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Sample records for anticipatory postural reactions

  1. Kinesio taping in young healthy subjects does not affect postural reflex reactions and anticipatory postural adjustments of the trunk: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-09-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 < 0.23, p > 0.64, η2 < 0.04) or postural reflex reactions (F1,11 < 4.16, p > 0.07, η(2) < 0.49). Anticipatory postural adjustments of erector spinae and multifidus muscles were initiated significantly earlier after application of taping (regardless of technique) compared to pre-taping (F1,11 = 5.02, p = 0.046, η(2) = 0.31 and F1,11 = 6.18, p = 0.030, η(2) = 0.36 for erector spinae and multifidus, respectively). Taping application over lumbar region has potential beneficial effects on timing of anticipatory postural adjustments regardless of application technique but no effect on postural reflex reactions in young pain free participants. Further research in patients with low back pain would be encouraged. Key PointsApplication of Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population

  2. Kinesio Taping in Young Healthy Subjects Does Not Affect Postural Reflex Reactions and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of the Trunk: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 < 0.23, p > 0.64, η2 < 0.04) or postural reflex reactions (F1,11 < 4.16, p > 0.07, η2 < 0.49). Anticipatory postural adjustments of erector spinae and multifidus muscles were initiated significantly earlier after application of taping (regardless of technique) compared to pre-taping (F1,11 = 5.02, p = 0.046, η2 = 0.31 and F1,11 = 6.18, p = 0.030, η2 = 0.36 for erector spinae and multifidus, respectively). Taping application over lumbar region has potential beneficial effects on timing of anticipatory postural adjustments regardless of application technique but no effect on postural reflex reactions in young pain free participants. Further research in patients with low back pain would be encouraged. Key Points Application of Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population. Earlier

  3. Effects of changing stance conditions on anticipatory postural adjustment and reaction time to voluntary arm movement in humans.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V; Kowalewski, R; Nakazawa, K; Colombo, G

    2000-04-15

    1. The effect on reaction time (RT) and anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of unexpectedly changing stance conditions was studied using a push or pull arm movement task. The aim was to evaluate the modifiability of RT and APA by an external perturbation associated with an automatic compensatory reaction. 2. Subjects standing on a moveable platform were asked to push or pull a rigid handle as quickly and as strongly as possible in response to the 'go-signal', a visual signal from a green or red light-emitting diode. Forward and backward translations of the platform were randomly induced at four time intervals after the go-signal. In some experiments to detect unspecific arousal there were no platform translations but an acoustic signal was given before the go-signal. Surface electromyographic activity (EMG) of upper arm and lower leg muscles was analysed. 3. During the push task both RT and the duration of APA (onset of APA till the force signal indicating hand action) were shorter during backward than during forward translation. During the pull task the effect of platform translations was the reverse. The delay between go-signal and onset of APA remained constant. Consequently, RT and APA became shorter when the platform was translated in the same direction as that in which the upper body was displaced by the push or pull movement, and longer when it was translated in the opposite direction. The effects were maximal when translations were induced 250 ms after the go-signal, but a difference was detected up to 375 ms. 4. Furthermore, with forward and backward platform translations RT was shorter when the translations were induced early rather than late after the go-signal. This was associated with a shortening of the delay between the go-signal and onset of APA, while APA duration remained constant. The shortened RT was in the range of that obtained when an acoustic signal was given just before the go-signal. 5. It is concluded that (i) both the RT and the

  4. A method to model anticipatory postural control in driver braking events.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Eliasson, Erik; Happee, Riender; Brolin, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Human body models (HBMs) for vehicle occupant simulations have recently been extended with active muscles and postural control strategies. Feedback control has been used to model occupant responses to autonomous braking interventions. However, driver postural responses during driver initiated braking differ greatly from autonomous braking. In the present study, an anticipatory postural response was hypothesized, modelled in a whole-body HBM with feedback controlled muscles, and validated using existing volunteer data. The anticipatory response was modelled as a time dependent change in the reference value for the feedback controllers, which generates correcting moments to counteract the braking deceleration. The results showed that, in 11 m/s(2) driver braking simulations, including the anticipatory postural response reduced the peak forward displacement of the head by 100mm, of the shoulder by 30 mm, while the peak head flexion rotation was reduced by 18°. The HBM kinematic response was within a one standard deviation corridor of corresponding test data from volunteers performing maximum braking. It was concluded that the hypothesized anticipatory responses can be modelled by changing the reference positions of the individual joint feedback controllers that regulate muscle activation levels. The addition of anticipatory postural control muscle activations appears to explain the difference in occupant kinematics between driver and autonomous braking. This method of modelling postural reactions can be applied to the simulation of other driver voluntary actions, such as emergency avoidance by steering. PMID:25174533

  5. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and leg muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need. PMID:25434280

  6. Enhancing Anticipatory Postural Adjustments: A Novel Approach to Balance Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Aruin, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Balance impairment is common in individuals with neurological disorders and older adults and is a major cause of falls in these populations. Evidence on the effectiveness of conventional interventions for balance restoration is limited. We describe a novel approach to balance rehabilitation that is based on enhancing anticipatory postural adjustments. PMID:27335705

  7. Aging and balance control in response to external perturbations: role of anticipatory and compensatory postural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. Anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (APAs and CPAs, respectively), both, are known to be affected in the elderly. We examined the effect of aging on the ability of older adults to utilize APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture (CPAs). Ten elderly individuals were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations applied to the upper body in the sagittal plane. Body kinematics, electromyographic activity of 13 muscles, and ground reaction forces were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The elderly were capable of recognizing an upcoming predictable perturbation and activated muscles prior to it. However, the older adults used different muscle strategies and sequence of muscle recruitment than that reported in young adults. Additionally, when the perturbations were unpredictable, no APAs were seen which resulted in large CPAs and greater peak displacements of the center of pressure (COP) and center of mass (COM) following perturbations. As opposed to this, when the perturbations were predictable, APAs were seen in older adults resulting in significantly smaller CPAs. The presence and utilization of APAs in older adults also improved postural stability following the perturbation as seen by significantly smaller COP and COM peak displacements. Using APAs in older adults significantly reduces the need for large CPAs, resulting in greater postural stability following a perturbation. The results provide a foundation for investigating the role of training in improving the interplay between anticipatory and compensatory postural control in older adults. PMID:24532389

  8. Adaptability of anticipatory postural adjustments associated with voluntary movement

    PubMed Central

    Yiou, Eric; Caderby, Teddy; Hussein, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The control of balance is crucial for efficiently performing most of our daily motor tasks, such as those involving goal-directed arm movements or whole body displacement. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it is to recall how balance can be maintained despite the different sources of postural perturbation arising during voluntary movement. The importance of the so-called “anticipatory postural adjustments” (APA), taken as a “line of defence” against the destabilizing effect induced by a predicted perturbation, is emphasized. Secondly, it is to report the results of recent studies that questioned the adaptability of APA to various constraints imposed on the postural system. The postural constraints envisaged here are classified into biomechanical (postural stability, superimposition of motor tasks), (neuro) physiological (fatigue), temporal (time pressure) and psychological (fear of falling, emotion). Overall, the results of these studies point out the capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt the spatio-temporal features of APA to each of these constraints. However, it seems that, depending on the constraint, the “priority” of the CNS was focused on postural stability maintenance, on body protection and/or on maintenance of focal movement performance. PMID:22720267

  9. Reorganised anticipatory postural adjustments due to experimental lower extremity muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Shinichiro; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Automated movements adjusting postural control may be hampered during musculoskeletal pain leaving a risk of incomplete control of balance. This study investigated the effect of experimental muscle pain on anticipatory postural adjustments by reaction task movements. While standing, nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (shoulder flexion of dominant side and bilateral heel lift) before, during and after experimental muscle pain. On two different days experimental pain was induced in the m. vastus medialis (VM) or the m. tibialis anterior (TA) of the dominant side by injections of hypertonic saline (1ml, 5.8%). Isotonic saline (1ml, 0.9%) was used as control injection. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from 13 muscles. EMG onset, EMG amplitude, and kinematic parameters (shoulder and ankle joint) were extracted. During shoulder flexion and VM pain the onset of the ipsilateral biceps femoris was significantly faster than baseline and post injection sessions. During heels lift in the VM and TA pain conditions the onset of the contralateral TA was significantly faster than baseline and post injection sessions in bilateral side. VM pain significantly reduced m. quadriceps femoris activity and TA pain significantly reduced ipsilateral VM activity and TA activity during bilateral heel lift. The EMG reaction time was delayed in bilateral soleus muscles during heels lift with VM and TA pain. The faster onset of postural muscle activity during anticipatory postural adjustments may suggest a compensatory function to maintain postural control whereas the reduced postural muscle activity during APAs may indicate a pain adaptation strategy to avoid secondary damage. PMID:24071550

  10. Role of brain hemispheric dominance in anticipatory postural control strategies.

    PubMed

    Cioncoloni, David; Rosignoli, Deborah; Feurra, Matteo; Rossi, Simone; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cerebral functions are asymmetrically represented in the two hemispheres. Moreover, dexterity and coordination of the distal segment of the dominant limbs depend on cortico-motor lateralization. In this study, we investigated whether postural control may be also considered a lateralized hemispheric brain function. To this aim, 15 young subjects were tested in standing position by measuring center of pressure (COP) shifts along the anteroposterior axis (COP-Y) during dynamic posturography before and after continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) intervention applied to the dominant or non-dominant M1 hand area as well as to the vertex. We show that when subjects were expecting a forward platform translation, the COP-Y was positioned significantly backward or forward after dominant or non-dominant M1 stimulation, respectively. We postulate that cTBS applied on M1 may have disrupted the functional connectivity between intra- and interhemispheric areas implicated in the anticipatory control of postural stability. This study suggests a functional asymmetry between the two homologous primary motor areas, with the dominant hemisphere playing a critical role in the selection of the appropriate postural control strategy. PMID:26952051

  11. Anticipatory postural adjustments during standing in below-the-knee amputees.

    PubMed

    Aruin, A S; Nicholas, J J; Latash, M L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the role of adaptive changes within the central nervous system in anticipatory postural adjustments seen in unilateral below-the-knee amputees. DESIGN: Changes in electromyographic and mechanical variables were compared during standardized tasks performed by standing subjects. BACKGROUND: Anticipatory postural adjustments represent an important mechanism of postural control which was expected to be changed in amputees because of both mechanical and secondary, neurological reasons. METHODS: Six patients after a below-the-knee amputation and six control subjects stood on a force platform and performed fast bilateral shoulder movements and also dropped or caught a load from (into) extended hands. Anticipatory changes in the background activity of postural muscles were analysed. RESULTS: In amputees, there were cases of marked asymmetry in anticipatory changes of the background muscle activity which were larger on the intact side of the body but were commonly small or absent on the side of the amputation. This asymmetry could lead to larger mediolateral forces and displacements of the centre of pressure. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that asymmetrical patterns of anticipatory postural adjustments reflect central adaptive changes secondary to the amputation. Rehabilitation approaches would benefit from understanding and taking advantage of the adaptive changes within the central nervous system. RELEVANCE: We demonstrated asymmetries in patterns of anticipatory postural adjustments during voluntary arm movements and load manipulations by standing unilateral amputees. This finding is of potential importance for rehabilitation of amputees and their prosthetic training. PMID:11415672

  12. The Role of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Compensatory Control of Posture: 2. Biomechanical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marcio J.; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) utilizes anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments to maintain equilibrium while standing. It is known that these postural adjustments involve displacements of the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between APAs and CPAs from a kinetic and kinematic perspective. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed during the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. When the perturbations were unpredictable, the COM and COP displacements were larger compared to predictable conditions with APAs. Thus, the peak of COM displacement, after the pendulum impact, in the posterior direction reached 28 ± 9.6 mm in the unpredictable conditions with no APAs whereas it was 1.6 times smaller, reaching 17 ± 5.5 mm during predictable perturbations. Similarly, after the impact, the peak of COP displacement in the posterior direction was 60 ± 14 mm for unpredictable conditions and 28 ± 3.6 mm for predictable conditions. Finally, the times of the peak COM and COP displacements were similar in the predictable and unpredictable conditions. This outcome provides additional knowledge about how body balance is controlled in presence and in absence of information about the forthcoming perturbation. Moreover, it suggests that control of posture could be enhanced by better utilization of APAs and such an approach could be considered as a valuable modality in the rehabilitation of individuals with balance impairment. PMID:20156693

  13. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in a Bimanual Load-Lifting Task in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Marianne; Schmitz, Christina; Centelles, Laurie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Postural control is a fundamental component of action in which deficits have been shown to contribute to motor difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in children with DCD in a bimanual load-lifting task. Method: Sixteen children…

  14. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units.

    PubMed

    Tilsen, Sam; Spincemaille, Pascal; Xu, Bo; Doerschuk, Peter; Luh, Wen-Ming; Feldman, Elana; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response). In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors. PMID:26760511

  15. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units

    PubMed Central

    Tilsen, Sam; Spincemaille, Pascal; Xu, Bo; Doerschuk, Peter; Luh, Wen-Ming; Feldman, Elana; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response). In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors. PMID:26760511

  16. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Standing Reach Tasks Among Middle-Aged Adults With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chow, Daniel H K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) exhibited premature anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) with high variability and excessive activity in the frontal plane. To better understand the effects of gross motor functioning level on APAs over the life course, the authors examined the presence and consistency of APAs in 11 adults with diplegia at 2 functioning levels against 8 age-matched healthy adults during unilateral and bilateral reaching. Results revealed an anticipatory vertical torque (TZ) and an increased likelihood of APAs during bilateral reaching for the lower functioning group. It is postulated that APAs may first emerge in TZ in CP. Results also indicated an excessive premovement postural activity in the frontal plane in both CP groups. PMID:26730748

  17. Shift of the Muscular Inhibition Latency during On-Line Acquisition of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Barlaam, Fanny; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Fortin, Carole; Assaiante, Christine; Schmitz, Christina

    2016-01-01

    During action, Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs) cancel the consequences of a movement on postural stabilization. Their muscular expression is characterized by early changes in the activity of the postural muscles, before the movement begins. To explore the mechanisms enabling the acquisition of APAs, a learning paradigm was designed in which the voluntary lifting of a load with one hand triggered the unloading of another load suspended below the contralateral forearm. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the muscular expression that uncovers the progressive learning of new APAs. A trial-by-trial analysis of kinematic and electromyographic signals recorded on the right arm was conducted in twelve adults through six sessions of learning. Kinematic results reported an enhancement of the postural stabilization across learning. The main EMG pattern found during learning consisted of a flexor inhibition, where latency was shifted towards an earlier occurrence in parallel with the improvement of the postural performance. A linear regression analysis conducted between the inhibition latency and the maximal amplitude of elbow rotation showed that the earlier the inhibition onset, the better the postural stabilization. This study revealed that the progressive shift of the postural flexor inhibition latency could be considered as a reliable neurophysiological marker of the progressive learning of new APAs. Importantly, this marker could be used to track motor learning abnormalities in pathology. We relate our findings to the update of a forward predictive model of action, defined as a system that predicts beforehand the consequences of the action on posture. PMID:27192604

  18. Anticipatory postural adjustments during step initiation: elicitation by auditory stimulation of differing intensities.

    PubMed

    Delval, A; Dujardin, K; Tard, C; Devanne, H; Willart, S; Bourriez, J-L; Derambure, P; Defebvre, L

    2012-09-01

    Step initiation is associated with anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that vary according to the speed of the first step. When step initiation is elicited by a "go" signal (i.e. in a reaction time task), the presentation of an unpredictable, intense, acoustic startling stimulus (engaging a subcortical mechanism) simultaneously with or just before the imperative "go" signal is able to trigger early-phase APAs. The aim of the present study was to better understand the mechanisms underlying APAs during step initiation. We hypothesized that the early release of APAs by low-intensity, non-startling stimuli delivered long before an imperative "go" signal indicates the involvement of several different mechanisms in triggering APAs (and not just acoustic reflexes triggering brainstem structures). Fifteen healthy subjects were asked to respond to an imperative visual "go" signal by initiating a step with their right leg. A brief, binaural 40, 80 or 115 dB auditory stimulus was given 1.4 s before the "go" signal. Participants were instructed not to respond to the auditory stimulus. The centre of pressure trajectory and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi, sternocleidomastoid and tibialis anterior muscles were recorded. All three intensities of the auditory stimulus were able to evoke low-amplitude, short APAs without subsequent step execution. The louder the stimulus, the more frequent the elicitation. Depending on the intensity of the stimulus, APAs prior to step initiation can be triggered without the evocation of a startle response or an acoustic blink. Greater reaction times for these APAs were observed for non-startling stimuli. This observation suggested the involvement of pathways that did not involve the brainstem as a "prime mover". PMID:22626643

  19. Anticipatory and Compensatory Postural Adjustments in Response to External Lateral Shoulder Perturbations in Subjects with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Swarowsky, Alessandra; dos Santos, Márcio José

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) during lateral instability of posture. Twenty-six subjects (13 individuals with PD and 13 healthy matched controls) were exposed to predictable lateral postural perturbations. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral muscles and the displacement of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded during four time intervals that are typical for postural adjustments, i.e., immediately before (APA1, APA2) and after (CPA1 and CPA2) the postural disturbances. The magnitude of the activity of the lateral muscles in the group with PD was lower only during the CPA time intervals and not during the anticipatory adjustments (APAs). Despite this finding, subjects with PD exhibit smaller COP excursions before and after the disturbance, probably due to lack of flexibility and proprioceptive impairments. The results of this study suggest that postural instability in subjects with PD can be partially explained by decreased postural sway, before and after perturbations, and reduced muscular activity after body disturbances. Our findings can motivate new studies to investigate therapeutic interventions that optimize the use of postural adjustment strategies in subjects with PD. PMID:27152640

  20. The Effects of Kinesio Taping on Potential in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Anticipatory Postural Control and Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sea Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hun; Oh, Kyeong Ae; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesio tape applied to chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients on anticipatory postural control and cerebral cortex potential. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients whose low back pain had continued for more than 12 weeks were selected and assigned to a control group (n=10) to which ordinary physical therapy was applied and an experimental group (n=10) to which kinesio tape was applied. Anticipatory postural control was evaluated using electromyography, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) was assessed using electroencephalography. Clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale and the Oswestry disability index. [Results] According to the analysis results for anticipatory postural control, there were significant decreases in the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle and the external oblique muscle in both groups. Among them, the TrA of the experimental group exhibited the greatest differences. According to the results of a between-group comparison, there was significant difference in the TrA between the two groups. There was also a significant decrease in the MRCP of both groups. In particular, changes in the movement monitoring potential (MMP) of the experimental group were greatest at Fz, C3, Cz, and C4. According to the between-group comparison, there were significant differences in MMP at F3, C3, and Cz. Both groups saw VAS and ODI significantly decrease. Among them, the ODI of the experimental group underwent the greatest change. [Conclusion] Kinesio tape applied to CLBP patients reduced their pain and positively affected their anticipatory postural control and MRCP. PMID:24396190

  1. Anticipatory postural adjustments during cutting manoeuvres in football and their consequences for knee injury risk.

    PubMed

    Mornieux, Guillaume; Gehring, Dominic; Fürst, Patrick; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), i.e. preparatory positioning of the head, the trunk and the foot, are essential to initiate cutting manoeuvres during football games. The aim of the present study was to determine how APA strategies during cutting manoeuvres are influenced by a reduction of the time available to prepare the movement. Thirteen football players performed different cutting tasks, with directions of cutting either known prior to the task or indicated by a light signal occurring 850, 600 or 500 ms before ground contact. With less time available to prepare the cutting manoeuvre, the head was less orientated towards the cutting direction (P = 0.033) and the trunk was even more rotated in the opposite direction (P = 0.002), while the foot placement was not significantly influenced. Moreover, the induced higher lateral trunk flexion correlated with the increased knee abduction moment (r = 0.41; P = 0.009). Increasing lateral trunk flexion is the main strategy used to successfully perform a cutting manoeuvre when less time is available to prepare the movement. However, higher lateral trunk flexion was associated with an increased knee abduction moment and therefore an increased knee injury risk. Reducing lateral trunk flexion during cutting manoeuvres should be part of training programs seeking the optimisation of APAs. PMID:24742137

  2. Independent Walking as a Major Skill for the Development of Anticipatory Postural Control: Evidence from Adjustments to Predictable Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Cignetti, Fabien; Zedka, Milan; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Although there is suggestive evidence that a link exists between independent walking and the ability to establish anticipatory strategy to stabilize posture, the extent to which this skill facilitates the development of anticipatory postural control remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of independent walking on the infants’ ability to anticipate predictable external perturbations. Non-walking infants, walking infants and adults were sitting on a platform that produced continuous rotation in the frontal plane. Surface electromyography (EMG) of neck and lower back muscles and the positions of markers located on the platform, the upper body and the head were recorded. Results from cross-correlation analysis between rectified and filtered EMGs and platform movement indicated that although muscle activation already occurred before platform movement in non-walking infants, only walking infants demonstrated an adult-like ability for anticipation. Moreover, results from further cross-correlation analysis between segmental angular displacement and platform movement together with measures of balance control at the end-points of rotation of the platform evidenced two sorts of behaviour. The adults behaved as a non-rigid non-inverted pendulum, rather stabilizing head in space, while both the walking and non-walking infants followed the platform, behaving as a rigid inverted pendulum. These results suggest that the acquisition of independent walking plays a role in the development of anticipatory postural control, likely improving the internal model for the sensorimotor control of posture. However, despite such improvement, integrating the dynamics of an external object, here the platform, within the model to maintain balance still remains challenging in infants. PMID:23409171

  3. Does Observation of Postural Imbalance Induce a Postural Reaction?

    PubMed Central

    Tia, Banty; Saimpont, Arnaud; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Fadiga, Luciano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. Methodology/Principal Findings We recorded participants' body sway while they observed a fixation cross (control condition), an upright point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope, and the same point-light display presented upside down. Our results showed that, when the upright stimulus was displayed prior to the inverted one, centre of pressure area and antero-posterior path length were significantly greater in the upright condition compared to the control and upside down conditions. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate a contagious postural reaction suggesting a partial inefficiency of inhibitory processes. Further, kinematic information was sufficient to trigger this reaction. The difference recorded between the upright and upside down conditions indicates that the contagion effect was dependent on the integration of gravity constraints by body kinematics. Interestingly, the postural response was sensitive to habituation, and seemed to disappear when the observer was previously shown an inverted display. The motor contagion recorded here is consistent with previous work showing vegetative output during observation of an effortful movement and could indicate that lower level control facilitates contagion effects. PMID:21423622

  4. Balance control in aging: improvements in anticipatory postural adjustments and updating of internal models.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Mourey, France; Bonnetblanc, François

    2015-01-01

    Postural stability of older subjects can be estimated during orthostatic equilibrium. However, dynamic equilibrium is also important to investigate risks of fall. It implies different interpretations of measures given by force plates. Same dependant variables (e.g. center of pressure displacement) cannot be interpreted the same ways depending of the type of equilibrium that is investigated. In particular, sways increases during dynamic equilibrium and before movement execution may reflect an improvement of feedforward control. PMID:26643046

  5. Anticipatory postural adjustments are unaffected by age and are not absent in patients with the freezing of gait phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Plate, A; Klein, K; Pelykh, O; Singh, A; Bötzel, K

    2016-09-01

    In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs. As a result, we found that externally elicited steps were preceded by faster and larger APAs than self-timed steps. Parkinsonian patients without the freezing of gait (FOG) phenomenon showed overall slightly reduced APAs but did not clearly differ from patients with FOG. Multiple APAs were seen in up to 25 % of the steps of the patients and in a much lower percentage of the steps of control subjects. The results indicate that APAs are significantly influenced by the timing of a step, i.e. are larger in externally elicited steps. The patients showed an overall preserved APA pattern but slowed movements and amplitude, indicating that increased bradykinesia due to progressive illness is a plausible explanation for these findings. The freezing phenomenon is not explained by a general absence or massive reduction in APA measures. PMID:27173496

  6. Why anticipatory postural adjustments in gait initiation need to be modified when stepping up onto a new level?

    PubMed

    Gélat, Thierry; Le Pellec, Armande

    2007-12-11

    The study examined why anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) associated to gait initiation in a stepping up to a new level situation (SU) are reduced as compared to a level walking situation (LW), as previously reported. Five young adults performed gait initiation in both situations at normal and fast speed. Data from a force platform provided gait parameters related to the motion of the body's centre of mass (CM) on the anteroposterior (progression) and vertical axes. The electromyographic activity of the soleus of the stance limb (SOst) and the vastus lateralis of the swing limb (VLsw) were analyzed prior to and after the onset of the double stance phase. The results showed that APA and progression CM velocity at the time of foot contact were smaller in SU, whereas the peak of this velocity was similar in both situations. Thus, the change in progression velocity during the double stance phase had to be greater in SU than in LW. In both velocity conditions, the activity of SOst stopped after the time of foot contact in both situations, but clearly later in SU. So, this ankle plantar flexor muscle would be involved not only in the change of body lift but also in forward CM progression. The latter role of this muscle brought supporting evidence for the reduction of APA in SU, enabling the peak of progression velocity to be similar in both situations. Only in SU, the timing of activation of VLsw and deactivation of SOst strongly co-varied, showing the implementation of a motor synergy to fulfil the new requirements of the task, i.e. body lift. PMID:17964073

