more significant inhibition was observed if HCPT was administered by aerosol inhalation than that given by i.v. or i.p. administration. Thus, HCPT exhibited potential anticancer activity against B16-F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible mechanisms involved still need to be investigated to explain this behavior. PMID:21093576

  17. Exploring the Anti-Cancer Activity of Novel Thiosemicarbazones Generated through the Combination of Retro-Fragments: Dissection of Critical Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Rasko, Nathalie; Pot??ková, Eliška; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Musiol, Robert; Ma?ecki, Jan G.; Sajewicz, Mieczys?aw; Ratuszna, Alicja; Muchowicz, Angelika; Go??b, Jakub; Šim?nek, Tomáš; Richardson, Des R.; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) are an interesting class of ligands that show a diverse range of biological activity, including anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated the potent in vivo anti-tumor activity of novel TSCs and their ability to overcome resistance to clinically used chemotherapeutics. In the current study, 35 novel TSCs of 6 different classes were designed using a combination of retro-fragments that appear in other TSCs. Additionally, di-substitution at the terminal N4 atom, which was previously identified to be critical for potent anti-cancer activity, was preserved through the incorporation of an N4-based piperazine or morpholine ring. The anti-proliferative activity of the novel TSCs were examined in a variety of cancer and normal cell-types. In particular, compounds 1d and 3c demonstrated the greatest promise as anti-cancer agents with potent and selective anti-proliferative activity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the chelators that utilized “soft” donor atoms, such as nitrogen and sulfur, resulted in potent anti-cancer activity. Indeed, the N,N,S donor atom set was crucial for the formation of redox active iron complexes that were able to mediate the oxidation of ascorbate. This further highlights the important role of reactive oxygen species generation in mediating potent anti-cancer activity. Significantly, this study identified the potent and selective anti-cancer activity of 1d and 3c that warrants further examination. PMID:25329549

  18. Exploring the anti-cancer activity of novel thiosemicarbazones generated through the combination of retro-fragments: dissection of critical structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Serda, Maciej; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Rasko, Nathalie; Pot??ková, Eliška; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Musiol, Robert; Ma?ecki, Jan G; Sajewicz, Mieczys?aw; Ratuszna, Alicja; Muchowicz, Angelika; Go??b, Jakub; Sim?nek, Tomáš; Richardson, Des R; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) are an interesting class of ligands that show a diverse range of biological activity, including anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated the potent in vivo anti-tumor activity of novel TSCs and their ability to overcome resistance to clinically used chemotherapeutics. In the current study, 35 novel TSCs of 6 different classes were designed using a combination of retro-fragments that appear in other TSCs. Additionally, di-substitution at the terminal N4 atom, which was previously identified to be critical for potent anti-cancer activity, was preserved through the incorporation of an N4-based piperazine or morpholine ring. The anti-proliferative activity of the novel TSCs were examined in a variety of cancer and normal cell-types. In particular, compounds 1d and 3c demonstrated the greatest promise as anti-cancer agents with potent and selective anti-proliferative activity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the chelators that utilized "soft" donor atoms, such as nitrogen and sulfur, resulted in potent anti-cancer activity. Indeed, the N,N,S donor atom set was crucial for the formation of redox active iron complexes that were able to mediate the oxidation of ascorbate. This further highlights the important role of reactive oxygen species generation in mediating potent anti-cancer activity. Significantly, this study identified the potent and selective anti-cancer activity of 1d and 3c that warrants further examination. PMID:25329549

  19. Synthesis and anticancer activity evaluation of ?(5)-C5(CH3)4R ruthenium complexes bearing chelating diphosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bárzano, A; Lord, R M; Basri, A M; Phillips, R M; Blacker, A J; McGowan, P C

    2015-02-21

    The complexes [RuCp*(PP)Cl] (Cp* = C5Me5; [], PP = dppm; [], PP = Xantphos), [RuCp(#)(PP)Cl] (Cp(#) = C5Me4(CH2)5OH; [], PP = dppm; [], PP = Xantphos) and [RuCp*(dppm)(CH3CN)][SbF6] [] were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as anticancer agents. Compounds gave nanomolar IC50 values against normoxic A2780 and HT-29 cell lines, and were also tested against hypoxic HT-29 cells, maintaining their high activity. Complex yielded an IC50 value of 0.55 ± 0.03 ?M under a 0.1% O2 concentration. PMID:25597645

  20. Physical and spectral characterization of the human cyclin A gene and its interactions with anthracycline anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huixin; Wang, Xiaohui; Yu, Haijia; Fu, Manliang; Qu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Yongchen; Ren, Jinsong

    2007-02-01

    Over expression of cyclin A in human tumors has been linked to cancer by various experimental lines of evidence. However, physical and spectral characterization of the human cyclin A gene and its interactions with anticancer drugs have not been reported. Our gene sequence analysis, singular value decomposition method and melting studies in the presence of antitumor agents, daunomycin, doxorubicin and Hoechst 33258 showed that cyclin A gene had both AT-rich and GC-rich domains. For a ligand with unknown DNA binding specificity, this gene sequence can be used to differentiate its DNA binding preference.

