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1

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

2

Avast Free Antivirus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avast Free Antivirus has been around for sometime, and this latest edition has some notable new features. Perhaps the most significant change here is the very helpful user interface, which includes a new tabbed section and a context sensitive help menu. Visitors can also use the real-time shields to protect against spyware and viruses originating from hundreds of sources. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

3

Vcatch Antivirus 6.3.1.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vcatch Antivirus is a program that will help users monitor their incoming emails and downloads in order to protect their computers from viruses and other such nefarious intruders. This program is integrated with Windows Explorer, and includes a detection engine that analyzes all files. Another helpful feature is that this application cooperates with anti-virus programs that are already installed on users' operating system. This program is compatible with all operating systems running Windows 95 and higher.

4

AMG Anti-Virus Free Edition 9.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this version of its popular product, AMG Anti-Virus is offering a few new notable highlights. For one, visitors can use the full-featured scheduling utility for automating tasks and checking for new definitions. This version of Anti-Virus also includes new anti-phishing detection techniques and an up-to-date link scanner. Users running Windows 2000 and newer as well as Linux will be able to use this application.

5

Review on the application of artificial intelligence in antivirus detection systemi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have played increasingly important role in antivirus detection. At present, some principal artificial intelligence techniques applied in antivirus detection are proposed, including heuristic technique, data mining, agent technique, artificial immune, and artificial neural network. It believes that it will improve the performance of antivirus detection systems, and promote the production of new artificial intelligence algorithm and

Xiao-bin Wang; Guang-yuan Yang; Yi-chao Li; Dan Liu

2008-01-01

6

Supernovae and the IGM  

E-print Network

An energetic argument implies that a galaxy like the Milky Way is blowing a powerful wind that carries away most of the heavy elements currently synthesized and has impacted the IGM out to at least 180 kpc. Rich clusters of galaxies appear to be closed systems in which most heavy elements are ejected from galaxies. More supernovae are required than the yield of core-collapse SNe from a Salpeter IMF. X-ray observations imply that the IGM in groups and clusters as been strongly preheated. SNe probably cannot supply the required energy, which must come from AGN.

James Binney

2000-08-23

7

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster  

E-print Network

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all locked up? Ever run into these? Help is on the way. NC State has licensed Symantec AntiVirus and NC State students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last

8

NTU Supported Anti-Virus products for NTUanywhere AVG 9 and 10 free edition  

E-print Network

) Norton Internet Security Kaspersky Internet Security MS Security Essentials (a 64bit AV product) Mc Shield (6.x) Ad-Aware Pro Internet Security [AntiVirus] (8.x) Ad-Aware Pro [AntiVirus] (8.x) AhnLab Security Pack (2.x) AhnLab V3 Internet Security 2007 (7.x) AhnLab V3 Internet Security 2007 Platinum (7.x

Evans, Paul

9

Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

2014-11-01

10

ADAM: An Automatic and Extensible Platform to Stress Test Android Anti-Virus Systems  

E-print Network

ADAM: An Automatic and Extensible Platform to Stress Test Android Anti-Virus Systems Min Zheng a variety of malware samples for the Android platform. Specifically, ADAM can automatically transform 222 Android malware samples that we collected in the wild. Using ADAM, we generate different vari

Lui, John C.S.

11

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

12

Metabolism of IgM in the tropical splenomegaly syndrome.  

PubMed

IgM metabolism was studied in five patients with the tropical splenomegaly syndrome and in five controls. The half-life and turnover time of I125 IgM was similar in the two groups. We conclude that the raised serum IgM levels found in patients with the tropical splenomegaly syndrome are not due to decreased IgM catabolism but are due to increased IgM production. PMID:1006767

Fakunle, Y M; Greenwood, B M

1976-01-01

13

Low molecular weight IgM in primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Low molecular weight IgM is the monomeric subunit of pentameric IgM and is not generally found in the blood of healthy individuals. Using a sensitive immunoblotting technique, low molecular weight IgM was detected in all 17 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and constituted up to 5% of the total circulating IgM. This low molecular weight IgM moiety correlated significantly with total IgM (p less than 0.01) but not with the specific biliary cirrhosis mitochondrial autoantibody anti-M2. Furthermore it was not possible to show that a partially purified sample of low molecular weight IgM contained M2 binding activity. Mitogen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two of four patients were observed to secrete low molecular weight IgM in vitro, a finding seen in only one of six healthy subjects. Immunoblot analysis of patients sera revealed the presence of other oligomers of IgM in addition to low molecular weight IgM. In conclusion this study suggests that during the enhanced IgM synthesis observed in primary biliary cirrhosis a defect occurs in the assembly of the IgM pentamer with release of monomeric and oligomeric IgM into the circulation. The pathogenic significance of these circulating low molecular weight IgM species is unknown. Images Figure 1 PMID:2318435

Roberts-Thomson, P J; Shepherd, K

1990-01-01

14

Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of ?-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol  

E-print Network

Background: Alpha-momorcharin (?-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. ...

Zhao, Xiaojun

15

Tri-tier Immune System in Antivirus and Software Fault Diagnosis of Mobile Immune Robot Based on Normal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, anti-virus problem and software fault diagnosis of mobile robot, an immune robot, is discussed with proposal\\u000a of a novel tri-tier immune system (TTIS). TTIS is a novel artificial immune system, which is comprised of three computing\\u000a tiers and based on the normal model. The three tiers include inherent immune tier, adaptive immune tier and parallel immune\\u000a tier.

Tao Gong; Zixing Cai

2008-01-01

16

IgM nephropathy; time to act.  

PubMed

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: Much has been published on the epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics of IgM nephropathy, but there is little information on the etiology,pathogenesis and specific therapy of the disease. Controversy still shrouds the definition and nosologic status of the disease. Well-coordinated and concerted international efforts and collaboration between researchers in the developing and developed countries are needed to make further progress on the above aspects of the disease. PMID:24644539

Mubarak, Muhammed

2014-01-01

17

Monomeric (7S) IgM in chronic liver disease.  

PubMed

Monomeric (7S) IgM was detected by polyacrylamide/agarose gell immunodiffusion and Sephadex G200 gel filtration in 33% of sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and 5% of patients with HBsAg-negative chronic active liver disease (CALD). It was not found in the sera of patients with extrahepatic cholestasis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), HBsAg-positive CALD and normal control subjects. In the PBC group the presence of 7S IgM was associated with significantly higher IgM concentrations and Clq binding activity (P less than 0.001; P less than 0.01 respectively). The antibody specificity of the 7S IgM is unknown. Its presence in patients with high serum IgM concentrations probably reflects failure of complete polymerisation of 7S IgM because of an increased rate of synthesis of the protein. The association of the presence of 7S IgM and high total IgM with immune complexes suggests that the increased rate of synthesis of IgM and formation of immune complexes probably are a result of the same antigenic (or mitogenic) stimulus. PMID:118836

Fakunle, Y M; Aranguibel, F; de Villiers, D; Thomas, H C; Sherlock, S

1979-11-01

18

Monomeric (7S) IgM in chronic liver disease.  

PubMed Central

Monomeric (7S) IgM was detected by polyacrylamide/agarose gell immunodiffusion and Sephadex G200 gel filtration in 33% of sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and 5% of patients with HBsAg-negative chronic active liver disease (CALD). It was not found in the sera of patients with extrahepatic cholestasis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), HBsAg-positive CALD and normal control subjects. In the PBC group the presence of 7S IgM was associated with significantly higher IgM concentrations and Clq binding activity (P less than 0.001; P less than 0.01 respectively). The antibody specificity of the 7S IgM is unknown. Its presence in patients with high serum IgM concentrations probably reflects failure of complete polymerisation of 7S IgM because of an increased rate of synthesis of the protein. The association of the presence of 7S IgM and high total IgM with immune complexes suggests that the increased rate of synthesis of IgM and formation of immune complexes probably are a result of the same antigenic (or mitogenic) stimulus. PMID:118836

Fakunle, Y M; Aranguibel, F; de Villiers, D; Thomas, H C; Sherlock, S

1979-01-01

19

IGM heating in fossil galaxy groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study intergalactic medium (IGM) heating in a sample of five fossil galaxy groups by using their radio properties at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz. The power by radio jets introducing mechanical heating for the sampled objects is not sufficient enough to suppress the cooling flow. Therefore, we discussed shock-, vortex heating, and conduction as alternative heating processes. Further, the 1.4 GHz and 610 MHz radio luminosities of fossil groups are compared to a sample of normal galaxy groups of the same brightest group galaxies (BGGs), stellar mass, and total group stellar mass, quantified using the K-band luminosity. It appears that the fossil BGGs are under luminous at 1.4 GHz and 610 MHz for a given BGG stellar mass and luminosity, in comparison to a general population of the groups. In addition, we explore how the bolometric radio luminosity of fossil sample depends on clusters and groups characteristics. Using the HIghest X-ray FLUx Galaxy Cluster Sample (HIFLUGCS) as a control sample we found that the large-scale behaviours of fossil galaxy groups are consistent with their relaxed and virialized nature.

Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Ponman, T. J.; Jetha, N. N.; Raychaudhury, S.

2014-10-01

20

IGM Heating in Fossil Galaxy Groups  

E-print Network

We study intergalactic medium (IGM) heating in a sample of five fossil galaxy groups by using their radio properties at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz. The power by radio jets introducing mechanical heating for the sampled objects is not sufficient enough to suppress the cooling flow. Therefore, we discussed shock-, vortex heating, and conduction as alternative heating processes. Further, the 1.4 GHz and 610 MHz radio luminosities of fossil groups are compared to a sample of normal galaxy groups of the same radio brightest (BGGs), stellar mass, and total group stellar mass, quantified using the $K$-band luminosity. It appears that the fossil BGGs are under luminous at 1.4 GHz and 610 MHz for a given BGG stellar mass and luminosity, in comparison to a general population of the groups. In addition, we explore how the bolometric radio luminosity of fossil sample depends on clusters and groups characteristics. Using the HIghest X-ray FLUx Galaxy Cluster Sample (HIFLUGCS) as a control sample we found that the large-scale beh...

Miraghaei, H; Klöckner, H -R; Ponman, T J; Jetha, N N; Raychaudhury, S

2014-01-01

21

IgM response and resistance to ascites tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody response and protection against Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) was studied in eight EAT-immunized strains of mice (AL\\/N, BALB\\/C, C57BL\\/6J, F1(C57BL\\/6×BALB\\/C), C57BL\\/10J, B10.BR, CBA\\/Ca, SW). The results showed a close association between IgM response and resistance to subsequent tumor challenge. Thus, protection was only achieved in those animals giving a measurable IgM response against EAT cell surface antigens, i.e., all

Jose L. Subiza; Javier Coll; Rita Alvarez; Manuel Valdivieso; Emilio G. de la Concha

1987-01-01

22

Enterovirus type 70-neutralizing IgM in animal sera.  

PubMed

The neutralizing activity against human enterovirus type 70 was found in serum samples from normal cattle, horses, sheep, goats, swine and chickens raised in Japan. The frequency was variable depending upon animal species and the year of bleeding. The neutralizing activity in bovine sera was shown to reside in IgM by sucrose gradient centrifugation and immune gel electrophoresis. These findings suggested that the neutralizing substance in domestic animal sera is the antibody of IgM class elicited by unidentified viruses antigenically related to human enterovirus type 70. PMID:6287063

Sasagawa, A; Miyamura, K; Kono, R

1982-04-01

23

THE SUBUNITS IN RABBIT ANTI-FORSSMAN IGM ANTIBODY  

PubMed Central

Rabbit IgM anti-Forssman antibody was highly purified and the subunits obtained on reduction and alkylation were labeled radioactively and isolated by two different and unrelated methods. In both cases the subunits were found to have a molecular weight of about 90,000, based on their behavior on density gradient centrifugation and gel filtration, and evidence is given that they contained one light and one heavy chain. The subunits bound only weakly to sheep erythrocyte stroma, and only half could be shown to possess antigen specific sites. The data are consistent with the concept that each anti-Forssman IgM molecule has five effective binding sites, but it is uncertain whether the ineffectiveness of the remaining five H-L chain pairs is inherent in the structure of the IgM molecule or an artifact due to the isolation procedure. Intact IgM anti-Forssman antibody binds very firmly to structures containing multiple repeating antigen sites, and it appears that this is due to the presence of multiple binding sites on the molecule. PMID:5655105

Frank, Michael M.; Humphrey, John H.

1968-01-01

24

Rubella-Specific IgM Antibodies in Postnatal Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 214 serum specimens of postnatal rubella infected cases were determined for persistence of rubella-specific IgM antibodies, using solid-phase immunosorbent hemadsorp­ tion (SPIHAd) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initially, 148 blood samples were obtained from 77 patients comprising 74 females and 3 males. All patients were clinical rubella cases whose sera were confirmed by serodiagnosis. The remaining

Uraiwan Kositanont; Pilaipan Puthavathana; Chantapong Wasi

25

Liver Abscesses and Hyper IgM Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hyper IgM (HIGM) syndrome is an immunodeficiency that can lead to liver disease in more than 80% of affected males by an age of 20 years. Hepatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, and hepatocellular malignancies are common among them. We encountered two cases in children of less than 12 years who presented with typical manifestations of liver abscess and were later detected to have a concomitant underlying HIGM syndrome. PMID:24479081

Shah, Ira; Rahangdale, Aarti; Bhatnagar, Sushmita

2013-01-01

26

Recognition of human IgM subgroups by quantitative measurement  

PubMed Central

By means of the single radial immunodiffusion technique it is possible to detect at least two subgroups of human IgM paraproteins, if the square ring diameter is plotted against absolute concentration. These groups give different calibration lines with the same antiserum, even when no qualitative differences can be detected by the double diffusion technique. The possibility of distinguishing these groups is not limited to the use of a single antiserum. The differences between the groups are abolished by reduction of the IgM paraprotein to 7S subunits and therefore seem to be of conformational nature. No identity with other known classifications has yet been found. In one out of two cases investigated differences in quantitative reactivity were found between 19S and >19S components in the same serum. The results suggest that quantitative methods may be used to detect differences in immunoglobulin structure, when qualitative methods fail. They show that different human IgM paraproteins cannot be directly compared quantitatively by the radial immunodiffusion method. PMID:4128890

Klein, F.; De Bruyn, A. M.; Radema, H.

1973-01-01

27

Antivirus software Spyware protection  

E-print Network

adapter and cable (yellow wire in the above photo), you can easily and quickly perform many tasks from your room. Do NOT use a phone cable (black and gray wires in the above photo.) How do you get Res connecting your computer to the university Towers network. Road Runner cable modem service is provided

28

Heavy element enrichment in the IGM at high redshift  

E-print Network

We present a detailed analysis of the ionisation state and heavy element abundances in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). The CIV doublet is shown by 30 % of the 182 selected optically thin \\lya clouds in 10 QSO lines of sight. Direct metallicity calculations have been performed on individual systems with detected CIV and SiIV (10% of the sample) varying the UV photoionising source, cloud density and size and silicon relative abundance. The best solutions for carbon content in this subsample (redshift coverage $z=2.6 - 3.8$) span between 1/6 and 1/300 of the solar value with no evidence of redshift evolution in both the metallicity and the ionising source. Global properties of the whole sample indicate that the metallicity in \\lya clouds with CIV and SiIV is not typical of the IGM. The redshift evolution of the UVB is one of the possible sources of the observed SiIV/CIV trend presented by Cowie and collaborators during this meeting. Future detection of heavy elements in lower HI column density ($\\log N_{HI} < 14.5$) \\lya clouds relies on the presence of OVI and NV at $z=1-2.5$.

S. Savaglio

1997-09-16

29

Ly1 B Cells: Functionally Distinct Lymphocytes That Secrete IgM Autoantibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies presented here introduce another perspective on the mechanisms responsible for IgM autoantibody production. A unique subpopulation of B lymphocytes (Ly-1 B) that concomitantly expresses IgM, IgD, Ia, and Ly-1 membrane glycoproteins is present at higher frequencies in NZB and NZB-related mice. The Ly-1 B subpopulation in these autoimmune animals is responsible for the ``spontaneous'' IgM secretion demonstrated with cultured

Kyoko Hayakawa; Richard R. Hardy; Masaaki Honda; Leonard A. Herzenberg; Alfred D. Steinberg; Leonore A. Herzenberg

1984-01-01

30

IgM nephropathy: timely response to a call for action  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the largest antibody molecule and is deposited in the glomeruli in a wide variety of both primary and secondary glomerulopathies. The data on its pathogenic role are conflicting till date. A recent study provides evidence for the involvement of natural antibody IgM in fixing and activating complement and causing glomerular injury, proteinuria, and glomerulosclerosis in an animal model. This finding is important in understanding the pathogenesis of the related disorder of IgM nephropathy.

Mubarak, Muhammed; Nasri, Hamid

2014-01-01

31

Low molecular weight IgM and CD5 B lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the role of low molecular weight (LMW) IgM and CD5 B cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to explore the possibility that LMW IgM is derived selectively from this subset of B cells. METHODS--LMW IgM in sera and culture supernatants was detected by a sensitive immunoblot technique with an enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. CD5 B cells were determined by FACScan cytometry. In vitro studies were established in culture plates containing pokeweed mitogen with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). Supernatants were obtained from CD5 positive hybridomas and CD5 negative hybridomas. Other immunological indices were measured by laser nephelometry. RESULTS--Circulating LMW IgM was detected in all rheumatoid patients with significantly higher levels being observed in sero-positive patients. LMW IgM correlated significantly with total IgM and RF. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the majority of the patients with RA secreted LMW IgM in vitro as did mononuclear cells from a synovial fluid sample. The addition of low concentrations of 2-ME to the culture medium enhanced the proportions of secreted monomeric IgM. In contrast, PBMC from healthy subjects secreted only trace quantities of LMW IgM. In RA no significant correlations were observed between CD5 B cells and LMW IgM and RF. LMW IgM could be detected in the supernatants from both CD5+ and CD5- B cell lines. Finally, CD5 B cells were not significantly elevated in RA and levels remained constant over time. CONCLUSION--LMW IgM exists in high concentrations in RA sera and synovial fluid. Serum level correlates with RF and IgM. In vitro studies have suggested that the occurrence of LMW IgM may be due to an intrinsic defect(s) in the assembly of the IgM pentameric molecule. LMW IgM is unlikely to be derived solely from CD5 B cells. Images PMID:7518662

Xu, H; Geddes, R; Roberts-Thomson, P J

1994-01-01

32

Effect of various absorption enhancers based on tight junctions on the intestinal absorption of forsythoside A in Shuang-Huang-Lian, application to its antivirus activity  

PubMed Central

Background: Forsythoside A (FTA), one of the main active ingredients in Shuang–Huang–Lian (SHL), possesses strong antibacterial, antioxidant and antiviral effects, and its pharmacological effects was higher than that of other ingredients, but the absolute bioavailability orally was approximately 0.72%, which was significantly low, influencing clinical efficacies of its oral preparations seriously. Materials and Methods: In vitro Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics study were simultaneously performed to investigate the effects of absorption enhancers based on tight junctions: sodium caprate and water-soluble chitosan on the intestinal absorption of FTA, and the eventual mucosal epithelial damage resulted from absorption enhancers was evaluated by MTT test and morphology observation, respectively. The pharmacological effects such as antivirus activity improvement by absorption enhancers were verified by MDCK damage inhibition rate after influenza virus propagation. Results: The observations from in vitro Caco-2 cell showed that the absorption of FTA in SHL could be improved by absorption enhancers. Meanwhile, the absorption enhancing effect of water-soluble chitosan may be almost saturable up to 0.0032% (w/v), and sodium caprate at concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL was safe, but water-soluble chitosan at different concentrations was all safe for these cells. In pharmacokinetics study, water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg improved the bioavailability of FTA in SHL to the greatest extent, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with SHL with water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation better significantly than that of control. Conclusion: Water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg might be safe and effective absorption enhancer for improving the bioavailability of FTA and the antivirus activity in vitro in SHL. PMID:24695554

Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Xuan Xuan; Yin, Ai Ling; Cai, Bao Chang; Wang, Hai Dan; Di, Liuqing; Shan, Jin Jun

2014-01-01

33

Identification of a Novel Host-Specific IgM Protease in Streptococcus suis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a highly invasive, extracellular pathogen in pigs with the capacity to cause severe infections in humans. This study was initiated by the finding that IgM degradation products are released after opsonization of S. suis. The objective of this work was to identify the bacterial factor responsible for IgM degradation. The results of this study showed that a member of the IdeS family, designated IdeSsuis (Immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of S. suis), is responsible and sufficient for IgM cleavage. Recombinant IdeSsuis was found to degrade only IgM but neither IgG nor IgA. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that IdeSsuis is host specific, as it exclusively cleaves porcine IgM but not IgM from six other species, including a closely related member of the Suidae family. As demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, IdeSsuis modulates binding of IgM to the bacterial surface. IdeSsuis is the first prokaryotic IgM-specific protease described, indicating that this enzyme is involved in a so-far-unknown mechanism of host-pathogen interaction at an early stage of the host immune response. Furthermore, cleavage of porcine IgM by IdeSsuis is the first identified phenotype reflecting functional adaptation of S. suis to pigs as the main host. PMID:23243300

Seele, Jana; Singpiel, Alena; Spoerry, Christian; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

2013-01-01

34

Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels  

E-print Network

Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels Catherine Fe´art1, University of Lille 2, Lille, France, 8 INSERM, U837, Lille, France Abstract Objective: Herpes simplex virus, et al. (2011) Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels. PLo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Low molecular weight IgM in selective IgA deficiency.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-nine persons with selective IgA deficiency were studied. These comprised 27 subjects found by population screening and 12 by other means. Low molecular weight (LMW) serum IgM was sought in 28 of the 39 persons. Nine of the 28 (32%) had LMW IgM detectable by a sensitive gel filtration technique. Of 17 patients discovered by screening, five (29%) had LMW IgM. In the nine positive persons, LMW IgM constituted up to 17% of the total serum IgM concentration. Eight of the nine IgA deficient persons with LMW IgM, had clinical disease while associated disease in the entire IgA deficient population was less frequent. Serum immune complexes were demonstrated in five of seven subjects with LMW IgM using a C1q-dependent radioimmunoassay; four of these had immune complex associated disorders, three with polyarthritis and one with glomerulonephritis. Because circulating immune complexes are frequently detected in IgA deficient persons without disease, it is proposed that the presence of LMW serum IgM in IgA deficiency may be associated with disease due to the formation of specific pathogenic immune complexes. PMID:7172505

Kwitko, A O; Roberts-Thomson, P J; Shearman, D J

1982-01-01

36

The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic  

PubMed Central

The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

Hanala, Sherif

2012-01-01

37

Transcriptional Heterogeneity of IgM+ Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Tissues  

PubMed Central

Two major classes of B lymphocytes have been described to date in rainbow trout: IgM+ and IgT+ cells. IgM+ cells are mainly localized in the spleen, peripheral blood and kidney but are also found in other tissues. However, differences among IgM+ cell populations attending to its location are poorly defined in fish. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the expression of different immune molecules such as chemokine receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and transcription factors on sorted IgM+ lymphocytes from different rainbow trout tissues. IgM+ populations from blood, spleen, kidney, gills, intestine and liver were isolated by cell sorting and the constitutive levels of transcription of these genes evaluated by real-time PCR. To further characterize B cells, we identified an MS4A sequence. In humans, the MS4A family includes several genes with immune functions, such as the B cell marker CD20 or FcR?. Subsequently, we have also evaluated the mRNA levels of this MS4A gene in the different IgM+ populations. The relevant differences in transcriptional patterns observed for each of these IgM+ populations analyzed, point to the presence of functionally different tissue-specific B cell populations in rainbow trout. The data shown provides a pattern of genes transcribed in IgM+ B cells not previously revealed in teleost fish. Furthermore, the constitutive expression of all the TLR genes analyzed in IgM+ cells suggests an important role for these cells in innate immunity. PMID:24324826

Abos, Beatriz; Castro, Rosario; Pignatelli, Jaime; Luque, Alfonso; Gonzalez, Lucia; Tafalla, Carolina

2013-01-01

38

Diagn?stico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA  

PubMed Central

Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

Gonzalez-Valcarcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

2011-01-01

39

Sequence analyses of three immunoglobulin G anti-virus antibodies reveal their utilization of autoantibody-related immunoglobulin Vh genes, but not V lambda genes.  

PubMed

Accumulated sequence analyses of the antibody repertoire have revealed that most autoantibodies and developmentally regulated antibodies share a small set of germline Ig-variable region (V) genes. The findings have prompted speculation that certain autoantibodies are of developmental importance and may be instrumental in maintaining homeostasis of the adult antibody repertoire. In order to evaluate this hypothesis critically, it is first necessary to determine the V gene usage in human antibodies against foreign substances. Unfortunately, only a few such antibodies have had their heavy and light chains characterized. To rectify the situation, we adapted the anchored polymerase chain reaction to clone and analyze rapidly the expressed V genes for three anti-virus IgG antibodies. The results show that all three heavy chain V (Vh) genes are highly homologous to the known autoantibody-related Vh genes. In contrast, two light chain V (VL) genes of the V lambda 1 subgroup are similar to a non-autoantibody-related germline V lambda 1 gene. Taken together with the reported Vh and VL sequences of several antibodies against viruses and bacteria, the data show that many antipathogen antibodies may use the same small set of Vh genes that encode autoantibodies, but diverse VL genes that are distinct from autoantibody-related VL genes. Thus, only a small portion of the potentially functional germline Vh genes are used recurrently to generate most antibodies in a normal antibody repertoire, regardless of their reactivities with either self or non-self. PMID:1334971

Huang, D F; Olee, T; Masuho, Y; Matsumoto, Y; Carson, D A; Chen, P P

1992-12-01

40

Modelling the IGM and the Ly alpha forest at high redshift from the dark matter distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of approximate schemes for modelling the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) in the high-redshift Universe are compared with the results of a large high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation. These schemes use either an analytical description of the dark matter distribution and the IGM or numerical simulations of the dark matter (DM) distributions combined with different approximate relations between dark matter field

M. Viel; S. Matarrese; H. J. Mo; Tom Theuns; M. G. Haehnelt

2002-01-01

41

Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime.  

PubMed

Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50× 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM(+)) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG(+) plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

2014-11-01

42

Detection of anticardiolipin antibody igm by sm(3+)-labeled time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.  

PubMed

In an effort to improve the quantitative detection of aCL IgM, we develop a new immunoassay to improve aCL IgM detection based on TRFIA using the complex of cardiolipin plus bovine ?2GPI as antigen and Sm(3+)-labeled rabbit anti-human IgM as conjugate. The precision, sensitivity, specificity, coefficient of recovery, and stability of the assay were evaluated and comparison with the classical ELISA was also made. The aCL IgM TRFIA kit we established had a wider detectable range than commercial ELISA ones when diluted a specimen with strong positive from 1:2.5-1:40960. We observed that for the established TRFIA kit there was a good liner range within 1:2.5-1:40960, whereas it was within 1:20-1:1280 when using ELISA kits. The intraassay precision rate and the interassay precision rate were <5% for 3 different concentrations. The sensitivity was 0.1MPL U/mL and the clinical diagnostic specificity was 98%. Average recovery rate was 101.13%. The established assay kit also behaved better in stability. Additionally, the immunoassay we established correlated well with the ELISA and the correlation coefficient was 0.956. We thus conclude that the TRFIA we developed for aCL IgM detection gives promise to a more sensitivity and reliable diagnosis of APS and has potential value for large-scale screening programs. PMID:23656246

Hu, Zhigang; Liu, Jie; Ye, Yan; Zhou, Yaohong; Yu, Lei

2013-01-01

43

On Modeling and Measuring the Temperature of the z~5 IGM  

E-print Network

The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is sensitive to the timing and nature of hydrogen and HeII reionization, and can be measured from Lyman-alpha forest absorption spectra. Since the memory of intergalactic gas to heating during reionization gradually fades, measurements as close as possible to reionization are desirable. In addition, measuring the IGM temperature at sufficiently high redshifts should help to isolate the effects of hydrogen reionization since HeII reionization starts later, at lower redshift. Motivated by this, we model the IGM temperature at z>5 using semi-numeric models of patchy reionization. We construct mock Lyman-alpha forest spectra from these models and consider their observable implications. We find that the small-scale structure in the Lyman-alpha forest is sensitive to the temperature of the IGM even at redshifts where the average absorption in the forest is as high as 90%. We forecast the accuracy at which the z~5 IGM temperature can be m...

Lidz, Adam

2014-01-01

44

The purification and characterisation of cervine IgM and IgG.  

PubMed

A procedure is described for the isolation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) from hyperimmune cervine serum. Hybrids of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis) were immunised with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). An immunoglobulin-containing fraction was precipitated from the hyperimmune serum using ammonium sulphate. The antigen-specific immunoglobulins were purified by KLH-conjugated sepharose affinity chromatography and further separated into IgM and IgG by gel-filtration chromatography. Purified immunoglobulin was analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weights and isoelectric points of the composite chains of cervine IgG and IgM are presented. PMID:2075697

Hibma, M H; Griffin, J F

1990-12-01

45

Antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 2 pathway suppresses IL-6-induced immunoglobulin IgM secretion  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed predominantly in the immune system, particularly in plasma cells, raising the possibility that targeting the CB2 pathway could yield an immunomodulatory effect. Although the role of CB2 in mediating immunoglobulin class switching has been reported, the effects of targeting the CB2 pathway on immunoglobulin secretion per se remain unclear. Methods Human B cell line SKW 6.4, which is capable of differentiating into IgM-secreting cells once treated with human IL-6, was employed as the cell model. SKW 6.4 cells were incubated for 4 days with CB2 ligands plus IL-6 (100 U/ml). The amount of secreted IgM was determined by an ELISA. Cell proliferation was determined by the 3H-Thymidine incorporation assay. Signal molecules involved in the modulation of IgM secretion were examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses or by using their specific inhibitors. Results We demonstrated that CB2 inverse agonists SR144528 and AM630, but not CB2 agonist HU308 or CB1 antagonist SR141716, effectively inhibited IL-6-induced secretion of soluble IgM without affecting cell proliferation as measured by thymidine uptake. SR144528 alone had no effects on the basal levels of IgM in the resting cells. These effects were receptor mediated, as pretreatment with CB2 agonist abrogated SR144528-mediated inhibition of IL-6 stimulated IgM secretion. Transcription factors relevant to B cell differentiation, Bcl-6 and PAX5, as well as the protein kinase STAT3 pathway were involved in the inhibition of IL-6-induced IgM by SR144528. Conclusions These results uncover a novel function of CB2 antagonists and suggest that CB2 ligands may be potential modulators of immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:24913620

2014-01-01

46

Increased urinary IgM excretion in patients with chest pain due to coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Background Micro-albuminuria is a recognized predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. We have previously reported, in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, that an increased urinary excretion of IgM is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of urinary IgM excretion in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its correlation to cardiovascular outcome. Methods Urine albumin, and IgM to creatinine concentration ratios were determined in 178 consecutive patients presenting with chest pain to the Department of Emergency Medicine (ED) at the University Hospital of Lund. Fifty eight (23 female) patients had ACS, 55 (19 female) patients had stable angina (SA), and 65 (35 female) patients were diagnosed as non-specific chest pain (NS). Results Urine albumin and IgM excretions were significantly higher in patients with ACS (p?=?0.001, and p?=?0.029, respectively) compared to patients with NS-chest pain. During the 2 years follow-up time, 40 (19 female) patients suffered a new major cardiovascular event (ACS, acute heart failure, stroke) and 5 (4 male/1 female) patients died of cardiovascular cause. A high degree of albuminuria and IgM-uria significantly predicted cardiovascular mortality and morbidity (HR?=?2.89, 95% CI: 1.48 - 5.66, p?=?0.002). Microalbuminuric patients (?3?mg/mmol) with high IgM-uria (?0.005?mg/mmol) had a 3-fold higher risk for cardiovascular new events compared to patients with low IgM-uria (RR?=?3.3, 95% CI: 1.1 - 9.9, p?=?0.001). Conclusion In patients with chest pain, an increased urine IgM excretion, is associated with coronary artery disease and long-term cardiovascular complications. Measuring urine IgM concentration could have a clinical value in risk stratification of patients with ACS. PMID:24028208

2013-01-01

47

Evaluation of an immunofluorescent antibody test to detect bovine herpesvirus 1-specific IgM.  

PubMed

An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IIFAT) was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)-specific IgM. All sera were treated with protein-G agarose prior to testing to eliminate the possibility of false-positive results due to IgM-isotype rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). Specific IgM was first detected 8 days after experimental infection of 3 calves free of maternally derived antibody, with peak responses occurring 2-7 days later. Seroconversion was detected in all 3 calves using a single-dilution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following reinfection at 30 days postinfection, a low-level IgM response was detected in only 1 calf. Seroconversion was detected in 2 calves. There was no evidence of activation of IgM-RF by infection or reinfection with BHV-1. When 87 acute and convalescent serum pairs collected from 21 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested, specific IgM was detected in 58 animals (66.6%) from 19 (90.5%) outbreaks. Seroconversion was detected in 44 of these animals (50.6%) from 17 outbreaks (81.0%). The correlations between these 2 assays on a calf and outbreak basis were 79.3% and 90.5%, respectively. Specific IgM was detected in 17/20 sera (85.0%) collected from an additional outbreak. No virus was detected by virus isolation or immunofluorescent staining in nasal mucus samples collected at the same time. Detection of specific IgM by IIFAT is a useful technique for the serodiagnosis of BHV-1 infection. PMID:10424647

Graham, D A; Foster, J C; German, A; McLaren, I E; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1999-07-01

48

DETECCIÓN DE ANTICUERPOS CONTRA Borrelia burgdorferi E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE GARRAPATAS IXODIDAS EN PIURA Y AMAZONAS, PERÚ  

Microsoft Academic Search

TM Lyme IgG\\/IgM (Trinity biotech) la presencia de anticuerpos contra Borrelia burgdorferi. Además, se colectaron garrapatas en animales domésticos por búsqueda directa. Resultados: Se detectó seropositividad en 9,9 % de los sueros evaluados. Asimismo, de 433 garrapatas colectadas se identifica- ron los géneros: Ixodes (5,5%), Amblyomma (18,0%), Rhipicephalus (23,5%), Anocentor (31,1%) y Boophilus (21,7%). Conclusiones: Existen personas seropositivas por Borrelia

Martha Glenny A; Leonardo Mendoza U; Eduardo Falconí R

49

Ion channels as antivirus targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion channels are membrane proteins that are found in a number of viruses and which are of crucial physiological importance\\u000a in the viral life cycle. They have one common feature in that their action mode involves a change of electrochemical or proton\\u000a gradient across the bilayer lipid membrane which modulates viral or cellular activity. We will discuss a group of

Xin Liang; Zhi-yuan Li

2010-01-01

50

Baryonic Content in the Warm-Hot IGM at Low Redshift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baryons are 4.5% of the universe's mass/energy density; only 10% of these are in stars, galaxies, and clusters. At low-redshift 90% of baryons are in the IGM, 30% in Ly-alpha forest, but most are in hot gas (10(exp 5-7) K) produced by shocks during structure formation. O VI 1032-38 A are the best tracers of this gas. The distribution of O VI absorbers observed by FUSE rises as N(sup -2+/-0.2, down to 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Integrated to logN=13, 7% of baryons reside in the O VI-bearing IGM at 10% solar metallicity, T approx. 10(exp 5.5) K. At redshift z<0.1 metals have been transported less than 800/h kpc from L* galaxies and 200/h kpc from 0.1 L* galaxies. The steepness of dN/dz means that low-N absorbers contribute an equal mass of hot IGM as higher N gas. The total mass of O VI-bearing gas in the IGM depends on determining the turnover in dN/dz at low N(O VI). Future observations by FUSE are needed to reach lower N and to reduce the uncertainty in the dN/dz power law.

Sonneborn, George; Shull, M.; Danforth, C.; Moos, W.

2007-01-01

51

IgM Repertoire Biodiversity is Reduced in HIV-1 Infection and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Background: HIV-1 infection or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disrupt B cell homeostasis, reduce memory B cells, and impair function of IgG and IgM antibodies. Objective: To determine how disturbances in B cell populations producing polyclonal antibodies relate to the IgM repertoire, the IgM transcriptome in health and disease was explored at the complementarity determining region 3 (CDRH3) sequence level. Methods: 454-deep pyrosequencing in combination with a novel analysis pipeline was applied to define populations of IGHM CDRH3 sequences based on absence or presence of somatic hypermutations (SHM) in peripheral blood B cells. Results: HIV or SLE subjects have reduced biodiversity within their IGHM transcriptome compared to healthy subjects, mainly due to a significant decrease in the number of unique combinations of alleles, although recombination machinery was intact. While major differences between sequences without or with SHM occurred among all groups, IGHD and IGHJ allele use, CDRH3 length distribution, or generation of SHM were similar among study cohorts. Antiretroviral therapy failed to normalize IGHM biodiversity in HIV-infected individuals. All subjects had a low frequency of allelic combinations within the IGHM repertoire similar to known broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Conclusion: Polyclonal expansion would decrease overall IgM biodiversity independent of other mechanisms for development of the B cell repertoire. Applying deep sequencing as a strategy to follow development of the IgM repertoire in health and disease provides a novel molecular assessment of multiple points along the B cell differentiation pathway that is highly sensitive for detecting perturbations within the repertoire at the population level. PMID:24298273

Yin, Li; Hou, Wei; Liu, Li; Cai, Yunpeng; Wallet, Mark Andrew; Gardner, Brent Paul; Chang, Kaifen; Lowe, Amanda Catherine; Rodriguez, Carina Adriana; Sriaroon, Panida; Farmerie, William George; Sleasman, John William; Goodenow, Maureen Michels

2013-01-01

52

The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic: November 15-16, 2011, Frankfurt, Germany.  

PubMed

The inaugural IgM event entitled "The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic" brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23-24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

Hanala, Sherif

2012-01-01

53

Parasite-specific IgM plays a significant role in the protective immune response to asexual erythrocytic stage Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection.  

PubMed

A comparison of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in BALB/c and BALB/c IgM-deficient mice demonstrated a protective role for IgM during infection. IgM-/- mice, unlike microMT mice, display competent B cell humoral immune responses. Increased susceptibility of IgM-/- mice was demonstrated by increased mortality, an advanced ascending infection and higher peak parasitaemia, as well as enhanced anaemia and weight loss compared with wild-type mice. The recrudescent parasitaemias were also higher in the IgM-/- mice. Early specific IgM production in P. chabaudi-infected wild-type mice was followed by IgG1 and IgG2a production, while IgG1 and IgG2a production in IgM-/- mice was preceded by specific IgD production. No protective role for natural IgM against P. chabaudi AS infection was detected as passive transfer of naïve WT serum into IgM-/- mice did not alter the disease outcome or reduce parasite numbers. Passive transfer of WT antiserum, containing predominantly specific IgM, into IgM-/- mice delayed the ascending parasitaemia and reduced mortality. Similarly, coating parasitized red blood cells with WT antiserum, but not IgM-/- antisera, prior to infection also slightly delayed the ascending acute parasitaemia. Specific IgM therefore plays an important role in the limitation of parasite replication during asexual erythrocytic P. chabaudi AS infection. PMID:15987340

Couper, K N; Phillips, R S; Brombacher, F; Alexander, J

2005-05-01

54

Prevalence, specificity and functionality of anti-ganglioside antibodies in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.  

PubMed

IgM antibodies against gangliosides and their complexes were studied in sera from 54 patients with polyneuropathy and IgM monoclonal gammopathy (IgM-PNP) without anti-MAG antibodies. Anti-ganglioside antibodies were found in 19 (35%) patients. Five (9%) patients had antibodies against ganglioside complexes. IgM antibodies against gangliosides activated complement in vitro. Light chain usage was restricted to kappa or lambda in most, but not all patients. In conclusion, anti-ganglioside antibodies in IgM-PNP are common, display pathogenic properties and do not always arise from a monoclonal B cell proliferation. PMID:24529728

Stork, Abraham C J; Jacobs, Bart C; Tio-Gillen, Anne P; Eurelings, Marijke; Jansen, Marc D; van den Berg, Leonard H; Notermans, Nicolette C; van der Pol, W-Ludo

2014-03-15

55

Functional affinity of IgM rheumatoid factor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed Central

The functional affinity of IgM rheumatoid factors (RF) was measured in 31 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 24 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 13 with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and in 13 seropositive healthy individuals. The functional affinity of IgM RF from patients with RA was significantly lower than in the other clinical groups studied. In addition, there was a significant inverse correlation between functional affinity and titre of IgM RF in all the groups. These results suggest that the usual mechanisms of affinity based selective pressure (somatic diversification and antigen selection) may operate differently for autoantibodies to serum antigens such as IgG. PMID:3365027

Rath, S; Hogben, D N; Devey, M E

1988-01-01

56

Inadequacy of IgM Antibody Tests for Diagnosis of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.  

PubMed

Among 13 suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) cases identified through an enhanced surveillance program in Tennessee, antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii were detected in 10 (77%) patients using a standard indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were observed for 6 of 13 patients (46%) without a corresponding development of IgG, and for 3 of 10 patients (30%) at least 1 year post-onset. However, recent infection with a spotted fever group rickettsiae could not be confirmed for any patient, based on a lack of rising antibody titers in properly timed acute and convalescent serologic specimens, and negative findings by polymerase chain reaction testing. Case definitions used in national surveillance programs lack specificity and may capture cases that do not represent current rickettsial infections. Use of IgM antibodies should be reconsidered as a basis for diagnosis and public health reporting of RMSF and other spotted fever group rickettsiae in the United States. PMID:25092818

McQuiston, Jennifer H; Wiedeman, Caleb; Singleton, Joseph; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Mosites, Emily; Chung, Ida; Kato, Cecilia; Morris, Kevin; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Porter, Susan; Dunn, John

2014-10-01

57

Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited

Paul U. Cameron; Penelope Jones; Malgorzata Gorniak; Kate Dunster; Eldho Paul; Sharon Lewin; Ian Woolley; Denis Spelman

2011-01-01

58

The Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in the Shark1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IgM H chain gene organization of cartilaginous fishes consists of 15-200 miniloci, each with a few gene segments (VH-D1- D2-JH) and one C gene. This is a gene arrangement ancestral to the complex IgH locus that exists in all other vertebrate classes. To understand the molecular evolution of this system, we studied the nurse shark, which has relatively fewer

Victor Lee; Jing Li Huang; Ming Fai Lui; Karolina Malecek; Yuko Ohta; Arne Mooers; Ellen Hsu

59

Interconversion of different crystal forms of Fabs from human IgM cryoglobulins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attempts to produce diffraction-quality crystals of Fabs from two human IgM cryoglobulins (Pot and Yvo), we observed unexpected interconversions in crystal morphologies. The Pot Fab crystallized in two forms when polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6,000 was used as the precipitating agent. Broad, relatively short rods with hexagonal cross-sections were our crystals of choice. However, long, thin rods that were often

Paul A. Ramsland; Jadee L. Upshaw; Brandon B. Shultz; Christina R. DeWitt; William F. Chissoe III; Robert L. Raison; Allen B. Edmundson

2001-01-01

60

A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

2013-07-01

61

A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons  

PubMed Central

Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks. PMID:23881231

Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

2013-01-01

62

International standards for IgG and IgM anti-?2glycoprotein antibody measurement.  

PubMed

International standards for anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (anti-?2GPI) testing are needed. We evaluated the suitability of polyclonal/monoclonal candidate reference materials (RM) for the assay. IgG/IgM anti-?2GPI were affinity-purified (AP) from high-positive antiphospholipid syndrome sera and IgG from HCAL clone supernatant. Igs were tested for purity by SDS-PAGE, pooled, concentrated, sterile-filtered and the protein concentration determined. One unit was defined as the binding activity of 1?µg/ml of AP anti-?2GPI Ig. IgG/IgM RM were each assigned a unit value using the respective AP material as a calibrator. Polyclonal/monoclonal RM and 30 samples were evaluated for linearity, unit equivalency and commutability. Polyclonal AP material was assigned a value of 100 U IgG and 15?U IgM anti-?2GPI, respectively. IgG-RM had a value of 270 IgG and the IgM-RM of 220.3 IgM anti-?2GPI U. The linearity (R (2)) of each RM curve for the various assays ranged from 0.96 to 0.99. Commutability samples fit very well within 95% prediction intervals and had excellent correlation when comparing assays. IgG and IgM polyclonal and IgG monoclonal RM displayed excellent linearity and commutability, being good candidates for better standardization of anti-?2GPI immunoassays. PMID:25228737

Willis, R; Grossi, C; Orietta Borghi, M; Martos-Sevilla, G; Zegers, I; Sheldon, J; Meroni, Pl

2014-10-01

63

Serum Free Light Chain Only Myeloma with Cytoplasmic IgM  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, the serum free light chain (FLC) immunoassays have become widely available enabling greater sensitivity in the diagnosis and management of monoclonal light chain diseases. Here, we describe a rare case of serum free light chain only myeloma with cytoplasmic IgM. A 75-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening lumbosacral pain. FDG PET/CT images showed increased FDG uptake in the sacral mass, vertebral bodies, and ribs. Laboratory data found hypogammaglobulinemia and the bone marrow aspirate revealed only 2.2% of plasma cells. The serum and urine protein electrophoresis did not detect a monoclonal band. However, the serum FLC immunoassays reported an abnormal kappa/lambda ratio (0.001) indicating the presence of monoclonal lambda FLC. The sacral tumor biopsy revealed proliferation of plasma cells and immunohistochemical staining showed that the plasma cells were positive for CD138, IgM, and lambda light chain but negative for CD20. This case may have previously been described as a nonsecretory IgM myeloma but recently would be identified as free light chain only myeloma. The immunohistochemical and genetic features of the clonal plasma cells in free light chain only myeloma need to be further investigated to better understand the relevance and incidence of this myeloma type. PMID:25028614

Ebana, Hideaki; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Nozawa, Yoshihiro; Seki, Ritsuko

2014-01-01

64

Serum Free Light Chain Only Myeloma with Cytoplasmic IgM.  