  7. Atomoxetine reduces anticipatory responding in a 5-choice serial reaction time task for adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Matthew O.; Brock, Alistair J.; Sudwarts, Ari; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in impulse control are related to a number of psychiatric diagnoses, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, addiction, and pathological gambling. Despite increases in our knowledge about the underlying neurochemical and neuroanatomical correlates, understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms is less well established. Understanding these mechanisms is essential in order to move towards individualized treatment programs and increase efficacy of interventions. Zebrafish are a very useful vertebrate model for exploring molecular processes underlying disease owing to their small size and genetic tractability. Their utility in terms of behavioral neuroscience, however, hinges on the validation and publication of reliable assays with adequate translational relevance. Here, we report an initial pharmacological validation of a fully automated zebrafish version of the commonly used five-choice serial reaction time task using a variable interval pre-stimulus interval. We found that atomoxetine reduced anticipatory responses (0.6 mg/kg), whereas a high-dose (4 mg/kg) methylphenidate increased anticipatory responses and the number of trials completed in a session. On the basis of these results, we argue that similar neurochemical processes in fish as in mammals may control impulsivity, as operationally defined by anticipatory responses on a continuous performance task such as this, making zebrafish potentially a good model for exploring the molecular basis of impulse control disorders and for first-round drug screening. PMID:24481568

  8. Crouched posture maximizes ground reaction forces generated by muscles.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hoa X; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2012-07-01

    Crouch gait decreases walking efficiency due to the increased knee and hip flexion during the stance phase of gait. Crouch gait is generally considered to be disadvantageous for children with cerebral palsy; however, a crouched posture may allow biomechanical advantages that lead some children to adopt a crouch gait. To investigate one possible advantage of crouch gait, a musculoskeletal model created in OpenSim was placed in 15 different postures from upright to severe crouch during initial, middle, and final stance of the gait cycle for a total of 45 different postures. A series of optimizations was performed for each posture to maximize transverse plane ground reaction forces in the eight compass directions by modifying muscle forces acting on the model. We compared the force profile areas across all postures. Larger force profile areas were allowed by postures from mild crouch (for initial stance) to crouch (for final stance). The overall ability to generate larger ground reaction force profiles represents a mechanical advantage of a crouched posture. This increase in muscle capacity while in a crouched posture may allow a patient to generate new movements to compensate for impairments associated with cerebral palsy, such as motor control deficits. PMID:22542242

  9. The Use of Cognitive Cues for Anticipatory Strategies in a Dynamic Postural Control Task - Validation of a Novel Approach to Dual-Task Testing

    PubMed Central

    Grarup, Bo; Bangshaab, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dual-task testing is relevant in the assessment of postural control. A combination of a primary (motor) and a secondary (distracting cognitive) tasks is most often used. It remains a challenge however, to standardize and monitor the cognitive task. In this study a new dual-task testing approach with a facilitating, rather than distracting, cognitive component was evaluated. Methods Thirty-one community-dwelling elderly and fifteen young people were tested with respect to their ability to use anticipatory postural control strategies. The motor task consisted of twenty-five repetitive tasks in which the participants needed to exceed their limit of stability in order to touch one out of eight lights. The participants performed three tests. In two of the tests the color cues of the lights allowed the participants to utilize cognitive strategies to plan their next movement and improve their performance time. Results The young performed the baseline motor task test in an average of 29 seconds, while the average time for the elderly was 44 seconds. When comparing the performance time with a leading cue to the time with no cue, the young group improved their performance time significantly better than the elderly did: young: 17% (5), elderly: 5% (8); p<0.001. Similar differences were seen with a more complicated leading cue: young: 12% (5), elderly: 4% (9); p<0.01. The reliability of the test showed moderate to substantial agreement (ICC = 0.74), with a small learning effect between two sessions. Conclusion The dual-task test was sensitive enough to discriminate between elderly and young people. It revealed that the elderly did not utilize cognitive cues for their anticipatory postural control strategies as well as the young were able to. The test procedure was feasible and comprehensible for the participants, and it may be relevant to standardize a similar test for an alternative dual-task approach in the clinical setting. PMID:27487000

  10. Preparatory state and postural adjustment strategies for choice reaction step initiation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Ishida, Kazuto; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2016-09-22

    A loud auditory stimulus (LAS) presented simultaneously with a visual imperative stimulus can reduce reaction time (RT) by automatically triggering a movement prepared in the brain and has been used to investigate a movement preparation. It is still under debate whether or not a response is prepared in advance in RT tasks involving choice responses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the preparatory state of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during a choice reaction step initiation. Thirteen young adults were asked to step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus in two choice stepping conditions: (i) the responding side is not known and must be selected and (ii) the responding side is known but whether to initiate or inhibit a step response must be selected. LAS was presented randomly and simultaneously with the visual imperative stimulus. LAS significantly increased the occurrence rates of inappropriately initiated APAs while reducing the RTs of correct and incorrect trials in both task conditions, demonstrating that LAS triggered the prepared APA automatically. This observation suggests that APAs are prepared in advance and withheld from release until the appropriate timing during a choice reaction step initiation. The preparatory activity of APAs might be modulated by the inhibitory activity required by the choice tasks. The preparation strategy may be chosen for fast responses and is judged most suitable to comply with the tasks because inappropriately initiated APAs can be corrected without making complete stepping errors. PMID:27393247

  11. Higher Precision in Pointing Movements of the Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Hand Is Associated with an Earlier Occurrence of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR)). Moreover, we analyzed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and anterior deltoid (AD) were more anticipated when movements were performed with the PREF than with the NON-PREF hand (60–70 vs. 20–30 ms). APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (PREF: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; NON-PREF: 16.3 ± 1.7). Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the NON-PREF side. PMID:27486394

  12. Higher Precision in Pointing Movements of the Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Hand Is Associated with an Earlier Occurrence of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb (PREF) vs. the non-preferred (NON-PREF) one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the PREF vs. NON-PREF hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover flexor carpi radialis (FCR)). Moreover, we analyzed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and anterior deltoid (AD) were more anticipated when movements were performed with the PREF than with the NON-PREF hand (60-70 vs. 20-30 ms). APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (PREF: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; NON-PREF: 16.3 ± 1.7). Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the NON-PREF side. PMID:27486394

  13. Do Equilibrium Constraints Modulate Postural Reaction when Viewing Imbalance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tia, Banty; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Action observation and action execution are tightly coupled on a neurophysiological and a behavioral level, such that visually perceiving an action can contaminate simultaneous and subsequent action execution. More specifically, observing a model in postural disequilibrium was shown to induce an increase in observers' body sway. Here we…

  14. Anticipatory Heart Rate Deceleration and Reaction Time in Children with and without Referral for Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The finding of major significance in this study concerns the effect of stimulant drug medication on the relationship between heart rate deceleration and reaction time with the clinic children. (Authors)

  15. Influence of virtual height exposure on postural reactions to support surface translations.

    PubMed

    Cleworth, Taylor W; Chua, Romeo; Inglis, J Timothy; Carpenter, Mark G

    2016-06-01

    As fear of falling is related to the increased likelihood of falls, it is important to understand the effects of threat-related factors (fear, anxiety and confidence) on dynamic postural reactions. Previous studies designed to examine threat effects on dynamic postural reactions have methodological limitations and lack a comprehensive analysis of simultaneous kinetic, kinematic and electromyographical recordings. The current study addressed these limitations by examining postural reactions of 26 healthy young adults to unpredictable anterior-posterior support-surface translations (acceleration=0.6m/s(2), constant velocity=0.25m/s, total displacement=0.75m) while standing on a narrow virtual surface at Low (0.4cm) and High (3.2m) virtual heights. Standing at virtual height increased fear and anxiety, and decreased confidence. Prior to perturbations, threat led to increased tonic muscle activity in tibialis anterior, resulting in a higher co-contraction index between lower leg muscles. For backward perturbations, muscle activity in the lower leg and arm, and center of pressure peak displacements, were earlier and larger when standing at virtual height. In addition, arm flexion significantly increased while leg, trunk and center of mass displacements remained unchanged across heights. When controlling for leaning, threat-related factors can influence the neuro-mechanical responses to an unpredictable perturbation, causing specific characteristics of postural reactions to be facilitated in young adults when their balance is threatened. PMID:27264411

  16. Postural reactions of circulation and its regulation during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Valyev, V. A.; Kirillov, M. V.; Gornago, V. A.

    The extention and intensification of space exploration the influence of weightlessness on human organism and the formation of a new level of adaptation. The studies of blood circulation is very important because of freguent occurance of cardiovascular disorders in the middle age sudjects. In connection with extention and intensification of space exploration the influence of weightlessness on human organism and the formation of a new level of adaptation mechanisms acguires a special significance (5, 9, 10). The data obtained in recently undertaken model experiments (1, 5, 10), and also during space flights (5, 9) indicate that weightlessness in many ways affects various physiological systems of organism, and first of all cardiovascular system with the development of reflex, humoral and metabolic reactions. It also indicates, that the changes in functioning of cardiovascular system brings about the discruption of its regular responses, which is foremost expressed in decreased antigravitational response, which manifests itself in lowered orthostatic stability (2, 4, 6). It is worth mentioning, that the changes during previous investigations of haemodynamics were mainly carried out with the subjects under forty, therefore agerelated specific features of blood circulation system response are described in a few articles (5, 8). The studies of the kind are especially important because of frequent occurence of cardiovascular disorders such as heart and brain vessels atherosclerosis, hypertension in the middle age, which can to a great extent complicate and affect the "acute" period of adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation process.

  17. Anticipatory Systems via Anticipatory Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julià, Pere

    2010-11-01

    Although cybernetics and systems research have included references to biological phenomena from their very inception, their technical and conceptual wherewithal remains rooted in engineering and the physical and formal sciences. The methodological consequences of this make themselves increasingly felt as biological systems come under closer scrutiny, when the brain becomes the be-all-and-end-all of human cognition, or when individual and social behavior comes up for analysis. In the absence of prior empirical research, the application of a straight-jacketed modus operandi across the board can easily result in conceptual confusion. When the truly functional nature of the phenomena under discussion is not sharply differentiated from our constructional activities, our notational devices may well determine how we conceptualize the object of study instead of the other way around; witness, e.g., the growing literature on "observed" and "observing" systems. A mechanistic outlook fosters the continued treatment of organism and environment as disjoint domains, e.g., when cognition is treated in bucolic ignorance of conative factors without which there would be no cognition or any other behavior to speak of Elucidation of the specific variables, processes, and parameters involved in different fields is needed, if we are to achieve an effective treatment of the automaticity/self-regulation continuum and capture the synergism that emerges from the environment-organism interactivity. It is this interactivity that defines the boundaries of the system, self-regulating or otherwise. Clearly, there is need for deep foundational thinking and much of it revolves around language in the human case. Models are verbal constructions or the product of verbal constructions. Anticipatory systems seem like a good place to begin.

  18. [Vojta's seven postural reactions in the detection of neuromotor disorders in infants. Experience with 2382 subjects].

    PubMed

    Costi, G C; Radice, C; Raggi, A; Kron, A M; Angrisano, A; Busato, E; Montrasio, G; Perfetti, C; Pissacroia, C

    1983-01-01

    The Authors examined 2.382 babies who were between 4 and 6 weeks old using the seven postural reactions proposed by Vojta for neuromotor screening. They followed the progress of 2.295 (96,35%) babies up to the age of 1 year. 100% of the babies judged to be normal after the first visit were normal after a year. The Authors describe the evolution of the babies who were abnormal at the first visit, and clarify the results obtained with early physiotherapeutic treatment. PMID:6634444

  19. Reaction null-space filter: extracting reactionless synergies for optimal postural balance from motion capture data.

    PubMed

    Nenchev, D N; Miyamoto, Y; Iribe, H; Takeuchi, K; Sato, D

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces the notion of a reactionless synergy: a postural variation for a specific motion pattern/strategy, whereby the movements of the segments do not alter the force/moment balance at the feet. Given an optimal initial posture in terms of stability, a reactionless synergy can ensure optimality throughout the entire movement. Reactionless synergies are derived via a dynamical model wherein the feet are regarded to be unfixed. Though in contrast with the conventional fixed-feet models, this approach has the advantage of exhibiting the reactions at the feet explicitly. The dynamical model also facilitates a joint-space decomposition scheme yielding two motion components: the reactionless synergy and an orthogonal complement responsible for the dynamical coupling between the feet and the support. Since the reactionless synergy provides the basis (a feedforward control component) for optimal balance control, it may play an important role when evaluating balance abnormalities or when assessing optimality in balance control. We show how to apply the proposed method for analysis of motion capture data obtained from three voluntary movement patterns in the sagittal plane: squat, sway, and forward bend. PMID:26273732

  20. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  1. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    PubMed

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities. PMID:27440765

  2. Interference between postural control and spatial vs. non-spatial auditory reaction time tasks in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether spatial aspects of an information processing task influence dual-task interference. Two groups (Older/Young) of healthy adults participated in dual-task experiments. Two auditory information processing tasks included a frequency discrimination choice reaction time task (non-spatial task) and a lateralization choice reaction time task (spatial task). Postural tasks included combinations of standing with eyes open or eyes closed on either a fixed floor or a sway-referenced floor. Reaction times and postural sway via center of pressure were recorded. Baseline measures of reaction time and sway were subtracted from the corresponding dual-task results to calculate reaction time task costs and postural task costs. Reaction time task cost increased with eye closure (p = 0.01), sway-referenced flooring (p < 0.0001), and the spatial task (p = 0.04). Additionally, a significant (p = 0.05) task x vision x age interaction indicated that older subjects had a significant vision X task interaction whereas young subjects did not. However, when analyzed by age group, the young group showed minimal differences in interference for the spatial and non-spatial tasks with eyes open, but showed increased interference on the spatial relative to non-spatial task with eyes closed. On the contrary, older subjects demonstrated increased interference on the spatial relative to the non-spatial task with eyes open, but not with eyes closed. These findings suggest that visual-spatial interference may occur in older subjects when vision is used to maintain posture. PMID:26410669

  3. Understanding 'anticipatory governance'.

    PubMed

    Guston, David H

    2014-04-01

    Anticipatory governance is 'a broad-based capacity extended through society that can act on a variety of inputs to manage emerging knowledge-based technologies while such management is still possible'. It motivates activities designed to build capacities in foresight, engagement, and integration--as well as through their production ensemble. These capacities encourage and support the reflection of scientists, engineers, policy makers, and other publics on their roles in new technologies. This article reviews the early history of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the United States, and it further explicates anticipatory governance through exploring the genealogy of the term and addressing a set of critiques found in the literature. These critiques involve skepticism of three proximities of anticipatory governance: to its object, nanotechnology, which is a relatively indistinct one; to the public, which remains almost utterly naive toward nanotechnology; and to technoscience itself, which allegedly renders anticipatory governance complicit in its hubris. The article concludes that the changing venues and the amplification within them of the still, small voices of folks previously excluded from offering constructive visions of futures afforded by anticipatory governance may not be complete solutions to our woes in governing technology, but they certainly can contribute to bending the long arc of technoscience more toward humane ends. PMID:24941612

  4. EMG analysis of human postural responses during parabolic flight microgravity episodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1990-01-01

    Anticipatory postural activity in the trunk and legs precedes rapid shoulder flexion in unit gravity. The hypothesis that anticipatory activity is a component of a single neural command for arm movement was tested by monitoring the surface electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, paraspinals, and deltoid muscles of three subjects during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight. If part of a single command, anticipatory postural activity would be expected to remain intact despite the absence of the body's center of gravity in a reduced gravity environment. However, in at least 75 percent of the microgravity trials anticipatory biceps femoris activity was absent, indicating a separation of postural and agonist muscle activity. Such a finding suggests that anticipatory postural biceps femoris activity may be initiated independently of agonist (deltoid) activity.

  5. Aesthetics of anticipatory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minai, Asghar T.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to draw a picture of the worldview of classical theories, then draw a modern or post quantum mechanic picture; then give an understanding of what anticipatory systems mean within each of these systems. Then we will give an account of the aesthetic experience associated with the two worldviews. The paper then refers to some changes in the implications from one perspective to the other. The problems associated with the classical worldview will be regarded as shortcomings of an Aristotelian orientation towards knowledge, which in principle are inherent in the classical physics, and its relevant philosophies. This shortcoming has dominated most of the Western view of knowledge and historical references. As is apparent the first category of systems (classical) does not have any room for "anticipation," rather the behavioral outcome of the system could well show what was expected. The intent of this paper then is to look at the second category of systems, and study their anticipatory feature. It will then be suggested that the undeterministic anticipatory characteristics of these systems not only enrich the complexity of such systems, but also enrich the aesthetic qualities that they represent. To further elaborate on these systems, we analyze two contemporary theories, namely self-organization and autopoiesis, in order to illustrate the nature of anticipatory behavior of these systems. That is, while we find the former theory to be a good representation of anticipatory systems and its aesthetic qualities, we find the opposite in the conceptual structure of the latter. We therefore adopt autopoiesis to mythopoietic communication. Due to the similarities of major philosophical outlook and qualities of these systems, as well as the proposed model with those associated with Eastern philosophies such as conceptions of space-time, and other orientation, occasionally comparison will be made with Eastern views of cosmic order and aesthetics.

  6. Adaptation of Postural Stability following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, R P

    1997-01-01

    Activities of daily living require both anticipatory and reactive postural adjustments. The influence of stroke on anticipatory and reactive balance behaviors is addressed in this article. Two primary deficits appear to underlie postural instability following stroke. The first deficit type is characterized by a loss of postural muscle recruitment in both lower extremities (not hyperactive stretch reflexes). The second deficit type is related specifically to the lack of limb stabilization on the paretic side of the body. These two categories of deficit might result from the disruption of geocentric and egocentric references for postural stability with cerebrovascular disease. Context-dependent postural responses are either relearned or retained following stroke, but deficits in the sequencing and timing of stabilizing neuromuscular responses appear to be resistant to adaptation. Prior knowledge of an impending balance disturbance improves the initiation of reactive postural adjustments in subjects with stroke but has no effect on the initiation of stabilizing responses associated with voluntary motion. The results suggest that reactive and anticipatory postural adjustments are controlled by different neural mechanisms and may require separate attention in a rehabilitation program. PMID:27620375

  7. Predictors of anticipatory cortisol reactivity to subsequent stressors.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the nature, predictors, and consequences of anticipatory biological stress responses are important in understanding long-term effects of repeated stressors. We examined anticipatory cortisol responses after an individual has actually experienced and reacted to a stressor once and is anticipating a second similar stressor. We hypothesized that how an individual reacts to the first stressor may predict that individual's anticipatory responses to further stressors. In Session 1, 77 male participants delivered speeches and performed arithmetic tasks in front of two evaluators. In Session 2 one week later, participants were told that they would do the same tasks again in front of evaluators. Stress cortisol reactivity in Session 1 (increase in cortisol from pre-stressor to post-stressor) predicted anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2 (increase in cortisol from baseline to immediately pre-stressor). In addition, trait measures of low self-esteem and a "Submissive and Disconnected" interpersonal orientation predicted stronger anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2. If the cortisol response to an initial stressor does in fact shape consequent anticipatory cortisol responses, this self-perpetuating nature of the initial cortisol response may contribute to negative long-term effects of repeated stressors on health. One factor that may be able to counteract this effect is a dominant and confident interpersonal orientation, which may lead to lower anticipatory cortisol reactions regardless of the response to the initial stressor. PMID:26071396

  8. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  9. Anticipatory Neurofuzzy Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, Claire L.

    1994-01-01

    Technique of feedback control, called "anticipatory neurofuzzy control," developed for use in controlling flexible structures and other dynamic systems for which mathematical models of dynamics poorly known or unknown. Superior ability to act during operation to compensate for, and adapt to, errors in mathematical model of dynamics, changes in dynamics, and noise. Also offers advantage of reduced computing time. Hybrid of two older fuzzy-logic control techniques: standard fuzzy control and predictive fuzzy control.

  10. Anticipatory Adjustments to Being Picked Up in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Markova, Gabriela; Wallot, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Anticipation of the actions of others is often used as a measure of action understanding in infancy. In contrast to studies of action understanding which set infants up as observers of actions directed elsewhere, in the present study we explored anticipatory postural adjustments made by infants to one of the most common adult actions directed to them – picking them up. We observed infant behavioural changes and recorded their postural shifts on a pressure mat in three phases: (i) a prior Chat phase, (ii) from the onset of Approach of the mother’s arms, and (iii) from the onset of Contact. In Study 1, eighteen 3-month-old infants showed systematic global postural changes during Approach and Contact, but not during Chat. There was an increase in specific adjustments of the arms (widening or raising) and legs (stiffening and extending or tucking up) during Approach and a decrease in thrashing/general movements during Contact. Shifts in postural stability were evident immediately after onset of Approach and more slowly after Contact, with no regular shifts during Chat. In Study 2 we followed ten infants at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Anticipatory behavioural adjustments during Approach were present at all ages, but with greater differentiation from a prior Chat phase only at 3 and 4 months. Global postural shifts were also more phase differentiated in older infants. Moreover, there was significantly greater gaze to the mother’s hands during Approach at 4 months. Early anticipatory adjustments to being picked up suggest that infants’ awareness of actions directed to the self may occur earlier than of those directed elsewhere, and thus enable infants’ active participation in joint actions from early in life. PMID:23840324

  11. Using postural reactions as a screening test to identify high-risk infants for cerebral palsy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zafeiriou, D I; Tsikoulas, I G; Kremenopoulos, G M; Kontopoulos, E E

    1998-08-01

    To clarify the predictive value of the seven more commonly used postural reactions (PR) in the 1st year of life regarding the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP), we prospectively examined 204 high-risk infants of whom 58 developed CP, 22 had developmental retardation (DR) and 124 were normal at follow-up at 3 years of age. Abnormalities of five or more PR from the 1st month of life were correlated with spastic CP, while five or six abnormal PR were also correlated with athetoid CP. Three or less abnormal PR correlated with a normal outcome. All seven PR tested were significantly abnormal in children with spastic CP from the 1st month compared to normal children. Athetoid children demonstrated abnormalities of the Peiper-Isbert (P-I) reaction and Vojta reaction from the 1st month and of the vertical, horizontal and Collis vertical suspension from the 3rd month. Children with DR had significantly abnormal Collis horizontal and Collis vertical suspension, Vojta reaction and traction response from the 1st month and Peiper-Isbert reaction from the 3rd month. Ataxic children demonstrated significantly abnormal traction response from the 1st month, Collis horizontal reaction from the 7th month and Peiper-Isbert reaction from the 11th month. We conclude that the examination of PR is a useful quantitative and qualitative diagnostic screening tool for high-risk infants from the 1st month of life. PMID:9761000

  12. Decorticate posture

    MedlinePlus

    Decorticate posture is an abnormal posturing in which a person is stiff with bent arms, clenched fists, and legs ... Decorticate posture is a sign of damage to the nerve pathway between the brain and spinal cord. Although it ...

  13. Anticipatory behavior in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-03-01

    In the experiments of pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare), some of them performed as if they had contained the models of themselves and the environment in view of computing their present state as a function of the prediction of the models. In a specific situation, they escaped from the experimental apparatus as if they had constituted spatial knowledge of it (open field surrounded by walls) in the process of exploratory behavior and used the knowledge. This species gets environmental information by tactile ability of antennae, not by visual one, and do not climb perpendicular walls in general condition. If they had not escaped in the experiment, they would have died of hunger or water deficit. In this paper I will present the result of this anticipatory behavior. I also discuss that the notion of anticipation, which is another name of autonomy, is inevitably introduced when one considers the process of understanding of animal behavior progressing without any common basis between animals and experimenters.