  1. CancerPPD: a database of anticancer peptides and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Atul; Tuknait, Abhishek; Anand, Priya; Gupta, Sudheer; Sharma, Minakshi; Mathur, Deepika; Joshi, Anshika; Singh, Sandeep; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P.S.

    2015-01-01

    CancerPPD (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/cancerppd/) is a repository of experimentally verified anticancer peptides (ACPs) and anticancer proteins. Data were manually collected from published research articles, patents and from other databases. The current release of CancerPPD consists of 3491 ACP and 121 anticancer protein entries. Each entry provides comprehensive information related to a peptide like its source of origin, nature of the peptide, anticancer activity, N- and C-terminal modifications, conformation, etc. Additionally, CancerPPD provides the information of around 249 types of cancer cell lines and 16 different assays used for testing the ACPs. In addition to natural peptides, CancerPPD contains peptides having non-natural, chemically modified residues and D-amino acids. Besides this primary information, CancerPPD stores predicted tertiary structures as well as peptide sequences in SMILES format. Tertiary structures of peptides were predicted using the state-of-art method, PEPstr and secondary structural states were assigned using DSSP. In order to assist users, a number of web-based tools have been integrated, these include keyword search, data browsing, sequence and structural similarity search. We believe that CancerPPD will be very useful in designing peptide-based anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25270878

  2. Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

    2014-10-24

    Abstract Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds. PMID:25343583

  3. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  4. Anti-Cancer Vaccines — A One-Hit Wonder?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Justin K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against common bacterial and viral diseases has helped prevent millions of deaths worldwide. More recently, the concept of vaccination has been developed into a potentially novel strategy to treat and prevent cancer formation, progression, and spread. Over the past few years, a handful of anti-cancer vaccines have been licensed and approved for use in clinical practice, thus providing a breakthrough in the field. However, the path has not always been easy, with many hurdles that have had to be overcome in order to reach this point. Nevertheless, with more anti-cancer vaccines currently in development, there is still hope that they can eventually become routine tools used in the treatment and prevention of cancer in the future. This review will discuss in detail both types of anti-cancer vaccine presently used in clinical practice — therapeutic and preventive — before considering some of the more promising anti-cancer vaccines that are currently in development. Finally, the issue of side effects and the debate surrounding the overall cost-effectiveness of anti-cancer vaccines will be examined. PMID:25506282

  5. The prediction of Raman spectra of platinum(II) anticancer drugs by density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, Danuta; Wysoki?ski, Rafa?

    2005-02-01

    We present the method of theoretical calculations of the Raman intensities and the simulated Raman spectra of platinum(II) complexes. Theoretical Raman spectra of the anticancer agents: cisplatin ( 1), carboplatin ( 2), cis-[Pt(orotato)(NH 3) 2] ( 3), cis-[PtCl 2(NH 3)(2-picoline)], ZD0473 ( 4), and the two transient species of 4 (the hydrolysis products) were calculated by density functional mPW1PW method with several basis sets. For comparison, the experimental Raman spectra of compounds 1- 3 were measured. The clear-cut assignment of the Pt-ligand vibrations in the Raman spectra of the investigated compounds has been made on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution.

  6. Anticancer and Antitumor Potential of Fucoidan and Fucoxanthin, Two Main Metabolites Isolated from Brown Algae

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Karimian, Hamed; Khanabdali, Ramin; Razavi, Mahboubeh; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2014-01-01

    Seaweed is one of the largest producers of biomass in marine environment and is a rich arsenal of active metabolites and functional ingredients with valuable beneficial health effects. Being a staple part of Asian cuisine, investigations on the crude extracts of Phaeophyceae or brown algae revealed marked antitumor activity, eliciting a variety of research to determine the active ingredients involved in this potential. The sulfated polysaccharide of fucoidan and carotenoid of fucoxanthin were found to be the most important active metabolites of brown algae as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents. This review strives to provide detailed account of all current knowledge on the anticancer and antitumor activity of fucoidan and fucoxanthin as the two major metabolites isolated from brown algae. PMID:24526922

  7. Discovery of orally active anticancer candidate CFI-400945 derived from biologically promising spirooxindoles: Success and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Yu, Zhiqiang; Qi, Ping-Ping; Yu, De-Quan; Liu, Hong-Min

    2015-05-01

    The identification of novel anticancer agents with high efficacy and low toxicity has always been an intriguing topic in medicinal chemistry. The unique structural features of spirooxindoles together with diverse biological activities have made them promising structures in new drug discovery. Among spirooxindoles, CFI-400945 holds its promise as the first potent PLK4 inhibitor, the fumarate of CFI-400945 has entered phase I clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. However, questions remain as to whether PLK4 is the only relevant therapeutic target for CFI-400945. To highlight this significant progress of CFI-400945 in last two years, this review centers on the identification from a focused kinase library, structural optimizations and strategies involved, structure-activity relationships, modes of action, target validation, chemical synthesis and, more importantly, the kinase selectivity between PLK4 and other targets. PMID:25791677

  8. Turning Tumor-Promoting Copper into an Anti-Cancer Weapon via High-Throughput Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F.; Jiao, P.; Qi, M.; Frezza, M.; Dou, Q.P.; Yan, B.