PubMed

In the past decade, the serum free light chain (FLC) immunoassays have become widely available enabling greater sensitivity in the diagnosis and management of monoclonal light chain diseases. Here, we describe a rare case of serum free light chain only myeloma with cytoplasmic IgM. A 75-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening lumbosacral pain. FDG PET/CT images showed increased FDG uptake in the sacral mass, vertebral bodies, and ribs. Laboratory data found hypogammaglobulinemia and the bone marrow aspirate revealed only 2.2% of plasma cells. The serum and urine protein electrophoresis did not detect a monoclonal band. However, the serum FLC immunoassays reported an abnormal kappa/lambda ratio (0.001) indicating the presence of monoclonal lambda FLC. The sacral tumor biopsy revealed proliferation of plasma cells and immunohistochemical staining showed that the plasma cells were positive for CD138, IgM, and lambda light chain but negative for CD20. This case may have previously been described as a nonsecretory IgM myeloma but recently would be identified as free light chain only myeloma. The immunohistochemical and genetic features of the clonal plasma cells in free light chain only myeloma need to be further investigated to better understand the relevance and incidence of this myeloma type. PMID:25028614

Ebana, Hideaki; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Nozawa, Yoshihiro; Seki, Ritsuko; Mita, Masayuki

2014-01-01

65

Constraints on the IGM Temperature-Density Relationship from BOSS Lyman-? Forest Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of the photoionized intergalactic medium (IGM) contain vital clues on the thermal history of the Universe, such as reionization events (both HI and HeII), quasar/AGN activity, and galaxy formation. We use 2541 quasar spectra from BOSS Data Release 9 to place constraints on the evolution of the IGM temperature-density relationship (usually parametrized as ?, where log T ? ? log ?) at 2.15IGM studies. We use a MCMC-based method to separate the photon-counting and CCD components of the spectral noise by differencing the individual exposures of each spectrum, while simultaneously providing accurate noise estimates. This allows us to create mock absorption spectra from detailed hydrodynamical simulations generated with different values of ?, with realistic noise properties tailored to each individual BOSS spectrum. For the continuum fitting, we use the mean-flux regulated PCA method, which allows accurate estimates 4% rms errors) of the underlying quasar continuum even in noisy spectra. Comparing the flux PDF from the mock spectra with the observed flux PDF from BOSS, we place constraints on the evolution of ? from z=3 to z=2 and discuss the results in the context of Helium reionization scenarios.

Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, J.; Spergel, D. N.; Hogg, D. W.; Viel, M.; Pieri, M.; Bolton, J.; Bailey, S. J.; Ge, J.; Schlegel, D. J.; Suzuki, N.; BOSS Collaboration

2013-01-01

66

Clonal dominance. I. Restricted nature of the IgM antibody response to group A streptococcal carbohydrate in mice  

PubMed Central

The IgM antibody response of mice to the streptococcal group A carbohydrate (GAC) was measured. With most strains tested, large amounts of IgM antibody were produced; in AKR mice, over 1% of the total nucleated spleen cells secreted IgM anti-GAC antibody after hyperimmunization. The relative avidity of the antibody was extimated by a modification of the Jerne plaque assay where spleen cells from individual mice were tested against erythrocytes with varying GAC epitope densitymthese studies showed that the earliest, as well as latest, IgM antibodies produced were highly restricted in avidity heterogeneity. No evidence of affinity maturation was seen upon hyperimmunization. These data favor the conclusion that the restricted IgG response seen in mice hyperimmunized to GAC is not the result of affinity driven competition for antigen among precursor cells. PMID:1092797

1975-01-01

67

IgG and IgM antibody reactivity to antigens of Treponema pallidum after treatment of syphilis.  

PubMed

The persistence or loss of IgG and IgM antibody specificities for individual polypeptides of Treponema pallidum after therapy for syphilis was examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by the Western blot technique. Both IgG and IgM antibodies to as many as 12 treponemal antigens, including a major 47-kdalton molecule, were evident in plasma from patients with untreated primary syphilis. IgM reactivity declined rapidly and uniformly after therapy, whereas IgG persisted despite some diminution in intensity of staining. Faint-to-moderate IgM and strong IgG antibody reactivities to at least 22 treponemal antigens (12-85 kdaltons) were identified in plasma from patients with untreated secondary and early latent syphilis. Again, IgG antibody declined slightly in staining intensity after treatment but continued to show reactivity against all molecules detected initially. IgM antibody reactivity declined more rapidly and was lost entirely against some determinants, including the 14- and 12-kdalton molecules. Immunofluorescence titers of IgG and IgM antibodies to T. pallidum in sera from these patients generally correlated with results of Western blot analysis. Antibody to the 12-, 14-, and 47-kdalton molecules of T. pallidum may have potential diagnostic applications. PMID:3544253

Baker-Zander, S A; Roddy, R E; Handsfield, H H; Lukehart, S A

1986-01-01

68

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).  

PubMed

Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM? B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring. PMID:22771742

Purcell, Maureen K; Bromage, Erin S; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D; Badil, Samantha M; Woodson, James C; Hershberger, Paul K

2012-09-01

69

IgG and IgM autoantibody differences in discoid and systemic lupus patients  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus (SLE) patients with discoid lupus (DLE) were reported to have milder disease. To test this observation, we employed sandwich arrays containing 98 autoantigens to compare autoantibody profiles of SLE subjects without DLE (DLE?SLE+) (N=9), SLE subjects with DLE (DLE+SLE+) (N=10), DLE subjects without SLE (DLE+SLE?) (N=11), and healthy controls (N=11). We validated differentially expressed autoantibodies using immunoassays in DLE?SLE+ (N=18), DLE+SLE+ (N=17), DLE+SLE? (N=23), and healthy subjects (N=22). Arrays showed 15 IgG autoantibodies (ten against nuclear antigens) and four IgM autoantibodies that were differentially expressed (q-value<0.05). DLE?SLE+ subjects had higher IgG autoantibodies against dsDNA, ssDNA, dsRNA, histone H2A and H2B, and SS-A (52 kDa) than all other groups including DLE+SLE+ subjects (p<0.05). Immunoassays measuring anti-dsDNA, -ssDNA, and -SS-A (52 kDa) IgG autoantibodies showed similar trends (p<0.05). Healthy and DLE+SLE?subjects expressed higher IgM autoantibodies against alpha beta crystallin, lipopolysaccharide, heat shock cognate 70, and desmoglein-3 than DLE+SLE+ and DLE?SLE+ subjects. IgG:IgM ratios of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens progressively rose from healthy to DLE?SLE+ subjects. In conclusion, lower IgG autoantibodies against nuclear antigens in DLE+SLE+ versus DLE?SLE+ subjects suggest that DLE indicates lower disease severity. Higher IgM autoantibodies against selected antigens in healthy and DLE+SLE?subjects may be non-pathogenic. PMID:22763789

Chong, Benjamin F.; Tseng, Lin-chiang; Lee, Thomas; Vasquez, Rebecca; Li, Quan Z.; Zhang, Song; Karp, David R.; Olsen, Nancy J.; Mohan, Chandra

2012-01-01

70

[Gross haematuria as the primary symptom of extramedullary IgM plasmacytoma of the bladder].  

PubMed

Haematuria is the most common clinical symptom of bladder cancer. Besides antibiotic treatment of a probably existing urinary tract infection, ultrasonography of the urinary organs, diagnostic cystoscopy (with biopsy if needed), and radiologic evaluation of the upper urinary tract (intravenous urography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance urography, retrograde pyelography) should be done for further evaluation. Atypical manifestations of systemic diseases with bladder infiltration could feign the clinical appearance of chronic cystitis and hinder determination of the correct diagnosis. The case of a 40-year-old man with recurrent gross haematuria due to extremely rare bladder infiltration through an IgM plasmacytoma is presented. PMID:20383630

Tsaur, I; Probst, M; Chow, K U; Renne, C; Cerovac, I; Pelekanos, C; Juengel, E; Wedel, S A; Bickeböller, R; Karalis, A

2010-07-01

71

Intrathecal somatic hypermutation of IgM in multiple sclerosis and neuroinflammation.  

PubMed

Intrathecal oligoclonal bands of the cerebrospinal fluid are considered the most important immunological biomarkers of multiple sclerosis. They typically consist of clonally expanded IgG antibodies that underwent affinity maturation during sustained stimulation by largely unknown antigens. In addition, ?40% of patients with multiple sclerosis have oligoclonal bands that consist of expanded IgM antibodies. We investigated the molecular composition of IgM- and IgG-chains from cerebrospinal fluid of 12 patients with multiple sclerosis, seven patients with other neurological diseases, and eight healthy control subjects by high-throughput deep-sequencing and single-cell PCR. Further, we studied the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the key enzyme for affinity maturation of antibodies, in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 16 patients. From the cerebrospinal fluid of two multiple sclerosis patients we isolated single B cells and investigated the co-expression of antibody chains with activation-induced cytidine deaminase. In striking contrast to IgM-chains from peripheral blood, IgM-chains from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis or neuroborreliosis showed a high degree of somatic hypermutation. We found a high content of mutations that caused amino acid exchanges as compared to silent mutations. In addition, more mutations were found in the complementarity determining regions of the IgM-chains, which interact with yet unknown antigens, as compared to framework regions. Both observations provide evidence for antigen-driven affinity maturation. Furthermore, single B cells from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis co-expressed somatically hypermutated IgM-chains and activation-induced cytidine deaminase, an enzyme that is crucial for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of antibodies and is normally expressed during activation of B cells in germinal centres. Clonal tracking of particular IgM(+) B cells allowed us to relate unmutated ancestor clones in blood to hypermutated offspring clones in CSF. Unexpectedly, however, we found no evidence for intrathecal isotype switching from IgM to IgG. Our data suggest that the intrathecal milieu sustains a germinal centre-like reaction with clonal expansion and extensive accumulation of somatic hypermutation in IgM-producing B cells. PMID:25060097

Beltrán, Eduardo; Obermeier, Birgit; Moser, Markus; Coret, Francisco; Simó-Castelló, María; Boscá, Isabel; Pérez-Miralles, Francisco; Villar, Luisa M; Senel, Makbule; Tumani, Hayrettin; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Casanova, Bonaventura; Dornmair, Klaus

2014-10-01

72

The utility of IgG, IgM, and CD138 immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of autoimmune liver diseases.  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) present with distinct clinical features. The term "PBC-AIH overlap syndrome (OS)" has been adopted to describe the condition characterized by occurrence of both PBC and AIH, although this clinical entity is difficult to define. This study aimed to assess the utility of IgG, IgM, and CD138 immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of AIH, PBC, and OS. Immunohistochemistry was performed with anti-human IgG, IgM, and CD138 to detect specific plasma cells in the liver. Predominant IgG staining was observed in AIH (85.7 %), while equivocal (46.1 %) or predominant (38.5 %) IgM staining was observed in PBC. In OS, equivocal (20 %) or predominant (80 %) IgG staining was observed. The IgM/IgG ratio was significantly higher in PBC than in AIH or OS (P < 0.005). Histological findings revealed significantly higher IgM expression in PBC at cholangitis activity grades 2-3 compared to those at cholangitis activity grades 0-1. In contrast, a significantly higher IgG expression was observed in PBC at hepatitis activity and fibrosis grades 2-3 compared to those at hepatitis activity and fibrosis grades 0-1. Taken together, periportal plasmacytic infiltrates with variable immunohistochemistry patterns of IgG and IgM expression characterized different autoimmune liver diseases. PMID:24969678

Abe, Kazumichi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nozawa, Yoshihiro; Imaizumi, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Manabu; Okai, Ken; Kanno, Yukiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

2014-09-01

73

Conserved natural IgM antibodies mediate innate and adaptive immunity against the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis murina.  

PubMed

Host defense against opportunistic fungi requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity for resolution of infection. Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance antifungal host defense are poorly defined. Nearly all species of fungi contain the conserved carbohydrates ?-glucan and chitin within their cell walls, which may be targets of innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we show that natural IgM antibodies targeting these fungal cell wall carbohydrates are conserved across many species, including fish and mammals. Natural antibodies bind fungal organisms and enhance host defense against Pneumocystis in early stages of infection. IgM antibodies influence recognition of fungal antigen by dendritic cells, increasing their migration to draining pulmonary lymph nodes. IgM antibodies are required for adaptive T helper type 2 (Th2) and Th17 cell differentiation and guide B cell isotype class-switch recombination during host defense against Pneumocystis. These experiments suggest a novel role for the IgM isotype in shaping the earliest steps in recognition and clearance of this fungus. We outline a mechanism whereby serum IgM, containing ancient specificities against conserved fungal antigens, bridges innate and adaptive immunity against fungal organisms. PMID:21149550

Rapaka, Rekha R; Ricks, David M; Alcorn, John F; Chen, Kong; Khader, Shabaana A; Zheng, Mingquan; Plevy, Scott; Bengtén, Eva; Kolls, Jay K

2010-12-20

74

IgG, IgM, and IgA antinuclear antibodies in discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus patients.  

PubMed

IgG antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). To provide an expanded immunologic view of circulating ANAs in lupus patients, we compared the expressions of IgG, IgM, and IgA ANAs in DLE and SLE patients. In this cross-sectional study, sera from age-, gender-, and ethnic-matched SLE (N = 35), DLE (N = 23), and normal patients (N = 22) were tested for IgG, IgM, and IgA ANAs using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with monkey esophagus as substrate. ELISAs showed elevated levels of IgG ANA, IgM ANA, and IgG/IgM ANA ratios in SLE patients compared with DLE and normal patients. IgA ANA expression was higher in SLE and DLE patients versus normal patients. IIF studies showed higher percentages of patients positive for IgG, IgM, and IgA ANAs in the SLE group. Higher IgG/IgM ANA ratios in SLE than DLE show enhanced class-switching and a more sustained humoral response in SLE. They also suggest a potential connection of IgM ANAs with disease containment. PMID:24741342

Jost, Sheridan A; Tseng, Lin-Chiang; Matthews, Loderick A; Vasquez, Rebecca; Zhang, Song; Yancey, Kim B; Chong, Benjamin F

2014-01-01

75

Feedback of kinetic energy into the IGM by supermassive black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of two high redshift broad absorption line (BAL) quasars have revealed the presence of massive outflows of highly ionized, high-metallicity material driven from near the black hole (a few gravitational radii) with velocities of up to 0.4c. The inferred mass outflow rates of 1-10 M? yr-1 and the measured outflow velocities, that significantly exceed the escape velocities of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, imply that quasar winds provide an important feedback mechanism for kinetic energy injection into the IGM. These quasar outflows may also play an important role in the coevolution of black holes and their host galaxies. We present new constraints on the location of the X-ray BAL material based on our analysis of the variability of the ionization properties of the X-ray absorbers. The location and ionization properties of the X-ray BAL material are crucial in inferring the mass outflow rate and rate of kinetic energy injected into the IGM.

Chartas, George; Brandt, W. N.; Gallagher, S. C.

2004-11-01

76

How to Search for Islands of Neutral Hydrogen in the $z \\sim 5.5$ IGM  

E-print Network

Observations of the Lyman-alpha (Ly-$\\alpha$) forest may allow reionization to complete as late as $z \\sim 5.5$, provided the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is sufficiently inhomogeneous at these redshifts. In this case, significantly neutral islands may remain amongst highly ionized gas with the ionized regions allowing some transmission through the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest. This possibility has the important virtue that it is eminently testable with existing Ly-$\\alpha$ forest data. In particular, we describe three observable signatures of significantly neutral gas in the $z \\sim 5.5$ IGM. We use mock quasar spectra produced from numerical simulations of reionization to develop these tests. First, we quantify how the abundance and length of absorbed regions in the forest increase with the volume-averaged neutral fraction in our reionization model. Second, we consider stacking the transmission profile around highly absorbed regions in the forest. If and only if there is significantly neutral ga...

Malloy, Matthew

2014-01-01

77

Bone marrow mastocytosis associated with IgM kappa plasma cell myeloma.  

PubMed

An association between mastocytosis and monoclonal gammopathy is a relatively rare but well recognized clinical finding. In the majority of cases, however, overt myeloma or lymphoma is not detectable morphologically. Here we describe the case of a 51 year-old male patient first presenting with paresis of the right facial nerve and the serological finding of IgM kappa paraproteinemia. The patient did not have organomegaly, lytic bone lesions, or urticaria pigmentosa-type skin lesions. Histological examination of a trephine biopsy specimen revealed the unusual coexistence of plasma cell myeloma and mastocytosis. Immunohistochemically, plasma cells were found to exhibit a monotypic staining for Ig heavy chain mu and Ig light chain kappa, thus confirming their neoplastic nature. Mast cells showed prominent spindling and formed dense multifocal infiltrates, thus enabling the diagnosis of bone marrow mastocytosis. Immunohistochemically, mast cells expressed tryptase, chymase, and KIT (CD117). In addition, aberrant expression of CD25 on mast cells was detected, confirming the coexistence of a neoplastic mast cell-proliferative disorder. According to the WHO proposal for classification of hematopoietic malignancies, this unique case, showing the association of two very rare haematologic neoplasms, can therefore best be referred to as bone marrow mastocytosis associated with IgM kappa plasma cell myeloma (SM-AHNMD). PMID:15160959

Stellmacher, Florian; Sotlar, Karl; Balleisen, Leopold; Valent, Peter; Horny, Hans-Peter

2004-04-01

78

IgM in a Human Neuropathy Related to Paraproteinemia Binds to a Carbohydrate Determinant in the Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein and to a Ganglioside  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IgM in three patients with paraproteinemia and peripheral neuropathy was shown to bind to human myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) that had been purified to homogeneity by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-6B. The antigenic determinant reacting with the IgM from all three patients was in the carbohydrate part of the MAG molecule. In addition, the IgM from the same three patients

Amjad A. Ilyas; Richard H. Quarles; Tracy D. Macintosh; Michael J. Dobersen; Bruce D. Trapp; Marinos C. Dalakas; Roscoe O. Brady

1984-01-01

79

The Hitchner B1 strain of Newcastle disease virus induces high levels of IgA, IgG and IgM in newly hatched chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaseheath line C chicks produced IgA, IgG and IgM in their serum, tears, spleen and Harderian gland (HG) as a consequence of oculotopical vaccination with the Hitchner B1 strain of Newcastle disease virus. The IgM response was seen first, at 5 days after vaccination, and antiviral IgM levels in the tears and serum were negatively correlated to the level of

P. H. Russell; G. O. Ezeifeka

1995-01-01

80

2D immunoblots show differential response of mouse IgG and IgM antibodies to antigens of mammary carcinoma 4 T1 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Immunosuppression in breast cancer has been reported in women and in the highly metastatic mouse mammary tumor model 4 T1. The immunosuppressive environment complicates the use of the humoral response against the tumor as an immunodiagnostic tool. IgM has not been used in immunodiagnostic in part because its antitumor responses, both innate and adaptive, have not been studied in function of time in breast cancer. We show a new approach to analyzing the mouse humoral immune response, and compare the evolution with time of IgG and IgM responses against the antigens of 4 T1 cells. Methods The study is based on 2-dimensional immunoblotting detection of antigens from 4 T1 cells by the IgG and IgM antibodies in the serum of female mice injected with 4 T1 cells. Results There was a high variability in the intra-and inter-mouse response. Variability in the IgM response was manifested as a pattern of spots that could become a multibinomial variable of 0 and 1, which could represent a signature of the immune response. Different numbers of spots was found in the IgG and IgM responses from week 1 to 5. On average, the IgM had more but the IgG response decrease with the time. The natural IgM at t?=?0 responds stronger than w1; the adaptive response of both IgM and IgG were elicited where, with the former being stronger better than the latter. Antigens that are recognized by some female mice in the first week are also recognized by other female mice at time 0. Contamination of the natural IgM makes difficult use the adaptive IgM as a tool for immunodiagnostic. Conclusions IgM and IgG response varied with the time and individuals. Spot variation in 2D pattern for the natural IgM could be expressed as a binomial signature, which opens up the way to correlate a particular pattern with resistance or susceptibility. This uncovers a battery of IgMs for each individual to confront cancer or infections. The possibility to differentiate between adaptive IgM antibodies from the natural IgM will allow investigation of the adaptive IgM for early immunodiagnosis. PMID:24467921

2014-01-01

81

Enzyme immunoassay for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was developed. The EIA was evaluated on the basis of results in the M. pneumoniae complement fixation (MPCF) test and the cold agglutinin test. Serum samples from 430 patients with respiratory infections of known or unknown etiology, from 91 healthy children and adults and from 20 patients with rheumatoid factor, were investigated. By the criteria chosen for positive diagnostic EIA values, we found that the combined measurement of specific IgM and IgG gave a specificity of 99.7% and a sensitivity of 97.8%. If only IgM antibodies were measured, the specificity was 100% and the sensitivity was 88%. For IgG alone the specificity was 99.7%, but the sensitivity was only 46% because of the high EIA cutoff value chosen for IgG. We found no false positives among serum samples from patients with non-M. pneumoniae respiratory infection of known etiology, and there were no false IgM positives due to rheumatoid factor. In some cases the IgM EIA results became positive earlier in the course of illness than the MPCF titer. While children and teenagers responded predominantly with IgM antibodies, patients older than 40 years often had an IgG response only (56% of cases), probably because of reinfection. We conclude that this EIA is a good alternative to the combined MPCF and cold agglutinin tests in the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:1583120

Uldum, S A; Jensen, J S; S?ndergard-Andersen, J; Lind, K

1992-01-01

82

The Majority of Human Memory B Cells Recognizing RhD and Tetanus Resides in IgM+ B Cells  

PubMed Central

B cell memory to T cell–dependent (TD) Ags are considered to largely reside in class-switched CD27+ cells. However, we previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D+ erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. We therefore analyzed in this study the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid–specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. Most Ag-specific B cells for both TD Ags were found to reside in the IgM-expressing B cells, including CD27? B cells, in both hyperimmunized donors and nonhyperimmunized volunteers. Only shortly after immunization a sharp increase in Ag-specific CD27+IgG+ B cells was observed. Next, B cells were enriched with D+ erythrocyte ghosts and sorted as single cells. Sequencing of IGHV, IGLV, IGKV, and BCL6 genes from these D-specific B cell clones demonstrated that both CD27?IgM+ and CD27+IgM+ B cells harbored somatic mutations, documenting their Ag-selected nature. Furthermore, sequencing revealed a clonal relationship between the CD27?IgM+, CD27+IgM+, and CD27+IgG+ B cell subsets. These data strongly support the recently described multiple layers of memory B cells to TD Ags in mice, where IgM+ B cells represent a memory reservoir which can re-enter the germinal center and ensure replenishment of class-switched memory CD27+ B cells from Ag-experienced precursors. PMID:24965774

Della Valle, Luciana; Dohmen, Serge E.; Verhagen, Onno J. H. M.; Berkowska, Magdalena A.; Vidarsson, Gestur

2014-01-01

83

Recognition of IgG-derived peptides by a human IgM with an unusual combining site.  

PubMed

A monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)M cryoglobulin (Mez) with interesting binding behaviour was isolated from a Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) patient. It demonstrated very strong binding to peptides derived from the sequences of human IgG. However, when tested for binding to intact IgG, this antibody (Ab) did not show any rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. We propose several nonexclusive structural interpretations of the Mez-binding propensities, based on the orientations and solvent accessibilities of ligand residues and the nature of the Ab-binding site. To further characterize the structural features of Mez-peptide binding, IgG-derived octapeptides were docked into the Mez fragment variable (Fv)-binding site, revealing additional reasons for Mez-binding selectivity based on the interactions of the docked peptides with the Mez Fv. The problem was also approached from an immunological perspective. Comparisons of Mez variable region of the light chain (VL)/variable region of the heavy chain (VH) sequences with those of human germlines and known IgM RFs allowed us to provide a possible outline tracing the structural and functional origins of the Mez IgM. Coupled with examinations of interactions in docked complexes, this analysis led us to propose that the potential for RF activity, demonstrated through Mez binding to IgG-derived peptides, was owing to the inherent sequence and structure of the Mez IgM, rather than to somatic mutations. Thus, Mez IgM may occupy an intermediate niche between IgMs with and without RF activity. PMID:11940231

Yuriev, E; Ramsland, P A; Edmundson, A B

2002-03-01

84

The majority of human memory B cells recognizing RhD and tetanus resides in IgM+ B cells.  

PubMed

B cell memory to T cell-dependent (TD) Ags are considered to largely reside in class-switched CD27(+) cells. However, we previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D(+) erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. We therefore analyzed in this study the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid-specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. Most Ag-specific B cells for both TD Ags were found to reside in the IgM-expressing B cells, including CD27(-) B cells, in both hyperimmunized donors and nonhyperimmunized volunteers. Only shortly after immunization a sharp increase in Ag-specific CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells was observed. Next, B cells were enriched with D(+) erythrocyte ghosts and sorted as single cells. Sequencing of IGHV, IGLV, IGKV, and BCL6 genes from these D-specific B cell clones demonstrated that both CD27(-)IgM(+) and CD27(+)IgM(+) B cells harbored somatic mutations, documenting their Ag-selected nature. Furthermore, sequencing revealed a clonal relationship between the CD27(-)IgM(+), CD27(+)IgM(+), and CD27(+)IgG(+) B cell subsets. These data strongly support the recently described multiple layers of memory B cells to TD Ags in mice, where IgM(+) B cells represent a memory reservoir which can re-enter the germinal center and ensure replenishment of class-switched memory CD27(+) B cells from Ag-experienced precursors. PMID:24965774

Della Valle, Luciana; Dohmen, Serge E; Verhagen, Onno J H M; Berkowska, Magdalena A; Vidarsson, Gestur; Ellen van der Schoot, C

2014-08-01

85

Association between haptoglobin and IgM levels and the clinical progression of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp), is associated with direct economic losses and presents significant zoonotic potential. Despite the importance of the disease, a satisfactory vaccine model has not been developed. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between haptoglobin (Hp) and IgM levels and the clinical progression of CLA in primarily infected sheep and in sheep immunized with Cp- secreted antigens adjuvanted with Quillaja saponaria saponins. These animals were kept with CLA-positive sheep to simulate natural exposure that occurs in field conditions. During the experiment, the Hp and IgM levels were monitored for 21 days, and the development of internal CLA lesions was investigated through necropsies on day182 post-immunization. Results Primarily infected sheep in Group 2 (inoculated with 2x105 Cp virulent strain) had higher Hp values between the first and ninth days post inoculation (PI) than sheep in Group 1 (control; P?IgM titers than the control group around the ninth and eleventh days PI (P?IgM levels and clinical progression: sheep with high IgM titers had 100.0% less risk of having CLA abscesses than animals with low IgM levels (Odds ratio?=?0.000, P?IgM were predictive of a lower risk of CLA lesion development. Because the immunogen used in this study induced a high production of both Hp and IgM, Q. saponaria saponin should be considered a promising candidate in vaccine formulations against sheep CLA. PMID:24330714

2013-01-01

86

The up-regulation of large yellow croaker secretory IgM heavy chain at early phase of immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunoglobulin M (IgM) heavy-chain gene homologue was isolated from the spleen cDNA library of the large yellow croaker\\u000a Pseudosciaena crocea (LycIgH). The complete cDNA of LycIgH is 1,987 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 585 amino acids with a putative molecular weight of 64.5 kDa. The deduced\\u000a LycIgH possesses a typical secretory IgM heavy chain organization with a variable region

Chen Tian; Xinhua Chen; Jingqun Ao

2010-01-01

87

Dark matter annihilation energy output and its effects on the high-z IGM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the case of dark matter (DM) self-annihilation, in order to assess its importance as an energy injection mechanism, to the intergalactic medium (IGM) in general, and to the medium within particular DM haloes. We consider thermal relic WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) particles with masses of 10 GeV and 1 TeV, and we analyse in detail the clustering properties of DM in a ? cold dark matter cosmology, on all hierarchy levels, from haloes and their mass function, to subhaloes and the DM density profiles within them, considering adiabatic contraction by the presence of a supermassive black hole. We then compute the corresponding energy output, concluding that DM annihilation does not constitute an important feedback mechanism. We also calculate the effects that DM annihilation has on the IGM temperature and ionization fraction, and we find that assuming maximal energy absorption, at z ˜ 10, for the case of a 1 TeV WIMP, the ionization fraction could be raised to 6 × 10-4 and the temperature to 10 K, and in the case of a 10 GeV WIMP, the IGM temperature could be raised to 200 K and the ionization fraction to 8 × 10-3. We conclude that DM annihilations cannot be regarded as an alternative reionization scenario. Regarding the detectability of the WIMP through the modifications to the 21 cm differential brightness temperature signal (?Tb), we conclude that a thermal relic WIMP with mass of 1 TeV is not likely to be detected from the global signal alone, except perhaps at the 1-3 mK level in the frequency range 30 < ? < 35 MHz corresponding to 40 < z < 46. However, a 10 GeV mass WIMP may be detectable at the 1-3 mK level in the frequency range 55 < ? < 119 MHz corresponding to 11 < z < 25, and at the 1-10 mK level in the frequency range 30 < ? < 40 MHz corresponding to 35 < z < 46.

Araya, Ignacio J.; Padilla, Nelson D.

2014-11-01

88

Anti-c (Little c) IgM: An Uncommonly Observed but Expected Phenomenon.  

PubMed

The c-antigen (little c) is part of the Rh blood group system and is found in approximately 80% of the United States population. Anti-c antibody develops in individuals sensitized through previous exposure and is associated with acute and delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions as well as hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Most antibodies produced against Rh antigens are of the immunoglobulin (Ig) G type. We present a case of anti-c in a 30-year-old white woman who was gravida 2 para 1 (G2P1), whose laboratory workup at the time of admission for delivery suggests recent exposure and seroconversion in the latter part of her pregnancy, with evidence of the expected but rarely demonstrated presence of anti-c IgM and IgG. PMID:25378526

George, Alan A; Simon, Clayton D

2014-01-01

89

Molecular characterization of a supratypic cross-reactive idiotype associated with IgM autoantibodies.  

PubMed

Neoplastic B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphomas (SLL) frequently express surface Ig reactive with the mouse mAb, Lc1. Raised against a human monoclonal IgM with rheumatoid factor activity, Lc1 detects a major cross-reactive Id (CRI) present on the H chain of many monoclonal IgM autoantibodies. In contrast to other major autoantibody-CRI investigated to date, we note that the Lc1-CRI is expressed by subpopulation of cells in the germinal centers, as well as in the mantle zones, of secondary human B cell follicles. To examine the molecular basis for Lc1 expression, we used the polymerase chain reaction to isolate the functionally rearranged Ig VH genes of monoclonal Lc1-reactive B cell populations from six unrelated patients with CLL or SLL. Although the neoplastic B cells from most patients with CLL or SLL express the CD5 surface differentiation Ag, the lymphoma cells from one patient with SLL were CD5-negative. We find that the Lc1-reactive cells from each cell population have Ig rearrangements involving a VH gene of the VH4 subgroup. However, the VH4 genes rearranged in different Lc1-reactive tumor populations may originate from at least two disparate germ-line VH4 genes. Also, in contrast to the CD5-positive tumor populations, we find evidence for intraclonal diversity in the functionally rearranged VH4 genes of the CD5-negative SLL. Collectively, this study discerns a degeneracy in the VH4 genes that can encode the Lc1 CRI, indicating the term "supratypic cross-reactive idiotype" may best describe the specificity of the Lc1 mAb. Also, this study suggests that expression of CD5 may delineate categories of B cell SLL that differ in their relative rates of constitutive Ig V gene somatic mutation. PMID:1890310

Pratt, L F; Szubin, R; Carson, D A; Kipps, T J

1991-09-15

90

Antigenic analysis of grass carp reovirus using single-chain variable fragment antibody against IgM from Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important species of freshwater aquaculture fish in China. However, grass carp reovirus (GCRV) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in yearling populations. Until now, a strategy to define the antigenic capacity of the virus's structural proteins for preparing an effective vaccine has not been available. In this study, some single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv), which could specifically recognize grass carp IgM, were selected from a constructed mouse naïve antibody phage display cDNA library. The identified scFv C1B3 clone was shown to possess relatively higher specific binding activity to grass carp IgM. Furthermore, ELISA analysis indicated that the IgM level in serum from virus-infected grass carp was more than two times higher than that of the control group at 5-7 days post infection. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the outer capsid protein VP7 has a specific immuno-binding-reaction with the serum IgM from virus-infected grass carp. Our results suggest that VP7 can induce a stronger immune response in grass carp than the other GCRV structural proteins, which implies that VP7 protein could be used as a preferred immunogen for vaccine design. PMID:23314868

Chen, CongLin; Sun, XiaoYun; Liao, LanJie; Luo, ShaoXiang; Li, ZhouQuan; Zhang, XiaoHua; Wang, YaPing; Guo, QionLin; Fang, Qin; Dai, HePing

2013-01-01

91

For Immediate Release BAC adds IgM and IgA matrices to its CaptureSelect  

E-print Network

of IgA and IgM, address a substantial need in the antibody purification market, which up until now has that enable researchers to follow a simple one-step process with no need for method testing or lengthy, and manufactured using a completely animal component-free S.cerevisiae system. -Ends- About BAC BAC BV ­ the Bio

Lebendiker, Mario

92

Immature chicken B cells with immunocompetence restricted to IgM type do not elicit the formation of germinal centres.  

PubMed Central

Chickens depleted of both T and B cells were restored with T cells and with immature B cells capable of producing IgM only, and immunized with sheep red blood cells. These chickens developed strikingly few germinal centres, in marked contrast to controls which received normal adult B cells. PMID:6606614

Nishi, M; Yan, K; Bito, Y

1983-01-01

93

Serologic Cross-Reactivity of Human IgM and IgG Antibodies to Five Species of Ebola Virus  

PubMed Central

Five species of Ebola virus (EBOV) have been identified, with nucleotide differences of 30–45% between species. Four of these species have been shown to cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in humans and a fifth species (Reston ebolavirus) is capable of causing a similar disease in non-human primates. While examining potential serologic cross-reactivity between EBOV species is important for diagnostic assays as well as putative vaccines, the nature of cross-reactive antibodies following EBOV infection has not been thoroughly characterized. In order to examine cross-reactivity of human serologic responses to EBOV, we developed antigen preparations for all five EBOV species, and compared serologic responses by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in groups of convalescent diagnostic sera from outbreaks in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (n?=?24), Gulu, Uganda (n?=?20), Bundibugyo, Uganda (n?=?33), and the Philippines (n?=?18), which represent outbreaks due to four different EBOV species. For groups of samples from Kikwit, Gulu, and Bundibugyo, some limited IgM cross-reactivity was noted between heterologous sera-antigen pairs, however, IgM responses were largely stronger against autologous antigen. In some instances IgG responses were higher to autologous antigen than heterologous antigen, however, in contrast to IgM responses, we observed strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses to heterologous antigens among all sets of samples. Finally, we examined autologous IgM and IgG antibody levels, relative to time following EHF onset, and observed early peaking and declining IgM antibody levels (by 80 days) and early development and persistence of IgG antibodies among all samples, implying a consistent pattern of antibody kinetics, regardless of EBOV species. Our findings demonstrate limited cross-reactivity of IgM antibodies to EBOV, however, the stronger tendency for cross-reactive IgG antibody responses can largely circumvent limitations in the utility of heterologous antigen for diagnostic assays and may assist in the development of antibody-mediated vaccines to EBOV. PMID:21666792

MacNeil, Adam; Reed, Zachary; Rollin, Pierre E.

2011-01-01

94

IgD, like IgM, is a primordial immunoglobulin class perpetuated in most jawed vertebrates  

PubMed Central

IgD has remained a mysterious Ig class and a bane to immunology students since its discovery >40 years ago. Its spotty occurrence in mammals and birds and the discovery of an isotype with similarities to IgD in bony fish are perplexing. We have identified IgD heavy (H) chain (?) from the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis during examination of the IgH locus. The Xenopus ? gene is in the same position, immediately 3? of the IgM gene, as in mammals, and it is expressed only in the spleen at low levels, primarily as a transmembrane receptor by surface IgM+ cells. Our data suggest that frog IgD is expressed on mature B cells, like in mouse/human. Unexpectedly, Xenopus IgD is orthologous to IgW, an Ig isotype found only in cartilaginous fish and lungfish, demonstrating that IgD/W, like IgM, was present in the ancestor of all living jawed vertebrates. In striking contrast to IgM, IgD/W is evolutionarily labile, showing many duplications/deletions of domains, the presence of multiple splice forms, existence as predominantly a secretory or transmembrane form, or loss of the entire gene in a species-specific manner. Our study suggests that IgD/W has played varied roles in different vertebrate taxa since the inception of the adaptive immune system, and it may have been preserved as a flexible locus over evolutionary time to complement steadfast IgM. PMID:16818885

Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin

2006-01-01

95

Observations of Chemically Enriched QSO Absorbers near z ~ 2.3 Galaxies: Galaxy-Formation Feedback Signatures in the IGM  

E-print Network

We present a study of galaxies and intergalactic gas toward the z=2.73 quasar HS1700+6416, to explore the effects of galaxy formation feedback on the IGM. Our observations and ionization simulations indicate that the volume within 100-200 h_71^{-1} physical kpc of high-redshift galaxies contains very small, dense, and metal-rich absorption-line regions. These systems often contain shock-heated gas seen in OVI, and may exhibit [Si/C] abundance enhancements suggestive of Type II supernova enrichment. We argue that the absorbers resemble thin sheets or bubbles, whose physical properties can be explained with a simple model of radiatively efficient shocks propegating through the IGM. Their high metallicities suggest that these shocks are being expelled from--rather than falling into--star forming galaxies. There is a dropoff in the IGM gas density at galaxy impact parameters beyond ~300 physical kpc that may trace boundaries of gas structures where the galaxies reside. The local heavy-element enhancement covers 100-200 kpc; beyond this the observed abundances blend into the general IGM. Supernova-driven winds or dynamical stripping of interstellar gas appears to affect the IGM near massive galaxies, even at R>~100 kpc. However, these feedback systems represent only a few percent of the Lya forest mass at z~2.5. Their mass could be larger if the more numerous metal-poor CIV systems at >~200 kpc are tepid remnants of very powerful winds. Based on present observations it is not clear that this scenario is to be favored over one involving pre-enrichment by smaller galaxies at z>~6.

Robert A. Simcoe; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Michael Rauch; George D. Becker

2005-08-03

96

A T-cell subpopulation committed to help B cells for immune responses restricted to IgM type.  

PubMed Central

Immune responses againt bovine serum albumin by chicken were dependent upon thymus-derived cells. Thirty-five of seventy chickens that had been neonatally thymectomized and subsequently immunized with bovine serum albumin produced IgM antibodies, but not IgG antibodies, against the antigen. T cells (IgM-T cells) of such chickens were able to help B cells to produce IgM antibody responses but were not able to help them to switch IgM- to IgG-antibody responses. Helper activity of the IgM-T cells was much less susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of anti-thymus cell serum and complement than was that of normal T cells. The introduction of the IgM-T cells into normal chickens at the same time as the initiation of immunization of the chickens did not affect immune responses by them at all, indicating the absence of suppressor T cells in the IgM-T cell preparations. Injection of chicken thymus factor into immunodeficient chickens transplanted with normal B cells and IgM-T cells developed the capability to help B cells to switch IgM- to IgG-antibody responses. On the basis of these findings the authors propose the existence of helper T cells which are characterized by peripheralization in early periods of ontogeny, the possession of helper activity for only IgM-antibody responses, the lack of helper activity for the switch from IgM- to IgG-antibody responses and relative insusceptibility to the cytotoxic effect of anti-thymus cell serum and complement. PMID:6967854

Naito, I; Bito, Y

1980-01-01

97

Variable region sequences of murine IgM anti-IgG monoclonal autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors). A structural explanation for the high frequency of IgM anti-IgG B cells  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequences of heavy and light chains from 10 monoclonal IgM anti-IgG1 (RF) antibodies were determined and reported here as translated amino acid sequences. Only three families of VK light chains were used in these antibodies: VK1 (two examples), VK8 (three examples), and VK19 (four examples). This represents a significant nonrandom selection of light chains. In contrast, all other variable region gene segments (i.e., VH, DH, JH, and JK) were used in a pattern consistent with random selection from the available pool of germline genes. In two cases, the same anti-IgG1 specificity was generated by a combination of very homologous light chains with unrelated heavy chains. We infer from this that the light chain is the segment used by these antibodies to bind IgG1. The nature of these sequences provides an explanation for the curious observation that as many as 15% of splenic B cells in normal mice may be expressing IgM anti-IgG; if, as our data suggest, certain light chains in combination with many different heavy chains can be used in assembling the anti-IgG specificity, then, because of combinatorial association in which the heavy chain is not relevant for specificity, the fraction of IgM- producing B cells expressing these light chains should approximate the fraction of B cells making IgM anti-IgG. We calculate, based on data presented in several other studies, that 5-17% of B cells express one of the VK types observed in monoclonal RF. This agrees well with estimates for the number of B cells making IgM anti-IgG. In addition, our findings could rule out other explanations of the high percentage of B cells making RF, such as constant stimulation by antigen or presence of numerous antigenic epitopes since it was shown that IgM anti-IgG1 antibodies are not somatically mutated and that they are structurally homogeneous. We aligned the VK sequences of the RF in hopes of finding some primary sequence homology between the represented VK families which might point to residues involved in the binding interaction. Although we found no such homology in the hypervariable regions, we did find significant and unexpected homology in the FR2 and FR3 of these light chains. We noted that these regions are exposed in the Ig structure and postulate that they may be involved in a unique type of binding interaction between two Ig family domains, i.e., VK binding to a constant region domain of IgG. PMID:3088205

1986-01-01

98

Viral infections and IgM autoantibodies to cytoplasmic intermediate filaments.  

PubMed Central

Seventy-four out of 113 sera from patients with infectious hepatitis, chickenpox, measles and mumps reacted with both smooth muscle and cytoplasmic filaments in cultured fibroblasts and neuroblastoma. Five out of eighty-five control sera also reacted in this way. That the cytoplasmic structures are intermediate filaments was suggested by their rearrangement into coils of perinuclear filaments in colchicine- or vinblastine-treated fibroblasts, but not in cytochalasin B-treated cells. The idenity of these structures was confirmed by the demonstration that the same structures reacted with the post-viral sera and a rabbit and human anti-intermediate filament antibody. Immunoabsorption studies showed that twenty-seven out of thirty-two positive sera were neutralised by skeletin, the intermediate filament protein from smooth muscle. In all but one of the sera, the antibody was IgM. Antibody titres fell in the second specimen in eleven out of fourteen pairs of acute and convalescent sera. The association between viral infections and autoantibodies suggest that production of antibodies suggests that production of antibody to intermediate filaments may be initiated by viruses. PMID:385189

Toh, B H; Yildiz, A; Sotelo, J; Osung, O; Holborow, E J; Kanakoudi, F; Small, J V

1979-01-01

99

Comparison of automated chemiluminescence immunoassays with capture enzyme immunoassays for the detection of measles and mumps IgM antibodies in serum.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of measles and mumps occur regularly in the UK. Rapid diagnosis of acute infection is important for both infection control and epidemiological purposes. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of an automated platform (DiaSorin Liaison(®), Saluggia, Italy) with a manual capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA; Microimmune, Hounslow, UK) for the detection of measles and mumps IgM antibodies in serum from symptomatic individuals. Ninety sera tested previously for measles (n=50) and mumps (n=40) IgM using the manual EIA were tested retrospectively using the DiaSorin Liaison(®) and the results compared. Sensitivity, specificity, inter-assay variability and intra-assay variability of the Liaison(®) assays were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of the Liaison(®) assay for measles IgM were 92% and 100% respectively, with inter-assay variation of 14.1% and intra-assay variation of 12.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the mumps IgM Liaison(®) assay were 88% and 95% respectively, with an inter-assay and intra-assay variation of 13.9% and 5.3% respectively. Both the measles and mumps IgM Liaison(®) assays gave fewer equivocal results than the EIA. Neither Liaison(®) IgM assay showed any cross-reactivity with sera positive against other viruses, however the measles IgM EIA cross-reacted with parvovirus IgM. The automated Liaison(®) assays are more specific, cheaper and less labour-intensive compared to the manual EIA. The Liaison(®) assays benefit from reduced number of equivocal results compared to the EIA for both measles and mumps IgM. This allows clinical decisions to be made accurately and in a timely manner. PMID:24183918

Haywood, Becky; Patel, Mauli; Hurday, Samantha; Copping, Ruth; Webster, Daniel; Irish, Dianne; Haque, Tanzina

2014-02-01

100

Evaluation of three methods to measure anti-Brucella IgM antibodies and interference of IgA in the interpretation of mercaptan-based tests.  