  14. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  15. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks. PMID:26834626

  16. Anticipatory Deaccenting in Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carbary, Kathleen; Brown, Meredith; Gunlogson, Christine; McDonough, Joyce M.; Fazlipour, Aleksandra; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that listeners can generate expectations about upcoming input using anticipatory deaccenting, in which the absence of a nuclear pitch accent on an utterance-new noun is licensed by the subsequent repetition of that noun (e.g. Drag the SQUARE with the house to the TRIangle with the house). The phonemic restoration paradigm was modified to obscure word-initial segmental information uniquely identifying the final word in a spoken instruction, resulting in a stimulus compatible with two lexical alternatives (e.g. mouse/house). In Experiment 1, we measured participants’ final interpretations and response times. Experiment 2 used the same materials in a crowd-sourced gating study. Sentence interpretations at gated intervals, final interpretations, and response times provided converging evidence that the anticipatory deaccenting pattern contributed to listeners’ referential expectations. The results illustrate the availability and importance of sentence-level accent patterns in spoken language comprehension. PMID:25642426

  17. Anticipatory Grief: A Mere Concept?

    PubMed

    Moon, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    Anticipatory grief (AG) has been studied, debated, and written about for several decades. This type of grief is also recognized in hospice and palliative care (HPC). The question, however, is whether the reality of AG is sufficiently upheld by professionals at the point of concrete service delivery. In other words, is AG a mere concept or is everyday practice of HPC duly informed of AG as evidenced by the resulting care delivery? PMID:25712106

  18. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  19. Salivary a-Amylase Reflects Change in Attentional Demands during Postural Control: Comparison with Probe Reaction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous…

  20. Decerebrate posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain problem due to drugs, poisoning, or infection Head injury Brain problem due to liver failure Increased pressure ... of posture? Is there any history of a head injury or other condition? What other symptoms came before ...

  1. Exploring the future with anticipatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulimowski, A. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theory of anticipatory networks that originates from anticipatory models of consequences in multicriteria decision problems. When making a decision, the decision maker takes into account the anticipated outcomes of each future decision problem linked by the causal relations with the present one. In a network of linked decision problems, the causal relations are defined between time-ordered nodes. The scenarios of future consequences of each decision are modeled by multiple vertices starting from an appropriate node. The network is supplemented by one or more relations of anticipation, or future feedback, which describe a situation where decision makers take into account the anticipated results of some future optimization problems while making their choice. So arises a multigraph of decision problems linked causally and by one or more anticipation relation, termed here the anticipatory network. We will present the properties of anticipatory networks and propose a method of reducing, transforming and using them to solve current decision problems. Furthermore, it will be shown that most anticipatory networks can be regarded as superanticipatory systems, i.e. systems that are anticipatory in the Rosen sense and contain a future model of at least one other anticipatory system. The anticipatory networks can also be applied to filter the set of future scenarios in a foresight exercise.

  2. Asymmetries in reactive and anticipatory balance control are of similar magnitude in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Tjitske A; van Kordelaar, Joost; Engelhart, Denise; van Vugt, Jeroen P P; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Many Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show asymmetries in balance control during quiet stance and in response to perturbations (i.e., reactive balance control) in the sagittal plane. In addition, PD patients show a reduced ability to anticipate to self-induced disturbances, but it is not clear whether these anticipatory responses can be asymmetric too. Furthermore, it is not known how reactive balance control and anticipatory balance control are related in PD patients. Therefore, we investigated whether reactive and anticipatory balance control are asymmetric to the same extent in PD patients. 14 PD patients and 10 controls participated. Reactive balance control (RBC) was investigated by applying external platform and force perturbations and relating the response of the left and right ankle torque to the body sway angle at the excited frequencies. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) were investigated by determining the increase in the left and right ankle torque just before the subjects released a force exerted with the hands against a force sensor. The symmetry ratio between the contribution of the left and right ankle was used to express the asymmetry in reactive and anticipatory balance control; the correlation between the two ratio's was investigated with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. PD patients were more asymmetric in anticipatory (p=0.026) and reactive balance control (p=0.004) compared to controls and the symmetry ratios were significantly related (ρ=0.74; p=0.003) in PD patients. These findings suggest that asymmetric reactive balance control during bipedal stance may share a common pathophysiology with asymmetries in the anticipation of voluntary perturbations during, for instance, gait initiation. PMID:26475760

  3. Anticipatory governance for social-ecological resilience.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Emily; Nykvist, Björn; Borgström, Sara; Stacewicz, Izabela A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipation is increasingly central to urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to the global economic crisis. Anticipatory practices are coming to the forefront of political, organizational, and citizens' society. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace with public demand for insights into anticipatory practices, their risks and uses. Where research exists, it is deeply fragmented. This paper seeks to identify how anticipation is defined and understood in the literature and to explore the role of anticipatory practice to address individual, social, and global challenges. We use a resilience lens to examine these questions. We illustrate how varying forms of anticipatory governance are enhanced by multi-scale regional networks and technologies and by the agency of individuals, drawing from an empirical case study on regional water governance of Mälaren, Sweden. Finally, we discuss how an anticipatory approach can inform adaptive institutions, decision making, strategy formation, and societal resilience. PMID:25576289

  4. An Anticipatory Model of Cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B., Jr.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-05

    The Anticipatory System (AS) formalism developed by Robert Rosen provides some insight into the problem of embedding intelligent behavior in machines. AS emulates the anticipatory behavior of biological systems. AS bases its behavior on its expectations about the near future and those expectations are modified as the system gains experience. The expectation is based on an internal model that is drawn from an appeal to physical reality. To be adaptive, the model must be able to update itself. To be practical, the model must run faster than real-time. The need for a physical model and the requirement that the model execute at extreme speeds, has held back the application of AS to practical problems. Two recent advances make it possible to consider the use of AS for practical intelligent sensors. First, advances in transducer technology make it possible to obtain previously unavailable data from which a model can be derived. For example, acoustic emissions (AE) can be fed into a Bayesian system identifier that enables the separation of a weak characterizing signal, such as the signature of pump cavitation precursors, from a strong masking signal, such as a pump vibration feature. The second advance is the development of extremely fast, but inexpensive, digital signal processing hardware on which it is possible to run an adaptive Bayesian-derived model faster than real-time. This paper reports the investigation of an AS using a model of cavitation based on hydrodynamic principles and Bayesian analysis of data from high-performance AE sensors.

  5. Stroboscopic Training Enhances Anticipatory Timing

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, TREVOR Q.; MITROFF, STEPHEN R.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic aspects of sports often place heavy demands on visual processing. As such, an important goal for sports training should be to enhance visual abilities. Recent research has suggested that training in a stroboscopic environment, where visual experiences alternate between visible and obscured, may provide a means of improving attentional and visual abilities. The current study explored whether stroboscopic training could impact anticipatory timing – the ability to predict where a moving stimulus will be at a specific point in time. Anticipatory timing is a critical skill for both sports and non-sports activities, and thus finding training improvements could have broad impacts. Participants completed a pre-training assessment that used a Bassin Anticipation Timer to measure their abilities to accurately predict the timing of a moving visual stimulus. Immediately after this initial assessment, the participants completed training trials, but in one of two conditions. Those in the Control condition proceeded as before with no change. Those in the Strobe condition completed the training trials while wearing specialized eyewear that had lenses that alternated between transparent and opaque (rate of 100ms visible to 150ms opaque). Post-training assessments were administered immediately after training, 10-minutes after training, and 10-days after training. Compared to the Control group, the Strobe group was significantly more accurate immediately after training, was more likely to respond early than to respond late immediately after training and 10 minutes later, and was more consistent in their timing estimates immediately after training and 10 minutes later. PMID:27182391

  6. Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winstein, C. J.; Horak, F. B.; Fisher, B. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of predictability of load magnitude on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments were studied as nine normal subjects used a precision grip to lift, hold, and replace an instrumented test object. Experience with a predictable stimulus has been shown to enhance magnitude scaling of triggered postural responses to different amplitudes of perturbations. However, this phenomenon, known as a central-set effect, has not been tested systematically for grip-force responses in the hand. In our study, predictability was manipulated by applying load perturbations of different magnitudes to the test object under conditions in which the upcoming load magnitude was presented repeatedly or under conditions in which the load magnitudes were presented randomly, each with two different pre-load grip conditions (unconstrained and constrained). In constrained conditions, initial grip forces were maintained near the minimum level necessary to prevent pre-loaded object slippage, while in unconstrained conditions, no initial grip force restrictions were imposed. The effect of predictable (blocked) and unpredictable (random) load presentations on scaling of anticipatory and triggered grip responses was tested by comparing the slopes of linear regressions between the imposed load and grip response magnitude. Anticipatory and triggered grip force responses were scaled to load magnitude in all conditions. However, regardless of pre-load grip force constraint, the gains (slopes) of grip responses relative to load magnitudes were greater when the magnitude of the upcoming load was predictable than when the load increase was unpredictable. In addition, a central-set effect was evidenced by the fewer number of drop trials in the predictable relative to unpredictable load conditions. Pre-load grip forces showed the greatest set effects. However, grip responses showed larger set effects, based on prediction, when pre-load grip force was constrained to lower levels. These

  7. Anticipatory Manoeuvres in Bird Flight

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Hong D.; Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential for birds to be agile and aware of their immediate environment, especially when flying through dense foliage. To investigate the type of visual signals and strategies used by birds while negotiating cluttered environments, we presented budgerigars with vertically oriented apertures of different widths. We find that, when flying through narrow apertures, birds execute their maneuvers in an anticipatory fashion, with wing closures, if necessary, occurring well in advance of the aperture. When passing through an aperture that is narrower than the wingspan, the birds close their wings at a specific, constant distance before the aperture, which is independent of aperture width. In these cases, the birds also fly significantly higher, possibly pre-compensating for the drop in altitude. The speed of approach is largely constant, and independent of the width of the aperture. The constancy of the approach speed suggests a simple means by which optic flow can be used to gauge the distance and width of the aperture, and guide wing closure. PMID:27270506

  8. Anticipatory Manoeuvres in Bird Flight.

    PubMed

    Vo, Hong D; Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-01-01

    It is essential for birds to be agile and aware of their immediate environment, especially when flying through dense foliage. To investigate the type of visual signals and strategies used by birds while negotiating cluttered environments, we presented budgerigars with vertically oriented apertures of different widths. We find that, when flying through narrow apertures, birds execute their maneuvers in an anticipatory fashion, with wing closures, if necessary, occurring well in advance of the aperture. When passing through an aperture that is narrower than the wingspan, the birds close their wings at a specific, constant distance before the aperture, which is independent of aperture width. In these cases, the birds also fly significantly higher, possibly pre-compensating for the drop in altitude. The speed of approach is largely constant, and independent of the width of the aperture. The constancy of the approach speed suggests a simple means by which optic flow can be used to gauge the distance and width of the aperture, and guide wing closure. PMID:27270506

  9. Reduce torques and stick the landing: limb posture during landing in toads.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Larson, Neil P; Abbott, Emily M; Danos, Nicole

    2014-10-15

    A controlled landing, where an animal does not crash or topple, requires enough stability to allow muscles to effectively dissipate mechanical energy. Toads (Rhinella marina) are exemplary models for understanding the mechanics and motor control of landing given their ability to land consistently during bouts of continuous hopping. Previous studies in anurans have shown that ground reaction forces (GRFs) during landing are significantly higher compared with takeoff and can potentially impart large torques about the center of mass (COM), destabilizing the body at impact. We predict that in order to minimize such torques, toads will align their COM with the GRF vector during the aerial phase in anticipation of impact. We combined high-speed videography and force-plate ergometry to quantify torques at the COM and relate the magnitude of torques to limb posture at impact. We show that modulation of hindlimb posture can shift the position of the COM by about 20% of snout-vent length. Rapid hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop moved the COM anteriorly and reduced torque by aligning the COM with the GRF vector. We found that the addition of extrinsic loads did not significantly alter landing behavior but did change the torques experienced at impact. We conclude that anticipatory hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop is a critical feature of a mechanically stable landing that allows toads to quickly string together multiple, continuous hops. PMID:25320271

  10. Adaptive synchronization and anticipatory dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying-Jen; Chen, Chun-Chung; Lai, Pik-Yin; Chan, C. K.

    2015-09-01

    Many biological systems can sense periodical variations in a stimulus input and produce well-timed, anticipatory responses after the input is removed. Such systems show memory effects for retaining timing information in the stimulus and cannot be understood from traditional synchronization consideration of passive oscillatory systems. To understand this anticipatory phenomena, we consider oscillators built from excitable systems with the addition of an adaptive dynamics. With such systems, well-timed post-stimulus responses similar to those from experiments can be obtained. Furthermore, a well-known model of working memory is shown to possess similar anticipatory dynamics when the adaptive mechanism is identified with synaptic facilitation. The last finding suggests that this type of oscillator can be common in neuronal systems with plasticity.

  11. Long-term retention of a divided attention psycho-motor test combining choice reaction test and postural balance test: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rossi, R; Pascolo, P B

    2015-09-01

    Driving in degraded psychophysical conditions, such as under the influence of alcohol or drugs but also in a state of fatigue or drowsiness, is a growing problem. The current roadside tests used for detecting drugs from drivers suffer various limitations, while impairment is subjective and does not necessarily correlate with drug metabolite concentration found in body fluids. This work is a validation step towards the study of feasibility of a novel test conceived to assess psychophysical conditions of individuals performing at-risk activities. Motor gestures, long-term retention and learning phase related to the protocol are analysed in unimpaired subjects. The protocol is a divided attention test, which combines a critical tracking test achieved with postural movements and a visual choice reaction test. Ten healthy subjects participated in a first set of trials and in a second set after about six months. Each session required the carrying out of the test for ten times in order to investigate learning effect and performance over repetitions. In the first set the subjects showed a learning trend up to the third trial, whilst in the second set of trials they showed motor retention. Nevertheless, the overall performance did not significantly improve. Gestures are probably retained due to the type of tasks and the way in which the instructions are conveyed to the subjects. Moreover, motor retention after a short training suggests that the protocol is easy to learn and understand. Implications for roadside test usage and comparison with current tests are also discussed. PMID:26070019

  12. Center of Pressure Displacement of Standing Posture during Rapid Movements Is Reorganised Due to Experimental Lower Extremity Muscle Pain

    PubMed Central

    Shiozawa, Shinichiro; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Postural control during rapid movements may be impaired due to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental knee-related muscle pain on the center of pressure (CoP) displacement in a reaction time task condition. Methods Nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (dominant side shoulder flexion and bilateral heel lift) before, during, and after experimental pain induced in the dominant side vastus medialis or the tibialis anterior muscles by hypertonic saline injections. The CoP displacement was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral side by two force plates and the net CoP displacement was calculated. Results Compared with non-painful sessions, tibialis anterior muscle pain during the peak and peak-to-peak displacement for the CoP during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) of the shoulder task reduced the peak-to-peak displacement of the net CoP in the medial-lateral direction (P<0.05). Tibialis anterior and vastus medialis muscle pain during shoulder flexion task reduced the anterior-posterior peak-to-peak displacement in the ipsilateral side (P<0.05). Conclusions The central nervous system in healthy individuals was sufficiently robust in maintaining the APA characteristics during pain, although the displacement of net and ipsilateral CoP in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions during unilateral fast shoulder movement was altered. PMID:26680777

  13. Determining postural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  14. Anticipatory Socialisation amongst Architects: A Qualitative Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Katherine; Ison, Stephen; Dainty, Andrew; Powell, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Those entering the architectural profession tend to be motivated by a desire to undertake creative design, although studies have revealed that many practicing architects feel they lack sufficient creative opportunities. Proponents of anticipatory socialisation argue that experiences prior to entering an occupation influence job…

  15. Anticipatory physiological regulation in feeding biology

    PubMed Central

    Power, Michael L.; Schulkin, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Anticipatory physiological regulation is an adaptive strategy that enables animals to respond faster to physiologic and metabolic challenges. The cephalic phase responses are anticipatory responses that prepare animals to digest, absorb and metabolize nutrients. They enable the sensory aspects of the food to interact with the metabolic state of the animal to influence feeding behavior. The anticipatory digestive secretions and metabolic adjustments in response to food cues are key adaptations that affect digestive and metabolic efficiency and aid in controlling the resulting elevation of metabolic fuels in the blood. Cephalic phase responses enable digestion, metabolism and appetite to be regulated in a coordinated fashion. These responses have significant effects on meal size. For example, if the cephalic phase insulin response is blocked the result is poor glucose control and smaller meals. Cephalic phase responses also are linked to motivation to feed, and may play a more direct role in regulating meal size beyond the permissive one of ameliorating negative consequences of feeding. For example, the orexigenic peptide ghrelin appears to display a cephalic phase response, rising before expected meal times. This anticipatory ghrelin response increases appetite; interestingly it also enhances fat absorption, linking appetite with digestion and metabolism. PMID:18045735

  16. Rural Youth and Anticipatory Goal Deflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Evans W.; And Others

    Race, sex, community size, occupation of major wage earner, father's education, mother's education, and certainty of expectations were the variables used in this study to determine the "anticipatory occupational goal deflection" (AOGD) of urban and rural youth (blacks and whites) in Louisiana. Least squares analysis of variance and other…

  17. Postural dependence of human locomotion during gait initiation.

    PubMed

    Mille, Marie-Laure; Simoneau, Martin; Rogers, Mark W

    2014-12-15

    The initiation of human walking involves postural motor actions for body orientation and balance stabilization that must be effectively integrated with locomotion to allow safe and efficient transport. Our ability to coordinately adapt these functions to environmental or bodily changes through error-based motor learning is essential to effective performance. Predictive compensations for postural perturbations through anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that stabilize mediolateral (ML) standing balance normally precede and accompany stepping. The temporal sequencing between these events may involve neural processes that suppress stepping until the expected stability conditions are achieved. If so, then an unexpected perturbation that disrupts the ML APAs should delay locomotion. This study investigated how the central nervous system (CNS) adapts posture and locomotion to perturbations of ML standing balance. Healthy human adults initiated locomotion while a resistance force was applied at the pelvis to perturb posture. In experiment 1, using random perturbations, step onset timing was delayed relative to the APA onset indicating that locomotion was withheld until expected stability conditions occurred. Furthermore, stepping parameters were adapted with the APAs indicating that motor prediction of the consequences of the postural changes likely modified the step motor command. In experiment 2, repetitive postural perturbations induced sustained locomotor aftereffects in some parameters (i.e., step height), immediate but rapidly readapted aftereffects in others, or had no aftereffects. These results indicated both rapid but transient reactive adaptations in the posture and gait assembly and more durable practice-dependent changes suggesting feedforward adaptation of locomotion in response to the prevailing postural conditions. PMID:25231611

  18. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  19. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. PMID:26403099

  20. Exercise and Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Shop Exercise & Posture About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For The ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  1. Social Allostasis: Anticipatory Regulation of the Internal Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Schulkin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Social regulation of the internal milieu is a fundamental behavioral adaptation. Cephalic capability is reflected by anticipatory behaviors to serve systemic physiological regulation. Homeostatic regulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, the physiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems. Steroids, such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one example of such anticipatory regulatory systems. The concept of “allostasis” is in part to take account of anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptation that supports social contact and the internal milieu. PMID:21369352

  2. Anticipatory Mechanisms in Evolutionary Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals firstly with a revisiting of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Darwin in his book never uses the word "evolution", but shows a clear position about mutability of species. Darwin's Natural Selection was mainly inspired by the anticipatory Artificial Selection by humans in domestication, and the Malthus struggle for existence. Darwin showed that the struggle for existence leads to the preservation of the most divergent offspring of any one species. He cited several times the canon of "Natura non facit saltum". He spoke about the origin of life from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. Finally, Darwin made anticipation about the future researches in psychology. This paper cites the work of Ernst Mayr who was the first, after 90 years of an intense scientific debate, to present a new and stable Darwinian paradigm as the "Evolutionary Synthesis" in 1942. To explain what is life, the Living Systems Theory (LST) by J. G. Miller is presented. It is showed that the Autopoietic Systems Theory of Varela et al is also a fundamental component of living systems. In agreement with Darwin, the natural selection is a necessary condition for transformation of biological systems, but is not a sufficient condition. Thus, in this paper we conjecture that an anticipatory evolutionary mechanism exists with the genetic code that is a self-replicating and self-modifying anticipatory program. As demonstrated by Nobel laureate McClintock, evolution in genomes is programmed. The word "program" comes from "pro-gram" meaning to write before, by anticipation, and means a plan for the programming of a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions, as genes of behavioural responses, that is part of an organism. For example, cell death may be programmed by what is called the apoptosis. This definitively is a great breakthrough in our understanding of biological evolution. Hence

  3. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shin-Yi; Gottardi, Sam E. A.; Hodges, Paul W.; Strutton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement) and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA)) during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF), static shoulder flexion (SSF), and static trunk extension (STE). The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF) and goal-directed voluntary (STE) activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function. PMID:26807583

  4. Understanding Anticipatory Socialization for New Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Kara M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anticipatory socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals. The focus was to gain a deeper understanding of how new professionals experience their anticipatory socialization, specifically the job search and pre-entry communication with their new organizations. The theory that emerged…

  5. Anticipatory Grief and AIDS: Strategies for Intervening with Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rebecca J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Anticipatory grief may have beneficial effects for caregivers of people with HIV infection or AIDS. Illness duration, stigmatization, and multiple losses may impede the caregiver's ability to effectively engage in the grief process, however. Discusses the impact of these aspects of the disease on the anticipatory grief process and mourning tasks…

  6. Signal prediction by anticipatory relaxation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Henning U.

    2016-03-01

    Real-time prediction of signals is a task often encountered in control problems as well as by living systems. Here, a parsimonious prediction approach based on the coupling of a linear relaxation-delay system to a smooth, stationary signal is described. The resulting anticipatory relaxation dynamics (ARD) is a frequency-dependent predictor of future signal values. ARD not only approximately predicts signals on average but can anticipate the occurrence of signal peaks, too. This can be explained by recognizing ARD as an input-output system with negative group delay. It is characterized, including its prediction horizon, by its analytically given frequency response function.

  7. Anticipatory grief in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hottensen, Dory

    2010-02-01

    Patients and their loved ones often experience anticipatory grief when learning of a diagnosis of advanced or terminal cancer. Anticipatory grief can be a response to threats of loss of ability to function independently, loss of identity, and changes in role definition, which underlie fear of death. Dealing with multiple losses is a primary task that the dying patient must face. When an oncologist delivers bad news, the patient and family members often hear the same discussion through different filters, which can lead to conflict and dysfunction. By providing a supportive and safe environment, oncology nurses can help patients and their loved ones understand that their feelings are common and are experienced by others in similar situations and assist them with developing coping strategies and in redefining their roles within the family and in the outside world. In addition, an important goal at this time is to help the patients reframe "hope" realistically so they may have the opportunity for personal growth as well as reconciliation of primary relationships toward the end of life. PMID:20118035

  8. Visuomotor Control of Human Adaptive Locomotion: Understanding the Anticipatory Nature

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    To maintain balance during locomotion, the central nervous system (CNS) accommodates changes in the constraints of spatial environment (e.g., existence of an obstacle or changes in the surface properties). Locomotion while modifying the basic movement patterns in response to such constraints is referred to as adaptive locomotion. The most powerful means of ensuring balance during adaptive locomotion is to visually perceive the environmental properties at a distance and modify the movement patterns in an anticipatory manner to avoid perturbation altogether. For this reason, visuomotor control of adaptive locomotion is characterized, at least in part, by its anticipatory nature. The purpose of the present article is to review the relevant studies which revealed the anticipatory nature of the visuomotor control of adaptive locomotion. The anticipatory locomotor adjustments for stationary and changeable environment, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of gaze behavior to support the anticipatory locomotor adjustments are described. Such description will clearly show that anticipatory locomotor adjustments are initiated when an object of interest (e.g., a goal or obstacle) still exists in far space. This review also show that, as a prerequisite of anticipatory locomotor adjustments, environmental properties are accurately perceived from a distance in relation to individual’s action capabilities. PMID:23720647

  9. Cerebellar control of postural scaling and central set in stance.

    PubMed

    Horak, F B; Diener, H C

    1994-08-01

    different in cerebellar patients. 4. Cerebellar patients compensated for hypermetric responses and lack of anticipatory scaling of earliest gastrocnemius activity by scaling large, reciprocally activated tibialis and quadriceps antagonist activity with the displacement velocity and amplitude. Correlations between these antagonist EMG integrals and displacement amplitudes were preserved when amplitudes were randomized, suggesting that feedback-dependent and not set-dependent mechanisms were responsible for scaling of antagonists by cerebellar patients. Antagonist compensation for initial hypermetric responses also could be induced in normals when they overresponded to unexpectedly small amplitudes of surface displacements. 5. The major effects of anterior lobe cerebellar damage on human postural responses involves impairment of response magnitude based on predictive central set and not on use of velocity feedback or on the temporal synergic organization of multijoint postural coordination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7983513

  10. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  11. Nautilus: A Concurrent Anticipatory Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, P. Blauth; Costa, Simone A.; Machado, Júlio P.; Ramos, Jaime

    2002-09-01

    Nautilus is a concurrent anticipatory programming language based on the object-oriented language GNOME which is a simplified and revised version of OBLOG. A semantics for Nautilus is given by Nonsequencial Automata, that is a categorial semantic domain based on labeled transition system with full concurrency, where a class of morphisms stands for anticipation. The semantics of an object in Nautilus is given by an anticipation morphism, which is viewed as a special automaton morphism where target automata, called base, is determined by the computations of a freely generated automata able to simulate any object specified over the involved attributes, and the source automata is a relabelled restriction of the base. In order to introduce the anticipation of Nautilus, some examples are presented depicting the features of the language.