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential element for multiple biological processes. Its concentration is elevated to a very high level in cancer tissues for promoting cancer development through processes such as angiogenesis. Organic chelators of copper can passively reduce cellular copper and serve the role as inhibitors of angiogenesis. However, they can also actively attack cellular targets such as proteasome, which plays a critical role in cancer development and survival. The discovery of such molecules initially relied on a step by step synthesis followed by biological assays. Today high-throughput chemistry and high-throughput screening have significantly expedited the copper-binding molecules discovery to turn “cancer-promoting” copper into anti-cancer agents. PMID:20586723

  9. Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sak, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way. PMID:23320169

  10. Evaluation of Extrahepatic Perfusion of Anticancer Drugs in the Right Gastric Arterial Region on Fused Images Using Combined CT/SPECT: Is Extrahepatic Perfusion Predictive of Gastric Toxicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu, E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Shinya; Kawanaka, Kouichi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Morishita, Shouji [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Takamori, Hiroshi; Chikamoto, Akira; Kanemitsu, Keiichirou [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Background. Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy is effective for treating primary and metastatic carcinomas of the liver. Since hepatic arteries also supply the stomach and duodenum, HAI may result in unwanted infusion into the upper gastrointestinal tract and consequent gastric toxicity. Using fused images obtained with a combined SPECT/CT system, we assessed extrahepatic perfusion (EHP) and its correlation with gastrointestinal toxicity in patients receiving HAI. Methods. We studied 41 patients with primary or metastatic carcinoma of the liver who received HAI chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. All underwent abdominal SPECT using a {sup 99m}Tc-MAA (185 MBq) instrument and an injection rate of 0.1 ml/min, identical to the chemotherapy infusion rate. Delivery was through an implantable port. We analyzed the distribution of the anticancer agent on fused images and the relationship between EHP of the right gastric arterial region and gastric toxicity. All patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS). Results. Of the 41 patients, 11 (27%) manifested enhancement of the duodenal and gastric pyloric region on fused images. EGDS at the time of reservoir placement detected gastric ulcers in 10 of these patients. Conclusion. Fusion imaging with combined SPECT/CT reflects the actual distribution of the infused anticancer agents. The detection of EHP on fused images is predictive of the direct gastric toxicity from anticancer agents in patients undergoing HAI.

  11. Aureobasidium pullulans as a source of liamocins (heavy oils) with anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Watanapoksin, Ramida; Price, Neil P J; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Tayeh, Malatee; Teeraworawit, Sudarat; Kriwong, Saranya; Leathers, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Liamocins are structurally unique, heavier-than-water “oils” produced by certain strains of Aureobasidium pullulans. The aim of the current study is to identify new sources of liamocins and evaluate their potential as anticancer agents. Nine strains of A. pullulans from phylogenetic clades 8, 9, and 11 were examined for the first time for production of liamocins. Strains in these clades have only been isolated from tropical environments, and all strains tested here were from various locations in Thailand. Strains RSU 9, RSU 21, and RSU 29, all from clade 11, produced from 7.0 to 8.6 g liamocins/l from medium containing 5 % sucrose. These are the highest yields of liamocins that we have found thus far. These strains also produced from 9.4 to 17 g pullulan/l. The structural identity of liamocins was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry; differential spectra were obtained in which the dominant ion was either at about m/z 805.5 or m/z 949.6, consistent with the structure of liamocins. Liamocins from A. pullulans strains RSU 9 and RSU 21 inhibited two human breast cancer cell lines and a human cervical cancer cell line (IC50 values of 32.2 ± 1.4 to 63.1 ± 2.4 ?g liamocins/ml) but were not toxic to a normal cell line. Liamocins weakly inhibited a strain of Enterococcus faecalis, but did not inhibit strains of Lactobacillus fermentum, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, A. pullulans phylogenetic clade 11 is a promising source of liamocins, and these compounds merit further examination as potential anticancer agents. PMID:24659335

  12. Anticancer effect and mechanism of polymer micelle-encapsulated quercetin on ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Bilan; Wei, Xiawei; Men, Ke; Zheng, Fengjin; Zhou, Yingfeng; Zheng, Yu; Gou, Maling; Huang, Meijuan; Guo, Gang; Huang, Ning; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-10-01

    Encapsulation of hydrophobic agents in polymer micelles can improve the water solubility of cargos, contributing to develop novel drugs. Quercetin (QU) is a hydrophobic agent with potential anticancer activity. In this work, we encapsulated QU into biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles and tried to provide proof-of-principle for treating ovarian cancer with this nano-formulation of quercetin. These QU loaded MPEG-PCL (QU/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 6.9% had a mean particle size of 36 nm, rendering the complete dispersion of quercetin in water. QU inhibited the growth of A2780S ovarian cancer cells on a dose dependent manner in vitro. Intravenous administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles significantly suppressed the growth of established xenograft A2780S ovarian tumors through causing cancer cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of quercetin on ovarian cancer cells was studied in vitro. Quercetin treatment induced the apoptosis of A2780S cells associated with activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. MCL-1 downregulation, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential change were observed, suggesting that quercetin may induce apoptosis of A2780S cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Otherwise, quercetin treatment decreased phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated Akt, contributing to inhibition of A2780S cell proliferation. Our data suggested that QU/MPEG-PCL micelles were a novel nano-formulation of quercetin with a potential clinical application in ovarian cancer therapy.