PubMed

The results of a dipstick assay for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) to Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) correlated with those of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgM and of the serum agglutination test (SAT) performed with and without dithiothreitol. Two sera which were dithiothreitol-sensitive and were dipstick negative were shown to contain specific IgA. The dipstick assay is recommended as a simple method for detecting specific IgM antibodies in acute-phase brucellosis patients. PMID:11478668

Marrodan, T; Nenova-Poliakova, R; Rubio, M; Ariza, J; Clavijo, E; Smits, H L; Diaz, R

2001-08-01

101

Serological ELISA Test (IgM & IgG) for Prospective Study of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with significant maternal and fetal consequences. The aim of present study was to determine the current prenatal CMV seroprevalence in Eastern Azerbaijan and evaluate the routine laboratory diagnostic techniques of anti-CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Methods: During the present prospective cross-sectional study, 125 women referred to No. 1 Laboratory of Specialized

M Rajaii; N Nezami; A Pourhassan; L Farzadi

102

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeologa y aguas subterrneas, n 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andaluca. I: 669-678  

E-print Network

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeología y aguas subterráneas, nº 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andalucía. I: 669-678 Problemática de la calidad de las aguas de la Vega de Granada para el riego del tabaco Castillo Martín, Antonio* y Sánchez Díaz, Luis** * CSIC e Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada

Castillo, Antonio

103

Precipitated immune complexes of IgM induce the generation of reactive oxygen species by rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that immune complexes of IgM (ICIgM) antibodies and ovalbumin in the form of a precipitate from the equivalence zone induce the generation of reactive oxygen species by rabbit blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), as measured by the chemilu- minescence (CL) production in the presence of luminol. The kinetics of CL generation induced by ICIgM is quite different from that

Y. M. Lucisano; A. M. de-Mello; E. R. Vasques; B. Mantovani

1998-01-01

104

Variable region sequences of murine IgM anti-IgG monoclonal autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors). A structural explanation for the high frequency of IgM anti-IgG B cells.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of heavy and light chains from 10 monoclonal IgM anti-IgG1 (RF) antibodies were determined and reported here as translated amino acid sequences. Only three families of VK light chains were used in these antibodies: VK1 (two examples), VK8 (three examples), and VK19 (four examples). This represents a significant nonrandom selection of light chains. In contrast, all other variable region gene segments (i.e., VH, DH, JH, and JK) were used in a pattern consistent with random selection from the available pool of germline genes. In two cases, the same anti-IgG1 specificity was generated by a combination of very homologous light chains with unrelated heavy chains. We infer from this that the light chain is the segment used by these antibodies to bind IgG1. The nature of these sequences provides an explanation for the curious observation that as many as 15% of splenic B cells in normal mice may be expressing IgM anti-IgG; if, as our data suggest, certain light chains in combination with many different heavy chains can be used in assembling the anti-IgG specificity, then, because of combinatorial association in which the heavy chain is not relevant for specificity, the fraction of IgM-producing B cells expressing these light chains should approximate the fraction of B cells making IgM anti-IgG. We calculate, based on data presented in several other studies, that 5-17% of B cells express one of the VK types observed in monoclonal RF. This agrees well with estimates for the number of B cells making IgM anti-IgG. In addition, our findings could rule out other explanations of the high percentage of B cells making RF, such as constant stimulation by antigen or presence of numerous antigenic epitopes since it was shown that IgM anti-IgG1 antibodies are not somatically mutated and that they are structurally homogeneous. We aligned the VK sequences of the RF in hopes of finding some primary sequence homology between the represented VK families which might point to residues involved in the binding interaction. Although we found no such homology in the hypervariable regions, we did find significant and unexpected homology in the FR2 and FR3 of these light chains. We noted that these regions are exposed in the Ig structure and postulate that they may be involved in a unique type of binding interaction between two Ig family domains, i.e., VK binding to a constant region domain of IgG. PMID:3088205

Shlomchik, M J; Nemazee, D A; Sato, V L; Van Snick, J; Carson, D A; Weigert, M G

1986-08-01

105

Altered Ig levels and antibody responses in mice deficient for the Fc receptor for IgM (Fc?R)  

PubMed Central

Cell surface Fc receptor for IgM antibody (Fc?R) is the most recently identified member among FcRs. We determined the cellular distribution of mouse Fc?R and the functional consequences of Fcmr disruption. Surface Fc?R expression was restricted to B-lineage cells, from immature B to plasma cells, except for a transient down-modulation during germinal center reactions. Fcmr ablation had no significant effect on overall B- and T-cell development, but led to a reduction of marginal zone B cells and an increase in splenic B1 B cells. Preimmune serum IgM in mutant mice was significantly elevated as were natural autoantibodies. When immunized with live attenuated pneumococci, mutant mice mounted robust antibody responses against phosphorylcholine, but not protein, determinants compared with wild-type mice. By contrast, upon immunization with a hapten-carrier conjugate, nitrophenyl-coupled chicken ?-globulin (NP-CGG), the mutant mice had a diminished primary IgG1 response to both NP and CGG. These findings suggest that Fc?R has an important role in IgM homeostasis and regulation of humoral immune responses. PMID:22984178

Honjo, Kazuhito; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Jones, Dewitt M.; Dizon, Brian; Zhu, Zilu; Ohno, Hiroshi; Izui, Shozo; Kearney, John F.; Kubagawa, Hiromi

2012-01-01

106

Comparative study of immunochromatographic assay (IgM) and widal test for early diagnosis of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is a severe systemic infection endemic in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Present study evaluated immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Widal test in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever cases. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July, 2010 and June, 2011, including 200 individuals of different age and sex. Of them, 150 were clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever and 50 age-sex matched controls. Among 150 blood samples from the suspected cases 106(70.7%) were positive for IgM of Salmonella typhi by ICT and 67(44.7%) were positive by Widal test. Whereas, among the 50 controls 4(8%) were positive by ICT and 6(12%) were positive by Widal test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the ICT was found as 83.3%, 92.00%, 91.9% and 83.6% respectively. On the other hand corresponding values for Widal test were of 44.4%, 88%, 80% and 59.5% respectively. Thus, The ICT (IgM) is better alternative to Widal test for early and accurate diagnosis of typhoid fever. The ICT (IgM) is rapid, easy to perform, applicable for field use and highly sensitive and specific for detection of antibodies in patients with typhoid fever. PMID:23134904

Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Alam, M A; Paul, S K; Kabir, M R; Hoque, S M; Yesmin, T; Habiba, U; Sarkar, S R; Maruf, M A; Halim, P I; Hoque, M R

2012-10-01

107

IGM Constraints from the SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 Ly-alpha Forest Flux Probability Distribution Function  

E-print Network

The Ly$\\alpha$ forest flux probability distribution function (PDF) is an established probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM) astrophysics, especially the temperature-density relationship of the IGM. We measure the flux PDF from 3393 Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) quasars from SDSS Data Release 9, and compare with mock spectra that include careful modeling of the noise, continuum, and astrophysical uncertainties. The BOSS flux PDFs, measured at $\\langle z \\rangle = [2.3,2.6,3.0]$, are compared with PDFs created from mock spectra drawn from a suite of hydrodynamical simulations that sample the IGM temperature-density relationship, $\\gamma$, and temperature at mean-density, $T_0$, where $T(\\Delta) = T_0 \\Delta^{\\gamma-1}$. We find that a significant population of partial Lyman-limit systems with a column-density distribution slope of $\\beta_\\mathrm{pLLS} \\sim -2$ are required to explain the data at the low-flux end of flux PDF, while uncertainties in the mean \\lya\\ forest transmission affect the...

Lee, Khee-Gan; Spergel, David N; Weinberg, David H; Hogg, David W; Viel, Matteo; Bolton, James S; Bailey, Stephen; Pieri, Matthew M; Carithers, William; Schlegel, David J; Lundgren, Britt; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Suzuki, Nao; Schneider, Donald P; Yeche, Christophe

2014-01-01

108

The recurrent expression of variable region segments in human IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies.  

PubMed

RNA sequences for the V regions of human hybridoma-produced autoantibodies were determined by primer extension with reverse transcriptase. The sequencing of IgM autoantibodies from a leprosy patient revealed examples of recurrent use of V region gene segments in different autoantibodies from this patient and a previously studied patient with SLE. Moreover, several gene segments used in these autoantibodies show little alteration from germ-line sequences. mAb TH3, from a patient with leprosy, binds denatured DNA and poly(dT). The center of its H chain CDR35 has a sequence identical to that found previously in two anti-DNA antibodies from a lupus patient; these identities and their overlapping with two other published sequences define a human D-gene segment of approximately 25 nucleotides. Autoantibody TH9, from a leprosy patient, does not bind DNA. Its VH sequence has 87% identity with a VHI anti-DNA antibody, but differs from it markedly in the CDR1 region. TH9 also has a different H chain CDR3. The closely related JH4 or JH5 gene segments are expressed in five lupus or leprosy autoantibodies. In four of the antibodies, examples of V kappa 1, V kappa 3, or V kappa 4 and J kappa 2, or J kappa 5 segments were found. Two distinct leprosy-derived anti-DNA antibodies, 8E10 and TH3, share a completely identical V kappa sequence. This sequence differs in only two positions from that of a germ-line RF L chain gene. Several gene segments that are close to the germ line in sequence encode Ig V regions with autoantibody reactivity. These results provide a base line for determining whether these genes are precursors of more highly diversified antibodies that may be pathogenic in patients with SLE. PMID:2497186

Dersimonian, H; McAdam, K P; Mackworth-Young, C; Stollar, B D

1989-06-01

109

RAG1 and IgM genes, markers for early development of the immune system in the gadoid haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus, L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full sequence of the heavy chain of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and a partial fragment of the recombination activating gene-1 (RAG-1) gene were sequenced in haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus, L. The complete transcript of haddock IgM consisted of 1865bp and translated into a 572-aa peptide. The RAG-1 fragment was 1776bp and was identified as the core region of RAG-1. These two

Y. Corripio-Miyar; S. Bird; J. W. Treasurer; C. J. Secombes

2007-01-01

110

Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection by Detection of Specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA Antibodies in Serum and Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate alternative approaches to the serological diagnosis of dengue virus (DEN) infection, the detection of DEN-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA antibodies in serum and saliva specimens was assessed in 147 patients with symptoms of DEN infection seen at the Ministry of Health in Nicaragua. Seventy-two serum samples were determined to be positive for anti-DEN antibodies by IgM capture

Angel Balmaseda; María G. Guzman; Samantha Hammond; Guillermo Robleto; Carolina Flores; Yolanda Tellez; Elsa Videa; Saira Saborio; Leonel Perez; Erick Sandoval; Yoryelin Rodriguez; Eva Harris

2003-01-01

111

Comparison of the Brucella Standard Agglutination Test with the ELISA IgG and IgM in patients with Brucella bacteremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presumptive diagnosis of Brucellosis is based on a high or rising antibody titer measured by the Brucella Standard Agglutination Test (SAT). This tests does not discriminate between the immunoglobulin classes (IgG and IgM). The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of SAT with Brucella Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) IgG and IgM tests in patients

Z. A. Memish; M. Almuneef; M. W. Mah; L. A. Qassem; A. O. Osoba

2002-01-01

112

Enzyme-linked immunoassay for dengue virus IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and filter paper blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The reproducibilty of dengue IgM and IgG ELISA was studied in serum and filter paper blood spots from Vietnamese febrile patients. METHODS: 781 pairs of acute (t0) and convalescent sera, obtained after three weeks (t3) and 161 corresponding pairs of filter paper blood spots were tested with ELISA for dengue IgG and IgM. 74 serum pairs were tested again

Thanh Nga T Tran; Peter J de Vries; Lan Phuong Hoang; Giao T Phan; Hung Q Le; Binh Q Tran; Chi Mai T Vo; Nam V Nguyen; Piet A Kager; Nico Nagelkerke; Jan Groen

2006-01-01

113

Evaluation of anti-toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA in mothers with spontaneous abortion in Zanjan, Northwest Iran.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the major agents of infectious abortions and due to its worldwide distribution can threat healthy pregnant women who had no previous exposure to this parasite. The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of T. gondii to spontaneous abortions in Zanjan, Northwest of Iran, using ELISA method. Blood Samples were collected from 264 mothers referred to the provincial hospitals of Zanjan due to spontaneous abortion. The sera were isolated and subjected to evaluate the anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. The results showed IgG positive (IgG(+)) in 99 cases (37.5%). A total of 68 women (25.8%) showed seroconversion with IgM or IgA or both IgM and IgA. They included: IgM(+) in 21 (8.0%), IgA(+) in 23 (8.7%) and both IgM(+) and IgA(+) in 24 (9.1%) subjects. In 23 cases, positive titers of IgM and IgG were accompanied. In general, the analysis of anti-Toxoplasma antibody patterns, showed that about 17% of the spontaneous abortions were associated with serological patterns of acute infection. According to these findings, a considerable proportion of spontaneous abortions can be attributed to T. gondii in the study area. PMID:23230339

Amin, Abbas; Mazloomzadeh, S; Haniloo, A; Mohammadian, F; Fazaeli, Asghar

2012-12-01

114

Evaluation of Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA in Mothers with Spontaneous Abortion in Zanjan, Northwest Iran  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the major agents of infectious abortions and due to its worldwide distribution can threat healthy pregnant women who had no previous exposure to this parasite. The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of T. gondii to spontaneous abortions in Zanjan, Northwest of Iran, using ELISA method. Blood Samples were collected from 264 mothers referred to the provincial hospitals of Zanjan due to spontaneous abortion. The sera were isolated and subjected to evaluate the anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. The results showed IgG positive (IgG+) in 99 cases (37.5%). A total of 68 women (25.8%) showed seroconversion with IgM or IgA or both IgM and IgA. They included: IgM+ in 21 (8.0%), IgA+ in 23 (8.7%) and both IgM+ and IgA+ in 24 (9.1%) subjects. In 23 cases, positive titers of IgM and IgG were accompanied. In general, the analysis of anti-Toxoplasma antibody patterns, showed that about 17% of the spontaneous abortions were associated with serological patterns of acute infection. According to these findings, a considerable proportion of spontaneous abortions can be attributed to T. gondii in the study area. PMID:23230339

Amin, Abbas; Mazloomzadeh, S.; Haniloo, A.; Mohammadian, F.

2012-01-01

115

V region gene analysis of human IgM hybridoma monoclonal anti-Sm antibodies.  

PubMed

Anti-Sm antibodies although highly specific for systemic lupus erythematosus can only be found in 10-25% of lupus patients and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. Molecular studies of these autoantibodies from mice have suggested that the anti-Sm response is Ag driven, its expression is controlled by stochastic events and may originate from the same B cell precursors as anti-DNA antibodies. However, relatively little information regarding the molecular characteristics of anti-Sm antibodies in man has been reported. We studied the V region genes of three IgM hybridoma monoclonal antibodies (BUD 45.12.8, BUD 114.4.11 and BUD 94.91.8) which were selected for Sm reactivity and derived from B cells of a healthy child. Two of these antibodies BUD 45.12.8 and BUD 114.4.11 also-reacted with ssDNA, while the third (BUD 94.91.8) did not. Each of these anti-Sm/ RNP antibodies was encoded by different and predominantly unmutated Ig heavy chain germline genes (BUD 45.12.8 by VH3-23, DXP4 and JH4b; BUD 94.91.8 by VH3-33, D21-9 and JH6b; BUD 114.4.11 by VH1-2, DK1 or DM1 or unknown D and JH4b) and light chain genes (BUD 45.12.8 by Humkv325 and JK2; BUD 94.91.8 by hsiggll150 (lambda IIIb) and J lambda 2/3; BUD 114.4.11 by Humk18 and JK3). Many of these genes are also used by antibodies with other specificities including DNA. The two anti-Sm antibodies which also bound ssDNA shared an overall V region net positive charge, while the third antibody without ssDNA reactivity carried a negative V region net charge. These findings demonstrate that (1) normal individuals have the genetic potential to generate autoantibodies to Sm/RNP; (2) acquisition of Sm/RNP binding is not dependent on somatic mutations and (3) some human B cell clones exhibit specificity for Sm and ssDNA. PMID:9302661

Mahmoudi, M; Edwards, J Y; Bell, D A; Cairns, E

1997-01-01

116

The functional activities of IgG and IgM anti-A and anti-B  

PubMed Central

The rate constants for association and dissociation, and the equilibrium constants, were determined for 125I-labelled anti-A and anti-B of both IgG and IgM molecular types. The following results and conclusions were obtained: 1. The equilibrium constants were within the range 06×108–13.0×108 l/mole, and were of the same order for both IgG and IgM antibodies. 2. The initial rate constants for association were in the range 2.1×105–4.8×105 l/mole/sec, and the energy of activation (Ea) 6700–9000 cal/mole. These results indicate that the rate of association is approaching the limit set by the rate of diffusion of the reactants. 3. The initial rate constants for dissociation were 1 × 10-4–5 × 10-4/sec and Ea = 20,000–36,000 cal/mole. These latter values suggest that more than one bond must be broken simultaneously during dissociation. 4. Ionic strength and pH changes have only a minor effect on the constants; this indicates absence of ionic groups on A and B antigen sites. 5. The changes in enthalpy were –5400 to –21,800 cal/mole; the reactions are mainly enthalpy driven and this accounts for the fact that anti-A and anti-B agglutination titres increase as the temperature is decresed. 6. There was heterogeneity of the values of the standard change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy within each example of antibody. 7. The approximate concentrations of antibody at the end-points of the agglutination titres were: for IgG antibody, 0.2 ?g/ml; for IgM antibody, 0.01 ?g/ml. PMID:4168016

Economidou, Joanna; Hughes-Jones, N. C.; Gardner, B.

1967-01-01

117

Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG to Arboviral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression “Logitboost” as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests. PMID:24086608

Basile, Alison J.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Panella, Amanda J.; Laven, Janeen; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

2013-01-01

118

IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against the novel polyprotein in active tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was aimed to evaluate whether IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies levels detected against a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis polyprotein 38 F-64 F (with 38 F being the abbreviation for 38kD-ESAT6-CFP10 and 64 F for Mtb8.4-MPT64-TB16.3-Mtb8) are suitable for diagnosing active tuberculosis, and for monitoring the efficacy of chemotherapy on TB patients. Methods In this study, a total of 371 active TB patients without treatment were selected and categorized into S+/C+?group (n?=?143), S-/C+?group (n?=?106) or S-/C- group (n?=?122). A series of serum samples were collected from 82 active TB patients who had undergone anti-TB chemotherapy for 0–6 months at one month interval. Humoral responses (IgG, IgM and IgA) were determined for the novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis polyprotein using indirect ELISA methods in all of serum samples. Results For S+/C+, S-/C+?and S-/C- active tuberculosis patients before anti-TB chemotherapy, the sensitivities of tests based on IgG were 65.7%, 46.2% and 52.5% respectively; the sensitivities based on IgM were 21.7%, 24.5% and 18.9%; and the sensitivities based on IgA were 25.2%, 17.9% and 23.8%. By combination of three isotypes, for all active tuberculosis patients, the test sensitivity increased to 70.4% with the specificity being 91.5%. After anti-TB chemotherapy, there were no significant differences between groups with different courses of anti-TB chemotherapy. Conclusions The novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis polyprotein 38 F-64 F represents potential antigen suitable for measuring IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. However, the serodiagnostic test based on the 38 F-64 F polyprotein appears unsuitable for monitoring the efficacy of chemotherapy. PMID:24939009

2014-01-01

119

Serum carbohydrate-binding IgM are present in Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) but not in North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).  

PubMed

Pangasianodon hypophthalmus serum was fractionated by affinity chromatography on 12 different Sepharose-carbohydrate columns and proteins eluted by the corresponding sugar. Binding to the affinity matrices is dependent on Ca(2+) ions. Upon gel filtration using Superose-12, essentially one fraction was obtained, eluting as a protein with a molecular mass of about 900 kDa. SDS-PAGE in reducing conditions revealed the presence of large (72 kDa) subunits (H-chains) and one up to three small (24, 26 and/or 28-29 kDa) subunits (L-chains). The isolated proteins were shown to be IgM since they bind monoclonal anti-P. hypophthalmus IgM antibodies. Rabbit polyclonal anti-galactose-binding IgM only cross-react with some sugar-binding IgM. The H-chains of the anti-carbohydrate IgM are glycosylated. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the IgMs have an "all-?" type of structure, and that Ca(2+) ions, though essential for carbohydrate-binding activity, are not required for the structural integrity of the molecules. In non-reducing SDS-PAGE, only monomers and halfmers were obtained, showing that there are no disulfide bonds linking the monomers, and that a disulfide bond connecting both H-chains within one monomer is only present in 45% of the molecules. Both the monomers and the halfmers display molecular mass heterogeneity which is indicative for redox forms at the level of the intradomain disulfide bonds. The native carbohydrate-binding IgMs agglutinate erythrocytes from different animals, as well as fish pathogenic bacteria. Similar proteins could not be isolated from another catfish, Clarias gariepinus. PMID:21911003

Giang, Duong Thi Huong; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Beeckmans, Sonia

2012-02-01

120

Natural IgM Anti-Leukocyte Auto-Antibodies (IgM-ALA) Attenuate Excess Inflammation Mediated by Innate and Adaptive Immune Mechanisms Involving TH-17  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the function of natural IgM auto-antibodies and especially IgM with anti-leukocyte reactivity (IgM-ALA). Natural IgM-ALA auto-antibodies are present at birth and characteristically increase during inflammatory and infective conditions. Our prior clinical observations and those of others showing less rejections in renal and cardiac allografts transplanted into recipients with high levels of IgM-ALA, led us to investigate if IgM-ALA regulate the inflammatory response. Here we show that IgM, in physiologic doses, inhibit pro-inflammatory cells from proliferating and producing IFN-? and IL-17 in response to alloantigens (MLR), anti-CD3 and the glycolipid alpha-gal ceramide. We show in an IgMko murine model, with intact B cells and Tregs, that there is more severe inflammation and loss of function in absence of IgM after renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and cardiac allograft rejection. Replenishing IgM in IgMko or increasing the levels of IgM-ALA in WT-B6 mice significantly attenuated the inflammation in both these inflammatory models which involve IFN-? and IL-17. The protective effect on renal IRI wasnot observed using IgM pre-adsorbed with leukocytes to remove IgM-ALA. We provide data to show that the anti-inflammatory effect of IgM is in part mediated by inhibiting TLR4 induced NF-kB translocation into the nucleus and inhibiting differentiation of activated T cells into TH-1 and TH-17 cells. These observations highlight the importance of IgM-ALA in regulating excess inflammation mediated by both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms and where the inflammatory response involves TH-17 cells that are not effectively regulated by Tregs. PMID:22262657

Lobo, Peter I.; Bajwa, Amandeep; Schlegel, Kailo H.; Vengal, John; Lee, Sang J.; Huang, Liping; Ye, Hong; Deshmukh, Umesh; Wang, Tong; Pei, Hong; Okusa, Mark D.

2011-01-01

121

Shift of C3 deposition from localization in the glomerulus into the tubulo-interstitial compartment in the absence of secreted IgM in immune complex glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

The role of secretory IgM in protecting kidney tissue from immune complex glomerulonephritis induced by 4 mg horse spleen apoferritin and 0.05 mg lipopolysaccharide has been investigated in mutant mice in which B cells do not secrete IgM, but are capable of expressing surface IgM and IgD and secreting other Ig isotypes. Glomerular size, number of glomeruli per cross-section, glomerular cellularity and urine content of protein and creatinine was comparable in treated secreted IgM (sIgM)-deficient and wild-type mice. Assessment of urinary proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a 30 kDa low molecular weight protein in treated sIgM-deficient animals only, reflecting dysfunction of proximal tubules. A shift of bound C3 from glomeruli to the tubulo-interstitial compartment in sIgM-deficient mice also suggests tubulo-interstitial damage. In contrast, local C3 synthesis within the kidney tissue did not differ between the two treated groups. Apoptosis physiologically present to maintain kidney cell homeostasis was increased slightly in treated wild-type mice. These results indicate that secretory IgM can protect the tubulo-interstitial compartment from immune complex-induced damage without having an effect on the glomerulus. PMID:17991287

Vaculik, C; Rüger, B M; Yanagida, G; Hollemann, D; Soleiman, A; Losert, U M; Chen, J; Fischer, M B

2008-01-01

122

The VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS): IGM transmission towards galaxies with 2.5  

E-print Network

(arXiv abridged abstract) The observed UV rest-frame spectra of distant galaxies are the result of their intrinsic emission combined with absorption along the line of sight produced by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Here we analyse the evolution of the mean IGM transmission Tr(Ly_alpha) and its dispersion along the line of sight for 2127 galaxies with 2.5= 4 compared to results from QSOs, but a degeneracy between dust extinction and IGM prevents to draw firm conclusions if the internal dust extinction for star-forming galaxies at z>4 takes a mean value significantly in excess of E(B-V)>0.15. Most importantly, we find a large dispersion of IGM transmission along the lines of sight towards distant galaxies with 68% of the distribution within 10 to 17% of the median value in delta z=0.5 bins, similar to what is found on the LOS towards QSOs. We demonstrate the importance of taking into account this large range of IGM transmission when selecting high redshift galaxies based on their colour properties (e.g. LBG ...

Thomas, R; Cassata, V Le Brun P; Garilli, B; Lemaux, B C; Maccagni, D; Pentericci, L; Tasca, L A M; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Cassarà, L; Castellano, M; Cimatti, A; Cucciati, O; Durkalec, A; Fontana, A; Giavalisco, M; Grazian, A; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Tresse, L; Vanzella, E; Vergani, D; Capak, P; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Cuby, J G; de la Torre, S; Dunlop, J; Fotopoulou, S; Koekemoer, A; López-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Pforr, J; Salvato, M; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Wang, P W

2014-01-01

123

Increased Urine IgM and IgG2 Levels, Indicating Decreased Glomerular Size Selectivity, Are Not Affected by Dalteparin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Fifty-four type 2 diabetic patients with neuroischemic foot ulcers were randomised to treatment with 5000?IU of dalteparin, (n = 28), or physiological saline, (n = 26), once daily until ulcer healing or for a maximum of 6?months. Thirty-three patients had normo-, 15 micro-, and 6 macroalbuminuria. The urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 were elevated in 47 and 50 patients, respectively. Elevated urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 indicate decreased glomerular size selectivity. Urine IgM levels were associated with IGF-1/IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-1 levels. Dalteparin treatment increased urinary levels of glycosaminoglycans (P < 0.001) and serum IGFBP-1 (P < 0.05) while no significant effects were seen in any of the other studied parameters. In conclusion, dalteparin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes had no effects on urinary levels of albumin, IgM, or IgG2 despite significantly increased glycosaminoglycans in urine. Elevated urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 might be more sensitive markers of renal disease than albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and antihypertensive therapy. PMID:22400116

Torffvit, Ole; Kalani, Majid; Apelqvist, Jan; Eliasson, Bjorn; Eriksson, Jan W.; Brismar, Kerstin; Jorneskog, Gun

2012-01-01

124

Reactivity in the Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory test and the Mercia IgM enzyme immunoassay after treatment of early syphilis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare reactivity in the Mercia immunoglobulin M enzyme immunoassay (IgM EIA) and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) after treatment of 229 previously untreated patients with early syphilis. At three months, the VDRL and the IgM EIA were negative in 41 (38%) and 71 (62%) cases, respectively; a four-fold or greater decrease in VDRL titre occurred in 106 (99%). At six months, the VDRL and the IgM EIA were negative in 45 (48%) and 69 (71%) patients, respectively; a four-fold or greater decrease in VDRL titre occurred in 88 (95%) and an eight-fold or greater decrease in 80 (86%). At 12 months, the VDRL and the IgM EIA were negative in 35 (70%) and 55 (92%) patients, respectively; a four-fold or greater decrease in VDRL titre occurred in 49 (98%) and an eight-fold or greater decrease in 47 (94%). The Mercia IgM EIA is as sensitive as the VDRL in monitoring treatment of primary syphilis but not as sensitive as the finding of a four-fold or eight-fold decrease in VDRL titre in patients treated for secondary or early latent infection. PMID:18824622

McMillan, A; Young, H

2008-10-01

125

Transferrin-immune complex disease: a potentially overlooked gammopathy mediated by IgM and IgG.  

PubMed

The combination of marked hypersideremia, hypertransferrinemia, and monoclonal gammopathy of underdetermined significance (MGUS) should alert clinicians to the possible presence of an anti-transferrin immunoglobulin, an uncommon acquired disorder also defined as transferrin-immune complex disease (TICD). The authors have previously described a case of TICD with 100% transferrin saturation and liver iron overload. However, the findings in the few cases so far reported are heterogeneous, and the presence of high transferrin saturation and liver iron overload is not universal. In this article, the authors have described the identification of two additional patients with anti-transferrin monoclonal gammopathy, hypersideremia, and hypertransferrinemia, but with incomplete transferrin saturation and no hepatic iron overload. The autoantibodies were purified by using transferrin as affinity bait and characterized. One subject showed a high-titer monoclonal anti-transferrin IgM with a ?-type light chain. This finding is the first observation of IgM autoantibodies against transferrin. The other patient developed the disease after pregnancy. In this study, monoclonal antibody was an IgG mounting a ?-type light chain with altered molecular weight. These results highlight that transferrin might induce the development of a monoclonal immune response of different classes and specificity. The identification, in a single hematologic center, of three different subjects with anti-transferrin monoclonal gammopathy suggests that the disease probably represents a still underdiagnosed condition. From a clinical standpoint, these patients must be followed up both as MGUS and as hemochromatosis. PMID:23913829

Forni, Gian Luca; Pinto, Valeria; Musso, Marco; Mori, Marco; Girelli, Domenico; Caldarelli, Ilaria; Borriello, Adriana; Ragione, Fulvio Della

2013-12-01

126

Toso, a functional IgM receptor, is regulated by IL-2 in T and NK cells1  

PubMed Central

We find that the cell surface receptor Toso is dramatically down-regulated by in vitro stimulation of human T and NK cells with IL-2 in a STAT5 dependent manner. The fact that IL-2 is known to prime NK and T cells for Fas/TNF-mediated activation induced cell death (AICD) fits nicely with the original and recent descriptions of Toso as an inhibitor of Fas/TNF-induced apoptosis. In support of this possibility, effector memory T cells express markedly lower levels of Toso than naïve T cells, indicating that activation in vivo correlates with the down-regulation of Toso. Moreover, in vitro activation of memory T cells through TCR dramatically down-regulates Toso expression compared to naïve CD4 T cells. However, over-expression of Toso in human NK cells and Jurkat T cells does not inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis, and, in agreement with other recent reports, Toso clearly functions as an IgM receptor. Unlike CD16, Toso expression by NK cells does not convey cytotoxic potential, but its ligation does trigger intracellular signaling in NK cells. In summary, our data indicate that Toso is a functional IgM receptor that is capable of activating signaling molecules, is regulated by IL-2, and is not inherently an anti-apoptotic molecule. PMID:22675200

Murakami, Yousuke; Narayanan, Sriram; Su, Su; Childs, Richard; Krzewski, Konrad; Borrego, Francisco; Weck, Jennifer; Coligan, John E.

2012-01-01

127

Testing of bovine sera by ELISA for IgG, IgM and IgA rheumatoid factors.  

PubMed

Sera from 19 colostrum-deprived calves less than 1 week old, 24 colostrum-supplemented calves less than 1 week old, 36 3-5-month-old calves and 200 females greater than 9 months of age were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors (RF). An increasing level of IgM- and IgG-RF with age was found. IgG-RF levels in the colostrum-supplemented calves were significantly higher than in the non-supplemented calves (p < 0.001). Individual IgG-RF values correlated with serum IgG levels, as determined by zinc sulphate turbidity testing (r=0.59, p < 0.01). No IgA-RF was detected. The cross-reactivity of IgM-RF with heterologous IgG was found to be greatest with rabbit IgG, followed by mouse and chicken IgG. The significance of rheumatoid factors in relation to diagnostic testing is discussed. PMID:9613438

Graham, D A; Mawhinney, K A; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1998-02-27

128

Novel aspects pertaining to the relationship of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), polyclonal gammopathy and hypoglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is associated with a precursor condition, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) of immunoglobulin-M (IgM) type. The etiology of these conditions is unknown. Recent studies at the population level have provided new data regarding familial aggregation of these disorders and other B-cell malignancies. Studies of familial clusters of WM have demonstrated an increased frequency of IgM MGUS compared to the general population and have provided new data suggesting that the phenotypic spectrum may also include polyclonal gammopathy and hypoglobulinemia. While the preponderance of immunoglobulin abnormalities in relatives of WM cases involves IgM, other immunoglobulin types (IgG and IgA) may also be affected. Large collaborative studies are needed to confirm these findings, which present an opportunity to define the earliest lesion(s) in the WM oncogenic pathway. PMID:19362963

McMaster, Mary L.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Turesson, Ingemar; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Landgren, Ola

2009-01-01

129

Novel aspects pertaining to the relationship of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, polyclonal gammopathy, and hypoglobulinemia.  

PubMed

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is associated with a precursor condition, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) of immunoglobulin-M (IgM) type. The etiology of these conditions is unknown. Recent studies at the population level have provided new data regarding familial aggregation of these disorders and other B-cell malignancies. Studies of familial clusters of WM have demonstrated an increased frequency of IgM MGUS compared with the general population and have provided new data suggesting that the phenotypic spectrum might also include polyclonal gammopathy and hypoglobulinemia. While the preponderance of immunoglobulin abnormalities in relatives of WM cases involves IgM, other immunoglobulin types (IgG and IgA) might also be affected. Large collaborative studies are needed to confirm these findings, which present an opportunity to define the earliest lesion(s) in the WM oncogenic pathway. PMID:19362963

McMaster, Mary L; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Turesson, Ingemar; Björkholm, Magnus; Landgren, Ola

2009-03-01

130

Enzyme immuno assay for the detection of virus specific IgG and IgM antibody in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.  

PubMed

Consecutive serum samples collected from 235 patients with Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), between two days and two years after onset of disease, have been analysed for the presence of IgG and IgM type of antibodies specific for Hanta-viruses. The sera were screened in parallel by a newly developed indirect Immuno Enzyme Assay (EIA) in parallel with Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody Assay (IFA). In both tests the Hantaan virus strain 76-118 was used as the antigen. The EIA was much more sensitive than the IFA test for the detection of IgM type antibodies. With the indirect EIA IgM type antibodies against Hantaan virus 76-118 have been detected in HFRS patient's sera from the second day of illness indicating the usefulness of this test for the early serological diagnosis of this disease. PMID:2898929

Ivanov, A P; Tkachenko, E A; Petrov, V A; Pashkov, A J; Dzagurova, T K; Vladimirova, T P; Voronkova, G M; van der Groen, G

1988-01-01

131

Low molecular weight (7S) IgM and free light chains in the sera of patients with the tropical splenomegaly syndrome.  

PubMed

The presence of naturally occurring LMW (7S) IgM was suspected on Sephadex G-200 filtration of a serum pool from patients with tropical splenomegaly syndrome (TSS). It was found in nineteen out of thirty-one sera from these patients using a polyacrylamide/agarose gel-diffusion method, and in fifteen of the sera after precipitation of the 19S IgM with 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Free K-light chains was detected in twenty-five out of thirty-one sera from patients with the TSS while free lambda-light chains was detected in four. The presence of 7S IgM and free light chains in sera of these patients is in keeping with our hypothesis that there is a disorder of control of immunoglobulin production in the tropical splenomegaly syndrome. PMID:405168

Fakunle, Y M; Greenwood, B M

1977-04-01

132

Low molecular weight (7S) IgM and free light chains in the sera of patients with the tropical splenomegaly syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The presence of naturally occurring LMW (7S) IgM was suspected on Sephadex G-200 filtration of a serum pool from patients with tropical splenomegaly syndrome (TSS). It was found in nineteen out of thirty-one sera from these patients using a polyacrylamide/agarose gel-diffusion method, and in fifteen of the sera after precipitation of the 19S IgM with 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Free K-light chains was detected in twenty-five out of thirty-one sera from patients with the TSS while free lambda-light chains was detected in four. The presence of 7S IgM and free light chains in sera of these patients is in keeping with our hypothesis that there is a disorder of control of immunoglobulin production in the tropical splenomegaly syndrome. PMID:405168

Fakunle, Y M; Greenwood, B M

1977-01-01

133

Low molecular weight IgM in sera of children following bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anaemia and acute leukaemia.  

PubMed Central

Serum samples of 16 children, treated with allogeneic bone marrow grafts for either aplastic anaemia or leukaemia, were investigated longitudinally for the presence of pentameric (19S) and low molecular weight (LMW) (7S) IgM. From 2 months following grafting, serum IgM increased in all patients, gradually in seven cases and with a transient overshoot in the other nine. In eight patients, LMW-IgM was detected transiently in the serum within the period when total IgM was increasing, either with (five patients) or without (three patients) overshoot. These data indicate that, at a certain stage of the immunological reconstitution after transplantation as in normal ontogeny, rather immature cells of the B cell lineage are able to produce and secrete LMW-IgM. PMID:6347475

Jol-vd Zijde, C M; Vossen, J M; Weijden-Ragas, R V; Radl, J

1983-01-01

134

IgM expression on paraffin sections distinguishes primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma.  

PubMed

In the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 classification 2 main types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCLs) are distinguished: primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) and primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCBCL-LT). PCFCL has a 5-year overall survival rate of 95%, and PCBCL-LT of approximately 50%. Expression profiling studies have shown higher RNA expression of the IgM heavy chain in PCBCL-LT compared with PCFCL. To find out whether this difference could also be demonstrated at the protein level, we performed immunohistochemical staining for B-cell receptor heavy and light chains on skin biopsies from 53 patients with PCFCL and 40 patients with PCBCL-LT. All 40 cases of PCBCL-LT consistently showed cytoplasmic staining for IgM, in 18 of them with coexpression of IgD. In contrast, only 5 of the PCFCL cases showed cytoplasmic staining for IgM and/or IgD, including all 3 PCFCLs presenting on the leg. Hence, staining for IgM on paraffin-embedded sections seems to be an additional tool for differentiating between the 2 entities in clinical pathology practice. Analogous to other nodal and extranodal large B-cell lymphomas, expression of IgM in PCLBCL seems to be related to an activated B cell-like phenotype. Finally, the expression of IgM (and IgD) in this type of lymphoma might imply defective class switch recombination. PMID:20551823

Koens, Lianne; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Jansen, Patty M

2010-07-01

135

Evaluation of Commercially Available Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen and Anti-Dengue Virus IgM Antibody.  

PubMed

Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%. PMID:25330157

Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W; Margolis, Harold S

2014-10-01

136

Evaluation of Commercially Available Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen and Anti-Dengue Virus IgM Antibody  

PubMed Central

Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60–75% and specificity 71–80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38–71% and specificity 76–80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30–96%, with a specificity of 86–92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96–98% and specificity 78–91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88–94%. PMID:25330157

Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A.; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L.; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G.; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Margolis, Harold S.

2014-01-01

137

Detection of IgM responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus by indirect ELISA following experimental infection and reinfection of calves: abolition of false positive and false negative results by pre-treatment of sera with protein-G agarose.  

PubMed

The IgM responses in three panels of sera generated by infection and reinfection of calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were measured by indirect ELISA (I-ELISA). The effect of depleting serum IgG by pre-treatment with protein G agarose (PGA) was evaluated. Following primary infection a weak IgM response was detected in the untreated sera of 3 out of 4 calves with maternally derived antibody (MDA). Both the magnitude and duration of the specific IgM responses in these calves were increased by pre-treatment with PGA. In addition, the fourth infected calf tested gave a single positive IgM result following PGA treatment. Transient or persistent IgM responses which were abolished by pre-treatment of sera with PGA were detected in 4/8 calves following reinfection. These were considered to be false positive results, consistent with the influence of IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). One of these calves and two additional calves showed transient increases in IgM which were resistant to PGA treatment. These were considered to represent specific IgM responses to reinfection. The results indicate the ability of PGA treatment to eliminate both false positive and false negative results and emphasise the necessity for controlling the influence of IgM-RF in IgM-specific indirect ELISAs. PMID:10522785

Graham, D A; Foster, J C; Mawhinney, K A; Elvander, M; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1999-10-01

138

Immune Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome Patients Revealed by High Levels of Serum Anti-N(Glc) IgM Antibody Fraction  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

Papini, Anna Maria; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

2014-01-01

139

Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Correlation between IgM Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen, Hepatitis B e Antigen, and Hepatitis B DNA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sera from 102 black patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) and hepatitis B surface antigenemia were tested for immunoglobulin M antibody against hepatitis B core (IgM anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B viral (HBV) DNA....

E. Song, G. M. Dusheiko, M. C. Kew, M. H. Sjogren

1988-01-01

140

Reconstituted human polyclonal plasma-derived secretory-like IgM and IgA maintain the barrier function of epithelial cells infected with an enteropathogen.  

PubMed

Intravenous administration of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies has proven to be a clinically valid approach in the treatment, or at least relief, of many acute and chronic pathologies, such as infection, immunodeficiency, and a broad range of autoimmune conditions. Plasma-derived IgG or recombinant IgG are most frequently used for intravenous or subcutaneous administration, whereas a few IgM-based products are available as well. We have established recently that secretory-like IgA and IgM can be produced upon association of plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM with a recombinant secretory component. As a next step toward potential future mucosal administration, we sought to unravel the mechanisms by which these secretory Igs protect epithelial cells located at the interface between the environment and the inside of the body. By using polarized epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers and Shigella flexneri as a model enteropathogen, we found that polyspecific plasma-derived SIgA and SIgM fulfill many protective functions, including dose-dependent recognition of the antigen via formation of aggregated immune complexes, reduction of bacterial infectivity, maintenance of epithelial cell integrity, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by epithelial cells. In this in vitro model devoid of other cellular or molecular interfering partners, IgM and secretory IgM showed stronger bacterial neutralization than secretory IgA. Together, these data suggest that mucosally delivered antibody preparations may be most effective when combining both secretory-like IgA and IgM, which, together, play a crucial role in preserving several levels of epithelial cell integrity. PMID:24951593

Longet, Stéphanie; Vonarburg, Cédric; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia; Zuercher, Adrian; Corthésy, Blaise

2014-08-01

141

Evaluation of fully automated assays for the detection of Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies by the Elecsys(®) immunoassay system.  

PubMed

Screening for acute rubella infection in pregnancy is an important element of antenatal care. This study compared the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of two new, fully automated Elecsys(®) Rubella IgM and IgG immunoassays designed for the Elecsys 2010, Modular Analytics E170, COBAS e-411 and COBAS e-601 and e602 analytical platforms, with current assays using serum from patients with primary rubella infections, vaccinated patients, patients with potentially cross-reacting infections and on routine samples in clinical laboratories in France, Germany and Italy. Both assays showed good within-run and within-laboratory precision. A sensitivity of 79.8-96.0% was demonstrated for Elecsys IgM in primary, early acute infection, consistent with existing assays. In samples obtained from routine antenatal screening, the Elecsys Rubella IgM assay revealed high specificity (98.7-99.0%). A significantly (p<0.0001) lower reactivity was demonstrated in samples from previously infected patients where acute rubella infection was excluded, and the incidence of false positives in patients with potentially cross-reacting infections was lower with Elecsys Rubella IgM compared with other. The Elecsys Rubella IgG assay exhibited a relative sensitivity of 99.9-100.0% and specificity of 97.4-100.0% in samples from routine antenatal screening. The Elecsys Rubella IgM and IgG assays allow convenient, rapid and reliable determination of anti-rubella antibodies. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility were comparable with existing assay systems. Assay results were available in approximately half the time required for currently employed methods and the assays are compatible with widely used analytical platforms. PMID:24487099

van Helden, Josef; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Vleminckx, Renaud; Masset, Frédéric; Revello, Maria-Grazia

2014-04-01

142

Spinal cord dysmyelination caused by an antiproteolipid protein IgM antibody: implications for the mechanism of central nervous system myelin formation.  

PubMed

Antiglycolipid IgM antibodies are known to induce formation of "wide spaced" or "expanded" myelin, a distinctive form of dysmyelination characterized by a repeat period approximately two or three times normal, which is seen also in diseases, including multiple sclerosis. To determine whether an antibody directed against a myelin protein would cause equivalent pathology, we implanted O10 hybridoma cells into the spinal cord of adult or juvenile rats. O10 produces an IgM directed against PLP, the major protein of CNS myelin. Subsequent examination of the cords showed focal demyelination and remyelination. In addition, however, some juvenile cords, but none of the adult cords, displayed wide-spaced myelin with lamellae separated by an extracellular material comprising elements consistent with IgM molecules in appearance. Wide spacing tended to involve the outer layers of the sheath and in some cases alternated with normally spaced lamellae. A feature not seen previously consists of multiple expanded myelin lamellae in one sector of a sheath continuous with normally spaced lamellae in another, resulting in variation in sheath thickness around the axonal circumference. This uneven distribution of wide-spaced lamellae is most simply explained based on incorporation of IgM molecules into immature sheaths during myelin formation and implies a model of CNS myelinogenesis more complex than simple spiraling. The periaxonal space never displays widening of this kind, but the interface with adjacent myelin sheaths or oligodendrocytes may. Thus, wide spacing appears to require that IgM molecules bridge between two PLP-containing membranes and does not reflect the mere presence of immunoglobulin within the extracellular space. PMID:18951490

Rosenbluth, J; Schiff, R

2009-03-01

143

The dependence of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation on environment and the implied metallicity of the IGM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the dependence of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation on environment in SDSS, in terms of both over-density and central/satellite dichotomy. We find that at a given stellar mass, there is a strong dependence of metallicity on over-density for star-forming satellites (i.e. all galaxies members of groups/clusters which are not centrals). High metallicity satellites reside, on average, in regions four times denser than the low metallicity ones. Instead, for star-forming centrals no correlation is found. Star-forming satellites at different stellar masses form a tight sequence in the average over-density - metallicity plane, which covers the entire observed range of metallicities and stellar masses. This remarkable result appears to imply that there exists a universal evolutionary path for all star-forming satellites, regardless of their stellar masses. The strong correlation between over-density and metallicity for star-forming satellites indicates that the gas inflow of satellite galaxies is progressively metal-enriched in denser regions. We interpret our results by employing the gas regulator model and find that the metallicity of the enriched inflow of star-forming satellite galaxies, Z0, sat, strongly increases with increasing over-density. The derived Z0, sat- overdensity relation is largely independent of stellar mass and can be well described by a simple power law. If the metallicity of the inflow of star-forming satellites can represent the metallicity of the IGM, then the implied metallicity of the IGM rises from ˜0.01 Z? in the void-like environment to ˜0.3 Z? in the cluster-like environment, in broad agreement with observations. We show that the observed metallicity difference between star-forming centrals and star-forming satellites becoming smaller towards high stellar masses can be simply explained by the mass-independent enriched inflow, without the need to involve any mass-dependent environmental effect on metallicity. Since satellite galaxies account for at least half of the galaxy population, our findings prompt for a revision of many galaxy evolutionary models, which generally assume pristine gas inflows.

Peng, Ying-jie; Maiolino, Roberto

2014-02-01

144

In vitro synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in response to Staphylococcus aureus, by lymphocytes from healthy adults  

SciTech Connect

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 healthy adults were tested in vitro for the production of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) or pokeweed mitogen. Fifteen of the 20 normal subjects produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 46 +/- 55 ng/ml) in response to SAC, compared with only 2 of 20 who produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 2 +/- 4 ng/ml) in response to pokeweed mitogen (P = 0.0001). Separation and reconstitution of autologous T and B cell-enriched fractions, with and without prior T cell irradiation, provided evidence for a radiosensitive T helper/inducer cell involved in the IgM-RF response to SAC in 70% of the normal subjects studied. SAC appears to be a potent stimulus of IgM-RF production, with a cellular mechanism distinct from that of other in vitro systems.

Goldstein, R.; Karsh, J.

1986-12-01

145

Functionally responsive self-reactive B cells of low affinity express reduced levels of surface IgM.  

PubMed

Somatic gene rearrangement generates a diverse repertoire of B cells, many which have receptors possessing a range of affinities for self-Ag. Newly generated B cells express high and relatively uniform amounts of surface IgM (sIgM), while follicular (FO) B cells express sIgM at widely varying levels. It is plausible, therefore, that downmodulation of sIgM serves as a mechanism to maintain weakly self-reactive B cells in a responsive state by decreasing their avidity for self-Ag. We tested this hypothesis by performing comparative functional tests with FO IgM(hi) and IgM(lo) B cells from the unrestricted repertoire of WT C57BL/6 mice. We found that FO IgM(lo) B cells mobilized Ca(2+) equivalently to IgM(hi) B cells when the same number of sIgM molecules was engaged. In agreement, FO IgM(lo) B cells were functionally competent to produce an antibody response following adoptive transfer. The FO IgM(lo) cell population had elevated levels of Nur77 transcript, and was enriched with nuclear-reactive specificities. Hybridoma sampling revealed that these B-cell receptors were of low affinity. Collectively, these results suggest that sIgM downmodulation by low-affinity, self-reactive B cells preserves their immunocompetence and circumvents classical peripheral tolerance mechanisms that would otherwise reduce diversity within the B cell compartment. PMID:24375379

Kirchenbaum, Greg A; St Clair, James B; Detanico, Thiago; Aviszus, Katja; Wysocki, Lawrence J

2014-04-01

146

The expression of IgM is helpful in the differentiation of primary cutaneous diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicle center lymphoma.  

PubMed

Diffuse large B-cell infiltration of the skin includes mainly primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) with diffuse architecture and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PCDLBCL), leg type. Differentiation of these lymphomas on morphology may be troublesome. Immunohistochemistry panel, including CD20, CD79a, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM-1, FOX-P1 is mandatory. However, in minority of cases, these markers would not suffice. In order to search the value of another marker, IgM, 30 cases of PCFCL and 10 cases of PCDLBCL, leg type were included in the study. As suggested in a recent literature, our study denoted that expression of IgM was useful as an additional tool for differentiation. PMID:21700336

Demirkesen, Cuyan; Tüzüner, Nükhet; Esen, Tu?çe; Lebe, Banu; Ozkal, Sermin

2011-09-01

147

Multiplex immunoassay for Lyme disease using VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies: improving test performance through bioinformatics.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends a 2-tier serologic approach to Lyme disease laboratory diagnosis, comprised of an initial serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi followed by supplementary IgG and IgM Western blotting of EIA-positive or -equivocal samples. Western blot accuracy is limited by subjective interpretation of weakly positive bands, false-positive IgM immunoblots, and low sensitivity for detection of early disease. We developed an objective alternative second-tier immunoassay using a multiplex microsphere system that measures VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies simultaneously in the same sample. Our study population comprised 79 patients with early acute Lyme disease, 82 patients with early-convalescent-phase disease, 47 patients with stage II and III disease, 34 patients post-antibiotic treatment, and 794 controls. A bioinformatic technique called partial receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) regression was used to combine individual antibody levels into a single diagnostic score with a single cutoff; this technique enhances test performance when a high specificity is required (e.g., ? 95%). Compared to Western blotting, the multiplex assay was equally specific (95.6%) but 20.7% more sensitive for early-convalescent-phase disease (89.0% versus 68.3%, respectively; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] for difference, 12.1% to 30.9%) and 12.5% more sensitive overall (75.0% versus 62.5%, respectively; 95% CI for difference, 8.1% to 17.1%). As a second-tier test, a multiplex assay for VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies performed as well as or better than Western blotting for Lyme disease diagnosis. Prospective validation studies appear to be warranted. PMID:21367982

Porwancher, Richard B; Hagerty, C Greg; Fan, Jianqing; Landsberg, Lisa; Johnson, Barbara J B; Kopnitsky, Mark; Steere, Allen C; Kulas, Karen; Wong, Susan J

2011-05-01

148

Cold Pressure Test Producing Coronary Spasm, Coronary Thrombosis and Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with IgM Antibodies against Coxsackie B Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence have shown that viral infections are capable of causing coronary spasm and precipitating or mimicking clinical myocardial infarction. Here we report the case of a 41-year-old woman with recurrent angina who was admitted to our hospital because of ventricular tachycardia. Laboratory examination revealed positive IgM titers against Coxsackie B virus. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries,

Werner Haberbosch; Norbert Roerich; Joerg Neuzner

1999-01-01

149

Bovine IgM antibodies with exceptionally long complementarity-determining region 3 of the heavy chain share unique structural properties conferring restricted VH + V  pairings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring antibody repertoires of cattle (Bos taurus) include a group of IgMl antibodies with exceptionally long complementarity-determining region 3 of the heavy chain (CDR3H) segments, containing multiple Cys residues. These massive CDR3H segments will greatly influence the tertiary and quaternary structures of the bovine IgM combining sites. As an antibody's combining site is formed by both heavy and light

Surinder S. Saini; William Farrugia; Paul A. Ramsland; Azad K. Kaushik

2003-01-01

150

Kinetics of non-structural protein 1, IgM and IgG antibodies in dengue type 1 primary infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Early and accurate diagnosis of dengue infection is essential for control of disease outbreaks. Recently, the dengue virus non-structural antigen 1 (NS1), a conserved and secreted glycoprotein, has been used as a marker for early diagnosis of dengue with convenience and cost-effectiveness. Serological tests of dengue IgM and IgG antibodies are still the most widely used for diagnosis of

Dongmei Hu; Biao Di; Xixia Ding; Yadi Wang; Yue Chen; Yuxian Pan; Kun Wen; Ming Wang; Xiaoyan Che

2011-01-01

151

Defective Expression of the CD40 Ligand in X Chromosome-Linked Immunoglobulin Deficiency with Normal or Elevated IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

B lymphocytes from patients with X chromosome-linked immunoglobulin deficiency with normal or elevated serum IgM are unable to switch from the synthesis of IgM\\/IgD to that of other immunoglobulin isotypes. Isotype switch recombination was evaluated in three affected males by examining interleukin 4-driven IgE synthesis. T-cell-dependent IgE synthesis was completely absent in the B lymphocytes of the patients. In contrast,

Ramsay Fuleihan; Narayanaswamy Ramesh; Richard Loh; Haifa Jabara; Fred S. Rosen; Talal Chatila; Shu Man Fu; Ivan Stamenkovic; Raif S. Geha

1993-01-01

152

IgM-class rheumatoid factor interference in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay of rubella-specific IgM antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interference of IgM-class rheumatoid factor (RF) in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) of rubella virus IgM antibodies was studied. Acute rubella infections did not significantly activate RF. False-positive rubella antibody results were obtained, however, when patients with raised RF levels were tested. If a low rubella IgG antibody titre was present, a high level of RF was required to cause

O H Meurman; B R Ziola

1978-01-01

153

Multiplex Immunoassay for Lyme Disease Using VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM Antibodies: Improving Test Performance through Bioinformatics ?  

PubMed Central

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends a 2-tier serologic approach to Lyme disease laboratory diagnosis, comprised of an initial serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi followed by supplementary IgG and IgM Western blotting of EIA-positive or -equivocal samples. Western blot accuracy is limited by subjective interpretation of weakly positive bands, false-positive IgM immunoblots, and low sensitivity for detection of early disease. We developed an objective alternative second-tier immunoassay using a multiplex microsphere system that measures VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies simultaneously in the same sample. Our study population comprised 79 patients with early acute Lyme disease, 82 patients with early-convalescent-phase disease, 47 patients with stage II and III disease, 34 patients post-antibiotic treatment, and 794 controls. A bioinformatic technique called partial receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) regression was used to combine individual antibody levels into a single diagnostic score with a single cutoff; this technique enhances test performance when a high specificity is required (e.g., ?95%). Compared to Western blotting, the multiplex assay was equally specific (95.6%) but 20.7% more sensitive for early-convalescent-phase disease (89.0% versus 68.3%, respectively; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] for difference, 12.1% to 30.9%) and 12.5% more sensitive overall (75.0% versus 62.5%, respectively; 95% CI for difference, 8.1% to 17.1%). As a second-tier test, a multiplex assay for VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies performed as well as or better than Western blotting for Lyme disease diagnosis. Prospective validation studies appear to be warranted. PMID:21367982

Porwancher, Richard B.; Hagerty, C. Greg; Fan, Jianqing; Landsberg, Lisa; Johnson, Barbara J. B.; Kopnitsky, Mark; Steere, Allen C.; Kulas, Karen; Wong, Susan J.

2011-01-01

154

Relationship of IgG and IgM autoantibodies to oxidized low density lipoprotein with coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between autoantibodies to oxi- dized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and coronary artery disease (CAD) remains controversial. IgM and IgG OxLDL autoantibodies to malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified LDL, copper oxidized low density lipoprotein (CuOxLDL), and oxidized cholesterol linoleate (OxCL), as well as apolipo- protein B-100 immune complexes (apoB-ICs), were mea- sured in 504 patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography. Patients were

Sotirios Tsimikas; Emmanouil S. Brilakis; Ryan J. Lennon; Elizabeth R. Miller; Joseph L. Witztum; Joseph P. McConnell; Kenneth S. Kornman; Peter B. Berger

2006-01-01

155

Evaluations of Commercial West Nile Virus Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM Enzyme Immunoassays Show the Value of Continuous Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in 1999 and in only four seasons has become endemic east of the Rocky Mountains. Recently, immunoglobulin M (IgM)-capture enzyme immunoassays for the detection of West Nile virus-specific IgM and indirect IgG enzyme immunoassays for the detection of IgG antibodies against West Nile virus were made available from Focus Technologies and

Annette K. Malan; Thomas B. Martins; Harry R. Hill; Christine M. Litwin

2004-01-01

156

Serum immunoglobulin concentrations in preschool children measured by laser nephelometry: reference ranges for IgG, IgA, IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were determined on sera from 298 healthy children aged six months to six years using the Hyland laser nephelometer PDQ system. Age-specific 95% reference ranges for serum IgG, IgA and IgM are presented; considerable care has been taken to ensure statistical validity of the reference ranges. The wide range of values in children under two years suggest

D Isaacs; D G Altman; C E Tidmarsh; H B Valman; A D Webster

1983-01-01

157

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeologa y aguas subterrneas, n 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andaluca. I: 619-628. 2005  

E-print Network

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeología y aguas subterráneas, nº 14. VI Simposio del Agua en) , Benavente Herrera, José(2) e Hidalgo Estévez, Mª del Carmen(3) (1) CSIC e Instituto del Agua (Univ. Granada). C/ Ramón y Cajal, 4. 18071Granada. Correo electrónico: acastill@ugr.es (2) Instituto del Agua (Univ

Castillo, Antonio

158

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeologa y aguas subterrneas, n 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andaluca. II: 1.237-1.245  

E-print Network

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeología y aguas subterráneas, nº 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andalucía. II: 1.237-1.245 Calidad general de las aguas de la Vega de Granada. Análisis comparativo de las aguas superficiales, subterráneas y residuales Sánchez Díaz, Luis* y Castillo Martín, Antonio

Castillo, Antonio

159

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeologa y aguas subterrneas, n 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andaluca. II: 1.229-1.236. 2005  

E-print Network

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeología y aguas subterráneas, nº 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andalucía. II: 1.229-1.236. 2005 Sobre la calidad físico-química de las aguas superficiales del área metropolitana de Granada Sánchez Díaz, Luis* y Castillo Martín, Antonio** * Instituto del Agua. Universidad de

Castillo, Antonio

160

Relationship Between Oxidized LDL, IgM, and IgG Autoantibodies to ox-LDL Levels With Recurrent Cardiovascular Events in Swedish Patients With Previous Myocardial Infarction.  

PubMed

We determined whether plasma levels of circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL; E06), immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and IgM autoantibodies binding to malonyldialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) may predict cardiovascular events (CVEs). Patients (n = 123) with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) were included. The primary end point was defined as any of the following: cardiovascular death from any cause, nonfatal reinfarction or stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, and hospitalization due to angina pectoris. There were 43 CVEs during the follow-up period of 8.4 ± 3.5 years. There was no significant difference in the levels of E06 and MDA-LDL IgG between the CVE and the event-free group. However, MDA-LDL IgM levels were significantly lower in patients in the CVE group (9524 ± 6326 relative light unit [RLU]) compared with the event-free (10 975 ± 5398 RLU) group (P = .04). In conclusion, levels of MDA-LDL IgM were associated with an increased risk of CVE in patients with a previous MI. PMID:24288363

Crisby, M; Henareh, L; Agewall, Stefan

2014-11-01

161

Linear response curves from an ELISA assay: measurement of anti-myelin IgG and IgM during experimental allergic neuritis.  

PubMed

An ELISA method for generating linear dose-response curves for measuring anti-myelin IgG and IgM is described. Linearity is achieved without logarithmic transformations. This test is used to measure plasma levels of anti-myelin antibodies in rabbits with EAN. Results are expressed as relative concentrations of antibody in arbitary mass units with 95% confidence limits fitted by inverse prediction. In the 8 animals studied, appearance of anti-myelin antibody always preceded onset of clinical signs and neither anti-myelin IgG nor IgM could be detected in any animal pre-inoculation. Five out of 8 animals displayed steady and progressive increases in anti-myelin IgG with the remaining 3 animals showing plateaus in IgG levels 21-30 days post-inoculation. Increases in anti-myelin IgG were generally parallelled by increases in disease severity. However, 2 animals showed recovery and relapse from EAN with no change in plasma levels of anti-myelin IgG. Patterns of production of anti-myelin IgM varied with some animals displaying early peaks while others showed gradual increases. PMID:3657272

Harvey, G K; Schindhelm, K; Antony, J H; Pollard, J D

1987-09-01

162

Characterization and removal of aggregates formed by nonspecific interaction of IgM monoclonal antibodies with chromatin catabolites during cell culture production.  

PubMed

We observed that IgM monoclonal antibodies and aggregates in mammalian cell culture supernatants were associated nonspecifically with nucleosomes, DNA, and histone proteins derived from nuclei of host cells that died during antibody production. A series of multimodal sample treatments were evaluated for their ability to selectively remove these contaminants without significant antibody loss. The first consisted of adding 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl urea (allantoin) and the DNA intercalating agent 7-ethoxyacridine-3,9-diamine (ethacridine), then flowing the supernatant through a column of mixed porous particles bearing metal affinity, anion exchange, and cation exchange functionalities. A one-step variant of the method was to mix chromatography particles with the allantoin-ethacridine-treated supernatant. An alternative one-step treatment consisted of passing untreated cell supernatant through a chelating monolith in tandem with an anion exchange monolith. All methods eliminated high molecular weight aggregates, and reduced smaller aggregates to 2-4%. They also achieved 98% DNA reduction, 99% reduction of nucleosomes and histones, 30-70% reduction of general host proteins, and 98% IgM recovery. Size exclusion chromatography analysis indicated that IgG monoclonal antibodies benefit similarly from treatment. Subsequent IgM purification reduced DNA levels beneath the level of detectability by fluorescent dye intercalation, histones to less than 10 parts per million by ELISA, and aggregates to less than 0.05% by size exclusion chromatography. The results point to chromatin catabolites as promoters of antibody aggregate formation. PMID:23598159

Gan, Hui Theng; Lee, Jeremy; Latiff, Sarah Maria Abdul; Chuah, Cindy; Toh, Phyllicia; Lee, Wan Yee; Gagnon, Pete

2013-05-24

163

Chemically self-assembled antibody nanorings (CSANs): design and characterization of an anti-CD3 IgM biomimetic.  

PubMed

A number of clever recombinant methodologies have been developed that recapitulate the valencies of IgG's (bivalent) and IgA's (tetravalent). Although higher synthetic valencies have been achieved by conjugation of either monoclonal antibodies or single-chain antibodies to nanoparticles and liposomes, a method for the preparation of recombinant antibodies with valencies similar to IgM's (decavalent) but considerably less than what is generally found after antibody particle conjugation has yet to be devised. Recently, we have developed a methodology for the design of bivalent Chemically Self-Assembled Antibody Nanorings (CSANs). We now report the crystal structure of the nanoring subunit composed of the E. coli DHFR dimer and a methotrexate dimerizer (MTX2-C9) containing a visible nine methylene linker and a protocol for the preparation of CSANs from this subunit with valencies similar to IgM's, ranging from 8-10 single chain antibodies (scFvs). The multivalent CSANs were reversibly assembled from a fusion protein dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-DHFR-antiCD3 scFv containing a single glycine linker between the two DHFR scaffolding proteins. We also demonstrate that, similar to the parental bivalent anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAB), anti-CD3 CSANs selectively bind to CD3+ leukemia cells and undergo rapid internalization through a caveolin-independent pathway that requires cholesterol, actin polymerization, and protein tyrosine kinase activation. While treatment with the monoclonal antibody leads to T-cell activation and nearly complete loss (i.e., 90%) of the surface displayed T-cell receptor (TCR), only 25-30% of the TCR down regulate and no significant T-cell proliferation is observed after treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with anti-CD3 CSANs. Consistent with the proliferation findings, 15-25% less CD25 (IL-2 receptor) was found on the surface of PBMCs treated with either the polyvalent or bivalent anti-CD3 CSANs, respectively, than on PBMCs treated with the parental mAB. Comparative experiments with F(ab')2 derived from the mAB confirm that the activation of the T-cells by the mAB is dependent on the Fc domain, and thus interactions of the PBMC T-cells with accessory cells, such as macrophages. Taken together, our results demonstrate that anti-CD3 CSANs with valencies ranging from 2 to 8 could be employed for radionuclide, drug, or potentially oligonucleotide delivery to T-cells without, as has been observed for other antibody conjugated nanoparticles, the deleterious effects of activation observed for mAB. Further the CSAN construct may be adapted for the preparation of other multivalent scFvs. PMID:21077608

Li, Qing; So, Christopher R; Fegan, Adrian; Cody, Vivian; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Vallera, Daniel A; Wagner, Carston R

2010-12-01

164

Comparative analysis of IgM sub-variants in salmonid fish and identification of a residue in ?3 which is essential for MAb4C10 reactivity.  

PubMed

In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) it has been shown that high affinity IgM antibodies have a higher degree of disulfide polymerization and a longer half life time. In the present study, distinct IgM sub-variants related to ancestral tetraploidy in salmonid fish were analyzed to reveal possible characteristic differences between these. A monoclonal antibody (MAb4C10) which distinguishes between IgM-A and IgM-B in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) was further characterized. It was shown that substitution of a proline located in the loop between the B and C beta strands of the third constant domain (?3) of salmon ?A eliminated MAb4C10 reactivity. Accordingly, the reverse substitution in salmon ?B restored MAb4C10 reactivity. Molecular cloning of ? cDNA from arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) revealed two sub-variants (?A-1 and ?A-2), i.e. a similar situation as in Atlantic salmon and brown trout. However, arctic char IgM eluted in one peak by anion exchange chromatography, in contrast to salmon and brown trout IgM that are eluted in two peaks. The only characteristic residue of salmon and brown trout ?B is an additional cysteine in the C-terminal part of ?4. Most likely, this cysteine is involved in inter-chain disulfide bonding and influences the elution profiles of IgM-A and IgM-B on anion exchange chromatography. Neither of the ? sub-variants in arctic char have the additional cysteine, and char IgM, as well as salmon and brown trout IgM-A, showed a lower degree of inter-chain disulfide bonding than IgM-B when subjected to denaturation and gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions. Hybrids of char/salmon expressed ?A-1, ?A-2, ?A and ?B, indicating that there are two paralogous Ig heavy chain gene complexes in the haploid genome of char, like in Atlantic salmon. A comparison of salmonid ? sequences is presented, including representatives of Salmoninae (trout, salmon and char), Thymallinae (grayling) and Coregoninae (whitefish). PMID:23261504

Kamil, Atif; Raae, Arnt; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Fladmark, Kari E; Hordvik, Ivar

2013-02-01

165

Evaluation of an IgM-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection: influence of IgM rheumatoid factor on test results with field sera.  

PubMed

A commercially available indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)-specific IgG was adapted to measure virus-specific IgM. Using this assay, the development of rapid IgM responses in experimentally infected calves was observed 7-9 days postinfection, with peak absorbance values ranging from 1.698 to 2.873. When absorbance values were expressed as a percentage of a positive reference serum, a positive/negative threshold of 22% was determined by testing serum samples from 59 healthy 3-5-month-old calves. Acute and convalescent serum samples collected from 151 calves during 38 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested, and 130 sera were positive. To determine the number of false-positive results due to the presence of IgM rheumatoid factor, a method for depleting serum IgG by pretreatment of sera with a suspension of protein-G-agarose was developed. All sera that initially tested IgM positive were retested following depletion of serum IgG. False-positive IgM reactions were detected in 23 sera (17.7%). Specific IgM responses were confirmed in 107 sera from 84 calves. Evidence of BRSV infection was detected in 34 of 38 outbreaks. In contrast, seroconversion was detected in 69 calves from 24 outbreaks, confirming the diagnostic potential of the IgM assay. Overall correlation between IgM and seroconversion results was 74.2%. Intra- and interassay reproducibility were 12.50% and 17.48%, respectively (mean coefficients of variation). PMID:9786520

Graham, D A; Mawhinney, K A; Elvander, M; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1998-10-01

166

The Distribution of Metallicity in the IGM at z~2.5: OVI and CIV Absorption in the Spectra of 7 QSOs  

E-print Network

We present a direct measurement of the metallicity distribution function for the high redshift intergalactic medium. We determine the shape of this function using survival statistics, which account for both detections and non-detections of OVI and CIV associated with HI absorption in quasar spectra. Our OVI sample probes the metal content of ~50% of all baryons at z~2.5. We find a median intergalactic abundance of [O,C/H]=-2.82; the differential abundance distribution is approximately lognormal with mean ~-2.85 and \\sigma=0.75 dex. Some 60-70% the Lya forest lines are enriched to observable levels ([O,C/H]>-3.5) while the remaining ~30% of the lines have even lower abundances. Thus we have not detected a universal metallicity floor as has been suggested for some Population III enrichment scenaria. In fact, we argue that the bulk of the intergalactic metals formed later than the first stars that are thought to have triggered reionization. We do not observe a significant trend of decreasing metallicity toward the lower density IGM, at least within regions that would be characterized as filaments in numerical simulations. However, an [O/H] enhancement may be present at somewhat high densities. We estimate that roughly half of all baryons at these redshifts have been enriched to [O/H]>=-3.5. We develop a simple model for the metallicity evolution of the IGM, to estimate the chemical yield of galaxies formed prior to z~2.5. We find that the typical galaxy recycled 0.1-0.4% of its mass back into the IGM as heavy elements in the first 3 Gyr after the Big Bang.

Robert A. Simcoe; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Michael Rauch

2003-12-18

167

Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

Vojdani, Aristo

2009-01-01

168

Development of new, broadly reactive, rapid IgG and IgM lateral flow assays for diagnosis of scrub typhus.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two broadly reactive rapid immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for detection of IgM and IgG against Orientia tsutsugamushi by using archived acute-phase serum samples from 102 patients with laboratory-confirmed scrub typhus, and from 62 archived serum samples from patients with other causes of fever as a negative control. These ICTs were constructed by using a mixture of recombinant proteins: 1) C1, a chimeric protein containing epitopes of the 56-kD antigen from Karp and TA763 strains; 2) Ktr56; and 3) Gmr56. Sensitivities of the ICTs for detection of IgM and IgG were 90.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 84.4-96.0%) and 86.3% (95% CI = 80.9-93.8%), respectively. Specificities were 85.5% (95% CI = 73.9-92.2%) and 96.8% (95% CI = 90.3-100%), respectively. Both assays were more sensitive and specific than the standard immune immunofluorescence assay for the early diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:22764306

Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Srisamut, Nujorn; Ekpo, Pattama; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chao, Chien-Chung; Ching, Wei-Mei; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

2012-07-01

169

Kinetics of dengue non-structural protein 1 antigen and IgM and IgA antibodies in capillary blood samples from confirmed dengue patients.  

PubMed

Large-scale epidemiological surveillance of dengue in the field and dengue patient management require simple methods for sample collection, storage, and transportation as well as effective diagnostic tools. We evaluated the kinetics of three biological markers of dengue infection-non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgA-in sequential capillary blood samples collected from fingertips of confirmed dengue patients. The overall sensitivities and specificities of the tests were 96% and 100%, respectively, for NS1, 58.1% and 100%, respectively, for IgM, and 33% and 100%, respectively, for IgA. During the acute phase of the disease, NS1 was the best marker of dengue infection, with a sensitivity of 98.7%, whereas from day 5, all three markers exhibited relevant levels of sensitivity. This first descriptive study of the kinetics of biological markers of dengue in capillary blood samples confirms the usefulness of this biological compartment for dengue diagnosis and argues for its exploitation in community-level and remote settings. PMID:24470561

Matheus, Séverine; Pham, Thai Binh; Labeau, Bhetty; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Lacoste, Vincent; Deparis, Xavier; Marechal, Vincent

2014-03-01

170

PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with z{sub em} {approx} 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM). The survey is magnitude limited (R {approx} 19.5 mag) and highly complete out to 10' from the quasar in each field. It was designed to detect dwarf galaxies (L {approx} 0.1L*) at an impact parameter {rho} {approx} 1 Mpc (z = 0.1) from a quasar. The complete sample (all 20 fields) includes R-band photometry for 84,718 sources and confirmed redshifts for 2800 sources. This includes 1198 galaxies with 0.005 < z < (z{sub em} - 0.01) at a median redshift of 0.18, which may associated with IGM absorption lines. All of the imaging was acquired with cameras on the Swope 40'' telescope and the spectra were obtained via slit mask observations using the WFCCD spectrograph on the Dupont 100'' telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction, imaging analysis, photometry, and spectral analysis of the survey. We tabulate the principal measurements for all sources in each field and provide the spectroscopic data set online.

Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Weiner, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chen, H.-W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cooksey, K. L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-611, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Mulchaey, J. S., E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org, E-mail: bjw@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: hchen@oddjob.uchicago.edu, E-mail: kcooksey@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 213 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2011-04-01

171

IGM Emission Observations with the Cosmic Web Imager: II. Discovery of Extended, Kinematically-Linked Emission around SSA22 Lyman-alpha Blob 2  

E-print Network

The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large scale structure at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a Cold Dark Matter (CDM) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments, and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments (Bond et al. 1994; Miralda-Escude et al. 1996). While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report the Lyman-alpha blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22, with the Cosmic Web Imager. This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hours of total source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Lyman-alpha emission which is consistent with filaments. We perform tests to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data wi...

Martin, D Christopher; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C; Matsuda, Yuichi

2014-01-01

172

Comparison of ELISA and indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay detecting Coxiella burnetii IgM phase II for the diagnosis of acute Q fever.  

PubMed

A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detecting Coxiella burnetii phase II-specific IgM for the diagnosis of acute Q fever was compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). IFA is the current reference method for the detection of antibodies against C. burnetii, but has disadvantages because the judgment of fluorescence is subjective and tiring, and the test is expensive and automation is not possible. To examine whether phase II IgM ELISA could be used as a screening assay for acute Q fever, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of IFA and ELISA. The sensitivity of the IFA and ELISA tests were 100 and 85.7%, respectively, with a specificity of 95.3 and 97.6%, respectively. Because of the high sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA in combination with the practical disadvantages of the IFA, we introduced a new algorithm to screen samples of patients with symptoms of acute Q fever infection. PMID:21997772

Meekelenkamp, J C E; Schneeberger, P M; Wever, P C; Leenders, A C A P

2012-06-01

173

Toxoplasma IgG and IgA, but not IgM, antibody titers increase in sera of immunocompetent mice in association with proliferation of tachyzoites in the brain during the chronic stage of infection  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma IgG and IgA, but not IgM, antibody titers were significantly higher in immunocompetent mice with cerebral proliferation of tachyzoites during the chronic stage of infection than those treated with sulfadiazine to inhibit the parasite growth. Their IgG and IgA antibody titers correlated significantly with the amounts of tachyzoite-specific SAG1 mRNA in their brains. In contrast, neither IgG, IgA, nor IgM antibody titers increased following two different doses of challenge infection in chronically infected mice. Increased antibody titers in IgG and IgA but not IgM may be a useful indicator suggesting an occurrence of cerebral tachyzoite growth in immunocompetent individuals chronically infected with T. gondii. PMID:20708090

Singh, Jatinder; Graniello, Carmine; Ni, Yanyan; Payne, Laura; Sa, Qila; Hester, James; Shelton, Brent J.; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

2010-01-01

174

Lenalidomide alone or lenalidomide plus dexamethasone significantly inhibit IgG and IgM in vitro... A possible explanation for their mechanism of action in treating multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Lenalidomide (len) is an analog of thalidomide (thal), and both are used in the treatment of a diverse group of medical conditions. A common finding in this group is the detection of immunoglobulin in skin lesions, or high levels of immunoglobulin or myeloma protein in serum and urine. While their mechanism(s) of action is not known, the drugs are noted for their ability to modulate monocyte, lymphocyte, and natural killer cell functions; suppression of immunoglobulin synthesis could offer an explanation for their effectiveness in treating multiple myeloma (MM). Our objective was to determine if, on an equimolar basis, thal, len or dexamethasone (dex) could affect pokeweed (PWM)-induced synthesis of IgG, IgM and IL-2. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with PWM, len surpassed thal in suppressing IgM and IgG, and enhancing IL-2. Dex enhanced IgG, and suppressed IL-2. When the stimulated cells were treated with len (an effective promoter of IL-2 and suppressor of IgM and IgG) plus dex (an effective suppressor of IL-2 and enhancer of IgG), the net result was suppression of IgM and IgG. The synthesis of IgM and IgG by putative PWM-stimulated B cell blasts is significantly blocked by len. This suggest that the B-lymphocyte is a targeted cell for len, and that suppression of the synthesis of IgG and IgM could provide an explanation for the mechanism by which len effectively treats MM. PMID:22245427

Shannon, E; Sandoval, F; Greig, N; Stagg, P

2012-02-01

175

Storage and stability of IgG and IgM monoclonal antibodies dried on filter paper and utility in Neisseria meningitidis serotyping by Dot-blot ELISA  

PubMed Central

Background A simple filter paper method was developed for, the transport and storage of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) at room temperature or -20°C after spotting on filter paper, for subsequent serotyping of outer membrane antigens of N.meningitidis by dot-blot ELISA. Methods Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were spotted within a 0.5–1 cm diameter area of Whatman grade 903 paper, which were stored individually at room temperature or at -20°C. These MAbs were stored and analyzed after periods of one week, 4 weeks, 12 months, or 13 years in the case of frozen Mab aliquots, or after 4 weeks at -20°C or at room temperature (RT) in the case of Mabs dried on filter paper strips. Assays were performed in parallel using dot-blot ELISA. In addition to the MAbs specific for serotyping class 1, 2 or 3, we used a larger number of Mabs for polysaccharides, lipooligosaccharides (LOS), class 5 and cross-reactive antigens for native outer membrane of N.meningitidis. The Mabs dried on filter paper were eluted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.2% gelatin. Results Mabs of the isotypes IgG and IgM dried on filter papers were not affected by duration of storage. The detection by serotyping Mabs was generally consistent for dried filter paper MAb samples stored frozen for over 1 year at -20°C, and although decreased reactive antibody titers were found after storage, this did not interfere with the specificity of the Mabs used after 13 years as dry spots on filter paper. Conclusion The use of filter paper is an inexpensive and convenient method for collecting, storing, and transporting Mab samples for serotyping studies. In addition, the samples occupy little space and can be readily transported without freezing. The efficiency of using immunoglobulin G (IgG) or M (IgM) eluted was found to be consistent with measurement of IgG or IgM titers in most corresponding, ascites Mabs stored frozen for over 1 year. The application of meningococcal typing methods and designations depend on the question being asked. PMID:18325118

Ferraz, Aline S; Belo, Elza FT; Coutinho, Ligia MCC; Oliveira, Ana P; Carmo, Andreia MS; Franco, Daniele L; Ferreira, Tatiane; Yto, Andre Y; Machado, Marta SF; Scola, Monica CG; De Gaspari, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

176

Isotype- and subclass-specific responses to infection and reinfection with parainfluenza-3 virus: comparison of the diagnostic potential of ELISAs detecting seroconversion and specific IgM and IgA.  

PubMed

Isotype- and subclass-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed to detect parainfluenza-3 virus-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA responses. Sera were treated with protein G-agarose prior to testing for specific IgM and IgA to eliminate the possibility of false-positive results due to IgM-rheumatoid factor and to remove interisotypic competition due to specific IgG. IgM and IgA absorbance values were expressed as a percentage of the absorbance values of positive reference sera included on each plate (S/P%), and respective positive/negative threshold values of 15.0% and 28.0% were determined. The mean interval between experimental infection of 3 calves and initial detection of specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses was 8.0 and 9.3 days respectively, rising rapidly to an initial plateau 13.7 and 11.0 days postinfection (dpi). Reinfection of these calves at 30 dpi resulted in further rapid increases, with higher plateau values reached 13.0 (IgG1) and 13.7 (IgG2) days later. The mean interval between infection and the first positive IgM and IgA responses was 6.7 and 12.3 days, respectively. IgM S/P% values peaked at 13.0 dpi, with all 3 calves showing a secondary anamnestic response to reinfection, peaking 4.7 days later. The IgA response to initial infection was weak, with only 2 calves showing an obvious peak response at 15.0 dpi. A strong anamnestic IgA response to reinfection occurred in 2 calves, with a peak response 9.5 days later. Apparent biphasic and triphasic IgM and IgA responses were evident in some calves. Acute and convalescent serum samples from 80 calves involved in 17 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested for specific IgM and IgA. Positive IgM results were detected in 15 outbreaks, with 71 sera from 44 calves testing positive. Although IgA-positive results were detected in the same 15 outbreaks, only 42 sera from 31 calves were positive. In a previous study, seroconversion was detected in 21 of these calves from 10 outbreaks. Thus the diagnostic potential of the assays was in the order IgM > IgA > seroconversion. The correlations between IgM and IgA, IgM and seroconversion, and IgA and seroconversion results for each calf were 73.8%, 58.8% and 62.5%, respectively. PMID:10098683

Graham, D A; Mawhinney, K A; German, A; Foster, J C; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1999-03-01

177

Molecular Cloning of a New Immunomodulatory Protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which Induces B Cell IgM Secretion through a T-Independent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF) was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity. PMID:21698210

Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Tsai-Jen; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chang, Wen-Ying; Sheu, Fuu

2011-01-01

178

HHV-6 A- or B-specific P41 antigens do not reveal virus variant-specific IgG or IgM responses in human serum.  

PubMed

The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown, but there are indications of a role of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), especially variant A, in the pathogenesis. Higher serum antibody reactivity against an HHV-6 early protein, p41, has been found in MS cases than in controls. The antigen, however, was purified from infected cells with a monoclonal antibody also reactive with a protein (p38) likely to be of cellular origin. To avoid serological crossreactivity with the cellular protein, recombinant p41 proteins from HHV-6A strain GS and HHV-6B strain Z29 were expressed as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins (p41-GST), and used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). p41 variant specific monoclonal antibodies reacted strongly with the respective recombinant proteins. Serum IgM and IgG reactivities with the recombinant p41 antigens were analysed in patients with manifest MS, patients with optic neuritis, patients with other neurological diseases, and in one group of healthy controls. All sera were HHV-6 IgG seropositive by immunofluorescence. The serum IgM or IgG reactivities against the recombinant p41 antigens did not differ significantly between the groups, and the reactivities against the variant A and B antigens were identical. In many samples, the reactivity was very low. The results indicate that p41 is not an optimal target for HHV-6 serology studies, and that the data obtained with the p41 antigen prepared from infected cells (possibly including also p38) should be interpreted with caution. PMID:11793393

Xu, Yunhe; Linde, Annika; Fredrikson, Sten; Dahl, Helena; Winberg, Gösta

2002-03-01

179

Avira AntiVir Personal-Free Antivirus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are quite pesky, and the free version of Avira AntiVir Personal can help those bedeviled by such afflictions. This application will help users locate and remove Trojans, worms, and backdoor programs. Users can customize their scans and they can elect to fully scan all hard drives. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP, and Vista.

2008-01-01

180

RESEARCH ARTICLE Antivirus inthecloud service: are we ready for the  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION With the popularity and variety of zeroday malware over the Internet, generating their signatures services are hosted by vendors and made available to customers over the Internet. This approach employs will compare that fingerprint or value with the continuously updated signature database in the Internet

Ansari, Nirwan

181

Possible false-negative results on therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin using a particle enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay in a patient with a high level of IgM.  

PubMed

: In this report, the authors described the unusual case of a patient in whom the plasma phenytoin concentration was unexpectedly not detected on a particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (PETINIA) technique, a typical immunoassay for phenytoin. The plasma concentration was measured using PETINIA and high-performance liquid chromatography in a 69-year-old male patient treated with fosphenytoin intravenously at the standard dose for 7 days. Although the plasma concentration of phenytoin was below the limit of detection (<0.5 mcg/mL) on PETINIA after the administration of fosphenytoin, the trough plasma concentration was estimated to be between 5 and 10 mg/L on high-performance liquid chromatography. When the plasma concentrations of IgM and IgG were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the plasma IgG level was within the reference range, whereas the plasma IgM level was 2-3 times higher than the upper limit of the reference range. We concluded that the PETINIA method yielded a possible false-negative result regarding the phenytoin level in this patient, perhaps because of some hindrance to the measurement process by IgM. This case suggests that false-negative results should be considered when therapeutic drug monitoring reveals abnormally low values using PETINIA and that it is necessary to evaluate the plasma IgM level. PMID:24632808

Hirata, Kenshiro; Saruwatari, Junji; Enoki, Yuhuki; Iwata, Kazufumi; Urata, Yukino; Aizawa, Keiji; Ueda, Kentaro; Shirouzono, Takumi; Imamura, Motoki; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hirata, Sumio; Maruyama, Toru; Fukunaga, Eiko

2014-10-01

182

Therapeutics to Promote CNS Repair: A Natural Human Neuron-Binding IgM Regulates Membrane-Raft Dynamics and Improves Motility in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

We have discovered a role for natural autoantibodies in central nervous system repair, remyelination and axon protection. These natural human antibodies are of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype, and they bind to the surface of neural cells. The epitope of the antibody includes sialic acid because treatment with sialidase disrupts the binding. A fully human recombinant form of one of these IgMs, rHIgM12, has the same properties as the serum-derived IgM. rHIgM12 enhanced polarized axonal outgrowth from primary neurons when presented as a substrate in vitro and improved motor functions in chronically Theiler’s virus-infected SJL mice, a model of MS. rHIgM12 bound to neuronal surfaces and induced cholesterol and ganglioside (GM1) clustering, indicating that rHIgM12 functions through a mechanism of axonal membrane stabilization. Our work demonstrates that a natural human neuron-binding IgM can regulate membrane domain dynamics. This antibody has the potential to improve neurologic disease. PMID:22990667

Xu, Xiaohua; Denic, Aleksandar; Warrington, Arthur E.; Bieber, Allan J.; Rodriguez, Moses

2012-01-01

183

Page 1 of 4 University of Warwick Antivirus Policy June 2002 University of Warwick Anti-Virus Policy  

E-print Network

-Virus Policy Scope This document describes the measures taken by the University to counter computer viruses or CD-ROMs, electronic mail (including, but not limited to, files attached to messages), and software. At present copies of KAV and Virex are available at the IT Services Sales Counter for the cost of media

Davies, Christopher

184

Quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of IgA, IgM, IgG and antigen-specific immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells in pig small intestinal lamina propria.  

PubMed

Intestinal immune response plays an important defensive role for pathogens, particularly for those transmitted by the oro-faecal route or for foecal shedding modulation. This work examined three parts of intestine from twelve gilts experimentally infected with PCV2-spiked semen, six vaccinated (V group) and six unvaccinated (NV group) against PCV2, 29 and 53 days post infection (DPI). An immunohistochemical investigation for IgA-, IgG- and IgM-antibody bearing plasma cells (PCs) was run on intestinal samples coupled with a sandwich immunohistochemical method to reveal anti-PCV2 antibody-secreting PCs. Plasma cell density was compared in the two groups of animals at 29 and 53 DPI. The IgA, IgG and IgM PC density did not differ between groups but displayed an increase from the upper (villus) to the lower part of the crypts while a decreasing trend in PC density was identified from duodenum to ileum. In the NV group, no increase in anti-PCV2 PC density was demonstrable in the two sampling moment: the amounts of lamina propria PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs remained constant, 10.55 ± 4.24 and 10.06 ± 5.01 at 29 DPI and 53 DPI, respectively. In the V group a significant increase in PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs was observed over time. The amounts of PCV2-specific antibody-producing PCs increased from 9.37 ± 13.36 at 29 DPI to 18.76 ± 15.83 at 53 DPI. The data on IgA, IgM and IgG PC counts can be considered reference values in a population of adult pigs. The sandwich method can be proposed as a technique able to identify specific antibody-secreting PCs in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. A practical application of the sandwich method is the demonstration of a "booster-like" response of the lamina propria in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated animals. After virus challenge, vaccination induced an increase in the number of PCs containing specific anti-PCV2 antibodies at the level of intestinal mucosa. PMID:24961900

Bianco, C; Felice, V; Panarese, S; Marrocco, R; Ostanello, F; Brunetti, B; Muscatello, L V; Leotti, G; Vila, T; Joisel, F; Sarli, G

2014-08-15

185

Bacteriostasis of Escherichia coli by bovine lactoferrin, transferrin and immunoglobulins (IgG1, IgG2, IgM) acting alone or in combination.  

PubMed

The effect on Escherichia coli strain B117 of bovine lactoferrin (LF), transferrin (Tr) and immunoglobulins (Ig), acting alone or in combination, was investigated in vitro. IgG1 and IgM, which, in contrast to IgG2 possessed a marked antibody activity, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, induced the appearance of microcolonies in suspension, a phenomenon which could lead to misleading interpretations in the absence of sonic treatment, but none of these three isotypes influenced bacterial growth. Both LF and Tr promoted a strong inhibition of bacteria without requirement for antibodies. After a short period of growth, the multiplication of bacteria was almost completely prevented by the iron-binding proteins acting alone. A significant (p less than 0.02) but moderate (0.5 less than log10) further growth reduction was obtained when Ig of either class was added to Tr, while addition of Ig to LF revealed no significant cooperative effect. All of 11 strains of E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis were sensitive to LF action in the absence of Ig. It therefore appeared that antibodies were not required for iron-binding proteins to exert a potent bacteriostatic effect on mastitis isolates of E. coli. PMID:3518222

Rainard, P

1986-02-01

186

Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT  

E-print Network

A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy

2007-10-24

187

Analysis of SWAP-70 as a candidate gene for non-X-linked hyper IgM syndrome and common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

SWAP-70 is a recently identified protein that functions as the only B cell-specific component of an isotype switch recombination complex called SWAP. The SWAP complex has specificity for the switch regions upstream of the constant region immunoglobulin genes and it facilitates the transfer of DNA between switch regions. These features suggested that mutations in the gene encoding SWAP-70 might result in humoral immunodeficiency. To test this hypothesis we determined the genomic structure of this gene and used single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to screen DNA from 38 patients with either non-X-linked hyper IgM syndrome or common variable immunodeficiency. The results demonstrated that SWAP-70 consists of 12 exons spread over 89 kb at chromosome 11p15.2. SSCP analysis of the patient population revealed five polymorphic variants in the gene, one of which (Q505E) is an amino acid substitution in the putative nuclear export signal of SWAP-70. However, none of the alterations appeared to be associated with disease in the patients screened. PMID:11726218

Rapalus, L; Minegishi, Y; Lavoie, A; Cunningham-Rundles, C; Conley, M E

2001-12-01

188

An immunotoxin containing a rat IgM monoclonal antibody (Campath 1) and saporin 6: effect on T lymphocytes and hemopoietic cells.  

PubMed

The elimination of the cells responsible for graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been attempted with a variety of methods, including the use of the ribosome-inactivating toxin ricin bound to monoclonal antibodies acting as carriers. However the high nonspecific toxicity of these immunotoxins containing the whole toxin greatly limited clinical application. Toxicity can be reduced using the A-chain of ricin or other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) which are devoid of a B-chain with lectin properties. We used saporin 6 purified from Saponaria officinalis seeds, which was conjugated with the rat IgM monoclonal antibody Campath 1 specific for mature T and B lymphocytes as well as for monocytes. The immunotoxin retained both RIP and antibody activity, inhibiting protein synthesis both in a cell-free system and in cells bearing the Campath 1 antigen; it also abolished methyl 3H-thymidine uptake in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T lymphocytes. Myeloid progenitors were largely spared as shown by myeloid stem cell (CFU-GM) growth which was scarcely affected. Toxicity of the immunotoxin to cell lines not expressing the antigen recognized by Campath 1 monoclonal antibody was not greater than the toxicity due to free saporin 6, while the immunotoxin was more toxic to mice than free saporin. PMID:3260131

Tazzari, P L; Barbieri, L; Gobbi, M; Dinota, A; Rizzi, S; Bontadini, A; Pession, A; Tura, S; Stirpe, F

1988-01-01

189

The rearranged V(H) domain of a physiologically selected anti-single-stranded DNA antibody as a precursor for formation of IgM and IgG antibodies to diverse antigens.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that autoreactivity of modest affinity contributes to positive selection of a preimmunization B cell repertoire, whereas high-affinity autoreactivity leads to negative selection. This hypothesis predicts that a B cell producing a physiologically selected unmutated ssDNA-binding Ab should be a precursor of cells that respond to diverse exogenous Ags. To test this prediction, we prepared transgenic mice bearing the rearranged V(H) domain of an IgM Ab from a nonautoimmune mouse immunized with a DNA-protein complex, poly(dC)-methylated BSA. The Ab, dC1, binds both poly(dC) and ssDNA. It is encoded by V(H) and V(L) gene segments with no mutations, suggesting that the producing cell may have been selected before and activated during immunization. The dC1V(H) transgene was targeted to the IgH locus. In heterozygous mice, on a nonautoimmune C57BL/6 background, the transgene allotype was expressed on B cell surfaces and in serum Ig, but about one-third of B cells expressed the endogenous allele instead. Total serum Ig concentrations were normal and included both transgene- and endogenous gene-coded IgM and IgG. The transgene V(H) D(H)J(H) was expressed in splenic IgM cDNA with few or no mutations, and in IgG cDNA with multiple mutations. The transgene allotype was also expressed in Abs formed on immunization with thyroglobulin, pneumococcal polysaccharide, and ssDNA-methylated BSA. Consistent with the hypothesis, cells with a rearranged autoreactive V(H) domain selected for reactivity with a form of ssDNA did serve as precursors for cells producing IgM and IgG Abs to diverse Ags. PMID:11564791

Li, J; Fernandez, L; O'Connor, K C; Imanishi-Kari, T; Stollar, B D

2001-10-01

190

Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae is not altered when ascending from the nasopharynx to the middle ears in children with otitis media.  

PubMed

We have previously found that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) collected from the middle ear of children with otitis media (OM) exhibit increased levels of complement resistance compared to NTHi collected from the nasopharynx. However, it is unknown whether bacteria develop complement resistance in the middle ear, or whether resistance is present when residing in the nasopharynx. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the levels of complement resistance of isolates collected from the middle ear were similar to those of isolates from the nasopharynx with an identical MLST type. We included 62 children with recurrent acute OM, chronic OM with effusion or acute tympanostomy tube otorrhea. NTHi was simultaneously isolated from the nasopharynx and middle ear fluid. MLST, resistance to complement-mediated killing, IgG binding, IgM binding and phosphorylcholine expression was determined. In 41 children, NTHi isolated from the middle ear and nasopharynx showed to have an identical MLST type. Isolates collected from the middle ear showed a highly similar level of complement resistance and IgM binding with isolates collected from the nasopharynx, whereas this was not the case for IgG binding and phosphorylcholine incorporation into lipooligosaccharide. Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding of NTHi isolates with an identical MLST type collected from the middle ear and nasopharynx of children with OM was highly similar. PMID:23775521

Langereis, Jeroen D; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Stol, Kim; Venekamp, Roderick P; Schilder, Anne G M; Hermans, Peter W M

2013-12-01

191

Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + ?-Photons) Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body ?-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body ?-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3?Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + ?-photons) radiations at 0.38?Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

2013-01-01

192

Construction and expression of a human/mouse chimeric CD19 monoclonal antibody: Successful modification of a murine IgM to a chimeric IgG  

PubMed Central

CD19 is a specific surface marker of B cells. A murine IgM-subtype antibody, 2E8, was generated previously and assigned to the CD19 category by the 6th International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens in 1996. In the present study, the 2E8 Fv gene was inserted into a baculovirus shuttle vector and novel protein was expressed in an IgG1 form in the Sf9 insect cell line. VH2E8 and VL2E8 genes were cloned and inserted into the baculovirus shuttle vector pAc-?-CH3 to form pAc-?-CH3-VH2E8-VL2E8. Sf9 cells were then transfected with the reconstructed baculovirus shuttle vector. Novel protein expressed by the Sf9 cells was identified by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis, while activity levels were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Sequencing demonstrated that the VH2E8 and VL2E8 fragments were inserted into pAc-?-CH3 correctly. The immunofluorescence, western blot analysis and FCM results indicated that active recombinant antibody was expressed in the cytoplasm of Sf9 cells, but not in the culture supernatant. Thus, functional recombinant antibody was expressed successfully in the cytoplasm of Sf9 cells, but was not secreted into the culture supernatant. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to modify mouse IgM to mouse-human chimeric IgG1 while retaining reasonable biological activity. PMID:24669239

XU, WEIQUN; ZHANG, LINGYAN; ZHANG, YI; TANG, YONGMIN

2014-01-01

193

Enhancement by ascorbic acid 2-glucoside or repeated additions of ascorbate of mitogen-induced IgM and IgG productions by human peripheral blood lymphocytes.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), a stable derivative of ascorbic acid (AsA), or repeated additions of ascorbate on antibody productions by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was examined, and the physiological function of AsA was evaluated. When human PBLs were stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I or pokeweed mitogen, AA-2G remarkably increased the numbers of IgM- and IgG-secreting cells which were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Although a single addition of ascorbate was without effect, the effect of AA-2G was remarkably inhibited by the addition of castanospermine, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; and moreover, repeated additions of AsA to the culture medium during the culture period enhanced the response to the same level as did a single addition of AA-2G. These results indicate that AsA has the ability to stimulate the immunoglobulin productions by AA-2G. The phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferative response of PBLs was also stimulated by AA-2G. The intracellular AsA content in PBLs cultured with AA-2G was maintained at relatively high levels during the culture period, whereas the content with a single dose of AsA reached nearly zero by the end of the experiment. These in vitro findings suggest that AA-2G and AsA function as potent immunostimulators of antibody production in humans and that the intracellular AsA content is a key parameter for establishing the immune response of PBLs. PMID:7723222

Tanaka, M; Muto, N; Gohda, E; Yamamoto, I

1994-12-01

194

Characterizing the Warm-Hot IGM at High Redshift: A High Resolution Survey for O VI at z = 2.5  

E-print Network

We describe a survey for OVI absorption in the spectra of 5 high redshift quasars (2.2 10^15.2 cm^-2), as well as absorption from CIV and often lower ionization species. The absorbing regions are conservatively constrained to have L= 2.5, with actual values probably closer to L ~ 60 kpc and rho/rho_bar ~ 10-30. They also have two distinct gas phases: one which produces photoionized CIV and SiIV at T ~ 30,000 K, and a second which is seen only in OVI. The OVI temperature is difficult to constrain due to uncertainty in the amount of nonthermal line broadening, but it does appear that this gas is hotter than the CIV/SiIV phase and could support collisional OVI production. The OVI is strongly clustered on velocity scales of dv=100-300 km/s, with weaker signal extending to dv = 750 km/s. The power-law slope of the correlation function resembles that of local galaxy and cluster surveys, with a comoving correlation length of 11h_{65}^-1 Mpc. The average Oxygen abundance of the OVI systems is [O/H]>-1.5, about 10 times higher than the level observed in the general IGM. Two OVI production mechanisms are considered: shock heating of gas falling onto existing structure, and expulsion of material by galactic winds. Simulations of infall models tend to overproduce OVI lines by a factor of ~10, though this may result from numerical limitations. Known galaxy populations such as the Lyman break objects could produce the observed amount of OVI if they drive winds to distances of R ~ 50 kpc.

Robert A. Simcoe; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Michael Rauch

2002-06-27

195

Cross-linking of membrane IgM on B CLL cells: dissociation between intracellular free Ca2+ mobilization and cell proliferation.  

PubMed

It has been shown previously that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells are frozen at different stages of activation with unique requirements for proliferation. Although most B CLL cells express surface IgM, anti-mu antibodies are able to trigger only some of them to proliferate and/or respond to B cell growth factor (BCGF) or interleukin 2 (IL2), as normal B cells. In this report we extend these observations using three different monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to human mu chain (one mitogenic in soluble form for normal B cells, the two others mitogenic only when coupled on Sepharose 4B beads). Cells from only 3 out of 11 B CLL patients proliferated in the presence of either mitogenic anti-mu. When the early events following surface Ig cross-linking, such as calcium mobilization (by flow cytometry on indo-1-labeled cells), were studied all three mAb in soluble form were able to induce a similar increase in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i); analogous to [Ca2+]i rise after the mitogenic F(ab')2 anti-mu stimulation. This response was seen only in 8 out of the 12 CLL B cells studied. All B CLL cells, however, proliferate in response to a combination of phorbol ester 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) and ionomycin. Therefore, three patterns of response to sIg cross-linking by anti-mu could be distinguished: cells from 4 out of 12 cases proliferate and mobilize Ca2+ upon anti-mu triggering (behaving like resting B lymphocytes); in 4 other cases anti-mu lead to Ca2+ mobilization without cell proliferation; in the last 4 cases neither Ca2+ mobilization, IP3 generation (in the one case studied) nor cell proliferation are observed although these cells do proliferate directly in response to growth factors. Moreover, anti-mu stimulation in this group leads to increased proliferation in response to BCGF and IL2 suggesting an anti-Ig signaling independent of inositol phosphate metabolism. These results are interpreted in terms of differential anti-mu signaling on B cells at different stages of activation. PMID:3144454

Hivroz, C; Grillot-Courvalin, C; Labaume, S; Miglierina, R; Brouet, J C

1988-11-01

196

Role of antibody and complement in the immune clearance and destruction of erythrocytes. II. Molecular nature of IgG and IgM complement-fixing sites and effects of their interaction with serum.  

PubMed

A model for the immune clearance and destruction of homologous erythrocytes has been further explored. In this model, every IgM anti-erythrocyte antibody molecule in an antibody preparation was shown to fix Cl. About 2000 IgG antibody molecules were required to form a Cl-fixing site on the guinea pig erythrocyte surface. 60 IgM complement-fixing sites per erythrocyte were required for the immune clearance of IgM-sensitized erythrocytes. This number of sites could be detected by a direct agglutination test. 1.4 complement-fixing sites were required for immune clearance of IgG-sensitized cells, a number of molecules which could not be detected by direct agglutination. This number could, however, be detected with the use of a Coombs antiglobulin reagent. Depletion of the late components of complement (C3-9) with cobra venom was associated with the loss of ability to clear IgM-sensitized cells and a marked deficit in the ability to clear IgG-coated cells. Thus, late (C3-9) components of complement as well as an early component (C4) were required for normal clearance of sensitized erythrocytes. There was no evidence that activation of the alternate pathway of complement action could lead to accelerated erythrocyte clearance. In vitro incubation of IgG and IgM-sensitized erythrocytes in fresh serum led to deposition of C3 and C4 on the erythrocyte surface. IgM-sensitized cells treated in this way had a normal survival. IgM-sensitized cells also were shown to remain Coombs positive after their release from the liver. The evidence suggests that the interaction of an IgM site with fresh serum in vitro and in vivo leads to formation of a site which allows for sequestration of cells in the liver. With continued exposure to serum components, this site is destroyed or inactivated. This serum-dependent inactivation is complement-dependent as shown by the use of EDTA-treated and C4-deficient serum. IgG complement-fixing sites are only partially inactivated by incubation in fresh serum, further emphasizing the differences in the biologic activity of IgM and IgG antibodies. PMID:4622104

Schreiber, A D; Frank, M M

1972-03-01

197

Development of an indirect ELISA method for the parallel measurement of IgG and IgM antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus using recombinant nucleoprotein as antigen.  

PubMed

Recombinant nucleoprotein from Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus was successfully derived from a baculovirus expression system and purified for use in a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic test. Comparable tests were used for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies, thus allowing efficient detection of both antibodies in parallel. The major benefits of the assay also included removing any requirement for polyclonal sera, thus eliminating variation in preparations and allowing standardisation between laboratories. The assay was successfully tested using a panel of positive sera supplied from samples identified as being positive in Turkey, Tajikistan and Kosovo and shown to be sensitive and specific. It is envisaged that this simple diagnostic ELISA for CCHF virus infection which removes the reliance on polyclonal antibody preparations, will be accessible to a wider range of laboratories enabling them to carry out routine diagnosis. This will improve the efficiency of diagnosis and subsequent management of infected patients. PMID:22155577

Dowall, S D; Richards, K S; Graham, V A; Chamberlain, J; Hewson, R

2012-02-01

198

Identification and real-time expression analysis of selected Toxoplasma gondii in-vivo induced antigens recognized by IgG and IgM in sera of acute toxoplasmosis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa which infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study in-vivo induced antigens of this parasite was investigated using in-vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) and pooled sera from patients with serological evidence of acute infection. Methods The pooled sera was first pre-absorbed against three different preparations of antigens from in-vitro-grown cells of each T. gondii and E. coli XL1-Blue MRF’, subsequently it was used to screen T. gondii cDNA phage expression library. Positive clones from each group were subjected to quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis on mRNA of in-vivo and in-vitro grown parasites. Results A total of 29 reactive clones from each IgM and IgG immunoscreenings were found to have high homology to T. gondii genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis showed that 20 IgM-detected genes and 11 IgG-detected genes were up-regulated in-vivo relative to their expression levels in-vitro. These included genes encoding micronemes, sterol-regulatory element binding protein site, SRS34A, MIC2-associated protein M2AP, nucleoredoxin, protein phosphatase 2C and several hypothetical proteins. A hypothetical protein (GenBank accession no. 7899266) detected by IgG had the highest in-vivo over in-vitro fold change of 499.86; while another up-regulated hypothetical protein (GenBank accession no. 7898829) recognized by IgM showed high sensitivity (90%) and moderate specificity (70%) in detecting T. gondii antibodies when tested with 20 individual serum samples. Conclusion The highly up-regulated genes and the corresponding proteins, in particular the hypothetical proteins, may be useful in further studies on understanding the disease pathogenesis and as potential vaccine candidates. PMID:23800344

2013-01-01

199

Whole Body Inhalation Exposure to 1-Bromopropane Suppresses the IgM Response to Sheep Red Blood Cells in Female B6C3F1 Mice and Fisher 344/N Rats  

PubMed Central

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is categorized as a high-production volume chemical currently used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other chemicals. Its usage is estimated to be around 5 million pounds/year resulting in the potential for widespread exposure in the workplace. Case reports and animal studies have suggested exposure to this compound may cause adverse reproductive and neurological effects. Using a battery of immunological assays, the immunotoxicity of 1-BP after whole body inhalation exposure in both mice and rats was evaluated. Significant decreases in the spleen IgM response to SRBC were observed in both mice (125-500 ppm) and rats (1000 ppm) after exposure to 1-BP for 10 weeks. In addition, total spleen cells and T-cells were significantly decreased after approximately 4 weeks of 1-BP exposure in both mice (125-500 ppm) and rats (1000 ppm). No change in natural killer (NK) cell activity was observed. The observed alterations in spleen cellularity, phenotypic subsets and impairment of humoral immune function across species, raises further concern about human exposure to 1-BP and demonstrates the need for additional investigations into potential adverse health effects. PMID:20041805

Anderson, Stacey. E.; Munson, Albert E.; Butterworth, Leon F.; Germolec, Dori; Morgan, Daniel L.; Roycroft, Joseph A.; Dill, Jeffrey; Meade, B. J.

2010-01-01

200

Fraxetin inhibits the induction of anti-Fas IgM, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta-mediated apoptosis by Fas pathway inhibition in human osteoblastic cell line MG-63.  

PubMed

The survival of osteoblast cells is one of the determinants of the development of osteoporosis in patients with inflamed synovium, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin ELISA assay, we have shown that fraxetin exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in the human osteoblast-like cell line MG-63. In addition, we also assessed whether fraxetin affects inflammatory cytokine-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. TNF-alpha or IL-1beta enhance apoptotic DNA fragmentation in anti-Fas IgM-treated MG-63 cells by increasing Fas receptor expression. However, TNF-alpha or IL-1beta treatment alone does not induce apoptosis. Treatment of MG-63 cells with fraxetin not only inhibited anti-Fas IgM-induced apoptosis, but also blocked the synergetic effect of anti-Fas IgM with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta on cell death. The apoptotic inhibition of fraxetin is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta-mediated Fas expression and enhancement of FLIP expression, resulting in a decrease of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate a potential use of fraxetin in preventing osteoporosis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. PMID:16714221

Kuo, Po-Lin; Huang, Yu-Ting; Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chang, Jiunn-Kae

2006-07-01

201

Myricetin inhibits the induction of anti-Fas IgM-, tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and interleukin-1beta-mediated apoptosis by Fas pathway inhibition in human osteoblastic cell line MG-63.  

PubMed

The survival of osteoblast cells is one of the determinants of the development of osteoporosis in patients with inflamed synovium, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin ELISA assay, I have shown that myricetin exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in the human osteoblast-like cell line MG-63. In addition, I also assessed whether myricetin affects inflammatory cytokines-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. TNF-alpha or IL-1beta enhances apoptotic DNA fragmentation in anti-Fas IgM-treated MG-63 cells by increasing Fas receptor expression. However, TNF-alpha or IL-1beta treatment alone does not induce apoptosis. Treatment of MG-63 cells with myricetin not only inhibited anti-Fas IgM-induced apoptosis, but also blocked the synergetic effect of anti-Fas IgM with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta on cell death. The apoptotic inhibition of myricetin is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta-mediated Fas expression and enhancement of FLIP expression, resulting in a decrease of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate a potential use of myricetin in preventing osteoporosis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. PMID:15982670

Kuo, Po-Lin

2005-10-21

202

Correlation of IgA, IgM and IgG antibody-detecting assays based on filamentous haemagglutinin, pertussis toxin and Bordetella pertussis sonicate in a strictly adult population.  

PubMed

Pertussis diagnosis among adults is primarily based on serology. In this study, receiver operation characteristics (ROC) analysis was utilized to evaluate three IgA, IgM and IgG ELISAs based on B. pertussis whole-cell sonicate (WC), pertussis toxin (PT), or combined PT-filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) antigens in a healthy adult population and in adults suffering from symptoms consistent with pertussis. The assays were compared to a PT and FHA reference ELISA. The reference assay showed high correlation with PT- and PT-FHA-based ELISAs but low correlation was found with the WC-based ELISA. However, ROC analysis indicated that all the assays enabled fine differentiation between healthy subjects and subjects suffering from symptoms suggestive of pertussis. The WC IgA ELISA showed the best diagnostic performance [highest specificity (98.8%) with highest sensitivity (53.8%)]. We conclude that despite a low correlation between the various assays they all carry good diagnostic capability for an adult population. PMID:15724722

Klement, E; Kagan, N; Hagain, L; Kayouf, R; Boxman, J; Cohen, D; Orr, N

2005-02-01

203

Correlation of IgA, IgM and IgG antibody-detecting assays based on filamentous haemagglutinin, pertussis toxin and Bordetella pertussis sonicate in a strictly adult population.  

PubMed Central

Pertussis diagnosis among adults is primarily based on serology. In this study, receiver operation characteristics (ROC) analysis was utilized to evaluate three IgA, IgM and IgG ELISAs based on B. pertussis whole-cell sonicate (WC), pertussis toxin (PT), or combined PT-filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) antigens in a healthy adult population and in adults suffering from symptoms consistent with pertussis. The assays were compared to a PT and FHA reference ELISA. The reference assay showed high correlation with PT- and PT-FHA-based ELISAs but low correlation was found with the WC-based ELISA. However, ROC analysis indicated that all the assays enabled fine differentiation between healthy subjects and subjects suffering from symptoms suggestive of pertussis. The WC IgA ELISA showed the best diagnostic performance [highest specificity (98.8%) with highest sensitivity (53.8%)]. We conclude that despite a low correlation between the various assays they all carry good diagnostic capability for an adult population. PMID:15724722

Klement, E.; Kagan, N.; Hagain, L.; Kayouf, R.; Boxman, J.; Cohen, D.; Orr, N.

2005-01-01

204

[How to handle unexpected biological abnormalities observed in the pre-donation workup for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: an SFGM-TC report on pre-transplant cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, or syphilis IgM positive serology test].  

PubMed

In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the third annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in October 2012 in Lille. Here we report our results and recommendations regarding the management of pre-transplant donor's cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, or syphilis IgM positive serology test. PMID:24011960

Duléry, R; Giraud, C; Beaumont, J-L; Bilger, K; Borel, C; Dhedin, N; Thiebaut, A; Willems, E; Alain, S; Alfandari, S; Dewilde, A; Jouet, J-P; Milpied, N; Yakoub-Agha, I

2013-08-01

205

Thalidomide inhibited the synthesis of IgM and IgG whereas Thalidomide+Dexamethasone and Dexamethasone alone acted as co-stimulants with pokeweed and enhanced their synthesis.  

PubMed

Thalidomide (Thal) provides effective treatment for erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). In combination with Dexamethasome (Dex) it is an effective treatment for multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Thal's mechanism(s) of action in the treatment of these diverse medical conditions is not known, but it could be suppression of immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis. Mononuclear cells were stimulated with pokeweed (PWM), and treated with Thal, Thal+Dex or Dex. The cultures were assayed for IgM and IgG. The maximum synthesis was expected to occur in cultures stimulated with PWM at 0.5, 5.0 or 10 microg/ml. The test agents at 15 microM each were expected to alter the response. Compared to cultures stimulated with PWM alone, there was significantly less Ig in the cultures containing Thal+PWM, and significantly more Ig in the cultures containing Thal+Dex+PWM or Dex+PWM (Wilcoxon). The median % of maximum was 57 for cultures treated with Thal+PWM; 184 for cultures treated with Thal+Dex+PWM, and 139 for cultures treated with Dex+PWM. Thal also acted as a co-stimulant with PWM and enhanced the synthesis of IL-2, IL-6 and DNA; whereas, Thal+Dex or Dex enhanced Ig synthesis, but suppressed IL-2, IL-6 and cell proliferation. Thal's ability to suppress Ig may explain its activity in ENL, MM and WM. The enhancement of Ig by Dex does not help to explain a role for Dex alone or in combination with Thal for the treatment of MM and WM. PMID:20123041

Shannon, E J; Sandoval, F

2010-04-01

206

Cyber Security Challenges: Designing Efficient Intrusion Detection Systems and Antivirus Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Introduction to Intrusion Detection SystemsIntrusion detection an important component of information security technology helps indiscovering, determining, and identifying unauthorized use, duplication, alteration, anddestruction of information and information systems. Intrusion detection relies on the assumptionthat information and information systems under attack exhibit several distinguishable behavioralpatterns or characteristics to that of the normal ones. Though intrusion detection...

Srinivas Mukkamala; Andrew Sung; Ajith Abraham

207

The Underground Economy of Fake Antivirus Software Brett Stone-Gross  

E-print Network

affiliates with prizes including expensive cars, com- puters, and cell phones [18]. Since we have access as loads), and fake AV sales. Moreover, some partnerka offer additional incentives to the most success- ful

California at Santa Barbara, University of

208

active immunity by using pigs previously injected with variable amounts of swine fever antivirus immunoglobins.  

E-print Network

of colostrum derived passive immunity M. LAUNAIS J. M. AYNAUD Laboratoire de Pathologie povcine, I. N. R. A, per os or intramuscular route. The colostrum derived passive immunity and the active immunity induced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Black Hole-IGM Feedback, and Links to IGM Fields and CR'S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uniquely large dimensions of Giant radio galaxies (GRGs) make it possible to probe for stringent limits on total energy content, Faraday rotation, Alfvén speeds, particle transport and radiation loss times. All of these quantities are more stringently limited or specified for GRG's than in more ``normal'' FRII radio sources. I discuss how both global and detailed analyses of GRG's lead to constraints on the CR electron acceleration mechanisms in GRG's and by extension in all FRII radio sources. The properties of GRG's appear to rule out large scale Fermi-type shock acceleration. The plasma parameters in these systems set up conditions that are favorable for magnetic reconnection, or some other very efficient process of conversion of magnetic to particle energy. We conclude that whatever mechanism operates in GRG's is probably the primary extragalactic CR acceleration mechanism in the Universe.

Kronberg, Philipp P.

2004-12-01

210

ANTICUERPOS ANTI 21 HIDROXILASA SERICOS EN PACIENTES CON ANTICUERPOS ANTIFRACCION MICROSOMAL SINDROME POLIENDOCRINO AUTOINMUNE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El síndrome poliendocrino autoinmune (SPA) es la asociación de enfermedades endocrinas autoinmu- nes con otros desórdenes autoinmunes no endocrinos. Los tipos 1, 2 y 4 presentan adrenalitis autoinmune, esto indica la presencia de autoanticuerpos, y su marcador serológico específico es el anti 21 hidroxilasa (a21-OH). El SPA tipo 2 es la asociación de adrenalitis, enfermedad tiroidea y\\/o diabetes mellitus

SILVIA BOTTA; SILVANA ROVETO; DANIEL RIMOLDI

211

I use OIT's free anti-virus software to scan my computer at least once every month.  

E-print Network

the hard drive clean before getting rid of my computer. I never leave my laptop and cell phone unattended. Iownandusealaptopsecuritycable. I have registered my laptop and cell phone with the UMass Amherst Police Department (UMPD). I. I choose the UMASS-SECURE1X network when using wireless on campus. I keep track of sensitive data

Schweik, Charles M.

212

Securing PCs and Data in Libraries and Schools: A Handbook with Menuing, Anti-Virus, and Other Protective Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to help readers identify and eliminate security risks, with sound recommendations and library-tested security software. Chapter 1 "Managing Your Facilities and Assessing Your Risks" addresses fundamental management responsibilities including planning for a secure system, organizing computer-related information, assessing…

Benson, Allen C.

213

Evolution of magnetic fields in the IGM: kinetic MHD turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present 3D MHD simulations of non-helical, forced turbulence, with an anisotropic thermal pressure with respect to the orientation of the local magnetic field. Such anisotropy arises when the plasma is weakly collisional, i.e., when the Larmor frequency is much greater than the ion-ion collision frequency. In this Kinetic MHD regime (KMHD), there are instabilities that give

Reinaldo S. de Lima; A. Lazarian; D. Falceta-Gonçalves

2009-01-01

214

10th Annual IGM Symposium Urchins, Muscles and Genes  

E-print Network

Slavkin Dean, USC School of Dentistry Ruth Weisberg Dean, Gayle Garner Roski School of Fine Arts Owen of Anatomy and Neurobiology Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Kedes Lab Postdoctoral Fellow

Huang, Jing

215

Large scale simulations of the jet-IGM interaction  

E-print Network

A (Chandra archive, courtesy P. Strub) large cocoon width elliptically shaped cluster gas marks bow shock;Critical Radius for Spherical Symmetry bow shock velocity caused by jet > blastwave velocity r1//rj = 0 spherical bow shocks! - critical radius depends on . #12;Outline · Pretty data: Cygnus A · Parameters of jet

Krause, Martin

216

IT Security is Everyone'sIT Security is Everyone's ResponsibilityResponsibility  

E-print Network

EncryptionEncryptionEncryption · Install our free software: PGP 1. Scrambles data on your machine 2. Adds a layer of protectionAntivirusAntivirusAntivirus · Free antivirus software UCSF Symantec Endpoint Protection · No system is perfect · Be wary of file to the University and you. · Fine ceilings have recently been raised. · Ethical Patient's deserve privacy. · Press

Klein, Ophir

217

MOSAIC at the E-ELT: A multi-object spectrograph for astrophysics, IGM and cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Universe is comprised of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each populated by hundreds of billions of stars. Astrophysics aims to understand the complexity of this almost incommensurable number of stars, stellar clusters and galaxies, including their spatial distribution, formation, and current interactions with the interstellar and intergalactic media. A considerable fraction of astrophysical discoveries require large statistical samples, which can only be addressed with multi-object spectrographs (MOS). Here we introduce the MOSAIC study of an optical/near-infrared MOS for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which has capabilities specified by science cases ranging from stellar physics and exoplanet studies to galaxy evolution and cosmology. Recent studies of critical technical issues such as sky-background subtraction and multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) have demonstrated that such a MOS is feasible with current technology and techniques. In the 2020s the E-ELT will become the world's largest optical/IR telescope, and we argue that it has to be equipped as soon as possible with a MOS. MOSAIC will provide a vast discovery space, enabled by a multiplex of ˜ 200 and spectral resolving powers of R = 5 000 and 20 000. MOSAIC will also offer the unique capability of 10-to-20 `high-definition' (MOAO) integral-field units, optimised to investigate the physics of the sources of reionisation, providing the most efficient follow-up of observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The combination of these modes will enable the study of the mass-assembly history of galaxies over cosmic time, including high-redshift dwarf galaxies and studies of the distribution of the intergalactic medium. It will also provide spectroscopy of resolved stars in external galaxies at unprecedented distances, from the outskirts of the Local Group for main-sequence stars, to a significant volume of the local Universe, including nearby galaxy clusters, for luminous red supergiants.

Hammer, F.; Barbuy, B.; Cuby, J. G.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S.; Evans, C. J.; Jagourel, P.; Dalton, G.; Rees, P.; Puech, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Pearson, D.; Disseau, K.

2014-08-01

218

In Pursuit of the Thermal State of the IGM at Redshift 20: Radio Foreground Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great challenges of cosmology today is tracing the thermal history of the Universe from global reionization back to recombination. The Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Age (LEDA) will set direct constraints on sky-averaged spectral-line absorption of the Cosmic Microwave Background by neutral Hydrogen in the intergalactic medium at redshift ~ 20. Line intensity, breadth, and center frequency enable hypothesis testing for models of heating during the preceding Dark Age and the epoch at which sustained star formation began. LEDA has begun science observations at the Long Wavelength Array in Owens Valley. I will report initial characterizations of the foreground sky, effectiveness of subtraction, and assessment of how difficult or easy it may be to take the next step: measurement of the angular power spectrum of HI fluctuations just after the end of the Dark Age.

Greenhill, Lincoln J.; LEDA Collaboration

2014-01-01

219

Nature's best weapons to fight cancer. Revival of human monoclonal IgM antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique features of monoclonal antibodies (specificity, effectiveness, purity and unlimited reproducibility) make them ideal tools for the specific treatment of all kind of diseases. The third generation of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of human diseases will be, after murine and \\

H. Peter Vollmers; Stephanie Brandlein

220

Activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus by antibody to human IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV) is the causative agent of most infectious mononucleosis1 and is also associated with two human tumours, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)2 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma2. Lymphoid cell lines of B-cell origin have been established from patients with these diseases, and from lymphocytes transformed in vitro by EBV3. In lymphoid cell lines the lytic viral cycle is usually repressed even though

Michael G. Tovey; Jaqueline Begon-Lours; GILBERT LENOIR

1978-01-01

221

Large scale simulations of the jet-IGM interaction Martin G. H. Krause  

E-print Network

in the shocked cluster gas is approximately 100 Myr. The jet is expected to propagate through the whole volume the observationally relevant scale of > 200 jet radii. Deviations from the early bow shock propagation law-ray appearance of the shocked cluster gas and compare it to Cygnus A and 3C 317. Rings, bright spots

Krause, Martin

222

COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF  

E-print Network

thyroxine (T4) à la naissance et à 24 h. Tous les animaux ont reçu le même colostrum dans les mêmes of thyroxine (I.M.) and a second injection 24 h later with half the dose. A 1201 colostrum pool had pre- viously been collected and kept frozen in order to give the same colostrum to all calves. This colostrum

Boyer, Edmond

223

DETECCIÓN DE ANTICUERPOS Y ANTÍGENOS PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE Fasciola hepatica EN ALPACAS NATURALMENTE INFECTADAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to standardize the indirect ELISA test for the detection of antibodies and to evaluate a coproantigen detection test (ES-78 sandwich ELISA) for the Fasciola hepatica diagnoses in alpacas. For the indirect ELISA, the excretion-secretion products (ES) were used as antigens and a peroxidasa anti IgG immunoconjugate of alpaca was obtained through protein A affinity

Oscar Otero

224

Hello I'm Roger safe in today's Thursday, May 2 and you're listening to the information security news podcast brought to you by Northwestern University information technology  

E-print Network

of installing them naturally all a big fan of antivirus software I don't think the antivirus software is the silver bullet solution by think it's a great thing to have on your machine doesn't usually consume

Shahriar, Selim

225

How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

Brown, Scott

2005-01-01

226

76 FR 47564 - Procurement List; Additions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7045-00-NIB-0354--2G. NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0355--4G. NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0356--8G. NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0357...Anti-Virus, 2G. NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0361--Anti-Virus, 4G. NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0362--Anti-Virus, 8G. NSN:...

2011-08-05

227

Asociación entre anticuerpos contra el virus del síndrome disgenésico y respiratorio porcino y anticuerpos contra otros patógenos Association between antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and other pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate a possible association between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and other viral and bacterial pathogenic agents found in swine, a serological model was followed. For this study, 3600, 4 to 6 month-old fi nishers were bled and tested for antibodies against various infectious agents. The specifi c antibodies against PRRSV, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV),

Fernando Diosdado Vargas; Dolores González-Vega; Luis Pedro Moles-Cervantes; Antonio Morilla González

228

An IgM l Antibody to Escherichia coli Produces False-Positive Results in Multiple Immunometric Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Interferences in immunometric assays as a result of human anti-immunoglobulin antibodies fre- quently have been described in the literature. The etiology of these interfering antibodies is usually not known but has been associated with rheumatoid factors in some assays. It is known that microorganisms in experimental settings can induce anti-immunoglobulin antibodies. Methods: Following Escherichia coli septicemia, a 56- year-old

Michael Covinsky; Omar Laterza; John D. Pfeifer; Tunde Farkas-Szallasi; Mitchell G. Scott

2000-01-01

229

Cellular targets and mechanistic strategies of remyelination-promoting IgMs as part of the naturally occurring autoantibody repertoire  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulins with germline sequences occur in invertebrates and vertebrates and are named naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs). NAbs may target foreign antigens, self- or altered self-components and are part of the normal immunoglobulin repertoire. Accumulating evidence indicates that naturally occurring antibodies can act as systemic surveillance molecules, which tag, damaged or stressed cells, invading pathogens and toxic cellular debris for elimination by the immune system. In addition to acting as detecting molecules, certain types of NAbs actively signal in different cell types with a broad range of responses from induction of apoptosis in cancer cells to stimulation of remyelination in glial cells. This review emphasizes functions and characteristics of NAbs with focus on remyelination-promoting mouse and human antibodies. Human remyelination-promoting NAbs are potential therapeutics to combat a wide spectrum of disease processes including demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. We will highlight the identified glycosphingolipid (SL) antigens of polyreactive remyelination-promoting antibodies and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. The nature of the identified antigens suggests a lipid raft-based mechanism for remyelination-promoting antibodies with SLs as most essential raft components. However, accumulating evidence also suggests involvement of other antigens in stimulation of remyelination, which will be discussed in the text. PMID:24053345

Watzlawik, Jens O; Wootla, Bharath; Painter, Meghan M; Warrington, Arthur E; Rodriguez, Moses

2014-01-01

230

The Sensitive Side of Galaxy Formation: How sub-L* Galaxies Accrete, Form Stars, and Enrich the IGM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a series of cosmological zoom simulations specifically targeting the formation and evolution of dwarf and sub-L* galaxies living in halos of 10^11- 10^12 solar masses. The shallow potential wells and low-density environments of these halos provide uniquely sensitive laboratories to understand the physics of galactic feedback, as well as the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, from which these galaxies accrete. Given that 129 orbits of Cycle 18 COS data probing such halos is now being completed, combined with the insufficiency of current cosmological simulations to resolve these halos, the theory is lagging the data. We will remedy this by running zoom simulations of individual halos with 1000-10,000 times greater mass resolution than current cosmological simulations used for similar studies. We aim to resolve the sub-kpc scale of high-velocity cloud-like structures and <100 pc scales of the interstellar medium. We will simulate circumgalactic quasar absorption metal-line and H I statistics using our novel non-equilibrium ionization solver that follows individual ionic states. We will also investigate the delicate balance of accretion, star formation, and feedback required to reproduce the observed stellar properties of these small galaxies. In the spirit of transparency, we will make our simulation results available on a public website to encourage new projects and collaborations with observers and theorists understanding the physics regulating galaxy growth.

Oppenheimer, Benjamin

2012-10-01

231

Enterprise Information Security Management Framework [EISMF  

E-print Network

There are several technological solutions available in the market to help organizations with information security breach detection and prevention such as intrusion detection and prevention systems, antivirus software, ...

Sharma, Dhirendra, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

232

Web Camouflage 16 PublishedbytheieeeComPutersoCietyn1540-7993/07/$25.002007ieeenieeeseCurity&PrivaCy  

E-print Network

with Barclays, he would also know that the victim is likely to have antivirus protection from F-Secure (Barclays to the victim, purporting to come either from Barclays or F-Secure, warning of a purported vulnerability offers clients free antivirus software from F-Secure). The attacker might then spoof an email

233

76 FR 34064 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0354-2G NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0355-4G NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0356-8G NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0357-16G...Anti-Virus, 2G NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0361--Anti-Virus, 4G NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0362--Anti-Virus, 8G NSN:...

2011-06-10

234

IT Security Practices While Departmental and Campus IT units are accountable for the  

E-print Network

sure that your computer will be as safe as possible from viruses and other malicious programs and installed software. Learn More 2. Install Anti-virus/Anti-spyware software Every machine should have Anti-virus threat protection software installed on it. The anti-virus software should be constantly updated with new

Illinois at Chicago, University of

235

The Creative Writing Program at UBC: Resources for Distance Education Students  

E-print Network

browser must have cookies enabled and support javascript in order for the process to work. You will start Help Desk at 604.822.2406 Applying in Person https://www.ubccard.ubc.ca/students.html Free Email Antivirus Software UBC has contracted with Sophos, an antivirus company, to provide free software for all

Pulfrey, David L.

236

Detection of Unknown Computer Worms Activity Based on Computer Behavior using Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting unknown worms is a challenging task. Extant solutions, such as anti-virus tools, rely mainly on prior explicit knowledge of specific worm signatures. As a result, after the appearance of a new worm on the Web there is a significant delay until an update carrying the worm's signature is distributed to anti-virus tools. During this time interval a new worm

Robert Moskovitch; Ido Gus; Shay Pluderman; Dima Stopel; Clint Feher; Chanan Glezer; Yuval Shahar; Yuval Elovici

2007-01-01

237

Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. METHODS: We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG,

Aristo Vojdani

2009-01-01

238

Fc receptor-like A associates with intracellular IgG and IgM but is dispensable for antigen-specific immune responses.  

PubMed

FcR-like (FcRL) proteins comprise a family of lymphocyte receptors with homology to FcgammaRI. Among these receptors, FcRLA is uniquely interesting due to its intracellular localization, unusual structural features, and high expression within human germinal center and marginal zone B cells. Our analysis of human cell lines has confirmed that this receptor is not secreted but is maintained as an intracellular protein in B cells where it interacts with Igs, consistent with a possible role in Ab assembly. By generating FcRLA-specific antisera as well as knockout mice, we were able to unequivocally demonstrate that FcRLA protein is expressed exclusively in all mouse B cells. We also found that FcRLA is not required for the generation of Ag-specific humoral immune responses to T-dependent or T-independent Ags. However, given its highly conserved structure and universal expression within B cells, it is probable that FcRLA functions similarly in humans and mice. Cumulatively, our data suggest that FcRLA plays a role in Ig assembly that can be compensated for by other proteins. PMID:20668221

Wilson, Timothy J; Gilfillan, Susan; Colonna, Marco

2010-09-01

239

IGM Emission Observations with the Cosmic Web Imager: I. The Circum-QSO Medium of QSO 1549+19, and Evidence for a Filamentary Gas Inflow  

E-print Network

The Palomar Cosmic Web Imager (PCWI), an integral field spectrograph designed to detect and map low surface brightness emission, has obtained imaging spectroscopic maps of Ly-alpha from the circum-QSO medium (CQM) of QSO HS1549+19 at redshift of 2.843. Extensive extended emission is detected from the CQM, consistent with fluorescent and pumped Ly-alpha produced by the ionizing and Ly-alpha continuum of the QSO. Many features present in PCWI spectral images match those detected in narrow-band images. Filamentary structures with narrow line profiles are detected in several cases as long as 250-400 kpc. One of these is centered at a velocity redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity, and displays a spatially collimated and kinematically cold line profile increasing in velocity width approaching the QSO. This suggests that the filament gas is infalling onto the QSO, perhaps in a cold accretion flow. Because of the strong ionizing flux, the neutral column density is low, typically N(HI) is roughly 10E12-10E...

Martin, D Christopher; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C

2014-01-01

240

Lp(a) lipoprotein, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae and HLA class II genotype in early coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations previously found between lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels and atherosclerotic disorders, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and renal diseases suggest that Lp(a) may be involved in autoimmune reactions. The relation found between Lp(a) levels and the HLA class II genotype in males with early coronary artery disease (CAD) further support that assumption. It was suggested that an autoimmune process, perhaps triggered by

Gösta H. Dahlén; Jens Boman; Lisbeth Slunga Birgander; Bertil Lindblom

1995-01-01

241

Field Evaluation and Impact on Clinical Management of a Rapid Diagnostic Kit That Detects Dengue NS1, IgM and IgG  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue diagnosis is complex and until recently only specialized laboratories were able to definitively confirm dengue infection. Rapid tests are now available commercially making biological diagnosis possible in the field. The aim of this study was to evaluate a combined dengue rapid test for the detection of NS1 and IgM/IgG antibodies. The evaluation was made prospectively in the field conditions and included the study of the impact of its use as a point-of-care test for case management as well as retrospectively against a panel of well-characterized samples in a reference laboratory. Methodology/Principal Findings During the prospective study, 157 patients hospitalized for a suspicion of dengue were enrolled. In the hospital laboratories, the overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the NS1/IgM/IgG combination tests were 85.7%, 83.9%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively, whereas they were 94,4%, 90.0%, 97.5% and 77.1% respectively in the national reference laboratory at Institut Pasteur in Cambodia. These results demonstrate that optimal performances require adequate training and quality assurance. The retrospective study showed that the sensitivity of the combined kit did not vary significantly between the serotypes and was not affected by the immune status or by the interval of time between onset of fever and sample collection. The analysis of the medical records indicates that the physicians did not take into consideration the results obtained with the rapid test including for care management and use of antibiotic therapy. Conclusions In the context of our prospective field study, we demonstrated that if the SD Bioline Dengue Duo kit is correctly used, a positive result highly suggests a dengue case but a negative result doesn't rule out a dengue infection. Nevertheless, Cambodian pediatricians in their daily practice relied on their clinical diagnosis and thus the false negative results obtained did not directly impact on the clinical management. PMID:23301110

Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ngan, Chantha; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Sroin, Kim Kim; Te, Vantha; Y, Bunthin; Try, Patrich Lorn; Buchy, Philippe

2012-01-01

242

The Compact, Conical, Accretion-Disk Warm Absorber of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4051 and its Implications for IGM-Galaxy Feedback Processes  

E-print Network

(Abridged) Using a 100 ks XMM-Newton exposure of NGC 4051, we show that the time evolution of the ionization state of the X-ray absorbers in response to the rapid and highly variable X-ray continuum constrains all the main physical and geometrical properties of an AGN Warm Absorber wind. The absorber consists of two different ionization components. By tracking the response in the opacity of the gas in each component to changes in the ionizing continuum, we were able to constrain the electron density of the system. The measured densities require that the high and low ionization absorbing components of NGC 4051 must be compact, at distances 0.5-1.0 l-d (2200 - 4400Rs) and 12 l-d). An accretion disk origin for the warm absorber wind is strongly suggested, and an association with the high ionization, HeII emitting, broad emission line region (radius <2 l-d) is possible. The two detected phases are consistent with pressure equilibrium, which suggests that the absorber consists of a two phase medium. A radial flow in a spherical geometry is unlikely, and a conical wind geometry is preferred. The implied mass outflow rate from this wind, can be well constrained, and is 2-5% of the mass accretion rate. If the mass outflow rate scaling with accretion rate is representative of all quasars, our results imply that warm absorbers in powerful quasars are unlikely to produce important evolutionary effects on their larger environment, unless we are observing the winds before they get fully accelerated. Only in such a scenario can AGN winds be important for cosmic feedback.

Yair Krongold; Fabrizio Nicastro; Martin Elvis; Nancy Brickhouse; Luc Binette; Smita Mathur; Elena Jimenez-Bailon

2007-02-15

243

Regulation of bcl-x l expression and Fas susceptibility in mouse B cells by CD40 ligation, surface IgM crosslinking and IL4  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD40 is one of the key molecules involved in the survival, growth and differentiation of B lymphocytes. In contrast, Fas (Apo-1, CD95) mediates apoptosis of a variety of cell types, including lymphocytes. Recent studies have found that Fas expression on mouse B cells could be strongly induced by CD40 ligation, a helper T cell-derived signal. Here, evidence is provided that

Toshiki Koizumi; Jiyang Wang; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Keiji Masuda; Takeshi Watanabe

1996-01-01

244

Conditions for the development of IgM- and IgG-antibody-secreting cells from primed mouse splenocytes in vitro.  

PubMed Central

A modified Marbrook chamber has been devised and manufactured which will fit inside a standard tissue culture Petri dish. A comparison has been made between Mishell-Dutton and modified Marbrook culture systems with respect to their ability to support an immune response by quiescent memory cells exposed to antigen in vitro. Good culture conditions are maintained for considerably longer in the modified Marbrook cultures and it seems that as a consequence these cultures support a large and reliable IgG response, normally absent or very small in cultures of the Mishell-Dutton type. Ease of manipulation and convenient size make the modified Marbrook system a good prospect for future long-term experiments. Images Figure 2 PMID:324905

Maizels, R M; Dresser, D W

1977-01-01

245

Comparisons of the Ability of Human IgG3 Hinge Mutants, IgM, IgE, and IgA2, to Form Small Immune Complexes  

E-print Network

were reacted with an anti-Id mAb, and the resultant immune complexes were analyzed by negative stain in this study have previously been described (13­16). Truncated hinges were shortened by the removal of spe

Ronquist, Fredrik

246

Tetraspanins connect several types of Ig proteins: IgM is a novel component of the tetraspanin web on B-lymphoid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tetraspanins form a family of about 30 molecules mainly expressed on the cell surface. They have been reported to be involved in many physiological or pathological processes, such as fertilization, immune response, development of the nervous system, and metastasis, as well as in infectious diseases (HCV, malaria, etc.). The tetraspanins may play a role as “organizers” of multimolecular complexes

François Le Naour; Stéphanie Charrin; Valérie Labas; Jean-Pierre Le Caer; Claude Boucheix; Eric Rubinstein

2004-01-01

247

Analysis of immunoglobulin variable region genes of a human IgM anti-myeloperoxidase antibody derived from a patient with vasculitis.  

PubMed Central

Circulating antibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) are associated primarily with pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and systemic vasculitis. Anti-MPO antibodies belong to a group of autoantibodies, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, that may play a pathogenic role in vasculitis. We have generated a human monoclonal anti-MPO antibody (E3-MPO) using peripheral blood lymphocytes from a patient with microscopic polyarteritis. Variable region gene analysis of E3-MPO showed that the VH region had 90% homology with the germ line gene VH4-21. E3-MPO was also shown to carry the 9G4 idiotope, which so far has been associated only with human antibodies that utilize the VH4-21 gene. The 9G4 idiotope was also expressed on anti-MPO antibodies in sera from the donor patient and from 4/7 additional patients with active, untreated vasculitis. The nucleotide sequences of both the variable heavy and light chains of E3-MPO showed evidence of an antigen-driven response. PMID:8698399

Longhurst, C; Ehrenstein, M R; Leaker, B; Stevenson, F K; Spellerberg, M; Chapman, C; Latchmen, D; Isenberg, D A; Cambridge, G

1996-01-01

248

Anti-bovine IgM monoclonal antibodies produced by hybrid cells after in vitro immunization as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  

E-print Network

. . . 68 LIST OF FIGURES F1gure I Agar gel immunodiffusion of mouse serum reacted against two-fold dilutions of whole bovine serum. Page . . 15 Figure 2 Chromatographic separat1on of . euglobul1n fraction of bovine serum. 17 Fi gure 3: Agar gel... identical genet1c mater1al der1ved from a single spleen cell and produces anti bod1es that react with a single epitope and have one affinity 'constant for that epitope (8). The cell lines can be immortalized 1n culture, and they can be frozen for future...

Hunter, Doris Marie

2012-06-07

249

Analysis of Antigens of Mycobacterium leprae by Interaction to Sera IgG, IgM, and IgA Response to Improve Diagnosis of Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Till 2010, several countries have declared less than one leprosy patient among population of 10,000 and themselves feeling as eliminated from leprosy cases. However, new leprosy cases are still appearing from all these countries. In this situation one has to be confident to diagnose leprosy. This review paper highlighted already explored antigens for diagnosis purposes and finally suggested better combinations of protein antigens of M. leprae versus immunoglobulin as detector antibody to be useful for leprosy diagnosis. PMID:25101267

Kumar, Avnish; Parkash, Om; Girdhar, Bhawneshwar K.

2014-01-01

250

Stimulation of surface IgM of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induces an unfolded protein response dependent on BTK and SYK.  

PubMed

B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling plays a key role in the behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, cellular consequences of signaling are incompletely defined. Here we explored possible links between BCR signaling and the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress response pathway that can promote survival of normal and malignant cells. Compared with normal B cells, circulating CLL cells expressed increased, but variable, levels of UPR components. Higher expression of CHOP and XBP1 RNAs was associated with more aggressive disease. UPR activation appeared due to prior tissue-based antigenic stimulation because elevated expression of UPR components was detected within lymph node proliferation centers. Basal UPR activation also correlated closely with surface immunoglobulin M (sIgM) signaling capacity in vitro in both IGHV unmutated CLL and within mutated CLL. sIgM signaling increased UPR activation in vitro with responders showing increased expression of CHOP and XBP1 RNAs, and PERK and BIP proteins, but not XBP1 splicing. Inhibitors of BCR-associated kinases effectively prevented sIgM-induced UPR activation. Overall, this study demonstrates that sIgM signaling results in activation of some components the UPR in CLL cells. Modulation of the UPR may contribute to variable clinical behavior, and its inhibition may contribute to clinical responses to BCR-associated kinase inhibitors. PMID:25170122

Krysov, Sergey; Steele, Andrew J; Coelho, Vania; Linley, Adam; Sanchez Hidalgo, Marina; Carter, Matthew; Potter, Kathleen N; Kennedy, Benjamin; Duncombe, Andrew S; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Forconi, Francesco; Stevenson, Freda K; Packham, Graham

2014-11-13

251

posture can also be inferred from the Early Cretaceous troodontid Sinornithoides from the Ordos basin and perhaps for the nesting oviraptorid Citipati (IGM 100/979); however, these  

E-print Network

troodontids (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the People's Republic of China. Can. J. Earth Sci. 38, 1753 (Dinosauria: Saurischia). J. Vert. Paleontol. 7, 72­81 (1987). 14. Norell, M. A., Makovicky, P. J. & Clark, J

Thompson, John N.

252

Mitogenic stimulation of malignant B cells. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: secretion of monoclonal IgM by in vitro-induced plasmablasts.  

PubMed Central

This study provides evidence that leukaemic B cells are able to proliferate and differentiate into plasmablasts. The Ig produced was monoclonal in nature and this was shown by gel electrophoresis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6368062

Bloem, A C; van Hooff, C O; Bast, E J; Ballieux, R E

1984-01-01

253

Regulatory B cells are enriched within the IgM memory and transitional subsets in healthy donors but are deficient in chronic GVHD  

PubMed Central

A subset of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in mice negatively regulate T-cell immune responses through the secretion of regulatory cytokines such as IL-10 and direct cell-cell contact and have been linked to experimental models of autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. However, the regulatory function of Bregs in human disease is much less clear. Here we demonstrate that B cells with immunoregulatory properties are enriched within both the CD19+IgM+CD27+ memory and CD19+CD24hiCD38hi transitional B-cell subsets in healthy human donors. Both subsets suppressed the proliferation and interferon-? production of CD3/CD28-stimulated autologous CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner, and both relied on IL-10 secretion as well as cell-cell contact, likely mediated through CD80 and CD86, to support their full suppressive function. Moreover, after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, Bregs from patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) were less frequent and less likely to produce IL-10 than were Bregs from healthy donors and patients without cGVHD. These findings suggest that Bregs may be involved in the pathogenesis of cGVHD and support future investigation of regulatory B cell–based therapy in the treatment of this disease. PMID:25051962

Khoder, Ahmad; Sarvaria, Anushruti; Alsuliman, Abdullah; Chew, Claude; Sekine, Takuya; Cooper, Nichola; Mielke, Stephan; de Lavallade, Hugues; Muftuoglu, Muharrem; Fernandez Curbelo, Irina; Liu, Enli; Muraro, Paolo A.; Alousi, Amin; Stringaris, Kate; Parmar, Simrit; Shah, Nina; Shaim, Hila; Yvon, Eric; Molldrem, Jeffrey; Rouce, Rayne; Champlin, Richard; McNiece, Ian; Mauri, Claudia; Shpall, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

254

Analysis of antigens of Mycobacterium leprae by interaction to sera IgG, IgM, and IgA response to improve diagnosis of leprosy.  

PubMed

Till 2010, several countries have declared less than one leprosy patient among population of 10,000 and themselves feeling as eliminated from leprosy cases. However, new leprosy cases are still appearing from all these countries. In this situation one has to be confident to diagnose leprosy. This review paper highlighted already explored antigens for diagnosis purposes and finally suggested better combinations of protein antigens of M. leprae versus immunoglobulin as detector antibody to be useful for leprosy diagnosis. PMID:25101267

Kumar, Avnish; Parkash, Om; Girdhar, Bhawneshwar K

2014-01-01

255

Artculo publicado en: Agua, Minera y Medio Ambiente, Libro Homenaje al Profesor Rafael Fernndez Rubio. Lpez Geta et al. (eds). IGME, 161-172 p  

E-print Network

Artículo publicado en: Agua, Minería y Medio Ambiente, Libro Homenaje al Profesor Rafael Fernández-2004) A. Castillo1 1 CSIC e Instituto del Agua de la Universidad de Granada. C/ Ramón y Cajal, 4. 18071 Granada. E.mail: acastill@ugr.es. www.ugr.es/local/aguas RESUMEN.- La Vega de Granada, uno de los

Castillo, Antonio

256

Le Lait (1982),62, 415426 Etude de la rponse immunitaire IgM, IgG et IgE  

E-print Network

and ovalbumin. Key words Betalactoglobulin - Experimental immunisation . Rabbit - Oral, peritoneal, subcutaneous confirmé, mais paraît faible, en comparaison avec la peroxydase du raifort et l'ovalbumine. Mots clés AND BETALACTOGLOBULIN COUP LED TO SUCROSE, IN THE RABBIT The production of hemagglutining antibodies and specifie Ig

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

An immunotoxin containing a rat IgM monoclonal antibody (Campath 1) and saporin 6: effect on T lymphocytes and hemopoietic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elimination of the cells responsible for graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been attempted with a variety of methods, including the use of the ribosome-inactivating toxin ricin bound to monoclonal antibodies acting as carriers. However the high nonspecific toxicity of these immunotoxins containing the whole toxin greatly limited clinical application. Toxicity can be reduced using the A-chain

Pier Luigi Tazzari; Luigi Barbieri; Marco Gobbi; Angelo Dinota; Simonetta Rizzi; Andrea Bontadini; Annalisa Pession; Sante Tura; Fiorenzo Stirpe

1988-01-01

258

Cloning and structural analysis of IgM ( ? chain) and the heavy chain V region repertoire in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica 1 1 The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL\\/Genbank nucleotide sequence database and have been assigned the accession number AF108226 (IgM ? chain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the question of the Ig isotype repertoire of non placental mammals, we have examined the Ig expression in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short tailed opossum). Screening of an opossum spleen cDNA library has previously led to the isolation of full length clones for opossum IgG (? chain), IgE (? chain) and IgA (? chain). We now present

Maria Aveskogh; Lars Pilström; Lars Hellman

1999-01-01

259

A Supervised Machine Learning Approach to Classify Host Roles On Line Using sFlow  

E-print Network

detection, anti-virus, secu- rity policy violation detection, and building host fingerprints to identify a host or its user for forensic purposes. For exam- ple, if a client suddenly behaves similar to a server

Gunes, Mehmet Hadi

260

48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The Contractor shall configure its computers that contain HHS data with the applicable...index.cfm ) and ensure that its computers have and maintain the latest operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note:...

2010-10-01

261

Encapsulation of Curcumin in O/W Nanoemulsions and Its Bioaccessibility After In Vitro Digestion.  

E-print Network

??The functional ingredient curcumin has a variety of biological and pharmacological actions, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV properties coupled with low toxicity.… (more)

Ahmed, Kashif

2010-01-01

262

Network Decontamination with Temporal Immunity by Cellular Automata  

E-print Network

be contaminated (e.g., by a virus). Once contam- inated, a node might behave incorrectly; furthermore it could running the anti-virus at any time. Interestingly, this process can be modelled using a cellular automaton

Flocchini, Paola

263

Designing security into software  

E-print Network

When people talk about software security, they usually refer to security applications such as antivirus software, firewalls and intrusion detection systems. There is little emphasis on the security in the software itself. ...

Zhang, Chang Tony

2006-01-01

264

15 CFR 30.5 - Electronic Export Information filing application and certification processes and standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...service center may use a software package designed...that utilizes a certified software vendor or service center shall complete certification testing. Service centers may...data. (3) Antivirus software shall be installed...

2013-01-01

265

15 CFR 30.5 - Electronic Export Information filing application and certification processes and standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...service center may use a software package designed...that utilizes a certified software vendor or service center shall complete certification testing. Service centers may...data. (3) Antivirus software shall be installed...

2011-01-01

266

15 CFR 30.5 - Electronic Export Information filing application and certification processes and standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service center may use a software package designed...that utilizes a certified software vendor or service center shall complete certification testing. Service centers may...data. (3) Antivirus software shall be installed...

2010-01-01

267

15 CFR 30.5 - Electronic Export Information filing application and certification processes and standards.  

...service center may use a software package designed...that utilizes a certified software vendor or service center shall complete certification testing. Service centers may...data. (3) Antivirus software shall be installed...

2014-01-01

268

October 29, 2012 Boguslaw P. Nocek | Phone: 630-935-0793 | Email: bnocek@anl.gov 1 of 8  

E-print Network

meningitidis M1 alanine aminopeptidase by fluorogenic substrate profiling, inhibitory studies and molecular, A.M., Yakunin, A.F. A dual function of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA

Kemner, Ken

269

Servicio de Informtica NOTICIAS Y EVENTOS  

E-print Network

Endpoint Antivirus" y "Panda Antivirus Pro 2014" (Publicada 04/03/2014) La anterior licencia con Kaspersky campaña de actualización en la red wifi de la Universidad. Servicio de Informática #12;El SI participa en las Jornadas Técnicas de RedIRIS 2013 (Publicada 25/10/2013) El Servicio de Informática participa en

Escolano, Francisco

270

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

271

The Keck Observatory Database of Ionized Absorbers Toward QSOs (KODIAQ): II. A large Sample of CIV Selected Absorbers in the IGM and the ISM and CGM of Galaxies at z>1.6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the KODIAQ program (supported through ADAP NASA grant NNX10AE84G.), we have begun a comprehensive search for metal line absorption in the spectra of 20 of the highest signal to noise spectra in the KODIAQ database. Our search selects absorption line systems based on the presence of observed absorption in triply ionized carbon (CIV). CIV is present in gas having a wide range of neutral hydrogen column density and total hydrogen density. As such, this database probes a wide range of astrophysical environments from the low density, highly ionized intergalactic medium up through the high density, mostly neutral ISM of galaxies. Our sample covers absorption over the range 1.6 < z < 4, a significant fraction of the age of the universe, and a period where significant changes in the galaxy population and the galaxy-circumgalactic medium interface take place. We present the current status of our survey and offer a preliminary interpretation of the results.

Armstrong, Ashley; Burns, V.; O'Meara, J.; Lehner, N.; Fox, A.; Howk, J. C.; Prochaska, J. X.; Wolfe, A. M.

2013-01-01

272

Interplanetary shock propagation model: A model for predicting solar-flare-caused geomagnetic storms, based on the 2 1/2 d, MHD numerical simulation results from the interplanetary global model (2d IGM). Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model has been devised to predict the time of arrival at Earth of interplanetary shocks caused by solar disturbances at arbitrary longitudes on the Sun. This report first describes the physical basis of the model, which is a parametric study of solar-caused, energetic, interplanetary shocks. The input shocks in the parametric study are characterized by three parameters; the initial shock velocity, the source duration, and the source angular extent, or width. The net energy added to the solar wind by the source is expressed in terms of these parameters. Because of the lack of an observable proxy for the source width, an average value is used for that parameter in this model. This average value is computed from a data set on the assumption that both the model and the associations made in the data set are valid. These shock observations were associated with both source flares and subsequent sudden commencements, or geomagnetic storms at Earth, which serve as markers of shock arrival at Earth.

Smith, Z.K.; Dryer, M.

1995-07-01

273

Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) but Not of IgM or IgA Isotypes Can Cure Influenza Virus Pneumonia in SCID Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to passively cure an influenza virus pneumonia in the absence of endogenous T- and B-cell responses was investigated by treating C.B-17 mice, homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mutation, with individual monoclonal antiviral antibodies 1 day after pulmonary infection with influenza virus PR8 (A\\/PR\\/8\\/34(H1N1)). Less than 10% of untreated SCID mice survived the

GIUSEPPE PALLADINO; KRYSTYNA MOZDZANOWSKA; GEORGE WASHKO

1995-01-01

274

IDIOTYPE PROFILE OF AN IMMUNE RESPONSE I. Contrasts in Idiotypic Dominance between Primary and Secondary Responses and between IgM and IgG Plaque-forming Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous antigens are now known that can induce antibodies bearing similar or identical variable region determinants (idiotypes) in all individuals of one or more strains of inbred mice (1-3). In many cases, the immune response to such antigens is of a highly restricted character, as judged by isoelectricfocusing (IEF) 1 of induced antibodies or other criteria. A curious feature is

JOHN D. CONGER; GEORGE K. LEWIS; JOEL W. GOODMAN

275

Biosynthesis of low molecular weight (7S) and high molecular weight (19S) immunoglobulin M  

PubMed Central

The class of immunoglobulin M (IgM) characterized by high molecular weight proteins with a sedimentation coefficient of 19S, includes a smaller molecular form with an S20,[unk] of approximately 7. The synthetic origin of the 7S IgM was investigated by biosynthetic studies on bone marrow cells from three patients with macroglobulinemia whose sera contained 7S IgM and 19S IgM. Labeled 7S IgM and 19S IgM were identified in extracellular culture fluids by radioimmunochemical techniques. The separation of the two molecular forms of IgM by density-gradient ultracentrifugation of the culture fluids before radioimmunochemical analyses permitted the identification of both the labeled 7S IgM and 19S IgM. One patient's serum contained two separate and distinct 19S IgM proteins as well as 7S IgM. The use of specific isolated carrier IgM proteins permitted the radioimmunochemical detection of labeled 7S IgM and both 19S IgM proteins. The introduction of cycloheximide into a culture system effects the cessation of protein synthesis. The analyses of culture fluids harvested at timed intervals after the addition of cycloheximide revealed not only the stability of 19S IgM to intracellular proteolysis, but also provided evidence for a possible precursor-product relationship between the 7S IgM and the 19S IgM. The demonstration that the labeled 7S IgM is neither an in vitro breakdown product of 19S IgM nor a resultant of 19S IgM intracellular catabolism substantiated the synthetic origin of 7S IgM in human sera. Images PMID:4982899

Solomon, Alan; McLaughlin, Carla L.

1970-01-01

276

Bio-Rad Laboratories I N F E C T I O U S D I S E A S E C O N T R O L S LiquichekTM  

E-print Network

G Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) IgG Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG Epstein) IgG Syphilis RPR Toxoplasma gondii IgM Rubella Virus IgM Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) IgM Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) IgM Analytes Analytes Refer to the package

Rodriguez, Carlos

277

Security Risks and Modern Cyber Security Technologies for Corporate Networks  

E-print Network

This article aims to highlight current trends on the market of corporate antivirus solutions. Brief overview of modern security threats that can destroy IT environment is provided as well as a typical structure and features of antivirus suits for corporate users presented on the market. The general requirements for corporate products are determined according to the last report from av-comparatives.org [1]. The detailed analysis of new features is provided based on an overview of products available on the market nowadays. At the end, an enumeration of modern trends in antivirus industry for corporate users completes this article. Finally, the main goal of this article is to stress an attention about new trends suggested by AV vendors in their solutions in order to protect customers against newest security threats.

Gharibi, Wajeb

2011-01-01

278

Tratamiento inmunosupresor de la miastenia gravis con tacrolimus (FK506).  

E-print Network

??La miastenia gravis es una enfermedad autoinmune mediada por anticuerpos anti-receptor de acetilcolina del músculo esquelético. Su tratamiento incluye: La timectomia y la inmunosupresión con… (more)

Abderrazek, Jamal Azem

2006-01-01

279

Detection of Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies at 3-4 Years Following Yellow Fever Vaccination  

PubMed Central

The duration of anti-yellow fever (YF) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies following YF vaccination is unknown, making it difficult to interpret positive IgM antibody results in previously vaccinated travelers. We evaluated the frequency and predictors of YF IgM antibody positivity 3–4 years following YF vaccination. Twenty-nine (73%) of 40 participants had YF IgM antibodies 3–4 years postvaccination. No demographic or exposure variables were predictive of YF IgM positivity. However, persons who were YF IgM positive at 3–4 years postvaccination had earlier onset viremia and higher neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers at 1 month and 3–4 years postvaccination compared with persons who were YF IgM negative. Detection of YF IgM antibodies several years postvaccination might reflect remote YF vaccination rather than recent YF vaccination or YF virus infection. PMID:23109371

Gibney, Katherine B.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Panella, Amanda J.; Kosoy, Olga I.; Delorey, Mark J.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin

2012-01-01

280

Bio-Rad Laboratories I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s PneumoTrolTM  

E-print Network

G and IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and IgG antibodies to Chlamydia species. · Liquid, human. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x 5 mL Analytes Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgG Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM Chlamydia trachomatis Ig

Rodriguez, Carlos

281

Other Campus Resources: Women's Center  

E-print Network

situations that put you at greater risk (such as walking alone after dark or in high crime areas around antivirus software and back up your computer files on a regular basis. Don't use public unsecured "hotspots tips at www.idtheftcenter.org. If you are a person with a disability and have been a victim of a crime

282

Cyber-Security week is coming up during the week of October 13, thru October 17, 2008. This year the Residence Hall Association is sponsoring a poster contest to educate and  

E-print Network

Cyber-Security week is coming up during the week of October 13, thru October 17, 2008. This year the Residence Hall Association is sponsoring a poster contest to educate and bring awareness of cyber-security/emails · Global cyber crime · Physical security · Security updates, antivirus software, firewalls · Effective

Ray, David

283

Biological activities and corresponding SARs of andrographolide and its derivatives.  

PubMed

In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized large numbers of andrographolide derivatives, which bear important biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antivirus, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antifeedant. Consequently, corresponding SARs were increasingly obvious. This paper aimed to review all the available literature in this field, highlighting the significant achievements on the structural modification and SARs of andrographolide and its derivatives. PMID:23438057

Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Dayong; Wu, Xiaoming

2013-02-01

284

Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Fruits of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia ) with Subcritical Water Extraction and Antioxidant Activities of These  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is traditionally known for its medicinal properties such as antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antivirus, and cholesterol lowering effects. It contains many phenolic compounds that may have the potential as antioxidant and antimutagen. Although the value of bitter melon is realized, scientific information on phenolic composition of bitter melon and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of its extracts from

Extracts Parichat Budrat; Artiwan Shotipruk

285

An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

2002-01-01

286

An immune model and its application to a mobile robot simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune computation is burgeoning bioinformatics technique inspired from the natural immune system and can solve the information security problems such as antivirus and fault detection. And the immune model is a crucial problem of the artificial immune system. In this paper, an immune model was proposed for the application of a mobile robot simulator, which was infected by some worms,

Tao Gong; Zixing Cai

2005-01-01

287

Algebraic Specification of Computer Viruses and Their Environments  

E-print Network

the two formalisms are compared. 1 Introduction Computer viruses are (often harmful) computer programs creation and modification is at the core of the flexibility and efficiency of modern computers; for example to developers of anti-virus software by highlight- ing the commonality between different computer viruses, e

Fisher, Michael

288

The Computer Virus Threat and What You Can Do about It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of computer viruses describes two types of viruses and how they work; suggests ways to prevent or minimize virus risk; and explains how to recognize a virus and limit damage once a virus attacks. A sidebar lists several antivirus software products. (two references) (NRP)

Lateulere, John

1992-01-01

289

Standard software installations Standard software, as listed below, is installed free of charge on all University of Aberdeen supplied PCs and Windows laptops.  

E-print Network

Standard software installations Standard software, as listed below, is installed free of charge with Microsoft Windows 7 64-bit Enterprise Edition as standard. Software Name Description 7-Zip Used to open transfer Microsoft Security Centre Endpoint Protection (SCEP) 2012 Anti-virus software for University

Pym, David J.

290

Understanding Cyberattack as an Instrument of U.S. Policy: Why  

E-print Network

. · Cyber conflict and cyber security have both defensive and offensive dimensions, and comprehensive, (retired) MARK SEIDEN, MSB Associates International and National Security Law JACK L. GOLDSMITH, Harvard-eds...) · Passive defenses ­ Anti-virus and intrusion detection software ­ Better password security ­ Greater attack

van Dyk, David

291

Division of Information Computing at Stony Brook  

E-print Network

Net-Secure) Library databases from off campus Set your Net ID in SOLAR Choose your security question wisely! #12;Do Support: 2-9800 Information Systems (PeopleSoft, SOLAR) Free Antivirus Software for everyone ­ Study Booths contain Windows/Mac machine ­ Round tables for laptops (power globes) ­ Moveable

292

Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk  

E-print Network

Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk Locking your computer's screen is an easy and effective step to take to protect the information on your computer system while it's unattended. Create Virus Protection Computers are infected with a virus more often than most people. Make sure antivirus

California at Santa Barbara, University of

293

Revised: June 2, 2003 MICL Equipment  

E-print Network

. Utilities: Acrobat Reader Ghost View McAffee Antivirus Paint Shop Pro Quickdraw 3D Quicktime SSH Winzip #12;Revised: June 2, 2003 MICL Equipment: Workstations(25), file servers(2), scanner, laser printer, color laser printer, D-size large format printer. Equipment Location 14 Win2K Machines Dell P4, 2.3 GHz

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

294

Teaching Aggressive Information Security Labs  

E-print Network

and unlawful ways. 4. I will not "hack" the NPGS domain. _______________________ Print your name and are relevant to the discussion... 8 #12;So Why Do They Hack? · Script Kiddies: ­ According to Sarah Gordon, antivirus expert and hacker profiler: · Kids socialize via the Internet, communicating without having

295

Table of Contents Cyber-attack forecast modeling and complexity reduction using a  

E-print Network

because these adversaries typically use off-the-shelf tools and implement popular hacking tech- niques. The security community has placed a significant emphasis on devel- oping tools and techniques to address known security issues. Some examples of this emphasis include security tools such as anti-virus software

Shamma, Jeff S.

296

DAFT: Disk Geometry-Aware File System Traversal Fanglu Guo Tzi-cker Chiueh  

E-print Network

's NTFS file system called DAFT (Disk gDAFT: Disk Geometry-Aware File System Traversal Fanglu Guo Tzi-cker Chiueh Symantec Research Labs system. Example applications that use bulk file access extensively are anti-virus (AV) scanner, file

Chiueh, Tzi-cker

297

How Much Security Does Your Library Need?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to keep library systems healthy and functioning by taking sensible security measures. Examines why hackers would target library systems and how library systems are compromised. Describes tools that can help, including: firewalls; antivirus software; alarms; network analysis tools; and encryption. Identifies several strategies for…

Banerjee, Kyle

2003-01-01

298

The Latitude ST is built for business. Compatible with your Microsoft Windows 7-based environment, the Latitude ST  

E-print Network

existing remote systems management solutions or Dell KACETM appliances. Trusted Platform Module (TPM) helps, embedded microphone, and 720p HD front facing video webcam and 5.0MP rear facing camera. Powered with Intel of encryptions. Industry standard anti-virus, physical hardware lock and optional remote hard drive location

Fiebig, Peter

299

Schrepel, Eric From: Jenkins, Kris  

E-print Network

83707 (208) 375-7382 Fax (208) 321-4819 --- Outgoing mail is certified Virus Free. #12;2 Checked by AVG anti-virus system (http://www.grisoft.com). Version: 6.0.799 / Virus Database: 543 - Release Date: 11

300

Symantec: Virus Alerts and Hoaxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website by Symantec (makers of Norton AntiVirus) provides information on the latest virus threats, security advisories, updates for Symantec products and removal tools, as well as some basic information on viruses. The Reference Area includes FAQ, a Glossary, Newsletter, White Papers, a section where you can Submit Virus Samples, postings of Hoaxes, a Security Database, Virus Encyclopedia, and Virus Calendar.

301

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

302

Towards Comprehensible and Effective Permission Systems  

E-print Network

Security guidelines or anti-virus programs that warn against installing applications with access to both the Internet andsecurity clearances [14]) and adversarial applications (e.g. , Internet-security and privacy warnings during installation. Methodology We surveyed 308 Android users with an Internet

Felt, Adrienne Porter

2012-01-01

303

Open Problems in Computer Virus Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

Steve R. White

1998-01-01

304

A Chronological Evaluation of Unknown Malcode Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signature-based anti-viruses are very accurate, but are limited in detecting new malicious code. Dozens of new malicious codes are created every day, and the rate is expected to increase in coming years. To extend the generalization to detect unknown malicious code, heuristic methods are used; however, these are not successful enough. Recently, classification algorithms were used successfully for the detection

Robert Moskovitch; Clint Feher; Yuval Elovici

2009-01-01

305

N-Gram-Based Detection of New Malicious Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current commercial anti-virus software detects a virus only after the virus has appeared and caused dam- age. Motivated by the standard signature-based technique for detecting viruses, and a recent successful text classifica- tion method, we explore the idea of automatically detecting new malicious code using the collected dataset of the be- nign and malicious code. We obtained accuracy of

Tony Abou-assaleh; Nick Cercone; Vlado Keselj; Ray Sweidan

2004-01-01

306

Lock It Up! Computer Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data contained on desktop computer systems and networks pose security issues for virtually every district. Sensitive information can be protected by educating users, altering the physical layout, using password protection, designating access levels, backing up data, reformatting floppy disks, using antivirus software, and installing encryption…

Wodarz, Nan

1997-01-01

307

Peace (of Mind) in Our Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There's no silver bullet to information security; universities must continue to keep their antivirus, anti-spyware, firewall, and patch management systems in good working order. These days, the largest target for hackers appears to be university databases. Now, universities are searching for new solutions to safeguard those systems. This article…

Panettieri, Joseph C.

2007-01-01

308

Lesions more than cerebellum in a puerpera of acute cerebellitis: concurrent encephalitis, not a subtype of ADEM  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message We report a puerpera who has acute-onset ataxia with fever, headache, convulsions, and altered mental status. She had a good response to antivirus treatment and low-dose steroid. Acute cerebellitis was the tentative diagnosis. But concurrent encephalitis was proposed with multiple lesions beyond cerebellum. PMID:25356202

Zhang, Yong-Qing; Chen, Dan; Zou, Ya-Fen; Huang, Ming; Jia, Xiao-Yan

2013-01-01

309

Page 1 of 2 www.city.ac.uk/wifi  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 2 www.city.ac.uk/wifi Wireless Network Connection Instructions ­ Microsoft Windows 8 updates have been applied. An up-to-date Anti-virus client is installed and active. Windows 8 1. Firstly" button. d. Untick "Automatically use my Windows logon..." 13. Click "Ok" twice Windows 8 #12;Page 2 of 2

Weyde, Tillman

310

STUX IN A RUT: WHY STUXNET IS John Aycock  

E-print Network

-storied Stuxnet worm is unworthy of the hype surrounding it. The biggest surprise is that Stuxnet contains've somehow managed to avoid hearing about Stuxnet, here are the essentials: Stuxnet is a computer worm ­ including Brain, Stoned and Jerusalem ­ that necessitated the development of anti-virus software

Aycock, John

311

This Bug Man Is a Pest George Ledin teaches students how to write viruses, and it makes  

E-print Network

consumer products he sees as mostly useless. If college students can beat these antivirus programs, heThis Bug Man Is a Pest George Ledin teaches students how to write viruses, and it makes computer messages from fake users. Yet Joy and Fynan aren't hackers--they're students in a computer-security class

Ravikumar, B.

312

Bio-Rad Laboratories I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s Diagnostics Group  

E-print Network

M antibodies to Cytomegalovirus, and IgG and IgM antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2. Human serumM Cytomegalovirus IgG Cytomegalovirus IgM Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) IgG Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) IgM Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) IgM Refer

Rodriguez, Carlos

313

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228 PMID:22221904

2012-01-01

314

Immunoglobulin G paraprotein cross-reactivity with immunoglobulin M measurement.  

PubMed

We report a case of IgG paraprotein cross-reactivity with IgM measurement in a patient with IgGkappa multiple myeloma and associated IgA and IgM immune paresis. IgM measurements using a Beckman-Coulter Synchron LX IgM reagent initially gave unmeasurably low IgM concentrations (<0.3 g/L) but IgM quantitation using later batches of reagent gave IgM concentrations of 13-42 g/L. Immunofixation confirmed the continued presence of the IgGkappa paraprotein band with suppression of IgA and IgM and analysis on the Behring BN2 and Beckman-Coulter Immage instruments showed IgM concentrations of <0.2 g/L. Immunofixation using the Synchron LX IgM reagent as antiserum confirmed binding of the Synchron LX IgM antiserum to the IgGkappa paraprotein. This case highlights the importance of checking all unexpected immunoglobulin measurements with previous results and immunofixation findings to avoid mistakes. PMID:18583633

Hawkins, Robert C; Lee, Lian-King

2008-07-01

315

Beyond Firewalls: Professional Certification Ensures Your Staff Will Understand Information Security in Its Proper Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it comes to security, many people do not know what they do not know. Consider for example, an administrator who leaves her password taped under her keyboard, or a teacher who doesn't change his password (ever!) or can't be bothered to log out or lock the computer, all the firewalls and antivirus programs in the world will not protect a…

Svetcov, Eric

2004-01-01

316

Denna broschyr r en sammanstllning och ett komplement till de regler som styr anvndningen av Gteborgs  

E-print Network

Denna broschyr är en sammanställning och ett komplement till de regler som styr användningen av vid fjärranslutning till GU:s nätverk, uppmärksamma och värdera risken med att koppla upp aktuella säkerhetsuppdateringar och antivirus, vid förlust av datorutrustning, se till att utan onödigt

Johannesson, Henrik

317

Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by the suppression of NF-?B through Akt and p38 inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps militaris, a caterpillar-grown traditional medicinal mushroom, produces an important bioactive compound, cordycepin (3?-deoxyadenosine). Cordycepin is reported to possess many pharmacological activities including immunological stimulating, anti-cancer, anti-virus and anti-infection activities. The molecular mechanisms of cordycepin on pharmacological and biochemical actions of macrophages in inflammation have not been clearly elucidated yet. In the present study, we tested the role of cordycepin

Ho Gyoung Kim; Bhushan Shrestha; So Yeon Lim; Deok Hyo Yoon; Woo Chul Chang; Dong-Jik Shin; Sang Kuk Han; Sang Min Park; Jung Hee Park; Hae Il Park; Jae-Mo Sung; Yangsoo Jang; Namsik Chung; Ki-Chul Hwang; Tae Woong Kim

2006-01-01

318

Effects of Nidus Vespae extract and chemical fractions on glucosyltransferases, adherence and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nidus Vespae (the honeycomb of Polistes olivaceous, P. japonicus Saussure and Parapolybiavaria fabricius) have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine, given their multiple pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-tumor and anesthetic properties. The present study evaluated the anti-glucosyltransferases (GTFs) activity, anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties of 95% ethanol\\/water extract, cyclohexane\\/ethyl acetate, petroleum ether\\/ethyl acetate and chloroform\\/methanol fractions of Nidus

Jin Xiao; YuLing Zuo; Yuan Liu; JiYao Li; YuQing Hao; XueDong Zhou

2007-01-01

319

Making It Big: Expanding the Reach of Information Services (Poster Session)  

E-print Network

information services (a large and changing organization) parents (concerned moms, wireless dads) Is there someone at KU to help my kid?!?! YES. We are Technology + Libraries + People to Help You. Questions What computer should I buy for my kid... my own at home. Does KU give my kid any software? What?s the deal with Sophos antivirus? Do you keep students from downloading copyrighted movies? Who can help my student with technology stuff? Libraries stuff? Residence hall stuff? General...

Albin, Tami; Kanning, Sarah

2007-02-27

320

Did I Tell You the One About the…?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Want to educate yourself about the latest happenings in all areas of anti-virus, hoax, myth, fraud, chain letter and anti-spam occurrences on the Net? Well then, www.internet.101.com\\/hoax\\/ is a great place to start your education, or undo it, as the case may be. Being a little Irish girlie, living on that tiny rock in the Atlantic ocean, but nonetheless a

Berni Dwan

2000-01-01

321

Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously.\\u000a In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus\\u000a software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools\\u000a are marketed as

Hossein Jahankhani; Branko Antonijevic; Terry Walcott

2008-01-01

322

Unknown Malcode Detection Using OPCODE Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent growth in network usage has motivated the creation of new malicious code for various purposes, including economic ones. Today's signature-based anti-viruses are very accurate, but cannot detect new malicious code. Recently, classification algorithms were employed successfully for the detection of unknown malicious code. However, most of the studies use byte sequence n-grams representation of the binary code of

Robert Moskovitch; Clint Feher; Nir Tzachar; Eugene Berger; Marina Gitelman; Shlomi Dolev; Yuval Elovici

2008-01-01

323

Malicious Code Detection Using Active Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent growth in network usage has motivated the creation of new malicious code for various purposes, including economic\\u000a and other malicious purposes. Currently, dozens of new malicious codes are created every day and this number is expected to\\u000a increase in the coming years. Today’s signature-based anti-viruses and heuristic-based methods are accurate, but cannot detect\\u000a new malicious code. Recently, classification

Robert Moskovitch; Nir Nissim; Yuval Elovici

2008-01-01

324

Detection of New Malicious Code Using N-grams Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signature-based malicious code detection is the standard technique in all commercial anti-virus software. This method can detect a virus only after the virus has appeared and caused damage. Signature-based detection performs poorly when attempting to identify new viruses. Motivated by the standard signature-based technique for detecting viruses, and a recent successful text classification method, n-grams analysis, we explo re the

Tony Abou-assaleh; Nick Cercone; Vlado Keselj; Ray Sweidan

2004-01-01

325

A Mobile Phone Malicious Software Detection Model with Behavior Checker  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There have been cases reported for the new threats from mobile phone technologies and it has raised the awareness among the\\u000a technology and antivirus vendors. Malicious programs such as Viruses, Trojan, and Worms have been created and targeted at\\u000a mobile phone. This paper discusses the possible attacking model on mobile phone adapted from malicious attack on computer.\\u000a It also presents

Teck Sung Yap; Hong Tat Ewe

2005-01-01

326

Low molecular weight measles immunoglobulin M in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and acute measles.  

PubMed Central

Thirty eight patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were investigated. Five patients who previously had measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) detected in unfractionated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had measles IgM exclusively in the low molecular weight (LMW) fractions of serum and CSF. Measles IgM had previously not been found in unfractionated serum from 33 patients but was detected exclusively in the LMW fractions of serum from 30 patients. Seven children with acute measles had the expected high molecular weight (HMW) measles IgM in serum but 5 also had LMW measles IgM. Four young adults who had had measles in childhood had neither HMW nor LMW measles IgM in their sera. PMID:4022875

Connolly, J. H.; Simpson, D. M.; Trudgett, A.; Hopkins, A. P.

1985-01-01

327

Detection of high risk pregnancies with relation to ABO haemolytic disease of newborn  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgM and IgG anti A and anti B antibody status of 100 antenatal O group mothers (who had non O group husbands) were studied.\\u000a Of these, 3 mothers had an IgM anti A antibody levels ranging from 1 : 512 to 1 : 2048 and IgG ranging from 1 : 1204 to 1\\u000a : 2048, IgM anti B ranging from

Kumari K. C. Usha; P. V. Sulochana

1998-01-01

328

Incidence and risk factors of probable dengue virus infection among Dutch travellers to Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the incidence of dengue virus (DEN) infections in a cohort of Dutch short-term travellers to endemic areas in Asia during 1991-92. Sera were collected before and after travel. All post-travel sera were tested for DEN immunoglobulin M (IgM) [IgM capture (MAC)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)] and IgG (indirect ELISA). Probable DEN infection was defined as IgM seroconversion or a

Frank G. J. Cobelens; Jan Groen; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus; A. Leentvaar-Kuijpers; Pauline M. E. Wertheim-van Dillen; Piet A. Kager

2002-01-01

329

Salivary and serum immunoglobulin levels in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salivary and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G, M and A (IgG, IgM and IgA), and the salivary concentrations of albumin were measured by ELISA in 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 32 healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis had significantly higher salivary concentrations of IgG, IgM and albumin, and higher serum concentrations of IgG, IgM and IgA, but

R. Harley; T. J. Gruffydd-Jones; M. J. Day

2003-01-01

330

I-PLA2 Activation during Apoptosis Promotes the Exposure of Membrane Lysophosphatidylcholine Leading to Binding by Natural Immunoglobulin M Antibodies and Complement Activation  

PubMed Central

Deficiency of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)M is associated with the development of a lupus-like disease in mice. Recent studies suggest that classical complement components facilitate the clearance of apoptotic cells and that failure to do so predisposes mice to lupus. Since IgM is a potent activator of the classical complement pathway, we examined IgM binding to dying cells. IgM, but not IgG, bound to apoptotic T cells through the Fab? portion of the antibody. Exposure of apoptotic cell membranes to phospholipase (PL) A2 increased, whereas PLD reduced, IgM binding and complement activation. Absorption studies combined with direct plate binding assays, revealed that IgM antibodies failed to bind to phosphatidyl lipids, but did recognize lysophosphatidylcholine and the phosphorylcholine head group. Both iPLA2 and cPLA2 are activated during apoptosis. Since inhibition of iPLA2, but not cPLA2, attenuated IgM binding to apoptotic cells, these results strongly suggest that the endogenous calcium independent PLA2, iPLA2, is involved in the hydrolysis of plasma membrane phospholipids and exposure of the epitope(s) recognized by IgM. We propose that recognition of dying cells by natural IgM antibodies is, in part, responsible for complement activation on dying cells leading to their safe clearance. PMID:12208880

Kim, Sun Jun; Gershov, Debra; Ma, Xiaojing; Brot, Nathan; Elkon, Keith B.

2002-01-01

331

A monoclonal macroglobulin with antinuclear activity.  

PubMed Central

Serum containing a monoclonal IgM protein from a patient with Waldenstroms' macroglobulinaemia gave intense immunofluorescent staining of kidney nuclei. The Fab mu fragments of this immunoglobulin were obtained. The IgM and Fab fragments reacted in vitro with kidney nuclei using unfixed cryostat sections of rat or mouse kidney. After treatment of the patient with chemotherapy, the monoclonal IgM disappeared, and no more antinuclear activity could be detected in the serum. The results strongly suggest that this IgM protein had antinuclear activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:112123

Intrator, L; Andre, C; Chenal, C; Sultan, C

1979-01-01

332

RESEARCH Open Access New biomarkers for stage determination in  

E-print Network

and Uganda, was investigated. The CSF levels of IgM, MMP-9, CXCL13, CXCL10, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, neopterin and B2 (ROC) analyses. IgM, MMP-9 and CXCL13 were the most accurate markers for stage determination (partial AUC 88%, 86% and 85%, respectively). The combination in panels of three molecules comprising CXCL13

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

The physics of the intergalactic medium Avery A. Meiksin  

E-print Network

absorbers with galaxies 1455 B. Galactic winds and the IGM 1456 IX. Prospects for the Future 1458, concluding with comments on prospects for furthering the study of the IGM using future ground. Thermal equilibrium 1426 IV. The Metagalactic UV Background 1427 A. Mean energy density of the UV

Tittley, Eric

334

Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University Research Center for Infection-associated Cancer (RCIAC)  

E-print Network

Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University Research Center for Infection-associated Cancer://www.igm.hokudai.ac.jp/ Research Center for Infection-associated Cancer, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University Graham://www.igm.hokudai.ac.jp/ Research Center for Infection-associated Cancer, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University Graham

Tachizawa, Kazuya

335

NEUROMUSCULAR CLINICAL LABORATORY: Antibody Testing Neuromuscular Disease Center  

E-print Network

________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ================================================================== ANTIBODY TESTS & INTERPRETATIONS REQUESTED Syndrome Panels Antibody Panels: Individual [ ] Motor Neuropathy-Kleffner variant (IgM & IgG) Other: [ ] _________________________ [ ] Sensory (± Motor) Neuropathy: IgG vs: Sulfatide & GM1 IgM vs: MAG, GD1b, TS-HDS, Sulfatide, HH3 [ ] Peripheral Neuropathy: Sensory Neuropathy + GM

Baloh, Bob

336

The Hot Inter-Galactic Medium and the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

The physical characteristics of the Lyman-alpha forest cloud systems are combined with observations on the baryonic mass density of the Universe and constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis to set boundary conditions on the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) at the epoch of z=2.5. The Universe is considered a closed system and allowed to expand adiabatically from the epoch when QSOs first ionized the IGM (5 <= z_on <= 20). The average kinetic energy of a gas is calculated in the region where the gas transitions from relativistic to non-relativistic behavior. All of the above measurements are then used to determine the thermal history of the IGM in the redshift range 2.5 <= z <= z_on. The hot IGM is assumed to inverse Compton scatter photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMBR) and consequently distort the CMBR as seen at the present epoch. The temperature of the IGM at z=2.5 and the epoch z_on are adjusted, within the constraints defined above, to give the best overall agreement with published data on the temperature of the IGM. We find that the model of the IGM proposed here does not grossly distort the CMBR, and in fact agrees quite closely with the preliminary results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. However, our model of the IGM cannot explain the observed cosmic x ray background. This paper was originally written in 1990. It was never submitted for publication.

Michael Fisher

2007-05-01

337

Bio-Rad Laboratories I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s  

E-print Network

to Rubella Virus, IgG and IgM antibodies to Cytomegalovirus, and IgG antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus TypesM Cytomegalovirus IgG Cytomegalovirus IgM Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) IgG Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2

Rodriguez, Carlos

338

Interaction of temperature and salinity on the expression of immunity factors in different tissues of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus based on response surface methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Composite Design (CCD) and response surface methodology were used in the experiment to examine the combined effect of temperature (16-28°C) and salinity (18-42) on Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) liver and kidney. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R 2=0.965 2 for liver Hsp70, 0.972 9 for kidney Hsp70, 0.921 for liver IgM and 0.962 1 for kidney IgM) and probability values (P<0.01) were significant for the regression model. The interactive effect between temperature and salinity on liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70 and liver IgM were not significant (P>0.05), while the interactive effect between temperature and salinity on kidney IgM was significant (P<0.01). The model equation could be used in practice for forecasting Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in the liver and kidney of juvenile turbot via applying statistical optimization of the response of interest, at which the maximum liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70, liver IgM and kidney IgM of 1.48, 1.49, 2.48, and 1.38, respectively, were reached. The present model may be valuable in assessing the feasibility of turbot farming at different geographic locations and, furthermore, could be a useful reference for scientists studying the immunity of turbot.

Huang, Zhihui; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Lei, Jilin; Li, Weiye; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

2014-10-01

339

The structural basis of germline-encoded VH3 immunoglobulin binding to staphylococcal protein A  

PubMed Central

The ability of human VH3 immunoglobulins (Ig) to bind to staphylococcal protein A (SPA) via their Fab region is analogous to the binding of bacterial superantigens to T cell receptors. The present report establishes the structural basis for the interaction of SPA and VH3 Ig. We have studied a panel of 27 human monoclonal IgM that were derived from fetal B lymphocytes. As such, these IgM were expected to be encoded by unmutated germline genes. Binding to SPA in ELISA occurred with 15 of 15 VH3 IgM, but none of 12 IgM from the VH1, VH4, VH5, or VH6 families. The VH sequences of the 27 IgM were derived from 20 distinct VH elements, including 11 from the VH3 family. Use of D, JH, and CL genes was similar among VH3 and non-VH3 IgM. A comparison of the corresponding VH protein sequences, and those of previously studied IgM, identified a probable site for SPA binding that includes VH3 residues in framework region 3 (FR3), and perhaps FR1 and 3' complementary determining region 2. The results thus demonstrate that among human IgM, specificity for SPA is encoded by at least 11 different VH3 germline genes. Furthermore, like the T cell superantigens, SPA likely binds to residues in the VH framework region, outside the classical antigen-binding site of the hypervariable loops. PMID:8315388

1993-01-01

340

21 Centimeter Tomography of the Intergalactic Medium at High Redshift  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the 21 cm signature that may arise from the intergalactic medium (IGM) prior to the epoch of full reionization (z > 5). In scenarios in which the IGM is reionized by discrete sources of photoionizing radiation, the neutral gas that has not yet been engulfed by an H II region may easily be preheated to temperatures well above

Piero Madau; Avery Meiksin; Martin J. Rees

1997-01-01

341

Immunoglobulin G Avidity in Differentiation between Early and Late Antibody Responses to West Nile Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999 West Nile virus (WNV) surfaced in the United States in the city of New York and spread over successive summers to most of the continental United States, Canada, and Mexico. Because WNV immuno- globulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 1 year, residents in areas of endemicity can have persistent WNV IgM antibodies

Janet L. Fox; Stuart L. Hazell; Leslie H. Tobler; Michael P. Busch

2006-01-01

342

Persistence of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies after postnatal rubella infection determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay.  

PubMed Central

The appearance and persistence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in postnatal rubella infections were studied by employing a solid-phase radioimmunoassay test. Altogether, 222 serial serum specimens from 51 patients with acute rubella infection were tested. Both IgG and IgM antibodies developed rapidly and appeared in all patients within 4 days after the onset of rash. In some patients, the IgM antibodies clearly preceded the IgG antibodies; however, the reverse situation was also noticed in a few cases. The IgG antibodies showed only minor changes after 8 to 10 days from the onset of rash. The IgM titers also reached a maximum level at approximately 8 to 10 days after the onset of rash, after which time a rapid decrease was normally seen. The mean half-life of IgM antibodies after 15 days from the onset of rash was 4.5 days, giving for IgM antibodies persistence times from 43 to approximately 80 days. Two patients with a prolonged IgM antibody response were detected. One of these patients had bilateral arthritis of the knee as a complication, whereas in the other patient no complication caused by rubella virus was detected. The IgM antibody response and its value in diagnosis are discussed. PMID:624770

Meurman, O H

1978-01-01

343

Effects of a hot intergalactic medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One effect a hot intergalactic medium (IGM) would have would be to produce an isotropic X-ray background through thermal bremsstrahlung. Such a background was modeled including both relativistic electron-ion and electron-electron emission; the observed X-ray measurements could be fit with a current temperature of 10.2 keV and Omega (IGM) of 0.27, assuming that the IGM was instantaneously heated at a redshift of 5 and cools by relativistic adiabatic expansion and Compton cooling. Such a hot IGM would also distort the cosmic microwave background spectrum by inverse Compton scattering off relativistic electrons. This distortion was modeled using the relativistic treatment. When including the recent data of Matsumoto et al., an undistorted radiation temperature of 2.86 K and an Omega (IGM) of 0.41 was found.

Taylor, Gregory B.; Wright, Edward L.

1989-01-01

344

X-ray constraints on the intergalactic medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectra of z approximately equal 3 quasars to constrain the density and temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Strong low-energy cutoffs in PSPC spectra of high-redshift quasars are common. However, the absence of absorption toward some high-redshift quasars can be used to put limits on the possible cosmological density, Omega(sub G), of a hot diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM), via an X-ray Gunn-Peterson test using edge and line opacity in the soft X-rays. The K-edges of oxygen, neon, and carbon and the L-edge of iron produce most of the absorption which is spread out by the redshift of the source. We assume an isotropic, isothermal, nonevolving model of the IGM and calculate the optical depth of this absorption. We find that this test can constrain an enriched IGM at temperatures near 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) K, intermediate between the hot IGM ruled out by COBE, and the cold IGM ruled out by the traditional Ly alpha Gunn -Peterson test. Photoionization if the IGM by the ultraviolet and X-ray background has a large effect. We give results for three z approximately equal 3 quasars and discuss how the various trade-offs among temperature, abundance, and backgroud radiation strength affect the limits on Omega (sub G). In addition to the high-redshift case, we discuss techniques for constraining the IGM using X-ray spectra of low-redhift quasars (z approximately equal 0.1 - 0.3). Currently available X-ray spectral data have insufficient energy resolution to constrain the IGM umambiguously, and so expected detection limits for future high-resolution spectrometers are presented. We find that with a large effective area (approximately 2000 sq cm), it is possible to substantially constrain or detect the IGM at the densities which are typically predicted.

Aldcroft, Thomas; Elvis, Martin; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Fiore, Fabrizio

1994-01-01

345

The velocity field of baryonic gas in the universe  

E-print Network

The dynamic evolution of the baryonic intergalactic medium (IGM) caused by the underlying dark matter gravity is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations in which many cooling and heating processes are involved. However, it has long been recognized that the growth mode dynamics of cosmic matter clustering can be sketched by a random force driven Burgers' equation if cooling and heating are ignored. Just how well the dynamics of the IGM can be described as a Burgers fluid has not been fully investigated probably because cooling and heating are essential for a detailed understanding of the IGM. Using IGM samples produced by a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in which heating and cooling processes are properly accounted for, we show that the IGM velocity field in the nonlinear regime shows the features of a Burgers fluid, that is, when the Reynolds number is high, the velocity field consists of an ensemble of shocks. Consequently, (1) the IGM velocity $v$ is generally smaller than that of dark matter; (2) for the smoothed field, the IGM velocity shows tight correlation with dark matter given by $v \\simeq s v_{dm}$, with $sBurgers fluid, i.e., $P(\\Delta v)=(1 r^y)F(\\Delta v/r^y)$. We find the scaling function and parameters for the IGM which are applicable to the entire scale range of the samples (0.26 - 8 h$^{-1}$ Mpc). These properties show that the similarity mapping between the IGM and dark matter is violated on scales much larger than the Jeans length of the IGM.

Bryan Kim; Ping He; Jesús Pando; Long-Long Feng; Li-Zhi Fang

2005-02-08

346

The DNA-binding and bioactivity of rare earth metal complexes.  

PubMed

Recently more and more attention is paid to the rare earth metal complexes, because the properties of the rare earth metals are similar to those of the transition metals such as the similar atomic and the ionic radius. A large number of rare metal complexes were synthesized, and their bioactivities were also studied. This review highlights recent researches on the interaction of some rare earth metal complexes with DNA, analyzes how the configuration of the complexes influences the binding affinity, and focuses on the pharmacological activities of the complexes, such as anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-virus. PMID:24568297

Yang, Li; Wang, Bochu; Tan, Jun; Zhu, Liancai

2013-08-01

347

Jumbo!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jumbo: the "official" shareware site of the Web. This searchable archive contains over 24,000 shareware and freeware programs. Categories include: business, home and personal, programming, utilities, and words and graphics. Within each category, programs are cataloged by operating system. The entire archive is a searchable by program category and operating system. There is a short annotation with the programs to help determine whether to download them or not. Size of program is given. A "starter kit" of a decompression and anti-virus program is also provided for each operating system. This is an excellent specialty site.

1998-01-01

348

Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously. In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools are marketed as perfect solutions to the ever culminating problems such as loss of data and privacy in networked and world wide intercommunications. We provide a forum for addressing these perceived problems in this paper.

Jahankhani, Hossein; Antonijevic, Branko; Walcott, Terry

349

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

350

System Toolbox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

2001-01-01

351

The intergalactic medium in the cosmic web  

E-print Network

The intergalactic medium (IGM) accounts for ~90% of baryons at all epochs and yet its three dimensional distribution in the cosmic web remains mostly unknown. This is so because the only feasible way to observe the bulk of the IGM is through intervening absorption line systems in the spectra of bright background sources, which limits its characterization to being one-dimensional. Still, an averaged three dimensional picture can be obtained by combining and cross-matching multiple one-dimensional IGM information with three-dimensional galaxy surveys. Here, we present our recent and current efforts to map and characterize the IGM in the cosmic web using galaxies as tracers of the underlying mass distribution. In particular, we summarize our results on: (i) IGM around star-forming and non-star-forming galaxies; (ii) IGM within and around galaxy voids; and (iii) IGM in intercluster filaments. With these datasets, we can directly test the modern paradigm of structure formation and evolution of baryonic matter in t...

Tejos, Nicolas

2014-01-01

352

Innate Functions of Immunoglobulin M Lessen Liver Gene Transfer with Helper-Dependent Adenovirus  

PubMed Central

The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

Unzu, Carmen; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, Maria Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martinez-Anso, Eduardo

2014-01-01

353

Spontaneous in vitro production of rheumatoid factor during infectious exacerbations of cystic fibrosis: correlation with circulating immune complex levels.  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid factor (RF) production has been demonstrated during infections, including infectious exacerbations of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of RF production to infection, and examine the mechanisms involved. Serial peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures with measurement of spontaneous production of IgM RF, IgA RF, total IgM and IgA, and measurement of serum levels of immune complexes were carried out during exacerbations of CF. The percentage of B cells expressing CD5 was examined in a second cohort of acutely infected CF patients, and related to IgM RF production. IgM RF production was significantly elevated during acute infection compared with convalescence (P < 0.05), stable CF subjects (P < 0.005) and normal controls (P < 0.05). IgM RF production did not correlate with total IgM production in the majority of patients, but was closely related to circulating immune complex levels in 8/10 subjects. IgA RF production did not increase significantly during infection, and did not correlate with total IgA or IgM RF production, or with circulating immune complex levels. CD5+ B cells were not increased in the CF group, and the percentage of CD5+ B cells did not correlate with IgM RF synthesis. These observations suggest that RF production during infection is specifically induced, possibly by immune complex autoimmunization, and is not simply the result of polyclonal B cell activation. Different patterns of IgM RF and IgA RF synthesis suggest different mechanisms of induction. PMID:7680296

Keogan, M T; Callaghan, M; Yanni, G; Mulherin, D; Feighery, C; Brown, D L; Fitzgerald, M X; Bresnihan, B

1993-01-01

354

Measurement of the sensitivity of different commercial assays in the diagnosis of CMV infection in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the performance of different commercial assays for the detection of recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) in pregnancy,\\u000a the sensitivity and specificity of assays for CMV-specific IgM antibodies were compared. Routine specimens from pregnant women\\u000a were screened for CMV IgM using the Abbott AxSYM assay. Sera that were reactive according to AxSYM were further tested for\\u000a IgM by other commercial assays.

M. Gentile; C. Galli; P. Pagnotti; P. Di Marco; S. Tzantzoglou; F. Bellomi; M. L. Ferreri; C. Selvaggi; G. Antonelli

2009-01-01

355

Plasma Effects on Extragalactic Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Ray Hadron Beams in Cosmic Voids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (? b ? 106) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 1015 eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times that are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilizes and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the IGM.

Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R.

2014-07-01

356

A celestial waltz: swirls and turbulence from radio galaxies in a rich group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though it is widely understood that radio galaxies heat the intergalactic medium (IGM), pictures of interactions have been hard to come by. High-quality mapping of the NGC 7016/7018 system has shown adjacent radio galaxies in this rich group interacting strongly with a ROSAT-detected hot atmosphere. Two remarkable 360-degree bends in the N radio jet of NGC 7016 appear to trace a collision between the jet and a vortex in the IGM. We see symmetric bends closer to the core, and buoyancy effects in the lobes of NGC 7018. These features point to likely sites of heating associated with the radio plasma and density irregularities in the IGM. We propose ACIS observations to study the dynamics and heating, so to assess the extent to which this phase of radio activity is disturbing the IGM.

Worrall, Diana

2010-09-01

357

XBP-1 regulates signal transduction, transcription factors and bone marrow colonization in B cells  

E-print Network

XBP-1, a transcription factor that drives the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated in B cells when they differentiate to plasma cells. Here, we show that in the B cells, whose capacity to secrete IgM has been ...

Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew

358

Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico  

PubMed Central

We used 5 diagnostic tests in a cross-sectional investigation of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tejupilco municipality, State of Mexico, Mexico. Our findings showed a substantial prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to T. cruzi in human (n = 293, IgG 2.05%, IgM 5.5%, both 7.1%) and dog (n = 114, IgG 15.8%, IgM 11.4%, both 21%) populations. We also found antibodies to T. cruzi (n = 80, IgG 10%, IgM 15%, both 17.5%) in dogs from Toluca, an area previously considered free of T. cruzi. Our data demonstrate the need for active epidemiologic surveillance programs in these regions. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.955) of seropositivity between humans and dogs suggests that seroanalysis in dogs may help identify the human prevalence of T. cruzi infection in these areas. PMID:16704811

Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Diaz-Albiter, Hector; Ochoa-Garcia, Laucel; Barbabosa, Alberto; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan C.; Martinez-Perez, Miguel A.; Guzman-Bracho, Carmen

2006-01-01

359

Taxing the Rich: Recombinations and Bubble Growth During Reionization  

E-print Network

Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present an analytic model for the evolving topology of reionization that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers. As a result, reionization resembles "punctuated equilibrium," with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles stop growing when recombinations balan...

Furlanetto, S R; Furlanetto, Steven R.

2005-01-01

360

Lymphocyte Surface Markers and Serum Immunoglobulins in Persons with Down's Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distributions of the serum immunoglobulins (IgM), of T and B lymphocytes, and subpopulations of B lymphocytes were studied in children and institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome and appropriate mentally retarded controls. (Author)

And Others; Hann, Hie-Won L.

1979-01-01

361

Quasar continuum fitting and silicon absorption on the low redshift intergalactic medium  

E-print Network

We present results on the evolution of Ly[alpha] absorption at low redshift, and the first systematic search for Si II absorption systems in the low redshift IGM. Our sample consists of 832 Ly[alpha] absorbers from 328 ...

Miller, Adam A. (Adam Andrew)

2006-01-01

362

Quasar spectroscopy in UV and X-ray- probing the intergalactic medium using helium and oxygen  

E-print Network

We employ ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray quasar spectroscopy to study the physical state of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). First, we quantify the possibility of measuring the temperature of moderately over-dense regions of ...

Gong, Donglai, 1977-

2004-01-01

363

Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C  

MedlinePLUS

... C virus (HCV), a spherical, enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus, approximately 50 nm in diameter. TRANSMISSION Transmission ... and nucleic acid amplification testing to detect HCV RNA in blood (viremia). Assays for IgM, to detect ...

364

Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E  

MedlinePLUS

... by hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-stranded, RNA virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family. TRANSMISSION HEV ... HEV IgM and IgG in serum. Detecting HEV RNA in serum or stools further confirms the serologic ...

365

Malware Detection Module using Machine Learning Algorithms to Assist in Centralized Security in Enterprise Networks  

E-print Network

Malicious software is abundant in a world of innumerable computer users, who are constantly faced with these threats from various sources like the internet, local networks and portable drives. Malware is potentially low to high risk and can cause systems to function incorrectly, steal data and even crash. Malware may be executable or system library files in the form of viruses, worms, Trojans, all aimed at breaching the security of the system and compromising user privacy. Typically, anti-virus software is based on a signature definition system which keeps updating from the internet and thus keeping track of known viruses. While this may be sufficient for home-users, a security risk from a new virus could threaten an entire enterprise network. This paper proposes a new and more sophisticated antivirus engine that can not only scan files, but also build knowledge and detect files as potential viruses. This is done by extracting system API calls made by various normal and harmful executable, and using machine l...

Singhal, Priyank; 10.5121/ijnsa.2012.4106

2012-01-01

366

Controllable synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles as standards for quantitative assessment of their cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are appealing due to their excellent antibacterial/antivirus properties. At the meantime, the wide applications of Ag NPs as antibacterial/antivirus agents arise the concern of Ag NPs' toxicity. However, quantitative understanding of the cytotoxicity of Ag NPs is minimum since that the Ag NPs in current studies have wide size distributions, in which the size effect of Ag NPs on cytotoxicity was unable to be accurately evaluated. In this work, unprecedentedly monodispersed Ag NPs with sizes of 25, 35, 45, 60 and 70 nm were obtained, respectively, by using an optimized polyol method with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as surfactant. It was found that the reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of the surfactant and reactants are playing important roles in determining the size and size distribution of Ag NPs. With the monodispersed Ag NPs as standard samples, the size- and dose- dependent cytotoxicity of Ag NPs against Human lung fibroblast (HLF) cells was accurately accomplished in terms of cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis, reactive oxygen species, etc. We expect that the monodispersed Ag NPs will act as the standard samples for quantitatively characterizing the toxicity of Ag NPs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22137123

Li, Lun; Sun, Jie; Li, Xiaoran; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoxu; Wang, Chunren; Dai, Jianwu; Wang, Qiangbin

2012-02-01

367

Antibody responses in acute and chronic Q fever and in subjects vaccinated against Q fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. An analysis is made of the antibody response to Coxiella burneti Phase- 1 and Phase-2 antigens, as measured by immunofluores- cence in the IgM, IgG or IgA immunoglobulin classes, or by comple- ment-fixation, in patients with acute and chronic Q fever and in vaccinated or skin-tested subjects. In acute (primary) Q fever, IgM specific antibodies to Phase- 1 antigen

D. WORSWICK; B. P. MARMION

1985-01-01

368

CELL SURFACE IMMUNOGLOBULIN  

PubMed Central

The proteins on surfaces of living splenic lymphocytes from normal BALB/c mice were iodinated enzymatically. Such cells were fractionated into two sub-populations: one composed almost exclusively of small lymphocytes and the other mainly of large lymphocytes and plasma cells. Specific immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled surface Ig obtained from lysates of these cell populations indicated that approximately 2–3% of the acid-precipitable radioactivity from the cell surface is Ig. Moreover, 95% of the H chain radioactivity from the Ig of the small lymphocyte fraction and 90% from the large lymphocyte-plasma cell fraction was characterized as µ by precipitation with anti-µ sera as well as by molecular weight determination on polyacrylamide gels in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The Ig was recovered from the cell surface in the form of an IgM monomer. Control experiments suggested that the monomer did not result from depolymerization of 19S IgM by the methods used to radiolabel and isolate the molecule. 3H-tyrosine labeling of IgM produced by meyloma cells and radio-iodination of IgM in solution gave the same ratios of µL radioactivity as radiolabeling of IgM on cells, indicating that the tyrosine residues of L and µ-chains of cell surface IgM are available to the lactoperoxidase during the iodination. This is consistent with the hypothesis that cell surface IgM is entirely on the outside of the plasma membrane presumably attached to it by its Fc fragment. These results, together with previous reports by others, suggest that IgM, in its monomeric form, is the main antigen-specific receptor on lymphocytes of normal mice. PMID:4104295

Vitetta, Ellen S.; Baur, Sonia; Uhr, Jonathan W.

1971-01-01

369

A generalized framework for interactive dynamic simulation for multirigid bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized framework for dynamic simulation realized in a prototype simulator called the Interactive Generalized Motion Simulator (I-GMS), which can simulate motions of multirigid-body systems with contact interaction in virtual environments. I-GMS is designed to meet two important goals: generality and interactivity. By generality, we mean a dynamic simulator which can easily support various systems of rigid

Wookho Son; Kyunghwan Kim; Nancy M. Amato; Jeffrey C. Trinkle

2004-01-01

370

TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect

The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ?1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10{sup –6} kpc m{sup –20/3} would be expected at z ? 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –3} if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –17/5} if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling ?{sub IGM} ? z {sup 2} for z ?< 1 and (1 + z){sup 0.2–0.5} for z ?> 1.

Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi, E-mail: J.Macquart@curtin.edu.au [ICRAR/Curtin University, Curtin Institute of Radio Astronomy, Perth WA 6845 (Australia)

2013-10-20

371

James N. Arnold, Mark R.Wormald, David M.Suter, Catherine M. Radcliffe, David J. Harvey, Raymond A. Dwek, Pauline M. Rudd and Robert B. Sim MRC Immunochemistry Unit and Oxford Glycobiology Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South  

E-print Network

Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, England. TOPM was precipitated from the 1 litre of pooled human serum at low salt by dialysis against 2mM sodium phosphate, pH6 of Anti-TNP-BSA IgM from Human Serum IgM was low-salt precipitated from 1 liter of pooled human serum

372

Fc?\\/? receptor mediates endocytosis of IgM-coated microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgM is the first antibody to be produced in a humoral immune response and plays an important role in the primary stages of immunity. Here we describe a mouse Fc receptor, designated Fc?\\/?R, and its human homolog, that bind both IgM and IgA with intermediate or high affinity. Fc?\\/?R is constitutively expressed on the majority of B lymphocytes and macrophages.

Norihisa Sakamoto; Yoshio Shimizu; Kazuko Shibuya; Mitsujiro Osawa; Takashi Hiroyama; Helen J. Eyre; Grant R. Sutherland; Yuichi Endo; Teizo Fujita; Tomoyuki Miyabayashi; Seiji Sakano; Takao Tsuji; Eiichi Nakayama; Joseph H. Phillips; Lewis L. Lanier; Hiromitsu Nakauchi; Akira Shibuya

2000-01-01

373

The synthesis and secretion of immunoglobulins by lymphoid cells in the sheep. The primary response to salmonella lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

The primary response of the popliteal node to Salmonella lipopolysaccharide was studied in the sheep. All three classes of immunoglobulin IgG1, igG2, and IgM were produced by both free-floating cells in the lymph and by cells within the pymph node throughout the immune responce which extended over a period of at least 20 days.. Most of the immunoglobulins were found to be nonspecific for the antigen when tested by a binding assay. It was calculated from the binding assay that far more antigen-specific IgG molecules were produced than IgM molecules. The proportion of IgM and IgG1 which showed affinity for Salmonella organisms increased throughout the response. IgG2 had no affinity for the antigen until around 480 h after challenge. When a hemagglutination assay was used to measure antibody production, most of the specific antibody produced during the response was found to be IgM. Blast cells produced most of the immunoglobulin during the first 4 days of the response, and these cells were responsible for almost all of the IgM production. Differences were observed in the relative amounts of IgG and IgM produced by the cells within the node and by free-floating cells in the efferent lymph. The free-floating cells in lymph synthesized and secreted relatively more IgM and relatively less IgG than did cells within the lymph node. Both populations of cells, however, secreted much more IgG than IgM. PMID:956726

English, L S; Adams, E P; Morris, B

1976-09-01

374

The synthesis and secretion of immunoglobulins by lymphoid cells in the sheep. The primary response to salmonella lipopolysaccharide  

PubMed Central

The primary response of the popliteal node to Salmonella lipopolysaccharide was studied in the sheep. All three classes of immunoglobulin IgG1, igG2, and IgM were produced by both free-floating cells in the lymph and by cells within the pymph node throughout the immune responce which extended over a period of at least 20 days.. Most of the immunoglobulins were found to be nonspecific for the antigen when tested by a binding assay. It was calculated from the binding assay that far more antigen-specific IgG molecules were produced than IgM molecules. The proportion of IgM and IgG1 which showed affinity for Salmonella organisms increased throughout the response. IgG2 had no affinity for the antigen until around 480 h after challenge. When a hemagglutination assay was used to measure antibody production, most of the specific antibody produced during the response was found to be IgM. Blast cells produced most of the immunoglobulin during the first 4 days of the response, and these cells were responsible for almost all of the IgM production. Differences were observed in the relative amounts of IgG and IgM produced by the cells within the node and by free-floating cells in the efferent lymph. The free-floating cells in lymph synthesized and secreted relatively more IgM and relatively less IgG than did cells within the lymph node. Both populations of cells, however, secreted much more IgG than IgM. PMID:956726

1976-01-01

375

Induction of immunoglobulin isotype switching in cultured I.29 B lymphoma cells. Characterization of the accompanying rearrangements of heavy chain genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The murine B cell lymphoma I.29 contains cells expressing surface IgM or IgA with identical heavy chain variable regions (9, 25, and D. Klein and J. Stavnezer, unpublished data). Purified IgM+ cells from the lymphoma have been adapted to culture and induced to switch to IgA, IgE, or IgG2 by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or by treatment with a monoclonal

Janet Stavnezer; S. Sirlin; J. Abbott

1985-01-01

376

cDNA cloning of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in banded houndshark Triakis scyllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, cDNAs encoding the secreted forms of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains of IgM, IgNAR, and IgW were cloned from the banded houndshark Triakis scyllium. Two clones for the IgM heavy chains encoded 569 and 570 amino acids, whose conserved (C) region showed 47–70% amino acid identities to those reported in other cartilaginous fish. Four clones for the

Yuka Honda; Hidehiro Kondo; Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki

2010-01-01

377

Effect of amino acid substitutions in the heavy chain CDR3 of an autoantibody on its reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we applied site-directed mutagenesis to the Fab fragment of a mouse IgM (IE12) that was previously shown to inhibit the binding of IgG to autoantigens by interacting with their variable regions. Its native structure was very similar to that of a polyreactive natural IgM (ppc15-30). Indeed, they both use the same light chain and the same VH,

Minou Adib-Conquy; Michele Gilbert; Stratis Avrameas

1998-01-01

378

The Effects of Photoionization on Galaxy Formation - I: Model and Results at z=0  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a coupled model for the evolution of the global properties of the\\u000aintergalactic medium (IGM) and the formation of galaxies, in the presence of a\\u000aphotoionizing background due to stars and quasars. We use this model to predict\\u000athe thermodynamic history of the IGM when photoionized by galaxies forming in a\\u000acold dark matter (CDM) universe. The evolution

A. J. Benson; C. G. Lacey; C. M. Baugh; S. Cole; C. S. Frenk

2001-01-01

379

Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis (Ixonanthaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis (IGM), fractions and compounds isolated from IGM [3-friedelanone (1), betulinic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3), 3,3?,4?-tri-O-methylellagic acid (4), 3,4-di-O-methylellagic acid (5) and hardwickiic acid (6)] was evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria (6 species), Gram-negative bacteria (13 species) and three Candida species using dilution methods for the determination

Victor Kuete; Ghislain Fotso Wabo; Bathélémy Ngameni; Armelle Tsafack Mbaveng; Robert Metuno; François-Xavier Etoa; Bonaventure Tchaleu Ngadjui; Véronique Penlap Beng; J. J. Marion Meyer; Namrita Lall

2007-01-01

380

Humoral and Cellular Immunity in Children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection: a 1Year Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether children have persistent abnormalities in cellular and humoral immunity develop- ment after acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, IgM, and IgE levels and lymphocyte phenotypes were determined. There were no changes in the levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, or CD4 or CD19 lymphocytes that were measured in M. pneumoniae-positive patients after 3 months or

Iwona Stelmach; M. Podsiadlowicz-Borzecka; Tomasz Grzelewski; Pawel Majak; Wlodzimierz Stelmach; Joanna Jerzynska; M. Poplawska; Jaroslaw Dziadek

2005-01-01

381

Toxoplasma gondii presence in women with spontaneous abortion in Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and DNA of women with spontaneous abortions in 2 hospitals located in Yucatan, Mexico. Between June 2008 and May 2009, blood samples were taken from 100 women with spontaneous abortion attending the Ticul City Communitarian Hospital and the Merida Mother-Kid Hospital. The sera were tested for anti- T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Blood samples (5 ml with anticlotting agent) were also used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, to detect T. gondii DNA. Forty-two of the 100 samples were negative. Of the positive samples (n = 58), 32 were positive to IgG, 2 to IgM, 5 to IgG and IgM, 6 to IgG and PCR, 1 to IgM and PCR, and 12 to IgG, IgM, and PCR. Accordingly, 55% of the women were seropositive to at least IgG, 20% to at least IgM, and 19% via PCR. Differences between hospitals were significant (P < 0.05) only for IgM. The risk of infection (IgM positive) was 2.85 (odds ratio [OR] 95%, confidence interval [CI]; 1.03-7.87) times greater in women patients at the Merida Mother-Kid Hospital, than those at the Ticul Communitarian Hospital. More studies are needed to evaluate the impact of this disease and to establish strategies to follow in order to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis in the populations at risk. PMID:22924922

Vado-Solís, Ignacio A; Suárez-Solís, Víctor; Jiménez-Delgadillo, Bertha; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E; Segura-Correa, José C

2013-04-01

382

Pure Mesangial Proliferative Glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal biopsies from 45 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome were analysed. A clinicopathologic correlation has been attempted in 19 children with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Mesangial hypercellularity is found to have a direct correlation with the clinical presentation, response to therapy and final outcome. The presence of diffuse mesangial IgM or IgM with C3 is of no significance and lacks specificity.Copyright ©

A. Andal; Sunita Saxena; H. K. Chellani; Sukrit Sharma

1989-01-01

383

Reionization of the Intergalactic Medium and the Damping Wing of the Gunn-Peterson Trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of high-redshift quasars show that the intergalactic medium (IGM) must have been reionized at some redshift z > 5. If a source of radiation could be observed at the rest-frame Ly alpha wavelength, at a sufficiently high redshift where some of the IGM in the line of sight was not yet reionized, the Gunn-Peterson trough should be present. Longward

Jordi Miralda-Escude

1998-01-01

384

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis in Hispanic women - Indiana, 2006-2008.  

PubMed

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast lesion of unknown etiology that occurs in women of childbearing age; only a few hundred cases have been reported worldwide. A breast cancer mimic, IGM also is diagnosed by breast biopsy. On December 12, 2008, a physician in Indianapolis, Indiana, reported a cluster of seven IGM diagnoses in multigravid Hispanic women, an unusually high number. To evaluate the etiology of the breast masses and characterize associated epidemiologic and clinical features, the Indiana State Department of Health and CDC conducted a multidisciplinary investigation. This report describes the results of that investigation. A total of nine cases of IGM were confirmed during 2006-2008 in Indianapolis, for an annual prevalence of IGM of 2.4 per 100,000 women aged 20-40 years. The prevalence was 12 times higher among Hispanic women. Among IGM patients at the hospital, a median of 5 months elapsed between symptom onset and diagnostic biopsy. Histopathologic evaluations confirmed IGM. In a case-control study of all seven cases and 21 controls from the hospital, case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have less than a sixth-grade education (odds ratio [OR] = 12.7), a positive tuberculin skin test (OR = undefined), or a medication allergy (OR = 15.0). No other risk factors were significantly associated with case status. Barriers to accessing health care, including low education level, resulted in delayed care for breast masses. Future research could provide more complete descriptions of the epidemiology and etiology of IGM. PMID:19959984

2009-12-01

385

OPPOSITE EFFECT OF LINEARLY POLARIZED LIGHT ON BIOSYNTHESIS OF INTERLEUKIN6 IN A HUMAN B LYMPHOID CELL LINE AND PERIPHERAL HUMAN MONOCYTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of linearly polarized light (LPL) and diffuse light (DL) on the in vitro interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in a human B lymphoma cell line (BMNH) and peripheral monocytes of healthy volunteers were compared. Our data show that there was a significant increase of IL-6 and IgM production in BMNH after exposure to LPL. The increase in IgM secretion was

M. Fenyö; J. Mandl; A. Falus

2002-01-01

386

Constraining the Evolution of the Ionizing Background and the Epoch of Reionization with z~6 Quasars. II. A Sample of 19 Quasars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the evolution of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of the reionization epoch using moderate-resolution spectra of a sample of 19 quasars at 5.74~11, and the average length of dark gaps with tau>3.5 increases from 80 comoving Mpc. The dispersion of IGM properties

Xiaohui Fan; Robert H. Becker; Richard L. White; James E. Gunn; Gillian R. Knapp; Gordon T. Richards; Donald P. Schneider; J. Brinkmann; Masataka Fukugita

2006-01-01

387

Evaluation of a New Commercially Available Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Immunochromatographic Test for Diagnosis of Melioidosis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunochromatographic test for the rapid determination of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG anti- bodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei was evaluated by using sera from bacteriologically confirmed melioidosis patients and high-risk and clinically suspected patients, along with disease control groups. The sensitivities were 100 and 93% for the IgG and IgM tests, respectively, while the specificity was 95% for both assays.

ANDREA J. CUZZUBBO; V. CHENTHAMARAKSHAN; JAMUNA VADIVELU; SAVITHIRI D. PUTHUCHEARY; DENISE ROWLAND; PETER L. DEVINE

2000-01-01

388

A Study on the Glycan Specificity of Natural Antibody Repertoires in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Inbred strains of mice and rats are widely used in preclinical investigations evaluating the effectiveness of glycan-based biomecines, however, the glycan specificity repertoires of serum Abs in rodents have not been fully characterized. In the present study, serum antibodies in naïve mice and rats of different inbred strains were analyzed for specificity against 4 representative carbohydrate structures including PGA (1,4-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acids), ?-glucan, mannan and ?-glucan (dextran). Mannan was not recognized by serum Abs from any of the mouse and rat strains. Serum IgM in naïve F344, BN and Lewis rats recognized PGA and ?-glucan and, less strongly, dextran. High titer circulating IgM against PGA were found in mice of BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/NeH and BXSB strains. C3H/NeH was the only strain which also produced low titer IgM against ?-glucan and dextran. Age-related production of high titer IgM, IgA and IgG Abs against ?-glucan was observed in BXSB mice. Intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with ?-glucan elicited strong IgM responses, while immunization with PGA also led to an increase of anti-PGA IgM Ab titers. These results provide useful information on the characteristics of glycan-specific natural antibody repertoires in rodents. PMID:20003821

Dai, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Ping; Gao, Xiao-Ming

2009-01-01

389

Evaluation of Four Commercial IgG- and IgM-specific Enzyme Immunoassays for Detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae Antibody: Comparison with Particle Agglutination Assay  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is important due to its variable clinical manifestations and absence of response to beta-lactams. Introduction of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for serologic diagnosis of M. pneumoniae has made it possible to separate the analyses of specific IgG and IgM antibodies. We compared four different commercial EIAs, ImmunoWELL IgG, IgM (GenBio), Medac IgG, IgA, IgM (Medac), Platelia IgG, IgM (Sanofi Pasteur), and Ridascreen IgG, IgA, IgM (r-Biopharm) with indirect particle agglutination assay (PA), Serodia-MycoII (Fujirebio). We tested 91 specimens from 73 pediatric patients (2-17 yr) hospitalized at a tertiary-care hospital between December 2005 and January 2006. The measurements of IgM EIAs were correlated with PA titers (Spearman's correlation coefficient, from 0.89 to 0.92) with high concordance rates, ranging from 82.4% to 92.3%. However, some negative IgM-EIA results in PA-positive specimens indicated that serial samplings with convalescent sera would be necessary to confirm M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:17982225

Yoo, Soo Jin; Oh, Hye-Jeon

2007-01-01

390

Unveiling the nature of dark matter with high redshift 21 cm line experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen will open a new window on the early Universe. By influencing the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), annihilating dark matter (DM) can leave a detectable imprint in the 21 cm signal. Building on the publicly available 21cmFAST code, we compute the 21 cm signal for a 10 GeV WIMP DM candidate. The most pronounced role of DM annihilations is in heating the IGM earlier and more uniformly than astrophysical sources of X-rays. This leaves several unambiguous, qualitative signatures in the redshift evolution of the large-scale (k simeq 0.1 Mpc-1) 21 cm power amplitude: (i) the local maximum (peak) associated with IGM heating can be lower than the other maxima; (ii) the heating peak can occur while the IGM is in emission against the cosmic microwave background (CMB); (iii) there can be a dramatic drop in power (a global minimum) corresponding to the epoch when the IGM temperature is comparable to the CMB temperature. These signatures are robust to astrophysical uncertainties, and will be easily detectable with second generation interferometers. We also briefly show that decaying warm dark matter has a negligible role in heating the IGM.

Evoli, C.; Mesinger, A.; Ferrara, A.

2014-11-01

391

Complement activation is required for IgM-mediated enhancement of the antibody response.  

PubMed

The ability of IgM antibodies to specifically enhance the thymus-dependent humoral immune response to particulate antigens is well documented. We have used two approaches to test whether complement factors play a role in this process. First, mice were depleted of C3 by treatment with cobra venom factor (CVF) and then immunized with SRBC with or without IgM-anti-SRBC. CVF treatment severely impaired the capacity of IgM to induce an enhanced anti-SRBC response. Moreover, it was shown that IgM can potentiate the response in C5-deficient AKR mice, thus demonstrating that the complement factors acting before C5 are the crucial ones. A second test compared the enhancing properties of two monoclonal IgM-anti-TNP antibodies where, because of a point mutation in the mu chain constant region, one of the antibodies is impaired in its capacity to activate complement. We show that the mutant antibody lacks the enhancing properties of the wild-type IgM. Activation of C3 by IgM antibodies as well as localization of antigen in the spleen seem to be necessary steps in the IgM-mediated enhancement of antibody responses. Our data offer an explanation to the immunosuppression described in CVF-treated animals as well as the low humoral immune responses in certain hereditary complement deficiencies. It is suggested that IgM indeed has an important physiological function in enhancing antibody responses to foreign substances. PMID:3385360

Heyman, B; Pilström, L; Shulman, M J

1988-06-01

392

The velocity field of baryonic gas in the universe  

E-print Network

The dynamic evolution of the baryonic intergalactic medium (IGM) caused by the underlying dark matter gravity is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations in which many cooling and heating processes are involved. However, it has long been recognized that the growth mode dynamics of cosmic matter clustering can be sketched by a random force driven Burgers' equation if cooling and heating are ignored. Just how well the dynamics of the IGM can be described as a Burgers fluid has not been fully investigated probably because cooling and heating are essential for a detailed understanding of the IGM. Using IGM samples produced by a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in which heating and cooling processes are properly accounted for, we show that the IGM velocity field in the nonlinear regime shows the features of a Burgers fluid, that is, when the Reynolds number is high, the velocity field consists of an ensemble of shocks. Consequently, (1) the IGM velocity $v$ is generally smaller than that of dark matter; (2) for...

Kim, B; Pando, J; Feng, L L; Fang, L Z; Kim, Bryan; He, Ping; Pando, Jes\\'us; Feng, Long-Long; Fang, Li-Zhi

2005-01-01

393

Stromal Cell-Independent B-Cell Development In Vitro: Generation and Recovery of Autoreactive Clones  

PubMed Central

We describe and characterize a stromal-cell independent culture system that efficiently supports pro-B cell to IgM+ B-cell development with near normal levels of IgH and Ig? diversity. Pro-B cells present in non-adherent bone marrow cells proliferate in the presence of IL-7 and subsequent to the removal of IL-7 and addition of BAFF, differentiate normally into IgM+ B cells. B-cell development in vitro closely follows the patterns of development in vivo with culture derived (CD) B cells demonstrating characteristic patterns of surface antigen expression and gene activation. IgM+ CD B cells respond to TLR stimulation by proliferation and differentiation into antibody-secreting cells. Self-reactive IgM+ B-cell development is blocked in 3H9 IgH knockin mice; however, cultures of 3H9 IgH knockin pro-B cells yields high frequencies of “forbidden”, autoreactive IgM+ B cells. Furthermore, serum IgG autoantibody exceeded that present in autoimmune, C4?/? animals following the reconstitution of RAG1?/? mice with IgM+ CD cells derived from BL/6 mice. PMID:20109461

Holl, T. Matt; Haynes, Barton F.; Kelsoe, Garnett

2013-01-01

394

Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift  

E-print Network

Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

2007-07-13

395

Avian Diseases An international journal dedicated to avian health  

E-print Network

para la deteccio´n de anticuerpos contra la influenza aviar en patos reales (Anas platyrhynchos Nobuto paper strips for the detection of avian influenza antibodies was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Blood was collected 2 wk

396

EnfErmEdadEs dEl jaguar En Estado silvEstrE En El surEstE dE mxico  

E-print Network

(parvovirus canino/panleucopenia felina) en el fue 8 %, la de por vectores (gusano felino del corazón) 86.6% y Caoba. No se encontraron anticuerpos contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia felina, coronavirus felino, Chlamydia, ni evidencias del antígeno de leucemia viral felina para ningún sitio. Los cambios de hábitat

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

397

Determinantes de las respuestas a vacunas orales en países en vías de desarrollo  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoLas vacunas orales que se han diseñado para uso global no inducen necesariamente las mismas respuestas inmunitarias en todos los niños de todo el mundo. De hecho, varias vacunas inducen a menudo respuestas medias de anticuerpos menos frecuentes y menores en niños en países en vías de desarrollo, lo que permite suponer que las vacunas pueden producir un efecto menos

David A. Sack; Firdausi Qadri; Ann-Mari Svennerholm

2008-01-01

398

Síndrome antifosfolípido  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Síndrome Antifosfolípido (SAF) se suele manifestar sobre todo en mujeres (80%), entre los 20 y 40 años. Se divide en SAF primario (sin manifestaciones clíni- cas ni biológicas de ninguna otra enfermedad) y SAF secundario (asociado a otras patologías: lupus eritema- toso sistémico (LES) y otras enfermedades de naturaleza autoinmune). Los Anticuerpos Antifosfolípidos (AAF) mejor estudia- dos son los

R Gómez Moreno; N Monge Ropero; A Calvo Cebrián; S Fraga Campo

2004-01-01

399

Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2) cannot account for the baryon content of the universe at z approximately 3 observed in quasar absorption line gas unless Omega (sub B) significantly exceeds the maximum value allowed by big bang nucleocynthesis. (5) For a CDM model with bias parameter within the allowed range of (lower) values, the lower limit to Omega(sub B) imposed by big bang nucleosynthesis (Omega(sub B) h(sup 2) greater than or equal to 0.01) combines with our results to yield the minimum IGM density for the CDM fodel. For CDM with b = 1 (Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization), we find Omega(sub IGM)(sup min) (z approximately 4) approx. equal 0.02-0.03, and Omega(sub IGM)(sup min)(z approximately 0) approx. equal 0.005-0.03, depending upon the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (6) In general, we find that self-consistent reionization of the IGM by the collapsed baryon fraction has a strong effect on the rate of collapse. (7) As a further example, we show that the feedback effect on the IGM of energy release by the collapsed baryon fraction may explain the slow evolution of the observed comoving QSO number density between z = 5 and z = 2, followed by the sharp decline after z = 2.

Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

1994-01-01

400

Diagnostic Potential and Antigenic Properties of Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Subviral Particles Expressed in Mammalian Cells from Semliki Forest Virus Replicons  

PubMed Central

The precursor membrane envelope (prME) proteins of all three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) subtypes were produced based on expression from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicons transcribed from recombinant plasmids. Vero E6 cells transfected by these plasmids showed specific reactivities in immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays by monoclonal antibodies against European and Far-Eastern subtype strains of TBEV, indicating proper folding of the expressed glycoproteins. The prME glycoproteins were secreted into the cell culture supernatant, forming TBEV subviral particles of 20 to 30 nm in diameter. IgM ?-capture and IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were developed based on prME Karelia-94 (Siberian subtype) particles. Altogether, 140 human serum samples were tested using these assays, and the results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgM EIA, an in-house ?-capture IgM assay based on baculovirus-expressed antigen, a commercial IgG EIA, and a hemagglutination inhibition test. Compared to reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the sensitivities of the generated ?-capture IgM SFV-prME and IgG MAb-capture SFV-prME EIAs were 97.4 to 100% and 98.7%, respectively, and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. IgM and IgG immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) were created based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the recombinant plasmid carrying the TBEV Karelia-94 prME glycoproteins. The IgM IFA was 100% concordant with the ?-capture IgM bac-prME ELISA. The IgG IFA sensitivity and specificity were 98.7% and 100%, respectively, compared to those of the commercial ELISA. In conclusion, the tests developed based on SFV replicon-driven expression of TBEV glycoproteins provide safe and robust alternatives for conducting TBEV serology. PMID:24371235

Kuivanen, Suvi; Matveev, Andrey; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Jaaskelainen-Hakala, Anu; Vapalahti, Olli

2014-01-01

401

The Immune Response of Calves given Mycoplasma bovis Antigens  

PubMed Central

Seven calves seven to 30 days of age were given Mycoplasma bovis antigen by different routes. Immunization was in two phases. The first consisted of single or multiple SC, IV or oral doses of antigen for two to four weeks. The second phase consisted of multiple SC or ID injections given from the eighth to the 19th week. The experiment was terminated at 26 weeks. Antibody titers were followed by indirect hemagglutination, growth inhibition and tetrazolium reduction inhibition. Total serum protein, protein fractions and IgG and IgM concentrations were determined in serums of one calf and the distribution of indirect hemagglutination antibodies in IgG and IgM classes were determined in serums of two of the calves. Indirect hemagglutination titers of 1280 and peak titers of >20,480 occurred after the first and second phases respectively. There was no relationship between total serum IgG or IgM concentrations and indirect hemagglutination titers. In one calf given M. bovis antigen in one dose SC and five weekly doses IV in phase I, indirect hemagglutination antibodies appeared in IgM within one week and IgG by four weeks, IgG antibody activity rose steadily until the 17th week but declined at the 26th week, whereas IgM activity after the initial rise dropped at the 13th week but rose even higher as a result of second phase ID injections. Another calf given six weekly IV doses of M. bovis antigen in phase I developed indirect hemagglutination antibodies in IgM peaking at four weeks then declining but with no IgG response. Activity in both IgM and IgG occurred after the second phase. Growth inhibition antibodies were found only on two occasions in one calf serum and tetrazolium reduction inhibition activity when tested never gave titres exceeding 1:32. PMID:907904

Carroll, E. J.; Bennett, R. H.; Rollins, Marilyn; Jasper, D. E.

1977-01-01

402

Taxing the rich: recombinations and bubble growth during reionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM), and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present the first analytic model that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers, because at any given moment the bubbles have a well-defined characteristic size. As a result, reionization resembles `punctuated equilibrium,' with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles grow until recombinations balance ionizations, when their expansion abruptly halts. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts (because of minihalo formation, for example), the limit could be much smaller. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the Universe has for all intents and purposes entered the `post-overlap' stage. Because different HII regions saturate over a finite time interval, the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. Our model also predicts a mean recombination rate several times larger than expected for a uniformly illuminated IGM. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z > 6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the `bubble-dominated' topology characteristic of reionization and the `web-dominated' topology characteristic of the later Universe.

Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng

2005-11-01

403

Studying reionization with the next generation of Ly? emitter surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the prospects for constraining the ionized fraction of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z > 6 with the next generation of large Ly? emitter surveys. We make predictions for the upcoming Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Ly? survey and a hypothetical spectroscopic survey performed with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Considering various scenarios where the observed evolution of the Ly? luminosity function of Ly? emitters at z > 6 is explained partly by an increasingly neutral IGM and partly by intrinsic galaxy evolution, we show how clustering measurements will be able to distinguish between these scenarios. We find that the HSC survey should be able to detect the additional clustering induced by a neutral IGM if the global IGM neutral fraction is greater than ˜20 per cent at z = 6.5. If measurements of the Ly? equivalent widths (EWs) are also available, neutral fractions as small as 10 per cent may be detectable by looking for correlation between the EW and the local number density of objects. In this case, if it should turn out that the IGM is significantly neutral at z = 6.5 and the intrinsic EW distribution is relatively narrow, the observed EWs can also be used to construct a map of the locations and approximate sizes of the largest ionized regions. For the JWST survey, the results appear a bit less optimistic. Since such surveys probe a large range of redshifts, the effects of the IGM will be mixed up with any intrinsic galaxy evolution that is present, making it difficult to disentangle the effects. However, we show that a survey with the JWST will have a possibility of observing a large group of galaxies at z ˜ 7, which would be a strong indication of a partially neutral IGM.

Jensen, H.; Hayes, M.; Iliev, I. T.; Laursen, P.; Mellema, G.; Zackrisson, E.

2014-11-01

404

Autoantibodies against oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL): characterization of antibody isotype, subclass, affinity and effect on the macrophage uptake of oxLDL.  

PubMed Central

Circulating antibodies against oxLDL are present in several inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Such antibodies are also present in patients with atherosclerosis, although the pathogenic significance of the antibodies is still not known. We have characterized the antibodies with regard to isotype, subclass, affinity and effect on macrophage uptake of oxLDL. Antibodies of IgG and IgM isotype were most common and found both in patients with atherosclerosis and in normal individuals. The subclass of IgG antibodies was mainly IgG2 and IgG3. Scatchard analyses of IgG and IgM antibodies showed that IgG antibodies were heterogeneous with regard to affinity, whereas only one population of high-affinity antibodies was found in the IgM antibody population. The high-affinity populations had an average equilibrium constant (K0) of 8.84 x 10(9) M-1 for IgG antibodies and of 1.65 x 10(9) M-1 for IgM antibodies. Incubation of 125I-oxLDL with purified IgG and IgM from sera with high amounts of antibodies enhanced the uptake of 125I-oxLDL in the monocyte-like U937 cell line. Antibody preparations from sera containing no anti-oxLDL antibodies and from sera with antibodies against LDL had less effect on this uptake. The increased uptake was competitively decreased by adding unlabelled oxLDL. This study shows that antibodies against oxLDL are mainly IgG2, IgG3 and IgM. Both IgG and IgM antibodies have a high affinity for the antigen and increase the uptake of oxLDL in a monocyte-like cell line. PMID:7554386

Wu, R; Lefvert, A K

1995-01-01

405

Identification of potential serodiagnostic and subunit vaccine antigens by antibody profiling of toxoplasmosis cases in Turkey.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a 'tier-1' test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a 'tier-2' test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of improved serodiagnostics and vaccines. PMID:21512035

Liang, Li; Dö?kaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ay?e; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E; Bradley, Peter J; Korkmaz, Metin; Gürüz, Yüksel; Felgner, Philip L; Davies, D Huw

2011-07-01

406

Evolution of the serologic response to Borrelia burgdorferi in treated patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the appearance and evolution of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in 46 patients with culture-proven erythema migrans (EM). All patients received antimicrobial treatment and were prospectively evaluated for up to 1 year. A total of 257 serially collected serum samples were tested by commercial IgG-IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and separate IgM and IgG immunoblots (IBs). At the baseline, 33% of the patients had a positive ELISA result and 43% of the patients had a positive IgM IB result by using the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors for the interpretation of IB results. Positive serology at the baseline and the rate of seroconversion correlated directly with disease duration and/or evidence of dissemination prior to treatment. At days 8 to 14 after the baseline, 91% of patients had a positive ELISA result and/or IgM IB result. Peak IgM antibody levels were seen at this time in patients with localized or disseminated disease. The most frequent IgM bands at the baseline and the peak were of 24 kDa (OspC), 41 kDa, and 37 kDa. Although 89% of the patients developed IgG antibodies as determined at a follow-up examination, only 22% were positive by the IgG IB criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors. The persistence of antibodies was directly related to disease duration and/or dissemination prior to treatment. Since IgM antibodies to the 24- and 41-kDa antigens remained detectable for long periods, 38% of IgM IBs were still positive at 1 year postbaseline. IgM to antigens of 39, 58, 60, 66, or 93 kDa, conversely, were most often seen in sera obtained within 1 month postbaseline. Their presence may be of assistance in confirming a recent infection with B. burgdorferi in individuals living in areas where Lyme disease is endemic. PMID:8748261

Aguero-Rosenfeld, M E; Nowakowski, J; Bittker, S; Cooper, D; Nadelman, R B; Wormser, G P

1996-01-01

407

[Seropositivity against atypical pneumonia agents demonstrated in patients with community-acquired pneumonia].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the IgG and IgM antibody positivities against atypical pneumonia agents in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and to compare the results with the controls. The serum samples which were collected from 53 adult patients and 20 healthy donors have been investigated by a commercial indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA, Pneumo-slide, Vircell SL, Spain) in which nine different antigens were fixed onto a slide. In both of the study groups. IgG and IgM seropositivities were detected in different rates against one or more etiologic agents. In the patient group. IgG and IgM positivity rates for the agents were as follows, respectively; 22.6% and 28.3% for Legionella pneumophila, 9.4% and 5.6% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 30.1% and 7.5% for Coxiella burnetii, 33.9% and 3.7% for Chlamydia pneumoniae, 28.3% and 0 for adenovirus, 71.6% and 1.8% for respiratory syncytial virus, 30.1% and 24.5% for influenza A virus, 35.8% and 7.5% for influenza B virus, 71.6% and 1.8% for parainfluenza viruses type 1-3. The rates of IgG positivities in the control group varied between 5-55% for all of the agents except M. pneumoniae and 3 of these controls were positive for L. pneumophila IgM, 3 were positive for C. pneumoniae IgM and one was positive for influenza A virus IgM. According to the statistical evaluation, there were no significant differences for IgM seropositivities to any of the agents, between the patient and control groups (p > 0.05). These results could be attributed to one or more of the following; a) none of these microorganisms were the primary etiologic agents, b) IgM positivities were the result of reinfections with these agents, c) longer duration of IgM antibodies after the acute infections. In terms of IgG positivities between the patient and control groups, only C. burnetii showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.029). Since the type of the pathogens causing CAP are of crucial importance both for the epidemiological purposes and for planning the empirical treatment strategies, more detailed multicenter studies should be performed in our country. PMID:14748261

Sayan, Murat; Kilinç, O?uz; Yüce, Ay?e; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Genç, Sabahat

2003-10-01

408

Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcon, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, Maria Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

2011-01-01

409

Non-coordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp-1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Summary Blimp-1 is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete “natural” IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp-1. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp-1- antibody secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages. Sharks naturally produce large amounts of both pentameric (classically ‘19S’) and monomeric (classically ‘7S’) IgM, the latter an indicator of adaptive immunity. Consistent with the mammalian paradigm, shark Blimp-1 is expressed in splenic 7S IgM-secreting cells, though rarely detected in the J-chain+ cells producing 19S IgM. Although IgM transcript levels are lower in J-chain+ cells, these cells nevertheless secrete 19S IgM in the absence of Blimp-1, as demonstrated by ELISPOT and metabolic labeling. Additionally, cells in the shark bone marrow equivalent (epigonal) are Blimp-1-. Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal can be maintained for long periods without Blimp-1, but like in mammals, Blimp-1 is required for terminating the B cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen. PMID:23897025

Castro, Caitlin D.; Ohta, Yuko; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F.

2014-01-01

410

Inter-Specific Coral Chimerism: Genetically Distinct Multicellular Structures Associated with Tissue Loss in Montipora capitata  

PubMed Central

Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss. PMID:21829541

Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

2011-01-01

411

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a healthy adult population from Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway by different assays. Sera from 1213 blood donors at four different blood banks were analysed in Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE/IgG (IgG), Enzygnost Borreliosis IgM (IgM), and Immunetics C6 Lyme ELISA kit (C6). Sera showing positive or grey-zone reactivities were further examined with Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgG blot and Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgM blot. The seroprevalences were 9.6%, 8.2%, 8.4%, 6.4% and 5.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence for IgG was lower in the eastern part of the county and in owners of pet animals. It was higher in men, and increased with age and number of tick bites. C6 and IgG gave comparable results. IgM only was found in 4.5%, more often in women, did not increase with age, and showed no relationship with geography, and 56.4% were positive in IgM blot. In conclusion, antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. are common in blood donors in western Norway. The results may be used for evaluation of predictive values of test results in patients, as well as a basis for test algorithms in the laboratory. PMID:24730472

Hjetland, Reidar; Nilsen, Roy M; Grude, Nils; Ulvestad, Elling

2014-11-01

412

The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

1991-01-01

413

On Modeling and Measuring the Temperature of the z ~ 5 Intergalactic Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is sensitive to the timing and nature of hydrogen and He II reionization, and can be measured from Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest absorption spectra. Since the memory of intergalactic gas to heating during reionization gradually fades, measurements as close as possible to reionization are desirable. In addition, measuring the IGM temperature at sufficiently high redshifts should help to isolate the effects of hydrogen reionization since He II reionization starts later, at lower redshift. Motivated by this, we model the IGM temperature at z >~ 5 using semi-numeric models of patchy reionization. We construct mock Ly? forest spectra from these models and consider their observable implications. We find that the small-scale structure in the Ly? forest is sensitive to the temperature of the IGM even at redshifts where the average absorption in the forest is as high as 90%. We forecast the accuracy at which the z >~ 5 IGM temperature can be measured using existing samples of high resolution quasar spectra, and find that interesting constraints are possible. For example, an early reionization model in which reionization ends at z ~ 10 should be distinguishable—at high statistical significance—from a lower redshift model where reionization completes at z ~ 6. We discuss improvements to our modeling that may be required to robustly interpret future measurements.

Lidz, Adam; Malloy, Matthew

2014-06-01

414

Deep Chandra Observations of HCG 16. II. The Development of the Intra-group Medium in a Spiral-rich Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a combination of deep Chandra X-ray observations and radio continuum imaging to investigate the origin and current state of the intra-group medium (IGM) in the spiral-rich compact group HCG 16. We confirm the presence of a faint (L X, bolo = 1.87^{+1.03}_{-0.66}\\times1041 erg s-1), low-temperature (0.30^{+0.07}_{-0.05} keV) IGM extending throughout the ACIS-S3 field of view, with a ridge linking the four original group members and extending to the southeast, as suggested by previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. This ridge contains 6.6^{+3.9}_{-3.3}\\times 109 M ? of hot gas and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale {H}\\,\\scriptsize {I} tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We present evidence that the group is not yet virialized, and show that gas has probably been transported from the starburst winds of NGC 838 and NGC 839 into the surrounding IGM. Considering the possible origin of the IGM, we argue that material ejected by galactic winds may have played a significant role, contributing 20%-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

O'Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.; Giacintucci, S.; Zezas, A.; Ponman, T. J.; Mamon, G. A.; Nulsen, P.; Raychaudhury, S.

2014-10-01

415

Role of rheumatoid factor in complement fixation and indirect hemagglutination tests for immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus.  

PubMed Central

Absorption of immunoglobulin M (IgM)-rheumatoid factor (RF) from serum samples by reaction with insolubilized gamma globulin reduced the complement-fixing (CF) antibody titer to cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen to less than 1:2 in the IgM fraction of some, but not all, sera. Thus, IgM-CF activity in some sera appeared to be due to specific IgM anti-CMV antibody and in other sera to complexes of IgM-RF with antiviral IgG antibody. Prozones were present in the CF tests on IgM fractions. Increasing the concentration of antigen from 2 to 4 U reduced the prozone titer by one or two double dilutions. This observation suggested that a competition for antigen may be operating at low dilutions of IgM antibody fractions. Removal of RF had little or no effect on the reaction of the IgM fraction of sera with CMV by the indirect hemagglutination test. PMID:212447

Cremer, N E; Hoffman, M; Lennette, E H

1978-01-01

416

Unveiling the nature of dark matter with high redshift 21 cm line experiments  

E-print Network

Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen will open a new window on the early Universe. By influencing the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), annihilating dark matter (DM) can leave a detectable imprint in the 21 cm signal. Building on the publicly available 21cmFAST code, we compute the 21 cm signal for a 10 GeV WIMP DM candidate. The most pronounced role of DM annihilations is in heating the IGM earlier and more uniformly than astrophysical sources of X-rays. This leaves several unambiguous, qualitative signatures in the redshift evolution of the large-scale ($k\\approx0.1$ Mpc$^{-1}$) 21 cm power amplitude: (i) the local maximum (peak) associated with IGM heating can be lower than the other maxima; (ii) the heating peak can occur while the IGM is in emission against the cosmic microwave background (CMB); (iii) there can be a dramatic drop in power (a global minimum) corresponding to the epoch when the IGM temperature is comparable to the CMB temperature. ...

Evoli, Carmelo; Ferrara, Andrea

2014-01-01

417

Pricing and Investments in Internet Security: A Cyber-Insurance Perspective  

E-print Network

Internet users such as individuals and organizations are subject to different types of epidemic risks such as worms, viruses, spams, and botnets. To reduce the probability of risk, an Internet user generally invests in traditional security mechanisms like anti-virus and anti-spam software, sometimes also known as self-defense mechanisms. However, such software does not completely eliminate risk. Recent works have considered the problem of residual risk elimination by proposing the idea of cyber-insurance. In this regard, an important research problem is the analysis of optimal user self-defense investments and cyber-insurance contracts under the Internet environment. In this paper, we investigate two problems and their relationship: 1) analyzing optimal self-defense investments in the Internet, under optimal cyber-insurance coverage, where optimality is an insurer objective and 2) designing optimal cyber-insurance contracts for Internet users, where a contract is a (premium, coverage) pair.

Pal, Ranjan

2011-01-01

418

Bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microbes for drug discovery.  

PubMed

The isolation and extraction of novel bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms have a biomedical potential for future drug discovery as the oceans cover 70% of the planet's surface and life on earth originates from sea. Wide range of novel bioactive secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacodynamic properties has been isolated from marine microorganisms and many to be discovered. The compounds isolated from marine organisms (macro and micro) are important in their natural form and also as templates for synthetic modifications for the treatments for variety of deadly to minor diseases. Many technical issues are yet to overcome before wide-scale bioprospecting of marine microorganisms becomes a reality. This chapter focuses on some novel secondary metabolites having antitumor, antivirus, enzyme inhibitor, and other bioactive properties identified and isolated from marine microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and cyanobacteria, which could serve as potentials for drug discovery after their clinical trials. PMID:22361200

Nikapitiya, Chamilani

2012-01-01

419

Design of Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm through System Base Behavior Analysis and Memory Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More recently, botnet-based cyber attacks, including a spam mail or a DDos attack, have sharply increased, which poses a fatal threat to Internet services. At present, antivirus businesses make it top priority to detect malicious code in the shortest time possible (Lv.2), based on the graph showing a relation between spread of malicious code and time, which allows them to detect after malicious code occurs. Despite early detection, however, it is not possible to prevent malicious code from occurring. Thus, we have developed an algorithm that can detect precursor symptoms at Lv.1 to prevent a cyber attack using an evasion method of 'an executing environment aware attack' by analyzing system behaviors and monitoring memory.

Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Cagalaban, Giovanni; Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

420

Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects and Antioxidative Activities of Saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Nutshell  

PubMed Central

Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5–68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18–2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner. PMID:23990897

Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Quancheng

2013-01-01

421

ISOLATION OF CAFFEIC ACID FROM EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM SPRENG BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY AND SYNTHESIS OF CAFFEIC ACID-INTERCALATED LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE  

PubMed Central

Preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for isolation and purification of caffeic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng with a solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water at a volume ratio of 10:1:10, v/v. Using a preparative unit of the HSCCC centrifuge, about a 938 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 63.2 mg of caffeic acid at purity of 96.0%. Then, the anti-microbial and anti-virus drug caffeic acid (C9H8O4) was intercalated into layered double hydroxides for the first time by anion exchange under a nitrogen atmosphere. The product caffeic acid–LDH has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron micrographs (SEM), indicating that the drug has been successfully intercalated into LDH. PMID:20454592

Wei, Yun; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Kai; Ito, Yoichiro

2010-01-01

422

[Triterpenoid saponins of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb].  

PubMed

In order to find the anti-virus constituents of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb, the investigation was carried out. The paper reported the five triterpenoid saponins isolated from n-BuOH fraction: 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid]-28-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), oleanolic acid-3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (calenduloside E, 2), oleanolic acid-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-Obeta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (chikusetsusaponin-IVa, 3), 3-O-(6'-O-butyl-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl)-oleanolic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4) and hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (HN-sapoins K, 5). 1 is a new compound, saponins 4 and 5 were isolated from the plant for the first time. PMID:21751496

Guo, Qing-lan; Li, Bin; Li, Jian; Li, Jing-jing; Xia, Li-ying; Dong, Jun-xing

2011-04-01

423

Synthesis and biological evaluation of fucoidan-mimetic glycopolymers through cyanoxyl-mediated free-radical polymerization.  

PubMed

The sulfated marine polysaccharide fucoidan has been reported to have health benefits ranging from antivirus and anticancer properties to modulation of high blood pressure. Hence, they could enhance the biological function of materials for biomedical applications. However, the incorporation of fucoidan into biomaterials has been difficult, possibly due to its complex structure and lack of suitable functional groups for covalent anchoring to biomaterials. We have developed an approach for a rapid synthesis of fucoidan-mimetic glycopolymer chains through cyanoxyl-mediated free-radical polymerization, a method suitable for chain-end functionalizing and subsequent linkage to biomaterials. The resulting sulfated and nonsulfated methacrylamido ?-L-fucoside glycopolymers' fucoidan-mimetic properties were studied in HSV-1 infection and platelet activation assays. The sulfated glycopolymer showed similar properties to natural fucoidan in inducing platelet activation and inhibiting HSV-1 binding and entry to cells, thus indicating successful syntheses of fucoidan-mimetic glycopolymers. PMID:24813544

Tengdelius, Mattias; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Grenegård, Magnus; Griffith, May; Påhlsson, Peter; Konradsson, Peter

2014-07-14

424

Trichosanthin down-regulates Notch signaling and inhibits proliferation of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 in vitro.  

PubMed

The prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still poor. Trichosanthin (TCS) has abortifacient, anti-virus, immunoregulation and various anti-tumor pharmacological activities, but there are no reports about its effect on NPC and the exact mechanisms that TCS inhibits tumor are not well known. In this study, the proliferation, apoptosis and soft agar colony formation abilities of CNE2 cells were examined with various assays in vitro followed by treatment with TCS. Furthermore, the activation status of Notch signaling pathway in TCS and control cells also was examined. The results revealed that TCS could inhibit NPC cell line CNE2 in vitro, reduce clone formation ability and induce apoptosis of CNE2 cells. Down-regulation of Notch signaling may be one of the mechanisms that TCS inhibits NPC. PMID:22808524

Liu, Fenye; Wang, Bing; Wang, Zhixue; Yu, Shudong

2012-07-01

425

Interaction of nanodiamonds materials with influenza viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perspectives of the application of modern materials contained nanodiamonds (ND) are considered in this study. The interaction between detonation paniculate ND, soot and influenza A and B viruses, fragments of cDNA were analyzed at the normal conditions. It was shown that these sorbents can interact with the following viruses: reference epidemic strains of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)v, A(H3N2) and B viruses circulated in the word in 2000-2010. The allantoises, concentrated viruses, cDNA can be absorbed by ND sorbents and getting removed from water solutions within 20 min. ND sorbents can be used for the preparation of antivirus filters for water solution and for future diagnostic systems in virology.

Ivanova, V. T.; Ivanova, M. V.; Spitsyn, B. V.; Garina, K. O.; Trushakova, S. V.; Manykin, A. A.; Korzhenevsky, A. P.; Burseva, E. I.

2012-02-01

426

Stay Safe Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the National Cyber Security Alliance, Stay Safe Online works to educate the public on the importance of protecting their personal computers from online intruders. If proper security procedures are not implemented, computers can become victims to viruses, denial of service attacks, Trojan horse programs, and other malicious activities that take advantage of computer vulnerabilities and result in billions of dollars of damage. Designed to provide information needed to protect home and small business computers, this Web site provides the top ten security tips on how to safeguard computer systems, such as using anti-virus software, not opening e-mail from unknown sources, and backing up computer data. The site also contains a self-guided cyber security test, educational materials, and links to other Internet security sources. In all, this is an important resource for all computer users to explore.

2007-08-09

427

Cyber-Insurance in Internet Security: A Dig into the Information Asymmetry Problem  

E-print Network

Internet users such as individuals and organizations are subject to different types of epidemic risks such as worms, viruses, spams, and botnets. To reduce the probability of risk, an Internet user generally invests in traditional security mechanisms like anti-virus and anti-spam software, sometimes also known as \\emph{self-defense} mechanisms. However, according to security experts, such software (and their subsequent advancements) will not completely eliminate risk. Recent research efforts have considered the problem of residual risk elimination by proposing the idea of \\emph{cyber-insurance}. In this regard, an important research problem is resolving information asymmetry issues associated with cyber-insurance contracts. In this paper we propose \\emph{three} mechanisms to resolve information asymmetry in cyber-insurance. Our mechanisms are based on the \\emph{Principal-Agent} (PA) model in microeconomic theory. We show that (1) optimal cyber-insurance contracts induced by our mechanisms only provide partial...

Pal, Ranjan

2012-01-01

428

The effect of infected external computers on the spread of viruses: A compartment modeling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inevitably, there exist infected computers outside of the Internet. This paper aims to understand how infected external computers affect the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a new virus-antivirus spreading model, which takes into account the effect of infected/immune external computers, is established. A systematic study shows that, unlike most previous models, the proposed model admits no virus-free equilibrium and admits a globally asymptotically stable viral equilibrium. This result implies that it would be practically impossible to eradicate viruses on the Internet. As a result, inhibiting the virus prevalence to below an acceptable level would be the next best thing. A theoretical study reveals the effect of different parameters on the steady virus prevalence. On this basis, a number of suggestions are made so as to contain virus spreading.

Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

2013-12-01

429

Design, Synthesis and Antiviral Activity Studies of Schizonepetin Derivatives  

PubMed Central

A series of schizonepetin derivatives have been designed and synthesized in order to obtain potent antivirus agents. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 and influenza virus H3N2 as well as the cytotoxicity of these derivatives was evaluated by using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay in vitro. Compounds M2, M4, M5 and M34 showed higher inhibitory activity against HSV-1 virus with the TC50 values being in micromole. Compounds M28, M33, and M35 showed higher inhibitory activity against influenza virus H3N2 with their TC50 values being 96.4, 71.0 and 75.4 ?M, respectively. Preliminary biological activity evaluation indicated that the anti-H3N2 and anti-HSV-1 activities improved obviously through the introduction of halogen into the structure of schizonepetin. PMID:23965980

Bao, Beihua; Meng, Zheng; Li, Nianguang; Meng, Zhengjie; Zhang, Li; Cao, Yudan; Yao, Weifeng; Shan, Mingqiu; Ding, Anwei

2013-01-01

430

A Study on Architecture of Malicious Code Blocking Scheme with White List in Smartphone Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the interest and demands for mobile communications are growing so fast because of the increasing prevalence of smartphones around the world. In addition, the existing feature phones were replaced by smartphones and it has widely improved while using the explosive growth of Internet users using smartphones, e-commerce enabled Internet banking transactions and the importance of protecting personal information. Therefore, the development of smartphones antivirus products was developed and launched in order to prevent malicious code or virus infection. In this paper, we proposed a new scheme to protect the smartphone from malicious codes and malicious applications that are element of security threats in mobile environment and to prevent information leakage from malicious code infection. The proposed scheme is based on the white list smartphone application which only allows installing authorized applications and to prevent the installation of malicious and untrusted mobile applications which can possibly infect the applications and programs of smartphones.

Lee, Kijeong; Tolentino, Randy S.; Park, Gil-Cheol; Kim, Yong-Tae

431

Effects of dietary scFOS on immunoglobulins in colostrums and milk of bitches.  

PubMed

Fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) are prebiotic ingredients that improve protection against pathogens probably through promoting the growth of gastrointestinal bacteria-like Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli: this stimulation may lead to a better development of immune repertoire and/or stimulation of the local immune response. According to the existence of the immune entero-mammary link, we were wondering if the dietary supplementation with scFOS could enhance the mucosal immunoglobulin level in mammary secretions. Results in this study show that bitches supplemented with scFOS exhibit higher colostrum and milk IgM content without concomitant effect on IgG1, IgG2 and IgA. In addition, intranasally immunized puppies exhibited a trend to higher Bordetella bronchiseptica-specific IgM immune response. The dietary supplementation with scFOS increased the IgM level in colostrums and milk of bitches by mechanisms which remain to be elucidated. PMID:17516936

Adogony, V; Respondek, F; Biourge, V; Rudeaux, F; Delaval, J; Bind, J-L; Salmon, H

2007-06-01

432

Nonspecific Immunoglobulin M Binding and Chondroitin Sulfate A Binding Are Linked Phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates Implicated in Malaria during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Binding of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies from normal human serum to the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC) has previously been demonstrated only in parasites that form rosettes with uninfected red cells. We show that natural, nonspecific IgM but not IgG, IgA, IgD, or IgE also binds to the surface of iRBC selected for adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), a placental receptor for parasites associated with malaria in pregnancy. The protease sensitivity of IgM-binding appears to match that of CSA binding, suggesting that the two phenotypes may be mediated by the same parasite molecule. We also show that a wide range of mouse monoclonal antibodies of the IgM class bind nonspecifically to CSA-selected iRBC, an important consideration in the interpretation of immunological assays performed on these parasite lines. PMID:12874359

Creasey, Alison M.; Staalsoe, Trine; Raza, Ahmed; Arnot, David E.; Rowe, J. Alexandra

2003-01-01

433

Alloantibody-induced cytotoxicity of macrophages.  

PubMed

Alloantibodies substantially alter the in vitro nonspecific cytotoxic effect of macrophages on bystanding allogeneic and xenogeneic target cells. Although the specific IgM alloantibody increased significantly the ability to parental macrophages to damage target cells, IgG alloantibody had an opposite effect and suppressed the macrophage cytotoxicity. Macrophages of F1 hybrid mice were less affected by this treatment unless alloantibodies against both parental strains were added together. Parental macrophages exposed in vitro to the concomitant action of both IgM and IgG alloantibodies exhibited a diminished cytotoxicity toward target cells. It is proposed that IgM and IgG alloantibodies induce different conformational changes of the macrophage surface. PMID:1151077

Ptak, W; Hanczakowska, M

1975-09-01

434

[The characteristics of bacterial respiratory infections in patients with humoral immunodeficiencies].  

PubMed

The paper deals with 8 cases of different forms of bacterial respiratory infections (bronchiectasis, pleuropneumonia, tuberculosis), in which humoral immune deficits were noted: 2 dysgammaglobulinemia with IgA absence, 3 hypogammaglobulinemia with IgG deficit as well as IgA and IgM absence, 2 hypogammaglobulinemia with IgG and IgM deficit and IgA absence, and 1 hypogammaglobulinemia with IgA absence and IgM deficit. Stress is laid on the indications given by the antibody titer research, the pleural exudate hypoproteinemia being also added to those already known. A correct chemotherapy associated with the substitution treatment proved to by efficient. PMID:1342811

Dobre, V

1992-01-01

435

Latex agglutination assay of human immunoglobulin M antitoxoplasma antibodies which uses enzymatically treated antigen-coated particles.  

PubMed Central

An assay of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antitoxoplasma antibodies which is rapid (less than 30 min), homogeneous, and reliable (interassay coefficient of variation, less than 11%) is proposed. Its principle is based on the observation that a suspension of latex particles coated with toxoplasma antigens, after treatment with proteinase K, becomes less agglutinable by IgG antibodies but more agglutinable by IgM antibodies. The difference between the activities of the two classes of antibodies is increased by the addition of a monoclonal antibody directed against the Fc region of IgM. Agglutination is measured with a special instrument which optically counts the particles that remain free after the reaction. Turbidimetric reading, although less sensitive, is also suitable. No significant interferences either by IgG antitoxoplasma antibodies or by rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibodies were observed. The sensitivity was similar to that of the immunosorbent agglutination assay. PMID:1572975

Cambiaso, C L; Galanti, L M; Leautaud, P; Masson, P L

1992-01-01

436

Immunoglobulin production by coeliac biopsies in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

The production of immunoglobulins by jejunal mucosa during organ culture has been studied. In 18 untreated coeliac patients the amounts of IgA, secretory IgA and IgM in the culture medium were higher than in those from 17 normal controls. The results in 15 treated coeliac patients did not differ from the control subjects. Mucosal biopsies from patients with serum IgA deficiency produced very little IgA, but large amounts of IgG and IgM. The addition of neither Frazer's gluten fraction III, nor alpha-gliadin to the culture system stimulated any additional increased secretion of immunoglobulins from the untreated coeliac patients. Production of IgA and IgM by the small bowel mucosa continues during organ culture, but that of IgG appears insignificant. PMID:3781327

Wood, G M; Shires, S; Howdle, P D; Losowsky, M S

1986-01-01

437

Lower motor neuron syndrome associated with IgG anti-GM1 antibodies revisited.  

PubMed

A patient, who developed an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like disorder subsequent to ganglioside treatment, had IgM antibodies to GM2 as well as to minor gangliosides X1 and X2 containing GM2 epitope. These gangliosides as well as GM1 were tested in 655 sera obtained from patients who were suspected of having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease to find a treatable condition. Three patients had high titers of IgG anti-GM1 antibodies, but no IgM anti-GM1 antibodies. One of the patients also had IgG anti-X2 antibodies. The patients, being diagnosed with having lower motor neuron syndrome, had neither upper motor neuron signs nor multifocal conduction block. Both IgM and IgG anti-GM1 antibodies should be tested in patients who have lower motor neuron syndrome. PMID:24841627

Yuki, Nobuhiro; Yanaka, Chiaki; Sudo, Makoto; Funakoshi, Miyuki; Ishida, Hideharu; Mori, Masahiro; Kanda, Fumio; Hirata, Koichi

2014-07-15

438

[Congenital rubella resulting from maternal reinfection].  

PubMed

Almost all the rubeolic reinfections are not apparent and are without any risk for the fetus. The news born's case (2nd in children) which is described here, presents a bilateral cataract. We have found positive IgA, IgG and IgM and an antibodies avidity of 70%. Concerning the mother, there are no IgM. The IgM and IgA are positive. The avidity of the antibodies is upper than 90%. During her first pregancy, the mother was subjected to the search of the antibodies, the results are positive (title = 60 ul/ml) and during her second pregnancy, the mother had rubeollic contact with her eldest son. Our conclusion is that it is a congenital rubella resulting from a reinfection. PMID:11256312

Alem, A; Tamourt, O

1998-01-01

439

Rapid diagnosis of human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and detection of the virus in naturally infected ticks.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) in human serum samples. For this test, a heat-inactivated antigen was prepared from the brains of suckling mice infected with CCHF virus. The IgM-capture ELISA proved more sensitive than indirect fluorescence tests for IgM to this virus. A human serum containing high-titer IgM to CCHF virus was used for an antigen-capture ELISA to detect this virus in heat-inactivated suspensions of virus-infected ticks. The antigen-capture ELISA appeared to be as sensitive as virus isolation in suckling mice. The studies described suggest that the IgM-capture ELISA and the antigen-detection ELISA should provide a rapid and sensitive diagnosis of human CCHF virus infection and should be useful in ecologic studies of this virus. PMID:3108314

Saluzzo, J F; Le Guenno, B

1987-01-01

440

Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in increasing cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes: the hoorn study.  

PubMed

In the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events, interaction between risk factors has seldom been identified. However, endothelial dysfunction on the one hand and type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), and insulin resistance on the other may act synergistically (ie, interact) in the development of cardiovascular disease. We therefore investigated the interaction between endothelial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus, IGM, and insulin resistance with regard to risk of cardiovascular events. In a prospective population-based cohort (n=445; 69 years; 55% women; 23% type 2 diabetes mellitus, 28% IGM [by design]), endothelial dysfunction (brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation), glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test), and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA2-IR]) were determined. After a median follow-up of 7.6 years, 106 participants had had a cardiovascular event. After adjustments, 1 SD less flow-mediated dilatation was associated with cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 1.69 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.52]) and IGM (1.50 [0.95-2.37]) and among those in the highest HOMA2-IR tertile (1.92 [1.42-2.60]), but not in normal glucose metabolism (0.85 [0.63-1.16]) or among those in the lower 2 HOMA2-IR tertiles combined (0.85 [0.65-1.12]). Interaction between flow-mediated dilatation and type 2 diabetes mellitus, IGM, or insulin resistance was present on an additive (relative excess risk caused by interaction >0) and on a multiplicative scale (P interaction <0.05). Endothelial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus, IGM, or insulin resistance synergistically increase cardiovascular event risk. This identifies endothelial dysfunction as a key therapeutic target in these individuals. PMID:25225211

van Sloten, Thomas T; Henry, Ronald M A; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Unger, Thomas; Schram, Miranda T; Stehouwer, Coen D A

2014-12-01

441

Intergalactic Helium Absorption toward High-Redshift Quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the zq = 3.286 quasar Q0302 -003 (Jakobsen et al. 1994) and the zq = 3.185 quasar Q1935 - 67 by Tytler (1995) show absorption edges at the redshifted wavelength of He II 304 Å. A key goal is to distinguish between contributions from discrete Ly? forest clouds and a smoothly distributed intergalactic medium (IGM). We model the contributions from each of these sources of He II absorption, including the distribution of line Doppler widths and column densities, the "He II proximity effect" from the quasar, and a self-consistent derivation of the He II opacity of the universe as a function of the spectrum of ionizing sources, with the assumption that both the clouds and the IGM are photoionized. The He II edge can be fully accounted for by He II line blanketing for reasonable distributions of line widths and column densities in the Lyman alpha forest, provided that the ionizing sources have spectral index ?s > 1.5, and any He II proximity effect is neglected. Even with some contribution from a diffuse IGM, it is difficult to account for the edge observed by Jakobsen et al. (1994) with a "hard" source spectrum (?s < 1.3). The proximity effect modifies the relative contributions of the clouds and IGM to ?He II near the quasar (z ? zq) and markedly increases the amount of He II absorption required. This implies, for example, that to account for the He 11 edge with line blanketing alone, the minimum spectral index ?s must be increased from 1.5 to 1.9. We demonstrate the need for higher resolution observations that characterize the change in transmission as z ? zq and resolve line-free gaps in the continuum. We set limits on the density of the diffuse IGM and suggest that the IGM and Lyman alpha clouds are likely to be a significant repository for dark baryons.

Giroux, Mark L.; Fardal, Mark A.; Shull, J. Michael

1995-10-01

442

Accuracy of Rapid IgM-Based Immunochromatographic and Immunoblot Assays for Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus Infections in Laos  

PubMed Central

We studied the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for detection of IgM against scrub typhus (ST ICT) and an immunoblot test for the detection of IgM against murine typhus (MT IBT) by using admission serum samples from 1,030 febrile patients in Laos. Sensitivity and specificity for the ST ICT determined by using the diagnostic criteria of a four-fold increase in IgM against Orientia tsutsugamushi between paired samples were 23.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.9–33.3%) and 86.2% (95% CI = 84.1–88.6%), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for the ST ICT determined by using an admission IgM titer ? 1:400 were 39.1% (95% CI = 34.1–44.2%) and 99.5% (95% CI = 98.7–99.9%), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for the MT IBT determined by using the criteria of a four-fold increase in IgM against Rickettsia typhi between paired serum samples were 61.2% (95% CI = 53.7–68.3%) and 86.5% (95% CI = 84.1–88.8%), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for the MT IBT determined by using an admission IgM titer ? 1:400 were 54.6% (95% CI = 49.1–60.0%) and 94.1% (95% CI = 92.0–95.7%), respectively. Both assays had relatively good specificity but low sensitivity and thus have limited utility for admission diagnosis. PMID:20682883

Blacksell, Stuart D.; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Phouminh, Phonlavanh; Phongmany, Simalee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Newton, Paul N.

2010-01-01

443

Acute Hepatitis E Infection Accounts for Some Cases of Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury relies upon exclusion of other causes, including viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been proposed as another cause of suspected drug-induced liver disease. We assessed the frequency of HEV infection among patients with drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Methods The drug-induced liver injury network (DILIN) is a prospective s