  12. Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture

    PubMed Central

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. Methods Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. Findings (1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. Interpretation Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities. PMID:21187914

  13. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response. PMID:27601983

  14. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Sara M; Bryden, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response. PMID:27601983

  15. Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.

    2006-10-16

    We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation.

  16. Diurnally entrained anticipatory behavior in archaea.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Kenia; Pan, Min; Masumura, Ken-ichi; Bonneau, Richard; Baliga, Nitin S

    2009-01-01

    By sensing changes in one or few environmental factors biological systems can anticipate future changes in multiple factors over a wide range of time scales (daily to seasonal). This anticipatory behavior is important to the fitness of diverse species, and in context of the diurnal cycle it is overall typical of eukaryotes and some photoautotrophic bacteria but is yet to be observed in archaea. Here, we report the first observation of light-dark (LD)-entrained diurnal oscillatory transcription in up to 12% of all genes of a halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. Significantly, the diurnally entrained transcription was observed under constant darkness after removal of the LD stimulus (free-running rhythms). The memory of diurnal entrainment was also associated with the synchronization of oxic and anoxic physiologies to the LD cycle. Our results suggest that under nutrient limited conditions halophilic archaea take advantage of the causal influence of sunlight (via temperature) on O(2) diffusivity in a closed hypersaline environment to streamline their physiology and operate oxically during nighttime and anoxically during daytime. PMID:19424498

  17. The Time Course of Anticipatory Constraint Integration

    PubMed Central

    Kukona, Anuenue; Fang, Shin-Yi; Aicher, Karen A.; Chen, Helen; Magnuson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that as listeners hear sentences describing events in a scene, their eye movements anticipate upcoming linguistic items predicted by the unfolding relationship between scene and sentence. While this may reflect active prediction based on structural or contextual expectations, the influence of local thematic priming between words has not been fully examined. In Experiment 1, we presented verbs (e.g., arrest) in active (Subject-Verb-Object) sentences with displays containing verb-related patients (e.g., crook) and agents (e.g., policeman). We examined patient and agent fixations following the verb, after the agent role had been filled by another entity, but prior to bottom-up specification of the object. Participants were nearly as likely to fixate agents “anticipatorily” as patients, even though the agent role was already filled. However, the slight patient advantage suggested simultaneous influences of both local priming and active prediction. In Experiment 2, using passives (Object-Verb-Subject), we found stronger, but still graded influences of role prediction when more time elapsed between verb and target, and more syntactic cues were available. We interpret anticipatory fixations as emerging from constraint-based processes that involve both non-predictive thematic priming and active prediction. PMID:21237450

  18. Postural and eye-blink indices of the defensive startle reflex.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Rosengren, Karl S

    2005-01-01

    Postural and eye-blink reactions to acoustic startle probes were examined in 24 volunteers, who completed two blocked conditions (baseline, startle). A postural reaction during the startle condition demonstrated a reflexive movement in the anterior-posterior direction, which was not observed during the baseline condition. This reflexive response was positively associated with the eye-blink reflex, such that larger blink magnitude related to greater posterior movement. These findings were not observed for postural movements in the medial-lateral direction. The results suggest that a measurable postural reaction may be observed following a startling acoustic stimulus, which may reflect generalized bodily flexion associated with a preparatory behavioral response. PMID:15598515

  19. Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-30

    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome; Postural Tachycardia Syndrome; Tachycardia; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Orthostatic Intolerance; Cardiovascular Diseases; Primary Dysautonomias

  20. Selection of wrist posture in conditions of motor ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Wood, Daniel K; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2011-02-01

    In our everyday motor interactions with objects, we often encounter situations where the features of an object are determinate (i.e., not perceptually ambiguous), but the mapping between those features and appropriate movement patterns is indeterminate, resulting in a lack of any clear preference for one posture over another. We call this indeterminacy in stimulus-response mapping 'motor ambiguity'. Here, we use a grasping task to investigate the decision mechanisms that mediate the basic behavior of selecting one wrist posture over another in conditions of motor ambiguity. Using one of two possible wrist postures, participants grasped a dowel that was presented at various orientations. At most orientations, there was a clear preference for one wrist posture over the other. Within a small range of orientations, however, participants were variable in their posture selection due to the fact that the dowel was ambiguous with respect to the hand posture it afforded. We observed longer reaction times (RT) during 'ambiguous' trials than during the 'unambiguous' trials. In two subsequent experiments, we explored the effects of foreknowledge and trial history on the selection of wrist posture. We found that foreknowledge led to shorter RT unless the previous trial involved selecting a posture in the ambiguous region, in which case foreknowledge gave no RT advantage. These results are discussed within the context of existing models of sensorimotor decision making. PMID:21152907

  1. Are EU networks anticipatory systems? An empirical and analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2000-05-01

    A social system can be considered as distributed by its very nature. Social communication among humans can be expected to be reflexive. Thus, this system contains uncertainty and the uncertainty is provided with meaning. This dual-layeredness enables the network to organize itself ("autopoietically") into an anticipatory mode. The extent to which anticipatory functions have been developed can be observed, notably in the case of intentional constructions of reflexive layers of organization. In this study, the "Self-Organization of the European Information Society" is analyzed from this angle. Using empirical data, I argue that the increasing unification in representations at the European level allows for another differentiation in terms of the substantive communications that are represented. Insofar as the reflexive layers are differently codified, the anticipatory functions of the system can be strengthened.

  2. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Interleaving Templates of Human Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matessa, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Performance modeling has been made easier by architectures which package psychological theory for reuse at useful levels of abstraction. CPM-GOMS uses templates of behavior to package at a task level (e.g., mouse move-click, typing) predictions of lower-level cognitive, perceptual, and motor resource use. CPM-GOMS also has a theory for interleaving resource use between templates. One example of interleaving is anticipatory eye movements. This paper describes the use of ACT-Stitch, a framework for translating CPM-GOMS templates and interleaving theory into ACT-R, to model anticipatory eye movements in skilled behavior. The anticipatory eye movements explain performance in a well-practiced perceptual/motor task, and the interleaving theory is supported with results from an eye-tracking experiment.

  3. Tips to Maintain Good Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain and Chiropractic Posture Spinal Health Winter Activities Backpack Safety Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby ... Pain and Chiropractic Posture Spinal Health Winter Activities Backpack Safety Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby ...

  4. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a disease characterized by excessively increased heart rate during orthostatic challenge associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance including dizziness, exercise intolerance, headache, fatigue, memory problems, nausea, blurred vision, pallor, and sweating, which improve with recumbence. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients may present with a multitude of additional symptoms that are attributable to vascular vasoconstriction. Observed signs and symptoms in a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome include tachycardia at rest, exaggerated heart rate increase with upright position and exercise, crushing chest pain, tremor, syncope, loss of vision, confusion, migraines, fatigue, heat intolerance, parasthesia, dysesthesia, allodynia, altered traditional senses, and thermoregulatory abnormalities. There are a number of possible dermatological manifestations of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome easily explained by its recently discovered pathophysiology. The author reports the case of a 22-year-old woman with moderate-to-severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with numerous dermatological manifestations attributable to the disease process. The cutaneous manifestations observed in this patient are diverse and most noticeable during postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome flares. The most distinct are evanescent, hyperemic, sharply demarcated, irregular patches on the chest and neck area that resolve upon diascopy. This distinct “evanescent hyperemia” disappears spontaneously after seconds to minutes and reappears unexpectedly. Other observed dermatological manifestations of this systemic disease include Raynaud’s phenomenon, koilonychia, onychodystrophy, madarosis, dysesthesia, allodynia, telogen effluvium, increased capillary refill time, and livedo reticularis. The treatment of this disease poses a great challenge. The author reports the unprecedented use of an

  5. Hyper-homeostatic learning of anticipatory hunger in rats.

    PubMed

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Booth, David A; Thibault, Louise

    2007-11-23

    Anticipatory hunger is a learnt increase in intake of food having a flavour or texture that predicts a long fast. This learning was studied in rats trained on a single food or a choice between protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich foods, presented for 1.5 h after 3 h without maintenance food at the start of the dark phase. Eight training cycles provided a pseudo-random sequence of 3 h and 10 h post-prandial fasts with a day on maintenance food between each training fast. The measure of anticipatory hunger is the difference over one 4-day cycle between the intake of test food having an odour predictive of the longer fast (TL) and intake of food with an odour cuing to the shorter fast (TS). Previous experiments showed that conditioning of preference for the odour before the shorter fast competes with learning to avoid hunger during the longer fast (anticipatory hunger), generating a cubic or quartic contrast. TL minus TS showed a strong cubic trend over 8 training cycles with both single and choice meals. There was a switch from preference for the short-fast odour at cycle 2 (TL-TS=-0.86 g) to a peak of anticipatory hunger at cycle 6 (TL-TS=1.57 g). We conclude that anticipatory hunger is learnt when a choice is given between protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich foods as well as on a single food. In addition, since anticipatory hunger extinguishes itself, such learning improves on negative-feedback homeostasis with a feed-forward "hyper-homeostatic" mechanism. PMID:17540415

  6. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  7. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    PubMed Central

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E.; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (QH/V), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: QH/V = 0.31 versus controls: QH/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles. PMID:26843786

  8. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness.

    PubMed

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (Q H/V ), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: Q H/V = 0.31 versus controls: Q H/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles. PMID:26843786

  9. Anticipatory Vibrotactile Cueing Facilitates Grip Force Adjustment during Perturbative Loading.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shogo; Wiertlewski, Michael; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Grip force applied to an object held between the thumb and index finger is automatically and unconsciously adjusted upon perception of an external disturbance to the object. Typically, this adjustment occurs within approximately 100 ms. Here, we investigated the effect of anticipatory vibrotactile cues prior to a perturbative force, which the central nervous system may use for rapid grip re-stabilization. We asked participants to grip and hold an instrumented, actuated handle between the thumb and index finger. Under computer control, the handle could suddenly be pulled away from a static grip and could independently provide vibration to the gripping fingers. The mean latency of corrective motor action was 139 ms. When vibrotactile stimulation was applied 50 ms before application of tractive force, the latency was reduced to 117 ms, whereas the mean latency of the conscious response to vibrotactile stimuli alone was 229 ms. This suggests that vibrotactile stimulation can influence reflex-like actions. We also examined the effects of anticipatory cues using a set of perturbative loads with different rising rates. As expected, facilitation of grip force adjustment was observed for moderate loads. In contrast, anticipatory cues had an insignificant effect on rapid loads that evoked an adjustment within 60-80 ms, which approaches the minimum latency of human grip adjustment. Understanding the facilitative effects of anticipatory cues on human reactive grip can aid the development of human-machine interfaces to enhance human behavior. PMID:26887013

  10. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  11. Longitudinal Analysis of the Development of Anticipatory Nausea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrykowski, Michael A.; Redd, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed chemotherapy outpatients (N=71) before and after chemotherapy infusions to assess the course of development of anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV). Revealed that onset of ANV early in the course of chemotherapy was associated with a pattern of low, stable levels of anxiety while later onset was characterized by a pattern of…

  12. College Counselors' Perceptions and Practices regarding Anticipatory Guidance on Firearms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James; Mrdjenovich, Adam J.; Thompson, Amy; Dake, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed college counselors' anticipatory guidance on firearms for student clients. Participants: The membership of the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors was used to identify a national random sample of counseling centers (n = 361). One counselor from each center was selected to survey.…

  13. Anticipatory Enrollment Management: Another Level of Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Marguerite J.

    2012-01-01

    Building on the principles of Enrollment Management (EM) and Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM), Anticipatory Enrollment Management (AEM) offers another level of managing enrollment: anticipating future enrollment. AEM is grounded in the basic principles of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and includes strategic out-reach to parents and…

  14. Teaching Anticipatory Guidance: Pediatric Residents' Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Roberta A.; Kittredge, Diane

    One-third of all scheduled pediatric visits are for well child care. The American Academy of Pediatrics has suggested that anticipatory guidance, which focuses on health maintenance, accident prevention, nutrition, and normal child development, should be a major part of well child visits. Training in well child counseling will only be accepted in…

  15. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which 'good' science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  16. The Differential Outcomes Effect in Pigeons (Columba livia): Is It Truly Anticipatory?

    PubMed

    Kouwenhoven, Marijn; Colombo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE) in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature. PMID:26933892

  17. Postural development in rats.

    PubMed

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals). PMID:16814770

  18. Contraction of the human diaphragm during rapid postural adjustments.

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, P W; Butler, J E; McKenzie, D K; Gandevia, S C

    1997-01-01

    1. The response of the diaphragm to the postural perturbation produced by rapid flexion of the shoulder to a visual stimulus was evaluated in standing subjects. Gastric, oesophageal and transdiaphragmatic pressures were measured together with intramuscular and oesophageal recordings of electromyographic activity (EMG) in the diaphragm. To assess the mechanics of contraction of the diaphragm, dynamic changes in the length of the diaphragm were measured with ultrasonography. 2. With rapid flexion of the shoulder in response to a visual stimulus, EMG activity in the costal and crural diaphragm occurred about 20 ms prior to the onset of deltoid EMG. This anticipatory contraction occurred irrespective of the phase of respiration in which arm movement began. The onset of diaphragm EMG coincided with that of transversus abdominis. 3. Gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressures increased in association with the rapid arm flexion by 13.8 +/- 1.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 13.5 +/- 1.8 cmH2O, respectively. The increases occurred 49 +/- 4 ms after the onset of diaphragm EMG, but preceded the onset of movement of the limb by 63 +/- 7 ms. 4. Ultrasonographic measurements revealed that the costal diaphragm shortened and then lengthened progressively during the increase in transdiaphragmatic pressure. 5. This study provides definitive evidence that the human diaphragm is involved in the control of postural stability during sudden voluntary movement of the limbs. Images Figure 1 PMID:9423192

  19. Stand Up Straight: Posture for Singers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Delores R.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of posture in music-making. Provides information on the importance of posture and the different types of posture stances to help students work toward better posture. Includes information on using kinesthetic experiences to help students improve their posture. (CMK)

  20. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing. PMID:26117153

  1. Postural stress analysis in industry.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Al-Shedi, A A; Karwowski, W

    1994-04-01

    Both observational and instrumentation-based techniques have been used to conduct postural stress analysis in industry. As observational methods are more widespread than instrumentation-based techniques and can be used as a practical tool in the workplace, this study reviews and assesses the scientific literature on observational techniques. Techniques are classified into macropostural, micropostural and postural-work activity. The basis for each classification is outlined and evaluated. Postural recording is performed either continuously or intermittently. Intermittent postural recording procedures lack the criteria for determining the optimum number of observations for low and high repetitive jobs. Research is warranted to examine the sources and magnitudes of errors associated with postural classification. Such information is required to train job analysts in the ergonomics of working postures. PMID:15676953

  2. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers. PMID:20698188

  3. Achieving Synergy of Business System Via Anticipatory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potocan, Vojko; Rebernik, Miroslav

    2002-09-01

    The existence and development of business systems depend increasingly on its capability to keep the achieving synergy of their functioning development that presents a possible solution toward a harmonized and target oriented business. The integration processes between parts of a business system or between several business systems, lead to the quality improvement, e.g. synergetic effects. The paper discusses the thesis that the functioning of a business system (and its results) can be improved by the application of the business anticipatory systems rather than a short - sighted behavior. The anticipatory system significantly influences business functioning mainly by its ability to ensure a future oriented functioning, appropriate behavior in relation to the environment and such a direction of the behavior that would lead to flexibility and ergodics.

  4. Impact of anticipatory processing versus distraction on multiple indices of anxiety in socially anxious individuals.

    PubMed

    Wong, Quincy J J; Moulds, Michelle L

    2011-10-01

    In models of social phobia, anticipatory processing before a social-evaluative event is a key maintaining factor for the disorder. This study investigated the impact of anticipatory processing versus distraction before a social-evaluative task on affective (self-reported anxiety), psychophysiological (skin conductance), cognitive (self-reported maladaptive self-beliefs) and behavioural (in-situation performance) responses of participants. High and low socially anxious undergraduates were randomly allocated to either an anticipatory processing or distraction condition, and then completed an impromptu speech task. Relative to distraction, anticipatory processing increased self-reported anxiety in all participants, and increased skin conductance and the strength of conditional and high standard beliefs in the high (but not low) socially anxious participants. Unconditional beliefs were not affected. For high socially anxious individuals, anticipatory processing was also indirectly associated with poorer speech performance by increasing self-reported anxiety. Anticipatory processing appears to have multiple adverse effects in socially anxious individuals. PMID:21821231

  5. Action prediction based on anticipatory brain potentials during simulated driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliliardali, Zahra; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Gheorghe, Lucian Andrei; Millán, José del R.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The ability of an automobile to infer the driver’s upcoming actions directly from neural signals could enrich the interaction of the car with its driver. Intelligent vehicles fitted with an on-board brain-computer interface able to decode the driver’s intentions can use this information to improve the driving experience. In this study we investigate the neural signatures of anticipation of specific actions, namely braking and accelerating. Approach. We investigated anticipatory slow cortical potentials in electroencephalogram recorded from 18 healthy participants in a driving simulator using a variant of the contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with Go and No-go conditions: count-down numbers followed by ‘Start’/‘Stop’ cue. We report decoding performance before the action onset using a quadratic discriminant analysis classifier based on temporal features. Main results. (i) Despite the visual and driving related cognitive distractions, we show the presence of anticipatory event related potentials locked to the stimuli onset similar to the widely reported CNV signal (with an average peak value of -8 μV at electrode Cz). (ii) We demonstrate the discrimination between cases requiring to perform an action upon imperative subsequent stimulus (Go condition, e.g. a ‘Red’ traffic light) versus events that do not require such action (No-go condition; e.g. a ‘Yellow’ light); with an average single trial classification performance of 0.83 ± 0.13 for braking and 0.79 ± 0.12 for accelerating (area under the curve). (iii) We show that the centro-medial anticipatory potentials are observed as early as 320 ± 200 ms before the action with a detection rate of 0.77 ± 0.12 in offline analysis. Significance. We show for the first time the feasibility of predicting the driver’s intention through decoding anticipatory related potentials during simulated car driving with high recognition rates.

  6. Sibling rivalry and the new baby: anticipatory guidance and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, J A

    1997-01-01

    Sibling rivalry can be found in many families and frequently creates a stressful and challenging situation for parents. The arrival of a new baby often causes older siblings to feel displaced, frustrated, angry, and even unloved. Age, gender, personality and temperament, and parental behavior are factors that appear to influence the degree to which sibling rivalry occurs. Common reactions of older siblings to the birth of a new baby include aggression toward the newborn, behavioral regression, and attention seeking behavior, as well as independence and maturity. Anticipatory guidance is recommended to help parents adequately prepare their older child for the arrival of a new sibling. Strategies for managing sibling rivalry include open parent-child communication, equal treatment of siblings, non-intervention in sibling conflicts, distraction, and separation. Parents can minimize feelings of jealousy between siblings by providing a supportive, nurturing environment that allows each child to feel secure and loved. PMID:9220807

  7. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  8. Trait Anticipatory Pleasure Predicts Effort Expenditure for Reward.

    PubMed

    Geaney, Joachim T; Treadway, Michael T; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Research in motivation and emotion has been increasingly influenced by the perspective that processes underpinning the motivated approach of rewarding goals are distinct from those underpinning enjoyment during reward consummation. This distinction recently inspired the construction of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self-report measure that distinguishes trait anticipatory pleasure (pre-reward feelings of desire) from consummatory pleasure (feelings of enjoyment and gratification upon reward attainment). In a university community sample (N = 97), we examined the TEPS subscales as predictors of (1) the willingness to expend effort for monetary rewards, and (2) affective responses to a pleasant mood induction procedure. Results showed that both anticipatory pleasure and a well-known trait measure of reward motivation predicted effort-expenditure for rewards when the probability of being rewarded was relatively low. Against expectations, consummatory pleasure was unrelated to induced pleasant affect. Taken together, our findings provide support for the validity of the TEPS anticipatory pleasure scale, but not the consummatory pleasure scale. PMID:26115223

  9. Immediate effects of anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Kleinschmidt, Dave; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments examined listeners’ use of pre word-onset anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition. Experiment 1 established the shortest lag with which information in the speech signal influences eye-movement control, using stimuli such as “The … ladder is the target”. With a neutral token of the definite article preceding the target word, saccades to the referent were not more likely than saccades to an unrelated distractor until 200–240 ms after the onset of the target word. In Experiment 2, utterances contained definite articles which contained natural anticipatory coarticulation pertaining to the onset of the target word (“ The ladder … is the target”). A simple Gaussian classifier was able to predict the initial sound of the upcoming target word from formant information from the first few pitch periods of the article’s vowel. With these stimuli, effects of speech on eye-movement control began about 70 ms earlier than in Experiment 1, suggesting rapid use of anticipatory coarticulation. The results are interpreted as support for “data explanation” approaches to spoken-word recognition. Methodological implications for visual-world studies are also discussed. PMID:24511179

  10. Trait Anticipatory Pleasure Predicts Effort Expenditure for Reward

    PubMed Central

    Geaney, Joachim T.; Treadway, Michael T.; Smillie, Luke D.