  13. Sequence Effect of Self-Assembling Peptides on the Complexation and In Vitro Delivery of the Hydrophobic Anticancer Drug Ellipticine

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Shan Yu; Yang, Hong; Chen, P.

    2008-01-01

    A special class of self-assembling peptides has been found to be capable of stabilizing the hydrophobic anticancer agent ellipticine in aqueous solution. Here we study the effect of peptide sequence on the complex formation and its anticancer activity in vitro. Three peptides, EAK16-II, EAK16-IV and EFK16-II, were selected to have either a different charge distribution (EAK16-II vs. EAK16-IV) or a varying hydrophobicity (EAK16-II vs. EFK16-II). Results on their complexation with ellipticine revealed that EAK16-II and EAK16-IV were able to stabilize protonated ellipticine or ellipticine microcrystals depending on the peptide concentration; EFK16-II could stabilize neutral ellipticine molecules and ellipticine microcrystals. These different molecular states of ellipticine were expected to affect ellipticine delivery. The anticancer activity of these complexes was tested against two cancer cell lines: A549 and MCF-7, and related to the cell viability. The viability results showed that the complexes with protonated ellipticine were effective in eradicating both cancer cells (viability <0.05), but their dilutions in water were not stable, leading to a fast decrease in their toxicity. In contrast, the complexes formulated with EFK16-II were relatively stable upon dilution, but their original toxicity was relatively low compared to that with protonated ellipticine. Overall, the charge distribution of the peptides seemed not to affect the complex formation and its therapeutic efficacy in vitro; however, the increase in hydrophobicity of the peptides significantly altered the state of stabilized ellipticine and increased the stability of the complexes. This work provides essential information for peptide sequence design in the development of self-assembling peptide-based delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs. PMID:18398476

  14. Overcoming EMT-associated resistance to anti-cancer drugs via Src/FAK pathway inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Catherine; Nicholes, Katrina; Bustos, Daisy; Lin, Eva; Song, Qinghua; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.; Settleman, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in embryonic development and has been associated with cancer metastasis and drug resistance. For example, in EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), EMT has been associated with acquired resistance to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. Moreover, “EGFR-addicted” cancer cell lines induced to undergo EMT become erlotinib-resistant in vitro. To identify potential therapeutic vulnerabilities specifically within these mesenchymal, erlotinib-resistant cells, we performed a small molecule screen of ~200 established anti-cancer agents using the EGFR mutant NSCLC HCC827 cell line and a corresponding mesenchymal derivative line. The mesenchymal cells were more resistant to most tested agents; however, a small number of agents showed selective growth inhibitory activity against the mesenchymal cells, with the most potent being the Abl/Src inhibitor, dasatinib. Analysis of the tyrosine phospho-proteome revealed several Src/FAK pathway kinases that were differentially phosphorylated in the mesenchymal cells, and RNAi depletion of the core Src/FAK pathway components in these mesenchymal cells caused apoptosis. These findings reveal a novel role for Src/FAK pathway kinases in drug resistance and identify dasatinib as a potential therapeutic for treatment of erlotinib resistance associated with EMT. PMID:25193862

  15. Chemotherapy with anticancer drugs encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho Lun; Bendayan, Reina; Rauth, Andrew M; Li, Yongqiang; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2007-07-10

    The prospect of improved cancer chemotherapy using solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as a drug delivery system is promising. Several obstacles frequently encountered with anticancer compounds, such as normal tissue toxicity, poor specificity and stability and a high incidence of drug-resistant tumor cells, are at least partially overcome by delivering them using SLN. The emergence of the newer forms of SLN such as polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers and long-circulating SLN may further expand the role of this versatile drug carrier in cancer treatment. This review focuses on the current use of SLN for the encapsulation and delivery of cytotoxic anticancer compounds. It also discusses more recent trends in the use of SLN as vehicles for delivery of chemosensitizers and cytotoxic therapeutic molecules. It is anticipated that, in the near future, SLN will be further improved to deliver anticancer compounds in a more efficient, specific and safer manner. PMID:17532091