    2015-01-01

    Research in motivation and emotion has been increasingly influenced by the perspective that processes underpinning the motivated approach of rewarding goals are distinct from those underpinning enjoyment during reward consummation. This distinction recently inspired the construction of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self-report measure that distinguishes trait anticipatory pleasure (pre-reward feelings of desire) from consummatory pleasure (feelings of enjoyment and gratification upon reward attainment). In a university community sample (N = 97), we examined the TEPS subscales as predictors of (1) the willingness to expend effort for monetary rewards, and (2) affective responses to a pleasant mood induction procedure. Results showed that both anticipatory pleasure and a well-known trait measure of reward motivation predicted effort-expenditure for rewards when the probability of being rewarded was relatively low. Against expectations, consummatory pleasure was unrelated to induced pleasant affect. Taken together, our findings provide support for the validity of the TEPS anticipatory pleasure scale, but not the consummatory pleasure scale. PMID:26115223

  11. Preoperative hypnotherapy in the management of a child with anticipatory nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, A; Frawley, G P

    2007-10-01

    A six-year-old boy with oesophageal strictures secondary to neonatal repair of oesophageal atresia and requiring six to eight weekly oesophageal dilatations by bouginage developed anticipatory nausea and vomiting. This was effectively managed by a course of preoperative hypnotherapy over four sessions. Resolution of anticipatory nausea and vomiting occurred along with cessation of postoperative nausea and vomiting. This case supports early intervention with preoperative hypnotherapy in children with anticipatory nausea and vomiting that has not responded to other measures. PMID:17933170

  12. Reactively and Anticipatory Behaving Agents for Artificial Life Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Karel; Nahodil, Pavel

    2010-11-01

    Reactive behavior is still considered and the exact opposite for the anticipatory one. Despite the advances on the field of anticipation there are little thoughts on relation with the reactive behavior, the similarities and where the boundary is. In this article we will present our viewpoint and we will try to show that reactive and anticipatory behavior can be combined. This is the basic ground of our unified theory for anticipatory behavior architecture. We still miss such compact theory, which would integrate multiple aspects of anticipation. My multi-level anticipatory behavior approach is based on the current understanding of anticipation from both the artificial intelligence and biology point of view. As part of the explanation we will also elaborate on the topic of weak and strong artificial life. Anticipation is not matter of a single mechanism in a living organism. It was noted already that it happens on many different levels even in the very simple creatures. What we consider to be important for our work and what is our original though is that it happens even without voluntary control. We believe that this is novelty though for the anticipation theory. Naturally research of anticipation was in the beginning of this decade focused on the anticipatory principles bringing advances on the field itself. This allowed us to build on those, look at them from higher perspective, and use not one but multiple levels of anticipation in a creature design. This presents second original though and that is composition of the agent architecture that has anticipation built in almost every function. In this article we will focus only on first two levels within the 8-factor anticipation framework. We will introduce them as defined categories of anticipation and describe them from theory and implementation algorithm point of view. We will also present an experiment conducted, however this experiment serves more as explanatory example. These first two levels may seem trivial

  13. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st

  14. Postural performance of vestibular loss patients under increased postural threat.

    PubMed

    Young, Laurence R; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Dumitrescu, Michel; Magnan, Jacques; Borel, Liliane; Lacour, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of increasing postural task difficulty on balance control was investigated in 9 compensated vestibular loss patients whose results were compared to 11 healthy adults. Subjects were tested in static (stable support) and dynamic (sinusoidal translation of the support) conditions, both at floor level and at height (62 cm above the floor), and with and without vision, to create an additional postural threat. Wavelet analysis of the center of foot pressure displacement and motion analysis of the body segments were used to evaluate the postural performance. Evaluation questionnaires were used to examine the compensation level of the patients (DHI test), their general anxiety level (SAST), fear of height (subjective scale), and workload (NASA TLX test). (Vestibular loss patients rely more on vision and spend more energy maintaining balance than controls, but they use the same postural strategy as normals in both static and dynamic conditions.) Questionnaire data all showed differences in behavior and perceptions between the controls and the patients. However, at height and without vision, a whole body strategy leading to rigid posture replaces the head stabilization strategy found for standing at floor level. The effects of height on postural control can be attributable to an increase in postural threat and attention changes resulting from modifications in perception. PMID:23000612

  15. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  16. Seated postural hypotension.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Oleg; Cohen, Natan

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of postural hypotension (PH) have focused on standing PH. Less is known about PH after transition from a supine to sitting position. Moreover, seated PH has not been previously reviewed in the English literature. The aim of this review was to provide current information regarding seating-induced PH. Seventeen studies were reviewed regarding prevalence, methods of evaluation, manifestations, predisposing factors, prognosis, and management of seated PH. Prevalence ranged from 8% among community-dwelling persons to 56% in elderly hospitalized patients. Dizziness and palpitations were the most frequent symptoms. Of a variety of factors that have been identified as predisposing and contributing to seated PH, aging, bed rest, and hypertension were most important. Because seated PH is a common, easily diagnosable and frequently symptomatic condition, especially in elderly inpatients, this disorder warrants attention. Moreover, seating-induced falls in blood pressure and the associated symptoms, may be largely prevented by nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:26515671

  17. Anticipatory Grief in New Family Caregivers of Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Garand, Linda; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Deardorf, Kaitlyn E.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Anticipatory grief is the process of experiencing normal phases of bereavement in advance of the loss of a significant person. To date, anticipatory grief has been examined in family caregivers to individuals who have had Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) an average of 3 to 6 years. Whether such grief is manifested early in the disease trajectory (at diagnosis) is unknown. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined differences in the nature and extent of anticipatory grief between family caregivers of persons with a new diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=43) or AD (n=30). We also determined whether anticipatory grief levels were associated with caregiver demographics, caregiving burden, depressive symptoms and marital quality. Mean anticipatory grief levels were high in the total sample, with AD caregivers endorsing significantly more anticipatory grief than MCI caregivers. In general, AD caregivers endorsed difficulty functioning whereas MCI caregivers focused on themes of “missing the person” they once knew. Being a female caregiver, reporting higher levels of objective caregiving burden and higher depression levels each bore independent, statistically significant relationships with anticipatory grief. Given these findings, family caregivers of individuals with mild cognitive deficits or a new AD diagnosis may benefit from interventions specifically addressing anticipatory grief. PMID:21946013

  18. The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shune, Samantha E.; Moon, Jerald B.; Goodman, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults.…

  19. Anticipatory Emotions in Decision Tasks: Covert Markers of Value or Attentional Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Anticipatory emotions precede behavioral outcomes and provide a means to infer interactions between emotional and cognitive processes. A number of theories hold that anticipatory emotions serve as inputs to the decision process and code the value or risk associated with a stimulus. We argue that current data do not unequivocally support this…

  20. Test Plan of the Anticipatory Wirelss Sensor Network for the Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Rentel

    2006-09-01

    The test plan for the performance of the Anticipatory Wireless Sensor Network (A-WSN) is presented. The results of the test campaigns will be obtained after actual measurements are taken in the field with the Wireless Sensor Network developed by The Innovation Center-Eaton Corp., and the Anticipatory algorithms developed by ORNL.

  1. Anticipatory and sequential motor control in piano playing.

    PubMed

    Engel, K C; Flanders, M; Soechting, J F

    1997-02-01

    Pianists were asked to play short excerpts from several pieces on an electronic keyboard. In each piece, there were two phrases whose first few notes were played identically with the right hand. Thereafter, the two phrases were played differently. The aim of the investigation was to ascertain whether or not hand and finger kinematics diverged prior to the depression of the last common note. Such a divergence would imply an anticipatory modification of sequential movements of the hand, akin to the phenomenon of coarticulation in speech. The lack of such a divergence would imply a strictly serial organization of movement sequences with one hand, as was found previously to be the case for typing. The time at which each key was depressed and released and the speed with which the key was depressed was recorded via a MIDI interface to a laboratory computer. The motion of the right wrist and of the fingers of the right hand was recorded optoelectronically. Piano playing can invoke anticipatory modifications of hand and finger kinematics. The time at which two patterns of movements diverged varied considerably from piece to piece. Playing an ascending scale with the requirement of a "thumb-under" maneuver could evoke an anticipatory modification as much as 500 ms in advance of the last common note. In another piece, keypresses appeared to be executed in a strict serial ordering and a third piece gave results intermediate between these two extremes. We interpret the results to suggest that a strict serial execution of a movement sequence is favored as long as this is compatible with the demands of the task. PMID:9063705

  2. Attention Demand and Postural Control in Children with Hearing Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…

  3. The characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Rachel; Davies, Kerry; Lavender, Verna

    2015-11-01

    This article reports a systematic review of literature undertaken to identify characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the key words 'anticipatory', 'mourning', 'grief', and synonyms. This review focused on six studies that met inclusion criteria and reported characteristics of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults. Characteristics and experiences were sorted into four main themes: symptoms; a sense of loss; caregiver behaviour; and the unique experience of caring for, or losing, a teenager or young adult. The review suggests that there are characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning that are unique to caregivers of this age group. The review also suggests that consideration of anticipatory mourning is important in offering holistic care to young adults and their caregivers, and points to the need for further research in this area. PMID:26619236

  4. Predicting preschool pain-related anticipatory distress: the relative contribution of longitudinal and concurrent factors.

    PubMed

    Racine, Nicole M; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Taddio, Anna; Garfield, Hartley; Greenberg, Saul

    2016-09-01

    Anticipatory distress prior to a painful medical procedure can lead to negative sequelae including heightened pain experiences, avoidance of future medical procedures, and potential noncompliance with preventative health care, such as vaccinations. Few studies have examined the longitudinal and concurrent predictors of pain-related anticipatory distress. This article consists of 2 companion studies to examine both the longitudinal factors from infancy as well as concurrent factors from preschool that predict pain-related anticipatory distress at the preschool age. Study 1 examined how well preschool pain-related anticipatory distress was predicted by infant pain response at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. In study 2, using a developmental psychopathology framework, longitudinal analyses examined the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and present factors that led to the development of anticipatory distress during routine preschool vaccinations. A sample of 202 caregiver-child dyads was observed during their infant and preschool vaccinations (the Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt cohort) and was used for both studies. In study 1, pain response during infancy was not found to significantly predict pain-related anticipatory distress at preschool. In study 2, a strong explanatory model was created whereby 40% of the variance in preschool anticipatory distress was explained. Parental behaviours from infancy and preschool were the strongest predictors of child anticipatory distress at preschool. Child age positively predicted child anticipatory distress. This strongly suggests that the involvement of parents in pain management interventions during immunization is one of the most critical factors in predicting anticipatory distress to the preschool vaccination. PMID:27276117

  5. Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two discrete strategies for the control of posture in the sagittal plane based on EMG activations, body kinematics, and ground reaction forces. The ankle strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a single-segment-inverted pendulum and was elicited on flat support surfaces. In contrast, the hip strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a double-segment inverted pendulum divided at the hip and was elicited on short or compliant support surfaces. However, biomechanical optimization models have suggested that hip strategy should be observed in response to fast translations on a flat surface also, provided the feet are constrained to remain in contact with the floor and the knee is constrained to remain straight. The purpose of this study was to examine the experimental evidence for hip strategy in postural responses to backward translations of a flat support surface and to determine whether analyses of joint torques would provide evidence for two separate postural strategies. Normal subjects standing on a flat support surface were translated backward with a range of velocities from fast (55 cm/s) to slow (5 cm/s). EMG activations and joint kinematics showed pattern changes consistent with previous experimental descriptions of mixed hip and ankle strategy with increasing platform velocity. Joint torque analyses revealed the addition of a hip flexor torque to the ankle plantarflexor torque during fast translations. This finding indicates the addition of hip strategy to ankle strategy to produce a continuum of postural responses. Hip torque without accompanying ankle torque (pure hip strategy) was not observed. Although postural control strategies have previously been defined by how the body moves, we conclude that joint torques, which indicate how body movements are produced, are useful in defining postural control strategies. These results also illustrate how the biomechanics of the body can transform discrete control

  6. Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques.

    PubMed

    Runge, C F; Shupert, C L; Horak, F B; Zajac, F E

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have identified two discrete strategies for the control of posture in the sagittal plane based on EMG activations, body kinematics, and ground reaction forces. The ankle strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a single-segment-inverted pendulum and was elicited on flat support surfaces. In contrast, the hip strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a double-segment inverted pendulum divided at the hip and was elicited on short or compliant support surfaces. However, biomechanical optimization models have suggested that hip strategy should be observed in response to fast translations on a flat surface also, provided the feet are constrained to remain in contact with the floor and the knee is constrained to remain straight. The purpose of this study was to examine the experimental evidence for hip strategy in postural responses to backward translations of a flat support surface and to determine whether analyses of joint torques would provide evidence for two separate postural strategies. Normal subjects standing on a flat support surface were translated backward with a range of velocities from fast (55 cm/s) to slow (5 cm/s). EMG activations and joint kinematics showed pattern changes consistent with previous experimental descriptions of mixed hip and ankle strategy with increasing platform velocity. Joint torque analyses revealed the addition of a hip flexor torque to the ankle plantarflexor torque during fast translations. This finding indicates the addition of hip strategy to ankle strategy to produce a continuum of postural responses. Hip torque without accompanying ankle torque (pure hip strategy) was not observed. Although postural control strategies have previously been defined by how the body moves, we conclude that joint torques, which indicate how body movements are produced, are useful in defining postural control strategies. These results also illustrate how the biomechanics of the body can transform discrete control

  7. Object-based attentional selection modulates anticipatory alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Knakker, Balázs; Weiss, Béla; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Visual cortical alpha oscillations are involved in attentional gating of incoming visual information. It has been shown that spatial and feature-based attentional selection result in increased alpha oscillations over the cortical regions representing sensory input originating from the unattended visual field and task-irrelevant visual features, respectively. However, whether attentional gating in the case of object based selection is also associated with alpha oscillations has not been investigated before. Here we measured anticipatory electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations while participants were cued to attend to foveal face or word stimuli, the processing of which is known to have right and left hemispheric lateralization, respectively. The results revealed that in the case of simultaneously displayed, overlapping face and word stimuli, attending to the words led to increased power of parieto-occipital alpha oscillations over the right hemisphere as compared to when faces were attended. This object category-specific modulation of the hemispheric lateralization of anticipatory alpha oscillations was maintained during sustained attentional selection of sequentially presented face and word stimuli. These results imply that in the case of object-based attentional selection-similarly to spatial and feature-based attention-gating of visual information processing might involve visual cortical alpha oscillations. PMID:25628554

  8. Individual Differences in Impulsivity Predict Anticipatory Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefèvre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology. PMID:22046334

  9. Anticipatory imagery ability in normal and language-disabled children.

    PubMed

    Savich, P A

    1984-12-01

    The literature on cognitive functioning of language-disabled children suggests that they exhibit specific disabilities in nonlinguistic as well as linguistic domains. These disabilities have been hypothesized to be related to deficits in cognitive representational ability. Anticipatory imagery and spatial representation have been reported as two nonlinguistic representational areas in which language-disordered children are deficient. The present study compared normal and language-disabled children on spatial representation tasks involving anticipatory imagery. Five spatial tasks were administered to two groups of 7 1/2-9 1/2-year-old children matched on sex, age, native language, and racial background. One group included 18 language-disabled children and the other group 18 children with normal language development. The language-disabled were less accurate than the normal children on all tasks which involved anticipation or prediction of mental rotations, movements, or other transformations. The results of this study suggest difficulty with dynamic cognitive representation in the linguistic and nonlinguistic deficits demonstrated by language-disabled children. PMID:6521455

  10. Anticipatory network models of multicriteria decision-making processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulimowski, Andrzej M. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we will investigate the properties of a compromise solution selection method based on modelling the consequences of a decision as factors influencing the decision making in subsequent problems. Specifically, we assume that the constraints and preference structures in the (k + 1)st multicriteria optimisation problem depend on the values of criteria in the k-th problem. To make a decision in the initial problem, the decision maker should take into account the anticipated outcomes of each linked future decision problem. This model can be extended to a network of linked decision problems, such that causal relations are defined between the time-ordered nodes. Multiple edges starting from a decision node correspond to different future scenarios of consequences at this node. In addition, we will define the relation of anticipatory feedback, assuming that some decision makers take into account the anticipated future consequences of their decisions described by a network of optimisers - a class of information processing units introduced in this article. Both relations (causal and anticipatory) form a feedback information model, which makes possible a selection of compromise solutions taking into account the anticipated consequences. We provide constructive algorithms to solve discrete multicriteria decision problems that admit the above preference information structure. An illustrative example is presented in Section 4. Various applications of the above model, including the construction of technology foresight scenarios, are discussed in the final section of this article.

  11. Anticipatory motor patterns limit muscle stretch during landing in toads.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Abbott, Emily M

    2013-02-23

    To safely land after a jump or hop, muscles must be actively stretched to dissipate mechanical energy. Muscles that dissipate energy can be damaged if stretched to long lengths. The likelihood of damage may be mitigated by the nervous system, if anticipatory activation of muscles prior to impact alters the muscle's operating length. Anticipatory motor recruitment is well established in landing studies and motor patterns have been shown to be modulated based on the perceived magnitude of the impact. In this study, we examine whether motor recruitment in anticipation of landing can serve a protective function by limiting maximum muscle length during a landing event. We use the anconeus muscle of toads, a landing muscle whose recruitment is modulated in anticipation of landing. We combine in vivo measurements of muscle length during landing with in vitro characterization of the force-length curve to determine the muscle's operating length. We show that muscle shortening prior to impact increases with increasing hop distance. This initial increase in muscle shortening functions to accommodate the larger stretches required when landing after long hops. These predictive motor strategies may function to reduce stretch-induced muscle damage by constraining maximum muscle length, despite variation in the magnitude of impact. PMID:23256184

  12. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

    PubMed Central

    Low, Phillip A.; Sandroni, Paola; Joyner, Michael; Shen, Win-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction POTS is defined as the development of orthostatic symptoms associated with a heart rate (HR) increment ≥30, usually to ≥120 bpm without orthostatic hypotension. Symptoms of orthostatic intolerance are those due to brain hypoperfusion and those due to sympathetic overaction. Methods We provide a review of POTS based primarily on work from the Mayo Clinic. Results Females predominate over males by 5:1. Mean age of onset in adults is about 30 years and most patients are between the ages of 20–40 years. Pathophysiologic mechanisms (not mutually exclusive) include peripheral denervation, hypovolemia, venous pooling, β-receptor supersensitivity, psychologic mechanisms, and presumed impairment of brain stem regulation. Prolonged deconditioning may also interact with these mechanisms to exacerbate symptoms. The evaluation of POTS requires a focused history and examination, followed by tests that should include HUT, some estimation of volume status and preferably some evaluation of peripheral denervation and hyperadrenergic state. All patients with POTS require a high salt diet, copious fluids, and postural training. Many require β-receptor antagonists in small doses and low-dose vasoconstrictors. Somatic hypervigilance and psychologic factors are involved in a significant proportion of patients. Conclusions POTS is heterogeneous in presentation and mechanisms. Major mechanisms are denervation, hypovolemia, deconditioning, and hyperadrenergic state. Most patients can benefit from a pathophysiologically based regimen of management. PMID:19207771

  13. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  14. A Telerehabilitation Program Improves Postural Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Spanish Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Rosa; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Galán-del-Río, Fernando; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Postural control disorders are among the most frequent motor disorder symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. This study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in postural control among patients with multiple sclerosis who complete a telerehabilitation program that represents a feasible alternative to physical therapy for situations in which conventional treatment is not available. Fifty patients were recruited. Control group (n = 25) received physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 min per session). Experimental group (n = 25) received monitored telerehabilitation treatment via videoconference using the Xbox 360® and Kinect console. Experimental group attended 40 sessions, four sessions per week (20 min per session).The treatment schedule lasted 10 weeks for both groups. A computerized dynamic posturography (Sensory Organization Test) was used to evaluate all patients at baseline and at the end of the treatment protocol. Results showed an improvement over general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information yielded significant differences in the experimental group. Our results demonstrated that a telerehabilitation program based on a virtual reality system allows one to optimize the sensory information processing and integration systems necessary to maintain the balance and postural control of people with multiple sclerosis. We suggest that our virtual reality program enables anticipatory PC and response mechanisms and might serve as a successful therapeutic alternative in situations in which conventional therapy is not readily available. PMID:24185843

  15. Postural threat influences conscious perception of postural sway.

    PubMed

    Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G

    2016-05-01

    This study examined how changes in threat influenced conscious perceptions of postural sway. Young healthy adults stood on a forceplate mounted to a hydraulic lift placed at two heights (0.8m and 3.2m). At each height, subjects stood quietly with eyes open and eyes closed for 60s. Subjects were instructed to either stand normal, or stand normal and track their perceived sway in the antero-posterior plane by rotating a hand-held potentiometer. Participants reported an increased level of fear, anxiety, arousal and a decreased level of balance confidence when standing at height. In addition, postural sway amplitude decreased and frequency increased at height. However, there were no effects of height on perceived sway. When standing under conditions of increased postural threat, sway amplitude is reduced, while sway perception appears to remain unchanged. Therefore, when threat is increased, sensory gain may be increased to compensate for postural strategies that reduce sway (i.e. stiffening strategy), thereby ensuring sufficient afferent information is available to maintain, or even increase the conscious perception of postural sway. PMID:27016388

  16. Vestibular humanoid postural control.

    PubMed

    Mergner, Thomas; Schweigart, Georg; Fennell, Luminous

    2009-01-01

    Many of our motor activities require stabilization against external disturbances. This especially applies to biped stance since it is inherently unstable. Disturbance compensation is mainly reactive, depending on sensory inputs and real-time sensor fusion. In humans, the vestibular system plays a major role. When there is no visual space reference, vestibular-loss clearly impairs stance stability. Most humanoid robots do not use a vestibular system, but stabilize upright body posture by means of center of pressure (COP) control. We here suggest using in addition a vestibular sensor and present a biologically inspired vestibular sensor along with a human-inspired stance control mechanism. We proceed in two steps. First, in an introductory review part, we report on relevant human sensors and their role in stance control, focusing on own models of transmitter fusion in the vestibular sensor and sensor fusion in stance control. In a second, experimental part, the models are used to construct an artificial vestibular system and to embed it into the stance control of a humanoid. The robot's performance is investigated using tilts of the support surface. The results are compared to those of humans. Functional significance of the vestibular sensor is highlighted by comparing vestibular-able with vestibular-loss states in robot and humans. We show that a kinematic body-space sensory feedback (vestibular) is advantageous over a kinetic one (force cues) for dynamic body-space balancing. Our embodiment of human sensorimotor control principles into a robot is more than just bionics. It inspired our biological work (neurorobotics: 'learning by building', proof of principle, and more). We envisage a future clinical use in the form of hardware-in-the-loop simulations of neurological symptoms for improving diagnosis and therapy and designing medical assistive devices. PMID:19665555

  17. Anticipatory grief among close relatives of persons with dementia in comparison with close relatives of patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Asa K; Sundh, Valter; Wijk, Helle; Grimby, Agneta

    2013-02-01

    Close relatives of persons with dementia self-reported reactions on the Anticipatory Grief Scale (AGS), were observed by nurses (Study I), and compared with relatives of cancer patients in a study using the same methodology (Study II). Study I showed an overall stressful situation including feelings of missing and longing, inability to accept the terminal fact, preoccupation with the ill, tearfulness, sleeping problems, anger, loneliness, and a need to talk. The ability to cope was, however, reported high. Self-assessments and nurses' observations did not always converge, e.g. for the acceptance of the illness. The reactions of the relatives in the dementia and the cancer groups showed more similarities than dissimilarities. However, the higher number of responding spouses in the cancer group may have influenced the outcome. PMID:22495791

  18. Toward Sustainable Anticipatory Governance: Analyzing and Assessing Nanotechnology Innovation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Rider Williams

    Cities around the globe struggle with socio-economic disparities, resource inefficiency, environmental contamination, and quality-of-life challenges. Technological innovation, as one prominent approach to problem solving, promises to address these challenges; yet, introducing new technologies, such as nanotechnology, into society and cities has often resulted in negative consequences. Recent research has conceptually linked anticipatory governance and sustainability science: to understand the role of technology in complex problems our societies face; to anticipate negative consequences of technological innovation; and to promote long-term oriented and responsible governance of technologies. This dissertation advances this link conceptually and empirically, focusing on nanotechnology and urban sustainability challenges. The guiding question for this dissertation research is: How can nanotechnology be innovated and governed in responsible ways and with sustainable outcomes? The dissertation: analyzes the nanotechnology innovation process from an actor- and activities-oriented perspective (Chapter 2); assesses this innovation process from a comprehensive perspective on sustainable governance (Chapter 3); constructs a small set of future scenarios to consider future implications of different nanotechnology governance models (Chapter 4); and appraises the amenability of sustainability problems to nanotechnological interventions (Chapter 5). The four studies are based on data collected through literature review, document analysis, participant observation, interviews, workshops, and walking audits, as part of process analysis, scenario construction, and technology assessment. Research was conducted in collaboration with representatives from industry, government agencies, and civic organizations. The empirical parts of the four studies focus on Metropolitan Phoenix. Findings suggest that: predefined mandates and economic goals dominate the nanotechnology innovation process

  19. Anticipatory guidance of parents of new infants: potential contribution of the internal working model construct.

    PubMed

    Pridham, K F

    1993-01-01

    Although anticipatory guidance for parents of young children has been well subscribed to as a clinical strategy for over half a century, it has little theoretical substance to guide its practice and to direct research that would develop and test the practice. The assumptions and definitions of the traditional practice of anticipatory guidance focus on providing information about what to expect and how to deal with unwanted or challenging events or conditions related to developmental or life change. In this paper, the potential contributions of social cognition theory, including the construct of internal working models, to the theory of anticipatory guidance are explored and implications of the revised theory are illustrated. PMID:8449531

  20. Distinguishing anticipation from causality: anticipatory bias in the estimation of information flow.

    PubMed

    Hahs, Daniel W; Pethel, Shawn D

    2011-09-16

    We report that transfer entropy estimates obtained from low-resolution and/or small data sets show net information flow away from a purely anticipatory element whereas transfer entropy calculated using exact distributions show the flow towards it. This means that for real-world data sets anticipatory elements can appear to be strongly driving the network dynamics even when there is no possibility of such an influence. Furthermore, we show that in the low-resolution limit there is no statistic that can distinguish anticipatory elements from causal ones. PMID:22026807

  1. Postural stabilization and balance assessment in Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1A subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lencioni, T.; Rabuffetti, M.; Piscosquito, G.; Pareyson, D.; Aiello, A.; Di Sipio, E.; Padua, L.; Stra, F.; Ferrarin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess postural stabilization skill in adult subjects affected by Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) type 1A. For this purpose ground reaction force (GRF) was measured by means of a piezoelectric force platform during the sit-to-stand (STS) movement, until a steady state erect posture was achieved. Specific indexes to quantify Centre of Mass acceleration, both during postural stabilization and during quiet standing, were computed using a mathematical model. Forty-seven CMT1A subjects were recruited for the study, and the control group was formed by forty-one age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The results show that CMT1A subjects are less stable than controls during the quiet stance. Greater difficulty (high values of Yinf, the final instability rate) to maintain erect posture appears to be mainly associated with plantar-flexor muscle weakness, rather than to damage of the proprioceptive system. The worst performances shown by CMT1A subjects in the stabilization phase (high values of I, the global index of postural stabilization performance) seem to be associated with reduced muscle strength and the loss of large sensory nerve fibres. Distal muscle weakness appears to affect both postural stabilization and quiet erect posture. The presented protocol and the analysis of postural stabilization parameters provide useful information on CMT1A balance disorders. PMID:25082324

  2. Postural stabilization and balance assessment in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A subjects.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, T; Rabuffetti, M; Piscosquito, G; Pareyson, D; Aiello, A; Di Sipio, E; Padua, L; Stra, F; Ferrarin, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess postural stabilization skill in adult subjects affected by Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 1A. For this purpose ground reaction force (GRF) was measured by means of a piezoelectric force platform during the sit-to-stand (STS) movement, until a steady state erect posture was achieved. Specific indexes to quantify Centre of Mass acceleration, both during postural stabilization and during quiet standing, were computed using a mathematical model. Forty-seven CMT1A subjects were recruited for the study, and the control group was formed by forty-one age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The results show that CMT1A subjects are less stable than controls during the quiet stance. Greater difficulty (high values of Yinf, the final instability rate) to maintain erect posture appears to be mainly associated with plantar-flexor muscle weakness, rather than to damage of the proprioceptive system. The worst performances shown by CMT1A subjects in the stabilization phase (high values of I, the global index of postural stabilization performance) seem to be associated with reduced muscle strength and the loss of large sensory nerve fibres. Distal muscle weakness appears to affect both postural stabilization and quiet erect posture. The presented protocol and the analysis of postural stabilization parameters provide useful information on CMT1A balance disorders. PMID:25082324

  3. Autonomy in anticipatory systems: Significance for functionality, intentionality and meaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, John D.