  16. Enhanced anticancer properties of lomustine in conjunction with docosahexaenoic acid in glioblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kevin A; Xu, Zhidong; Saaddatzadeh, M Reza; Wang, Haiyan; Pollok, Karen; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECT Glioblastoma is a rapidly infiltrating tumor that consistently rematerializes despite various forms of aggressive treatment. Brain tumors are commonly treated with alkylating drugs, such as lomustine, which are chemotherapeutic agents. Use of these drugs, however, is associated with serious side effects. To reduce the side effects, one approach is to combine lower doses of chemotherapeutic drugs with other nontoxic anticancer agents. In this study, using glioblastoma cell lines, the authors investigated the anticancer effects of lomustine, alone and in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid normally abundant in the brain and known for its anticancer potential. METHODS Cells were cultured from 3 human-derived tumor cell lines (U87-MG, DB029, and MHBT161) and supplemented with either DHA or lomustine to determine the growth inhibitory potential using WST-1, a mitochondrial functional indicator. Human-derived cerebral cortex microvascular endothelial cells served as a normal phenotypic control. Cellular incorporation of DHA was analyzed by gas chromatography. Using flow cytometric analysis, the DHA and/or lomustine effect on induction of apoptosis and/or necrosis was quantified; subsequently, the DHA and lomustine effect on cell cycle progression was also assessed. Western blot analysis confirmed the role of downstream cellular targets. RESULTS U87-MG growth was inhibited with the supplementation of either DHA (ED50 68.3 ?M) or lomustine (ED50 68.1 ?M); however, growth inhibition was enhanced when U87-MG cells were administered equimolar doses of each compound, resulting in nearly total growth inhibition at 50 ?M. Gas chromatography analysis of the fatty acid profile in DHA-supplemented U87-MG cells resulted in a linear dose-dependent increase in DHA incorporation (< 60 ?M). The combination of DHA and lomustine potently induced U87-MG apoptosis and necrosis as indicated by flow cytometric analysis. Activation of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was evident in lomustine-treated U87-MG cells, although this activation did not appear to be dependent on DHA supplementation. Additionally, lomustine-treated cells' growth arrested in the G2/M cell cycle stage, regardless of the presence of DHA. Similar to the U87-MG observations, the combination of DHA and lomustine resulted in growth inhibition of 2 additional human-derived glioblastoma cell lines, DB029 and MHBT161. Importantly, in primary human-derived cerebral cortex endothelial cells, this combination was only growth inhibitory (40.8%) at the highest dose screened (100 ?M), which indicates a certain degree of selectivity toward glioblastoma. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, these data suggest a potential role for a combination therapy of lomustine and DHA for the treatment of glioblastomas. PMID:25526274

  17. O1.1Discovering selective anticancer drugs: Succeeding slowly is better than failing fast.

    PubMed

    Calvert, A H

    2015-03-01

    Most of the first generation of anticancer drugs act by preventing cellular proliferation. The fact that can induce remissions in the tumour without lethal toxicity to the patient is, at first sight, surprising. However anti-proliferative agents have been the mainstay of cancer treatment for 60 years and continue to play a major role. Perhaps we should view their lack of toxicities to non-proliferating tissues as an advantage rather than seeing only that their toxicity to proliferating tissues is a problem. Getting the right dose is important for all anticancer agents. In the case of carboplatin, the drug nearly failed in early development because of variability in patient tolerance leading to unpredictable toxicity. However it was possible to trace this variability back to pharmacokinetics and generate a dosing formula that has permitted the global use of the drug. Another widely used drug that almost failed in clinical development is pemetrexed. This drug targets the folate pathways and produced variable and severe toxicity in early trials. In this case the cause of the variability was pre-treatment folate status, but this could only be detected using the sensitive surrogate, homocysteine. In order to design an effective anticancer drug we clearly need a target that is specific to the tumour. In addition the target needs to be essential to the oncogenic process - targeting an epiphenomenon is less likely to be effective. In additions to specific driving mutations in oncogenes, fusion proteins and gene amplification have also provided some excellent targets. A further recent development has been that the phenomenon called synthetic lethality may be exploited for cancer treatment. Synthetic lethality occurs when blocking either one of two pathways on its own has no effect, but blocking both is lethal. BRCA related tumours have uniquely lost both alleles for one the BRCA proteins which are essential for homologous recombination repair (HR). Cells without HR function are uniquely sensitive to inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Thus PARP inhibitors are active in tumours arising in a BCRA deficient background. However many cancers occurring with no genetic background have acquired loss of HR functionality, and these are also sensitive to PARP inhibitors. The challenge for further development is to generate a suitable predictive test for HR function. PMID:25795795

  18. 75 FR 10487 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on S9 Nonclinical Evaluation for Anticancer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...Nonclinical Evaluation for Anticancer Pharmaceuticals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...Nonclinical Evaluation for Anticancer Pharmaceuticals.'' The guidance was prepared under...Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The...

  19. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  20. Amaryllidaceae Isocarbostyril Alkaloids and Their Derivatives as Promising Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ingrassia, Laurent; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Darro, Francis; Kiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This review covers the isolation, total synthesis, biologic activity, and more particularly the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of naturally occurring isocarbostyril alkaloids from the Amaryllidaceae family. Starting from these natural products, new derivatives have been synthesized to explore structure-activity relationships within the chemical class and to obtain potential candidates for preclinical development. This approach appears to be capable of providing novel promising anticancer agents. PMID:18607503

  1. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated microgravitation of an HFB do not need to maintain the same surface forces as in normal Earth gravitation, they can divert more energy sources to growth and differentiation and, perhaps, to biosynthesis of greater quantities of desired medicinal compounds. Because one can adjust the HFB to vary effective gravitation, one can also test the effects of intermediate levels of gravitation on biosynthesis of various products. The potential utility of this methodology for producing drugs was demonstrated in experiments in which sandalwood and Madagascar periwinkle cells were grown in an HFB. The conditions in the HFB were chosen to induce the cells to form into aggregate cultures that produced anti-cancer indole alkaloids in amounts greater than do comparable numbers of cells of the same species cultured according to previously known methodologies. The observations made in these experiments were interpreted as suggesting that the aggregation of the cells might be responsible for the enhancement of production of alkaloids.

  2. A cell cycle automaton model for probing circadian patterns of anticancer drug delivery

    E-print Network

    Goldbeter, Albert

    by the circadian clock. Focusing on the cytotoxic effect of the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which kills the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs affecting various phases of the cell cycle. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. AllA cell cycle automaton model for probing circadian patterns of anticancer drug delivery Atilla

  3. Effect of various lysosomotropic agents and microtubule disrupting drugs on the lactogenic and the mammogenic action of prolactin.

    PubMed

    Houdebine, L M

    1980-10-01

    Various drugs added to the culture medium of rabbit mammary gland were assayed for their capacity to affect the lactogenic and the mammogenic activities of prolactin. Three lysosomotropic agents NH4Cl, chloroquine and methylamine which were previously demonstrated to inhibit the degradation of the hormone-receptor complex after its internalization (down-regulation) did not prevent the initiation of casein synthesis, of lactose synthetase activity and of DNA synthesis. Five microtubule disrupting drugs, colchicine, colcemid, vinblastin, podophyllotoxin and nocodazole inhibited the induction of casein and DNA synthesis by prolactin whereas two inactive analogues, trimethylcolchicinic acid and lumicolchicine had no effect. None of these drugs exhibited any general cytotoxic effect as judged by the capacity of the tissue to incorporate 14C aminoacids into total proteins and 3H-uridine into total RNA. The microtubule disrupting drugs did not greatly reduce the rate of casein synthesis in the cultured mammary tissue explanted from lactating rabbits. The data suggest that the down-regulation of prolactin receptor is not strictly required for the two considered prolactin activities. By contrast, the integrity of microtubules, or at least of structures in which tubulin is involved, is necessary to ensure a normal transmission of the prolactin information responsible for the initiation of milk and DNA synthesis. In addition, the fact that the lactogenic and the mammogenic activities of prolactin are affected by the same drugs suggests that these two properties of the hormone are mediated by cellular mechanisms which have at least one common step. PMID:6161010

  4. Ratiometric dosing of anticancer drug combinations: controlling drug ratios after systemic administration regulates therapeutic activity in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lawrence D; Harasym, Troy O; Tardi, Paul G; Harasym, Natashia L; Shew, Clifford R; Johnstone, Sharon A; Ramsay, Euan C; Bally, Marcel B; Janoff, Andrew S

    2006-07-01

    Anticancer drug combinations can act synergistically or antagonistically against tumor cells in vitro depending on the ratios of the individual agents comprising the combination. The importance of drug ratios in vivo, however, has heretofore not been investigated, and combination chemotherapy treatment regimens continue to be developed based on the maximum tolerated dose of the individual agents. We systematically examined three different drug combinations representing a range of anticancer drug classes with distinct molecular mechanisms (irinotecan/floxuridine, cytarabine/daunorubicin, and cisplatin/daunorubicin) for drug ratio-dependent synergy. In each case, synergistic interactions were observed in vitro at certain drug/drug molar ratio ranges (1:1, 5:1, and 10:1, respectively), whereas other ratios were additive or antagonistic. We were able to maintain fixed drug ratios in plasma of mice for 24 hours after i.v. injection for all three combinations by controlling and overcoming the inherent dissimilar pharmacokinetics of individual drugs through encapsulation in liposomal carrier systems. The liposomes not only maintained drug ratios in the plasma after injection, but also delivered the formulated drug ratio directly to tumor tissue. In vivo maintenance of drug ratios shown to be synergistic in vitro provided increased efficacy in preclinical tumor models, whereas attenuated antitumor activity was observed when antagonistic drug ratios were maintained. Fixing synergistic drug ratios in pharmaceutical carriers provides an avenue by which anticancer drug combinations can be optimized prospectively for maximum therapeutic activity during preclinical development and differs from current practice in which dosing regimens are developed empirically in late-stage clinical trials based on tolerability. PMID:16891472

  5. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  6. Will histone deacetylase inhibitors require combination with other agents to fulfil their therapeutic potential?