    1999-03-01

    Many anticipatory systems cannot in themselves act meaningfully or represent intentionally. This stems largely from the derivative nature of their functionality. All current artificial control systems, and many living systems such as organs and cellular parts of organisms derive any intentionality they might have from their designers or possessors. Derivative functionality requires reference to some external autonomously functional system, and derivative intentionality similarly requires reference to an external autonomous intentional system. The importance of autonomy can be summed up in the following slogan: No meaning without intention; no intention without function; no function without autonomy. This paper develops the role of autonomy to show how learning new tasks is facilitated by autonomy, and further by representational capacities that are functional for autonomy.

  4. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  5. Anticipatory effects of intonation: Eye movements during instructed visual search.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiwako; Speer, Shari R

    2008-02-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed pre-recorded instructions such as "Next, hang the blue ball" to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses of L+H* on the adjective noun pair (e.g. blue ball followed by GREEN ball vs. green BALL). Experiment 2 confirmed that L+H* on a contrastive adjective led to 'anticipatory' fixations, and demonstrated a "garden path" effect for infelicitous L+H* in sequences with no discourse contrast (e.g. blue angel followed by GREEN ball resulted in erroneous fixations to the cell of angels). Experiment 3 examined listeners' sensitivity to coherence between pitch accents assigned to discourse markers such as 'And then,' and those assigned to the target object noun phrase. PMID:19190719

  6. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  7. Automatic and Interactive Key Posture Design by Combing the PIK with Parametric Posture Splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shilei; Wu, Bing; Liang, Jiahong; Su, Jiongming

    Key posture design is commonly needed in computer animation. This paper presents an automatic and interactive whole body posture designing technique by combining the PIK (prioritized inverse kinematics) with the proposed parametric human posture splicing technique. The key feature of PIK is that the user can design a posture by adding high level constraints with different priorities. However, the PIK is essentially a numerical IK algorithm which relies on the iterative optimization starting from a good enough initial posture to get the final result. To speed up the running efficiency and ensure the lifelikeness of the final posture, the parametric posture splicing technique is proposed to generate the initial guess of the PIK. According to the set of the high level constraints, the whole body is divided into some partial parts, whose postures are then generated by the parametric posture synthesis from a single posture database. Then an initial posture guess with some main characteristics of the finally acceptable posture can be generated approximately by splicing these partial body postures together. Starting from this initial guess and with all constraints considered at different priority levels, the PIK can be initialized with a bias defined by this particularly initial guess and iterated step by step to get a final posture. The total process of the whole body posture generation is automatic and interactive. The experimental results show that this combination method can not only improve the computation efficiency of the PIK but also can simultaneously ensure the naturalness of the final posture.

  8. A Simple Postflight Measure of Postural Atania in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. I.; Kofman, I. S.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight universally present with postural ataxia. Throughout the Space Shuttle Program, measurement of ataxia has concentrated on sway in the anterior-posterior (AP) plane. The current investigation, as a part of a larger functional study, concentrated on characterizing postural instability using dynamic stabilographic sway patterns in both the AP and medial-lateral (ML) planes. To accomplish this goal, six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (ISS) flights were required to recover from a simulated fall. Subjects with eyes open, wearing running shoes lay prone on the floor for 2 minutes and then quickly stood up, maintained a quiet stance for 3 minutes, arms relaxed along the side of the body, and feet comfortably placed on the force plate. Crewmembers were tested twice before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. Anterior-posterior and ML center-of-pressure (COP) coordinates were calculated from the ground reaction forces collected at 500 Hz. The 3-minute quiet stance trial was broken into three 1-minute segments for stabilogram diffusion analysis. A mean sway speed (rate of change of COP displacement) was also calculated as an additional postural stability parameter. While there was considerable variation, most of crewmembers tested exhibited increased stochastic activity evidenced by larger short-term COP diffusion coefficients postflight in both the AP and ML planes, suggesting significant changes in postural control mechanisms, particularly control of lower limb muscle function. As expected, postural instability of ISS astronauts on the first day postflight was similar to that of Shuttle crewmembers on landing day. Recoveries of stochastic activity and mean sway speed to baseline levels were typically observed by the 30th day postflight for both long-duration and short-duration crewmembers. Dynamic postural stability characteristics obtained in this low

  9. Recognizing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Daniel; Agnew, Donna; Stiles, Lauren; Ditoro, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis, and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a potentially debilitating autonomic disorder that can have many causes and presentations. POTS can be mistaken for panic disorder, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinician suspicion for the syndrome is key to prompt patient diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26967958

  10. Nonstationary properties of postural sway.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J P; Freedman, W

    1993-01-01

    Postural sway during quite stance is usually assumed to be a stationary stochastic process. We tested this assumption by investigating the time invariance of the average value and variance of the postural sway of three subjects. The sway was measured with a force plate under three conditions: subject standing on two feet with eyes open; subject standing on two feet with eyes closed; and subject standing on one foot with eyes open. Data were collected in 1 min runs. More than 50 min of data were collected for each subject under each test condition. The data were averaged across all runs for each subject and condition. Trends were found to be present in the data. In addition, there were initial transient increases in the second-order moments about the trends. The transient changes in first- and second-order moments usually disappeared during the first 20 s. In light of these findings, we can reject the hypothesis that postural sway is a stationary process. The results imply that the usual methods to parameterize postural sway have to be either changed or reinterpreted. PMID:8478345

  11. Emotion and motivated behavior: postural adjustments to affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Rosengren, Karl S; Smith, Darin P

    2004-03-01

    Thirty-six participants (18 female, 18 male) viewed affective pictures to investigate the coupling between emotional reactions and motivated behavior. Framed within the biphasic theory of emotion, the three systems approach was employed by collecting measures of subjective report, expressive physiology, and motivated behavior. Postural adjustments associated with viewing affective pictures were measured. Results indicated sex-differences for postural responses to unpleasant pictures; an effect not found for pleasant and neutral picture contents. Females exhibited increased postural movement in the posterior direction, and males exhibited increased movement in the anterior direction, for unpleasant pictures. Subjective report of valence and arousal using the self-assessment manikin (SAM), and the startle eye-blink reflex were collected during a separate session, which replicated previous picture-viewing research. Specifically, participants rated pleasant pictures higher in valence and exhibited smaller startle responses compared to unpleasant pictures. Females also reported lower valence ratings compared to males across all picture contents. These findings extend our knowledge of motivated engagement with affective stimuli and indicate that postural responses may provide insight into sex-related differences in withdrawal behavior. PMID:15019170

  12. Anticipatory processes under academic stress: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Yang, Can; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that preparing for and taking high-stakes exams has a significant influence on the emotional and physiological wellbeing of exam-takers, but few studies have investigated the resulting cognitive changes. The current study examined the effect of examination-induced academic stress on anticipation in information processing. Anticipation was indexed using the contingent negative variation (CNV). Electroencephalograms (EEG) were collected from 42 participants using the classic S1-S2 paradigm. These participants were preparing for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE). EEGs were also collected from 21 age-matched, non-exam comparison participants. The levels of perceived stress and state anxiety were higher and both the initial CNV (iCNV) and the late CNV (lCNV) were more negative in the exam group than in the non-exam group. These results suggest that participants under academic stress experienced greater anticipation of upcoming events. More important, for the non-exam group, state anxiety was positively related to both the iCNV and lCNV amplitude, and this correlation existed when trait anxiety was controlled; however, there was no such relationship in the exam group. These results suggested that the cortical anticipatory activity in the high-stressed exam group reached the maximum ceiling, leaving little room for transient increases in state anxiety. PMID:25659936

  13. Perception-action coupling and anticipatory performance in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Carlton, Les G

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined 10 expert and 10 novice baseball batters' ability to distinguish between a fastball and a change-up in a virtual environment. They used 2 different response modes: (a) an uncoupled response in which the batters verbally predicted the type of pitch and (b) a coupled response in which the batters swung a baseball bat to try and hit the virtual ball. The authors manipulated visual information from the pitcher and ball in 6 visual conditions. The batters were more accurate in predicting the type of pitch when the response was uncoupled. In coupled responses, experts were better able to use the first 100 ms of ball flight independently of the pitcher's kinematics. In addition, the skilled batters' stepping patterns were related to the pitcher's kinematics, whereas their swing time was related to ball speed. Those findings suggest that specific task requirements determine whether a highly coupled perception-action environment improves anticipatory performance. The authors also highlight the need for research on interceptive actions to be conducted in the performer's natural environment. PMID:17827114

  14. Feasibility of an anticipatory noncontact precrash restraint actuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The problem of providing an electronic warning of an impending crash to a precrash restraint system a fraction of a second before physical contact differs from more widely explored problems, such as providing several seconds of crash warning to a driver. One approach to precrash restraint sensing is to apply anticipatory system theory. This consists of nested simplified models of the system to be controlled and of the system`s environment. It requires sensory information to describe the ``current state`` of the system and the environment. The models use the sensory data to make a faster-than-real-time prediction about the near future. Anticipation theory is well founded but rarely used. A major problem is to extract real-time current-state information from inexpensive sensors. Providing current-state information to the nested models is the weakest element of the system. Therefore, sensors and real-time processing of sensor signals command the most attention in an assessment of system feasibility. This paper describes problem definition, potential ``showstoppers,`` and ways to overcome them. It includes experiments showing that inexpensive radar is a practical sensing element. It considers fast and inexpensive algorithms to extract information from sensor data.

  15. Relation of Obesity to Consummatory and Anticipatory Food Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Ng, Janet; Zald, David H.

    2009-01-01

    This report reviews findings from studies that have investigated whether abnormalities in reward from food intake and anticipated food intake increase risk for obesity. Self-report and behavioral data suggest that obese relative to lean individuals show elevated anticipatory and consumatory food reward. Brain imaging studies suggest that obese relative to lean individuals show greater activation of the gustatory cortex (insula/frontal operculum) and oral somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake and consumption of palatable foods. Yet, data also suggest that obese relative to lean individuals show less activation in the dorsal striatum in response to consumption of palatable foods and reduced striatal D2 dopamine receptor density. Emerging prospective data also suggest that abnormal activation in these brain regions increases risk for future weight gain and that genotypes associated with lowered dopamine signaling amplify these predictive effects. Results imply that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating, particularly those at genetic risk for lowered dopamine receptor signaling. PMID:19328819

  16. INFLUENCE OF INJURY ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL IN RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Klusendorf, Anna; Kernozek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Injury has been linked with altered postural control in active populations. The association between running injury and dynamic postural control has not been examined. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural control in injured and uninjured runners using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Time to Stabilization (TTS) of ground reaction forces following a single-leg landing, and postural stability indices reflecting the fluctuations in GRFs during single-leg landing and stabilization tasks (forward and lateral hop). It was hypothesized that dynamic postural control differences would exist between runners with a history of injury that interrupted training for ≥7 days (INJ) when compared to runners without injury (CON). Design Case-control study Methods Twenty-two INJ (14 F, 8 M; 23.7 ± 2.1 y; 22.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 29.5 ± 16.3 mi/wk) currently running > 50% pre-injury mileage without pain were compared with twenty-two matched CON (14F, 8M; 22.7 ± 1.2 y; 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; 31.2 ± 19.6 mi/wk). INJ group was stratified by site of injury into two groups (Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower Leg/Ankle/Foot) for secondary analysis. Leg length-normalized anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial reach distances on the SEBT, medial/lateral and anterior/posterior ground reaction force TTS, directional postural stability indices, and a composite dynamic postural stability index (DPSI), were assessed using mixed model ANOVA (α=0.05) and effect sizes (d). Results No group X direction interaction or group differences were observed for the SEBT (p=0.51, 0.71) or TTS (p=0.83, 0.72) measures. A group X direction interaction was found for postural stability indices during the forward landing task (p<0.01). Both Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower leg/Ankle/Foot INJ groups demonstrated a greater vertical postural stability index (VPSI) (p=0.01 for both, d=0.80, 0.95) and DPSI (p=0.01, 0.02, d=0.75, 0.93) when

  17. The visual control of stability in children and adults: postural readjustments in a ground optical flow.

    PubMed

    Baumberger, Bernard; Isableu, Brice; Flückiger, Michelangelo

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse the development of postural reactions to approaching (AOF) and receding (ROF) ground rectilinear optical flows. Optical flows were shaped by a pattern of circular spots of light projected on the ground surface by a texture flow generator. The geometrical structure of the projected scenes corresponded to the spatial organisation of visual flows encountered in open outdoor settings. Postural readjustments of 56 children, ranging from 7 to 11 years old, and 12 adults were recorded by the changes of the centre of foot pressure (CoP) on a force platform during 44-s exposures to the moving texture. Before and after the optical flows exposure, a 24-s motionless texture served as a reference condition. Effect of ground rectilinear optical flows on postural control development was assessed by analysing sway latencies (SL), stability performances and postural orientation. The main results that emerge from this experiment show that postural responses are directionally specific to optical flow pattern and that they vary as a function of the motion onset and offset. Results showed that greater developmental changes in postural control occurred in an AOF (both at the onset and offset of the optical flow) than in an ROF. Onset of an approaching flow induced postural instability, canonical shifts in postural orientation and long latencies in children which were stronger than in the receding flow. This pattern of responses evolved with age towards an improvement in stability performances and shorter SL. The backward decreasing shift of the CoP in children evolved in adults towards forward postural tilt, i.show $132#e. in the opposite direction of the texture's motion. Offset of an AOF motion induced very short SL in children (which became longer in adult subjects), strong postural instability, but weaker shift of orientation compared to the receding one. Postural stability improved and orientation shift evolved to forward inclinations with

  18. The Steps to Perfect Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Many people have memories of being told to "stop slouching" while seated at the piano bench. But the reality is that good piano posture is not as simple as bolting upright on the bench when the teacher barks. According to Eric Sutz, a Chicago-area piano teacher and performer, one should see a natural curve in his/her lower lumbar area and should…

  19. Effects of adiposity on postural control and cognition.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao; O'Connor, Daniel P; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., it is estimated that over one-third of adults are obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)>30kg/m(2)). Previous studies suggest that obesity may be associated with deficits in cognitive performance and postural control. Increased BMI may challenge cognitive and postural performance in a variety of populations; however, most relevant studies have classified participants based on BMI values, which cannot be used to accurately assess the effects of adiposity on cognitive performance and postural control. The objective of the current study was to examine motor and cognitive responses for overweight and obese adults compared to normal weight individuals by using both BMI and adiposity measures. Ten normal weight (BMI=18-24.9kg/m(2)), ten overweight (BMI=25-29.9kg/m(2)), and ten obese (BMI=30-40kg/m(2)) adults were evaluated (age: 24±4 years). Participants were classified into three groups based on BMI values at the onset of the study, prior to body composition analysis. Participants performed (1) working memory task while maintaining upright stance, and (2) a battery of sensorimotor evaluations. Working memory reaction times, response accuracy, center-of-pressure (COP) path length, velocity, migration area, time to boundary values in anterior-posterior direction, and ankle-hip strategy-scores were calculated to evaluate cognitive-motor performance. No significant deficits in working memory performance were observed. Overall, measures of motor function deteriorated as BMI and body fat percentage increased. The relationship between deteriorating postural performance indices and body fat percentage were greater than those found between BMI and postural performance indices. PMID:26669948

  20. Static and dynamic visual cues in feed-forward postural control.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sambit; Aruin, Alexander S

    2013-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) play an important role in the performance of many activities requiring the maintenance of vertical posture. However, little is known about how variation in the available visual information affects generation of APAs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different visual cues on APAs. Ten healthy young subjects were exposed to external perturbations induced at the shoulder level in standing while the level of visual information about the forthcoming perturbation was varied. The external perturbations were provided by an aluminum pendulum attached to the ceiling. The visual conditions were (1) dynamic cues (full vision and high-frequency strobe light), (2) static cues (low-frequency strobe light) and (3) no cues (eyes open in dark room). Electrical activity of the trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure displacements were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical for APAs. The results showed that significantly larger APAs were generated in conditions with dynamic visual cues as compared to the conditions with static cues (p < 0.05). Finally, no APAs were observed in the condition where there was complete absence of any visual cues. Principal component analysis further revealed different muscle coupling patterns in the full vision and high-frequency strobe light conditions. These findings suggest the importance of using appropriate visual cues in the generation of APAs. PMID:23064846

  1. Articulatory constraints on interpersonal postural coordination.

    PubMed

    Shockley, Kevin; Baker, Aimee A; Richardson, Michael J; Fowler, Carol A

    2007-02-01

    Cooperative conversation has been shown to foster interpersonal postural coordination. The authors investigated whether such coordination is mediated by the influence of articulation on postural sway. In Experiment 1, talkers produced words in synchrony or in alternation, as the authors varied speaking rate and word similarity. Greater shared postural activity was found for the faster speaking rate. In Experiment 2, the authors demonstrated that shared postural activity also increases when individuals speak the same words or speak words that have similar stress patterns. However, this increase in shared postural activity is present only when participants' data are compared with those of their partner, who was present during the task, but not when compared with the data of a member of a different pair speaking the same word sequences as those of the original partner. The authors' findings suggest that interpersonal postural coordination observed during conversation is mediated by convergent speaking patterns. PMID:17311488

  2. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  3. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. PMID:26118530

  4. The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J. R.; Robertson, R. M.; Wathen, M.; Stein, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A.; Black, B.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS: We measured norepinephrine spillover (the rate of entry of norepinephrine into the venous circulation) in the arms and legs both before and in response to exposure to three stimuli (the cold pressor test, sodium nitroprusside infusion, and tyramine infusion) in 10 patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome and in 8 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS: At base line, the mean (+/-SD) plasma norepinephrine concentration in the femoral vein was lower in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (135+/-30 vs. 215+/-55 pg per milliliter [0.80+/-0.18 vs. 1.27+/-0.32 nmol per liter], P=0.001). Norepinephrine spillover in the arms increased to a similar extent in the two groups in response to each of the three stimuli, but the increases in the legs were smaller in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (0.001+/-0.09 vs. 0.12+/-0.12 ng per minute per deciliter of tissue [0.006+/-0.53 vs. 0.71+/-0.71 nmol per minute per deciliter] with the cold pressor test, P=0.02; 0.02+/-0.07 vs. 0.23+/-0.17 ng per minute per deciliter [0.12+/-0.41 vs. 1.36+/-1.00 nmol per minute per deciliter] with nitroprusside infusion, P=0.01; and 0.008+/-0.09 vs. 0.19+/-0.25 ng per minute per deciliter [0.05+/-0.53 vs. 1.12+/-1.47 nmol per minute per deciliter] with tyramine infusion, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome results from partial sympathetic denervation, especially in the legs.

  5. Striatal-limbic activation is associated with intensity of anticipatory anxiety.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyu; Spence, Jeffrey S; Devous, Michael D; Briggs, Richard W; Goyal, Aman; Xiao, Hong; Yadav, Hardik; Adinoff, Bryon

    2012-11-30

    Anxiety experienced in anticipation of impending aversive events induces striatal-limbic activation. However, previous functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies of anticipatory anxiety have utilized post-test measures of anxiety, making a direct association between neural activation and distress problematic. This paradigm was designed to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to an aversive conditioned stimulus while simultaneously measuring subjective anxiety. Fifteen male healthy subjects (45.5±8.5 years old) were studied. A high-threat conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with either an unpredictable, highly aversive (painful) or non-aversive (non-painful) unconditioned stimulus and compared to a low-threat CS paired with a predictable, non-aversive stimulus. Neural response was assessed with fMRI, and subjective anxiety (1-4) was recorded upon the presentation of each CS. High subjective ratings of real-time anticipatory anxiety (2-4), relative to low anticipatory anxiety (1), elicited increased activation in the bilateral striatum, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, left anterior insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The amplitude of BOLD signal change generally paralleled the subjective rating of anxiety. Real-time measures of anticipatory anxiety confirm previous reports, using post-test measures of anxiety, of striatal-limbic activation during anticipatory anxiety while simultaneously demonstrating an increase in BOLD response in parallel with heightened anxiety. PMID:23137803

  6. Sex differences in the use of anticipatory brain activity to encode emotional events.

    PubMed

    Galli, Giulia; Wolpe, Noham; Otten, Leun J

    2011-08-24

    Women and men differ in the way they experience emotional events. Previous work has indicated that the impact of an emotional event depends on how it is anticipated. Separately, it has been shown that anticipation affects memory formation. Here, we assessed whether anticipatory brain activity influences the encoding of emotional events into long-term memory and, in addition, how biological sex affects the use of such activity. Electrical brain activity was recorded from the scalps of healthy men and women while they performed an incidental encoding task (indoor/outdoor judgments) on pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Pictures were preceded by a cue that indicated the valence of the upcoming item. Memory was tested after a 20 min delay with a recognition task incorporating the remember/know procedure. Brain activity before picture onset predicted later memory of an event. Crucially, the role of anticipatory activity depended entirely on the valence of a picture and the sex of an individual. Right-lateralized anticipatory activity selectively influenced the encoding of unpleasant pictures in women, but not in men. These findings indicate that anticipatory processes influence the way in which women encode negative events into memory. The selective use of such activity may indicate that anticipatory activity is one mechanism by which individuals regulate their emotions. PMID:21865478

  7. Striatal-Limbic Activation is Associated with Intensity of Anticipatory Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongyu; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Devous, Michael D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Goyal, Aman; Xiao, Hong; Yadav, Hardik; Adinoff, Bryon

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety experienced in anticipation of impending aversive events induces striatal-limbic activation. However, previous functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies of anticipatory anxiety have utilized post-test measures of anxiety, making a direct association between neural activation and distress problematic. This paradigm was designed to assess the BOLD response to an aversive conditioned stimulus while simultaneously measuring subjective anxiety. Fifteen male healthy subjects (45.5±8.5 years old) were studied. A high threat conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with either an unpredictable, highly aversive (painful) or a non-aversive (non-painful) unconditioned stimulus and compared to a low threat CS paired with a predictable, non-aversive stimulus. Neural response was assessed with fMRI, and subjective anxiety (1 to 4) was recorded upon the presentation of each CS. High subjective ratings of real-time anticipatory anxiety (2, 3, and 4), relative to low anticipatory anxiety (1), elicited increased activation in the bilateral striatum, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, left anterior insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The amplitude of BOLD signal change generally paralleled the subjective rating of anxiety. Real-time measures of anticipatory anxiety confirm previous reports, using post-test measures of anxiety, of striatal-limbic activation during anticipatory anxiety while simultaneously demonstrating an increase in BOLD response in parallel with heightened anxiety. PMID:23137803

  8. Dynamic Control of Posture Across Locomotor Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Earhart, Gammon M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful locomotion depends on postural control to establish and maintain appropriate postural orientation of body segments relative to one another and to the environment, and to ensure dynamic stability of the moving body. This paper provides a framework for considering dynamic postural control, highlighting the importance of coordination, consistency, and challenges to postural control posed by various locomotor tasks such as turning and backward walking. The impacts of aging and various movement disorders on postural control are discussed broadly in an effort to provide a general overview of the field and recommendations for assessment of dynamic postural control across different populations in both clinical and research settings. Suggestions for future research on dynamic postural control during locomotion are also provided and include discussion of opportunities afforded by new and developing technologies, the need for long-term monitoring of locomotor performance in everyday activities, gaps in our knowledge of how targeted intervention approaches modify dynamic postural control, and the relative paucity of literature regarding dynamic postural control in movement disorder populations other than Parkinson disease. PMID:24132838

  9. Preparing Children for Court: Effects of a Model Court Education Program on Children's Anticipatory Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Rebecca; Saywitz, Karen J

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined whether a pretrial preparation program, consisting of legal knowledge education, stress inoculation training, and a mock trial, is associated with decreased anticipatory anxiety of child witnesses. One hundred and ninety-three 4- to 17-year-olds who were awaiting impending legal proceedings attended Kids' Court School in Las Vegas, NV, one to two weeks before their court appearances. Participants completed a measure of anticipatory court-related anxiety before and after the intervention. As predicted, children's anticipatory anxiety decreased significantly from pretest to posttest. Results demonstrate the promise of a brief, unbiased, standardized program for reducing system-induced stress on child witnesses, while maintaining the integrity of the legal process. This study serves as a springboard to guide future research, practice, policy, and implementation on a larger scale. PMID:26294383

  10. Anticipatory lip gestures: a validation of the Movement Expansion Model in congenitally blind speakers.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Cathiard, Marie-Agnès; Dupont, Sophie; Tiede, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, anticipatory co-articulation of the lip protrusion and constriction gestures is investigated in speakers with visual deprivation. Audio-visual recordings of 11 congenitally blind French speakers producing [V-roundC-roundV+round] sequences were measured with a lip shape tracking system. Lip protrusion and constriction values and their relative timings were analyzed. Results show that despite the reduced magnitude of lip protrusion and constriction area in blind speakers, the timing of the anticipatory gestures can be appropriately modeled by the Movement Expansion Model [from Abry and Lallouache (1995a). Bul. de la Comm. Parlée 3, 85-99; (1995b). Proceedings of ICPHS, pp. 152-155; Noiray et al. (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 340-349], which predicts lawful anticipatory behavior expanding linearly as the intervocalic consonant interval increases. PMID:23556687

  11. Data Structures in Natural Computing: Databases as Weak or Strong Anticipatory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, B. N.; Heather, M. A.

    2004-08-01

    Information systems anticipate the real world. Classical databases store, organise and search collections of data of that real world but only as weak anticipatory information systems. This is because of the reductionism and normalisation needed to map the structuralism of natural data on to idealised machines with von Neumann architectures consisting of fixed instructions. Category theory developed as a formalism to explore the theoretical concept of naturality shows that methods like sketches arising from graph theory as only non-natural models of naturality cannot capture real-world structures for strong anticipatory information systems. Databases need a schema of the natural world. Natural computing databases need the schema itself to be also natural. Natural computing methods including neural computers, evolutionary automata, molecular and nanocomputing and quantum computation have the potential to be strong. At present they are mainly at the stage of weak anticipatory systems.

  12. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  13. Elevation of 2-AG by monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition in the visceral insular cortex interferes with anticipatory nausea in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Limebeer, Cheryl L; Rock, Erin M; Puvanenthirarajah, Nirushan; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parker, Linda A

    2016-04-01

    Anticipatory nausea (AN) is a conditioned nausea reaction experienced by chemotherapy patients upon returning to the clinic. Currently, there are no specific treatments for this phenomenon, with the classic antiemetic treatments (e.g., ondansetron) providing no relief. The rat model of AN, contextually elicited conditioned gaping reactions in rats, provides a tool for assessing potential treatments for this difficult to treat disorder. Systemically administered drugs which elevate the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), by interfering with their respective degrading enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL) interfere with AN in the rat model. We have shown that MAGL inhibition within the visceral insular cortex (VIC) interferes with acute nausea in the gaping model (Sticht et al., 2015). Here we report that bilateral infusion of the MAGL inhibitor, MJN110 (but neither the FAAH inhibitor, PF3845, nor ondansetron) into the VIC suppressed contextually elicited conditioned gaping, and this effect was reversed by coadministration of the CB1 antagonist, AM251. These findings suggest that 2-AG within the VIC plays a critical role in the regulation of both acute nausea and AN. Because there are currently no specific therapeutics for chemotherapy patients that develop anticipatory nausea, MAGL inhibition by MJN110 may be a candidate treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974857

  14. [Postural examination in daily occlusodontology].

    PubMed

    Serviere, F

    1989-03-01

    According to the osteopathic and chiropractic concepts, facing a TMJ problem, the practitioner has to determine if the trouble observed in the stomatognatic apparatus is the cause or the effect of the structural problems present anywhere else in the body. The postural examination allows to answer this question. Tow techniques can be used. First a static and dynamic posture test proposed by Bricot. The level of the cranium, the eyes, the shoulders, the wrists, the pelvis and the ankles is analysed, from a front view; from the side, the gravity line is inspected: vertex, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip joint, anterior side of the tibia, ankle joint. The vertical posture can be studied from the front: the arms are held straight and the antero-posterior length between the fingers is measured. From the back, one notes the recoil of the buttocks on one side. An ocular convergence test is performed. Then one uses a Romberg test (oscillation of the body when the eyes are closed), and a Fukuda stepping test. The patient is then asked to bite on a compress, and the same exams are redone. If no change occurs, we are dealing with an ascending problem: the origin of the problem is not the stomatognathic system. The second technique is the Meerssemann test that needs the practice of Applied Kinesiology muscle testing. The patient is lying supine and one tests: the dental occlusion, the two TMJs, the temporal muscles, masseters, pterygoids, sterno-cleido-mastoids, upper tapezius, left and right sacro-iliac joints, psoas muscles bilaterally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2636023

  15. Individuals with chronic ankle instability compensate for their ankle deficits using proximal musculature to maintain reduced postural sway while kicking a ball.

    PubMed

    Rios, Jaqueline Lourdes; Gorges, Ana Luiza; dos Santos, Marcio José

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate anticipatory (APA), simultaneous (SPA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI) as they kicked a ball while standing in a single-leg stance on a stable and unstable surface. Electromyographic activity (EMG) of postural muscles and center of pressure (COP) displacements were calculated and their magnitudes analyzed during the postural adjustment intervals. Additionally, the COP area of sway was calculated over the duration of the whole task. The activities of postural muscles were also studied using principal component analysis (PCA) to identify between-group differences in patterns of muscle activation. The individuals with CAI showed reduced magnitude of EMG at the muscles around the ankle while around the hip the activity was increased. These were associated with a reduction in balance sway across the entire task, as compared with the control group. The PCA revealed that CAI participants assemble different sets of muscle activation to compensate for their ankle instability, primarily activating hip/spine muscles. These results set up potential investigations to examine whether balance control interventions enhance these adaptations or revert them to a normal pattern as well as if any of these changes proactively address recurrent ankle sprain conditions. PMID:26189152

  16. Predicting the unpredictable: critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Tressoldi, Patrizio; Utts, Jessica; Ives, John A.; Radin, Dean; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of experiments from seven independent laboratories (n = 26) indicates that the human body can apparently detect randomly delivered stimuli occurring 1–10 s in the future (Mossbridge etal., 2012). The key observation in these studies is that human physiology appears to be able to distinguish between unpredictable dichotomous future stimuli, such as emotional vs. neutral images or sound vs. silence. This phenomenon has been called presentiment (as in “feeling the future”). In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity (PAA). The phenomenon is “predictive” because it can distinguish between upcoming stimuli; it is “anticipatory” because the physiological changes occur before a future event; and it is an “activity” because it involves changes in the cardiopulmonary, skin, and/or nervous systems. PAA is an unconscious phenomenon that seems to be a time-reversed reflection of the usual physiological response to a stimulus. It appears to resemble precognition (consciously knowing something is going to happen before it does), but PAA specifically refers to unconscious physiological reactions as opposed to conscious premonitions. Though it is possible that PAA underlies the conscious experience of precognition, experiments testing this idea have not produced clear results. The first part of this paper reviews the evidence for PAA and examines the two most difficult challenges for obtaining valid evidence for it: expectation bias and multiple analyses. The second part speculates on possible mechanisms and the theoretical implications of PAA for understanding physiology and consciousness. The third part examines potential practical applications. PMID:24723870

  17. Anticipatory visual perception as a bio-inspired mechanism underlying robot locomotion.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Alejandra; Laschi, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Anticipation of sensory consequences of actions is critical for the predictive control of movement that explains most of our sensory-motor behaviors. Plenty of neuroscientific studies in humans suggest evidence of anticipatory mechanisms based on internal models. Several robotic implementations of predictive behaviors have been inspired on those biological mechanisms in order to achieve adaptive agents. This paper provides an overview of such neuroscientific and robotic evidences; a high-level architecture of sensory-motor coordination based on anticipatory visual perception and internal models is then introduced; and finally, the paper concludes by discussing the relevance of the proposed architecture within the context of current research in humanoid robotics. PMID:21096813

  18. Measuring Regularity of Human Postural Sway Using Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Cimolin, Veronica; Camerota, Filippo; Celletti, Claudia; Albertini, Giorgio; Mainardi, Luca; Galli, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Ligament laxity in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT) patients can influence the intrinsic information about posture and movement and can have a negative effect on the appropriateness of postural reactions. Several measures have been proposed in literature to describe the planar migration of CoP over the base of support, and the…

  19. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  20. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  1. Variations in Writing Posture and Cerebral Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jerre; Reid, Marylou

    1976-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between hand writing posture and cerebral dominance of 48 left handed writers and 25 right handed writers. Determined that cerebral dominance is related to handedness and to whether or not the writing hand posture is normal or inverted. (SL)

  2. Articulatory Constraints on Interpersonal Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kevin; Baker, Aimee A.; Richardson, Michael J.; Fowler, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative conversation has been shown to foster interpersonal postural coordination. The authors investigated whether such coordination is mediated by the influence of articulation on postural sway. In Experiment 1, talkers produced words in synchrony or in alternation, as the authors varied speaking rate and word similarity. Greater shared…

  3. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  4. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  5. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  6. Hypnosis for the Management of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Kravits, Kathy G.

    2015-01-01

    CASE STUDYBJ is a 34-year-old woman who was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She was treated with surgical removal of the primary tumor and sentinel node biopsy. Following surgery, she received chemotherapy. She was given antiemetic therapy prior to and immediately following chemotherapy. She began to experience significant and persistent nausea with intermittent episodes of vomiting after the second cycle of chemotherapy. She completed her chemotherapy but still experienced nausea and vomiting in response to several cues, such as smelling food cooking and going to the hospital. Her nausea and vomiting resulted in segregation from her family during meal time, which negatively impacted her quality of life. A hypnosis consultation was requested, and BJ was cooperative. She reported feeling very nauseated at the time of the interview. Hypnosis was discussed; her questions were answered, and the potential risks and benefits of hypnosis were reviewed. She agreed that she would like to try hypnosis. A hypnosis assessment was conducted and revealed that she had a history of profound motion sickness and severe, chronic childhood trauma associated with feelings of anxiety and hypervigilance. The therapeutic suggestions that were used with BJ included hypnotic suggestions for relaxation and removal of discomfort. A metaphor describing the central processing of the anticipatory nausea and vomiting as a thermostat that could be adjusted to reduce and eliminate the sensation was used to suggest that she could control her perceptions and in turn control the nausea. Posthypnotic suggestions included that at the earliest awareness of discomfort, rubbing the throat would eliminate that discomfort, and cooking aromas would be transformed into her favorite fragrance. Reversal went smoothly, and BJ reported satisfaction with the experience. BJ experienced significant reduction in symptoms after the first session. She had two more sessions, at which time she was able to eat

  7. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N.; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G.; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  8. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  9. The interplay between speed, kinetics, and hand postures during primate terrestrial locomotion.

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A

    2010-02-01

    Nonprimate terrestrial mammals may use digitigrade postures to help moderate distal limb joint moments and metapodial stresses that may arise during high-speed locomotion with high-ground reaction forces (GRF). This study evaluates the relationships between speed, GRFs, and distal forelimb kinematics in order to evaluate if primates also adopt digitigrade hand postures during terrestrial locomotion for these same reasons. Three cercopithecine monkey species (Papio anubis, Macaca mulatta, Erythrocebus patas) were videotaped moving unrestrained along a horizontal runway instrumented with a force platform. Three-dimensional forelimb kinematics and GRFs were measured when the vertical force component reached its peak. Hand posture was measured as the angle between the metacarpal segment and the ground (MGA). As predicted, digitigrade hand postures (larger MGA) are associated with shorter GRF moment arms and lower wrist joint moments. Contrary to expectations, individuals used more palmigrade-like (i.e. less digitigrade) hand postures (smaller MGA) when the forelimb was subjected to higher forces (at faster speeds) resulting in potentially larger wrist joint moments. Accordingly, these primates may not use their ability to alter their hand postures to reduce rising joint moments at faster speeds. Digitigrady at slow speeds may improve the mechanical advantage of antigravity muscles crossing the wrist joint. At faster speeds, greater palmigrady is likely caused by joint collapse, but this posture may be suited to distribute higher GRFs over a larger surface area to lower stresses throughout the hand. Thus, a digitigrade hand posture is not a cursorial (i.e. high speed) adaptation in primates and differs from that of other mammals. PMID:19639641

  10. Vestibular plasticity following orbital spaceflight: recovery from postflight postural instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.; Doxey-Gasway, D. D.; Reschke, M. F.

    1995-01-01

    Results of previous studies suggested that the vestibular mediated postural instability observed in astronauts upon return to earth from orbital spaceflight may be exacerbated by an increased weighting of visual inputs for spatial orientation and control of movement. This study was performed to better understand the roles of visual and somatosensory contributions to recovery of normal sensori-motor postural control in returning astronauts. Preflight and postflight, 23 astronaut volunteers were presented randomly with three trials of six sensory organization test (SOT) conditions in the EquiTest system test battery. Sagittal plane center-of-gravity (COG) excursions computed from ground reaction forces were significantly higher on landing day than preflight for those test conditions presenting sway-referenced visual and/or somatosensory orientation cues. The ratio of summed peak-to-peak COG sway amplitudes on the two sway-referenced vision tests (SOTs 3 + 6) compared to the two eyes closed tests (SOTs 2 + 5) was increased on landing day, indicating an increased reliance on visual orientation cues for postural control. The ratio of peak-to-peak COG excursions on sway-referenced surfaces (SOTs 4, 5 & 6) to an earth fixed support surfaces (SOTs 1, 2 & 3) increased even more after landing suggesting primary reliance on somatosensory orientation cues for recovery of postflight postural stability. Readaptation to sway-referenced support surfaces took longer than readaptation to sway-referenced vision. The increased reliance on visual and somatosensory inputs disappeared in all astronauts 4-8 days following return to earth.

  11. Adolescents' Conceptions of Work: What Is Learned from Different Sources during Anticipatory Socialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Hoffner, Cynthia A.

    2006-01-01

    Anticipatory socialization is the process of gaining knowledge about work that begins in early childhood and continues until entering the workplace full-time. On self-administered questionnaires, 64 high school students answered open-ended questions about what they have learned about work from five sources: parents, educational institutions,…

  12. The Integrity of Anticipatory Coarticulation in Fluent and Non-Fluent Tokens of Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Harvey M.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Guitar, Barry

    2011-01-01

    This article analysed the acoustic structure of voiced stop ++ vowel sequences in a group of persons who stutter (PWS). This phonetic unit was chosen because successful production is highly dependent on the differential tweaking of right-to-left anticipatory coarticulation as a function of stop place. Thus, essential elements of both speech motor…

  13. Participatory and Anticipatory Stages of Mathematical Concept Learning: Further Empirical and Theoretical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora; Avitzur, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Tzur and Simon (2004) postulated 2 stages of development in learning a mathematical concept: participatory and anticipatory. The authors discuss the affordances for research of this stage distinction related to data analysis, task design, and assessment as demonstrated in a 2-year teaching experiment.

  14. The Impact of Anticipatory Grief on Caregiver Burden in Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Caitlin K.; Mast, Benjamin T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Interest in anticipatory grief (AG) has typically focused on terminal diseases such as cancer. However, the issues involved in AG are unique in the context of dementia due to the progressive deterioration of both cognitive and physical abilities. The current study investigated the nature of AG in a sample of dementia caregivers and…

  15. Searching for behavioral indicators of welfare in zoos: uncovering anticipatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V

    2014-01-01

    A current focus of zoo-based research aims to identify indicators of animal welfare. Reliable behavioral indicators of welfare are highly desirable as behavioral observation is non invasive and requires little in the way of specialized equipment and other costly resources-save for observer time. Anticipatory behavior is an indicator of an animal's sensitivity to reward and as such, it is a real-time indicator of animals' own perceptions of their well-being. In fact, anticipatory behavior may generate a positive affective state and thus be at least a brief manifestation of good welfare itself. The husbandry conditions of most captive animals are such that food acquisition and other positive outcomes are highly scheduled and easily signaled. These conditions promote the development of anticipatory behavior, yet little research has either documented or interpreted this behavior in zoo and aquarium animals. This commentary suggests that anticipatory behavior could be a useful tool for assessing welfare and calls upon zoo and aquarium researchers to begin to develop this tool by describing the behavior and the circumstances that lead to its modulation. PMID:25042907

  16. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Black, F. O.; Doxey, D. D.; Harm, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Decreased postural stability is observed in most astronauts immediately following spaceflight. Because ataxia may present postflight operational hazards, it is important to determine the incidence of postural instability immediately following landing and the dynamics of recovery of normal postural equilibrium control. It is postulated that postflight postural instability results from in-flight adaptive changes in central nervous system (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the magnitude and time course of postflight recovery of postural equilibrium control and, hence, readaptation of CNS processing of sensory information. Thirteen crew members from six spaceflight missions were studied pre- and postflight using a modified commercial posturography system. Postural equilibrium control was found to be seriously disrupted immediately following spaceflight in all subjects. Readaptation to the terrestrial environment began immediately upon landing, proceeded rapidly for the first 10-12 hours, and then proceeded much more slowly for the subsequent 2-4 days until preflight stability levels were reachieved. It is concluded that the overall postflight recovery of postural stability follows a predictable time course.

  17. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  18. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Bharat; Obiechina, Nonyelum; Rattu, Noman; Mitra, Shanta

    2013-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterised by autonomic dysfunction and an exaggerated sympathetic response to assuming an upright position. Up till recently, it was largely under-recognised as a clinical entity. There is now consensus about the definition of POTS as a greater than 30/min heart rate increase on standing from a supine position (greater than 40/min increase in 12–19-year-old patients) or an absolute heart rate of greater than 120/min within 10 min of standing from a supine position and in the absence of hypotension, arrhythmias, sympathomimetic drugs or other conditions that cause tachycardia. We present two cases of POTS, followed by a discussion of its pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology and management. PMID:24042210

  19. Reversible postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Aza; Rajeevan, Thirumagal

    2015-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a relatively rare syndrome recognised since 1940. It is a heterogenous condition with orthostatic intolerance due to dysautonomia and is characterised by rise in heart rate above 30 bpm from base line or to more than 120 bpm within 5-10 min of standing with or without change in blood pressure which returns to base line on resuming supine position. This condition present with various disabling symptoms such as light headedness, near syncope, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, tremor, palpitations and mental clouding, etc. However there are no identifiable signs on clinical examination and patients are often diagnosed to have anxiety disorder. The condition predominantly affects young female between the ages of 15-50 but is rarely described in older people. We describe an older patient who developed POTS which recovered over 12 mo. Recognising this condition is important as there are treatment options available to alleviate the disabling symptoms. PMID:26244158

  20. Evidence for a retinal velocity memory underlying the direction of anticipatory smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Murdison, T Scott; Paré-Bingley, Chanel A; Blohm, Gunnar

    2013-08-01

    To compute spatially correct smooth pursuit eye movements, the brain uses both retinal motion and extraretinal signals about the eyes and head in space (Blohm and Lefèvre 2010). However, when smooth eye movements rely solely on memorized target velocity, such as during anticipatory pursuit, it is unknown if this velocity memory also accounts for extraretinal information, such as head roll and ocular torsion. To answer this question, we used a novel behavioral updating paradigm in which participants pursued a repetitive, spatially constant fixation-gap-ramp stimulus in series of five trials. During the first four trials, participants' heads were rolled toward one shoulder, inducing ocular counterroll (OCR). With each repetition, participants increased their anticipatory pursuit gain, indicating a robust encoding of velocity memory. On the fifth trial, they rolled their heads to the opposite shoulder before pursuit, also inducing changes in ocular torsion. Consequently, for spatially accurate anticipatory pursuit, the velocity memory had to be updated across changes in head roll and ocular torsion. We tested how the velocity memory accounted for head roll and OCR by observing the effects of changes to these signals on anticipatory trajectories of the memory decoding (fifth) trials. We found that anticipatory pursuit was updated for changes in head roll; however, we observed no evidence of compensation for OCR, representing the absence of ocular torsion signals within the velocity memory. This indicated that the directional component of the memory must be coded retinally and updated to account for changes in head roll, but not OCR. PMID:23678014

  1. Postural correlates with painful situations

    PubMed Central

    Lelard, Thierry; Montalan, Benoît; Morel, Maria F.; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Ahmaidi, Said; Godefroy, Olivier; Mouras, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emotional context may play a crucial role in movement production. According to simulation theories, emotional states affect motor systems. The aim of this study was to compare postural responses assessed by posturography and electromyography when subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or a non-painful situation. Methods: Twenty-nine subjects (22.3 ± 3.7 years) participated in this study. While standing quietly on a posturographic platform, they were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or non-painful situation. Displacement of the center of pressure (COP), leg muscle electromyographic activity, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were assessed in response to painful and non-painful situations. Results: The anteroposterior path was shorter (p < 0.05) when subjects imagined themselves in a painful situation (M = 148.0 ± 33.4 mm) compared to a non-painful situation (158.2 ± 38.7 mm). Higher tibialis anterior (TA) activity (RMS-TA = 3.38 ± 1.95% vs. 3.24 ± 1.85%; p < 0.001) and higher variability of soleus (SO) activity (variation coefficient of RMS-SO = 13.5 ± 16.2% vs. M = 9.0 ± 7.2%; p < 0.05) were also observed in painful compared to non-painful situations. No significant changes were observed for other physiological data. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that simulation of painful situations induces changes in postural control and leg muscle activation compared to non-painful situations, as increased stiffness was demonstrated in response to aversive pictures in accordance with previous results. PMID:23386816

  2. Trunk posture monitoring with inertial sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man Sang

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of human posture and movement is an important area of research in the bioengineering and rehabilitation fields. Various attempts have been initiated for different clinical application goals, such as diagnosis of pathological posture and movements, assessment of pre- and post-treatment efficacy and comparison of different treatment protocols. Image-based methods for measurements of human posture and movements have been developed, such as the radiography, photogrammetry, optoelectric technique and video analysis. However, it is found that these methods are complicated to set up, time-consuming to operate and could only be applied in laboratory environments. This study introduced a method of using a posture monitoring system in estimating the spinal curvature changes during trunk movements on the sagittal and coronal planes and providing trunk posture monitoring during daily activities. The system consisted of three sensor modules, each with one tri-axial accelerometer and three uni-axial gyroscopes orthogonally aligned, and a digital data acquisition and feedback system. The accuracy of this system was tested with a motion analysis system (Vicon 370) in calibration with experimental setup and in trunk posture measurement with nine human subjects, and the performance of the posture monitoring system during daily activities with two human subjects was reported. The averaged root mean squared differences between the measurements of the system and motion analysis system were found to be <1.5° in dynamic calibration, and <3.1° for the sagittal plane and ≤2.1° for the coronal plane in estimation of the trunk posture change during trunk movements. The measurements of the system and the motion analysis system was highly correlated (>0.999 for dynamic calibration and >0.829 for estimation of spinal curvature change in domain planes of movement during flexion and lateral bending). With the sensing modules located on the upper trunk, mid-trunk and the pelvic

  3. Modeling the postural disturbances caused by upper extremity movements.

    PubMed

    Triolo, R J; Werner, K N; Kirsch, R F

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the design, validation, and application of a dynamic, three-dimensional (3-D) model of the upper extremity for the purpose of estimating postural disturbances generated by movements of the arms. The model consists of two links representing the upper and lower arms, with the shoulder and elbow modeled as gimbal joints to allow three rotational degrees of freedom. With individualized segment inertial parameters based on anthropometric measurements, the model performs inverse dynamic analysis of recorded arm movements to calculate reaction forces and moments acting on the body at the shoulder in three dimensions. The method was validated by comparing the output of the model to estimates obtained from ground reaction loads during stereotypical and free form unilateral movements at various velocities and with different loads carried by human subjects while seated on biomechanical force platforms. The correlation between predicted and measured reaction forces and moments was very good under all conditions and across all subjects, with average rms errors less than 8% of measured peak-to-peak values. The model was then applied to bimanual activities representative of functional movements that would typically be performed while standing at a counter. The resulting estimates were consistent and adequate for the purpose of evaluating postural disturbances caused by upper extremity movements. PMID:11474966

  4. Anticipatory grip force between 1 and 3g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Olivier; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Hermsdorfer, Joachim; Lefevre, Philippe

    One remarkable capacity of utilizing common tools appropriately as soon as we grasp them relies on the ability to determine in advance the grip force (GF) required to handle them in relation to their mechanical properties and the surrounding environment. This anticipatory strategy avoids the uncompressible delays in the feedback system. The predictive control of GF is made possible because the nervous system can learn, store and then select the internal representations of the dynamics of innumerable objects, known as internal models. Beside this flexibility, the nervous system's ability to learn different task dynamics is often limited in classical robotic experiments The environment itself can be profoundly modified in altered gravity or centrifugation. The few studies that investigated motor adaptation in such contexts did not consider the interaction between gravitational phases and even less the transitions across environments. Here, we tested subject's abilities to adapt to levels of gravitational fields generated by a human centrifuge. In Experiment 1, seven subjects performed 4 lifting trials in each gravitational phase (1 to 2.5g and then 2.5 to 1g by steps of 0.5g) with a 0.12 kg instrumented object. In Experiment 2, six subjects performed vertical oscillations of the object during transitions between 1 and 3g (0.5g steps, ascending and descending phases, profile repeated twice). We continuously measured GF, load force (LF) and ambient gravity. We hypothesized that participants were able to predictively adjust GF to the new environment. In Experiment 1, participants adjusted their GF proportionally to gravity and decreased GF across trials within a given gravitational environment. Preload phases decreased over time from 300ms to 50ms irrespective of gravity. We quantified the abilities of participants to switch across environments by subtracting GF recorded in the last trial in the current gravity level from GF during the first trial in the new environment

  5. Postural adjustments associated with rapid voluntary arm movements. II. Biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Friedli, W G; Cohen, L; Hallett, M; Stanhope, S; Simon, S R

    1988-01-01

    Normal subjects performed bilaterally symmetric rapid elbow flexions or extensions ("focal movements") while standing. Specific patterns of electromyographic activity in leg and trunk muscles ("associated postural adjustments") were seen for each type of movement. The biomechanical significance of these postural adjustments was analysed by means of the ground reaction forces and motion of the various body segments. Experimental data were compared with that from a theoretical model of the body consisting of a six segment kinetic chain with rigid links. Distinct patterns of the ground reaction forces with elbow flexion were opposite in direction to those seen with elbow extension. Movements of the various body segments were small and specific for a certain focal movement. Dynamic perturbations arising from the arm movement in an anteroposterior direction were found to be compensated by postural adjustments, whereas vertical perturbations were not compensated. The muscular activity acting about different joints in the different movements was found to correlate with the predictions of activity needed to compensate for net joint reaction moments arising from the focal movement. Motion of the various body segments could be understood as resulting from the interplay of the net reaction moments and the net muscular moments at the different joints. Dynamic postural requirements are accomplished by a precise active compensation initiated before the focal movement. PMID:3346688

  6. Postural variability and sensorimotor development in infancy.

    PubMed

    Dusing, Stacey C

    2016-03-01

    Infants develop skills through a coupling between their sensory and motor systems. Newborn infants must interpret sensory information and use it to modify movements and organize the postural control system based on the task demands. This paper starts with a brief review of evidence on the use of sensory information in the first months of life, and describes the importance of movement variability and postural control in infancy. This introduction is followed by a review of the evidence for the interactions between the sensory, motor, and postural control systems in typically development infants. The paper highlights the ability of young infants to use sensory information to modify motor behaviors and learn from their experiences. Last, the paper highlights evidence of atypical use of sensory, motor, and postural control in the first months of life in infants who were born preterm, with neonatal brain injury or later diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). PMID:27027603

  7. Limit cycle oscillations in standing human posture.

    PubMed

    Chagdes, James R; Rietdyk, Shirley; Haddad, Jeffrey M; Zelaznik, Howard N; Cinelli, Michael E; Denomme, Luke T; Powers, Kaley C; Raman, Arvind

    2016-05-01

    Limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) are a hallmark of dynamic instability in time-delayed and nonlinear systems such as climate change models, biological oscillators, and robotics. Here we study the links between the human neuromuscular system and LCOs in standing posture. First, we demonstrate through a simple mathematical model that the observation of LCOs in posture is indicative of excessive neuromuscular time-delay. To test this hypothesis we study LCOs in the postural sway of individuals with multiple sclerosis and concussed athletes representing two different populations with chronically and acutely increased neuromuscular time-delays. Using a wavelet analysis method we demonstrate that 67% of individuals with multiple sclerosis and 44% of individuals with concussion exhibit intermittent LCOs; 8% of MS-controls, 0% of older adults, and 0% of concussion-controls displayed LCOs. Thus, LCOs are not only key to understanding postural instability but also may have important applications for the detection of neuromuscular deficiencies. PMID:27018157

  8. Confounders of Vasovagal Syncope: Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nwazue, Victor C.; Raj, Satish R

    2012-01-01

    Most patients who present to a cardiologist with syncope will have vasovagal (reflex) syncope. A busy syncope practice will often also see patients with postural tachycardia syndrome, often presenting with severe recurrent presyncope. Recognition of this “syncope confounder” might be difficult without adequate knowledge of their presentation, and this can adversely affect optimal management. Patients with postural tachycardia syndrome exhibit an excessive increase in heart rate ≥ 30 bpm within 10 minutes of standing (in the absence of orthostatic hypotension), in addition to chronic symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Postural tachycardia syndrome can often be differentiated from vasovagal syncope by its hemodynamic pattern during tilt table test and differing clinical characteristics. This article will briefly review the presentation of postural tachycardia syndrome, its putative pathophysiology and an approach to non-pharmacological and pharmacological management. PMID:23217691

  9. Postural control in man: the phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phylogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure. PMID:16097476

  10. Spinal Mechanisms May Provide a Combination of Intermittent and Continuous Control of Human Posture: Predictions from a Biologically Based Neuromusculoskeletal Model

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Leonardo Abdala; Watanabe, Renato Naville; Kohn, André Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been employed to study human postural control during upright quiet stance. Most have adopted an inverted pendulum approximation to the standing human and theoretical models to account for the neural feedback necessary to keep balance. The present study adds to the previous efforts in focusing more closely on modelling the physiological mechanisms of important elements associated with the control of human posture. This paper studies neuromuscular mechanisms behind upright stance control by means of a biologically based large-scale neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) model. It encompasses: i) conductance-based spinal neuron models (motor neurons and interneurons); ii) muscle proprioceptor models (spindle and Golgi tendon organ) providing sensory afferent feedback; iii) Hill-type muscle models of the leg plantar and dorsiflexors; and iv) an inverted pendulum model for the body biomechanics during upright stance. The motor neuron pools are driven by stochastic spike trains. Simulation results showed that the neuromechanical outputs generated by the NMS model resemble experimental data from subjects standing on a stable surface. Interesting findings were that: i) an intermittent pattern of muscle activation emerged from this posture control model for two of the leg muscles (Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius); and ii) the Soleus muscle was mostly activated in a continuous manner. These results suggest that the spinal cord anatomy and neurophysiology (e.g., motor unit types, synaptic connectivities, ordered recruitment), along with the modulation of afferent activity, may account for the mixture of intermittent and continuous control that has been a subject of debate in recent studies on postural control. Another finding was the occurrence of the so-called “paradoxical” behaviour of muscle fibre lengths as a function of postural sway. The simulations confirmed previous conjectures that reciprocal inhibition is possibly contributing to this effect, but on the

  11. Spinal mechanisms may provide a combination of intermittent and continuous control of human posture: predictions from a biologically based neuromusculoskeletal model.

    PubMed

    Elias, Leonardo Abdala; Watanabe, Renato Naville; Kohn, André Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Several models have been employed to study human postural control during upright quiet stance. Most have adopted an inverted pendulum approximation to the standing human and theoretical models to account for the neural feedback necessary to keep balance. The present study adds to the previous efforts in focusing more closely on modelling the physiological mechanisms of important elements associated with the control of human posture. This paper studies neuromuscular mechanisms behind upright stance control by means of a biologically based large-scale neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) model. It encompasses: i) conductance-based spinal neuron models (motor neurons and interneurons); ii) muscle proprioceptor models (spindle and Golgi tendon organ) providing sensory afferent feedback; iii) Hill-type muscle models of the leg plantar and dorsiflexors; and iv) an inverted pendulum model for the body biomechanics during upright stance. The motor neuron pools are driven by stochastic spike trains. Simulation results showed that the neuromechanical outputs generated by the NMS model resemble experimental data from subjects standing on a stable surface. Interesting findings were that: i) an intermittent pattern of muscle activation emerged from this posture control model for two of the leg muscles (Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius); and ii) the Soleus muscle was mostly activated in a continuous manner. These results suggest that the spinal cord anatomy and neurophysiology (e.g., motor unit types, synaptic connectivities, ordered recruitment), along with the modulation of afferent activity, may account for the mixture of intermittent and continuous control that has been a subject of debate in recent studies on postural control. Another finding was the occurrence of the so-called "paradoxical" behaviour of muscle fibre lengths as a function of postural sway. The simulations confirmed previous conjectures that reciprocal inhibition is possibly contributing to this effect, but on the

  12. Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require postural adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jesse V.; Henry, Sharon M.; Nagle, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low back pain (LBP) associates with altered postural stabilization and concomitant changes in cerebrocortical motor physiology. Methods: Ten participants with LBP and 10 participants without LBP performed self-initiated, voluntary arm raises. Electromyographic onset latencies of the bilateral internal oblique and erector spinae muscles were analyzed relative to that of the deltoid muscle as measures of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Amplitudes of alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) and of Bereitschaftspotentials (BP) were calculated from scalp electroencephalography as measures of cerebrocortical motor physiology. Results: The APA was first evident in the trunk muscles contralateral to the arm raise for both groups. Significant alpha ERD was evident bilaterally at the central and parietal electrodes for participants with LBP but only at the electrodes contralateral and midline to the arm raise for those without LBP. The BP amplitudes negatively correlated with APA onset latencies for participants with (but not for those without) LBP. Conclusions: Cerebrocortical activity becomes altered prior to arm movements requiring APAs for individuals with chronic LBP. Significance: These results support a theoretical model that altered central motor neurophysiology associates with LBP, thereby implying that rehabilitation strategies should address these neuromotor impairments. PMID:20071225

  13. An Anticipatory and Deceptive AI Utilizing Bayesian Belief Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Joe E; Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Saffold, JAy

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. military defines antiterrorism as the defensive posture taken against terrorist threats. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, interdicting an event in progress, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for training our military and homeland security officers for anticipating threats posed by terrorists. These tools need to be easy enough so that they are readily usable without substantial training, but still maintain the complexity to allow for a level of deceptive reasoning on the part of the opponent. To meet this need, we propose to integrate a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for threat anticipation and deceptive reasoning into training simulation environments currently utilized by several organizations within the Department of Defense (DoD). BBNs have the ability to deal with various types of uncertainties; such as identities, capabilities, target attractiveness, and the combinations of the previous. They also allow for disparate types of data to be fused in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. A BBN has been developed by ORNL uses a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of each node with in the broader context of the system development effort as a whole, and not in isolation. The network will be integrated into the Research Network Inc,(RNI) developed Game Distributed Interactive Simulation (GDIS) as a smart artificial intelligence module. GDIS is utilized by several DoD and civilian organizations as a distributed training tool for a multiplicity of reasons. It has garnered several awards for its realism, ease of use, and popularity. One area that it still has room to excel in, as most video training tools do, is in the area of artificial intelligence of opponent combatants. It is believed that by

  14. Dynamic postural control but not mechanical stability differs among those with and without chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Wikstrom, E A; Tillman, M D; Chmielewski, T L; Cauraugh, J H; Naugle, K E; Borsa, P A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare dynamic postural control and mechanical ankle stability among patients with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI) and controls. Seventy-two subjects were divided equally into three groups: uninjured controls, people with previous ankle injury but without CAI, and people with CAI. Subjects completed a single-leg hop-stabilization task, and then had an anterior drawer test and lateral ankle radiograph performed bilaterally. The dynamic postural stability index was calculated from the ground reaction forces of the single-leg hop-stabilization task. Ankle joint stiffness (N/m) was measured with an instrumented arthrometer during the anterior drawer test, and fibula position was assessed from the radiographic image. Patients with previous ankle injuries but without CAI demonstrated higher frontal plane dynamic postural stability scores than both the uninjured control and CAI groups (P<0.01). Patients with and without CAI had significantly higher sagittal plane dynamic postural stability scores (P<0.01) and increased ankle joint stiffness (P=0.045) relative to the control group. The increased frontal plane dynamic postural control may represent a component of a coping mechanism that limits recurrent sprains and the development of CAI. Mechanical stability alterations are speculated to result from the initial ankle trauma. PMID:19422654

  15. Influence of forward head posture on condylar position.

    PubMed

    Ohmure, H; Miyawaki, S; Nagata, J; Ikeda, K; Yamasaki, K; Al-Kalaly, A

    2008-11-01

    There are several reports suggesting that forward head posture is associated with temporomandibular disorders and restraint of mandibular growth, possibly due to mandibular displacement posteriorly. However, there have been few reports in which the condylar position was examined in forward head posture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the condyle moves posteriorly in the forward head posture. The condylar position and electromyography from the masseter, temporal and digastric muscles were recorded on 15 healthy male adults at mandibular rest position in the natural head posture and deliberate forward head posture. The condylar position in the deliberate forward head posture was significantly more posterior than that in the natural head posture. The activity of the masseter and digastric muscles in the deliberate forward head posture was slightly increased. These results suggest that the condyle moves posteriorly in subjects with forward head posture. PMID:18808377

  16. Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomgarden, C.A.

    1995-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation`s biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those already in jeopardy of extinction. The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 will fail to keep pace with increasing numbers of species needing protection as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must not be abandoned, however; it holds tremendous promise for preserving biological diversity through a more proactive, anticipatory perspective. The current Endangered Species Act should be reinforced and improved by better integration of scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation listing decisions and recovery plan development. Given the uncertainties surrounding long-term environmental consequences of human activities and resource use, a longer-term perspective must be integrated into all efforts to protect our biotic resources. 55 refs.

  17. Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomgarden, Carol A.

    1995-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those already in jeopardy of extinction. The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 will fail to keep pace with increasing numbers of species needing protection as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must not be abandoned, however; it holds tremendous promise for preserving biological diversity through a more proactive, anticipatory perspective. The current Endangered Species Act should be reinforced and improved by better integration of scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation listing decisions and recovery plan devlopment. Given the uncertainties surrounding long-term environmental consequences of human activities and resource use, a longer-term perspective must be integrated into all efforts to protect our biotic resources.

  18. Anatomy and histochemistry of hindlimb flight posture in birds. I. The extended hindlimb posture of shorebirds.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Joshua C; Meyers, Ron A

    2008-08-01

    Birds utilize one of two hindlimb postures during flight: an extended posture (with the hip and knee joints flexed, while the ankle joint is extended caudally) or a flexed posture (with the hip, knee, and ankle joints flexed beneath the body). American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) extend their legs caudally during flight and support them for extended periods. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are typically found in muscles functioning in postural support due to the fatigue resistance of these fibers. We hypothesized that a set of small muscles composed of high percentages of slow fibers and thus dedicated to postural support would function in securing the legs in the extended posture during flight. This study examined the anatomy and histochemical profile of eleven hindlimb muscles to gain insight into their functional roles during flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, all muscles possessed both fast twitch and slow twitch or slow tonic fibers. We believe this finding is due to the versatility of dynamic and postural functions the leg muscles must facilitate, including standing, walking, running, swimming, and hindlimb support during flight. Whether birds use an extended or flexed hindlimb flight posture may be related to the aerodynamic effect of leg position or may reflect evolutionary history. PMID:18506762

  19. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A; Aguiar, Stefane A; Carvalho, Adriana N S; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001), postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048), and 14% (p = 0.006). Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006) and 425% (p = 0.015), respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361-0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280-0.748) and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304-0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325-0.715) and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001-0.03). Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents. PMID:27115868

  20. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers

    PubMed Central

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A.; Aguiar, Stefane A.; Carvalho, Adriana N. S.; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001), postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048), and 14% (p = 0.006). Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006) and 425% (p = 0.015), respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361–0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280–0.748) and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304–0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325–0.715) and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001–0.03). Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents. PMID:27115868

  1. Starfish Behavior as an Anticipatory System: Its Flexibility in Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migita, Masao

    2006-06-01

    As starfish do not have central nervous systems, their behaviors such as walking, righting, feeding, and so on, must be produced by some processes of self-organization of many motor organs. It has been noticed that self-organized behavioral patterns are not strictly determined by external stimuli, though such stimuli may elicit the very self-organization processes. In this sense, starfish are not only reactive like a conventional discourse of comparative psychology have presupposed. In this study, I will show diversity in self-organized behavior of a starfish exhibited under experiments on obstacle avoidance. The starfish may be considered as an anticipatory system, because it usually appeared to be free from serious deadlock at the obstacles. I will also discuss that to view the animal as an anticipatory system may have an interesting implication on the fields of behavioral biology and comparative psychology.

  2. Anticipatory control through associative learning of subliminal relations: invisible may be better than visible.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Ausaf A; Manly, Tom

    2015-03-01

    We showed that anticipatory cognitive control could be unconsciously instantiated through subliminal cues that predicted enhanced future control needs. In task-switching experiments, one of three subliminal cues preceded each trial. Participants had no conscious experience or knowledge of these cues, but their performance was significantly improved on switch trials after cues that predicted task switches (but not particular tasks). This utilization of subliminal information was flexible and adapted to a change in cues predicting task switches and occurred only when switch trials were difficult and effortful. When cues were consciously visible, participants were unable to discern their relevance and could not use them to enhance switch performance. Our results show that unconscious cognition can implicitly use subliminal information in a goal-directed manner for anticipatory control, and they also suggest that subliminal representations may be more conducive to certain forms of associative learning. PMID:25694442

  3. Anticipatory autonomic response to a public speaking task in women: the role of trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis; Salvador, Alicia; Carrillo, Eduvigis; Ricarte, Jorge; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study anticipatory autonomic responses their relationship to trait anxiety. Twenty-three women prepared an evaluated speech (S-condition) and 22 women an evaluated essay (W-condition). Heart rate (HR), finger pulse volume (FPV) and skin conductance were recorded before, during and after preparation of the task and during task performance; state-anxiety was evaluated before and after the task. In the total sample, state-anxiety was higher in the S- than in W-condition and this anxiety increase was accompanied by FPV reductions. However, when the sample was split according to trait anxiety scores, HR during preparation and increases of state-anxiety were greater in S- than W-condition in only in high-anxious women. Results suggest that specificity of anticipatory HR response to a public speaking task in women is moderated by cognitive anxiety. PMID:12100844

  4. Postural control at the human wrist

    PubMed Central

    Chew, John Z Z; Gandevia, Simon C; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2008-01-01

    In our movements and posture, we always act against a physical load. A key property of any load is its elastic stiffness (K), which describes how the force required to hold it must change with position. Here we examine how load stiffness affects the ability to maintain a stable posture at the wrist. Loads having positive (like a spring) and negative stiffness (like an inverted pendulum) were created by varying the position of weights on multiarm rigid pendulum. Subjects (n = 9) held 15 loads (K = ± 0.04, ± 0.01 and 0 N m deg−1 at mean torques of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 N m) still for 60 s. Residual wrist movement (sway) increased with mean torque and increased as stiffness became more negative. Large effects of load stiffness were seen at low frequencies (< 1.5 Hz) but not at higher frequencies that reflect load resonance and reflex activity. Subjects accurately perceived their postural sway while holding the loads but measured psychophysical thresholds showed that load stiffness was not perceived. We conclude that load stiffness, independent of force levels, affects the ability to control a load and that the postural control process relies on perception and volitional tracking rather than more automatic reflex pathways. Despite an awareness of their postural errors, we see no evidence for adaptation of postural control processes to compensate for changes in load properties. This is unlike the adaptation of feedforward control processes that produce targeted volitional movements when load properties are altered. We propose that postural control and movement control are fundamentally different neural processes. PMID:18187473

  5. Reliability of photographic posture analysis of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Zeynep; Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Tiftikci, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Postural problems of adolescents needs to be evaluated accurately because they may lead to greater problems in the musculoskeletal system as they develop. Although photographic posture analysis has been frequently used, more simple and accessible methods are still needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of photographic posture analysis using MB-ruler software. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 adolescents (15 girls and 15 boys, mean age: 16.4±0.4 years, mean height 166.3±6.7 cm, mean weight 63.8±15.1 kg) and photographs of their habitual standing posture photographs were taken in the sagittal plane. For the evaluation of postural angles, reflective markers were placed on anatomical landmarks. For angular measurements, MB-ruler (Markus Bader- MB Software Solutions, triangular screen ruler) was used. Photographic evaluations were performed by two observers with a repetition after a week. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability evaluations were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). [Results] Inter-rater (ICC>0.972) and test-retest (ICC>0.774) reliability were found to be in the range of acceptable to excellent. [Conclusion] Reference angles for postural evaluation were found to be reliable and repeatable. The present method was found to be an easy and non-invasive method and it may be utilized by researchers who are in search of an alternative method for photographic postural assessments. PMID:26644658

  6. Delivering a national programme of anticipatory care in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackenzie, Mhairi; Reid, Maggie; Turner, Fiona; Clark, Julia; Wang, Yinging; Sridharan, Sanjeev; Platt, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary prevention often occurs against a background of inequalities in health and health care. Addressing this requires practitioners and systems to acknowledge the contribution of health-related and social determinants and to deal with the lack of interconnectedness between health and social service providers. Recognising this, the Scottish Government has implemented a national programme of anticipatory care targeting individuals aged 45–64 years living in areas of socioeconomic deprivation and at high risk of cardiovascular disease. This programme is called Keep Well. Aim To explore the issues and tensions underpinning the implementation of a national programme of anticipatory care. Design and setting A qualitative study in five Wave 1 Keep Well pilot sites, located in urban areas of Scotland, and involving 79 general practices. Method Annual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 74 key stakeholders operating at national government level, local pilot level and within general practices, resulting in 118 interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed using the framework approach. Results Four underlying tensions were identified. First, those between a patient-focused general-practice approach versus a population-level health-improvement approach, linking disparate health and social services; secondly, medical approaches versus wider social approaches; thirdly, a population-wide approach versus individual targeting; and finally, reactive versus anticipatory care. Conclusion Implementing an anticipatory care programme to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease identified several tensions, which need to be understood and resolved in order to inform the development of such approaches in general practice and to develop systems that reduce the degree of fragmentation across health and social services. PMID:22520917

  7. Social impact evaluation: Some implications of the specific decisional context approach for Anticipatory Project Assessment (ARA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    An anticipatory project assessment is discussed which is characterized as the capacity to perform, and the disposition to take into account in relevant decisional areas, the following operations: identification of the significant effects which will result from the introduction of a specified project configuration into alternative projected future social environments during the planning, implementation, and operational states; evaluation of such effects in terms of social impacts on affected participants and social value-institutional processes in accord with specified concepts of social justice.

  8. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  9. Postural stability in children with hemiplegia estimated for three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Postural control deficit is one of the most important problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of the presented study was to compare the effects of body posture asymmetry alone (i.e., in children with mild scoliosis) with the effects of body posture impairment (i.e., in children with hemiplegia) on postural stability. Forty-five outpatients with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis were assessed using a posturography device. The examination comprised two parts: (1) analysis of the static load distribution; and (2) a posturographic test (CoP measurements) conducted in three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling. Based on the asymmetry index of the unaffected/affected body sides while standing, the children with hemiplegia were divided into two different postural patterns: a pro-gravitational postural pattern (PGPP) and an anti-gravitational postural pattern (AGPP) (Domagalska-Szopa & Szopa (2013). BioMed Research International, 2013, 462094; (2014). Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 113). The group of children with mild scoliosis, considered as a standard for static body weight distribution, was used as the reference group. The results of present study only partially confirmed that children with hemiplegia have increased postural instability. Strong weight distribution asymmetry was found in children with an AGPP, which induced larger lateral-medial CoP displacements compared with children with scoliosis. In children with hemiplegia, distinguishing between their postural patterns may be useful to improve the guidelines for early therapy children with an AGPP before abnormal patterns of weight-bearing asymmetry are fully established. PMID:25677032

  10. Verbal and nonverbal predictors of language-mediated anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2015-04-01

    During language comprehension, listeners often anticipate upcoming information. This can draw listeners' overt attention to visually presented objects before the objects are referred to. We investigated to what extent the anticipatory mechanisms involved in such language-mediated attention rely on specific verbal factors and on processes shared with other domains of cognition. Participants listened to sentences ending in a highly predictable word (e.g., "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon") while viewing displays containing three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., a moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., a tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). Language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were observed to targets and to shape competitors. Importantly, looks to the shape competitor were systematically related to individual differences in anticipatory attention, as indexed by a spatial cueing task: Participants whose responses were most strongly facilitated by predictive arrow cues also showed the strongest effects of predictive language input on their eye movements. By contrast, looks to the target were related to individual differences in vocabulary size and verbal fluency. The results suggest that verbal and nonverbal factors contribute to different types of language-mediated eye movements. The findings are consistent with multiple-mechanism accounts of predictive language processing. PMID:25795276