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, L; Johnson, P W M; Ganesan, A; Packham, G; Crabb, S J

    2008-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have progressed rapidly from the laboratory to clinical testing. This review highlights the promising data for their combination with a wide range of established and novel anticancer agents and discusses the mechanisms that underpin these interactions. PMID:18728657

  7. Identification of Novel Antipoxviral Agents: Mitoxantrone Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Replication by Blocking Virion Assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Deng; Peihong Dai; Anthony Ciro; Donald F. Smee; Hakim Djaballah; Stewart Shuman

    2007-01-01

    The bioterror threat of a smallpox outbreak in an unvaccinated population has mobilized efforts to develop new antipoxviral agents. By screening a library of known drugs, we identified 13 compounds that inhibited vaccinia virus replication at noncytotoxic doses. The anticancer drug mitoxantrone is unique among the inhibitors identified in that it has no apparent impact on viral gene expression. Rather,

  8. Tanshinones: Sources, Pharmacokinetics and Anti-Cancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Peixin; Ye, Min; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2012-01-01

    Tanshinones are a class of abietane diterpene compound isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen or Tanshen in Chinese), a well-known herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Since they were first identified in the 1930s, more than 40 lipophilic tanshinones and structurally related compounds have been isolated from Danshen. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the isolation, identification, synthesis and pharmacology of tanshinones. In addition to the well-studied cardiovascular activities, tanshinones have been investigated more recently for their anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we update the herbal and alternative sources of tanshinones, and the pharmacokinetics of selected tanshinones. We discuss anti-cancer properties and identify critical issues for future research. Whereas previous studies have suggested anti-cancer potential of tanshinones affecting multiple cellular processes and molecular targets in cell culture models, data from in vivo potency assessment experiments in preclinical models vary greatly due to lack of uniformity of solvent vehicles and routes of administration. Chemical modifications and novel formulations had been made to address the poor oral bioavailability of tanshinones. So far, human clinical trials have been far from ideal in their design and execution for the purpose of supporting an anti-cancer indication of tanshinones. PMID:23202971

  9. Anti-cancer Activities of ?-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Qian, Steven Y.

    2014-01-01

    The ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are two major families of PUFAs present as essential cellular components which possess diverse bioactivities. The ?-3s, mainly found in seafood, are associated with many beneficial effects on human health, while the ?-6s are more abundant in our daily diet and could be implicated in many pathological processes including cancer development. Increasing evidence suggests that the adverse effects of ?-6s may be largely attributed to arachidonic acid (AA, a downstream ?-6) and the metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that stems from its cyclooxygenase (COX)-catalyzed lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, two of AA’s upstream ?-6s, ?-linolenic acid (GLA) and dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA), are shown to possess certain anti-cancer activities, including inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. In this paper, we review the documented anti-cancer activities of ?-6 PUFAs, including the recent findings regarding the anti-cancer effects of free radical-mediated DGLA peroxidation. The possible mechanisms and applications of DGLA (and other ?-6s) in inducing anti-cancer activity are also discussed. Considering the wide availability of ?-6s in our daily diet, the study of the potential beneficial effect of ?-6 PUFAs may guide us to develop an ?-6–based diet care strategy for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:24923568

  10. The Anticancer Effects of Resveratrol: Modulation of Transcription Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nichelle C. Whitlock; Seung Joon Baek

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol (3, 4?, 5-trihydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring phytoalexin readily available in the diet, is reported to possess both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in several cancers. However, despite the identification of numerous molecular targets, the underlying mechanisms involved in the anticancer activities of resveratrol are not completely understood. Resveratrol is postulated to function as a potential signaling pathway modulator and, as

  11. Tumor control versus adverse events with targeted anticancer therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma H. Bateman; Dorothy M. K. Keefe

    2011-01-01

    The advent of targeted anticancer therapies over the past few decades has reinvigorated the field of cancer therapeutics, with the promise of increased cancer cure rates accompanied by decreased toxicity. But, has that promise been fulfilled? The short answer is definitely 'no', both because of disappointing tumor responses and unexpectedly high toxicity, as well as the extremely high financial cost

  12. Anticancer biology of Azadirachta indica L (neem): a mini review.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rajkumar; Prasad, Murari; Sah, Nand K

    2011-09-15

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, is a fast growing tropical evergreen tree with a highly branched and stout, solid stem. Because of its tremendous therapeutic, domestic, agricultural and ethnomedicinal significance, and its proximity with human culture and civilization, neem has been called "the wonder tree" and "nature's drug store." All parts of this tree, particularly the leaves, bark, seed-oil and their purified products are widely used for treatment of cancer. Over 60 different types of biochemicals including terpenoids and steroids have been purified from this plant. Pre-clinical research work done during the last decade has fine-tuned our understanding of the anticancer properties of the crude and purified products from this plant. The anticancer properties of the plant have been studied largely in terms of its preventive, protective, tumor-suppressive, immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects against various types of cancer and their molecular mechanisms. This review aims at scanning scattered literature on "the anticancer biology of A. indica," related toxicity problems and future perspectives. The cogent data on the anticancer biology of products from A. indica deserve multi-institutional clinical trials as early as possible. The prospects of relatively cheaper cancer drugs could then be brighter, particularly for the under-privileged cancer patients of the world. PMID:21743298

  13. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of All Known (-)-Agelastatin Sunkyu Han,

    E-print Network

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of All Known (-)-Agelastatin Alkaloids Sunkyu Han, Dustin S-by-side evaluation of all known (-)-agelastatin alkaloids against nine human cancer cell lines are described. Our concise synthesis of these alkaloids exploits the intrinsic chemistry of plausible biosynthetic precursors

  14. Mechanism Based Anticancer Drugs that Degrade Sp Transcription Factors

    E-print Network

    Chadalapaka, Gayathri

    2013-03-14

    and several Sp-dependent genes like Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). In vivo studies using KU7 cells as xenografts showed that celastrol represents novel class of anticancer drugs that acts, in part, through targeting downregulation of Sp...

  15. Envisioning the future of early anticancer drug development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy A. Yap; Shahneen K. Sandhu; Paul Workman; Johann S. de Bono

    2010-01-01

    The development of novel molecularly targeted cancer therapeutics remains slow and expensive with many late-stage failures. There is an urgent need to accelerate this process by improving early clinical anticancer drug evaluation through modern and rational trial designs that incorporate predictive, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, pharmacogenomic and intermediate end-point biomarkers. In this article, we discuss current approaches and propose strategies that will

  16. Chemotherapy with anticancer drugs encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Lun Wong; Reina Bendayan; Andrew M. Rauth; Yongqiang Li; Xiao Yu Wu

    2007-01-01

    The prospect of improved cancer chemotherapy using solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as a drug delivery system is promising. Several obstacles frequently encountered with anticancer compounds, such as normal tissue toxicity, poor specificity and stability and a high incidence of drug-resistant tumor cells, are at least partially overcome by delivering them using SLN. The emergence of the newer forms of SLN

  17. Anticancer properties of novel aminoacetonitrile derivative monepantel (ADD 1566) in pre-clinical models of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Farnaz; Morris, David L; Rufener, Lucien; Pourgholami, Mohammad H

    2014-01-01

    Monepantel (MPL) is a new anthelmintic agent approved for the treatment of nematode infections in farm animals. As a nematicide, it acts through a nematode-specific nicotinic receptor subtype which explains its exceptional safety in rodents and mammals. In the present study, we evaluated its potential as an anticancer agent. In vitro treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer cells with MPL resulted in reduced cell viability, inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of colony formation. Proliferation of human ovarian surface epithelial cells and other non-malignant cells were however minimally affected. MPL-induced inhibition was found to be independent of the acetylcholine nicotinic receptor (nAChR) indicating that, its target in cancer cells is probably different from that in nematodes. Analysis of MPL treated cells by flow cytometry revealed G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Accordingly, MPL treated cells expressed reduced levels of cyclins D1 and A whereas cyclin E2 expression was enhanced. Consistent with a G1 phase arrest, cellular levels of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) 2 and 4 were lower, whereas expression of CDK inhibitor p27kip was increased. In cells expressing the wild-type p53, MPL treatment led to increased p53 expression. In line with these results, MPL suppressed cellular thymidine incorporation thus impairing DNA synthesis and inducing cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). Combined these pre-clinical findings reveal for the first time the anticancer potential of monepantel. PMID:25232496

  18. Anticancer Effect of AntiMalarial Artemisinin Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Das, AK

    2015-01-01

    The anti-malarial drug artemisinin has shown anticancer activity in vitro and animal experiments, but experience in human cancer is scarce. However, the ability of artemisinins to kill cancer cells through a variety of molecular mechanisms has been explored. A PubMed search of about 127 papers on anti-cancer effects of antimalarials has revealed that this class of drug, including other antimalarials, have several biological characteristics that include anticancer properties. Experimental evidences suggest that artemisinin compounds may be a therapeutic alternative in highly aggressive cancers with rapid dissemination, without developing drug resistance. They also exhibit synergism with other anticancer drugs with no increased toxicity toward normal cells. It has been found that semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives have much higher antitumor activity than their monomeric counterparts via mechanisms like apoptosis, arrest of cell cycle at G0/G1, and oxidative stress. The exact mechanism of activation and molecular basis of these anticancer effects are not fully elucidated. Artemisinins seem to regulate key factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B, survivin, NOXA, hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, and BMI-1, involving multiple pathways that may affect drug response, drug interactions, drug resistance, and associated parameters upon normal cells. Newer synthetic artemisinins have been developed showing substantial antineoplastic activity, but there is still limited information regarding the mode of action of these synthetic compounds. In view of the emerging data, specific interactions with established chemotherapy need to be further investigated in different cancer cells and their phenotypes and validated further using different semisynthetic and synthetic artemisinin derivatives.

  19. Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa MM; Mostafa, Soha SM; Shalaby, Emad A; Mahmoud, Ghada I

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2?- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigat