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Sample records for anticuerpos igm antivirus

  1. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  2. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  3. The IGM Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher D.; Milliard, B.; Schiminovich, D.; Moore, A.; Chang, D.; Matuszewski, M.; Rahman, S.; Tuttle, S.; Deharveng, J.; Grange, R.; Frank, S.; Evrard, J.; FIREBALL Team; CWI Team; ISTOS Team; KCWI Team

    2010-01-01

    I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed involving Caltech, NASA, Columbia, Laboratorie Astrophysique Marseille, CNES, and W. M. Keck Observatory, designed to discover and map emission from the IGM. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2IGM emission in the 0.3IGM from 0.05IGM and Circum-Galactic Medium emission at levels predicted by three independent cosmological simulations.

  4. ADAM: An Automatic and Extensible Platform to Stress Test Android Anti-Virus Systems

    E-print Network

    Lui, John C.S.

    ,000 and 6,000 mobile phone viruses in the Symbian and Android platforms respectively. Given the threatADAM: An Automatic and Extensible Platform to Stress Test Android Anti-Virus Systems Min Zheng a variety of malware samples for the Android platform. Specifically, ADAM can automatically transform

  5. PAPAIN DIGESTION FRAGMENTS OF HUMAN IGM GLOBULINS

    PubMed Central

    Mihaesco, Constantin; Seligmann, Maxime

    1968-01-01

    Papain digestion of two Waldenström IgM globulins produced a high amount of small peptides and resulted in the formation of two end products, the Fabµ and Fcµ fragments. The Fcµ fragment is characterized by a fast electrophoretic mobility, a high content in carbohydrate, and a high molecular weight. It was demonstrated that this fragment is made of heavy chain pieces belonging to several disulfide-linked monomeric subunits, presumably representing the carboxy-terminal end of the µ-chains. Fc fragments from the two macroglobulins could not be distinguished immunologically. An appreciable proportion of IgM molecules apparently underwent degradation without the formation of a stable Fc fragment. An Fc-like fragment, analogous to the reduced Fc fragment, was obtained at early stages of papain digestion of the IgM subunits. The Fabµ fragment, with slow and individually distinct electrophoretic mobility, bears many physicochemical and immunological similarities to the Fab? fragment. It consists of one light chain and one Fd piece, both of which were isolated. The interaction of these two constituents was demonstrated by gel diffusion studies. Fab fragments of both IgM globulins were resolved into two subpopulations with different electric charges. In addition to these fragments, intermediary split products were observed at early stages of the degradation process, together with a high yield of small peptides mainly derived from the papain-sensitive region of the heavy chains. Immunologic data strongly suggested that this segment of µ-chains is situated between the Fd piece and the portion included in the Fc fragment. Several experiments indicated the importance of conformational antigenic specificity in both Fab and Fc regions of the IgM globulins. PMID:4169963

  6. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of ?-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Xiaojun

    Background: Alpha-momorcharin (?-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. ...

  7. The IGM Project: Searching For IGM Emission Over 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher D.; Matuszewski, M.; Rahman, S.; Morrissey, P.; Moore, A.; Schiminovich, D.; Milliard, B.; Frank, S.; Deharveng, J.; Peroux, C.; CWI Team; FIREBALL Team; KCWI Team; ISTOS Team

    2011-01-01

    I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed designed to discover and map emission from the IGM. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2IGM emission in the 0.3IGM in the space UV. I will report on preliminary results from FIREBALL and CWI. This work is supported by NASA and NSF.

  8. The IGM Project: Searching For IGM Emission Over 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher D.; Matuszewski, M.; Morrissey, P.; Moore, A.; CWI Team

    2013-01-01

    I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed designed to discover and map emission from the IGM. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2IGM emission in the 0.3IGM in the space UV. I will report on preliminary results from FIREBALL and CWI. This work is supported by NASA and NSF.

  9. IgM in the kidney: a multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jeffrey L; Cascalho, Marilia

    2015-09-01

    IgM in the blood of normal individuals consists mainly of 'natural' polyreactive antibodies. Natural IgM is thought to provide an initial defense against infection and to promote the healing of wounded cells. Yet, as Panzer and colleagues show, these benefits can be eclipsed when the IgM binds to damaged cells of the glomerulus, activating complement. IgM in glomeruli thus signifies cellular damage and may warn that the pace of that damage exceeds the capacity for repair. PMID:26323070

  10. Study of IGM through high energy radiation from blazar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhi, Jayashri; Duorah, H. L.; Barua, A. G.; Duorah, K.

    2014-03-01

    The high energy gamma rays from blazar affects the intergalactic medium (IGM) to large distances at different redshifts. The blazar radiation has been taken as the result of synchrotron and Inverse Compton scattering of electrons. It is found that the intergalactic medium is clumpy. Our estimated values lie within the suggested limit of ?IGM ? 0.03 at redshift z = 3.

  11. Numerical Simulations of Galactic Outflows and Evolution of the IGM

    E-print Network

    Martel, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Galactic outflows play a major role in the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM). The energy deposited into the interstellar medium by supernovae and active galactic nuclei can accelerate the gas past the escape velocity, and eject it into the IGM. This will affect the subsequent evolution of the galaxy, by reducing or eliminating star formation, and quenching the accretion of matter onto the central AGN. Galactic outflows is the main process by which energy and processed interstellar matter is transported into the IGM. This affects the subsequent formation of other galaxies. The energy carried by outflows can strip protogalactic halos of their gas, preventing galaxies from forming. Conversely, the metals carried by outflows can modify the composition and cooling rates of the gas in protogalactic halos, favoring the formation of galaxies. In this paper, I review the various techniques used to simulate galactic outflows and their impact on galaxy and IGM evolution.

  12. False-positive IgM serology in coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Kuberski, Tim; Herrig, Judith; Pappagianis, D

    2010-06-01

    The clinical observation has been made that there might be an unacceptable number of false-positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test results for IgM among persons suspected of having coccidioidomycosis. Patients with a positive result for IgM by EIA are thought to have a diagnosis of acute coccidioidomycosis. However, this study found that 82% of patients with an IgM-positive and IgG-negative EIA result did not have coccidioidomycosis. PMID:20357210

  13. A Reassessment of IgM Memory Subsets in Humans.

    PubMed

    Bagnara, Davide; Squillario, Margherita; Kipling, David; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M; Da Silva, Lucie; Weller, Sandra; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès

    2015-10-15

    From paired blood and spleen samples from three adult donors, we performed high-throughput VH sequencing of human B cell subsets defined by IgD and CD27 expression: IgD(+)CD27(+) ("marginal zone [MZ]"), IgD(-)CD27(+) ("memory," including IgM ["IgM-only"], IgG and IgA) and IgD(-)CD27(-) cells ("double-negative," including IgM, IgG, and IgA). A total of 91,294 unique sequences clustered in 42,670 clones, revealing major clonal expansions in each of these subsets. Among these clones, we further analyzed those shared sequences from different subsets or tissues for VH gene mutation, H-CDR3-length, and VH/JH usage, comparing these different characteristics with all sequences from their subset of origin for which these parameters constitute a distinct signature. The IgM-only repertoire profile differed notably from that of MZ B cells by a higher mutation frequency and lower VH4 and higher JH6 gene usage. Strikingly, IgM sequences from clones shared between the MZ and the memory IgG/IgA compartments showed a mutation and repertoire profile of IgM-only and not of MZ B cells. Similarly, all IgM clonal relationships (among MZ, IgM-only, and double-negative compartments) involved sequences with the characteristics of IgM-only B cells. Finally, clonal relationships between tissues suggested distinct recirculation characteristics between MZ and switched B cells. The "IgM-only" subset (including cells with its repertoire signature but higher IgD or lower CD27 expression levels) thus appear as the only subset showing precursor-product relationships with CD27(+) switched memory B cells, indicating that they represent germinal center-derived IgM memory B cells and that IgM memory and MZ B cells constitute two distinct entities. PMID:26355154

  14. Liver Abscesses and Hyper IgM Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ira; Rahangdale, Aarti; Bhatnagar, Sushmita

    2013-01-01

    Hyper IgM (HIGM) syndrome is an immunodeficiency that can lead to liver disease in more than 80% of affected males by an age of 20 years. Hepatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, and hepatocellular malignancies are common among them. We encountered two cases in children of less than 12 years who presented with typical manifestations of liver abscess and were later detected to have a concomitant underlying HIGM syndrome. PMID:24479081

  15. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of ?-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yao; Liu, Shuangfeng; Li, Juan; Meng, Yanfa; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Background Alpha-momorcharin (?-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG)2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa). Methodology/principal findings In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), ?-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of ?-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%–70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%–70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts. Conclusion/significance ?-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated ?-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with nanomaterials to be a targeting drug that can further decrease immunogenicity and side effects. Through nanotechnology we can make them low-release drugs, which can further prolong their half-life period in the human body. PMID:22802682

  16. Splenic extrafollicular reactions and BM plasma cells sustain IgM response associated with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Lawrence Han Boon; Thiam, Chung Hwee; Soh, Serena Ying; Angeli, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia associated with atherosclerotic disease is known to be associated with increased total and oxidized (ox) low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-specific IgM antibodies in circulation. However, the B-cell responses accounting for this increase remain to be elucidated. Here, we observed an association between total IgM and oxLDL-specific IgM autoantibodies with cholesterol in the plasma of hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Our findings also indicated that oxLDL-specific IgM autoantibodies production was restricted to the spleen, but not the lymph nodes. Further examination of the spleen revealed that the extrafollicular responses, but not germinal center reactions, were the dominant antibody-producing pathway. A quiescent population of IgM(+) plasma cells including oxLDL-specific IgM antibody secreting cells in BM also sustained the elevated IgM antibodies response in circulation. We determined that IgM(+) plasma cells in the BM were, at least in part, splenic derived by depleting CD11c(+) DCs and plasmablasts to disrupt the humoral responses. In addition, lowering hypercholesterolemia reduced IgM response by interfering with extrafollicular and BM responses. By elucidating the mechanism underlying the elevated IgM response observed in hypercholesterolemia, this study provides insight into novel immunotherapeutic avenues. PMID:25639537

  17. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  18. On VI Absorption Lines and the IGM Baryon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripp, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer has observed a large number of low-redshift QSOs and AGNs, and the spectra of these objects show an array of remarkable absorption lines ranging from cold, molecular gas (e.g., traced by C I and H2) to highly ionized and hot gas (e.g., traced by O VI and Ne VIII transitions). Many of the gas clouds detected in UV absorption cannot be studied by any other technique, especially in intergalactic regions where the densities are likely to be quite low. The O VI absorption lines detected in intervening gas clouds have particularly important implications regarding the chemical enrichment, physical conditions, and baryonic content of intergalactic gas in the nearby universe. For example, these absorbers can be used to search for the "warm-hot intergalactic medium", a shock-heated phase of the IGM that is theoretically predicted to be a major baryon reservoir at the present epoch. This talk will briefly review studies of the low-z IGM based on ultraviolet observations of O VI and related absorption lines, including findings on the metallicity, ionization, and cosmological mass of these systems as well as their relationships with galaxies. While the deployment of FUSE has led to substantial progress, the observations have also raised new questions. The talk will conclude with a few comments on outstanding questions and goals for future observations.

  19. Heavy element enrichment in the IGM at high redshift

    E-print Network

    S. Savaglio

    1997-09-16

    We present a detailed analysis of the ionisation state and heavy element abundances in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). The CIV doublet is shown by 30 % of the 182 selected optically thin \\lya clouds in 10 QSO lines of sight. Direct metallicity calculations have been performed on individual systems with detected CIV and SiIV (10% of the sample) varying the UV photoionising source, cloud density and size and silicon relative abundance. The best solutions for carbon content in this subsample (redshift coverage $z=2.6 - 3.8$) span between 1/6 and 1/300 of the solar value with no evidence of redshift evolution in both the metallicity and the ionising source. Global properties of the whole sample indicate that the metallicity in \\lya clouds with CIV and SiIV is not typical of the IGM. The redshift evolution of the UVB is one of the possible sources of the observed SiIV/CIV trend presented by Cowie and collaborators during this meeting. Future detection of heavy elements in lower HI column density ($\\log N_{HI} < 14.5$) \\lya clouds relies on the presence of OVI and NV at $z=1-2.5$.

  20. Non-covalent association of IgM subunits produced by reduction and alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Parkhouse, R. M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Purified IgM isolated from the serum of mice bearing the transplantable plasmacytoma MOPC 104E was reduced and alkylated and then analysed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and by sodium dodecyl sulphate—polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. On partial reduction a mixture of IgM subunits was obtained in the absence of covalently linked 19S IgM. When examined under dissociating conditions this mixture was found to consist of disulphide-linked 7S subunits (IgMs), small amounts of HL subunits and oligomeric IgM of a size intermediate between monomeric and pentameric IgM. In the absence of a dissociating agent and on sucrose density gradient, however, the mixture resolved into a 19S and a 7S peak. The 19S peak consisted primarily of oligomeric IgM and IgMs with small amounts of HL subunits. Thus alkylated IgMs and HL subunits of IgM can associate through non-covalent forces to form a molecule sedimenting at 19S, providing oligomeric forms are present. In the absence of oligomeric forms, IgMs, HL subunits and heavy and light chains sediment at about 7S. The products of partial reduction which sediment at 7S and 19S could also be isolated by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When this was done J chain was absent in the former and present in the latter, raising the possibility that J chain does not disulphide bond to each of the five IgMs subunits, constituting an IgM molecule. Thus, within cells secreting IgM, J chain would be expected to mediate the formation of an oligomeric form of IgM. Once the oligomeric structure has been assembled, then non-covalent forces between this and IgMs subunits will cause the formation of a 19S structure, thereby facilitating the final assembly through disulphide bonds. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:4217776

  1. The contribution of naturally occurring IgM antibodies, IgM cross-reactivity and complement dependency in murine humoral responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah E; Taylor, Philip R; McGreal, Eamon; Zamze, Susanne; Wong, Simon Y C

    2009-09-25

    Immunogenicity of 12 capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from Streptococcus pneumoniae did not correlate with pre-existing levels of natural IgM anti-CPS antibodies in mice. Immunization of mice with individual CPS, with the exception of type 14 (the only neutral CPS tested), increased serum IgM that also bound other CPS serotypes independent of structural similarity or commonly known contaminants. Surprisingly only IgM response to type 4 (which has a small immunodominant epitope) was dependent on either complement C3 or complement receptors CD35/CD21. IgG anti-CPS responses were infrequently induced, but critically dependent on complement. Our results have clarified the role of complement in the induction of IgM and IgG anti-CPS antibody responses in mice and have implications for CPS vaccine development. PMID:19660585

  2. Identification of a Novel Host-Specific IgM Protease in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Seele, Jana; Singpiel, Alena; Spoerry, Christian; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a highly invasive, extracellular pathogen in pigs with the capacity to cause severe infections in humans. This study was initiated by the finding that IgM degradation products are released after opsonization of S. suis. The objective of this work was to identify the bacterial factor responsible for IgM degradation. The results of this study showed that a member of the IdeS family, designated IdeSsuis (Immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of S. suis), is responsible and sufficient for IgM cleavage. Recombinant IdeSsuis was found to degrade only IgM but neither IgG nor IgA. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that IdeSsuis is host specific, as it exclusively cleaves porcine IgM but not IgM from six other species, including a closely related member of the Suidae family. As demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, IdeSsuis modulates binding of IgM to the bacterial surface. IdeSsuis is the first prokaryotic IgM-specific protease described, indicating that this enzyme is involved in a so-far-unknown mechanism of host-pathogen interaction at an early stage of the host immune response. Furthermore, cleavage of porcine IgM by IdeSsuis is the first identified phenotype reflecting functional adaptation of S. suis to pigs as the main host. PMID:23243300

  3. The Long Elusive IgM Fc Receptor, Fc?R

    PubMed Central

    Kubagawa, Hiromi; Oka, Satoshi; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Torii, Ikuko; Takayama, Eiji; Kang, Dong-Won; Jones, Dewitt; Nishida, Naonori; Miyawaki, Toshio; Bertoli, Luigi F.; Sanders, Sheila K.; Honjo, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    IgM exists as both a monomer on the surface of B cells and a pentamer secreted by plasma cells. Both preimmune “natural” and antigen-induced “immune” IgM antibodies are important for protective immunity and for immune regulation of autoimmune processes by recognizing pathogens and self-antigens. Effector proteins interacting with the Fc portion of IgM, such as complement and complement receptors, have thus far been proposed but fail to fully account for the IgM-mediated protection and regulation. A major reason for this deficit in our understanding of IgM function seems to be lack of data on a long elusive Fc receptor for IgM (Fc?R). We have recently identified a bona fide Fc?R in both humans and mice. In this article we briefly review what we have learned so far about Fc?R. PMID:24793544

  4. IgM autoagglutinins in warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a poor prognostic feature.

    PubMed

    McCann, E L; Shirey, R S; Kickler, T S; Ness, P M

    1992-01-01

    The presence of both complete IgM autoagglutinins and IgG autoantibodies in warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an uncommon finding. Over a 6-year period, only 5 of 115 (4.1%) patients with AIHA had IgM and IgG autoantibodies. In 3 of the 5 cases, the complete IgM autoagglutinins reacted up to 30 degrees C and these patients responded well to corticosteroid or other therapies for warm AIHA. The 2 patients who had warm (37 degrees C) reactive IgM autoagglutinins, were refractory to corticosteroids, splenectomy and cytotoxic drugs, and died due to the complications of hemolytic anemia. The data in these 5 cases suggest that the thermal amplitude of the IgM antibody in these unusual AIHA cases may be predictive of refractoriness to therapy and poor clinical outcome. PMID:1466193

  5. Anti-HDV IgM as a Marker of Disease Activity in Hepatitis Delta

    PubMed Central

    Wranke, Anika; Heidrich, Benjamin; Ernst, Stefanie; Calle Serrano, Beatriz; Caruntu, Florin Alexandru; Curescu, Manuela Gabriela; Yalcin, Kendal; Gürel, Selim; Zeuzem, Stefan; Erhardt, Andreas; Lüth, Stefan; Papatheodoridis, George V.; Bremer, Birgit; Stift, Judith; Grabowski, Jan; Kirschner, Janina; Port, Kerstin; Cornberg, Markus; Falk, Christine S.; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Hardtke, Svenja; Manns, Michael P.; Yurdaydin, Cihan; Wedemeyer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis delta frequently leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation. As treatment options are limited, there is a need for biomarkers to determine disease activity and to predict the risk of disease progression. We hypothesized that anti-HDV IgM could represent such a marker. Methods Samples of 120 HDV-infected patients recruited in an international multicenter treatment trial (HIDIT-2) were studied. Anti-HDV IgM testing was performed using ETI-DELTA-IGMK-2-assay (DiaSorin). In addition, fifty cytokines, chemokines and angiogenetic factors were measured using multiplex technology (Bio-Plex System). A second independent cohort of 78 patients was studied for the development of liver-related clinical endpoints (decompensation, HCC, liver transplantation or death; median follow up of 3.0 years, range 0.6–12). Results Anti-HDV IgM serum levels were negative in 18 (15%), low (OD<0.5) in 76 (63%), and high in 26 (22%) patients of the HIDIT-2 cohort. Anti-HDV IgM were significantly associated with histological inflammatory (p<0.01) and biochemical disease activity (ALT, AST p<0.01). HDV replication was independent from anti-HDV IgM, however, low HBV-DNA levels were observed in groups with higher anti-HDV IgM levels (p<0.01). While high IP-10 (CXCL10) levels were seen in greater groups of anti-HDV IgM levels, various other antiviral cytokines were negatively associated with anti-HDV IgM. Associations between anti-HDV IgM and ALT, AST, HBV-DNA were confirmed in the independent cohort. Clinical endpoints occurred in 26 anti-HDV IgM positive patients (39%) but in only one anti-HDV IgM negative individual (9%; p?=?0.05). Conclusions Serum anti-HDV IgM is a robust, easy-to-apply and relatively cheap marker to determine disease activity in hepatitis delta which has prognostic implications. High anti-HDV IgM levels may indicate an activated interferon system but exhausted antiviral immunity. PMID:25072849

  6. Age-related aspects of human IgM(+) B cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Victoria; Wu, Yu-Chang; Kipling, David; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2015-12-01

    The CD27(+) IgD(+) B cell population, known as IgM memory, reduces with age. It is thought that this population is responsible for pneumococcal polysaccharide T-independent responses, and that the age-related reduction might be partially responsible for the increased susceptibility of older people to bacterial pathogens. There are other IgM(+) B cell populations that do not express IgD. We compared the different IgM populations using high-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene repertoire and multidimensional cell phenotyping and found that the different populations of IgM cells, defined by CD27 and IgD expression, have repertoire differences. Some of these differences are likely indicative of different selection pressures in an immune response, although the older individuals were found to have a changed repertoire in naive B cells, which may contribute to some of the changes seen in memory cells. In addition, even within the CD27(+) IgD(+) IgM memory population there are multiple cell types. We show that the level of IgM expression varies substantially and hypothesize that this distinguishes between T-dependent and T-independent types of IgM memory cells. Significant age-related changes in the relative proportions of these populations may exacerbate the reduction in T-independent responders in old age. PMID:26152370

  7. IgM nephropathy; can we still ignore it

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, Aruna

    2013-01-01

    Context:IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is a relatively less recognized clinico-immunopathological entity in the domain of glomerulonephritis , often thought to be a bridge between minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. Results: IgM nephropathy can present as nephritic syndrome or less commonly with subnephrotic proteinuria or rarely hematuria. About 30% patients respond to steroids whereas others are steroid dependent / resistant. They should be given a trial of Rituximab or stem cell therapy. Conclusions:IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is an important and rather neglected pathology responsible for renal morbidity in children and adults in developing countries as compared to developed nations with incidence of 2-18.5% of native biopsies. Abnormal T-cell function with hyperfunctioning suppressor T-cells are believed to be responsible for this disease entity. Approximately one third of the patients are steroid responders where as the remaining two thirds are steroid resistant or dependent. Therapeutic trials including cell therapies targeting suppressor T-cells are required. PMID:24475434

  8. IgM Myeloma or Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia Is the Big Question?

    PubMed Central

    BHATT, Vijaya Raj; MURUKUTLA, Srujitha; NAQI, Muniba; PANT, Shradha; KEDIA, Shiksha; TERJANIAN, Terenig

    2014-01-01

    Although critical from therapeutic and prognostic perspectives, differentiating IgM Myeloma (MM) from Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is fraught with failure. WM can usually be distinguished from IgM MM by the lymphoplasmacytic versus pure plasmacytic morphology, absent versus present lytic bone lesions, and immunophenotypic findings. However, all these features have their own limitations; hence, it requires constant vigilance and periodic re-evaluation. Here we describe a case of a 70-year-old woman initially diagnosed as smoldering IgM MM, who eventually turned out to have WM. PMID:25553130

  9. Suppressor T cells prevent in vitro expression of IgM rheumatoid factor in some healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, W.J.

    1981-12-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from 11 of 30 healthy adults elaborated detectable IgM RF when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. The influence of T cells on IgM RF production by autologous B Cells prepared from donors whose unfractionated MNL synthesized IgM RF in response to PMW was investigated. Untreated T cells supported IgM RF production by autologous B cells with optimal synthesis observed at T:B cell ratios of 2:1 at higher T:B cell ratios a decline in IgM RF production occurred. In contrast, at higher T:B cell ratios irradiated T cells supported consistently higher levels of IgM RF production than untreated T cells suggesting the presence of radiosensitive suppressor T cells for IgM RF in these individuals. Irridiated T cells were compared to untreated T cells for capacity to support IgM RF production by autologous B cells from 12 randomly selected donors at T:B cell ratios of 3:1. Untreated T cells from 4 of 12 individuals were capable of cooperating in induction of IgM RF production by autologous B cells, whereas irradiated T cells supported IgM RF production in 6 of 12 individuals. Levels of IgM RF production in all 6 individuals were significantly higher with irradiated T cells than with untreated T cells; in 2 individuals IgM RF synthesis by autologous B cells was observed only in the presence of irradiated T cells. In 4 of 6 individuals increases in the ratio of IgM RF total IgM synthesis occured with irradiated T cells (when compared to untreated T cells), suggesting disproportionate suppression of RF production. These results indicate the presence of radiosensitive T cells capable of suppressing IgM RF production in a significant fraction of healthy adults and raise the possibility that these cells may regulate in vivo expression of RF.

  10. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Emily E.; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C.; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration. PMID:26121639

  11. Comparative Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test for the Detection of IgM Antibodies by Using Conventional Serology.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Hugh W F; Blacksell, Stuart D; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Basnyat, Buddha; Day, Nicholas P J; Paris, Daniel H

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the comparative accuracy of a recombinant 56-kDa type-specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for scrub typhus for the detection of IgM antibodies by using conventional serology in well-characterized serum samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients. The RDT showed high specificity and promising comparative accuracy, with 82% sensitivity and 98% specificity for samples defined positive at an IgM indirect immunofluorescence assay positivity cutoff titer of ?1:1,600 versus 92% and 95% at ?1:6,400, respectively. PMID:26291089

  12. Comparative Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test for the Detection of IgM Antibodies by Using Conventional Serology

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Hugh W. F.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Basnyat, Buddha; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative accuracy of a recombinant 56-kDa type-specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for scrub typhus for the detection of IgM antibodies by using conventional serology in well-characterized serum samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients. The RDT showed high specificity and promising comparative accuracy, with 82% sensitivity and 98% specificity for samples defined positive at an IgM indirect immunofluorescence assay positivity cutoff titer of ?1:1,600 versus 92% and 95% at ?1:6,400, respectively. PMID:26291089

  13. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked hyper IgM syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... germs, marking them for destruction. There are several classes of antibodies, and each one has a different ... IgM syndrome have low levels of three other classes of antibodies: immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), ...

  14. [Comparison of methods for the demonstration of Treponema-specific IgM].

    PubMed

    Panuccio, A; Borroni, G; Gelosa, L

    1989-01-01

    In this research 113 sera have been analysed with three methods for IgM treponema-specific determination: IgM-SPHA, IgM-EIA and 19S IgM FTA-ABS. Among these sera, 33 samples related to non-treated patients at different stages of infection, and 80 samples to treated patients. The results point out a light sensibility of the IgM-SPHA in primary lues. The IgM-EIA test has performed a good specificity, but displayed a sensibility lower to the 19S IgM FTA-ABS, which proved the best of tests. About the cases of treated lues at different stages, in 23 samples with VDRL negative has been found no positivity at three tests used, while in 49 samples with VDRL positive 8 are resulted positive at 19S IgM FTA-ABS. PMID:2518811

  15. Ground and Space-based Imaging of the IGM with CWI, FIREBALL, and ISTOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher

    I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed designed to discover and map emission from the IGM. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2 < z < 6. FIREBALL is a balloonborne telescope/spectrometer that will search for IGM emission in the 0.3 < z < 1.0 range in the UV balloon window at 2000 Angstroms. ISTOS (Imaging Spectroscopic Telescope for Origins Surveys) is a proposed SMEX mission to discover and map baryons in the IGM from 0.05 < z < 2 over the 1250-2800 Angstrom range. All three experiments are integral field spectrometers designed to detect low surface brightness emission and reject point and diffuse foregrounds, and all have sensitives required to detect IGM and Circum-Galactic Medium emission at levels predicted by three independent cosmological simulations.

  16. Vesiculovirus Neutralization by Natural IgM and Complement

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Mulu Z.; Ammayappan, Arun; Federspiel, Mark J.; Barber, Glen N.; Stojdl, David; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because of its very low human seroprevalence, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has promise as a systemic oncolytic agent for human cancer therapy. However, as demonstrated in this report, the VSV infectious titer drops by 4 log units during the first hour of exposure to nonimmune human serum. This neutralization occurs relatively slowly and is mediated by the concerted actions of natural IgM and complement. Maraba virus, whose G protein is about 80% homologous to that of VSV, is relatively resistant to the neutralizing activity of nonimmune human serum. We therefore constructed and rescued a recombinant VSV whose G gene was replaced by the corresponding gene from Maraba virus. Comparison of the parental VSV and VSV with Maraba G substituted revealed nearly identical host range properties and replication kinetics on a panel of tumor cell lines. Moreover, in contrast to the parental VSV, the VSV with Maraba G substituted was resistant to nonimmune human serum. Overall, our data suggest that VSV with Maraba G substituted should be further investigated as a candidate for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy applications. IMPORTANCE Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of disseminated cancers, but antibody neutralization of circulating oncolytic virus particles remains a formidable barrier. In this work, we developed a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with a glycoprotein of Maraba virus, a closely related but serologically distinct member of the family Rhabdoviridae, which demonstrated greatly diminished susceptibility to both nonimmune and VSV-immune serum neutralization. VSV with Maraba G substituted or lentiviral vectors should therefore be further investigated as candidates for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy applications. PMID:24648451

  17. Physiological IgM Class Catalytic Antibodies Selective for Transthyretin Amyloid*

    PubMed Central

    Planque, Stephanie A.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Hara, Mariko; Sonoda, Sari; Murphy, Sarah K.; Watanabe, Kenji; Mitsuda, Yukie; Brown, Eric L.; Massey, Richard J.; Primmer, Stanley R.; O'Nuallain, Brian; Paul, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Peptide bond-hydrolyzing catalytic antibodies (catabodies) could degrade toxic proteins, but acquired immunity principles have not provided evidence for beneficial catabodies. Transthyretin (TTR) forms misfolded ?-sheet aggregates responsible for age-associated amyloidosis. We describe nucleophilic catabodies from healthy humans without amyloidosis that degraded misfolded TTR (misTTR) without reactivity to the physiological tetrameric TTR (phyTTR). IgM class B cell receptors specifically recognized the electrophilic analog of misTTR but not phyTTR. IgM but not IgG class antibodies hydrolyzed the particulate and soluble misTTR species. No misTTR-IgM binding was detected. The IgMs accounted for essentially all of the misTTR hydrolytic activity of unfractionated human serum. The IgMs did not degrade non-amyloidogenic, non-superantigenic proteins. Individual monoclonal IgMs (mIgMs) expressed variable misTTR hydrolytic rates and differing oligoreactivity directed to amyloid ? peptide and microbial superantigen proteins. A subset of the mIgMs was monoreactive for misTTR. Excess misTTR was dissolved by a hydrolytic mIgM. The studies reveal a novel antibody property, the innate ability of IgMs to selectively degrade and dissolve toxic misTTR species as a first line immune function. PMID:24648510

  18. Natural IgM is Produced by CD5? Plasma Cells that Occupy a Distinct Survival Niche in Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Alexander E.; Kuraoka, Masayuki; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2014-01-01

    Natural IgM is constitutively present in the serum, where it aids in the early control of viral and bacterial expansion. Natural IgM also plays a significant role in the prevention of autoimmune disease by promoting the clearance of cellular debris. Nevertheless, the origins of natural IgM have not been precisely defined. Previous studies have focused on the role of CD5+ B1 cells in the production of natural IgM, but we show here that a discrete population of CD5? IgM plasmablasts and plasma cells in the BM produces the majority of serum IgM in resting mice. These ASC originate from peritoneal cavity-resident cells, as transfer of peritoneal cells completely restores serum IgM and the specific compartment of BM ASC in Rag1-deficient mice. We show that BM natural IgM ASC arise from a fetal-lineage progenitor that is neither B1a nor B1b, and that this IgM ASC compartment contains a substantial fraction of long-lived plasma cells that do not occupy the IgG plasma cell survival niche in the BM, but are instead supported by IL-5. In summary, we have identified the primary source of natural IgM, and shown that these ASC are maintained long-term in a unique survival niche within the BM. PMID:25429072

  19. Functional characterization of IgM+ B cells and adaptive immunity in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.).

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, Anita; Ghebretnsae, Dawit B; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Haugland, Gyri T

    2015-10-01

    The innate immune responses in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) have been shown to be functional, but little is currently known about the B cells, immunoglobulins or adaptive immune responses in this species. We have used anti-IgM antiserum to isolate B cells and compared them morphologically and functionally with other cell types. The fraction of IgM(+) cells among isolated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocytes (HKL) and spleen leukocytes (SL) was in the range of 40%, 12% and 34%, respectively. The IgM(+) B cells had high phagocytic ability and were the predominant phagocytes in blood with higher capacity than IgM(+) B cells in HKL. Interestingly, among PBL, the most potent phagocytes were, in addition to monocytes, some small agranular uncharacterized IgM(-) cells. The IgM(+) B cells were positive for acid phosphatases (AcP), but negative for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophils were positive for MPO, while monocytes/macrophages and dendritic-like cells stained negatively. Monocytes/macrophages and the small, agranular IgM(-) cells stained most strongly positive for AcP corresponding to their high phagocytic capacity. Further, the ability to produce specific antibodies upon immunization verified adaptive immunity in the species. The high proportion of phagocytic IgM(+) B cells and their phagocytic ability indicate a significant role of phagocytic B cells in lumpfish innate immunity. The present analyses also give strong indications that vaccination and immunostimulation of farmed lumpfish can be used to prevent disease and mortality caused by pathogenic organisms. PMID:26021455

  20. The Omentum Is a Site of Protective IgM Production during Intracellular Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Derek D.; Racine, Rachael; Wittmer, Susan T.; Harston, Louise; Papillion, Amber M.; Dishaw, Lisa M.; Randall, Troy D.; Woodland, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Infection of mice with the bacterium Ehrlichia muris elicits a protective T cell-independent (TI) IgM response mediated primarily by a population of CD11c-expressing plasmablasts in the spleen. Although splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells are considered to be important for TI responses to blood-borne pathogens, MZ B cells were not responsible for generating plasmablasts in response to Ehrlichia muris. Moreover, antigen-specific serum IgM was decreased only modestly in splenectomized mice and in mice that lacked spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches (SLP mice). Both splenectomized and SLP mice were protected against lethal ehrlichial challenge infection. Moreover, we found a high frequency of Ehrlichia-specific plasmablasts in the omentum of both conventional and SLP mice. Omental plasmablasts elicited during Ehrlichia infection lacked expression of CD138 but expressed CD11c in a manner similar to that of their splenic counterparts. Selective ablation of CD11c-expressing B cells nearly eliminated the omental Ehrlichia-specific plasmablasts and reduced antigen-specific serum IgM, identifying the omental B cells as a source of IgM production in the SLP mice. Generation of the omental plasmablasts was route dependent, as they were detected following peritoneal infection but not following intravenous infection. Our data identify the omentum as an important auxiliary site of IgM production during intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:25776744

  1. Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E. Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50× 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM+) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG+ plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

  2. The omentum is a site of protective IgM production during intracellular bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek D; Racine, Rachael; Wittmer, Susan T; Harston, Louise; Papillion, Amber M; Dishaw, Lisa M; Randall, Troy D; Woodland, David L; Winslow, Gary M

    2015-05-01

    Infection of mice with the bacterium Ehrlichia muris elicits a protective T cell-independent (TI) IgM response mediated primarily by a population of CD11c-expressing plasmablasts in the spleen. Although splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells are considered to be important for TI responses to blood-borne pathogens, MZ B cells were not responsible for generating plasmablasts in response to Ehrlichia muris. Moreover, antigen-specific serum IgM was decreased only modestly in splenectomized mice and in mice that lacked spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches (SLP mice). Both splenectomized and SLP mice were protected against lethal ehrlichial challenge infection. Moreover, we found a high frequency of Ehrlichia-specific plasmablasts in the omentum of both conventional and SLP mice. Omental plasmablasts elicited during Ehrlichia infection lacked expression of CD138 but expressed CD11c in a manner similar to that of their splenic counterparts. Selective ablation of CD11c-expressing B cells nearly eliminated the omental Ehrlichia-specific plasmablasts and reduced antigen-specific serum IgM, identifying the omental B cells as a source of IgM production in the SLP mice. Generation of the omental plasmablasts was route dependent, as they were detected following peritoneal infection but not following intravenous infection. Our data identify the omentum as an important auxiliary site of IgM production during intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:25776744

  3. Natural IgM: Beneficial autoantibodies for the control of inflammatory and autoimmune disease?

    PubMed Central

    Grönwall, Caroline; Silverman, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    Natural IgM are highly represented in the circulation at birth, and these often autoreactive antibodies have been postulated to have innate-like properties and play crucial roles in apoptotic cell clearance, tissue homeostasis, and immune modulation. This review summarizes the known properties of these IgM autoantibodies, and the evidence that these anti-apoptotic cell IgM natural antibodies can regulate inflammatory responses through ancient pathways of the innate immune system that first arose long before the initial emergence of the adaptive immune system. While the regulatory contributions of these natural IgM autoantibodies are certainly not an essential and fundamental component of host defenses, these provide an additional layer to further protect the host. More importantly, these IgM antibody responses are highly inducible and their up-regulation can be a powerful means for the host to survive in a setting of chronic inflammation. The observed beneficial clinical associations for cardiovascular disease and autoimmunity, as well as opportunities for potential therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:24691998

  4. West Nile virus IgM and IgG antibodies three years post- infection

    PubMed Central

    Papa, A; Anastasiadou, A; Delianidou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) causes to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic infection to severe neuroinvasive disease. In a previous study, it was shown that WNV IgM antibodies persisted in three of 26 (12%) patients, nine months after onset of the symptoms. The aim of the present study was to test 10 of these patients, three years post-infection for probable persistence of IgM antibodies and to investigate their IgG antibody patterns. Material and Methods: In summer 2013 serum samples were collected from 10 persons who were infected with WNV in 2010; 6 of them had a neuroinvasive disease. The three persons with detectable WNV IgM antibodies, nine months after onset of the symptoms, were included in the study. All samples were tested by ELISA in parallel with their stored paired samples taken in 2011. The positive results were confirmed by neutralization test. Results: WNV IgM antibodies were still detectable in the three persons, while high levels of WNV IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in nine of the 10 persons, regardless the involvement of the nervous system. Conclusions: WNV IgM antibodies persist for more than three years in 12% of patients with WNV infection, while WNV IgG antibodies persist and even increase their levels, regardless the involvement of the nervous system, suggesting that the immune response in the symptomatic WNV infections is strong and long-lasting. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 34-36. PMID:26435644

  5. Identification of the minimal binding region of a Plasmodium falciparum IgM binding PfEMP1 domain

    PubMed Central

    Semblat, Jean-Philippe; Ghumra, Ashfaq; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Wallis, Russell; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Raza, Ahmed; Rowe, J.Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Binding of host immunoglobulin is a common immune evasion mechanism demonstrated by microbial pathogens. Previous work showed that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum binds the Fc-region of human IgM molecules, resulting in a coating of IgM on the surface of infected erythrocytes. IgM binding is a property of P. falciparum strains showing virulence-related phenotypes such as erythrocyte rosetting. The parasite ligands for IgM binding are members of the diverse P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein One (PfEMP1) family. However, little is known about the amino acid sequence requirements for IgM binding. Here we studied an IgM binding domain from a rosette-mediating PfEMP1 variant, DBL4? of TM284var1, and found that the minimal IgM binding region mapped to the central region of the DBL domain, comprising all of subdomain 2 and adjoining parts of subdomains 1 and 3. Site-directed mutagenesis of charged amino acids within subdomain 2, predicted by molecular modelling to form the IgM binding site, showed no marked effect on IgM binding properties. Overall, this study identifies the minimal IgM binding region of a PfEMP1 domain, and indicates that the existing homology model of PfEMP1-IgM interaction is incorrect. Further work is needed to identify the specific interaction site for IgM within the minimal binding region of PfEMP1. PMID:26094597

  6. Reversal of IgM deficiency following a gluten-free diet in seronegative celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Lucia; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giorgio, Floriana; Covelli, Claudia; Fiore, Maria Grazia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Iannone, Andrea; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo; Principi, Mariabeatrice

    2014-01-01

    Selective IgM deficiency (sIGMD) is very rare; it may be associated with celiac disease (CD). We present the case of an 18-year-old man with sIGMD masking seronegative CD. Symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Laboratory tests showed reduced IgM, DQ2-HLA and negative anti-transglutaminase. Villous atrophy and diffuse immature lymphocytes were observed at histology. Tissue transglutaminase mRNA mucosal levels showed a 6-fold increase. The patient was treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and six months later the symptoms had disappeared, the villous architecture was restored and mucosal tissue transglutaminase mRNA was comparable to that of healthy subjects. After 1 year of GFD, a complete restoration of normal IgM values was observed and duodenal biopsy showed a reduction of immature lymphocytes and normal appearance of mature immune cells. PMID:25516687

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the Hepatitis delta virus

    SciTech Connect

    Farci, P.; Gerin, J.L.; Aragona, M.; Lindsey, I.; Crivelli, O.; Balestrieri, A.; Smedile, A.; Thomas, H.C.; Rizzetto, M.

    1986-03-21

    The IgM class antibody to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was determined in different clinical categories of hepatitis B surface antigen carriers infected by the HDV (positive in the test for total antibody to HDV). The IgM antibody was found at high titers in each 70 patients with inflammatory liver disease and at a low titer in one six patients with inactive cirrhosis; it was not found in eight carriers with normal liver histology. Testing for Igm antibody to HDV distinguishes hepatitis B surface antigen carriers who have underlying inflammatory HDV liver disease from those with past HDV infection and provides prognostic information on the course of chronic HDV hepatitis.

  8. Cold urticaria associated with C4 deficiency and elevated IgM.

    PubMed

    Stafford, C T; Jamieson, D M

    1986-04-01

    Various immunologic abnormalities have been implicated in cold urticaria. This is the first report of cold urticaria associated with C4 deficiency and elevated IgM. A 12-year-old male developed urticaria upon exposure to cold. He denied fever, purpura, hemoglobinuria, Raynaud's disease, or arthralgias. Family history was negative for cold urticaria. Immunologic studies revealed elevated IgM (186 mg/dL) as well as decreased CH100 and C4 (8.0 mg/dL). C1, C2, and C3 were normal. Ice cube skin test was positive, but passive transfer tests were negative. Biopsy was not diagnostic for vasculitis, although it revealed a few immunofluorescent deposits of IgM and C4. Complement genetic studies revealed deficiency of two half-null C4 haplotypes expressed as C4A*3QO and B*2QO. PMID:3963523

  9. Antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 2 pathway suppresses IL-6-induced immunoglobulin IgM secretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed predominantly in the immune system, particularly in plasma cells, raising the possibility that targeting the CB2 pathway could yield an immunomodulatory effect. Although the role of CB2 in mediating immunoglobulin class switching has been reported, the effects of targeting the CB2 pathway on immunoglobulin secretion per se remain unclear. Methods Human B cell line SKW 6.4, which is capable of differentiating into IgM-secreting cells once treated with human IL-6, was employed as the cell model. SKW 6.4 cells were incubated for 4 days with CB2 ligands plus IL-6 (100 U/ml). The amount of secreted IgM was determined by an ELISA. Cell proliferation was determined by the 3H-Thymidine incorporation assay. Signal molecules involved in the modulation of IgM secretion were examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses or by using their specific inhibitors. Results We demonstrated that CB2 inverse agonists SR144528 and AM630, but not CB2 agonist HU308 or CB1 antagonist SR141716, effectively inhibited IL-6-induced secretion of soluble IgM without affecting cell proliferation as measured by thymidine uptake. SR144528 alone had no effects on the basal levels of IgM in the resting cells. These effects were receptor mediated, as pretreatment with CB2 agonist abrogated SR144528-mediated inhibition of IL-6 stimulated IgM secretion. Transcription factors relevant to B cell differentiation, Bcl-6 and PAX5, as well as the protein kinase STAT3 pathway were involved in the inhibition of IL-6-induced IgM by SR144528. Conclusions These results uncover a novel function of CB2 antagonists and suggest that CB2 ligands may be potential modulators of immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:24913620

  10. IgM characterization directly performed in crude culture supernatants by a new simple electrophoretic method.

    PubMed

    Vorauer-Uhl, Karola; Wallner, Jakob; Lhota, Gabriele; Katinger, Hermann; Kunert, Renate

    2010-07-31

    A new electrophoretic technique for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of IgM isoforms and fragments has been developed. IgMs which are more complex than many other recombinantly expressed immunoglobulins are characterized by their high molecular weighted active forms and many additional isoforms and fragments in the molecular range between 25 and 1200kDa. To analyze the multimers, isoforms and fragments simultaneously a high-resolution method, which enables sufficient migration and separation is required. Furthermore, this method should be appropriate to analyze IgMs in crude culture supernatants as well as purified samples. Simple sample preparation avoiding unspecific protein loss has been established. Currently no standard method to analyze all of them accordingly is available. The IgM-SDS-PAGE investigated for this purpose includes all these aspects. The combination of simple sample preparation and the application of precast gels make this electrophoretic method suitable for research but also quality control. The selective quantification of the multimers and the relative isoform distribution were performed by sensitive Sypro Ruby staining obtaining reliable and reproducible data in clone screening and process development which has been demonstrated by recombinantly expressed IgMs with significantly different isoform pattern. PMID:20493871

  11. The Insertion Green Monster (iGM) Method for Expression of Multiple Exogenous Genes in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Roth, Frederick

    1 The Insertion Green Monster (iGM) Method for Expression of Multiple Exogenous Genes in Yeast to this work. 2 Corresponding authors. G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics Early Online, published on April 28, 2014 from higher eukaryotes, including humans. However, studies of complex exogenous pathways using yeast

  12. Atypical IgM multiple myeloma with deletion of c-MAF.

    PubMed

    Juárez Salcedo, L M; López Rubio, M; Gil Fernández, J J; Garcia-Suarez, J; Magro, E; Arranz, E; Gutiérrez Jomarrón, I; Marcellini Antonio, S; Blasco, A; Burgaleta, C

    2015-10-01

    IgM multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare subtype of myeloma that shares clinical and pathological features with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. These are two separate entities that differ both in therapy and prognosis. We report a 57-year-old male, who presented with anaemia, hypercalcaemia, acute renal failure and several vertebral fractures that clinically suggested a multiple myeloma. Further investigations revealed a serum monoclonal component of IgM lambda type and a bone marrow infiltrated by small, lymphoplasmocytic cells. IgM MM was finally diagnosed by means of both inmunophenotypic and immunohistochemistry techniques, stressing the importance of inmunophenotypic evaluation when clinical and morphological features are discordant. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies disclosed a particular combination of deletion 13q14, t(11;14) and monoallelic deletion C-MAF without t(14;16). The clinical evolution after a Bortezomib-containing polychemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) conditioned with busulphan and melphalan is also presented. This very uncommon case highlights the impact of immunophenotyping on the differential diagnosis between IgM MM and WM, to choose the best treatment and establish an appropriate outcome. PMID:25996654

  13. Warm Dark Matter, the Temperature of the IGM, and the Ly-Forest

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    Warm Dark Matter, the Temperature of the IGM, and the Ly- Forest Adam Lidz (CfA) DM_MCFP: April 2 dark matter and is a well-motivated particle DM candidate! #12;Sterile Neutrinos · One piece of beyond to explain atmospheric/solar oscillation data. · 3rd lightest one could be the dark matter! Want > keV mass

  14. Baryonic Content in the Warm-Hot IGM at Low Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Shull, M.; Danforth, C.; Moos, W.

    2007-01-01

    Baryons are 4.5% of the universe's mass/energy density; only 10% of these are in stars, galaxies, and clusters. At low-redshift 90% of baryons are in the IGM, 30% in Ly-alpha forest, but most are in hot gas (10(exp 5-7) K) produced by shocks during structure formation. O VI 1032-38 A are the best tracers of this gas. The distribution of O VI absorbers observed by FUSE rises as N(sup -2+/-0.2, down to 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Integrated to logN=13, 7% of baryons reside in the O VI-bearing IGM at 10% solar metallicity, T approx. 10(exp 5.5) K. At redshift z<0.1 metals have been transported less than 800/h kpc from L* galaxies and 200/h kpc from 0.1 L* galaxies. The steepness of dN/dz means that low-N absorbers contribute an equal mass of hot IGM as higher N gas. The total mass of O VI-bearing gas in the IGM depends on determining the turnover in dN/dz at low N(O VI). Future observations by FUSE are needed to reach lower N and to reduce the uncertainty in the dN/dz power law.

  15. Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark

    PubMed Central

    Rumfelt, Lynn L; Lohr, Rebecca L; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

    2004-01-01

    Background Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that, unlike in many other vertebrates, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) expressed at birth is functional. IgW is present in the lungfish, a bony fish sharing a common ancestor with sharks 460 million years ago, implying that the IgW VH family is as old as the IgM VH family. This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families. Results IgM and IgW VH cDNA clones isolated from newborn nurse shark primary and secondary lymphoid tissues had highly diverse and unique CDR3 with N-region addition and VDJ gene rearrangement, implicating functional TdT and RAG gene activity. Despite the clear presence of N-region additions, newborn CDR3 were significantly shorter than those of adults. The IgM clones are all included in a conventional VH family that can be classified into five discrete groups, none of which is orthologous to IgM VH genes in other elasmobranchs. In addition, a novel divergent VH family was orthologous to a published monotypic VH horn shark family. IgW VH genes have diverged sufficiently to form three families. IgM and IgW VH serine codons using the potential somatic hypermutation hotspot sequence occur mainly in VH framework 1 (FR1) and CDR1. Phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous fish and lungfish IgM and IgW demonstrated they form two major ancient gene groups; furthermore, these VH genes generally diversify (duplicate and diverge) within a species. Conclusion As in ratfish, sandbar and horn sharks, most nurse shark IgM VH genes are from one family with multiple, heterogeneous loci. Their IgW VH genes have diversified, forming at least three families. The neonatal shark Ig VH CDR3 repertoire, diversified via N-region addition, is shorter than the adult VDJ junction, suggesting one means of postnatal repertoire diversification is expression of longer CDR3 junctions. PMID:15132758

  16. Public Health Laboratory Service enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Toxoplasma specific IgM antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, R A; Joynson, D H; Balfour, A H; Harford, J P; Fleck, D G; Mythen, M; Saunders, R J

    1987-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the antibody class capture method for the detection of specific IgM against Toxoplasma gondii, using the microtitre plate format, was developed. Antigen binding was detected using a monoclonal antibody, CIE3, conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Prior mixing of the conjugate and antigen improved the stability of these reagents as well as removing an incubation stage from the assay. The incubation time of less than four hours permits a rapid throughput of specimens. Using the assay, a total of 163 sera were examined in a three centre study and good agreement was found. Results were expressed as arbitrary enzyme immunoassay units (EIUs) against a freeze dried standard. Throughout the study the standard serum showed a coefficient of variation less than 10% across the microtitre plate. By measuring IgM titres in patients having toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy with a known date of onset, IgM class antibodies were shown to peak at two months, persisting for about six months. In addition, a case of laboratory acquired toxoplasmosis was monitored. Sera shown to contain rheumatoid factor and antinuclear factor did not give false positive results. This rapid, robust, and simplified assay is used by the Public Health Laboratory Service Toxoplasma Reference Units and will provide a standard with which other assays can be compared. PMID:3558860

  17. IGM Constraints from the SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 Ly? Forest Transmission Probability Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Spergel, David N.; Weinberg, David H.; Hogg, David W.; Viel, Matteo; Bolton, James S.; Bailey, Stephen; Pieri, Matthew M.; Carithers, William; Schlegel, David J.; Lundgren, Britt; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Suzuki, Nao; Schneider, Donald P.; Yèche, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Ly? forest transmission probability distribution function (PDF) is an established probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM) astrophysics, especially the temperature-density relationship of the IGM. We measure the transmission PDF from 3393 Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) quasars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9, and compare with mock spectra that include careful modeling of the noise, continuum, and astrophysical uncertainties. The BOSS transmission PDFs, measured at langzrang = [2.3, 2.6, 3.0], are compared with PDFs created from mock spectra drawn from a suite of hydrodynamical simulations that sample the IGM temperature-density relationship, ?, and temperature at mean density, T 0, where T(?) = T 0?? - 1. We find that a significant population of partial Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with a column-density distribution slope of ?pLLS ~ - 2 are required to explain the data at the low-transmission end of transmission PDF, while uncertainties in the mean Ly? forest transmission affect the high-transmission end. After modeling the LLSs and marginalizing over mean transmission uncertainties, we find that ? = 1.6 best describes the data over our entire redshift range, although constraints on T 0 are affected by systematic uncertainties. Within our model framework, isothermal or inverted temperature-density relationships (? <= 1) are disfavored at a significance of over 4?, although this could be somewhat weakened by cosmological and astrophysical uncertainties that we did not model.

  18. Constraints on the IGM Temperature-Density Relationship from BOSS Lyman-? Forest Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, J.; Spergel, D. N.; Hogg, D. W.; Viel, M.; Pieri, M.; Bolton, J.; Bailey, S. J.; Ge, J.; Schlegel, D. J.; Suzuki, N.; BOSS Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The properties of the photoionized intergalactic medium (IGM) contain vital clues on the thermal history of the Universe, such as reionization events (both HI and HeII), quasar/AGN activity, and galaxy formation. We use 2541 quasar spectra from BOSS Data Release 9 to place constraints on the evolution of the IGM temperature-density relationship (usually parametrized as ?, where log T ? ? log ?) at 2.15IGM studies. We use a MCMC-based method to separate the photon-counting and CCD components of the spectral noise by differencing the individual exposures of each spectrum, while simultaneously providing accurate noise estimates. This allows us to create mock absorption spectra from detailed hydrodynamical simulations generated with different values of ?, with realistic noise properties tailored to each individual BOSS spectrum. For the continuum fitting, we use the mean-flux regulated PCA method, which allows accurate estimates 4% rms errors) of the underlying quasar continuum even in noisy spectra. Comparing the flux PDF from the mock spectra with the observed flux PDF from BOSS, we place constraints on the evolution of ? from z=3 to z=2 and discuss the results in the context of Helium reionization scenarios.

  19. IGM CONSTRAINTS FROM THE SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 Ly? FOREST TRANSMISSION PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Spergel, David N.; Weinberg, David H.; Hogg, David W.; Viel, Matteo; Bolton, James S.; Bailey, Stephen; Carithers, William; Schlegel, David J.; Pieri, Matthew M.; Lundgren, Britt; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-02-01

    The Ly? forest transmission probability distribution function (PDF) is an established probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM) astrophysics, especially the temperature-density relationship of the IGM. We measure the transmission PDF from 3393 Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) quasars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9, and compare with mock spectra that include careful modeling of the noise, continuum, and astrophysical uncertainties. The BOSS transmission PDFs, measured at (z) = [2.3, 2.6, 3.0], are compared with PDFs created from mock spectra drawn from a suite of hydrodynamical simulations that sample the IGM temperature-density relationship, ?, and temperature at mean density, T {sub 0}, where T(?) = T {sub 0}?{sup ?} {sup –} {sup 1}. We find that a significant population of partial Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with a column-density distribution slope of ?{sub pLLS} ? – 2 are required to explain the data at the low-transmission end of transmission PDF, while uncertainties in the mean Ly? forest transmission affect the high-transmission end. After modeling the LLSs and marginalizing over mean transmission uncertainties, we find that ? = 1.6 best describes the data over our entire redshift range, although constraints on T {sub 0} are affected by systematic uncertainties. Within our model framework, isothermal or inverted temperature-density relationships (? ? 1) are disfavored at a significance of over 4?, although this could be somewhat weakened by cosmological and astrophysical uncertainties that we did not model.

  20. francois.marechal@epfl.chIndustrialEnergySystemsLaboratory-LENI-IGM-STI-EPFL2012 Prof. Franois Marechal

    E-print Network

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    .ch©IndustrialEnergySystemsLaboratory-LENI-IGM-STI-EPFL2012 The present system Raw materials Products& by-products Heat losses Food or agro process Waste Produces waste Waste management New products/services Energy Resources Recycling mass energy Production.ch©IndustrialEnergySystemsLaboratory-LENI-IGM-STI-EPFL2012 The integrated process Products and by-products Heat losses Waste Raw materials Electricity Heat

  1. [IgM in the diagnosis of syphilis: results on the use of the IgM solid-phase hemadsorption test].

    PubMed

    Panuccio, A; Gelosa, L

    1985-01-01

    IgM-SPHA test was improved for IgM treponema-specific determination. The test can find routinary application because it does not require for its execution special equipments, and is very easy. With this test 160 sera of luetic subjects were examined 103 were treated and 57 were affected by lues at different stages and untreated. The test is rather sensitive in the secondary and latent lues and in the reinfections, while the results are paradoxically less satisfactory in the primary syphilis. The test can be a precious diagnostic tool since, beside allowing to decide the recovery from the disease from an immunological point, finds further applications in the connatal and neurological lues. PMID:4091975

  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Bromage, Erin S.; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D.; Badil, Samantha M.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM+ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

  3. Rapid immunoenzymatic technique for titration of rabies antibodies IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    Savy, V; Atanasiu, P

    1978-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of the enzyme immunoassay to measure the antibodies in humans vaccinated against rabies or presenting symptoms of rabies without having been vaccinated. By the same technique we identify the IgG and IgM classes of antibodies. The antigen (5 microgram/ml), purified virus, is readily adsorbed into polystyrene tube by passive adsorption. The use of only one dilution for each serum assay (1/200) is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies. Antibody response of subjects in the course of rabies vaccination was an obvious application. After 5 inoculations of tissue culture vaccine the IgM response was poor and late; it was even negative in two cases. The IgG response appeared early on the 7th day. In the same way we tried to follow antibody response in three cases of rabies in man. Seroneutralisation (SN) antibody were not detected at the beginning of the illness. In case 1 antibodies were found on the 12th day, in case 2 on the 7th day and in case 3 on the 8th day. When we assayed the serum samples for immunoenzymatic test, we found that the sera became positive some days earlier: on the 5th for case 1, already on the 1st day for the two others. In each of these three cases the positivity of the test corresponded to the presence of IgM class globulins since IgG detection remained negative as did the SN test. Our results could have some clinical interest concerning future rabies treatment and early diagnosis. PMID:355018

  4. Carbohydrate specificity of IgM autoantibodies to CD45 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Fernsten, P D; Czyzyk, J K; Mimura, T; Winfield, J B

    1994-01-01

    Patients with SLE develop IgM autoantibodies to different isoforms of CD45, the major surface membrane protein tyrosine phosphatase on lymphocytes and other nucleated hemopoietic cells. Because such autoantibodies could have a potential role in the development of immune dysfunction in this disorder, we performed a series of experiments to characterize their antigenic specificity further. Blots of recombinant E. coli fusion proteins encoded by exons 3-7 of the p220 and p180 isoforms were uniformly non-reactive with SLE IgM, suggesting that anti-CD45 autoantibodies in SLE are directed against conformational and/or carbohydrate epitopes, rather than linear polypeptide epitopes. This issue was examined further using chemically and enzymatically modified CD45 purified from T cells by lectin affinity chromatography as substrates. Treatment of CD45 with 25 mM sodium-m-periodate, sufficient to abrogate binding to various lectins, abolished the reactivity with SLE anti-CD45 autoantibodies. On the other hand, digestion of CD45 with neuraminidase enhanced the binding of anti-CD45 autoantibodies from some of the SLE sera. This result probably reflects decreased steric hindrance or charge repulsion because the binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against linear polypeptide epitopes of CD45 was similarly enhanced. Digestion of CD45 with N-glycosidase F had no effect on autoantibody staining. Taken together, these data suggest that IgM anti-CD45 autoantibodies in SLE recognize non-sialylated carbohydrate determinants in the highly O-glycosylated polymorphic domains of CD45. PMID:7536298

  5. HOW TO SEARCH FOR ISLANDS OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN THE z ? 5.5 IGM

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Observations of the Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest may allow reionization to complete as late as z ? 5.5, provided the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is sufficiently inhomogeneous at these redshifts. In this case, significantly neutral islands may remain among highly ionized gas with the ionized regions allowing some transmission through the Ly? forest. This possibility has the important virtue that it is eminently testable with existing Ly? forest data. In particular, we describe three observable signatures of significantly neutral gas in the z ? 5.5 IGM. We use mock quasar spectra produced from numerical simulations of reionization to develop these tests. First, we quantify how the abundance and length of absorbed regions in the forest increase with the volume-averaged neutral fraction in our reionization model. Second, we consider stacking the transmission profile around highly absorbed regions in the forest. If and only if there is significantly neutral gas in the IGM, absorption in the damping wing of the Ly? line will cause the transmission to recover slowly as one moves from absorbed to transmitted portions of the spectrum. Third, the deuterium Ly? line should imprint a small but distinctive absorption feature slightly blueward of absorbed neutral regions in the Ly? forest. We show that these tests can be carried out with existing Keck HIRES spectra at z ? 5.5, with the damping wing being observable for ?x{sub H} {sub I}??0.05 and the deuterium feature observable with additional high-resolution spectra for ?x{sub H} {sub I}??0.2.

  6. The etiology of Rubella IgM positivity in patients with rubella-like illness in Iran from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Khorrami, Seyed Mahmood Seyed; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Yavarian, Jila; Nasab, Gazal Sadat Fatemi; Naseri, Maryam; Jandaghi, Nazanin Zahra Shafiei

    2015-11-01

    Rubella is a mild self-limiting contagious viral disease caused by the rubella virus (RV). Although symptoms are often mild, the concern is centralized around the possible effect on a fetus growth and development in case of primary infection during early months of pregnancy. Recently acquired rubella is commonly confirmed by RV-specific IgM antibody detection in the serum. However, rubella primary infection is not always the only cause of IgM positivity. Other possible causes of rubella IgM positivity may include IgM persistence following vaccination or naturally acquired infection or even re-infection. Moreover, nonspecific IgM reactivity can cause false-positive results. There are few articles to differentiate the aetiology of rash in rubella-like illnesses. However, limited studies have been conducted on clarifying the source of IgM positivity in these cases. This article reports the study of 10,896 clinical cases demonstrating rubella-like illness between 2011 and 2013 in Iran. The rate of IgM positivity among these cases was 0.52% (57 cases). As predicted based on the high coverage of vaccination in Iran fewer than 16% of cases with ELISA IgM positive result, were due to current rubella primary infections. The greater part of the positive IgM reactions occurred in cross reactivity with other viruses (31.6%) or in prolonged IgM response post vaccination (24.6%). This research confirmed that the positive result of rubella IgM assay in vaccinated individuals is mainly caused by prolonged IgM production, rubella re-infection, and false positivity due to infection with other viruses, rather than the rubella primary infection itself. PMID:25950278

  7. 2D immunoblots show differential response of mouse IgG and IgM antibodies to antigens of mammary carcinoma 4 T1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunosuppression in breast cancer has been reported in women and in the highly metastatic mouse mammary tumor model 4 T1. The immunosuppressive environment complicates the use of the humoral response against the tumor as an immunodiagnostic tool. IgM has not been used in immunodiagnostic in part because its antitumor responses, both innate and adaptive, have not been studied in function of time in breast cancer. We show a new approach to analyzing the mouse humoral immune response, and compare the evolution with time of IgG and IgM responses against the antigens of 4 T1 cells. Methods The study is based on 2-dimensional immunoblotting detection of antigens from 4 T1 cells by the IgG and IgM antibodies in the serum of female mice injected with 4 T1 cells. Results There was a high variability in the intra-and inter-mouse response. Variability in the IgM response was manifested as a pattern of spots that could become a multibinomial variable of 0 and 1, which could represent a signature of the immune response. Different numbers of spots was found in the IgG and IgM responses from week 1 to 5. On average, the IgM had more but the IgG response decrease with the time. The natural IgM at t?=?0 responds stronger than w1; the adaptive response of both IgM and IgG were elicited where, with the former being stronger better than the latter. Antigens that are recognized by some female mice in the first week are also recognized by other female mice at time 0. Contamination of the natural IgM makes difficult use the adaptive IgM as a tool for immunodiagnostic. Conclusions IgM and IgG response varied with the time and individuals. Spot variation in 2D pattern for the natural IgM could be expressed as a binomial signature, which opens up the way to correlate a particular pattern with resistance or susceptibility. This uncovers a battery of IgMs for each individual to confront cancer or infections. The possibility to differentiate between adaptive IgM antibodies from the natural IgM will allow investigation of the adaptive IgM for early immunodiagnosis. PMID:24467921

  8. Competitive adsorption-desorption of IgM monomers-dimers on silica and modified silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Guha, Suvajyoti; Wayment, Joshua; Rastogi, Vinayak; Li, Mingdong; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2013-07-15

    Understanding competitive adsorption-desorption of proteins onto surfaces is an important area of research in food processing and biomedical engineering. Here, we demonstrate, how electrospray-differential mobility analysis that has been traditionally used for characterizing bionanoparticles, can be used for quantifying complex competitive adsorption-desorption of oligomeric proteins or multiprotein systems using monomers and dimers of IgM as a model example onto silica and modified silica surfaces. Using ES-DMA, we show that IgM dimers show a preference to stay adsorbed to different surfaces although monomers adsorb more easily and desorption rates of monomers and dimers of IgM are surface-type-dependent and are not significantly affected by shear. We anticipate that this demonstration will make ES-DMA a popular "label-free" method for studying multicomponent multi-oligomeric protein adsorption to different surfaces in the future. PMID:23628202

  9. Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Variants per Genome Can Bind IgM via Its Fc Fragment Fc?.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Anine; Ditlev, Sisse Bolm; Soroka, Vladyslav; Stevenson, Liz; Turner, Louise; Dzikowski, Ron; Hviid, Lars; Barfod, Lea

    2015-10-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesive proteins expressed on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes (IEs) are of key importance in the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria. Several structurally and functionally defined PfEMP1 types have been associated with severe clinical manifestations, such as cerebral malaria in children and placental malaria in pregnant women. PfEMP1 that can bind the Fc part of IgM (Fc?) characterizes one such type, although the functional significance of this IgM binding to PfEMP1 remains unclear. In this study, we report the identification and functional analysis of five IgM-binding PfEMP1 proteins encoded by P. falciparum NF54. In addition to the VAR2CSA-type PFL0030c protein, already known to bind Fc? and to mediate chondroitin sulfate A (CSA)-specific adhesion of IEs in the placenta, we found four PfEMP1 proteins not previously known to bind IgM this way. Although they all contained Duffy binding-like ? (DBL?) domains similar to those in VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1, they did not mediate IE adhesion to CSA, and IgM binding did not shield IEs from phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized IEs. In this way, these new IgM-binding PfEMP1 proteins resemble the rosette-mediating and IgM-binding PfEMP1 HB3VAR06, but none of them mediated formation of rosettes. We could map the capacity for Fc-specific IgM binding to DBL? domains near the C terminus for three of the four PfEMP1 proteins tested. Our study provides new evidence regarding Fc-dependent binding of IgM to PfEMP1, which appears to be a common and multifunctional phenotype. PMID:26216422

  10. The majority of human memory B cells recognizing RhD and tetanus resides in IgM+ B cells.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, Luciana; Dohmen, Serge E; Verhagen, Onno J H M; Berkowska, Magdalena A; Vidarsson, Gestur; Ellen van der Schoot, C

    2014-08-01

    B cell memory to T cell-dependent (TD) Ags are considered to largely reside in class-switched CD27(+) cells. However, we previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D(+) erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. We therefore analyzed in this study the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid-specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. Most Ag-specific B cells for both TD Ags were found to reside in the IgM-expressing B cells, including CD27(-) B cells, in both hyperimmunized donors and nonhyperimmunized volunteers. Only shortly after immunization a sharp increase in Ag-specific CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells was observed. Next, B cells were enriched with D(+) erythrocyte ghosts and sorted as single cells. Sequencing of IGHV, IGLV, IGKV, and BCL6 genes from these D-specific B cell clones demonstrated that both CD27(-)IgM(+) and CD27(+)IgM(+) B cells harbored somatic mutations, documenting their Ag-selected nature. Furthermore, sequencing revealed a clonal relationship between the CD27(-)IgM(+), CD27(+)IgM(+), and CD27(+)IgG(+) B cell subsets. These data strongly support the recently described multiple layers of memory B cells to TD Ags in mice, where IgM(+) B cells represent a memory reservoir which can re-enter the germinal center and ensure replenishment of class-switched memory CD27(+) B cells from Ag-experienced precursors. PMID:24965774

  11. Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Variants per Genome Can Bind IgM via Its Fc Fragment Fc?

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Anine; Ditlev, Sisse Bolm; Soroka, Vladyslav; Stevenson, Liz; Turner, Louise; Dzikowski, Ron; Hviid, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesive proteins expressed on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes (IEs) are of key importance in the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria. Several structurally and functionally defined PfEMP1 types have been associated with severe clinical manifestations, such as cerebral malaria in children and placental malaria in pregnant women. PfEMP1 that can bind the Fc part of IgM (Fc?) characterizes one such type, although the functional significance of this IgM binding to PfEMP1 remains unclear. In this study, we report the identification and functional analysis of five IgM-binding PfEMP1 proteins encoded by P. falciparum NF54. In addition to the VAR2CSA-type PFL0030c protein, already known to bind Fc? and to mediate chondroitin sulfate A (CSA)-specific adhesion of IEs in the placenta, we found four PfEMP1 proteins not previously known to bind IgM this way. Although they all contained Duffy binding-like ? (DBL?) domains similar to those in VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1, they did not mediate IE adhesion to CSA, and IgM binding did not shield IEs from phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized IEs. In this way, these new IgM-binding PfEMP1 proteins resemble the rosette-mediating and IgM-binding PfEMP1 HB3VAR06, but none of them mediated formation of rosettes. We could map the capacity for Fc-specific IgM binding to DBL? domains near the C terminus for three of the four PfEMP1 proteins tested. Our study provides new evidence regarding Fc-dependent binding of IgM to PfEMP1, which appears to be a common and multifunctional phenotype. PMID:26216422

  12. Teleost Fish Mount Complex Clonal IgM and IgT Responses in Spleen upon Systemic Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rosario; Jouneau, Luc; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Bouchez, Olivier; Giudicelli, Véronique; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Quillet, Edwige; Benmansour, Abdenour; Cazals, Frédéric; Six, Adrien; Fillatreau, Simon; Sunyer, Oriol; Boudinot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Upon infection, B-lymphocytes expressing antibodies specific for the intruding pathogen develop clonal responses triggered by pathogen recognition via the B-cell receptor. The constant region of antibodies produced by such responding clones dictates their functional properties. In teleost fish, the clonal structure of B-cell responses and the respective contribution of the three isotypes IgM, IgD and IgT remain unknown. The expression of IgM and IgT are mutually exclusive, leading to the existence of two B-cell subsets expressing either both IgM and IgD or only IgT. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the variable heavy chain (VH) domain repertoires of the IgM, IgD and IgT in spleen of homozygous isogenic rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) before, and after challenge with a rhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV), using CDR3-length spectratyping and pyrosequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts. In healthy fish, we observed distinct repertoires for IgM, IgD and IgT, respectively, with a few amplified ? and ? junctions, suggesting the presence of IgM- and IgT-secreting cells in the spleen. In infected animals, we detected complex and highly diverse IgM responses involving all VH subgroups, and dominated by a few large public and private clones. A lower number of robust clonal responses involving only a few VH were detected for the mucosal IgT, indicating that both IgM+ and IgT+ spleen B cells responded to systemic infection but at different degrees. In contrast, the IgD response to the infection was faint. Although fish IgD and IgT present different structural features and evolutionary origin compared to mammalian IgD and IgA, respectively, their implication in the B-cell response evokes these mouse and human counterparts. Thus, it appears that the general properties of antibody responses were already in place in common ancestors of fish and mammals, and were globally conserved during evolution with possible functional convergences. PMID:23326228

  13. Dark matter annihilation energy output and its effects on the high-z IGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Ignacio J.; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2014-11-01

    We study the case of dark matter (DM) self-annihilation, in order to assess its importance as an energy injection mechanism, to the intergalactic medium (IGM) in general, and to the medium within particular DM haloes. We consider thermal relic WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) particles with masses of 10 GeV and 1 TeV, and we analyse in detail the clustering properties of DM in a ? cold dark matter cosmology, on all hierarchy levels, from haloes and their mass function, to subhaloes and the DM density profiles within them, considering adiabatic contraction by the presence of a supermassive black hole. We then compute the corresponding energy output, concluding that DM annihilation does not constitute an important feedback mechanism. We also calculate the effects that DM annihilation has on the IGM temperature and ionization fraction, and we find that assuming maximal energy absorption, at z ˜ 10, for the case of a 1 TeV WIMP, the ionization fraction could be raised to 6 × 10-4 and the temperature to 10 K, and in the case of a 10 GeV WIMP, the IGM temperature could be raised to 200 K and the ionization fraction to 8 × 10-3. We conclude that DM annihilations cannot be regarded as an alternative reionization scenario. Regarding the detectability of the WIMP through the modifications to the 21 cm differential brightness temperature signal (?Tb), we conclude that a thermal relic WIMP with mass of 1 TeV is not likely to be detected from the global signal alone, except perhaps at the 1-3 mK level in the frequency range 30 < ? < 35 MHz corresponding to 40 < z < 46. However, a 10 GeV mass WIMP may be detectable at the 1-3 mK level in the frequency range 55 < ? < 119 MHz corresponding to 11 < z < 25, and at the 1-10 mK level in the frequency range 30 < ? < 40 MHz corresponding to 35 < z < 46.

  14. Multicenter evaluation of the Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM tests for the diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Meylan, Pascal; Paris, Luc; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Detection of IgG and IgM antibodies is commonly performed for the diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We determined the accuracy of the Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM test at four European laboratories compared to local reference methods. Coefficients of variation for reproducibility ranged from 1.0 to 6.5% for IgG and from 0.8 to 3.2% for IgM. Seroconversion panels revealed high overall concordance with the reference tests. The Elecsys test detected IgG antibodies earlier than the Cobas Core IgG test in 19 of 47 panels; persisting IgM antibodies were observed in the VIDAS but not the Elecsys test in five of 47 panels. In 31.4% of latent stage sera with persistent IgM antibodies (positive LIASON IgM), the Elecsys IgM test gave negative results indicating increased “clinical” specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys IgG assay ranged from 99.45 to 100% and 87.50–99.80%, respectively, and 91.11–95.74 and 98.45–99.79% for the Elecsys IgM assay, respectively. In conclusion, excellent reproducibility and accuracy make the Elecsys Toxo G and M tests highly suitable for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. The lower detection rates for persistent IgM in the Elecsys IgM test increase “clinical” specificity and decrease the need for follow-up testing. PMID:26185683

  15. Searching for fluctuations in the IGM temperature using the Lyman alpha forest

    E-print Network

    Matias Zaldarriaga

    2001-02-12

    We propose a statistical method to search for fluctuations in the temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) using the Lyman $\\alpha$ forest. The power on small scales ($\\sim 25 \\km/\\s$) is used as a thermometer and fluctuations of this power are constrained. The method is illustrated using Q1422+231. We see no evidence of temperature fluctuations. We show that in a model with two temperatures that occupy comparable fractions of the spectra, the ratio of small scale powers is constrained to be smaller than 3.5 (corresponding to a factor of 2.5 in temperature). We show that approximately ten quasars are needed constrain factors of two fluctuations in small scale power power.

  16. AGN activity and IGM heating in fossil cluster RX J1416.4+2315

    E-print Network

    Miraghaei, H; Sengupta, C; Raychaudhury, S; Jetha, N N; Abbassi, S

    2015-01-01

    We study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in the fossil galaxy cluster, RX J1416.4+2315. Radio observations were carried out using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at two frequencies, 1420 MHz and 610 MHz. A weak radio lobe that extends from the central nucleus is detected in 610 MHz map. Assuming the radio lobe originated from the central AGN, we show the energy injection into the Inter Galactic Medium (IGM) is only sufficient to heat up the central 50 kpc within the cluster core, while the cooling radius is larger ( $\\sim$ 130 kpc). In the hardness ratio map, three low energy cavities have been identified. No radio emission is detected for these regions. We evaluated the power required to inflate the cavities and showed that the total energy budget is sufficient to offset the radiative cooling. We showed that the initial conditions would change the results remarkably. Furthermore, efficiency of Bondi accretion to power the AGN has been estimated.

  17. Identity of the elusive IgM Fc receptor (Fc?R) in humans

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Satoshi; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Torii, Ikuko; Takayama, Eiji; Kang, Dong-Won; Gartland, G. Larry; Bertoli, Luigi F.; Mori, Hiromi; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio; Ohno, Hiroshi; Wang, Ji-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Although Fc receptors (FcRs) for switched immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes have been extensively characterized, FcR for IgM (Fc?R) has defied identification. By retroviral expression and functional cloning, we have identified a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a bona fide Fc?R in human B-lineage cDNA libraries. Fc?R is defined as a transmembrane sialoglycoprotein of ?60 kD, which contains an extracellular Ig-like domain homologous to two other IgM-binding receptors (polymeric Ig receptor and Fc?/?R) but exhibits an exclusive Fc?-binding specificity. The cytoplasmic tail of Fc?R contains conserved Ser and Tyr residues, but none of the Tyr residues match the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation, inhibitory, or switch motifs. Unlike other FcRs, the major cell types expressing Fc?R are adaptive immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes. After antigen-receptor ligation or phorbol myristate acetate stimulation, Fc?R expression was up-regulated on B cells but was down-modulated on T cells, suggesting differential regulation of Fc?R expression during B and T cell activation. Although this receptor was initially designated as Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 3, or TOSO, our results indicate that Fc?R per se has no inhibitory activity in Fas-mediated apoptosis and that such inhibition is only achieved when anti-Fas antibody of an IgM but not IgG isotype is used for inducing apoptosis. PMID:19858324

  18. Detection of antibodies of the IgM class in sera of patients recently infected with influenza viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Y I; Heath, R B; Collins, J V; Pattison, J R

    1976-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation can be used to detect specific 19S antibodies of the IgM class in the sera of patients recently infected with influenza A virus, provided steps are taken to remove non-specific inhibitors of haemagglutination. The usefulness of the procedure for the diagnosis of influenza requires further evaluation. PMID:945303

  19. Introduction of germline residues improves the stability of anti-HIV mAb 2G12-IgM.

    PubMed

    Chromikova, Veronika; Mader, Alexander; Hofbauer, Stefan; Göbl, Christoph; Madl, Tobias; Gach, Johannes S; Bauernfried, Stefan; Furtmüller, Paul G; Forthal, Donald N; Mach, Lukas; Obinger, Christian; Kunert, Renate

    2015-10-01

    Immunoglobulins M (IgMs) are gaining increasing attention as biopharmaceuticals since their multivalent mode of binding can give rise to high avidity. Furthermore, IgMs are potent activators of the complement system. However, they are frequently difficult to express recombinantly and can suffer from low conformational stability. Here, the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibody 2G12 was class-switched to IgM and then further engineered by introduction of 17 germline residues. The impact of these changes on the structure and conformational stability of the antibody was then assessed using a range of biophysical techniques. We also investigated the effects of the class switch and germline substitutions on the ligand-binding properties of 2G12 and its capacity for HIV-1 neutralization. Our results demonstrate that the introduced germline residues improve the conformational and thermal stability of 2G12-IgM without altering its overall shape and ligand-binding properties. Interestingly, the engineered protein was found to exhibit much lower neutralization potency than its wild-type counterpart, indicating that potent antigen recognition is not solely responsible for IgM-mediated HIV-1 inactivation. PMID:25748881

  20. Introduction of germline residues improves the stability of anti-HIV mAb 2G12-IgM

    PubMed Central

    Chromikova, Veronika; Mader, Alexander; Hofbauer, Stefan; Göbl, Christoph; Madl, Tobias; Gach, Johannes S.; Bauernfried, Stefan; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Forthal, Donald N.; Mach, Lukas; Obinger, Christian; Kunert, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins M (IgMs) are gaining increasing attention as biopharmaceuticals since their multivalent mode of binding can give rise to high avidity. Furthermore, IgMs are potent activators of the complement system. However, they are frequently difficult to express recombinantly and can suffer from low conformational stability. Here, the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibody 2G12 was class-switched to IgM and then further engineered by introduction of 17 germline residues. The impact of these changes on the structure and conformational stability of the antibody was then assessed using a range of biophysical techniques. We also investigated the effects of the class switch and germline substitutions on the ligand-binding properties of 2G12 and its capacity for HIV-1 neutralization. Our results demonstrate that the introduced germline residues improve the conformational and thermal stability of 2G12-IgM without altering its overall shape and ligand-binding properties. Interestingly, the engineered protein was found to exhibit much lower neutralization potency than its wild-type counterpart, indicating that potent antigen recognition is not solely responsible for IgM-mediated HIV-1 inactivation. PMID:25748881

  1. Characterization of IgA and IgM binding and internalization by surface-expressed human Fc?/? receptor.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Esther M; Trinh, K Ryan; Lim, Hana; Wims, Letitia A; Morrison, Sherie L

    2011-09-01

    The Fc?/? receptor (Fc?/?R) is an unusual Fc receptor in that it binds to two different antibody isotypes, IgA and IgM. This receptor is of interest because it is thought to be involved in the capture of IgA- and IgM-immune complexes and antigen presentation. To further characterize this receptor, we were able to stably express human Fc?/?R on the surface of the 293T cell line. Using this system, we determined the affinity of the interactions of the receptor with IgA and IgM, which led to novel insights including the important finding that IgM polymers can bind to human Fc?/?R in the absence of J chain. This is in contrast to the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), which requires the presence of J chain to bind to polymeric IgA and IgM. The dissociation constants (K(d)) of all of the different human IgA isotypes and allotypes for human Fc?/?R were determined, and we show that the N-linked glycans on IgA1 are not required for binding to the receptor. In addition, we demonstrate that IgA can be rapidly internalized by human Fc?/?R in the presence of cross-linking antibody. PMID:21632111

  2. Isolation and Characterization of IgM and IgY Antibodies from Plasma of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Bizelli, Camila C; Silva, A Sandriana R; da Costa, Jessica D; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Atzingen, Marina V; Santoro, Marcelo L; Fernandes, Irene; Catão-Dias, José L; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases such as aspergillosis, avian malaria, and viral infections are significant threats to the conservation of penguins, leading to morbidity and mortality of these birds both in captivity and in the wild. The immune response to such infectious diseases is dependent on different mechanisms mediated by cells and soluble components such as antibodies. Antibodies or immunoglobulins are glycoproteins that have many structural and functional features that mediate distinct effector immune functions. Three distinct classes of antibodies have been identified in birds: immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin Y (IgY). In this study we aim to establish an efficient laboratory method to obtain IgM and IgY antibodies from plasma samples of healthy adult Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). The protocol was developed combining plasma delipidation, sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate, and size-exclusion chromatography. The efficiency of the protocol and the identity of the purified IgM and IgY antibodies were confirmed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, one-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and lectin binding assay. Structural and physicochemical properties of IgM and IgY from Magellanic penguins were consistent with those of other avian species. This purification protocol will allow for more detailed studies on the humoral immunity of penguins and for the development of high specificity serologic assays to test Magellanic penguins for infectious pathogens. PMID:26292539

  3. Investigating the function of Fc-specific binding of IgM to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 mediating erythrocyte rosetting.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Liz; Huda, Pie; Jeppesen, Anine; Laursen, Erik; Rowe, J Alexandra; Craig, Alister; Streicher, Werner; Barfod, Lea; Hviid, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Acquired protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria takes years to develop, probably reflecting the ability of the parasites to evade immunity. A recent example of this is the binding of the Fc region of IgM to VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1. This interferes with specific IgG recognition and phagocytosis of opsonized infected erythrocytes (IEs) without compromising the placental IE adhesion mediated by this PfEMP1 type. IgM also binds via Fc to several other PfEMP1 proteins, where it has been proposed to facilitate rosetting (binding of uninfected erythrocytes to a central IE). To further dissect the functional role of Fc -mediated IgM binding to PfEMP1, we studied the PfEMP1 protein HB3VAR06, which mediates rosetting and binds IgM. Binding of IgM to this PfEMP1 involved the Fc domains C?3-C?4 in IgM and the penultimate DBL domain (DBL?2) at the C-terminus of HB3VAR06. However, IgM binding did not inhibit specific IgG labelling of HB3VAR06 or shield IgG-opsonized IEs from phagocytosis. Instead, IgM was required for rosetting, and each pentameric IgM molecule could bind two HB3VAR06 molecules. Together, our data indicate that the primary function of Fc -mediated IgM binding in rosetting is not to shield IE from specific IgG recognition and phagocytosis as in VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1. Rather, the function appears to be strengthening of IE-erythrocyte interactions. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence on the molecular details and functional significance of rosetting, a long-recognized marker of parasites that cause severe P.?falciparum malaria. PMID:25482886

  4. Cross-reactions in IgM ELISA tests to Legionella pneumophila sg1 and Bordetella pertussis among children suspected of legionellosis; potential impact of vaccination against pertussis?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary evaluation of IgM cross-reaction in sera collected from children hospitalized because of suspected legionellosis. Sera with positive IgM results to L. pneumophila sgs1-7, B. pertussis or with simultaneous detection of IgM antibodies to L. pneumophila sgs1-7 and B. pertussis, or IgM to L. pneumophila sgs1-7 and M. pneumoniae in routine tests, were selected. In total, an adapted pre-absorption test was used for the serological confirmation of legionellosis in the sera of 19 children suspected of legionellosis, and also in 3 adult persons with confirmed Legionnaires’ disease. Sera were pre-absorbed with antigens of L. pneumophila sg1, B. pertussis or both, and tested by ELISA tests. The reduction of IgM antibody level by pre-absorption with antigen/antigens was determined. Reduction of anti-Lpsgs1-7 IgM by pre-absorption with L.pneumophila sg1 antigen ranged from 1.5 to 80, and reduction of anti-Bp IgM by pre-absorption with B. pertussis ranged from 2.0 to 23.8. Reduction by both antigens varied depending on the age of the patients: among children <4 yrs.old, the reduction of anti-B. pertussis IgM by both antigens was higher than for B. pertussis antigen alone. Based on the high difference (? 2 times) between reduction by L.pneumophila sg1 and by B. pertussis antigen, legionellosis was confirmed in 8/19 children. The majority of them also indicated IgM positive/borderline results for B. pertussis or M.pneumoniae in routine ELISA tests. As a preliminary, we posed a hypothesis of a potential impact of an anti-pertussis vaccination on the results obtained in anti-L. pneumophila ELISA IgM tests among young children. PMID:26557032

  5. Clinical evaluation of dengue RNA, NS1, and IgM for diagnosis of dengue in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinliang; Chen, Rui; Gu, Wenshen; He, Jian; Cai, Weipeng; Li, Jiajia; Duan, Chaohui; Yan, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a large outbreak of dengue occurred in Guangzhou, China. This outbreak prompted us to evaluate NS1 and RNA for the early diagnosis of acute dengue infection, in addition to the combination with IgM antibody. We aimed to find the differences of three assays about dengue diagnosis. This study was an evaluation of diagnosis test. Based on WHO criteria 2009, dengue RNA, NS1, and IgM/IgG were detected from 294 patients (180 dengue patients, 114 non-dengue patients) by three diagnostic kits made in China. The ?(2) test, sensitivity, and specificity were used in statistical analysis. The ratios of dengue patients with low platelet counts (<100?×?10(9) /L 32.2%) or white blood cell counts (<4.0?×?10(9) /L 58.9%) were significantly higher compared to non-dengue patients (P?IgM performed better at day 5 or more with 74.0% of sensitivity. The diagnostic rate using a combination of RNA and IgM was 97.8% and 96.7% using NS1 and IgM. A patient with low platelet and white blood cell counts needs additional tests for dengue during an epidemic. RNA and NS1 were most valuable for early diagnosis of dengue, whereas IgM was best suited as a supplementary method for patients at day 5 or more after illness onset. J. Med. Virol. 88:28-34, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26118588

  6. Circadian type, chronic fatigue, and serum IgM in the shift workers of an industrial organization

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Masjedi, Mohsen; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Night shift workers are more vulnerable to immune-related diseases. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a potent activator of complement, and complement has a crucial role in defense against bacterial infections. Circadian type is known as an effective agent on vulnerability and adaptation with shift work due to non-compliance with shift stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of circadian type and chronic fatigue with the serum concentration of IgM in a group of shift workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in an industrial organization in Isfahan, Iran. The study population consisted of 221 male employees working at night shifts who were selected by random cluster sampling. The following questionnaires were used: composite morningness (Torsvall and Akerstedt), circadian type (Folkard), and chronic fatigue (Barton and colleagues). The serum concentration of IgM was measured by the nephelometric method. The data were analyzed with the Pearson coefficient correlation and the path analysis for finding the pattern of the structural equations to evaluate the direct and indirect relationships between variables, using the SPSS 15 and LISREL 8.5 statistical software. Results: Significant correlation was documented between morningness, flexibility, languidness, and chronic fatigue with the serum concentration of IgM (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results showed that the shift workers with morningness and languidness experienced more problems during the working hours due to more tiredness, and had decreased serum concentration of IgM. Correct management of shift work may attenuate fatigue in workers and also improve many health issues experienced by the shift workers. PMID:25802830

  7. Diagnosis of recent hepatitis A infection: a comparison of two methods for detecting specific IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, P. P.; Parry, J. V.; Appleton, H.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) tests for anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM were carried out on 728 sera: 283 were tested by both a method using an anti-mu serum bound to a solid phase and a method involving preliminary separation of igM by sucrose density gradient (SDG) centrifugation, 354 by the anti-mu method alone and two by the SDG method alone. Similar proportions of sera were found to be positive by each method (42.5%, 41.7%), but equivocal results were commoner by the SDG method (4.7% compared with 1.5%). There were 21 (5.5%) discrepant results from the sera tested by both methods, 20 of which could have been due to the higher sensitivity of the anti-mu method. The SDG method generally gave unequivocal results on sera collected within six weeks of the onset of jaundice. Separation of the IgM fraction by re-orientation centrifugation was quick, but otherwise offered no special advantage over separation on a swing-out rotor. The use of 2 mercaptoethanol (2 ME) reduction to assess the purity of the IgM fraction increased confidence in the specificity of the test. It led, however, to the exclusion of 16 reactive sera (4.2%), all of which were found to be positive in the anti-mu test. The anti-mu method gave better discrimination between positive and negative sera than the SDG method and detected IgM both earlier and later in infection. The results of tests designed to check the specificity of the anti-mu procedure were satisfactory. As it is potentially cheaper and easier to perform, the anti-mu method seems, in all respects, to be superior to the SDG method. PMID:6257778

  8. Genome-wide scan identifies variant in TNFSF13 associated with serum IgM in a healthy Chinese male population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Wu, Yongming; Lu, Yanmei; Liu, Changyuan; Sun, Jielin; Liao, Ming; Qin, Min; Mo, Linjian; Gao, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Wu, Chunlei; Zhang, Youjie; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Shijun; Li, Jianling; Dong, Min; Zheng, S Lilly; Xu, Jianfeng; Yang, Xiaobo; Tan, Aihua; Mo, Zengnan

    2012-01-01

    IgM provides a first line of defense during microbial infections. Serum IgM levels are detected routinely in clinical practice. And IgM is a genetically complex trait. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants affecting serum IgM levels in a Chinese population of 3495, including 1999 unrelated subjects in the first stage and 1496 independent individuals in the second stage. Our data show that a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11552708 located in the TNFSF13 gene was significantly associated with IgM levels (p?=?5.00×10(-7) in first stage, p?=?1.34×10(-3) in second stage, and p?=?4.22×10(-9) when combined). Besides, smoking was identified to be associated with IgM levels in both stages (P<0.05), but there was no significant interaction between smoking and the identified SNP (P>0.05). It is suggested that TNFSF13 may be a susceptibility gene affecting serum IgM levels in Chinese male population. PMID:23118916

  9. Late Reheating of the IGM by Quasars: A Radiation Hydrodynamical Simulation of Helium II Reionization

    E-print Network

    Paschos, Pascal; Bordner, James O; Harkness, Robert

    2007-01-01

    We study the ionization and thermal evolution of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of \\heii reionization by means of radiation hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. We post-process baryonic density fields from a standard optically-thin IGM simulation with a homogeneous galaxy-dominated UV background (UVB) which reionizes \\hi and \\hei at z=6.5 but does not have any contribution to the ionization of \\heii. Quasars with luminosities proportional to the mass of the host halos are then introduced as point sources throughout the 100 Mpc simulation volume consistent with the Pei luminosity function. We evolve the spatial distribution of the \\heii ionizing radiation field using a time-implicit variable tensor Eddington factor radiative transfer scheme. Simultaneously, we also solve for the local ionization of \\heii to \\heii and the associated photoheating of the gas. We find that the percolation of the \\heiii regions is essentially complete by z=2.5. When comparing to a self-consistent optically thin simul...

  10. Association of IgM monoclonal gammopathy with progressive muscular atrophy and multifocal motor neuropathy: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Vlam, Lotte; Piepers, Sanne; Sutedja, Nadia A; Jacobs, Bart C; Tio-Gillen, Anne P; Stam, Marloes; Franssen, Hessel; Veldink, Jan H; Cats, Elisabeth A; Notermans, Nicolette C; Bloem, Andries C; Wadman, Renske I; van der Pol, W-Ludo; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related disorders has been reported in small studies but the validity of the reported associations remains uncertain. Presence of monoclonal gammopathy may indicate specific pathogenic pathways and may facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies. The objective of this large case-control study was to determine the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy in motor neuron diseases (MND) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Monoclonal gammopathy was determined by immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation in serum from 445 patients with ALS, 158 patients with progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), 60 patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), 88 patients with MMN and in 430 matched healthy controls. Anti-ganglioside antibody titers were determined in sera from patients with MMN and PMA, and in ALS and PLS patients with monoclonal gammopathy. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations of monoclonal gammopathy with motor neuron diseases and clinical characteristics. Neither ALS nor PLS was associated with monoclonal gammopathy. IgM monoclonal gammopathy was more frequent in patients with PMA (8 %) (OR = 4.2; p = 0.001) and MMN (7 %) (OR = 5.8; p = 0.002) than in controls (2 %). High titers of anti-GM1 IgM antibodies were present in 43 % of MMN patients and 7 % of PMA patients. Patients with PMA and IgM monoclonal gammopathy or anti-GM1 antibodies had a higher age at onset, more often weakness of upper legs and more severe outcome than patients with MMN. PMA and MMN, but not ALS and PLS, are significantly associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and anti-GM1 antibodies. These results may indicate that a subset of patients presenting with PMA share pathogenic mechanisms with MMN. PMID:25549972

  11. Natural and adaptive IgM antibodies in the recognition of tumor-associated antigens of breast cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DÍAZ-ZARAGOZA, MARIANA; HERNÁNDEZ-ÁVILA, RICARDO; VIEDMA-RODRÍGUEZ, RUBÍ; ARENAS-ARANDA, DIEGO; OSTOA-SALOMA, PEDRO

    2015-01-01

    For early detection of cancer, education and screening are important, but the most critical factor is the development of early diagnostic tools. Methods that recognize the warning signs of cancer and take prompt action lead to an early diagnosis; simple tests can identify individuals in a healthy population who have the disease but have not developed symptoms. Early detection of cancer is significant and is one of the most promising approaches by which to reduce the growing cancer burden and guide curative treatment. The early diagnosis of patients with breast cancer is challenging, since it is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite the advent of mammography in screening for breast cancer, low-resource, low-cost alternative tools must be implemented to complement mammography findings. IgM is part of the first line of defense of an organism and is responsible for recognizing and eliminating infectious particles and removing transformed cells. Most studies on breast cancer have focused on the development of IgG-like molecules as biomarkers or as a treatment for the advanced stages of cancer, but autoantibodies (IgM) and tumor-associated antigens (proteins or carbohydrates with aberrant structures) have not been examined as early diagnostic tools for breast cancer. The present review summarizes the function of natural and adaptive IgM in eliminating cancer cells in the early stages of pathology and their value as early diagnostic tools. IgM, as a component of the immune system, is being used to identify tumor-associated antigens and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. PMID:26133558

  12. DC-SIGN–expressing macrophages trigger activation of mannosylated IgM B-cell receptor in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Rada; Mourcin, Frédéric; Uhel, Fabrice; Pangault, Céline; Ruminy, Philippe; Dupré, Loic; Guirriec, Marion; Marchand, Tony; Fest, Thierry; Lamy, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) results from the accumulation of malignant germinal center (GC) B cells leading to the development of an indolent and largely incurable disease. FL cells remain highly dependent on B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and on a specific cell microenvironment, including T cells, macrophages, and stromal cells. Importantly, FL BCR is characterized by a selective pressure to retain surface immunoglobulin M (IgM) BCR despite an active class-switch recombination process, and by the introduction, in BCR variable regions, of N-glycosylation acceptor sites harboring unusual high-mannose oligosaccharides. However, the relevance of these 2 FL BCR features for lymphomagenesis remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that IgM+ FL B cells activated a stronger BCR signaling network than IgG+ FL B cells and normal GC B cells. BCR expression level and phosphatase activity could both contribute to such heterogeneity. Moreover, we underlined that a subset of IgM+ FL samples, displaying highly mannosylated BCR, efficiently bound dendritic cell–specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3–grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), which could in turn trigger delayed but long-lasting BCR aggregation and activation. Interestingly, DC-SIGN was found within the FL cell niche in situ. Finally, M2 macrophages induced a DC-SIGN–dependent adhesion of highly mannosylated IgM+ FL B cells and triggered BCR-associated kinase activation. Interestingly, pharmacologic BCR inhibitors abolished such crosstalk between macrophages and FL B cells. Altogether, our data support an important role for DC-SIGN–expressing infiltrating cells in the biology of FL and suggest that they could represent interesting therapeutic targets. PMID:26272216

  13. Crystal structure of a glycosylated Fab from an IgM cryoglobulin with properties of a natural proteolytic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Ramsland, Paul A.; Terzyan, Simon S.; Cloud, Gwendolyn; Bourne, Christina R.; Farrugia, William; Tribbick, Gordon; Geysen, H. Mario; Moomaw, Carolyn R.; Slaughter, Clive A.; Edmundson, Allen B.

    2006-01-01

    The 2.6 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution structure has been determined for the glycosylated Fab (fragment antigen binding) of an IgM (Yvo) obtained from a subject with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. Dynamic light scattering was used to estimate the gel point and monitor the formation of an ordered hydroscopic gel of Yvo IgM upon cooling. If a cryoglobulin forms gels in peripheral tissues and organs, the associated swelling and damage to microvasculature can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. The three-dimensional structure of the branched N-linked oligosaccharide associated with the CH1 domain (first constant domain of heavy chain) is reported. The carbohydrate may act to shield part of the lateral surface of the CH1 domain and crowd the junction between the CH1 and CH2 domains, thereby limiting the segmental flexibility of the Fab arms in intact Yvo IgM, especially at low temperatures. Recently, Yvo IgM was shown to have the properties of a naturally occurring proteolytic antibody [Paul, Karle, Planque, Taguchi, Salas, Nishiyama, Handy, Hunter, Edmundson and Hanson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 39611–39619; Planque, Bangale, Song, Karle, Taguchi, Poindexter, Bick, Edmundson, Nishiyama and Paul (2004) J. Biol Chem. 279, 14024–14032]. The Yvo protein displayed the ability to cleave, by a nucleophilic mechanism, the amide bonds of a variety of serine protease substrates and the gp120 coat protein of HIV. An atypical serine, arginine and glutamate motif is located in the middle of the Yvo antigen-binding site and displays an overall geometry that mimics the classical serine, histidine and aspartate catalytic triad of serine proteases. Our present findings indicate that pre-existing or natural antibodies can utilize at least one novel strategy for the cleavage of peptide bonds. PMID:16422668

  14. Increase in Anti-Gal IgM Level is Associated With Early Graft Failure in Intraportal Porcine Islet Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haneulnari; Park, Eun Mi; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Jun-Seop; Kim, Jung-Sik; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-Gal is a major antibody induced in non-human primates (NHPs) after xenotransplantation. To understand the mechanism of graft rejection, we investigated the association between anti-Gal responses and graft failure in NHP recipients of porcine islet transplantation (PITx). Methods Intraportal PITx was performed in 35 diabetic NHPs, and graft function was monitored. Early graft failure (EGF) was defined as loss of graft function within a month after PITx. Seven, 19, nine NHPs received immunosuppression (IS) without CD40 pathway blockade (Group I), with anti-CD154 (Group II), and with anti-CD40 (Group III), respectively. The anti-Gal levels on day 0 and day 7 of PITx were measured by ELISA. Results The frequency of EGF was significantly lower in Group II (26.3%) than in Group I (100%, P=0.0012) and Group III (77.8%, P=0.0166). While levels of anti-Gal IgG in Group I and anti-Gal IgM in Group III increased on day 7 compared with day 0 (P=0.0156 and 0.0273), there was no increase in either on day 7 in Group II. The ratio of anti-Gal IgM or IgG level on day 7 to that on day 0 (Ratio7/0) was significantly higher in recipients with EGF than without EGF (P=0.0009 and 0.0027). ROC curve analysis of anti-Gal IgM Ratio7/0 revealed an area under the curve of 0.789 (P=0.0003). Conclusions IS with anti-CD154 suppressed anti-Gal responses and prevented EGF in PITx. Anti-Gal IgM Ratio7/0, being associated with EGF, is a predictive marker for EGF. PMID:26354349

  15. Crystal structure of a glycosylated Fab from an IgM cryoglobulin with properties of a natural proteolytic antibody.

    PubMed

    Ramsland, Paul A; Terzyan, Simon S; Cloud, Gwendolyn; Bourne, Christina R; Farrugia, William; Tribbick, Gordon; Geysen, H Mario; Moomaw, Carolyn R; Slaughter, Clive A; Edmundson, Allen B

    2006-05-01

    The 2.6 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution structure has been determined for the glycosylated Fab (fragment antigen binding) of an IgM (Yvo) obtained from a subject with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. Dynamic light scattering was used to estimate the gel point and monitor the formation of an ordered hydroscopic gel of Yvo IgM upon cooling. If a cryoglobulin forms gels in peripheral tissues and organs, the associated swelling and damage to microvasculature can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. The three-dimensional structure of the branched N-linked oligosaccharide associated with the CH1 domain (first constant domain of heavy chain) is reported. The carbohydrate may act to shield part of the lateral surface of the CH1 domain and crowd the junction between the CH1 and CH2 domains, thereby limiting the segmental flexibility of the Fab arms in intact Yvo IgM, especially at low temperatures. Recently, Yvo IgM was shown to have the properties of a naturally occurring proteolytic antibody [Paul, Karle, Planque, Taguchi, Salas, Nishiyama, Handy, Hunter, Edmundson and Hanson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 39611-39619; Planque, Bangale, Song, Karle, Taguchi, Poindexter, Bick, Edmundson, Nishiyama and Paul (2004) J. Biol Chem. 279, 14024-14032]. The Yvo protein displayed the ability to cleave, by a nucleophilic mechanism, the amide bonds of a variety of serine protease substrates and the gp120 coat protein of HIV. An atypical serine, arginine and glutamate motif is located in the middle of the Yvo antigen-binding site and displays an overall geometry that mimics the classical serine, histidine and aspartate catalytic triad of serine proteases. Our present findings indicate that pre-existing or natural antibodies can utilize at least one novel strategy for the cleavage of peptide bonds. PMID:16422668

  16. A research standard for human serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM.

    PubMed

    Rowe, D S; Anderson, S G; Grab, B

    1970-01-01

    A pooled human serum, partly diluted, has been distributed into ampoules and freeze-dried in several batches. The freeze-dried material has been examined in an international collaborative assay and certain properties have also been estimated in individual laboratories.On the basis of these tests this material was considered to be suitable for use as a standard for the estimation of IgG, IgA and IgM for clinical purposes using the single-radial-diffusion or similar techniques. Greater uniformity of results than is obtained at present should be achieved if this material were in general use.Estimates of immunoglobulins from different laboratories using this material as a standard showed small but significant variability. This variability was probably related to the heterogeneity of immunoglobulins and of antisera, and it limits the precision of immunoglobulin estimations by techniques at present in use.Batches of this material have been distributed to various centres. 67/68 has been established as the British research standard for human serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM for which the unit of potency is defined as the activity present in 0.8147 mg of dry powder. The average activity per ampoule of 67/86 is 100 units of IgG, IgA and IgM. The average activities of other related preparations have been estimated. PMID:4194813

  17. A Research Standard for Human Serum Immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, D. S.; Anderson, S. G.; Grab, B.

    1970-01-01

    A pooled human serum, partly diluted, has been distributed into ampoules and freeze-dried in several batches. The freeze-dried material has been examined in an international collaborative assay and certain properties have also been estimated in individual laboratories. On the basis of these tests this material was considered to be suitable for use as a standard for the estimation of IgG, IgA and IgM for clinical purposes using the single-radial-diffusion or similar techniques. Greater uniformity of results than is obtained at present should be achieved if this material were in general use. Estimates of immunoglobulins from different laboratories using this material as a standard showed small but significant variability. This variability was probably related to the heterogeneity of immunoglobulins and of antisera, and it limits the precision of immunoglobulin estimations by techniques at present in use. Batches of this material have been distributed to various centres. 67/68 has been established as the British research standard for human serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM for which the unit of potency is defined as the activity present in 0.8147 mg of dry powder. The average activity per ampoule of 67/86 is 100 units of IgG, IgA and IgM. The average activities of other related preparations have been estimated. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4194813

  18. IgM-class rheumatoid factor interference in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay of rubella-specific IgM antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, O H; Ziola, B R

    1978-01-01

    The interference of IgM-class rheumatoid factor (RF) in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) of rubella virus IgM antibodies was studied. Acute rubella infections did not significantly activate RF. False-positive rubella antibody results were obtained, however, when patients with raised RF levels were tested. If a low rubella IgG antibody titre was present, a high level of RF was required to cause a false-positive IgM result; conversely, in sera with high IgG titres, only a low level of RF was required for interference. Although the false-positive IgM titres obtained were generally low, thet did show a positive correlation to both RF levels and rubella IgG titres. False-positive results were successfully avoided by removing the RF by absorption with heat-aggregated human gamma globulin. The absorption procedure did not affect true rubella IgM antibody titres. PMID:77280

  19. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti-A autoreactivity at germline serine and threonine residues. Sustaining the lineage-maintaining position of the classic A allele and the discovery of the OA hybrid alleles at the normal ABO locus and in heterozygous ESC lines have, together with clinical observations, raised discussions about a silent A-allelic support within blood group O reproduction. However, the question of whether a fictional "continued blood group O inbreeding" ultimately occurs without the A-allelic or somatic function remains unanswered because the genetic relationship between non-somatic O-GalNAc-glycosylations that operate before sperm-egg recognition and somatic O-GalNAc-glycosylations that arise after the formation of the zygote remains to be elucidated. PMID:26433867

  20. Diagnostic value of detecting specific IgA and IgM with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in congenital Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Lorca, M; Veloso, C; Munoz, P; Bahamonde, M I; Garcia, A

    1995-06-01

    The present study compares the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease with a DOT assay using recombinant antigens with immunofluorescence antibody testing (IFAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The studies were performed using cord blood and sera of 12 infected newborns (group I) and 12 uninfected ones born to Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers (group II). Conventional IFAT and ELISA showed positive results for IgG at high titers, in infants and mothers of both groups; IgA antibodies were detected by ELISA in four of the infected infants and IgM was detected in two of them. All sera of the uninfected infants were negative for IgA and IgM in the ELISA. Application of a DOT assay using eight recombinant T. cruzi antigens allowed detection of specific IgA in the cord blood of six of the infected cases and IgM in eight of them. Repetition of these serologic tests in samples obtained during a monthly follow-up gave positive results for IgA in two of the initially negative infants of group I and for IgM in four of them. This means that diagnosis of congenital T. cruzi infection was confirmed, through demonstration of specific IgM, in all infected infants, and of IgA in eight of them. The importance of late detection of IgM in siblings born of infected mothers is discussed. The detection of IgM and IgA in sera obtained after birth is believed to be due to a congenital transmission of the parasite that occurred late in pregnancy. No IgA or IgM antibodies could be detected by the DOT assay in the sera of the negative controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7611556

  1. Fetal lambs are depleted of IgM+ cells following a single injection of an anti-IgM antibody early in gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Press, C M; Reynolds, J D; McClure, S J; Simpson-Morgan, M W; Landsverk, T

    1996-01-01

    B-cell depleted fetal sheep were created following a single injection of an anti-IgM monoclonal antibody early in gestation. Six sheep fetuses were given a single intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal antibody directed against IgM at 63 days of gestation (gestation in sheep = 150 days). The fetuses were killed at 138-142 days of gestation and lymphoid tissues were collected for subsequent light microscopy and immunohistochemical examination. The ileal and jejunal Peyer's patch (PP) follicles in four of the six injected fetuses were markedly reduced in size. Cells in the rudimentary follicles of the ileal PP of these animals showed no reactivity for IgM and most were negative for CD45. The dome regions contained many T cells, which were predominantly CD8+ cells and included gamma delta T cells. The interfollicular areas of the PP of the markedly affected fetuses contained large populations of T cells. The spleen and lymph nodes were also markedly depleted of IgM+ cells and these tissues contained only a small, scattered population of weakly IgM+ cells. Follicular accumulations of IgM+ cells were absent. Large populations of T cells were present in the white pulp of the spleen and cortex of the lymph nodes. The liver did not contain IgM+ cells and the medulla of the thymus was depleted of IgM+ cells. The results of this study suggest that a surface IgM+ B-cell population is present in the sheep fetus at 63 days of gestation, which is essential for the colonization of the ileal PP and subsequent B-cell development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8707346

  2. Pregnancy Outcomes of Mothers with Detectable CMV-Specific IgM Antibodies: A Three-Year Review in a Large Irish Tertiary Referral Maternity Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Richard J.; Stapleton, Patrick; Abu, Hala; Healy, Eibhlín; Ferguson, Wendy; De Gascun, Cillian; O'Gorman, Joanne; Eogan, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective audit was performed for all obstetric patients who had positive CMV IgM results between January 2012 and December 2014 in the Rotunda Hospital, Ireland. In total, 622 CMV IgM positive tests were performed on samples from 572 patients. Thirty-seven patients had a positive CMV IgM result (5.9%) on the Architect system as part of the initial screening. Three patients were excluded as they were not obstetric patients. Of the 34 pregnant women with CMV IgM positive results on initial screening, 16 (47%) had CMV IgM positivity confirmed on the second platform (VIDAS) and 18 (53%) did not. In the 16 patients with confirmed positive CMV IgM results, four (25%) had acute infection, two (12.5%) had infection of uncertain timing, and ten (62.5%) had infection more than three months prior to sampling as determined by the CMV IgG avidity index. Two of the four neonates of women with low avidity IgG had CMV DNA detected in urine. Both these cases had severe neurological damage and the indication for testing their mothers was because the biparietal diameter (BPD) was less than the 5th centile at the routine 20-week gestation anomaly scan. PMID:26696757

  3. An atypical IgM class platelet cold agglutinin induces GPVI-dependent aggregation of human platelets.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Guiu, I M; Martínez-Martinez, I; Martínez, C; Navarro-Fernandez, J; García-Candel, F; Ferrer-Marín, F; Vicente, V; Watson, S P; Andrews, R K; Gardiner, E E; Lozano, M L; Rivera, J

    2015-08-01

    Platelet cold agglutinins (PCA) cause pseudothrombocytopenia, spurious thrombocytopenia due to ex vivo platelet clumping, complicating clinical diagnosis, but mechanisms and consequences of PCA are not well defined. Here, we characterised an atypical immunoglobulin (Ig)M PCA in a 37-year-old woman with lifelong bleeding and chronic moderate thrombocytopenia, that induces activation and aggregation of autologous or allogeneic platelets via interaction with platelet glycoprotein (GP)VI. Patient temperature-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia was EDTA-independent, but was prevented by integrin ?IIb?3 blockade. Unstimulated patient platelets revealed elevated levels of bound IgM, increased expression of activation markers (P-selectin and CD63), low GPVI levels and abnormally high thromboxane (TX)A2 production. Patient serum induced temperature- and ?IIb?3-dependent decrease of platelet count in allogeneic donor citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but not in PRP from Glanzmann's thrombasthenia or afibrinogenaemia patients. In allogeneic platelets, patient plasma induced shape change, P-selectin and CD63 expression, (14)C-serotonin release, and TXA2 production. Activation was not inhibited by aspirin, cangrelor or blocking anti-Fc receptor (Fc?RIIA) antibody, but was abrogated by inhibitors of Src and Syk, and by a soluble GPVI-Fc fusion protein. GPVI-deficient platelets were not activated by patient plasma. These data provide the first evidence for an IgM PCA causing platelet activation/aggregation via GPVI. The PCA activity persisted over a five-year follow-up period, supporting a causative role in patient chronic thrombocytopenia and bleeding. PMID:25994029

  4. Generation and Characterization of Antibodies against Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Alan F.; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M.; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C.; Mikulski, Rose L.; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G.; Ling, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

  5. Expression of IgM, IgD, and IgY in a reptile, Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhiguo; Wu, Qian; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Warr, Gregory W; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2009-09-15

    The reptiles are the last major group of jawed vertebrates in which the organization of the IGH locus and its encoded Ig H chain isotypes have not been well characterized. In this study, we show that the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) expresses three Ig H chain isotypes (IgM, IgD, and IgY) but no IgA. The presence of the delta gene in the lizard demonstrates an evolutionary continuity of IgD from fishes to mammals. Although the germline delta gene contains 11 C(H) exons, only the first 4 are used in the expressed IgD membrane-bound form. The mu chain lacks the cysteine in C(H)1 that forms a disulfide bond between H and L chains, suggesting that (as in IgM of some amphibians) the H and L polypeptide chains are not covalently associated. Although conventional IgM transcripts (four C(H) domains) encoding both secreted and membrane-bound forms were detected, alternatively spliced transcripts encoding a short membrane-bound form were also observed and shown to lack the first two C(H) domains (VDJ-C(H)3-C(H)4-transmembrane region). Similar to duck IgY, lizard IgY H chain (upsilon) transcripts encoding both full-length and truncated (IgYDeltaFc) forms (with two C(H) domains) were observed. The absence of an IgA-encoding gene in the lizard IGH locus suggests a complex evolutionary history for IgA in the saurian lineage leading to modern birds, lizards, and their relatives. PMID:19717516

  6. Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG to Arboviral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Alison J.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Panella, Amanda J.; Laven, Janeen; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

    2013-01-01

    Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression “Logitboost” as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests. PMID:24086608

  7. Natural IgM Switches the Function of Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells to a Regulatory Dendritic Cell That Suppresses Innate Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Peter I; Schlegel, Kailo H; Bajwa, Amandeep; Huang, Liping; Kurmaeva, Elvira; Wang, Binru; Ye, Hong; Tedder, Thomas F; Kinsey, Gilbert R; Okusa, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that polyclonal natural IgM protects mice from renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) by inhibiting the reperfusion inflammatory response. We hypothesized that a potential mechanism involved IgM modulation of dendritic cells (DC), as we observed high IgM binding to splenic DC. To test this hypothesis, we pretreated bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) with polyclonal murine or human IgM prior to LPS activation and demonstrated that 0.5 × 10(6) IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC, when injected into wild-type C57BL/6 mice 24 h before renal ischemia, protect mice from developing renal IRI. We show that this switching of LPS-activated BMDC to a regulatory phenotype requires modulation of BMDC function that is mediated by IgM binding to nonapoptotic BMDC receptors. Regulatory BMDC require IL-10 and programmed death 1 as well as downregulation of CD40 and p65 NF-?B phosphorylation to protect in renal IRI. Blocking the programmed death ligand 1 binding site just before i.v. injection of IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC or using IL-10 knockout BMDC fails to induce protection. Similarly, IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC are rendered nonprotective by increasing CD40 expression and phosphorylation of p65 NF-?B. How IgM/LPS regulatory BMDC suppress in vivo ischemia-induced innate inflammation remains to be determined. However, we show that suppression is dependent on other in vivo regulatory mechanisms in the host, that is, CD25(+) T cells, B cells, IL-10, and circulating IgM. There was no increase in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the spleen either before or after renal IRI. Collectively, these findings show that natural IgM anti-leukocyte Abs can switch BMDC to a regulatory phenotype despite the presence of LPS that ordinarily induces BMDC maturation. PMID:26519533

  8. Rapid Proliferation and Differentiation of a Subset of Circulating IgM Memory B Cells to a CpG/Cytokine Stimulus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Camilo; Franco, Manuel A.; Angel, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Circulating human IgM expressing memory B cells have been incompletely characterized. Here, we compared the phenotype and in vitro functional response (capacity to proliferate and differentiate to antibody secreting cells) in response to CpG and a cytokine cocktail (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) of sorted naïve B cells, IgM memory B cells and isotype-switched circulating memory B cells. Compared to naïve B cells, IgM memory B cells had lower integrated mean fluorescence intensity (iMFI) of BAFF-R, CD38, CD73, and IL-21R, but higher iMFI of CD95, CD11c, TLR9, PD-1, and CD122. Compared to switched memory B cells, IgM memory B cells had higher iMFI of BAFF-R, PD-1, IL-21R, TLR9, and CD122, but lower iMFI of CD38, CD95, and CD73. Four days after receiving the CpG/cytokine cocktail, higher frequencies of IgM than switched memory B cells—and these in turn greater than naïve cells—proliferated and differentiated to antibody secreting cells. At this time point, a small percentage (median of 7.6%) of stimulated IgM memory B cells changed isotype to IgG. Thus, among the heterogeneous population of human circulating IgM memory B cells a subset is capable of a rapid functional response to a CpG/cytokine stimulus in vitro. PMID:26439739

  9. Genetic Resistance to Malaria Is Associated With Greater Enhancement of Immunoglobulin (Ig)M Than IgG Responses to a Broad Array of Plasmodium falciparum Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Arama, Charles; Skinner, Jeff; Doumtabe, Didier; Portugal, Silvia; Tran, Tuan M.; Jain, Aarti; Traore, Boubacar; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Davies, David Huw; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Dolo, Amagana; Felgner, Philip L.; Crompton, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?People of the Fulani ethnic group are more resistant to malaria compared with genetically distinct ethnic groups, such as the Dogon people, in West Africa, and studies suggest that this resistance is mediated by enhanced antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens. However, prior studies measured antibody responses to <0.1% of P falciparum proteins, so whether the Fulani mount an enhanced and broadly reactive immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG response to P falciparum remains unknown. In general, little is known about the extent to which host genetics influence the overall antigen specificity of IgM and IgG responses to natural infections. Methods.?In a cross-sectional study in Mali, we collected plasma from asymptomatic, age-matched Fulani (n = 24) and Dogon (n = 22) adults with or without concurrent P falciparum infection. We probed plasma against a protein microarray containing 1087 P falciparum antigens and compared IgM and IgG profiles by ethnicity. Results.?We found that the breadth and magnitude of P falciparum-specific IgM and IgG responses were significantly higher in the malaria-resistant Fulani versus the malaria-susceptible Dogon, and, unexpectedly, P falciparum-specific IgM responses more strongly distinguished the 2 ethnic groups. Conclusions.?These findings point to an underappreciated role for IgM in protection from malaria, and they suggest that host genetics may influence the antigen specificity of IgM and IgG responses to infection. PMID:26361633

  10. Observations of HI 21cm absorption by the neutral IGM during the epoch of re-ionization with the Square Kilometer Array

    E-print Network

    C. L. Carilli; N. Gnedin; S. Furlanetto; F. Owen

    2004-09-13

    We explore the possibility of detecting HI 21cm absorption by the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) toward very high redshift radio sources, and by gas associated with the first collapsed structures, using the Square Kilometer Array at low frequency (100 to 200 MHz). The epoch considered is between the time when the first ionizing sources form and when the bulk of the neutral IGM becomes ionized. Expected IGM absorption signal includes $\\sim 1%$ absorption by the mean neutral IGM (the radio 'Gunn-Peterson' effect'), plus deeper, narrow lines ($\\ge 5%$, a few km s$^{-1}$) arising in mild density inhomogeneities with typical values of cosmic overdensity $\\delta\\sim 10$, precisely the structures that at later times give rise to the Ly$\\alpha$ forest (the `21cm forest'). Absorption can also arise in gas associated with collapsed structures ($\\delta\\ge 100$), including 'minihalos' ($\\le 10^7$ M$_\\odot$) and protodisks ($\\ge 10^8$ M$_\\odot$). We consider SKA sensitivity limits and the evolution of radio source populations, and conclude that it is reasonable to hypothesize the existence of an adequate number of high-$z$ radio sources against which such absorption studies could be performed, provided that reionization occurs at $z < 10$. Lastly, we discuss the possibility of `line confusion' due to radio recombination lines arising in the ionized IGM.

  11. Functional properties of isotype-switched immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG monoclonal antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, M; Koles, N L; Preston, M J; Brown, B J; Pier, G B

    1995-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding isotype-related differences in the antibacterial and protective properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific antibodies of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class and various IgG subclasses. To clarify this issue, a murine hybridoma secreting IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for the O polysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O6 LPS was class switched, by sib selection, to produce an IgG3 MAb with identical specificity and variable region heavy and light chain nucleotide sequences. This IgG3-secreting cell line was further switched to the production of O-specific, variable region-identical IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG2a MAbs. Functional comparisons of these LPS-specific IgM and IgG MAb isotypes revealed similar LPS binding, opsonic, and protective activities. Relatively minor isotype-related differences in levels of efficiency of MAb-mediated, complement-dependent opsonophagocytic killing (IgM > IgG2a > IgG3 > IgG2b > > IgG1) were not associated with corresponding differences in in vivo functions. These findings, in conjunction with previously published data, support a cautious approach to generic conclusions regarding the immunotherapeutic superiority of LPS-specific antibodies belonging to either the IgM or IgG class or to a particular IgG subclass. PMID:7591089

  12. A natural human IgM that binds to gangliosides is therapeutic in murine models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Denic, Aleksandar; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Wootla, Bharath; Papke, Louisa M.; Zoecklein, Laurie J.; Yoo, Daehan; Shaver, Jonah; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Pease, Larry R.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, fatal neurological disease that primarily affects spinal cord anterior horn cells and their axons for which there is no treatment. Here we report the use of a recombinant natural human IgM that binds to the surface of neurons and supports neurite extension, rHIgM12, as a therapeutic strategy in murine models of human ALS. A single 200?µg intraperitoneal dose of rHIgM12 increases survival in two independent genetic-based mutant SOD1 mouse strains (SOD1G86R and SOD1G93A) by 8 and 10?days, delays the onset of neurological deficits by 16?days, delays the onset of weight loss by 5?days, and preserves spinal cord axons and anterior horn neurons. Immuno-overlay of thin layer chromatography and surface plasmon resonance show that rHIgM12 binds with high affinity to the complex gangliosides GD1a and GT1b. Addition of rHIgM12 to neurons in culture increases ?-tubulin tyrosination levels, suggesting an alteration of microtubule dynamics. We previously reported that a single peripheral dose of rHIgM12 preserved neurological function in a murine model of demyelination with axon loss. Because rHIgM12 improves three different models of neurological disease, we propose that the IgM might act late in the cascade of neuronal stress and/or death by a broad mechanism. PMID:26035393

  13. Mutations in PIK3CD Can Cause Hyper IgM Syndrome (HIGM) Associated with Increased Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Crank, M. C.; Grossman, J. K.; Moir, S.; Pittaluga, S.; Buckner, C. M.; Kardava, L.; Agharahimi, A.; Meuwissen, H.; Stoddard, J.; Niemela, J.; Kuehn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant gain of function mutations in the gene encoding PI3K p110? were recently associated with a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, CD4 lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. A subset of affected patients also had elevated serum IgM. Here we describe three patients in two families who were diagnosed with HIGM at a young age and were recently found to carry heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD. These patients had an abnormal circulating B cell distribution featuring a preponderance of early transitional (T1) B cells and plasmablasts. When stimulated in vitro, PIK3CD mutated B cells were able to secrete class-switched immunoglobulins. This finding implies that the patients’ elevated serum IgM levels were unlikely a product of an intrinsic B cell functional inability to class switch. All three patients developed malignant lymphoproliferative syndromes that were not associated with EBV. Thus, we identified a novel subset of patients with PIK3CD mutations associated with HIGM, despite indications of preserved in vitro B cell class switch recombination, as well as susceptibility to non-EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:24610295

  14. The BOSS DR9 Lyman-alpha Forest Sample and Constraints on the IGM Temperature-Density Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan

    2013-01-01

    We present the Lyman-alpha Forest Sample from BOSS DR9 comprising 55,305 quasars at z>2.15, with Lyman-alpha forest coverage. This sample also includes a set of products designed to aid in Lyman-alpha forest analysis, such as quasar continua accurate to <5% RMS, simplified pixel masks (to account for DLA cores, strong sky lines, and intervening metal absorbers), DLA damping wing corrections, and pipeline noise corrections. We also discuss an effort to measure the flux transmission probability distribution function (PDF) of the Lyman-alpha forest from BOSS. This requires detailed modeling of the resolution, continuum and noise properties of the BOSS spectra. We describe a new probabilistic method to model the noise properties of the BOSS data which allows us to separate the photon-counting and CCD noise components in each spectrum. Comparing with mock spectra generated from hydrodynamical simulations of the intergalactic medium (IGM), we place constraints on the evolution of the IGM temperature-density relation from 2.15 < z < 3.15.

  15. Low molecular weight IgM in sera of children following bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anaemia and acute leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Jol-vd Zijde, C M; Vossen, J M; Weijden-Ragas, R V; Radl, J

    1983-01-01

    Serum samples of 16 children, treated with allogeneic bone marrow grafts for either aplastic anaemia or leukaemia, were investigated longitudinally for the presence of pentameric (19S) and low molecular weight (LMW) (7S) IgM. From 2 months following grafting, serum IgM increased in all patients, gradually in seven cases and with a transient overshoot in the other nine. In eight patients, LMW-IgM was detected transiently in the serum within the period when total IgM was increasing, either with (five patients) or without (three patients) overshoot. These data indicate that, at a certain stage of the immunological reconstitution after transplantation as in normal ontogeny, rather immature cells of the B cell lineage are able to produce and secrete LMW-IgM. PMID:6347475

  16. Detection of IgM antibodies against canine distemper virus in dog and mink sera employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Pedersen, I R; Appel, M J; Griot, C

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgM antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) in canine and mink serum is described. The diagnostic potential of this technique was evaluated by analyzing sera from natural or experimental infections in dog and mink and negative control sera. These results were compared with results obtained in the developed CDV IgG ELISA and in the virus neutralization test. The IgM test, which requires only a single serum specimen, is a useful method for diagnosing current or recent CDV infections in dog and mink. PMID:2039785

  17. Production of human monoclonal IgG and IgM antibodies with anti-D (rhesus) specificity using heterohybridomas.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, K M; Melamed, M D; Eagle, K; Gorick, B D; Gibson, T; Holburn, A M; Hughes-Jones, N C

    1986-01-01

    Heterohybridomas secreting human IgM and IgG anti-D antibodies of the rhesus blood group system have been established by fusion of EBV-transformed anti-D secreting cells with the mouse myeloma cells X63-Ag8.653. Both classes of antibody reacted with all Rh-positive cells, some Du cells but not with Rh-negative or DB cells. Concentrations of both antibodies reached between 25 micrograms/ml and 50 micrograms/ml in the culture supernatants. The cell lines have been maintained in culture for 14 months and have been shown to be suitable for large-scale production of antibody. PMID:3011653

  18. Immune Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome Patients Revealed by High Levels of Serum Anti-N(Glc) IgM Antibody Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Papini, Anna Maria; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of IgM and IgG in lung tissue of dogs with leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS) is a severe form of leptospirosis. Pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Lung tissues from 26 dogs with LPHS, 5 dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage due to other causes and 6 healthy lungs were labelled for IgG, IgM and leptospiral antigens. Three ...

  20. Search for QSOS Suitable for Subsequent Observation of he II 304 Absorption Arising in the IGM, Ly-Alpha and ... PART3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytler, David

    1991-07-01

    THIS IS PART Three OF PROPOSAL 3801. IT CONTAINS 40 TARGETS OF HIGH PRIORITY. EXCEPT FOR TARGETS, THIS PROPOSAL IS IDENTICAL TO 3801. Targets are in order of decreasing priority. Priority matters a lot. Best targets are listed first. Ultraviolet images will be obtained in snapshot mode of the 500 known high-redshift (z > 2.8) QSOs in order to identify the few (about 20) targets which have sufficient ultraviolet flux for subsequent FOC/FOS or GHRS observations of He II 304. The detection of absorption by the Helium II Lyman-alpha line at 304 A, one of the most exciting prospects of the HST, will provide the first direct detection of the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM). The absence of Gunn-Peterson H I 1215 absorption shows that the IGM is hot and/or of very low density, thus He I 584 is not expected to be observable. He II 304--the most promising line--should be observable from three sources: the diffuse IGM, the discrete Ly-alpha clouds, and the much rarer metal line absorption systems. The Gunn-Peterson continuum optical depth is not well constrained by models (range 0.3-3000). The mere detection of only one QSO below 304 A would rule out many models, limiting the IGM density, temperature, and ionization mechanisms. Similarly the total absence of flux from several targets would rule out other models.

  1. T cell-dependent IgM Memory B Cells Generated During Bacterial Infection are Required for IgG Responses to Antigen Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Jennifer L.; Racine, Rachael; McBride, Kevin M.; Winslow, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Immunological memory has long considered to be harbored in B cells that express high affinity class-switched IgG. IgM-positive memory B cells can also be generated following immunization, although their physiological role has been unclear. Here we show that bacterial infection elicited a relatively large population of IgM memory B cells that were uniquely identified by their surface expression of CD11c, CD73, and PD-L2. The cells lacked expression of cell surface markers typically expressed by GC B cells, were CD138-negative, and did not secrete antibody ex vivo. The population was also largely quiescent, and accumulated somatic mutations. The IgM memory B cells were located in the region of the splenic marginal zone, and were not detected in blood or other secondary lymphoid organs. Generation of the memory cells was CD4 T cell-dependent, and required IL-21R signaling. In vivo depletion of the IgM memory B cells abrogated the IgG recall responses to specific antigen challenge, demonstrating that the cell population was required for humoral memory, and underwent class switch recombination following antigen encounter. Our findings demonstrate that T cell-dependent IgM memory B cells can be elicited at high frequency, and can play an important role in maintaining long-term immunity during bacterial infection. PMID:23804710

  2. Zebrafish immunoglobulin IgD: Unusual exon usage and quantitative expression profiles with IgM and IgZ/T heavy chain isotypes

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Anastasia M.

    The zebrafish is an emerging model for comparative immunology and biomedical research. In contrast to the five heavy chain isotype system of mice and human (IgD, IgM, IgA, IgG, IgE), zebrafish harbor gene segments for IgD, ...

  3. The Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in Victor Lee,* Jing Li Huang,* Ming Fai Lui,* Karolina Malecek,* Yuko Ohta,

    E-print Network

    Mooers, Arne

    ), the high copy number in horn shark and other species, estimated to be 100­200, prevented a thoroughThe Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in the Shark1 Victor Lee,* Jing Li Huang vertebrate classes. To understand the molecular evolution of this system, we studied the nurse shark, which

  4. Reconstituted Human Polyclonal Plasma-derived Secretory-like IgM and IgA Maintain the Barrier Function of Epithelial Cells Infected with an Enteropathogen*

    PubMed Central

    Longet, Stéphanie; Vonarburg, Cédric; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia; Zuercher, Adrian; Corthésy, Blaise

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous administration of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies has proven to be a clinically valid approach in the treatment, or at least relief, of many acute and chronic pathologies, such as infection, immunodeficiency, and a broad range of autoimmune conditions. Plasma-derived IgG or recombinant IgG are most frequently used for intravenous or subcutaneous administration, whereas a few IgM-based products are available as well. We have established recently that secretory-like IgA and IgM can be produced upon association of plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM with a recombinant secretory component. As a next step toward potential future mucosal administration, we sought to unravel the mechanisms by which these secretory Igs protect epithelial cells located at the interface between the environment and the inside of the body. By using polarized epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers and Shigella flexneri as a model enteropathogen, we found that polyspecific plasma-derived SIgA and SIgM fulfill many protective functions, including dose-dependent recognition of the antigen via formation of aggregated immune complexes, reduction of bacterial infectivity, maintenance of epithelial cell integrity, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by epithelial cells. In this in vitro model devoid of other cellular or molecular interfering partners, IgM and secretory IgM showed stronger bacterial neutralization than secretory IgA. Together, these data suggest that mucosally delivered antibody preparations may be most effective when combining both secretory-like IgA and IgM, which, together, play a crucial role in preserving several levels of epithelial cell integrity. PMID:24951593

  5. Evasion of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria by IgM masking of protective IgG epitopes in infected erythrocyte surface-exposed PfEMP1.

    PubMed

    Barfod, Lea; Dalgaard, Michael B; Pleman, Suzan T; Ofori, Michael F; Pleass, Richard J; Hviid, Lars

    2011-07-26

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Its virulence is related to the parasite's ability to evade host immunity through clonal antigenic variation and tissue-specific adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs). The P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family is central to both. Here, we present evidence of a P. falciparum evasion mechanism not previously documented: the masking of PfEMP1-specific IgG epitopes by nonspecific IgM. Nonspecific IgM binding to erythrocytes infected by parasites expressing the PfEMP1 protein VAR2CSA (involved in placental malaria pathogenesis and protective immunity) blocked subsequent specific binding of human monoclonal IgG to the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains DBL3X and DBL5? of this PfEMP1 variant. Strikingly, a VAR2CSA-specific monoclonal antibody that binds outside these domains and can inhibit IE adhesion to the specific VAR2CSA receptor chondroitin sulfate A was unaffected. Nonspecific IgM binding protected the parasites from Fc?R-dependent phagocytosis of VAR2CSA(+) IEs, but it did not affect IE adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A or lead to C1q deposition on IEs. Taken together, our results indicate that the VAR2CSA affinity for nonspecific IgM has evolved to allow placenta-sequestering P. falciparum to evade acquired protective immunity without compromising VAR2CSA function or increasing IE susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis. Furthermore, functionally important PfEMP1 epitopes not prone to IgM masking are likely to be particularly important targets of acquired protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria. PMID:21746929

  6. Characterization of RAG1 and IgM (mu chain) marking development of the immune system in red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ming-Guang; Lei, Ji-Lin; Alex, Perálvarez-Marín; Hong, Wan-Shu; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2012-10-01

    In vertebrates, lymphoid-specific recombinase protein encoded by recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) plays a key role in V(D)J recombination of the T-cell receptor and B-cell receptor. In this study, both RAG1 and the immunoglobulin M (IgM) mu chain were cloned to characterize their potential role in the immune defense at developmental stages of red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara. The open reading frame (ORF) of E. akaara RAG1 included 2778 nucleotide residues encoding a putative protein of 925 amino acids, while the ORF of the IgM mu chain had 1734 nucleotide residues encoding 578 amino acids including variable (VH) and constant (CH1-CH2-CH3-CH4) regions. E. akaara RAG1 was composed of a zinc-binding dimerization domain (ZDD) with a RING finger and zinc finger A (ZFA) in the non-core region and a nonamer-binding region (NBR), with a zinc finger B (ZFB), the central and C-terminal domains in the core region. Tridimensional models of the ZDD and NBR of E. akaara RAG1 were constructed for the first time in fishes, while a 3D model of the E. akaara IgM mu chain was also clarified. The RAG1 mRNA was only detected in the thymus and kidney of 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers using qPCR, and the RAG1 protein was confirmed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IgM mu mRNA was examined in most tissues except the gonad. RAG1 and IgM mu gene expression were observed at 15 dph (days post-hatching) and 23 dph respectively, and increased to a higher level at 37 dph. In addition, this was the first time that the morphology of the E. akaara thymus was characterized. The oval-shaped thymus of 4-month old fish was clearly seen and there were amounts of T lymphocytes present. The results suggested that the immune action of E. akaara was likely to start to develop around 15 dph to 29 dph. The transcript level of the RAG1 gene and the number of lymphocytes in the thymus between 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers indicated that age-related thymic atrophy also occurs in fishes. The similar functional structures of RAG1 and IgM protein between fish and mammals indicated that teleost species share a similar mechanism of V(D)J recombination with higher vertebrates. PMID:22796426

  7. Low Levels of IgM Antibodies against an Advanced Glycation Endproduct-Modified Apolipoprotein B100 Peptide Predict Cardiovascular Events in Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Vallejo, Jenifer; Quách, Tâm Dan; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin; Alm, Ragnar; Hedblad, Bo; Björkbacka, Harry; Rothstein, Thomas L; Nilsson, Jan; Bengtsson, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Increased glucose levels are associated with the generation of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) modifications. Interaction between AGE-modified plaque components and immune cells is believed to have an important role in the development of vascular complications in diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is one type of reactive aldehyde that gives rise to AGE modification. The present study analyzed whether autoantibodies against MGO-modified epitopes of the low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B (apoB) 100 predict cardiovascular events. A library consisting of 302 peptides comprising the complete apoB100 molecule was screened to identify peptides targeted by MGO-specific autoantibodies. Peptide (p) 220 (apoB amino acids 3286-3305) was identified as a major target. Baseline IgM and IgG against MGO-peptide 220 (p220) were measured in 700 individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort. A total of 139 cardiovascular events were registered during the 15-y follow-up period. Controlling for major cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated that subjects in the lowest tertile of MGO-p220 IgM had an increased risk for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.07 [1.22-3.50]; p(trend) = 0.004). Interestingly, the association between MGO-p220 IgM and cardiovascular events remained and even tended to become stronger when subjects with prevalent diabetes were excluded from the analysis (2.51 [1.37-4.61]; p(trend) = 0.002). MGO-p220 IgM was inversely associated with blood glucose, but not with oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Finally, we demonstrate that anti-MGO-p220 IgM is produced by B1 cells. These data show that subjects with low levels of IgM recognizing MGO-modified p220 in apoB have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular events and that this association is present in nondiabetic subjects. PMID:26290603

  8. Seeing the Lyman-Alpha Forest for the Trees: Constraints on the Thermal State of the IGM from SDSS-III/BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan

    The Lyman-alpha (Lya) forest in the line-of-sight to distant quasars is an important probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM). The thermal properties of the IGM can provide insight the reionization history of the universe, as well as indirectly constraining energy sources in the universe such as galaxies and quasars. This thesis is concerned primarily with studying the IGM using moderate quality Lya forest data sets from large-scale spectroscopic surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). In Chapter 1, we study the potential of SDSS Lya forest data to study the IGM. Using simulated mock spectra, we show that the flux probability distribution function (PDF) of SDSS data can place interesting constraints on the spatially-averaged temperature-density relation (TDR) of the IGM. We also introduce the threshold probability functions, a one-dimensional two-point statistic adapted from material sciences that can be applied to SDSS data to detect ˜ 50 Mpc IGM thermal inhomogeneities arising from He II reionization. Chapter 2 discusses the effect of continuum biases in the TDR measured from high-resolution Lyalpha forest spectra in the context of recent evidence for an inverted (gamma < 1) TDR. We argue that forward modeling of continuum errors in mock spectra are necessary to make robust estimates of the TDR. Motivated by the importance of accurate continuum estimation in Lya forest analysis, Chapter 3 introduces the mean-flux regulated/principal component analysis (MF-PCA) continuum estimation technique. We show using mock spectra that this technique can achieve continuum accuracies of < 10% and < 4% in noisy spectra of S/N ˜ 2 and S/N ˜ 5, respectively. We have also publicly released ˜ 13,000 continua from SDSS Data Release 7. In Chapter 4, we measure the flux PDF from BOSS, drawing from an overall sample of ˜ 30,000 Lya forest sightlines. This uses a novel procedure for optimally combining the multiple BOSS exposures and estimating the spectral noise contribution. Comparing a high signal-to-noise subsample in BOSS with mock spectra generated from detailed hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the flux PDF from BOSS at 2 < z < 3 is consistent with an isothermal TDR, consistent with theoretical expectations from He II reionization.

  9. A novel immunosensor for detecting toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM based on goldmag nanoparticles and graphene sheets.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuting; Hua, Erhui; Liang, Mo; Liu, Bei; Xie, Guoming

    2013-01-01

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor for detecting toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM (Tg-IgM) was constructed based on goldmag (Au-Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS). Thionine (Thi), as a mediator, was first electropolymerized on a nafion-GS (Nf-GS) modified electrode. Subsequently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were attached onto the poly-thionine film through ?-stacking interactions, and then were used to immobilize toxoplasma gondii antigen (Tg-Ag) for immunosensor fabrication. A sandwich-type immunoassay for Tg-IgM was performed using Au-Fe(3)O(4) labeled anti-IgM-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as trace label. Electrochemical detection was carried out in the presence of H(2)O(2) as HRP substrate. Using Au-Fe(3)O(4) provided a simple, non-chemical damaging method for regeneration, and enhanced the HRP reduction ability toward H(2)O(2). The AuNPs/Thi/Nf-GS nanocomposite also had good conductivity and biocompatibility, which effectively improved the immunosensor sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor can detect Tg-IgM in two linear ranges from 0.0375 to 1.2 AU mL(-1) and from 2.0 to 18 AU mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.016 AU mL(-1) (S/N=3). The immunosensor exhibited good reproducibility, stability, and selectivity as well. PMID:23010058

  10. Syndrome of selective IgM deficiency with severe T cell deficiency associated with disseminated cutaneous mycobacterium avium intracellulaire infection

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Asal; Louis, Ankmalika Gupta; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous non-disseminated, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections have been reported in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects. Systemic Mycobacterium avium intracellulaire (MAI) have been reported in non-HIV patients with Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. We report a comprehensive immunological analysis in syndrome of selective IgM deficiency and T lymphocytopenia (both CD4+ and CD8+) with disseminated cutaneous MAI infection. Naïve (TN) and Central memory (TCM) subsets of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were decreased, whereas terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) subset of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were markedly increased. IFN-? producing T cells were markedly decreased. Although CD14highCD16- proinflammatory monocytes were modestly increased, IFN-?R+ monocytes were markedly decreased. The expression of TLR3, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9 on monocytes was decreased. Germinal center B cells (CD19+IgD-CD38+CD27lo) and B1 cells (CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70-) were markedly decreased. A role of immune alterations, including B cells and antibodies in disseminated cutaneous MAI infection is discussed. PMID:26550546

  11. In vitro synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in response to Staphylococcus aureus, by lymphocytes from healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Karsh, J.

    1986-12-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 healthy adults were tested in vitro for the production of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) or pokeweed mitogen. Fifteen of the 20 normal subjects produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 46 +/- 55 ng/ml) in response to SAC, compared with only 2 of 20 who produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 2 +/- 4 ng/ml) in response to pokeweed mitogen (P = 0.0001). Separation and reconstitution of autologous T and B cell-enriched fractions, with and without prior T cell irradiation, provided evidence for a radiosensitive T helper/inducer cell involved in the IgM-RF response to SAC in 70% of the normal subjects studied. SAC appears to be a potent stimulus of IgM-RF production, with a cellular mechanism distinct from that of other in vitro systems.

  12. Simultaneous use of serum IgG and IgM for risk scoring of suspected early Lyme borreliosis: graphical and bivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Dessau, Ram B; Ejlertsen, Tove; Hilden, Jørgen

    2010-04-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of early disseminated Lyme borreliosis (LB) rests on IgM and IgG antibodies in serum. The purpose of this study was to refine the statistical interpretation of IgM and IgG by combining the diagnostic evidence provided by the two immunoglobulins and exploiting the whole range of the quantitative variation in test values. ELISA assays based on purified flagella antigen were performed on sera from 815 healthy Danish blood donors as negative controls and 117 consecutive patients with confirmed neuroborreliosis (NB). A logistic regression model combining the standardized units of the IgM and IgG ELISA assays was constructed and the resulting disease risks graphically evaluated by receiver operating characteristic and 'predictiveness' curves. The combined model improves the discrimination between NB patients and blood donors. Hence, it is possible to report a predicted risk of disease graded for each individual patient, as is theoretically preferable. The predictiveness curve, when adapted to the local pretest probability of LB, allows high-risk and low-risk thresholds to be defined instead of cut-offs based on the laboratory characteristics only, and it allows the extent of under- and over-treatment to be assessed. It is shown that an example patient with low ELISA results in IgM and IgG, considered negative by the conventional cut-off, has a relatively high risk of belonging to the truly diseased population and a low risk of being false positive. Using a 20% high-risk threshold for advising the clinician to consider treatment, the sensitivity of the assay is increased from 76% to 85%, while the specificity is maintained at around 95%. PMID:20402677

  13. Production of Anti-LPS IgM by B1a B Cells Depends on IL-1? and Is Protective against Lung Infection with Francisella tularensis LVS

    PubMed Central

    Lantier, Louis; Reynolds, Joseph M.; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; Re, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The role of IL-1? and IL-18 during lung infection with the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis LVS has not been characterized in detail. Here, using a mouse model of pneumonic tularemia, we show that both cytokines are protective, but through different mechanisms. Il-18-/- mice quickly succumb to the infection and showed higher bacterial burden in organs and lower level of IFN? in BALF and serum compared to wild type C57BL/6J mice. Administration of IFN? rescued the survival of Il-18-/- mice, suggesting that their decreased resistance to tularemia is due to inability to produce IFN?. In contrast, mice lacking IL-1 receptor or IL-1?, but not IL-1?, appeared to control the infection in its early stages, but eventually succumbed. IFN? administration had no effect on Il-1r1-/- mice survival. Rather, Il-1r1-/- mice were found to have significantly reduced titer of Ft LPS-specific IgM. The anti-Ft LPS IgM was generated in a IL-1?-, TLR2-, and ASC-dependent fashion, promoted bacteria agglutination and phagocytosis, and was protective in passive immunization experiments. B1a B cells produced the anti-Ft LPS IgM and these cells were significantly decreased in the spleen and peritoneal cavity of infected Il-1b-/- mice, compared to C57BL/6J mice. Collectively, our results show that IL-1? and IL-18 activate non-redundant protective responses against tularemia and identify an essential role for IL-1? in the rapid generation of pathogen-specific IgM by B1a B cells. PMID:25768794

  14. I. Studies on pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase in rat liver mitochondria. II. Identification of the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of IgM in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    The orientation of the transmembrane enzyme, pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase, in the inner mitochondrial membrane of rat liver has been determined by evaluating effects of proteases on the integrity of the enzyme in mitoplasts and submitochondrial particles. Following treatment of these membranes with the non-specific protease, proteinase K, antigenic proteolytic products were detected by immunoblot analysis using polyclonal antibody prepared against purified bovine heart enzyme. Information from these proteolysis studies was used to construct a model of the orientation of transhydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this work, I have used the residualizing label, dilactitol-{sup 125}I-tyramine ({asterisk}I-DLT) to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of the immunoglobulin, IgM. Purified IgM was labeled conventionally with {sup 125}I or with the residualizing label, {asterisk}I-DLT. The circulating half-life of the protein, 2.7 {plus minus} 0.3 days, was the same when measured using either label, indicating that the residualizing label does not affect the kinetics of the protein's catabolism in vivo. At 2.4 or 5.1 days post injection, the liver contained the major fraction of catabolized protein compared to all the other organs in the body. Additionally, following collagenase digestion of the liver, the hepatocytes were shown to be 77% responsible for the catabolism of IgM by the liver. Autoradiography of the liver revealed that the remaining 23% of IgM catabolized by the liver was due to the Kupffer cells.

  15. Production of anti-LPS IgM by B1a B cells depends on IL-1? and is protective against lung infection with Francisella tularensis LVS.

    PubMed

    del Barrio, Laura; Sahoo, Manoranjan; Lantier, Louis; Reynolds, Joseph M; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; Re, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    The role of IL-1? and IL-18 during lung infection with the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis LVS has not been characterized in detail. Here, using a mouse model of pneumonic tularemia, we show that both cytokines are protective, but through different mechanisms. Il-18-/- mice quickly succumb to the infection and showed higher bacterial burden in organs and lower level of IFN? in BALF and serum compared to wild type C57BL/6J mice. Administration of IFN? rescued the survival of Il-18-/- mice, suggesting that their decreased resistance to tularemia is due to inability to produce IFN?. In contrast, mice lacking IL-1 receptor or IL-1?, but not IL-1?, appeared to control the infection in its early stages, but eventually succumbed. IFN? administration had no effect on Il-1r1-/- mice survival. Rather, Il-1r1-/- mice were found to have significantly reduced titer of Ft LPS-specific IgM. The anti-Ft LPS IgM was generated in a IL-1?-, TLR2-, and ASC-dependent fashion, promoted bacteria agglutination and phagocytosis, and was protective in passive immunization experiments. B1a B cells produced the anti-Ft LPS IgM and these cells were significantly decreased in the spleen and peritoneal cavity of infected Il-1b-/- mice, compared to C57BL/6J mice. Collectively, our results show that IL-1? and IL-18 activate non-redundant protective responses against tularemia and identify an essential role for IL-1? in the rapid generation of pathogen-specific IgM by B1a B cells. PMID:25768794

  16. Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olajide, Okikiola M; Aminu, Maryam; Randawa, Abdullahi J; Adejo, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Background Rubella is a contagious viral infection that in pregnant women leads to the infection of a developing fetus, causing fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Objective Pregnant women are not routinely screened for rubella in Nigeria. Epidemiological data on rubella is therefore necessary to create awareness and sensitize health care administrators and providers. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital between June and August 2012 to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to rubella virus in pregnant women using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Seroprevalence was compared among 160 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and 20 nonpregnant women of childbearing age studying at Ahmadu Bello University. Prior to sample collection, questionnaires were administered to the women to obtain data on sociodemographics, awareness and knowledge of rubella, possible risk factors, and clinical symptoms associated with the viral infection. Results Of the 160 pregnant women, 149 (93.1%) and 62 (38.8%) were positive for anti-rubella IgM and IgG antibodies, respectively. Similarly, of the 20 nonpregnant women, 18 (90%) and eight (40%) were positive for rubella IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. None of the possible risk factors studied were significantly associated with infection. Age and other sociodemographic factors were of little significance, and awareness of rubella was low. Conclusion The prevalence of rubella was high in both pregnant (93.1%) and nonpregnant women (90%), suggesting sustained transmission, which further suggests endemicity. The presence of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies in pregnant women predisposes babies to congenital rubella syndrome and emphasizes the need for the initiation of a national rubella vaccination program in Nigeria. PMID:25610003

  17. Evaluation of semi-quantitative PCR and IgG & IgM ELISA in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in females with miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, Dina M; Hassanein, Omayma

    2004-08-01

    One hundred female (age 20-42 yrs) patients were classified into group I: 40 patients presented with abortion in the first trimester; group II: 33 patients with abortion in the second trimester and group III: 27 patients with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). The positive percentages of semi-quantitative PCR and both IgG & IgM ELISA were 38% and 35% respectively. Ten (26.3%) cases out of 38 were positive for toxoplasmosis by both PCR and ELISA-IgG, while 5 (13.2%) cases out of 38 were positive by both PCR and ELISA-IgM, whereas 16 (42.1%) cases out of 38 PCR positive cases were positive by both ELISA IgG & IgM. Sensitivity and specificity of both ELISA IgG and IgM were 81.57% & 93.54% respectively. False negative by ELISA were found in 7 cases out of 38 positive toxoplasmosis cases detected by semi-quantitative PCR. Three cases out of the 7 cases with false negative by ELISA were detected with a trophozoite copy load of 10(1) trophozoite /mL in the blood sample by semi-quantitative PCR. So, the semi-quantitative PCR detected low levels of parasite DNA recommending its usefulness especially in the early stages of the disease when low amount of antibodies can't be detected by serological method or even by the conventional PCR. PMID:15287178

  18. Gold magnetic nanoparticle conjugate-based lateral flow assay for the detection of IgM class antibodies related to TORCH infections.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Qinlu; Hou, Peng; Chen, Mingwei; Hui, Wenli; Vermorken, Alphons; Luo, Zhiyi; Li, Hong; Li, Qin; Cui, Yali

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) system for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, related to TORCH [(T)oxoplasmosis, (O)ther agents, (R)ubella (also known as German Measles), (C)ytomegalovirus, and (H)erpes simplex virus infections], based on gold magnetic nanoparticles, was established. Following modification with poly(methacrylic acid), the gold magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with an anti?human IgM antibody (??chain specific) to construct a probe. A lateral flow assay device was constructed based on these conjugates. IgM antibodies to four types of pathogens, notably toxoplasmosis, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2, were detected using this device. Compared with commercial colloidal gold?based LFIA strips, our method exhibited higher sensitivity. No interference with triglycerides, hemoglobin and bilirubin occurred, and no cross?reactivity was noted among the four pathogens. The gold magnetic nanoparticle?LFIA strips were used to assess 41 seropositive and 121 seronegative serum samples. The sensitivity was 100% (162/162) and the specificity was 100% (162/162). This method cannot only be used for the detection of TORCH IgM-specific antibodies, but it can potentially be developed for use in the diagnosis of other acute or recently identified autoimmune diseases. PMID:26329478

  19. Detection of IgM Antibrucella Antibody in the Absence of IgGs: A Challenge for the Clinical Interpretation of Brucella Serology

    PubMed Central

    Solís García del Pozo, Julián; Lorente Ortuño, Santiago; Navarro, Elena; Solera, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies antibrucella has become widespread in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. IgM anti-Brucella antibodies are indicative of acute infection. Between 2009–2013, 5307 patients were evaluated for serologic diagnosis at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Albacete General Hospital. A ELISA IgM-positive, IgG-negative anti-Brucella antibody serology pattern was detected in 17 of those patients. Epidemiology data, symptoms, laboratory data, treatment and outcome from these patients were reviewed. Sixteen patients presented with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or fever and 1 was asymptomatic. Five patients received treatment with doxycycline combined with rifampin, gentamycin or streptomycin during 6–12 weeks, with no improvement. None of the 17 patients were finally diagnosed with brucellosis. Our results indicate that anti-Brucella IgM positive serology, per se, is not enough to diagnose acute brucellosis and other methods should be used for confirmation. Brucella serology data should be interpreted taking into account the patient's clinical history and epidemiological context. PMID:25474572

  20. Functional capacities of human IgM memory B cells in early inflammatory responses and secondary germinal center reactions

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Marc; Przekopowitz, Martina; Taudien, Sarah; Lollies, Anna; Ronge, Viola; Drees, Britta; Lindemann, Monika; Hillen, Uwe; Engler, Harald; Singer, Bernhard B.; Küppers, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The generation and functions of human peripheral blood (PB) IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes with somatically mutated IgV genes are controversially discussed. We determined their differential gene expression to naive B cells and to IgM-only and IgG+ memory B cells. This analysis revealed a high similarity of IgM+(IgD+)CD27+ and IgG+ memory B cells but also pointed at distinct functional capacities of both subsets. In vitro analyses revealed a tendency of activated IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells to migrate to B-cell follicles and undergo germinal center (GC) B-cell differentiation, whereas activated IgG+ memory B cells preferentially showed a plasma cell (PC) fate. This observation was supported by reverse regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 and PR domain containing 1 and differential BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 expression. Moreover, IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes preferentially responded to neutrophil-derived cytokines. Costimulation with catecholamines, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8), and IFN-? caused differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells into PCs, induced class switching to IgG2, and was reproducible in cocultures with neutrophils. In conclusion, this study substantiates memory B-cell characteristics of human IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells in that they share typical memory B-cell transcription patterns with IgG+ post-GC B cells and show a faster and more vigorous restimulation potential, a hallmark of immune memory. Moreover, this work reveals a functional plasticity of human IgM memory B cells by showing their propensity to undergo secondary GC reactions upon reactivation, but also by their special role in early inflammation via interaction with immunomodulatory neutrophils. PMID:25624468

  1. Both IgM and IgG anti-DNA antibodies are the products of clonally selective B cell stimulation in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus is closely associated with the appearance of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody to native DNA in both humans and mice. Like normal antibody responses, the anti-DNA autoantibody first appears as IgM and then switches to IgG. Structural studies of IgG anti-DNA suggest that these antibodies are the products of clonally selected, specifically stimulated B cells. The origins of the IgM anti-DNA have been less clear. To determine whether the earlier appearing IgM anti-DNA antibody in autoimmune mice also derives from clonally selected, specifically stimulated B cells or B cells activated by nonselective, polyclonal stimuli, we have analyzed the molecular and serological characteristics of a large number of monoclonal IgM anti- DNA antibodies from autoimmune (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. We have also analyzed IgM and IgG anti-DNA hybridomas obtained from the same individual mice to determine how the later-appearing IgG autoantibody may be related to the earlier-appearing IgM autoantibody within an individual mouse. The results demonstrate that: (a) IgM anti-DNA, like IgG, has the characteristics of a specifically stimulated antibody; (b) IgM and IgG anti-DNA antibodies have similar variable region structures and within individual mice may be produced by B cells derived from the same clonal precursors; (c) recurrent germline and somatically derived VH and VL structures may influence the specificity of anti-DNA monoclonal antibody for denatured vs. native DNA; and (d) the results provide a structural explanation for the selective development of IgG antibody to native DNA as autoimmunity to DNA progresses in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. PMID:1512540

  2. Diagnosis of Leptospirosis: Comparison between Microscopic Agglutination Test, IgM-ELISA and IgM Rapid Immunochromatography Test

    PubMed Central

    Niloofa, Roshan; Fernando, Narmada; de Silva, Nipun Lakshitha; Karunanayake, Lilani; Wickramasinghe, Hasith; Dikmadugoda, Nandana; Premawansa, Gayani; Wickramasinghe, Rajitha; de Silva, H. Janaka; Premawansa, Sunil; Rajapakse, Senaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is diagnosed on clinical grounds, and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). IgM-ELISA (Serion-Virion) and immunochromatography test (Leptocheck-WB) are two immunodiagnostic assays for leptospirosis. Their sensitivity, specificity and applicability in Sri Lanka have not been systematically evaluated. Methods Clinically diagnosed leptospirosis patients (n = 919) were recruited from three hospitals in the Western Province of Sri Lanka, during June 2012 to December 2013. MAT, IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB were performed on all patient sera. MAT titer of ?400 in single sample, four-fold rise or seroconversion ?100 in paired samples were considered as positive for MAT. For diagnostic confirmation, MAT was performed during both acute and convalescent phases. Anti-leptospiral IgM ?20 IU/ml and appearance of a band in the test window were considered as positive for IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB test respectively. Patients with an alternative diagnosis (n = 31) were excluded. Data analysis was performed using two methods, i) considering MAT as reference standard and ii) using Bayesian latent class model analysis (BLCM) which considers each test as imperfect. Results MAT, IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB positivity were 39.8%, 45.8% and 38.7% respectively during the acute phase. Acute-phase MAT had specificity and sensitivity of 95.7% and 55.3% respectively, when compared to overall MAT positivity. IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB had similar diagnostic sensitivity when compared with acute-phase MAT as the gold standard, although IgM-ELISA showed higher specificity (84.5%) than Leptocheck-WB (73.3%). BLCM analysis showed that IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB had similar sensitivities (86.0% and 87.4%), while acute-phase MAT had the lowest sensitivity (77.4%). However, acute-phase MAT had high specificity (97.6%), while IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB showed similar but lower specificity (84.5% and 82.9%). Conclusions Both IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB shows similar sensitivities and specificities. IgM-ELISA may be superior to MAT during the acute phase and suitable for early diagnosis of leptospirosis. Leptocheck-WB is suitable as a rapid immunodiagnostic screening test for resource limited settings. PMID:26086800

  3. Expression of a new antigen, Tml on T cells after modulation by anti-T3 antibodies of IgM class

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, L.K.L.; Hara, T.; Fu, S.M.

    1986-03-05

    During the modulation of the T3/Ti complex by anti-T3 antibody, 235, of IgM class, a new antigen, Tml was detected with an IgGl mAb produced against mAb 235 treated T cells. This antigen was inducible only on T cells modulated by IgM anti-T3 (mAb 235 and mAb 38.1) and not by anti-T3 of other isotypes. Tml was a 33Kd molecule which was detectable in a small percentage of T cells and B cells but not on granulocytes, platelets, erythrocytes and thymocytes. Significantly, monocytes displayed this antigen on their cell surfaces. While not detectable on leukemic T cells HPB-ALL and Jurkat, Tml was expressed when these cell lines were modulated with 235. T cells activated by PHA, Con A, TPA, PWM, PPD, and allo-antigens showed little increase in the expression of Tml. In contrast, B cells activated by S. aureus or goat anti-mu antibodies along with BCGF showed increased expression of this antigen. Attempts to precipitate Tml from activated B cells have not been successful. On T cells, Tml appeared after 30 minutes of T3 modulation, before the disappearance of T3 antigen. Cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, did not block Tml expression, suggesting that the molecule was present before the modulation process. The expression of Tml is induced uniquely by IgM anti-T3 mAbs. Perturbation of the membrane by these mAbs may have allowed the emergence of an intracellular antigen, Tml, on the cell surface.

  4. Identification of Cell Surface Straight Chain Poly-N-Acetyl-Lactosamine Bearing Protein Ligands for VH4-34-Encoded Natural IgM Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Neelima M; Adams, Christopher M; Chen, Yi; Bieber, Marcia M; Teng, Nelson N H

    2015-12-01

    B cell binding and cytotoxicity by human VH4-34-encoded Abs of the IgM isotype has been well documented. A VH4-34-IgM has recently shown a favorable early response in a phase 1 trial for treatment of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although its B cell ligand has been identified as straight chain poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (SC-PNAL), the carrier of the sugar moiety has not been identified. Using nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we identify the metabolic activation related protein complex of CD147-CD98 as a major carrier of poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (SC-PNAL) on human pre-B cell line Nalm-6. Previous studies have suggested CD45 as the SC-PNAL carrier for VH4-34-encoded IgG Abs. Because Nalm-6 is CD45 negative, human peripheral blood B lymphocytes and human B cell line, Reh, with high CD45 expression, were examined for SC-PNAL carrier proteins. Western blot analysis shows that the CD147-98 complex is indeed immunoprecipitated by VH4-34-encoded IgMs from human peripheral blood B lymphocytes and human B cell lines, Reh, OCI-Ly8, and Nalm-6. However, CD45 is immunoprecipitated only from peripheral B lymphocytes, but not from Reh despite the high expression of CD45. These results suggest that human B cells retain SC-PNAL on the CD147-98 complex, but modulate the sugar moiety on CD45. Because the carbohydrate moiety may act as a selecting Ag for VH4-34 autoantibody repertoire, its differential expression on proteins may provide a clue to the intricate atypical regulation of the VH4-34 gene. PMID:26503955

  5. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  6. Two Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Associated Burkitt’s Lymphomas Produce Specific Anti-i IgM Cold Agglutinins Using Somatically Mutated VH4-21 Segments

    PubMed Central

    Riboldi, Piersandro; Gaidano, Gianluca; Schettino, Edward W.; Steger, Thomas G.; Knowles, Daniel M.; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Casali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the reactivity and the structure of the VH and VL segments of two IgM monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) produced by spontaneously in vitro outgrowing cell lines, HBL-2 and HBL-3, established from two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL). These B-cell clones were representative of the respective neoplastic parental clones, as determined by immunophenotypic and molecular genetic analysis. The IgM MoAbs were highly specific for the i determinant on red blood cells (cold agglutinins), but bound none of the other eight self and nine foreign antigens (Ags) tested, including those most commonly recognized by natural antibodies or autoantibodies. Structural analysis showed that the IgM MoAb VH segment sequences were 93.5% and 84.2% identical with that of the germline VH4-21 gene, which encodes the vast majority of cold agglutinins that are specific for the i/I carbohydrate Ag and are produced under chronic lymphoproliferative conditions. The HBL-2 MoAb VH4-21 gene segment was juxtaposed with 20P3 and JH6 genes and paired with a V?1 segment, the sequence of which was 95.5% identical to that of the germline Humlv117 gene; the HBL-3 MoAb VH4-21 gene segment was juxtaposed with DXP?1 and JH5 genes and paired with a V?1 segment, the sequence of which was 86.7% identical to that of the germline Humlv1L1 gene. The high degree of conservation of the VH4-21 gene in the human population, the nature of the nucleotide differences in the expressed VH4-21 segments, and the presence of nucleotide substitutions in the HBL-2 and HBL-3 IgM MoAb JH and/or J? segments suggested that the MoAb V segments underwent a process of somatic hypermutation. This was formally shown in the HBL-3 MoAb VH segment, by differentially targeted polymerase chain reaction amplification of the HBL-3 MoAb-producing cell genomic DNA. In addition, cloning and sequencing of the genomic DNA from fibroblasts of the same patient whose neoplastic B cells gave rise to the HBL-3 cell line yielded a germline copy of the VH4-21 gene. Thus, the expression of VH4-21 gene products may be involved in a self Ag-driven process of clonal B-cell expansion and selection associated with BL in these AIDS patients. PMID:8180391

  7. Antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides of IgG, IgA and IgM isotype and rheumatoid factor of IgM and IgA isotype are increased in unaffected members of multicase rheumatoid arthritis families from northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Mullazehi, Mohammed; Kokkonen, Heidi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Rönnelid, Johan; Dahlqvist, Solbritt Rantapää

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid factors (RFs) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) of IgG, IgA and IgM isotype have been shown to precede disease onset by years. Objective To evaluate serological risk markers in first-degree relatives from multicase families in relation to genetic and environmental risk factors. Methods 51 multicase families consisting of 163 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; disease duration 21 years; 71.8% female) and with 157 first-degree relatives unaffected by RA (54±17 years; 59.9% female) were recruited. Isotypes of antibodies against CCPs (IgG, IgA and IgM) and RFs (IgM and IgA) were determined using automated enzyme immunoassays. Cut-off levels were established using receiver operating characteristic curves based on values for 100 unrelated healthy controls. Results The concentrations and frequencies of all anti-CCP and RF isotypes were significantly increased in first-degree relatives and patients with RA compared with unrelated healthy controls. The relative distribution of IgA and IgM isotypes was higher than IgG in the relatives, whereas the IgG isotype dominated in patients with RA. The patients carried human leucocyte antigen-shared epitope (HLA-SE) significantly more often than the relatives (71.4% vs 53.9%, p=0.01), while the frequency of the PTPN22 T variant was similar. HLA-SE, combined with smoking, was significantly related to all combinations of anti-CCP and RF isotypes in patients with RA. No such relationships were found for the first-degree relatives. Conclusions All anti-CCP and RF isotypes analysed occurred more commonly in unaffected first-degree relatives from multicase families than in controls, but with different isotype distribution from patients with RA. PMID:22128080

  8. Seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors for toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs from sub-tropical arid parts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Ahmed, H; Irum, S; Qayyum, M

    2014-12-01

    Pet cats and dogs are an important source of human toxoplasmosis because of their intimate relationship with humans. Present study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs in northern sub-tropical arid region of Pakistan where no such work has been previously conducted. For this study 420 cats and 408 dogs visiting different pet clinics and veterinary hospitals were screened for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA technique. Epidemiological information regarding age, sex, area, outdoor access and hunting practice was obtained from the owners by questionnaire interview. Overall seroprevalence in cats and dogs was 26.43% (111/420) and 28.43% (116/408) respectively. IgG antibodies were found in 23.33% (98) cats and 25.49% (104) dogs while IgM antibodies were found in 3.57% (15) cats and 3.92% (16) dogs. Seroprevalence was significantly high in cats and dogs older than one year. No significant difference was recorded between males and females. Cats and dogs from rural areas showed higher prevalence. Dogs which had access to outside also showed high seroprevalence. The present study indicates that Toxoplasma gondii is widespread in pet animals in Pakistan which may have important implication for public health. PMID:25776604

  9. Terminal carbohydrate composition, IgM level and enzymatic and bacteriostatic activity of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) skin epidermis extracts.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco A; de Haro, Juan P; Díaz-Baños, Francisco Guillermo; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    Although the skin is one of the main defense barriers of fish to date, very little is known about the immune implications and the properties of the numerous substances present in skin cells. In the present study, terminal carbohydrate composition and some components of the skin immunity (total IgM level, and several enzymatic and bacteriostatic activities) present on aqueous and organic epidermal extracts of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were determined. Most of the parameters measured followed a protein concentration dose-response. Curiously, both skin extracts have similar levels of total IgM. However, aqueous extracts showed higher presence of some terminal carbohydrates, alkaline phosphatase and esterase activities and lower proteases and ceruloplasmin activities than epidermal organic extracts. Regarding the bacteriostatic activity, the growth of all the bacterial strains tested was reduced when cultivated in presence of organic extracts, being the observed reduction correlated to the protein concentration present in the extract sample. On the contrary, skin aqueous extracts have no significant effect on bacterial growth or even allow bacteria to overgrow, suggesting that the bacteria could use the extracts as a nutrient source. The results are discussed and compared with the same activities studied on fish skin mucus in order to understand their possible implications on mucosal immunity. PMID:26384845

  10. Kinetics of Dengue Non-Structural Protein 1 Antigen and IgM and IgA Antibodies in Capillary Blood Samples from Confirmed Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, Séverine; Pham, Thai Binh; Labeau, Bhetty; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Lacoste, Vincent; Deparis, Xavier; Marechal, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiological surveillance of dengue in the field and dengue patient management require simple methods for sample collection, storage, and transportation as well as effective diagnostic tools. We evaluated the kinetics of three biological markers of dengue infection—non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgA—in sequential capillary blood samples collected from fingertips of confirmed dengue patients. The overall sensitivities and specificities of the tests were 96% and 100%, respectively, for NS1, 58.1% and 100%, respectively, for IgM, and 33% and 100%, respectively, for IgA. During the acute phase of the disease, NS1 was the best marker of dengue infection, with a sensitivity of 98.7%, whereas from day 5, all three markers exhibited relevant levels of sensitivity. This first descriptive study of the kinetics of biological markers of dengue in capillary blood samples confirms the usefulness of this biological compartment for dengue diagnosis and argues for its exploitation in community-level and remote settings. PMID:24470561

  11. A somatically mutated human antiganglioside IgM antibody that induces experimental neuropathy in mice is encoded by the variable region heavy chain gene, V1-18.

    PubMed

    Willison, H J; O'Hanlon, G M; Paterson, G; Veitch, J; Wilson, G; Roberts, M; Tang, T; Vincent, A

    1996-03-01

    IgM paraproteins associated with autoimmune peripheral neuropathy and anti-Pr cold agglutinins react with sialic acid epitopes present on disialylated gangliosides including GD1b, GT1b, GQ1b, and GD3. A causal relationship between the paraprotein and the neuropathy has never been proven experimentally. From peripheral blood B cells of an affected patient, we have cloned a human hybridoma secreting an antidisialosyl IgM mAb, termed Ha1, that shows identical structural and functional characteristics to its serum counterpart. Variable region analysis shows Ha1 is encoded by the same VH1 family heavy chain gene, V1-18, as the only other known anti-Pr antibody sequence and is somatically mutated, suggesting that it [correction of is] arose in vivo in response to antigenic stimulation. In the rodent peripheral nervous system, Ha1 immunolocalizes to dorsal root ganglia, motor nerve terminals, muscle spindles, myelinated axons, and nodes of Ranvier. After intraperitoneal injection of affinity-purified antibody into mice for 10 d, electrophysiological recordings from the phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation demonstrated impairment of nerve excitability and a reduction in quantal release of neurotransmitter. These data unequivocally establish that an antidisialosyl antibody can exert pathophysiological effects on the peripheral nervous system and strongly support the view that the antibody contributes to the associated human disease. PMID:8636426

  12. Oral Administration of ?-1,3/1,6-Glucan to Dogs Temporally Changes Total and Antigen-Specific IgA and IgM?

    PubMed Central

    Stuyven, E.; Verdonck, F.; Van Hoek, I.; Daminet, S.; Duchateau, L.; Remon, J. P.; Goddeeris, B. M.; Cox, E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of ?-1,3/1,6-glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on humoral immunity in domestic dogs is not known. In this study, 15 beagle dogs were orally given MacroGard tablets, which contain 150 mg of this ?-glucan, daily for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, the total serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) level decreased significantly in the group treated with the glucan compared to that in the control group as well as compared to the concentrations before supplementation. In contrast, the total serum IgM level rose significantly, whereas no effect on the IgG level occurred. Similar changes were seen in Bordetella-specific IgA and IgM titers following vaccination during the supplementation period. The IgA concentration also became significantly lower in the saliva and tears of the glucan group than in the placebo group. The effects disappeared 1 week after the cessation of the supplementation. In conclusion, the results showed a temporary change in the isotype profile during glucan supplementation. PMID:20032218

  13. PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Chen, H.-W.; Cooksey, K. L.; Mulchaey, J. S. E-mail: bjw@as.arizona.edu E-mail: kcooksey@space.mit.edu

    2011-04-01

    We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with z{sub em} {approx} 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM). The survey is magnitude limited (R {approx} 19.5 mag) and highly complete out to 10' from the quasar in each field. It was designed to detect dwarf galaxies (L {approx} 0.1L*) at an impact parameter {rho} {approx} 1 Mpc (z = 0.1) from a quasar. The complete sample (all 20 fields) includes R-band photometry for 84,718 sources and confirmed redshifts for 2800 sources. This includes 1198 galaxies with 0.005 < z < (z{sub em} - 0.01) at a median redshift of 0.18, which may associated with IGM absorption lines. All of the imaging was acquired with cameras on the Swope 40'' telescope and the spectra were obtained via slit mask observations using the WFCCD spectrograph on the Dupont 100'' telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction, imaging analysis, photometry, and spectral analysis of the survey. We tabulate the principal measurements for all sources in each field and provide the spectroscopic data set online.

  14. Validation of three commercially available immunoassays for quantification of IgA, IgG, and IgM in porcine saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Escribano, D; Gutiérrez, A M; Martínez Subiela, S; Tecles, F; Cerón, J J

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to perform the optimization and validation of three commercially available immunoassays for the measurement of IgA, IgG, and IgM (Igs) in porcine saliva samples and to determinate if their concentrations may be used to distinguish healthy from diseased animals. Intra and inter assay coefficients of variation were lower than 15% in all cases. All methods showed good linearity and recovery; and detection limits were low enough to detect Igs levels in healthy and diseased animals. The clinical validation showed an increase statistically significant (P<0.05) in the group of diseased animals versus healthy pigs. Therefore, these assays may be used in porcine saliva samples, in addition, the measurement of Igs in saliva could be a practical tool, simple and minimally invasive, to evaluate the humoral immune status of pigs. PMID:22019471

  15. Correlation of plasma viral loads and presence of Chikungunya IgM antibodies with cytokine/chemokine levels during acute Chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vijayalakshmi; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Desai, Anita; Ravi, Vasanthapuram

    2014-08-01

    Chikungunya (CHIKV) is an emerging arboviral infection of public health concern in India contributing to widespread morbidity. The precise molecular events occurring early in the infection have not been well understood. Cytokines/chemokines are suspected to play a key role in its pathogenesis. Very few studies have correlated the plasma levels of cytokines/chemokines with diagnostic markers such as viral loads and presence of CHIKV IgM antibodies. Understanding these dynamics in the early phase of CHIKV infection is likely to provide an insight into the evolution of the immune response, identify biomarkers for assessing severity, and for development of newer therapeutic strategies. This study was therefore undertaken to estimate the levels of various cytokines/chemokines in plasma samples of patients infected with CHIKV and correlate to viral load and CHIKV IgM antibodies. Cytokine/chemokine levels and viral loads in plasma were measured using cytometric bead array and TaqMan real time PCR assay, respectively. The findings revealed that acute phase of CHIKV infection is characterized by predominant inflammatory responses mediated by IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIG (P?

  16. A potent neutralizing IgM mAb targeting the N218 epitope on E2 protein protects against Chikungunya virus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shirley; Nyo, Min; Phuektes, Patchara; Yew, Chow Wenn; Tan, Yee Joo; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a medically important human viral pathogen that causes Chikungunya fever accompanied with debilitating and persistent joint pain. Host-elicited or passively-transferred monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are essential mediators of CHIKV clearance. Therefore, this study aimed to generate and characterize a panel of mAbs for their neutralization efficacy against CHIKV infection in a cell-based and murine model. To evaluate their antigenicity and neutralization profile, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test were performed on mAbs of IgM isotype. CHIKV escape mutants against mAb 3E7b neutralization were generated, and reverse genetics techniques were then used to create an infectious CHIKV clone with a single mutation. 3E7b was also administered to neonate mice prior or after CHIKV infection. The survival rate, CHIKV burden in tissues and histopathology of the limb muscles were evaluated. Both IgM 3E7b and 8A2c bind strongly to native CHIKV surface and potently neutralize CHIKV replication. Further analyses of 3E7b binding and neutralization of CHIKV single-mutant clones revealed that N218 of CHIKV E2 protein is a potent neutralizing epitope. In a pre-binding neutralization assay, 3E7b blocks CHIKV attachment to permissive cells, possibly by binding to the surface-accessible E2-N218 residue. Prophylactic administration of 3E7b to neonate mice markedly reduced viremia and protected against CHIKV pathogenesis in various mice tissues. Given therapeutically at 4 h post-infection, 3E7b conferred 100% survival rate and similarly reduced CHIKV load in most mice tissues except the limb muscles. Collectively, these findings highlight the usefulness of 3E7b for future prophylactic or epitope-based vaccine design. PMID:26305993

  17. Heterosubtypic Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Cross-Protective against H5N1 and H1N1 Recovered from Human IgM+ Memory B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Throsby, Mark; van den Brink, Edward; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Poon, Leo L. M.; Alard, Philippe; Cornelissen, Lisette; Bakker, Arjen; Cox, Freek; van Deventer, Els; Guan, Yi; Cinatl, Jindrich; ter Meulen, Jan; Lasters, Ignace; Carsetti, Rita; Peiris, Malik; de Kruif, John; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    Background The hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein is the principal target of protective humoral immune responses to influenza virus infections but such antibody responses only provide efficient protection against a narrow spectrum of HA antigenic variants within a given virus subtype. Avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 are currently panzootic and pose a pandemic threat. These viruses are antigenically diverse and protective strategies need to cross protect against diverse viral clades. Furthermore, there are 16 different HA subtypes and no certainty the next pandemic will be caused by an H5 subtype, thus it is important to develop prophylactic and therapeutic interventions that provide heterosubtypic protection. Methods and Findings Here we describe a panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recovered from combinatorial display libraries that were constructed from human IgM+ memory B cells of recent (seasonal) influenza vaccinees. The mAbs have broad heterosubtypic neutralizing activity against antigenically diverse H1, H2, H5, H6, H8 and H9 influenza subtypes. Restriction to variable heavy chain gene IGHV1-69 in the high affinity mAb panel was associated with binding to a conserved hydrophobic pocket in the stem domain of HA. The most potent antibody (CR6261) was protective in mice when given before and after lethal H5N1 or H1N1 challenge. Conclusions The human monoclonal CR6261 described in this study could be developed for use as a broad spectrum agent for prophylaxis or treatment of human or avian influenza infections without prior strain characterization. Moreover, the CR6261 epitope could be applied in targeted vaccine strategies or in the design of novel antivirals. Finally our approach of screening the IgM+ memory repertoire could be applied to identify conserved and functionally relevant targets on other rapidly evolving pathogens. PMID:19079604

  18. Human plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM antibodies associate with secretory component to yield biologically active secretory-like antibodies.

    PubMed

    Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M; Zuercher, Adrian W; Corthésy, Blaise

    2013-02-01

    Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

  19. Trends in the patterns of IgM and IgG antibodies in febrile persons with suspected dengue in Barbados, an English-speaking Caribbean country, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Nielsen, Anders L

    2015-01-01

    Long-term seroprevalence studies of dengue have provided a measure of the degree of endemicity and future trends in disease prevalence and severity. In this study, we describe the seroprevalence of dengue antibodies in febrile persons with suspected acute dengue in Barbados. It is a retrospective population-based study of all febrile persons with suspected dengue from 2006 to 2013. All of the cases had IgM and IgG antibodies in the blood sample drawn between days 3 and 5 of their illness. Among the 8296 cases that were tested for IgM antibodies, 3037 (36.6%) had recent dengue infection. In the age groups <5 years, 5-20 years and >20 years, 23.3%, 39.6% and 35.5% had acute infection, respectively. Of the 7227 cases with documented IgG results, 5473 (75.7%) were positive and had a past infection. In the age groups <5 years, 5-20 years and >20 years, 31.2%, 65.2% and 86.6%, respectively, had a past infection (IgG positive). During the first 5 years of life, 10-20% of febrile persons investigated for dengue had a positive IgM and a negative IgG titer, between 5 and 10% had a positive IgM and IgG titer, 5% had a positive IgG and a negative IgM titer, and between 45% and 65% had a negative IgM and a negative IgG titer. Throughout the study period, between 12% and 20% of febrile persons failed to show any evidence of current or previous dengue. In the age groups <5 years, 5-20 years and >20 years, 45.0%, 18.8% and 7.2%, respectively, had no evidence of recent or past dengue (both IgM and IgG negative). Between 37% and 59% of the febrile persons had serological evidence of past dengue in the absence of any current dengue. In conclusion, the pattern of IgG antibodies in this study was comparable to those in countries known to be hyperendemic for dengue. The age of infection is likely to shift to younger adults and children who are more likely to have severe dengue in the future. PMID:26117708

  20. Relationship of IgG and IgM autoantibodies and immune complexes to oxidized LDL with markers of oxidation and inflammation and cardiovascular events: results from the EPIC-Norfolk Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravandi, Amir; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Mallat, Ziad; Talmud, Philippa J.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Miller, Elizabeth R.; Benessiano, Joelle; Tedgui, Alain; Witztum, Joseph L.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2011-01-01

    Levels of IgG and IgM autoantibodies (AA) to malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL and apoB-immune complexes (ICs) were measured in 748 cases and 1,723 controls in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort and their association to coronary artery disease (CAD) events determined. We evaluated whether AA and IC modify CAD risk associated with secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) type IIA mass and activity, lipoprotein-associated PLA2 activity, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], oxidized phospholipids on apoB-100 (OxPL/apoB), myeloperoxidase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. IgG ICs were higher in cases versus controls (P = 0.02). Elevated levels of IgM AA and IC were inversely associated with Framingham Risk Score and number of metabolic syndrome criteria (p range 0.02–0.001). In regression analyses adjusted for age, smoking, diabetes, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure, the highest tertiles of IgG and IgM AA and IC were not associated with higher risk of CAD events compared with the lowest tertiles. However, elevated levels of IgM IC reduced the risk of Lp(a) (P = 0.006) and elevated IgG MDA-LDL potentiated the risk of sPLA2 mass (P = 0.018). This epidemiological cohort of initially healthy subjects shows that IgG and IgM AA and IC are not independent predictors of CAD events but may modify CAD risk associated with elevated levels of oxidative biomarkers. PMID:21821825

  1. Analysis of Tn antigenicity with a panel of new IgM and IgG1 monoclonal antibodies raised against leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Blixt, Ola; Lavrova, Olga I; Mazurov, Dmitriy V; Cló, Emiliano; Kracun, Stjepan K; Bovin, Nicolai V; Filatov, Alexander V

    2012-04-01

    CD175 or Tn antigen is a carbohydrate moiety of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)?1-O- linked to the residue of amino acid serine or threonine in a polypeptide chain. Despite the chemical simplicity of the Tn antigen, its antigenic structure is considered to be complex and the clear determinants of Tn antigenicity remain poorly understood. As a consequence, a broad variety of anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated. To further investigate the nature and complexity of the Tn antigen, we generated seven different anti-Tn mAbs of IgM and IgG classes raised against human Jurkat T cells, which are Tn-positive due to the low activity of T-synthase and mutation in specific chaperone Cosmc. The binding analysis of anti-Tn mAbs with the array of synthetic saccharides, glycopeptides and O-glycoproteins revealed unexpected differences in specificities of anti-Tn mAbs. IgM mAbs bound the terminal GalNAc residue of the Tn antigen irrespective of the peptide context or with low selectivity to the glycoproteins. In contrast, IgG mAbs recognized the Tn antigen in the context of a specific peptide motif. Particularly, JA3 mAb reacted to the GSPP or GSPAPP, and JA5 mAb recognized specifically the GSP motif (glycosylation sites are underlined). The major O-glycan carrier proteins CD43 and CD162 and isoforms of CD45 expressed on Jurkat cells were precipitated by anti-Tn mAbs with different affinities. In summary, our data suggest that Tn antigen-Ab binding capacity is determined by the peptide context of the Tn antigen, antigenic specificity of the Ab and class of the immunoglobulin. The newly generated anti-Tn IgG mAbs with the strong specificity to glycoprotein CD43 can be particularly interesting for the application in leukemia diagnostics and therapy. PMID:22143985

  2. Analysis of Tn antigenicity with a panel of new IgM and IgG1 monoclonal antibodies raised against leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Blixt, Ola; Lavrova, Olga I; Mazurov, Dmitriy V; Cló, Emiliano; Kra?un, Stjepan K; Bovin, Nicolai V; Filatov, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    CD175 or Tn antigen is a carbohydrate moiety of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)?1-O- linked to the residue of amino acid serine or threonine in a polypeptide chain. Despite the chemical simplicity of the Tn antigen, its antigenic structure is considered to be complex and the clear determinants of Tn antigenicity remain poorly understood. As a consequence, a broad variety of anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated. To further investigate the nature and complexity of the Tn antigen, we generated seven different anti-Tn mAbs of IgM and IgG classes raised against human Jurkat T cells, which are Tn-positive due to the low activity of T-synthase and mutation in specific chaperone Cosmc. The binding analysis of anti-Tn mAbs with the array of synthetic saccharides, glycopeptides and O-glycoproteins revealed unexpected differences in specificities of anti-Tn mAbs. IgM mAbs bound the terminal GalNAc residue of the Tn antigen irrespective of the peptide context or with low selectivity to the glycoproteins. In contrast, IgG mAbs recognized the Tn antigen in the context of a specific peptide motif. Particularly, JA3 mAb reacted to the GSPP or GSPAPP, and JA5 mAb recognized specifically the GSP motif (glycosylation sites are underlined). The major O-glycan carrier proteins CD43 and CD162 and isoforms of CD45 expressed on Jurkat cells were precipitated by anti-Tn mAbs with different affinities. In summary, our data suggest that Tn antigen–Ab binding capacity is determined by the peptide context of the Tn antigen, antigenic specificity of the Ab and class of the immunoglobulin. The newly generated anti-Tn IgG mAbs with the strong specificity to glycoprotein CD43 can be particularly interesting for the application in leukemia diagnostics and therapy. PMID:22143985

  3. Anti-pig IgM antibodies in human serum react predominantly with Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Sandrin, M S; Vaughan, H A; Dabkowski, P L; McKenzie, I F

    1993-01-01

    A major problem with pig-to-human-tissue xenograft studies is that humans have natural antibodies to pig cells; these antibodies would cause hyperacute rejection if pig tissues were xenografted to humans. Here we show that most of human IgM antibodies present in the serum of healthy donors and reactive with pig cells react with galactose in an (alpha 1-3) linkage with galactose--i.e., Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal. Absorption studies demonstrated that the antibodies detected the same or similar epitopes on the surface of pig erythrocytes, blood and splenic lymphocytes, and aortic endothelial cells (EC). The antibodies were sensitive to 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) treatment, did not bind to protein A or G, and were present in the high molecular weight fraction of serum; they are clearly IgM antibodies. Further, the antibodies did not react with human ABO blood group substances and are not related to human blood group A or B, which carry a terminal galactose. The reaction of human serum with pig erythrocytes was specifically inhibited by mono- and disaccharides: D-galactose, melibiose, stachyose, methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, and D-galactosamine but not by D-glucose or methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside; demonstrating that the reaction is with galactose in an alpha and not a beta linkage. A cDNA clone encoding the murine alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (which transfers a terminal galactose residue with an (alpha 1-3) linkage to a subterminal galactose) was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned, and transfected into COS cells, which are of Old World monkey origin and, like humans, do not express Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal. After transfection, COS cells became strongly reactive with human serum and with IB4 lectin [which reacts only with Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal]; this reactivity could be removed by absorption with pig erythrocytes. As most of the antibody reacting with pig cells can be removed by absorption with either melibiose or Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal+ COS cells, most of these react with Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal. These findings provide the basis for genetic manipulation of the pig alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase for future transplantation studies. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7504304

  4. Prognostic value of serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE) in breast cancer: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Pettingale, K. W.; Merrett, T. G.; Tee, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and sixty women admitted for breast tumour biopsy to the King's College Hospital group have been followed sequentially for 2 years. Sixty-nine women had early operable breast cancer and 91 had benign breast disease. All these women had serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE levels measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 3 months, 1 year and 2 years. No differences were found in any of the serum immunoglobulin levels between the two groups at any time. There was, however, a positive correlation between the extent of metastatic breast cancer and the serum level of various immunoglobulins, particularly IgA. There was no evidence that routine postoperative radiotherapy influenced the levels of serum immunoglobulins. The findings suggest a secondary defence reaction against increasing tumour load, and do not support the theory of an early immune defect in immunoglobulin metabolism which could play a part in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Although there is no diagnostic value in measuring the levels of serum immunoglobulins in patients with breast tumours, there may be some value in following the levels in cancer patients, as a guide to subclinical spread of the disease. PMID:588419

  5. Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT

    E-print Network

    J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy

    2007-10-24

    A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

  6. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) directly enhanced IgM production in the human B cell line BALL-1.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shinjiro; Akasaka, Taiki; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2009-07-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) prepared from the basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor has been used as a biological response modifier for the treatment of cancer patients. Many studies describing the immunomodulatory effects and direct anti-cancer effects of PSK have been reported. Most of studies describing the immunomodulatory effects focused on cellular immunity, although there were several studies which focused on humoral immunity where PSK was shown to be able to induce antibody production in vivo. However, even in these humoral immunity studies, it is thought that the enhancement of antibody production was due to the activation of cellular immunity. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of PSK on B cells and discovered that PSK was able to enhance IgM production in the human B cell line BALL-1. Furthermore, BALL-1 was shown to have the characteristic features of B-1a cells, which are independently involved in the primary immune response. These results show that there is a possibility that PSK directly acts on B cells and simultaneously enhances both humoral immunity and cellular immunity. PMID:18848763

  7. Efficient duplex solid-phase fluorescent assay (dFISA) for the simultaneous detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM due to refined conjugates.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J P; Andrade, H F

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are very common, causing occasional central nervous system and eye diseases, and must be screened in prenatal care for efficient therapy. Here, we developed a duplex solid-phase fluorescent assay (dFISA) for the simultaneous detection of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in prenatal care screening for toxoplasmosis. Assays using commercially available ion-exchange purified conjugates yielded poor results and high background fluorescence. Same-well IgG/IgM dFISA with refined conjugates was used to test 140 samples from university students, 120 samples from pregnant women and 24 samples from adult volunteers at a large public hospital. We found that dFISA offers high concordance, specificity and reproducibility for IgG (Kappa=0.883) and IgM (Kappa=0.918), which is useful in high-throughput applications for antenatal care. PMID:25796562

  8. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBe antigen) and B core antibodies (IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore) among hepatitis B surface antigen positive blood donors at a Tertiary Centre in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common cause of liver disease throughout the world. HBV is transmitted through blood and other body fluids, including semen and saliva. Chronic replication of HBV virons is characterized by persistence circulation of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA; usually with anti-HBc and occasionally with anti-HBs. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HBeAg, IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore amongst HBsAg positive blood donors. These parameters are reflective of transmissibility and active hepatitis B infection. A cross sectional study was carried out at the blood donor clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja and Lagos University Teaching Hospital Idiaraba. A total of 267 donors were recruited to determine HBe antigen, IgG and IgM anti-HBcore antibodies amongst hepatitis BsAg positive donors. Five milliliters of blood was collected from those who tested positive to HBsAg screen during donation. The sera were subjected to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pearson chi-squared test was used for the analytical assessment. Findings A total number of 267 HBsAg positive blood donors were studied. A seroprevalence of 8.2% (22 of 267) HBeAg was obtained, 4 of 267 (1.5%) were indeterminate while 241 (90.3%) tested negative. Only 27 out of 267 donors (10.1%) tested positive to IgM anti-HBcore, 234(87.6%) tested negative, while 6(2.2%) were indeterminate. A higher percentage of 60.7% (162 of 267) tested positive to IgG anti-HBcore, while 39.3% (105 of 267) tested negative. Conclusion There is a low seroprevalence rate of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis and relatively high IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore rates in South West Nigeria. PMID:22455501

  9. Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + ?-Photons) Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body ?-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body ?-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3?Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + ?-photons) radiations at 0.38?Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

  10. Enhancement by ascorbic acid 2-glucoside or repeated additions of ascorbate of mitogen-induced IgM and IgG productions by human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Muto, N; Gohda, E; Yamamoto, I

    1994-12-01

    In this study, the effect of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), a stable derivative of ascorbic acid (AsA), or repeated additions of ascorbate on antibody productions by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was examined, and the physiological function of AsA was evaluated. When human PBLs were stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I or pokeweed mitogen, AA-2G remarkably increased the numbers of IgM- and IgG-secreting cells which were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Although a single addition of ascorbate was without effect, the effect of AA-2G was remarkably inhibited by the addition of castanospermine, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; and moreover, repeated additions of AsA to the culture medium during the culture period enhanced the response to the same level as did a single addition of AA-2G. These results indicate that AsA has the ability to stimulate the immunoglobulin productions by AA-2G. The phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferative response of PBLs was also stimulated by AA-2G. The intracellular AsA content in PBLs cultured with AA-2G was maintained at relatively high levels during the culture period, whereas the content with a single dose of AsA reached nearly zero by the end of the experiment. These in vitro findings suggest that AA-2G and AsA function as potent immunostimulators of antibody production in humans and that the intracellular AsA content is a key parameter for establishing the immune response of PBLs. PMID:7723222

  11. Data mining of supersecondary structure homology between light chains of immunogloblins and MHC molecules: absence of the common conformational fragment in the human IgM rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hiroshi; Wakisaka, Akihiro; Nafie, Laurence A; Dukor, Rina K

    2013-03-25

    It is shown that fuzzy search and data mining techniques of supersecondary structure homology for subunits of proteins using conformational code patterns of ?-helix-type (3?5?4?) and ?-sheet-type (6?4?4?) fragments can be used to extract correlations between fragments of MHC class I molecules and the light chain of immunoglobulins. The new method of conformational pattern analysis with fuzzy search of structural code homology reflects well the shape of main chain rather than secondary structure in comparison with the DSSP method. Further, the data mining technique using the combination of h- and s-fragment patterns can quantify the supersecondary structure homology between any subunits of proteins with different amino acid sequences. Characteristic fragment patterns (string "shhshss"), which were sandwiched between two identical amino acid sequences His and Pro, were found in light chains of various types of immunogloblins, ?-chain and ?-2 microglobulin of MHC class I and ?-chain and ?-chain of MHC class II, but not in heavy chains of Fab immunoglobulin fragments and T cell receptors (TCR). Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are related by the conformational fragment (string "shhshss") to ?-2 microglobulins as a type of pair forms (string "sohsss"). Further, human IgM rheumatoid factor, one of the immunogloblins, did not strongly exhibit the conformational fragment pattern. Nonclassic MHC class I molecules CD1D, MIC-A, and MIC-B, which have functions to activate NKT, NK, and T cells, did not also clearly show the patterns. These code-driven mining techniques can be utilized as a metadata-generating tool for systems biology to elucidate the biological function of such conformational fragments of MHC I and II molecules, which come in contact with various signal ligands on the surface of T cells and natural killer cells. PMID:23394723

  12. Simultaneous Binding of the Anti-Cancer IgM Monoclonal Antibody PAT-SM6 to Low Density Lipoproteins and GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Rosenes, Zachary; Mok, Yee-Foong; Yang, Shuo; Griffin, Michael D. W.; Mulhern, Terrence D.; Hatters, Danny M.; Hensel, Frank; Howlett, Geoffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The tumour-derived monoclonal IgM antibody PAT-SM6 specifically kills malignant cells by an apoptotic mechanism linked to the excessive uptake of plasma lipids. The mechanism is postulated to occur via the multi-point attachment of PAT-SM6 to the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78, located on the surface of tumour cells, coupled to the simultaneous binding of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL). We prepared and characterised LDL and oxidized LDL using sedimentation velocity and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) techniques indicated apparent dissociation constants of approximately 20 nM for the binding of LDL or oxidized LDL to PAT-SM6. ELISA experiments showed cross competition with LDL inhibiting PAT-SM6 binding to immobilised GRP78, while, in the reverse experiment, GRP78 inhibited PAT-SM6 binding to immobilized LDL. In contrast to the results of the ELISA experiments, sedimentation velocity experiments indicated relatively weak interactions between LDL and PAT-SM6, suggesting immunoabsorbance to the microtiter plate is driven by an avidity-based binding mechanism. The importance of avidity and the multipoint attachment of antigens to PAT-SM6 was further investigated using antigen-coated polystyrene beads. Absorption of GRP78 or LDL to polystyrene microspheres led to an increase in the inhibition of PAT-SM6 binding to microtiter plates coated with GRP78 or LDL, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that the biological action of PAT-SM6 in tumour cell apoptosis depends on the multivalent nature of PAT-SM6 and the ability to interact simultaneously with LDL and multiple GRP78 molecules clustered on the tumour cell surface. PMID:23620733

  13. Anisotropic Outflows and IGM Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Hugo Martel; Matthew M. Pieri; Cedric Grenon

    2006-11-17

    We have designed an analytical model for the evolution of anisotropic galactic outflows. These outflows follow the path of least resistance, and thus travel preferentially into low-density regions, away from cosmological structures where galaxies form. We show that anisotropic outflows can significantly enrich low-density systems with metals.

  14. [Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis of newborns with and without infection].

    PubMed

    Ceccon, M E; Diníz, E M; Carneiro-Sampaio, M M; Arslanian, C; Diogo, C L; Ramos, J L; Vaz, F A

    1998-01-01

    Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total Complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis between newborns with and without infection. Rev. Hosp. Clín. Fac. Med. S. Paulo, 53(6): 303-310, 1998. The objective of this study was to verify the immunological behavior of the newborn infant in front of an infection. We studied 60 newborn infants that had risk factors for early onset sepsis (premature rupture membranes, clinic amnionitis or tract urinary infection) from de immunological and infection point of view. They were classified into three gestational age groups: < 34 weeks, between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks and > or = 37 weeks. Sepsis diagnosis was done through clinical and laboratorial data and we also included the followings exams: Immunological types (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) obtained from the newborn at birth and on the fifth day of life. We could verify that 15 newborns (25%) presented early sepsis. There was a statistical association between perinatal asfixia and infection in the group with gestational age < 34 weeks and this same group presented statistical association between infection and death. The serical levels of IgG and CH50 were directly related to the gestational age and there were significant statistical differences between levels of IgG, IgM and total Complement between infected and not infected newborns within the same group os gestional age. We observed that the infection was associated to low levels of IgG and CH50, at birth and on the fifth day, mainly in the group of infected newborns with gestional age < 34 weeks, being this group, therefore, the one that would mostly benefit from an immunological support in front of and infection. PMID:10413946

  15. Immunogenic cells in the regional lymph nodes after painting with the contact sensitizers picryl chloride and oxazolone: evidence for the presence of IgM antibody on their surface

    PubMed Central

    Asherson, G. L.; Colizzi, V.; Watkins, Madeleine C.

    1983-01-01

    The lymph node cells of mice painted with contact sensitizing agents immunize recipient mice when injected into their footpads. In practice 2 × 106 nylon wool purified T cells are used from mice painted with picryl chloride or oxazolone (4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyloxazolone). The ability of cells taken 4 days after painting to immunize other mice was abolished by treatment with rabbit complement but cells taken at 1 day were unaffected. This effect of rabbit complement was due to IgM anti-hapten antibody on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The antibody could be eluted from the cells with appropriate picryl or oxazolone-?-aminocaproic acid. It adhered to insolubilized anti-IgM and behaved like IgM on gel filtration. To confirm the role of this antibody, mice were rendered unresponsive with picrylated pneumococcal polysaccharide type III before being painted. This abolishes antibody production but leaves contact sensitivity intact. The lymph node cells of animals treated in this way were unaffected by rabbit complement and this suggested that antibody was required for this phenomenon. Moreover although lymph nodes normally lose the ability to immunize at day 6 after painting, the lymph node cells of unresponsive mice, which fail to make antibody immunize other mice up to day 8 after painting. This effect of unresponsiveness is reversed by the injection of serum taken 8 days after painting. It was concluded that IgM antibody which appears on the surface of lymph nodes 4 days after painting depresses their ability to immunize other mice. PMID:6826205

  16. Crystallization of a complex between the Fab fragment of a human immunoglobulin M (IgM) rheumatoid factor (RF-AN) and the Fc fragment of human IgG4.

    PubMed

    Sohi, M K; Corper, A L; Wan, T; Steinitz, M; Jefferis, R; Beale, D; He, M; Feinstein, A; Sutton, B J; Taussig, M J

    1996-08-01

    Rheumatoid factors (RF) are the characteristic autoantibodies found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. They recognize epitopes in the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and are often of the IgM isotype. In order to analyse the nature of RF-Fc interactions, we have crystallized a complex between the Fab fragment of a human monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor (RF-AN) and the Fc fragment of human IgG4. The stoichiometry of the complex within the crystals was found to be 2:1 Fab:Fc. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 0.3 nm resolution, and the space group was C2, with cell dimensions a = 16.03 nm, b = 8.19 nm, c = 6.42 nm, beta = 98.3 degrees. We have also determined the sequence of the variable region of the RF-AN light chain, not hitherto reported. This belongs to the V lambda III-a subgroup and is closely related to the germline gene Humlv318, from which it differs in three amino acid residues. This is the first reported crystallized complex between a human autoantibody and its autoantigen. PMID:8881769

  17. In vitro immunization of naive mouse B cells: establishment of IgM secreting hybridomas specific for souble protein or hapten from B cells cultured on CD40 ligand transfected mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wohlleben, G; Gray, D; Schimpl, A

    1996-03-01

    CD40 has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of B cell survival, proliferation and Ig class switching. The natural partner for CD40 is CD40 ligand, gp 39, which is transiently expressed on activated T cells. In vitro, CD40 ligation leads to polyclonal B cell proliferation and, in the presence of appropriate cytokines, to the secretion of Ig of various isotypes. In the present study we show that naive B cells cultured in vitro on CD40L-transfected mouse fibroblasts in the presence of two different soluble antigens (beta-galactosidase and phenyloxazolone coupled to ovalbumin) can be specifically immunized as shown by direct single cell Elispot assays or after establishment of B cell hybridomas. However, under the conditions of in vitro immunization used, all hybridomas analysed produced specific IgM antibodies only and we failed to detect cells that had switched to other isotypes. The data suggests that CD40 ligation can be used for efficient in vitro immunization against soluble antigens for IgM production but that CD40 signals even in conjunction with cytokines are insufficient to induce high rate switching. PMID:8671620

  18. IgA gene expression and quantification of cecal IgA+, IgM+, and CD4+ cells in chickens treated with EFAL41 and infected with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Bobíková, Katarína; Revajová, Viera; Karaffová, Viera; Levkutová, Mária; Levkut, Mikuláš

    2015-09-01

    IgA gene expression and quantification of mucous IgA+, IgM+ and CD4+ lymphocytes in the cecum of chicks was studied by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. A total of 220 1-day-old Salmonella-free chicks of Cobb 500 were divided into four groups (n=55). Group 1 served as control (C), group 2 was pretreated with probiotic bacterial strain Enterococus faecium AL41 (EFAL41), group 3 was infected with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 (SE), and group 4 was pretreated with E. faecium AL41 and subsequently challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 (EFAL41+SE). The relative mRNA expression of IgA was upregulated in the EFAL41 group (P<0.05) when compared to control group at 4dpi. In comparison to the control, EFAL41 and SE group, the relative mRNA expression of IgA was also upregulated in EFAL41+SE group at 7dpi (P<0.001). Immunohistochemistry revealed, that the density of IgA+ cells was higher in EFAL41+SE group comparing to the controls and SE groups (P<0.001). Significantly more CD4+ cells were present in the SE group than in EFAL41 (P<0.05), and EFAL41+SE groups (P<0.001) at 4dpi. In contrast, higher density of CD4+cells at 7dpi was seen in EFAL41+SE group as compared with controls (P<0.05). Flow cytometry determined that relative percentage of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) IgA+ cells was higher in EFAL41 than in SE and EFAL41+SE groups (P<0.05). Comparing to controls the number IgM+ cells increased in SE group (P<0.05) at 7dpi. The results demonstrated beneficial effect of E. faecium AL41 on the mRNA expression of IgA and number of IgA+ cells. Lamina propria lymphocytes (IgA+, IgM+) were not affected by EFAL41 intake or salmonella infection. Probiotic bacterial strain EFAL41 positively influenced the number of IEL during the first days of infection. PMID:26093882

  19. Specific IgM, IgG and IgG1 directed against Toxoplasma gondii detected by flow cytometry and their potential as serologic tools to support clinical indirect fundoscopic presumed diagnosis of ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucinia Peixoto; Peixe, Ricardo Guerra; Silva-dos-Santos, Priscila Pinto; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-02-01

    In the present study we evaluated the anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin profiles of a group of 118 individuals living in an endemic area. The aim of the study was to select biomarkers to support the ophthalmological diagnosis of retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection. Overall anti-T. gondii reactivity of the IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses was investigated by flow cytometry-based anti-fixed tachyzoite antibodies (FC-AFTA) in four groups of subjects, referred to as: i) TOXO(L)--seropositive patients with retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection; these patients were further subdivided according to morphological aspects of their ocular scar lesions as A, B or C; ii) TOXO(NL)--seropositive patients without ocular scar lesions; iii) NEG(L)--T. gondii seronegative patients presenting retinal lesions; and iv) NEG(NL)--T. gondii seronegative without retinal lesions (negative controls). Our data demonstrated that anti-T. gondii IgG profiles were able to discriminate the mean reactivity of TOXO(L) from all other clinical groups. Analysis of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin profiles revealed that IgM and IgG were good biomarkers capable of discriminating between individual reactivity in patients with retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection [TOXO(L)] from those caused by other clinical conditions. Furthermore, anti-T. gondii IgG1 reactivity was able to discriminate TOXO(L) from all other clinical groups. In conclusion, the pre-selected IgM, IgG and IgG1 anti-T. gondii antibody subclasses were able to segregate both TOXO(L) and the other subgroups, including the scar lesion group types (A, B, C), from other clinical conditions. These results suggest the applicability of this technique in the clinical laboratory to detect putative biomarker for diagnosis of ocular lesions in T. gondii-infected patients. Studies in other areas implementing the methods described in the present study would be of value and enable evaluation of a system for classification of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis scar lesions. This classification would make comparative studies on ocular toxoplasmosis conducted in different regions around the world possible. PMID:25527345

  20. Comparison of the Specificities of IgG, IgG-Subclass, IgA and IgM Reactivities in African and European HIV-Infected Individuals with an HIV-1 Clade C Proteome-Based Array

    PubMed Central

    Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

  1. CD40 Ligand Deficient C57BL/6 Mouse Is a Potential Surrogate Model of Human X-Linked Hyper IgM (X-HIGM) Syndrome for Characterizing Immune Responses against Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Saucedo, Catalina; Bernal-Reynaga, Rodolfo; Zayas-Jahuey, Jesus; Galindo-Gomez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Garcia-Galvez, Carlos; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with X-HIGM syndrome fail to express functional CD40 ligand; consequently they cannot mount effective protective antibody responses against pathogenic bacteria. We evaluated, compared, and characterized the humoral immune response of wild type (WT) and C57-CD40L deficient (C57-CD40L?/?) mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium. Basal serum isotype levels were similar for IgM and IgG3 among mice, while total IgG and IgG2b concentrations were significantly lower in C57-CD40L?/? mice compared with WT. Essentially IgG1 and IgG2c levels were detectable only in WT mice. C57-CD40L?/? animals, orally inoculated with 2 × 109 CFU, presented several clinical manifestations since the second week of infection and eventually died. In contrast at this time point no clinical manifestations were observed among C57-CD40L?/? mice infected with 1 × 107 CFU. Infection was subclinical in WT mice inoculated with either bacterial dose. The serum samples from infected mice (1 × 107 CFU), collected at day 14 after infection, had similar C. rodentium-specific IgM titres. Although C57-CD40L?/? animals had lower IgG and IgG2b titres than WT mice, C57-CD40L?/? mice sera displayed complement-mediated bactericidal activity against C. rodentium. C. rodentium-infected C57-CD40L?/? mice are capable of producing antibodies that are protective. C57-CD40L?/? mouse is a useful surrogate model of X-HIGM syndrome for studying immune responses elicited against pathogens. PMID:26064940

  2. Characterization of Human Class-Switched Polymeric (Immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgA) Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibodies 2F5 and 2G12

    PubMed Central

    Wolbank, Susanne; Kunert, Renate; Stiegler, Gabriela; Katinger, Hermann

    2003-01-01

    We have previously generated human monoclonal anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) antibodies 2F5IgG and 2G12IgG with an exceptional cross-clade neutralizing potential. 2F5IgG and 2G12IgG passively administrated to macaques were able to confer complete protection from both intravenous and mucosal challenge with pathogenic HIV-simian immunodeficiency virus chimeric strains and have shown beneficial effects in a phase-1 clinical trial. We now class-switched 2F5 and 2G12 to the immunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgA isotype, to enforce features like avidity, complement activation, or the potential to neutralize mucosal transmission. For this purpose we expressed functional polymeric 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies in CHO cells and evaluated their anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. The class switch had a strong impact on the protective potential of 2F5 and 2G12. 2G12IgM inhibited HIV-1 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures up to 28-fold-more efficiently than the corresponding IgG and neutralized all of the primary isolates tested. The 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies of all isotypes were able to interact with active human serum to inhibit viral infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polymeric 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies but not the corresponding IgGs could interfere with HIV-1 entry across a mucosal epithelial layer in vitro. Although polymeric 2F5 antibodies had only limited potential in the standard neutralization assay, the results from the mucosal assay suggest that 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies may have a high potential to prevent natural HIV-1 transmission in vivo. PMID:12634368

  3. Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Hesong; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yuanxin; Wang, Kangping

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg) or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III) in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers. PMID:23644827

  4. New ELISA Kits using C3 Binding Glycoprotein from Cuscuta europea Detect Mainly IgM CIC in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, but not in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Stanilova, Spaska Angelova; Slavov, Emil Slavov

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), containing IgG, IgM or IgA antibodies were detected in the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. This might indicate a different biological meaning of the three isotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig) in the CIC. Each CIC assay detected only certain classes and subclasses of Ig in CIC material or fixed complement protein. In this study, a new method based on C3binding glycoprotein named CIF-ELISA and a well-known method ANTI-C3 ELISA, were used for quantitative assessment of IgM-CIC, IgG-CIC and IgA-CIC levels in human sera. A modified CIF-ELISA and ANTI-C3 ELISA for simultaneous detection of CIC, containing IgG, IgM and IgA, (stCIC), were also performed. The assays were evaluated on the same specially prepared samples: 55 normal sera, 99 sera from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 88 sera from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 27 sera from progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). We found that the sensitivity of the tests used varied depending on the diseases studied. CIF-ELISA displayed higher sensitivity of IgM-CIC when compared to ANTI-C3 ELISA in RA patients (40.0 and 20.95%, respectively) and PSS (44.43 and 37.04%, respectively). Results for the sensitivity of IgA-CIC were in adverse direction in the RA group (14.28 and 19.05%) and PSS (14.81 and 25.93%) by both methods. It was also established that the concordance of IgM-CIC positives by both methods was 48.84% in RA and 46.67% in PSS, while in SLE it was 18.78%. These results are most probably due to the different assay abilities to detect antibody isotype of the CIC material and help to explain what specific role each Ig isotype in CIC has in the course of the disease. PMID:14768941

  5. Monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factors bind IgG at a discontinuous epitope comprised of amino acid loops from heavy-chain constant-region domains 2 and 3.

    PubMed Central

    Artandi, S E; Calame, K L; Morrison, S L; Bonagura, V R

    1992-01-01

    A combination of site-directed mutagenesis and exon exchange has been used to further define the structure on IgG recognized by monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factors (RFs) from patients with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Most of these RFs bound IgG1, -2, and -4 but not IgG3. For these RFs, His-435 is a critical residue for binding and replacing it with arginine, the residue present in IgG3, destroys or reduces RF binding. However, additional polymorphic sequences in both the heavy-chain constant-region domains (CH) 2 and 3 are important for RF binding. Among the important residues in CH2 are amino acids 252-254 and 309-311, which are conserved among IgG isotypes and comprise two loops of amino acids on the surface of the domain. Therefore, at least three regions, two from CH2 and one from CH3, contribute significantly to the epitope recognized by the RFs. Although this epitope contains many of the same residues as the staphylococcal protein A binding site on IgG, the binding specificities of staphylococcal protein A and monoclonal RFs are not identical. Sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis contain antibodies directed not only at this epitope but also at other sites on IgG. Images PMID:1370358

  6. Development of a novel protein biochip enabling validation of immunological assays and detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum pathogens in the patients with syphilis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Na-Li; Ye, Lei; Schneider, Marion E; Du, Yi-Xin; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Fan, Li-Bin; Du, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-15

    In this study, we developed a novel protein biochip methodology that was characterized by dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) and specialized for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum pathogens in the patients with syphilis, respectively. The biochips were validated by a dimension of atomic force microscope (AFM). The visualized detection limit of IgG antibody on the biochip was 0.39?g/ml. Finally, 286 serum samples from the patients with syphilis were simultaneously tested on the rTpN15-17-47 coated biochips. The results were evaluated in comparison with the assays of T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST). The result demonstrated that the relative positive rate in the 286 patients by biochip was 99.0%, similar to that by TPPA (97.9%, P>0.05) and higher than that by TRUST, (76.2%, P<0.01). The detection specificities were 100% for the biochip and the TPPA and 97.0% for the TRUST. Thus, the protein biochip would provide a useful platform not only for enabling concurrent detection of the infectious antibodies directed against T. pallidum on a larger scale, but also for monitoring therapy modality of the disease. PMID:26364122

  7. Intrathecally produced IgG and IgM antibodies to recombinant VlsE, VlsE peptide, recombinant OspC and whole cell extracts in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Gerold; Lusa, Lara; Ogrinc, Katarina; Markowicz, Mateusz; Strle, Franc

    2014-04-01

    Detection of intrathecally produced specific antibodies (AI) is essential in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB); however, the performance of various newer AI detection methods has not been systematically assessed. Here we assessed and compared advanced test systems for detecting borrelia IgG-AI and IgM-AI. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from well-defined LNB and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) patients, 25 each, were tested with three antibody detection systems, one based on chemiluminescence (CLA) and two based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), employing different antigens for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies. In samples from patients with LNB, IgG-AI was detected in 20 samples by CLA, 19 by ELISA1, and 22 by ELISA2, and IgM-AI was detected in 16 samples by CLA, six by ELISA1, and 11 by ELISA2. In samples from TBE patients, IgG-AI was positive in one case by CLA and ELISA2, and in 7 cases by ELISA1, whereas IgM-AI was positive in one case by CLA and in none by ELISA. IgG-AI and IgM-AI were not detected within the first week of disease. Duration of disease correlated with IgG-AI while IgM-AI results were heterogeneous for each test assay. Moreover, the levels of IgG-AI, but not IgM-AI, correlated with protein concentration in CSF. IgG is the relevant immunoglobulin isotype for detecting intrathecal synthesis of borrelia antibodies. The highest sensitivity and specificity were achieved by the antibody detection assay using VlsE IR6 peptide. Detection of IgM-AI yielded heterogenous results and did not support the laboratory diagnosis of LNB. PMID:24363169

  8. Crystal structure of a human autoimmune complex between IgM rheumatoid factor RF61 and IgG1 Fc reveals a novel epitope and evidence for affinity maturation.

    PubMed

    Duquerroy, Stephane; Stura, Enrico A; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Fabiane, Stella M; Vaney, Marie C; Beale, Dennis; Hamon, Maureen; Casali, Paolo; Rey, Felix A; Sutton, Brian J; Taussig, Michael J

    2007-05-18

    Rheumatoid factors (RF) are autoantibodies that recognize epitopes in the Fc region of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and that correlate with the clinical severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we report the X-ray crystallographic structure, at 3 A resolution, of a complex between the Fc region of human IgG1 and the Fab fragment of a monoclonal IgM RF (RF61), derived from an RA patient and with a relatively high affinity for IgG Fc. In the complex, two Fab fragments bind to each Fc at epitopes close to the C terminus, and each epitope comprises residues from both Cgamma3 domains. A central role in the unusually hydrophilic epitope is played by the side-chain of Arg355, accounting for the subclass specificity of RF61, which recognizes IgG1,-2, and -3 in preference to IgG4, in which the corresponding residue is Gln355. Compared with a previously determined complex of a lower affinity RF (RF-AN) bound to IgG4 Fc, in which only residues at the very edge of the antibody combining site were involved in binding, the epitope bound by RF61 is centered in classic fashion on the axis of the V(H):V(L) beta-barrel. The complementarity determining region-H3 loop plays a key role, forming a pocket in which Arg355 is bound by two salt-bridges. The antibody contacts also involve two somatically mutated V(H) residues, reinforcing the suggestion of a process of antigen-driven maturation and selection for IgG Fc during the generation of this RF autoantibody. PMID:17395205

  9. Effect on the Web: An Analysis of Fake Anti-Virus Distribution Moheeb Abu Rajab

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    of 240 million web pages collected by Google's malware detection infras- tructure over a 13 month period for enticing users to provide the same information without requiring any vulnerability. Phish- ing attacks For the following discussion, we consider a web page or binary as Fake AV if it presents content misinform- ing

  10. Reverse Engineering Anti-Virus Emulators through Black-box Analysis

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Charles V. "Chuck"

    , malware authors need to establish detectable differences between running inside an emulator, and running if they were able to extract information while running inside emulators. The difficulty is that the emulators malware to state-sponsored malware used for espionage, AV's are often central to defense against malware

  11. Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG Norwalk virus-specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with baculovirus-expressed Norwalk virus capsid antigen in adult volunteers challenged with Norwalk virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J J; Cunliffe, C; Ball, J; Graham, D Y; Desselberger, U; Estes, M K

    1994-01-01

    Pre- and postexposure sera collected from 17 adult volunteers challenged with Norwalk virus as described previously (D. Y. Graham, X. Jiang, T. Tanaka, A. Opekun, P. Madore, and M. K. Estes, J. Infect. Dis. 170:34-43, 1994) were examined for Norwalk virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with recombinant Norwalk virus antigen bound to the solid phase. Sixteen of the 17 volunteers had evidence of past infection, all presenting with preexisting IgG antibody of high avidity; only one volunteer had no evidence of previous infection. Virus infection was detected in 14 of the 16 volunteers with evidence of past infection, and 9 of the infected volunteers had symptomatic illness. A significant rise in both virus-specific IgA and IgG titers was detected after challenge in all of the volunteers who became ill. Five of the asymptomatic volunteers who were infected had rising titers of virus-specific IgG, but only two of the five had a concomitant rise in their virus-specific IgA antibody titers. Antibody rises were detectable in eight of nine ill volunteers 8 to 11 days after challenge but in the asymptomatic volunteers only after more than 15 days had elapsed. Virus-specific IgM was detected after challenge in all 14 infected volunteers. Between symptomatic and asymptomatic volunteers there were no significant differences in titers of virus-specific IgG and IgA in serum before challenge; however, there were significantly higher titers in symptomatic volunteers between 8 and > 90 days after challenge for virus-specific IgG and 8 and 24 days after challenge for virus-specific IgA. PMID:7883902

  12. Securing PCs and Data in Libraries and Schools: A Handbook with Menuing, Anti-Virus, and Other Protective Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    This handbook is designed to help readers identify and eliminate security risks, with sound recommendations and library-tested security software. Chapter 1 "Managing Your Facilities and Assessing Your Risks" addresses fundamental management responsibilities including planning for a secure system, organizing computer-related information, assessing…

  13. Constraining the Thermal State of the IGM at z~20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhill, Lincoln J.; LEDA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of observational cosmology is to trace the thermal history of the Universe during the Dark Age, before the first stars, and immediately following. Theory suggests that the 21 cm transition of Hydrogen can serve as a unique thermometer for the intergalactic medium during this era, and thermal evolution is believed to have depended on a relatively small set of fundamental processes. Detection of the 21cm transition at redshift ~20 should enable strong tests of cosmological models. The ground-based Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Age (LEDA) is working to establish direct constraint on the thermal history through detection of sky-averaged spectral-line absorption of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the 21cm transition. I will present the latest results from LEDA obtained using stations of the Long Wavelength Array facility and outline technical milestones such as construction of one of the largest radio astronomical correlators in the world and instantaneous confusion-limited images of the full sky (2pi steradian) below 80 MHz.

  14. Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS) for Combined Transmission and Distribution Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmintier, Bryan

    2015-07-28

    This presentation discusses the next-generation analysis framework for full-scale transmission and distribution modeling that supports millions of highly distributed energy resources, and also discusses future directions for transmission and distribution.

  15. MOSAIC at the E-ELT: A multi-object spectrograph for astrophysics, IGM and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, F.; Barbuy, B.; Cuby, J. G.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S.; Evans, C. J.; Jagourel, P.; Dalton, G.; Rees, P.; Puech, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Pearson, D.; Disseau, K.

    2014-08-01

    The Universe is comprised of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each populated by hundreds of billions of stars. Astrophysics aims to understand the complexity of this almost incommensurable number of stars, stellar clusters and galaxies, including their spatial distribution, formation, and current interactions with the interstellar and intergalactic media. A considerable fraction of astrophysical discoveries require large statistical samples, which can only be addressed with multi-object spectrographs (MOS). Here we introduce the MOSAIC study of an optical/near-infrared MOS for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which has capabilities specified by science cases ranging from stellar physics and exoplanet studies to galaxy evolution and cosmology. Recent studies of critical technical issues such as sky-background subtraction and multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) have demonstrated that such a MOS is feasible with current technology and techniques. In the 2020s the E-ELT will become the world's largest optical/IR telescope, and we argue that it has to be equipped as soon as possible with a MOS. MOSAIC will provide a vast discovery space, enabled by a multiplex of ˜ 200 and spectral resolving powers of R = 5 000 and 20 000. MOSAIC will also offer the unique capability of 10-to-20 `high-definition' (MOAO) integral-field units, optimised to investigate the physics of the sources of reionisation, providing the most efficient follow-up of observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The combination of these modes will enable the study of the mass-assembly history of galaxies over cosmic time, including high-redshift dwarf galaxies and studies of the distribution of the intergalactic medium. It will also provide spectroscopy of resolved stars in external galaxies at unprecedented distances, from the outskirts of the Local Group for main-sequence stars, to a significant volume of the local Universe, including nearby galaxy clusters, for luminous red supergiants.

  16. Cutoff in the Lyman {\\alpha} forest power spectrum: warm IGM or warm dark matter?

    E-print Network

    Garzilli, Antonella; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    We re-analyse high redshift and high resolution Lyman-{\\alpha} forest spectra from Viel et al. [1] seeking to constrain properties of warm dark matter particles. Compared to the previous work we consider a wider range on thermal histories of the intergalactic medium and find that both warm and cold dark matter models can explain the cut-off observed in the flux power spectra of high-resolution observations equally well. This implies, however, very different thermal histories and underlying re-ionisation models. We discuss how to remove this degeneracy.

  17. Production and characterization of IgM monoclonal antibodies against hyphal antigens of Stachybotrys species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has...

  18. In Pursuit of the Thermal State of the IGM at Redshift 20: Radio Foreground Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhill, Lincoln J.; LEDA Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    One of the great challenges of cosmology today is tracing the thermal history of the Universe from global reionization back to recombination. The Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Age (LEDA) will set direct constraints on sky-averaged spectral-line absorption of the Cosmic Microwave Background by neutral Hydrogen in the intergalactic medium at redshift ~ 20. Line intensity, breadth, and center frequency enable hypothesis testing for models of heating during the preceding Dark Age and the epoch at which sustained star formation began. LEDA has begun science observations at the Long Wavelength Array in Owens Valley. I will report initial characterizations of the foreground sky, effectiveness of subtraction, and assessment of how difficult or easy it may be to take the next step: measurement of the angular power spectrum of HI fluctuations just after the end of the Dark Age.

  19. AGN Activity and IGM Heating in the Fossil Cluster RX J1416.4+2315

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Sengupta, C.; Raychaudhury, S.; Jetha, N. N.; Abbassi, S.

    2015-12-01

    We study active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in the fossil galaxy cluster RX J1416.4+2315. Radio observations were carried out using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at two frequencies, 1420 and 610 MHz. A weak radio lobe that extends from the central nucleus is detected in the 610 MHz map. Assuming the radio lobe originated from the central AGN, we show that the energy injection into the intergalactic medium is only sufficient to heat up the central 50 kpc within the cluster core, while the cooling radius is larger (?130 kpc). In the hardness ratio map, three low energy cavities have been identified. No radio emission is detected for these regions. We evaluated the power required to inflate the cavities and showed that the total energy budget is sufficient to offset the radiative cooling. We showed that the initial conditions would change the results remarkably. Furthermore, the efficiency of the Bondi accretion in powering the AGN has been estimated.

  20. Cutoff in the Lyman ? forest power spectrum: warm IGM or warm dark matter?

    E-print Network

    Antonella Garzilli; Alexey Boyarsky; Oleg Ruchayskiy

    2015-10-23

    We re-analyse high redshift and high resolution Lyman-{\\alpha} forest spectra from Viel et al. [1] seeking to constrain properties of warm dark matter particles. Compared to the previous work we consider a wider range on thermal histories of the intergalactic medium and find that both warm and cold dark matter models can explain the cut-off observed in the flux power spectra of high-resolution observations equally well. This implies, however, very different thermal histories and underlying re-ionisation models. We discuss how to remove this degeneracy.

  1. ffnungszeiten Mo-Fr 7:30-21:30 Uhr, Beratung 9:00-18:00 Uhr Fr McAfee-Antivirus-Nutzer gibt es aktuelle Anpassungen ("Patches"), die die Sicherheit des

    E-print Network

    Franz, Sven Oliver

    aktuelle Anpassungen ("Patches"), die die Sicherheit des Produktes verbessern. Wenn Sie bereits Mc 8.8 Patch 2, sondern zusätzlich den Hotfix für Win7 installiert haben Win8-Nutzer: Hier ist aufbauend auf Patch 2 nun der Patch 3 verfügbar, der jedoch ausschließlich für Win8 gilt. Wer McAfee neu

  2. How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

  3. Evaluación de Anticuerpos Desarrollados Contra la Proteína Recombinante de la Cápside del Virus Tristeza de los Cítricos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant coat protein (rCP) p25 gene of (Citrus tristeza virus = CTV), were developed for isolates MX08 and MX14 from México and B227 from India. The reactivity of rCP antibodies was evaluated using healthy and CTV infected tissue. The combination of rCP ant...

  4. January 8, 2014 ITCS QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE: CAMPUS LIVING NETWORK PREP Page 1 2014 ITCS East Carolina University

    E-print Network

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    Carolina University Download Symantec Antivirus, Windows Critical Updates and Cisco NAC Symantec Antivirus (Windows and Mac*) ­ on campus or off campus Other supported antivirus software: McAffe, Sophos, Trend Micro, Kaspersky 1. Navigate to http://download.ecu.edu. 2. Click the Self-Service Forms button

  5. CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X- linked hyper IgM syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiying; Upadhyaya, Bhaskar; Wu, Liming; Koh, Christopher; Santín-Durán, Mónica; Pittaluga, Stefania; Uzel, Gulbu; Kleiner, David; Williams, Ester; Ma, Chi A.; Bodansky, Aaron; Oliveira, Joao B.; Edmonds, Pamela; Hornung, Ronald; Wong, Duane W.; Fayer, Ronald; Fleisher, Tom; Heller, Theo; Prussin, Calman; Jain, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restoring class switch recombination in XHM B cells and inducing cytokine secretion by monocytes. CP-870,893 infusions were well tolerated and showed significant activity in vivo, decreasing leukocyte concentration in peripheral blood. Although specific antibody responses were lacking, frequent dosing in one subject primed T cells to secrete IFN-g and suppressed oocyst shedding in the stool. Nevertheless, relapse occurred after discontinuation of therapy. The CD40 receptor was rapidly internalized following binding with CP-870,893, potentially explaining the limited capacity of CP-870,893 to mediate immune reconstitution. This study demonstrates that CP-870,893 suppressed oocysts shedding in XHM patients with biliary cryptosporidiosis. The continued study of CD40 agonists in XHM is warranted. PMID:22459705

  6. Development and validation of an ELISA kit (YF MAC-HD) to detect IgM to yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Basile, Alison Jane; Goodman, Christin; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Laven, Janeen; Panella, Amanda J; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W

    2015-12-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, with around 180,000 human infections a year occurring in Africa. Serologic testing is the chief laboratory diagnostic means of identifying an outbreak and to inform the decision to commence a vaccination campaign. The World Health Organization disseminates the reagents for YFV testing to African reference laboratories, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is charged with producing and providing these reagents. The CDC M-antibody capture ELISA is a 2-day test, requiring titration of reagents when new lots are received, which leads to inconsistency in testing and wastage of material. Here we describe the development of a kit-based assay (YF MAC-HD) based upon the CDC method, that is completed in approximately 3.5h, with equivocal samples being reflexed to an overnight protocol. The kit exhibits >90% accuracy when compared to the 2-day test. The kits were designed for use with a minimum of equipment and are stored at 4°C, removing the need for freezing capacity. This kit is capable of tolerating temporary sub-optimal storage conditions which will ease shipping or power outage concerns, and a shelf life of >6 months was demonstrated with no deterioration in accuracy. All reagents necessary to run the YF MAC-HD are included in the kit and are single-use, with 8 or 24 sample options per kit. Field trials are envisioned for the near future, which will enable refinement of the method. The use of the YF MAC-HD is anticipated to reduce materials wastage, and improve the quality and consistency of YFV serologic testing in endemic areas. PMID:26342907

  7. Epitope analysis of peanut allergen Ara h1 with oligoclonal IgM antibody from human B-lymphoblastoid cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To analyze epitopes of peanut allergen Ara h1, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human peripheral oligoclonal B-cells were cultured to obtain antibodies to Ara h1. The combined reaction pattern with six oligoclonal antibodies showed there were six antibody binding areas named a to f in Ara h1. We found...

  8. IgA antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Juan M; Butler, John E; Jew, Jessica; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Zhu, James; Golde, William T

    2010-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Control of the disease involves the use of killed-virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. After natural infection, the primary site of replication of FMDV is the pharyngeal area, suggesting that a mucosal immune response is the most effective. Humoral immunity to killed-virus vaccination induces antibodies that can prevent the clinical disease but not local infection. Determining whether infection or vaccination stimulates IgA-mediated local immunity depends on the method of analysis. Different assays have been described to analyze the quality of antibody responses of cattle and swine to FMDV, including indirect double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDAS-ELISA) and antibody capture assay-ELISA (ACA-ELISA). We tested these assays on swine and show that vaccinated animals had FMDV-specific IgM and IgG but no IgA in either serum or saliva. After the infection, both assays detected FMDV-specific IgM, IgG, and IgA in serum. Notably, serum IgA was more readily detected using the ACA-ELISA, whereas IgA was not detected in saliva with this assay. FMDV-specific IgA antibodies were detected in saliva samples using the IDAS-ELISA. These data show that parenterally administered, killed-virus vaccine does not induce a mucosal antibody response to FMDV and illuminates limitations and appropriate applications of the two ELISAs used to measure FMDV-specific responses. Further, the presence of the IgA antivirus in serum correlates with the presence of such antibodies in saliva. PMID:20107003

  9. Architecture for removable media USB-ARM

    DOEpatents

    Shue, Craig A.; Lamb, Logan M.; Paul, Nathanael R.

    2015-07-14

    A storage device is coupled to a computing system comprising an operating system and application software. Access to the storage device is blocked by a kernel filter driver, except exclusive access is granted to a first anti-virus engine. The first anti-virus engine is directed to scan the storage device for malicious software and report results. Exclusive access may be granted to one or more other anti-virus engines and they may be directed to scan the storage device and report results. Approval of all or a portion of the information on the storage device is based on the results from the first anti-virus engine and the other anti-virus engines. The storage device is presented to the operating system and access is granted to the approved information. The operating system may be a Microsoft Windows operating system. The kernel filter driver and usage of anti-virus engines may be configurable by a user.

  10. Enterprise Information Security Management Framework [EISMF

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Dhirendra, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    There are several technological solutions available in the market to help organizations with information security breach detection and prevention such as intrusion detection and prevention systems, antivirus software, ...

  11. Both interleukin 2 and a second T cell-derived factor in EL-4 supernatant have activity as differentiation factors in IgM synthesis

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    B cells cultured with anti-IgM, BSF-p1, and B15-TRF will differentiate into high rate IgM-synthesizing cells in the presence of supernatants from EL-4 cells that have been induced with phorbol myristate acetate. These supernatants contain two molecular species (EL-TRFs) that have differentiative activity. One co-migrates with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its activity is blocked by antibody to the IL-2 receptor. Furthermore, molecularly cloned IL-2, at concentrations of 100 U/ml or more, expresses such EL-TRF activity. The EL-TRF activity of cloned IL-2 can also be inhibited by antibody to the IL-2 receptor. The other material with EL-TRF activity has a molecular weight of approximately 32,000. This material lacks IL-2 activity. Antibody to the IL-2 receptor does not impair its function. B cells stimulated with anti-IgM and BSF-p1, with or without B15-TRF, express determinants that react with two monoclonal antibodies which recognize distinct epitopes on the T cell IL-2 receptor. These determinants are present at much lower density (approximately 100-fold) on stimulated B cells that on HT-2 cells, an IL-2-dependent T cell line. Very small amounts of [3H]IL-2 (less than 1,000 molecules per cell) bind to activated B cells. These results indicate that IL-2 binds to a receptor on appropriately prepared B cells and causes them to differentiate into high rate IgM-synthesizing cells. The physiologic significance of the B cell differentiative activity of IL-2 remains to be investigated. PMID:6439814

  12. Evaluation of six tests for circulating IgG complexes with special reference to IgM rheumatoid factors: analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis series.

    PubMed Central

    Wager, O; Lindström, P; Räsänen, J A; Kekomäki, R; Ziola, B; Salmi, A; Isomäki, H; Skrifvars, B; Penttinen, K

    1981-01-01

    Six tests for circulating immune complexes (CIC) developed in four laboratories and representing four main principles [affinity of human platelets, Clq, of RF for aggregated IgG, and of conglutinin (Kg) for complex-bound C3] were evaluated on series of SLE and definite RA. All tests detected human model complexes in the presence of NHS and discriminated the patient series from the blood donor series, most powerful being the PIPA (platelet test). The high correlation between the RF-binding inhibition tests (RFbI) and the RF-latex test suggested interference due to intrinsic RFs. This received further support from experimental analyses in which RA sera mixed with varying doses of heat-aggregated IgG were assayed by the pRFbI test. PMID:7337967

  13. PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS

    E-print Network

    Prochaska, J. Xavier

    We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with z [subscript em] ? 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z ...

  14. Evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin M complex (SCCA-IGM) and alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) as novel diagnostic biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Nehad A; Mahmoud, Enas H; Osman, Enas A; Mahmoud, Sherif H; Shousha, Hend I

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance lacks a reliable biomarker. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used. However, not all HCCs secrete AFP. AFP may be elevated with cirrhosis in the absence of HCC. Serum alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin M complex (SCCA-IgM) were found to be useful markers in diagnosing HCC. SCCA-IgM and AFU were assessed by ELISA technique; AFP was measured by enzyme chemiluminescence in serum of 40 patients with HCC, 30 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 20 healthy control participants to compare their accuracy in early diagnosis of HCC. Serum SCCA-IgM and AFU levels were significantly elevated in HCC group compared to cirrhotic group (P value<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve showed the optimal cutoff value for SCCA-IgM was 233 AU/ml with sensitivity 87.5% and specificity 66% and for AFU was 25 U/L with sensitivity 87.5% and specificity 98%. AFP cutoff value was 48 ng/mL with sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 53.3%. The simultaneous determination of AFP and SCCA-IgM activity increased the sensitivity to 92.5% and specificity to 62.1%. There were positive significant correlations between SCCA-IgM and each of AFU (r=0.296, P=0.005) and AFP (r=0.284, P=0.007) and no correlation between AFP and AFU. All markers did not correlate with the tumor size or affected by the Child score. The significant difference between SCCA-IgM and AFU levels among HCC and cirrhotic patients suggests their use as potential diagnostic tools and allows identifying a new group of HCC patients even in the absence of elevated AFP. PMID:25129443

  15. [Trial of a Soviet diagnostic kit for determining class M immunoglobulins to the hepatitis A virus by immunoenzyme analysis (an anti-HAV IgM test system)].

    PubMed

    Donets, M A; Nel'ga, I V; Grishina, G K; Kusov, Iu Iu; Balaian, M S

    1988-01-01

    The authors have studied the effectiveness of the first Soviet test system for the diagnosis of hepatitis A by means of the enzyme immunoassay (Diagn-A-Hep), developed at the Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, Moscow, under the conditions of different epidemic situations. In the process of this trial the high specificity and sensitivity of this test system, established earlier in the certification and commission trials, have been confirmed. Diagn-A-Hep has proved to be highly effective in the diagnosis of acute forms of hepatitis A and permitted its detection in patients during the incubation period, as well as in patients with anicteric and asymptomatic subclinical forms. Besides clinical diagnosis, the kit Diagn-A-Hep may be used in large-scale seroepidemiological surveys of the immune structure of the population, as well as in detection of HAV in different material under test. PMID:2834897

  16. Cellular Dynamics of Memory B Cell Populations: IgM+ and IgG+ Memory B Cells Persist Indefinitely as Quiescent Cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek D; Wilmore, Joel R; Allman, David

    2015-11-15

    Despite their critical role in long-term immunity, the life span of individual memory B cells remains poorly defined. Using a tetracycline-regulated pulse-chase system, we measured population turnover rates and individual t1/2 of pre-established Ag-induced Ig class-switched and IgM-positive memory B cells over 402 d. Our results indicate that, once established, both IgG-positive and less frequent IgM-positive memory populations are exceptionally stable, with little evidence of attrition or cellular turnover. Indeed, the vast majority of cells in both pools exhibited t1/2 that appear to exceed the life span of the mouse, contrasting dramatically with mature naive B cells. These results indicate that recall Ab responses are mediated by stable pools of extremely long-lived cells, and suggest that Ag-experienced B cells employ remarkably efficient survival mechanisms. PMID:26438523

  17. Detecting Virus Mutations Via Dynamic Matching Min Feng Rajiv Gupta

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Rajiv

    frequently to evade detection from antivirus software. In each update, they only add or change a smallDetecting Virus Mutations Via Dynamic Matching Min Feng Rajiv Gupta CSE Dept., University of California, Riverside {mfeng,gupta}@cs.ucr.edu Abstract To defeat current commercial antivirus software

  18. DCN LADDL Serology Panels List 1.3 LADDL SEROLOGY PANELS LIST

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    Encephalitis Panel ­ (Call for pricing) ­ Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) IgM ELISA (in state no charge, out Encephalitis (WEE) IgM ELISA (referral), Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) IgM ELISA (referral), handling

  19. Drive-by-Downloads

    SciTech Connect

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  20. Triplex Structures in an RNA Pseudoknot Enhance Mechanical Stability and Increase

    E-print Network

    Chen, Gang

    immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (­1 frameshifting efficiency: Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS- Programmed ­1 ribosomal frameshifting is utilized by many viruses · Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS- Cov) (­1 frameshifting efficiency: ~15%). · Novel anti-virus therapy may

  1. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...that its computers have and maintain the latest operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is...applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed. The Contractor shall ensure currently...

  2. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...that its computers have and maintain the latest operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is...applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed. The Contractor shall ensure currently...

  3. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...that its computers have and maintain the latest operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is...applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed. The Contractor shall ensure currently...

  4. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...that its computers have and maintain the latest operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is...applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed. The Contractor shall ensure currently...

  5. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...that its computers have and maintain the latest operating system patch level and anti-virus software level. Note: FDCC is...applicable product versions with all relevant and current updates and patches installed. The Contractor shall ensure currently...

  6. Last Updated: February 12, 2014 4:26 PM

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    IT Budgeting, Financial Reporting & Compliance Site Licensed Software Management IT Purchasing, Payments IT Enterprise Infrastructure IT Enterprise Services Information Security Services (Anti-virus, Data Loss Prevention) Firewall Incident Response Services Compliance Management Security Assessments #12;Last Updated

  7. Distributive immunization of networks against viruses using the `honey-pot'

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES Distributive immunization of networks against viruses using the `honey-pot' architecture with a `honey-pot' architecture that achieves both early virus discovery and rapid antivirus dissemination. We

  8. From: Weber, Lon To: CNREHelpDesk

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    the Mac OS except for Antivirus software and keeping the OS up-to-date. Over time as the evil doers out, Director of IT College of Natural Resources and Environment, Virginia Tech 216C Cheatham Hall Blacksburg

  9. Designing security into software

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Chang Tony

    2006-01-01

    When people talk about software security, they usually refer to security applications such as antivirus software, firewalls and intrusion detection systems. There is little emphasis on the security in the software itself. ...

  10. Message from Praveen Panchal, VP of IT and CIO Welcome back and welcome

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yi

    awards and sign up for classes via an online shopping cart ­ similar to Amazon's. Faculty will be able, it is imperative that you protect your own and others data. Update your computer with the latest antivirus software

  11. A View on Current Malware Behaviors Ulrich Bayer

    E-print Network

    Kruegel, Christopher

    and major security threats facing the Inter- net today. Anti-virus companies typically have to deal mil- lion unique binaries (based on their MD5 file hashes). Given that processing each malware program

  12. [Development of a Soviet diagnostic kit for determining class M immunoglobulins to the hepatitis A virus by immunoenzyme analysis (a test system for anti-HAV IgM)].

    PubMed

    Donets, M A; Nel'ga, I V; Grishina, G K; Korolev, M B; Kusov, Iu Iu

    1987-09-01

    A new test system Diagn-A-Hep for the laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis A (HA) by means of the enzyme immunoassay has been developed at the Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides (Moscow). The sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed test system have proved to be similar to those of the well-known commercial diagnostic system HAVAB manufactured by Abbott Laboratories (USA). Diagn-A-Hep permits the diagnosis of HA with 96-100% effectiveness both in patients with the acute form of the disease and in patients with its anicteric or inapparent forms. This system is simple and convenient, it may be employed in inadequately equipped laboratories or even under field conditions. The rules for the selection of immunobiological preparations to be included in the test system have been worked out. PMID:2825452

  13. Biosynthesis of low molecular weight (7S) and high molecular weight (19S) immunoglobulin M

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Alan; McLaughlin, Carla L.

    1970-01-01

    The class of immunoglobulin M (IgM) characterized by high molecular weight proteins with a sedimentation coefficient of 19S, includes a smaller molecular form with an S20,[unk] of approximately 7. The synthetic origin of the 7S IgM was investigated by biosynthetic studies on bone marrow cells from three patients with macroglobulinemia whose sera contained 7S IgM and 19S IgM. Labeled 7S IgM and 19S IgM were identified in extracellular culture fluids by radioimmunochemical techniques. The separation of the two molecular forms of IgM by density-gradient ultracentrifugation of the culture fluids before radioimmunochemical analyses permitted the identification of both the labeled 7S IgM and 19S IgM. One patient's serum contained two separate and distinct 19S IgM proteins as well as 7S IgM. The use of specific isolated carrier IgM proteins permitted the radioimmunochemical detection of labeled 7S IgM and both 19S IgM proteins. The introduction of cycloheximide into a culture system effects the cessation of protein synthesis. The analyses of culture fluids harvested at timed intervals after the addition of cycloheximide revealed not only the stability of 19S IgM to intracellular proteolysis, but also provided evidence for a possible precursor-product relationship between the 7S IgM and the 19S IgM. The demonstration that the labeled 7S IgM is neither an in vitro breakdown product of 19S IgM nor a resultant of 19S IgM intracellular catabolism substantiated the synthetic origin of 7S IgM in human sera. Images PMID:4982899

  14. Universal Serial Bus Architecture for Removable Media (USB-ARM)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-03-09

    USB-ARM creates operating system drivers which sit between removable media and the user and applications. The drivers isolate the media and submit the contents of the media to a virtual machine containing an entire scanning system. This scanning system may include traditional anti-virus, but also allows more detailed analysis of files, including dynamic run-time analysis, helping to prevent ?zero-day? threats not already identified in anti-virus signatures. Once cleared, the media is presented to the operatingmore »system, at which point it becomes available to users and applications.« less

  15. Rapid Screening of Transformed Data Leaks with Efficient Algorithms and Parallel Computing

    E-print Network

    Ryder, Barbara G.

    expressions. We design two new algorithms for detecting long and transformed data leaks. Our system achieves. Different from pattern matching techniques employed in anti-virus and intrusion detection systems, data leak for detecting transformed data leaks, because of its formidable complexity when model- ing the required regular

  16. 75 FR 57904 - Announcing a Meeting of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...Director of NIST on security and privacy issues pertaining...Panel discussion of security, anti-virus and patching...National Vulnerability Database to discuss attack and...space and influence on security programs, --U.S...National Security Staff/Cyber Coordinators...

  17. Anti-Disassembly using Cryptographic Hash John Aycock, Rennie deGraaf, and Michael Jacobson, Jr.

    E-print Network

    Aycock, John

    't be analyzed. This could involve self-modifying code, which presents 1The techniques we describe can be used,degraaf,jacobs}@cpsc.ucalgary.ca TR 2005-793-24 Abstract Computer viruses sometimes employ coding techniques intended to make anal- ysis difficult for anti-virus researchers; techniques to obscure code to impair static code analysis

  18. The Internet Protocol Journal Trends in Viruses and Worms

    E-print Network

    Chen, Thomas M.

    that networked computers continue to be vulnerable to new attacks despite the widespread deployment of antivirus continually grown in sophistication over the years. This article highlights a series of significant past innovations in virus and worm technology. The purpose is to show that viruses and worms continue to pose

  19. Science and Technology Resources on the Internet: Computer Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkus, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues related to computer security, including confidentiality, integrity, and authentication or availability; and presents a selected list of Web sites that cover the basic issues of computer security under subject headings that include ethics, privacy, kids, antivirus, policies, cryptography, operating system security, and biometrics.…

  20. School of Allied Health Professions New Student IT Orientation

    E-print Network

    .lsuhsc.edu #12;Click on Desktop-New #12;#12;Software Microsoft Office 2013 Professional (PC) Microsoft Office 2011 Standard (Mac) - Available at the LSUHSC bookstore ($35 + tax) Microsoft Forefront (antivirus) (PC/streaming through P2P apps: BitTorrent, Pirate Bay, FrostWire, etc. - No internet radio (Songza, Pandora, etc

  1. Non-normalizable Functions: A New Method to Generate Metamorphic Malware

    E-print Network

    Wang, Weichao

    . and CyberDNA UNC Charlotte Weichao Wang SIS Dept. and CyberDNA UNC Charlotte Abstract--To successfully servers for signature updates and add the new signatures to their databases for future detection. Attackers have developed many methods of preventing anti-virus products from detecting their malicious

  2. SECURITY AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Security Comm. Networks 2012; 00:115

    E-print Network

    Marsland, Stephen

    , viruses, botnets and even state- sponsored cyber militants. The attacker's motivation can range from pranks, to personal gain, to lucrative business models and cyber-espionage. The goals, however, a major anti-virus company reported blocking over 5.5 billion malware attacks in 2011, with 403 million

  3. Inoculation Against Malware Infection Using Kernel-level Software Sensors

    E-print Network

    Mancoridis, Spiros

    . Nevertheless, by modifying the malware to avoid detection, ZeuS was used in a successful cyber-attack against U a signature in the detection database. Such antivirus software has seen a widespread adoption due to their low be added to a detection database. As a result, malware au- thors modify existing malware to evade detection

  4. www.kent.ac.uk/itservices Information Services

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Fi, your device must support WPA2/AES encryption. Symbian phones and some BlackBerry models won't be able: Apple phones and tablets Android 4.3: Google Nexus devices, most Samsung devices, some HTC phones installing an anti-virus app (particularly if on Android). Popular free packages include Sophos, Bitdefender

  5. On Scalable Attack Detection in the Network Ramana Rao Kompella, Sumeet Singh, George Varghese

    E-print Network

    Varghese, George

    damage to other hosts and networks, sometimes at great cost. Thus the field of network security has sprung up in an attempt to prevent or mitigate attacks against campus, enter- prise, and ISP networks. The earliest network security solutions attempted to secure Internet hosts using anti-virus software running

  6. Computer Security Tips for Cyber Monday What could be more convenient than shopping on-line right from your laptop, desktop or mobile

    E-print Network

    Emmons, Scott

    -virus software. Installing anti-virus software and updating it regularly are among the best defenses against around, you'd still be quite prudent to adopt an approach to cyber security akin to the "defensive driving" attitude that should come into play when you're behind the wheel of a motor vehicle

  7. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  8. 7/9/08 0:00TECH WORLD: Curious robots could search for intelligent life on distant planets Page 1 of 3http://itechbuzzz.blogspot.com/2008/07/curious-robots-could-search-for.html

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    Free ZoneAlarm Free MRecover Antivirus Practice Lab LeakTest W32.Sircam.Worm@mm Removal Tool Clam on Mars Ringtones New Life on Mars Ringtones Just released - Download now! Filmringer.com Mars Area orbiters with surface explorers. Scientists used data from three Mars orbiters to determine the landing

  9. IT Strategy: support for

    E-print Network

    silos Train team and individuals Collaborate on architecture design and problem solving Communicate compliance and tracking Baseline architecture Migration planning IT Security Implement centralized anti-virus management Team approach to ISAAC review Minimize faculty and staff use of admin passwords Enterprise

  10. MS Outlook 2003 Secure IMAP Configuration Settings for Windows-based PC for HMS Local and Remote Usage

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yi

    MS Outlook 2003 Secure IMAP Configuration Settings for Windows-based PC for HMS Local and Remote the outbound email scanning option under AntiVirus, and disable the training engine under AntiSpam. · Download Secure IMAP Configuration Settings for Windows-based PC for HMS Local and Remote Usage ma, lh, do, jp

  11. MS Outlook 2003 Secure POP Configuration Settings for Windows-based PC for HMS Local and Remote Usage

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yi

    MS Outlook 2003 Secure POP Configuration Settings for Windows-based PC for HMS Local and Remote email scanning option under AntiVirus, and disable the training engine under AntiSpam. · Download, do, jp: rriyo, 9/15/2005 #12;MS Outlook 2003 Secure POP Configuration Settings for Windows-based PC

  12. How Much Security Does Your Library Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to keep library systems healthy and functioning by taking sensible security measures. Examines why hackers would target library systems and how library systems are compromised. Describes tools that can help, including: firewalls; antivirus software; alarms; network analysis tools; and encryption. Identifies several strategies for…

  13. Peace (of Mind) in Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    There's no silver bullet to information security; universities must continue to keep their antivirus, anti-spyware, firewall, and patch management systems in good working order. These days, the largest target for hackers appears to be university databases. Now, universities are searching for new solutions to safeguard those systems. This article…

  14. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  15. Data Mining Methods for Detection of New Malicious Executables Matthew G. Schultz, Eleazar Eskin, Erez Zadok, and Salvatore J. Stolfo

    E-print Network

    Zadok, Erez

    Data Mining Methods for Detection of New Malicious Executables Matthew G. Schultz, Eleazar Eskin,mgs,ezk,salg@cs.columbia.edu Abstract A serious security threat today is malicious executables, especially new, unseen malicious executables. Many of these new malicious executables are undetectable by current anti­virus systems because

  16. Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk Locking your computer's screen is an easy and effective step to take to protect the information on your computer system while it's unattended. Create Virus Protection Computers are infected with a virus more often than most people. Make sure antivirus

  17. Learning of Personalized Security Settings Mehrbod Sharifi

    E-print Network

    Fink, Eugene

    .cs.cmu.edu/~jgc Abstract--While many cybersecurity tools are available to computer users, their default configurations and helps customize available tools. Keywords--Cybersecurity, machine learning.1 I. INTRODUCTION The growth of the Internet has led to development of numerous anti-virus and anti-malware tools and enhancement of security

  18. 04/16/2007 11:56 AMMore Females Because Sisters Kill Their Brothers -Not such an altruistic behavior in parasitoid wasps -Softpedia Page 1 of 2http://news.softpedia.com/news/More-Females-Because-They-Kill-Male-Offspring-51802.shtml

    E-print Network

    Reece, Sarah

    Online Enjoy over 2500 Channels on your PC TV Shows, News, Movies, Sports visit site > Bit..signup free Trade the world markets today! www.gnutrade.com Ads by Google - Advertise on this site MoreDefender Antivirus Guaranteed detection and removal of all viruses. PC World Best Buy! visit site > SIPfoundry A Free

  19. How To: Protect against a Zero-Hour Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Rob

    2005-01-01

    In the last year, a series of viruses and worms that caused damage across the Internet in record time has made very clear how vulnerable computer systems are. The MS Blaster, Slammer, Sasser, and Korgo.W worms have shown that signature-based antivirus software and traditional firewalls are not enough to protect networks. Everyone is worried about…

  20. Stealthy Software: Next-generation Cyber-attacks and Defenses

    E-print Network

    Hamlen, Kevin W.

    development in a decades-old battle of virus-antivirus co-evolution. Reactively adaptive malware and automated: . . . " --Mary Shelley (Frankenstein, 1818) I. MALWARE EVOLUTION: PAST AND PRESENT The last few years have wrong and infected a significant portion of the internet, denying service and costing an estimated

  1. Putting Out a HIT: Crowdsourcing Malware Installs Chris Kanich

    E-print Network

    Kanich, Chris

    entices workers on Amazon's Mechanical Turk to visit our website using the incentive of a small reward supplementary statistics gathered regarding Me- chanical Turk workers' browser security, antivirus usage, and willingness to run arbitrary programs in exchange for a small monetary reward. 1 Introduction When considering

  2. TechSpot on: Like Follow Most Popular

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    the web. 7 10Like smartphone, found, micro windmills, battery ch... Next Article: Dropbox: Recent downtime Built (Txchnologist) Find Out Which Antivirus Software Received a Near Perfect Score (Beta News) Cloud Computing Transforms Manufacturing in Asia (YouTube) When it comes to storage, cache is king (Computer

  3. Efficient and Scalable Socware Detection in Online Social Md Sazzadur Rahman, Ting-Kai Huang, Harsha V. Madhyastha, Michalis Faloutsos

    E-print Network

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    for cybercrime, and hackers are finding new ways to propagate spam and malware on these platforms, which we refer present MyPageKeeper, a Facebook ap- plication that we have developed to protect Facebook users from posts point to malicious apps and pages hosted on Facebook (which no current antivirus or blacklist

  4. Complex-specific immunoglobulin M antibody patterns in humans infected with alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Calisher, C H; el-Kafrawi, A O; Al-Deen Mahmud, M I; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Bartz, C R; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Haksohusodo, S; Suharyono, W

    1986-01-01

    Sera from humans with serologically confirmed eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, Pogosta (Ockelbo), Mayaro, Ross River, and chikungunya virus infections were tested by immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme immunoassay. Diagnostically useful IgM antibody titers were detected, and selected sera with high IgM antibody titers were tested for IgM antibody with nine heterologous alphaviruses. The results provide evidence for the complex specificity of IgM antibody and indicate the usefulness of this test in both individual cases and epidemic situations. PMID:3009526

  5. Inmunoterapia: Uso del sistema inmunitario para tratar el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de los métodos de inmunoterapia utilizados para tratar el cáncer, tales como el uso de anticuerpos monoclonales, transferencia celular adoptiva, vacunas de tratamiento contra el cáncer y sustancias modificadoras de la respuesta inmunitaria.

  6. The intergalactic medium and galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the intergalactic medium (IGM), defined as the component of the baryon-electron matter which now occupies the space between galaxies and which filled the pregalactic universe, are reviewed. Topics addressed include the Gunn-Peterson constraint on the history of the IGM, the mean mass density of the IGM at high redshift, requirements for ionizing the IGM, the observed quasar contribution, the thermal and ionization history of the IGM (quasar photoionization, stellar sources of the ionizing background, and alternative sources such as protogalactic shock radiation and the decay of exotic particles), and the hydrodynamical evolution of the IGM. Typical results from observations and numerical simulations are presented graphically.

  7. An Unusual Case of Bilateral Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Pistolese, C. A.; Di Trapano, R.; Girardi, V.; Costanzo, E.; Di Poce, I.; Simonetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM. PMID:23781373

  8. Selective biosensing using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupin, O.; Wang, Chen; Berini, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    A novel biosensing platform based on long-range surface plasmon waveguides is demonstrated for selective biosensing. The sensor consists of gold waveguides embedded in CYTOP with a microfluidic channel. Gold surfaces were modified by forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and further they were functionalized by proper receptor (antibodies) with carbodiimide chemistry. Investigation of biochemical interactions were performed with human immunoglobulin (Ig). Human immunoglobulin M (IgM) kappa chain (IgM-?) was tested on the waveguide, functionalized with anti-human immunoglobulin-kappa specific chain (anti-Ig?). As a negative control, human IgM lambda chain (IgM-?) was tested on anti-Ig? surface. The response for IgM- sample was 0.173 dBm and that for IgM-? was 0.033. The ratio of the responses ?S(IgM-?)/ ?S(IgM-?) was found to be 5.3.

  9. An unusual cause of recurrent pneumonia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Varun; Sagar, Vinay; Aggarwal, Ashutosh; Rawat, Amit; Singhal, Manphool

    2014-01-01

    Selective IgM deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency defined as isolated low levels of IgM. It presents with recurrent infections and has been described as first presenting in adulthood with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Unlike its better known counterpart of IgA deficiency, this particular immunodeficiency is often overlooked. We present a case of selective IgM deficiency who presented with recurrent respiratory infections. PMID:25125825

  10. Can Cosmic Rays Heat the Intergalactic Medium?

    E-print Network

    Saumyadip Samui; Kandaswamy Subramanian; Raghunathan Srianand

    2005-05-30

    Supernova explosions in the early star forming galaxies will accelerate cosmic rays (CRs). CRs are typically confined in the collapsed objects for a short period before escaping into the intergalactic medium (IGM). Galactic outflows can facilitate this escape by advecting CRs into the IGM. An outflow that results in a termination shock can also generate more CRs. We show that the CR protons from the above processes can significantly affect the thermal history of the IGM. Within plausible range of parameters, cosmic ray heating can compensate for adiabatic cooling and explain the measured IGM temperature at redshifts z between 2 to 4, even with early reionization.

  11. Beyond Firewalls: Professional Certification Ensures Your Staff Will Understand Information Security in Its Proper Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to security, many people do not know what they do not know. Consider for example, an administrator who leaves her password taped under her keyboard, or a teacher who doesn't change his password (ever!) or can't be bothered to log out or lock the computer, all the firewalls and antivirus programs in the world will not protect a…

  12. New Student Checklist 1. Sign up for text/email emergency messages.

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    PantherID & Password ePanther.uwm.edu Access to: · Web-based UWM services · Campus wireless network · Campus Computer & Procedures" 3. Make sure your computer has anti-virus software. security.uwm.edu 4. Set up your laptop and mobile devices to use the secure UWMWiFi option. UWMWiFi.uwm.edu 5. Download UWM's free mobile app for i

  13. An efficient synthesis of novel bis-triazole glycoconjugates via a three-component condensation as a key reaction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Gu, Zhenlong; He, Caiyu; Jin, Jie; Wang, Lijun; Li, Guojun; Sun, Bei; Wang, Hui; Bai, Jun

    2015-09-23

    Novel bis-triazole glycoconjugates were designed and prepared successfully via 5 steps from propargyl per-O-acetyl-?-d-glucoside or xyloside (total yield of 48-53%), after utilizing a three-component condensation of propargyl per-O-acetyl-?-d-glycoside, formaldehyde, and sodium azide as a key step to synthesize 2-hydroxymethyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole glycoconjugates. The developed bis-triazole glycoconjugates would be crucial in antivirus pharmacology and chemical biology. PMID:26257377

  14. CRISPR sabotage.

    PubMed

    van der Oost, John; Brouns, Stan J J

    2015-01-01

    The biological arms race generally involves the rapid co-evolution of anti-virus systems in host organisms and of anti-anti-virus systems in their viral parasites. The CRISPR-Cas system is an example of a prokaryotic immune system in which such co-evolution occurs, as was recently demonstrated by the characterization of a set of viral anti-CRISPR proteins. PMID:26553202

  15. BD Biosciences Clontech www.clontech.com 800-662-2566 27 Historically, Protein A has been the preferred method of immunoglobulin purification. However,

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    , such as the single-chain antibodies IgE, IgY, and IgM, that cannot be purified using Protein A. An alternative method · Broad selectivity for IgE, IgM, IgY and IgG · Purify single-chain antibodies · Reduce the number the preferred method of immunoglobulin purification. However, there are certain types of antibodies

  16. Design and Applications of Anti Albumin-Adduct Antibodies to Assess Human Exposure to Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-print Network

    Chung, Ming Kei

    2013-01-01

    auto-­?antibodies;  similar  to  IgD,  IgE  is   mostly  antibodies,  namely  IgG,  IgA,  IgM,  IgD   and  IgE,  IgE;  Dimer:  IgA;  Pentamer:  IgM   Figure  from  “Thermo  scientific  pierce  antibody  

  17. Interaction of temperature and salinity on the expression of immunity factors in different tissues of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus based on response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhihui; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Lei, Jilin; Li, Weiye; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2015-01-01

    Central Composite Design (CCD) and response surface methodology were used in the experiment to examine the combined effect of temperature (16-28°C) and salinity (18-42) on Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) liver and kidney. The results showed that the coefficients of determination ( R 2 =0.965 2 for liver Hsp70, 0.972 9 for kidney Hsp70, 0.921 for liver IgM and 0.962 1 for kidney IgM) and probability values ( P<0.01) were significant for the regression model. The interactive effect between temperature and salinity on liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70 and liver IgM were not significant ( P>0.05), while the interactive effect between temperature and salinity on kidney IgM was significant ( P<0.01). The model equation could be used in practice for forecasting Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in the liver and kidney of juvenile turbot via applying statistical optimization of the response of interest, at which the maximum liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70, liver IgM and kidney IgM of 1.48, 1.49, 2.48, and 1.38, respectively, were reached. The present model may be valuable in assessing the feasibility of turbot farming at different geographic locations and, furthermore, could be a useful reference for scientists studying the immunity of turbot.

  18. Persistence of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies after postnatal rubella infection determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, O H

    1978-01-01

    The appearance and persistence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in postnatal rubella infections were studied by employing a solid-phase radioimmunoassay test. Altogether, 222 serial serum specimens from 51 patients with acute rubella infection were tested. Both IgG and IgM antibodies developed rapidly and appeared in all patients within 4 days after the onset of rash. In some patients, the IgM antibodies clearly preceded the IgG antibodies; however, the reverse situation was also noticed in a few cases. The IgG antibodies showed only minor changes after 8 to 10 days from the onset of rash. The IgM titers also reached a maximum level at approximately 8 to 10 days after the onset of rash, after which time a rapid decrease was normally seen. The mean half-life of IgM antibodies after 15 days from the onset of rash was 4.5 days, giving for IgM antibodies persistence times from 43 to approximately 80 days. Two patients with a prolonged IgM antibody response were detected. One of these patients had bilateral arthritis of the knee as a complication, whereas in the other patient no complication caused by rubella virus was detected. The IgM antibody response and its value in diagnosis are discussed. PMID:624770

  19. High Redshift Intergalactic Medium: Probes and Physical Models

    E-print Network

    Shiv K. Sethi

    2004-11-02

    Recent years have seen major advances in understanding the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift. Some aspects of this understanding are reviewed here. In particular, we discuss: (1) Different probes of IGM like Gunn-Peterson test, CMBR anisotropies, and neutral hydrogen emission from reionization, and (2) some models of reionization of the universe.

  20. PAPER-64 CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION. II. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE z = 8.4 INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    E-print Network

    Pober, Jonathan C.

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints ...

  1. X-ray absorption by the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Fang, Taotao, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    I have studied the intergalactic medium (IGM) located in galaxy clusters and groups via the so-called "X-ray Forest" the X-ray absorption lines produced by the hot IGM. I gave a semi-analytic calculation of the X-ray forest ...

  2. Metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Nickolay Y. Gnedin

    1997-09-23

    I demonstrate by means of high resolution cosmological simulations, which include modelling of a two-phase interstellar medium, that the dominant mechanism for transporting heavy elements from the proto-galaxies into the IGM is the merger mechanism as discovered by Gnedin & Ostriker. Direct ejection of the interstellar gas by supernovae plays only a minor role in transporting metals into the IGM: for a realistic cosmological scenario only a small fraction of all metals in the IGM is delivered by the supernova-driven winds, while most of all metals in the IGM are transported by the merger mechanism. As the result, the metallicity distribution in the IGM is highly inhomogeneous, in agreement with studies of the QSO metal absorption systems, and the predicted metallicity distribution of Lyman-alpha absorbers as a function of their column density is in excellent agreement with the observational data.

  3. Acute Liver Injury Is Independent of B Cells or Immunoglobulin M

    PubMed Central

    Richards, James A.; Bucsaiova, Martina; Hesketh, Emily E.; Ventre, Chiara; Henderson, Neil C.; Simpson, Kenneth; Bellamy, Christopher O. C.; Howie, Sarah E. M.; Anderton, Stephen M.; Hughes, Jeremy; Wigmore, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute liver injury is a clinically important pathology and results in the release of Danger Associated Molecular Patterns, which initiate an immune response. Withdrawal of the injurious agent and curtailing any pathogenic secondary immune response may allow spontaneous resolution of injury. The role B cells and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) play in acute liver injury is largely unknown and it was proposed that B cells and/or IgM would play a significant role in its pathogenesis. Methods Tissue from 3 models of experimental liver injury (ischemia-reperfusion injury, concanavalin A hepatitis and paracetamol-induced liver injury) and patients transplanted following paracetamol overdose were stained for evidence of IgM deposition. Mice deficient in B cells (and IgM) were used to dissect out the role B cells and/or IgM played in the development or resolution of injury. Serum transfer into mice lacking IgM was used to establish the role IgM plays in injury. Results Significant deposition of IgM was seen in the explanted livers of patients transplanted following paracetamol overdose as well as in 3 experimental models of acute liver injury (ischemia-reperfusion injury, concanavalin A hepatitis and paracetamol-induced liver injury). Serum transfer into IgM-deficient mice failed to reconstitute injury (p = 0.66), despite successful engraftment of IgM. Mice deficient in both T and B cells (RAG1-/-) mice (p<0.001), but not B cell deficient (?MT) mice (p = 0.93), were significantly protected from injury. Further interrogation with T cell deficient (CD3?KO) mice confirmed that the T cell component is a key mediator of sterile liver injury. Mice deficient in B cells and IgM mice did not have a significant delay in resolution following acute liver injury. Discussion IgM deposition appears to be common feature of both human and murine sterile liver injury. However, neither IgM nor B cells, play a significant role in the development of or resolution from acute liver injury. T cells appear to be key mediators of injury. In conclusion, the therapeutic targeting of IgM or B cells (e.g. with Rituximab) would have limited benefit in protecting patients from acute liver injury. PMID:26406765

  4. Chikungunya and dengue virus infections during pregnancy: seroprevalence, seroincidence and maternal-fetal transmission, southern Thailand, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Laoprasopwattana, K; Suntharasaj, T; Petmanee, P; Suddeaugrai, O; Geater, A

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available on the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection and maternal-fetal transmission incidence of CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) infections during the 2008-2009 CHIKV outbreak in southern Thailand. A community-based post-epidemic seroprevalence study was conducted in parturient women admitted to the Thepa District Hospital in Songkhla Province, Thailand, for delivery from November 2009 to May 2010. The women were tested for chikungunya (CHIK) IgM/IgG and dengue (DEN) IgM/IgG. Cord blood samples were also tested for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM in women who tested positive for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM, respectively. The seroprevalence of CHIKV infection (CHIK IgM or IgG positive) was 227/319 (71·2%) with pre-outbreak seroprevalence (IgM-/IgG+) of 43·6% and the seroprevalence of DENV infection was 288/319 (90·3%). Complications during pregnancy, newborn outcomes and congenital anomalies were not different in those who had recent, remote or no CHIKV infections. None of the newborns whose mothers were CHIK or DEN IgM positive had cord blood positive for both CHIK and DEN IgM. In conclusion, both CHIKV and DENV are endemic in southern Thailand; during the recent CHIKV outbreak CHIK seroprevalence increased from 43·6% to 71·2%. PMID:26113247

  5. Study of two different enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Mayaro virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, L T; Nogueira, R M; Cavalcanti, S M; Schatzmayr, H; da Rosa, A T

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay in which Mayaro virus-infected cultured cells are used as antigen (EIA-ICC) and an IgM antibody capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA) for Mayaro serologic diagnosis using 114 human sera obtained during a Mayaro outbreak occurred in Bolivia, in 1987. Results were compared with those obtained by haemagglutination-inhibition test (HAI). MAC-ELISA was the most sensitive technique for anti-Mayaro IgM detection. MAC-ELISA was twice as sensitive as IgM EIA-ICC. The data shows that MAC-ELISA is a practical and valid technique for diagnosis of recent Mayaro infection. IgG EIA-ICC showed high sensitivity and high specificity compared to HAI. The combination of anti-Mayaro IgG and IgM EIA-ICC results presented the highest sensitivity of the study. Anti-Mayaro IgG and IgM simultaneous detection by EIA-ICC can be used for recent infection diagnosis (in spite of a less sensitive IgM detection than by MAC-ELISA), for surveillance and sero-epidemiologic studies, and for studies of IgG and IgM responses to Mayaro infection. PMID:2562487

  6. The Physics of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Avery A. Meiksin

    2008-12-15

    Intergalactic space is filled with a pervasive medium of ionized gas, the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). A residual neutral fraction is detected in the spectra of Quasi-Stellar Objects at both low and high redshifts, revealing a highly fluctuating medium with temperatures characteristic of photoionized gas. The statistics of the fluctuations are well-reproduced by numerical gravity-hydrodynamics simulations within the context of standard cosmological structure formation scenarios. As such, the study of the IGM offers an opportunity to probe the nature of the primordial density fluctuations on scales unavailable to other methods. The simulations also suggest the IGM is the dominant reservoir of baryons produced by the Big Bang, and so the principal source of the matter from which galaxies formed. The detection of metal systems within the IGM shows that it was enriched by evolved stars early in its history, demonstrating an intimate connection between galaxy formation and the IGM. The author presents a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the structure and physical properties of the IGM and its relation to galaxies, concluding with comments on prospects for furthering the study of the IGM using future ground-based facilities and space-based experiments.

  7. Influence of the mu-chain C-terminal sequence on polymerization of immunoglobulin M.

    PubMed

    Getahun, A; Lundqvist, M; Middleton, D; Warr, G; Pilström, L

    1999-07-01

    Immunoglobulin (IgM) is found in various states of covalent polymerization (microL)n, where n is typically 8, 10, or 12. The usual form of IgM of bony fish is tetrameric (8 microL units) as compared to the pentameric form (10 microL units) observed in cartilaginous fish and mammals. Two hypotheses were tested in this study. First, that the length of the mu-chain C terminus following Cys575 determines whether an IgM polymerizes as a tetramer or as a pentamer. This was tested by examining the covalent polymerization state of mouse IgM mutated to contain a series of mu-chain C-termini from bony and cartilaginous fish. The results proved this hypothesis wrong: mouse IgM bearing the C-terminal sequence of shark, salmon and cod mu-chain behaved identically to native mouse IgM, forming predominantly (microL)10 and (microL)12 forms. The second hypothesis was that an additional Cys residue near the C terminus of the mu-chain is responsible for the multiple covalent structures seen in IgM of the channel catfish. The addition of a catfish C terminus to the mouse mu-chain resulted, as predicted, in the production of a series of covalently bonded forms, with the major species being (microL)4. When a Ser-Cys unit was removed from the catfish C terminus added to the mouse mu-chain, this resulted in production of IgM indistinguishable in structure from that of wild-type mouse IgM. PMID:10447761

  8. Serum immunoglobulin levels in healthy adults of various ethnic groups in a rural family practice in Israel.

    PubMed

    Yodfat, Y; Keren, L; Zlotnick, A

    1975-12-01

    A study on the immunoglobulin levels of five ethnic groups in a rural population in Israel was carried out. The ethnic group comprised Yemenite, Cochin, Kurd, North African, and Ashkenazi Jews. Yemenites have a low level of IgA, Ashkenazis have a high IgM level, Cochins and North Africans have high levels of IgG and IgA, and Kurds show low IgM levels. Females have higher IgM levels than males. No positive correlation between immunoglobulin levels and age could be demonstrated. A connection between these levels and exogenous and endogenous factors in the various ethnic groups is discussed. PMID:1230499

  9. Plasma effects on extragalactic ultra-high-energy cosmic ray hadron beams in cosmic voids

    SciTech Connect

    Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2014-07-01

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (? {sub b} ? 10{sup 6}) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 15} eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times that are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilizes and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the IGM.

  10. A model for the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter-dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the cold-dark-matter (CDM) and baryonic components of CDM-dominated cosmological models are characterized, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. The evolution and distribution of matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe on length scales small enough so that the Newtonian approximation is valid is followed chronologically, assuming (1) that the galaxies, CDM, and the intergalactic medium (IGM) are coupled by gravity, (2) that galaxies form by taking mass and momentum from the IGM, and (3) that the IGM responds to the energy input from the galaxies. The results of the numerical computations are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail.

  11. Radiative Transfer Effects during Photoheating of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Tom Abel; Martin G. Haehnelt

    1999-03-06

    The thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) after reionization is to a large extent determined by photoheating. Here we demonstrate that calculations of the photoheating rate which neglect radiative transfer effects substantially underestimate the energy input during and after reionization. The neglect of radiative transfer effects results in temperatures of the IGM which are too low by a factor of two after HeII reionization. We briefly discuss implications for the absorption properties of the IGM and the distribution of baryons in shallow potential wells.

  12. Iridoid and bis-iridoid glucosides from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Bo; Yu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Dai, Yi; Gao, Hao; Xiao, Wei; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    Three new iridoid glucosides, 6?-O-trans-feruloylgenipin gentiobioside (1), 2'-O-trans-caffeoylgardoside (2), jasmigeniposide A (3), and one new bis-iridoid glucoside, jasmigeniposide B (4), along with six known analogues (5-10), were isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Anti-virus activity of isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro and only compound 9 showed moderate inhibitory activity against H1N1 with 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 104.36 ?M, and selective index (SI) value greater than 4.79. PMID:23567862

  13. Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hossein; Antonijevic, Branko; Walcott, Terry

    The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously. In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools are marketed as perfect solutions to the ever culminating problems such as loss of data and privacy in networked and world wide intercommunications. We provide a forum for addressing these perceived problems in this paper.

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  16. Cytokine profiles in multifocal motor neuropathy and progressive muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Vlam, L; Stam, M; de Jager, W; Cats, E A; van den Berg, L H; van der Pol, W L

    2015-09-15

    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) are associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy or the presence IgM anti-GM1-antibodies. To further investigate the pathophysiology of MMN and PMA we determined concentrations of 16 mainly B-cell associated inflammatory markers in serum from 25 patients with MMN, 55 patients with PMA, 25 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 50 healthy controls. Median serum concentrations of the 16 tested cytokines and chemokines were not significantly increased in patients with MMN or patients with PMA, irrespective of the presence of IgM monoclonal gammopathy or high IgM anti-GM1 antibodies. These results argue against a systemic B-cell mediated immune response underlying the pathogenesis of MMN and PMA. PMID:26298317

  17. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C virus (HCV), a spherical, enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus. TRANSMISSION Transmission of HCV is bloodborne and ... and nucleic acid amplification testing to detect HCV RNA in blood (viremia). Assays for IgM, to detect ...

  18. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-stranded, RNA virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family. TRANSMISSION HEV ... HEV IgM and IgG in serum. Detecting HEV RNA in serum or stools further confirms the serologic ...

  19. Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Diaz-Albiter, Hector; Ochoa-Garcia, Laucel; Barbabosa, Alberto; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan C.; Martinez-Perez, Miguel A.; Guzman-Bracho, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    We used 5 diagnostic tests in a cross-sectional investigation of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tejupilco municipality, State of Mexico, Mexico. Our findings showed a substantial prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to T. cruzi in human (n = 293, IgG 2.05%, IgM 5.5%, both 7.1%) and dog (n = 114, IgG 15.8%, IgM 11.4%, both 21%) populations. We also found antibodies to T. cruzi (n = 80, IgG 10%, IgM 15%, both 17.5%) in dogs from Toluca, an area previously considered free of T. cruzi. Our data demonstrate the need for active epidemiologic surveillance programs in these regions. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.955) of seropositivity between humans and dogs suggests that seroanalysis in dogs may help identify the human prevalence of T. cruzi infection in these areas. PMID:16704811

  20. Complications of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IgM Serology Publications and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Complications of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  1. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IgM Serology Publications and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  2. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IgM Serology Publications and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  3. The Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    McQuinn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The bulk of cosmic matter resides in a dilute reservoir that fills the space between galaxies, the intergalactic medium (IGM). The history of this reservoir is intimately tied to the cosmic histories of structure formation, star formation, and supermassive black hole accretion. Our models for the IGM at intermediate redshifts (2IGM. We review the theoretical models and measurements that form the basis for the modern understanding of the IGM, and we discuss unsolved puzzles (ranging from the largely unconstrained process of reionization at high-z to the missing baryon problem at low-z), highlighting the efforts that have the potential to solve them.

  4. Lymphocyte Surface Markers and Serum Immunoglobulins in Persons with Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Hann, Hie-Won L.

    1979-01-01

    Distributions of the serum immunoglobulins (IgM), of T and B lymphocytes, and subpopulations of B lymphocytes were studied in children and institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome and appropriate mentally retarded controls. (Author)

  5. Characterizing the Jeans Filtering Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, Girish; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z Ly-alpha forest is degenerate with the 3-D structure of the IGM on ~100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T~$10^4$ K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z Ly-alpha flux, $F_\\mathrm{real}$, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The $F_\\mathrm{real}$ power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at $\\lambda_F$, allowing us to rigorously quanti...

  6. Intergalactic medium heating by dark matter

    E-print Network

    E. Ripamonti; M. Mapelli; A. Ferrara

    2006-12-12

    We derive the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by dark matter (DM) decays/annihilations for both sterile neutrinos and light dark matter (LDM) particles. At z > 200 sterile neutrinos transfer a fraction f_abs~0.5 of their rest mass energy into the IGM; at lower redshifts this fraction becomes 300) redshift, dropping to ~0.1 below z=100. These results indicate that the impact of DM decays/annihilations on the IGM thermal and ionization history is less important than previously thought. We find that sterile neutrinos (LDM) decays are able to increase the IGM temperature by z=5 at most up to 4K (100K), about 50-200 times less than predicted by estimates based on the assumption of complete energy transfer to the gas.

  7. Models of the Thermal Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium After Reionization

    E-print Network

    Sanderbeck, Phoebe R Upton; McQuinn, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have brought more precise temperature measurements of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM). These new measurements constrain the processes that heated the IGM, such as the reionization of HI and of HeII. We present a semi-analytical model for the thermal history of the IGM that follows the photoheating history of primordial gas. We compare this model with recent temperature measurements spanning z= 1.6-4.8, finding that these measurements are consistent with scenarios in which the HeII was reionized at z= 3-4 by quasars. Significantly longer duration or higher redshift HeII reionization scenarios are ruled out by the measurements. For hydrogen reionization, we find that only low redshift and high temperature scenarios are excluded. For example, a model in which the IGM was heated to 30,000K when an ionization front passed, and with hydrogen reionization occurring over 63.

  8. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... antibodies (IgM and IgG), in human serum or plasma. These devices are used for testing specimens from... antibodies aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of an acute or past infection by HAV in conjunction...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... antibodies (IgM and IgG), in human serum or plasma. These devices are used for testing specimens from... antibodies aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of an acute or past infection by HAV in conjunction...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... antibodies (IgM and IgG), in human serum or plasma. These devices are used for testing specimens from... antibodies aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of an acute or past infection by HAV in conjunction...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... antibodies (IgM and IgG), in human serum or plasma. These devices are used for testing specimens from... antibodies aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of an acute or past infection by HAV in conjunction...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... antibodies (IgM and IgG), in human serum or plasma. These devices are used for testing specimens from... antibodies aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of an acute or past infection by HAV in conjunction...

  13. doi:10.1016/S0092-8240(03)00009-0 Bulletin of Mathematical Biology (2003) 65, 359374

    E-print Network

    de Boer, Rob J.

    2003-01-01

    ,b; Tishon et al., 1993). Partially immunodeficient mice (e.g., MHC Class II and IgM knockout, CD4+ T cell depleted) immunized with optimal dose and mild strains of LCMV become exhausted 40­200 days after

  14. A systems approach to biology 9 October 2008

    E-print Network

    Gunawardena, Jeremy

    ", Genes & Development doi:10.1101/gad.1696108 2008 Saenger et al," The tetracycline repressor ­ a parad igm for a biological switch", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39:2042-52 2000 the tetracycline system #12

  15. XBP-1 regulates signal transduction, transcription factors and bone marrow colonization in B cells

    E-print Network

    Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew

    XBP-1, a transcription factor that drives the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated in B cells when they differentiate to plasma cells. Here, we show that in the B cells, whose capacity to secrete IgM has been ...

  16. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA . The main uses for HBV tests include: To ...

  17. Basics about CIM technology and key

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    , Rotavirus, AAV, various Adenovirus subtypes, Hepatitis A, Vaccinia, Mulv, MVM, Feline calicivirus, Japanese #12;Working with big molecules Molecule nm Proteins 1-3 IgM 25 Plasmids 150-250 Rotavirus 130 Poxvirus

  18. Lyman-alpha scattering in the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionisation 

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Jonathan

    2012-06-22

    We examine resonant scattering of Ly? (Lyman-alpha) photons in the neutral hydrogen Intergalactic Medium (IGM) at high redshift. Ly? scattering plays a key role in the 21cm emission/absorption against the Cosmic Microwave Background via...

  19. Quasar spectroscopy in UV and X-ray- probing the intergalactic medium using helium and oxygen

    E-print Network

    Gong, Donglai, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    We employ ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray quasar spectroscopy to study the physical state of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). First, we quantify the possibility of measuring the temperature of moderately over-dense regions of ...

  20. Quasar continuum fitting and silicon absorption on the low redshift intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Miller, Adam A. (Adam Andrew)

    2006-01-01

    We present results on the evolution of Ly[alpha] absorption at low redshift, and the first systematic search for Si II absorption systems in the low redshift IGM. Our sample consists of 832 Ly[alpha] absorbers from 328 ...

  1. How to Determine the Accuracy of an Alternative Diagnostic Test when It Is Actually Better than the Reference Tests: A Re-Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests for Scrub Typhus Using Bayesian LCMs

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Cherry; Paris, Daniel H.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Kantipong, Pacharee; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Cooper, Ben S.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-01-01

    Background The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is considered a reference test for scrub typhus. Recently, the Scrub Typhus Infection Criteria (STIC; a combination of culture, PCR assays and IFA IgM) were proposed as a reference standard for evaluating alternative diagnostic tests. Here, we use Bayesian latent class models (LCMs) to estimate the true accuracy of each diagnostic test, and of STIC, for diagnosing scrub typhus. Methods/Principal Findings Data from 161 patients with undifferentiated fever were re-evaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar, and tested with blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, IFA IgM, and the Panbio IgM immunochromatographic test (ICT). True sensitivity and specificity of culture (24.4% and 100%), 56kDa PCR assay (56.8% and 98.4%), 47kDa PCR assay (63.2% and 96.1%), groEL PCR assay (71.4% and 93.0%), IFA IgM (70.0% and 83.8%), PanBio IgM ICT (72.8% and 96.8%), presence of eschar (42.7% and 98.9%) and STIC (90.5% and 82.5%) estimated by Bayesian LCM were considerably different from those obtained when using STIC as a reference standard. The IgM ICT had comparable sensitivity and significantly higher specificity compared to IFA (p=0.34 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions The low specificity of STIC was caused by the low specificity of IFA IgM. Neither STIC nor IFA IgM can be used as reference standards against which to evaluate alternative diagnostic tests. Further evaluation of new diagnostic tests should be done with a carefully selected set of diagnostic tests and appropriate statistical models. PMID:26024375

  2. Comparison of the effect of surgical and medical therapy for the treatment of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Marzieh; Salehi, Hassan; Moafi, Mohammad; Taleban, Roya; Tabatabaei, Seyed Abass; Salehi, Maryam; Salehi, Mohammad-Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is defined as a rare, inflammatory, chronic and benign disease mimicking malignant hyperplasia of mammary glands. There is no definitive therapeutic strategy for IGM; nevertheless, some approaches can be exploited as beneficial strategies. In this study, the surgery strategy was compared with coincident treatment with azithromycin and corticosteroid in IGM patients. Materials and Methods: This study was implemented as clinical trial during 2011-2013 in Isfahan, Iran. The target population comprised women whose IGM was substantiated. The medical group consisted of 20 patients, which were compared with a historical control group treated through surgical approach. Surgical group comprised 39 patients. Partial mastectomy was implemented in the surgical group whereas treatment protocol comprising azithromycin and prednisolone administered in medical group. Recurrence of mass was followed for 12 months. Fischer exact test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney and regression tests were applied for statistical analysis. This study was registered in Iranian Registry of clinical trial (IRCT number: IRCT 2013123015999N1). Results: No significant differences were recognized in side of lesions, lymphadenopathy, fever and pain; however, number of abscesses, number of lesions and size of lesions were significantly higher in the surgical group (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, probability of relapse correlated with the number of lesions, (odds ratio = 24.67 confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-269.3), whereas methods of IGM treatment did not contribute to the likelihood of relapse (odds ratio = 12.5 CI = 0.52-299). Conclusion: This clinical trial demonstrated that pharmaceutical treatment has appropriate efficacy, in treatment and prevention of IGM relapse. Moreover, this study presented hazf gardad number of the lesions as the most appropriate criteria for IGM prognosis, thus the probability of relapse decreases whether earlier IGM recognizing could be implemented. PMID:25002895

  3. A study of the carbohydrate present in three type K macroglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Spragg, B. P.; Clamp, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    For a monomeric molecular weight of 180000 three type K macroglobulins (IgM) contained 6-deoxygalactose, mannose, galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucose and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the molar proportions 5:38:11:27:7 for Row IgM, 5:31:9:21:7 for Sha IgM, and 5:29:11:26:8 for Tya IgM. The first two proteins were euglobulins whereas Tya IgM was a pseudoglobulin, and therefore the total content of carbohydrate does not appear to be related to the physicochemical properties of the proteins. The three proteins appeared to contain different numbers of oligosaccharide units, Row IgM having about ten units/monomer, and Sha IgM and Tya IgM about eight each. All three proteins had two types of oligosaccharide unit, which by analogy with an immunoglobulin A myeloma globulin were called Type 2 and Type 3 respectively. The Type 2 units had molecular weights equal to or greater than 2000 and contained 1 residue of 6-deoxygalactose, 3–4 of mannose, 1–2 of galactose, 3–4 of 2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucose and 0–2 of N-acetylneuraminic acid. The Type 3 units had molecular weights of less than 2000 and contained 0–1 residue of 6-deoxygalactose, 3–6 of mannose, 0–1 of galactose, 1–3 of 2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucose and no N-acetylneuraminic acid. Glycopeptides corresponding to the two types of unit varied in their aspartic acid content in that most of the Type 3 glycopeptides possessed only 1 residue of aspartic acid whereas most of the Type 2 glycopeptides had an average content greater than 1 residue. PMID:5810065

  4. PAPER-64 Constraints On Reionization. II. The Temperature of the z =8.4 Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Ali, Zaki S.; Parsons, Aaron R.; McQuinn, Matthew; Aguirre, James E.; Bernardi, Gianni; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; Cheng, Carina; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Patricia J.; Kohn, Saul A.; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David H. E.; Maree, Matthys; Mesinger, Andrei; Moore, David F.; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Stefan, Irina I.; Walbrugh, William P.; Walker, Andre; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2015-08-01

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints are derived using a semi-analytic method to explore the new measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), which were presented in a companion paper, Ali et al. Twenty-one cm power spectra with amplitudes of hundreds of mK2 can be generically produced if the kinetic temperature of the IGM is significantly below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB); as such, the new results from PAPER place lower limits on the IGM temperature at z = 8.4. Allowing for the unknown ionization state of the IGM, our measurements find the IGM temperature to be above ?5 K for neutral fractions between 10% and 85%, above ?7 K for neutral fractions between 15% and 80%, or above ?10 K for neutral fractions between 30% and 70%. We also calculate the heating of the IGM that would be provided by the observed high redshift galaxy population, and find that for most models, these galaxies are sufficient to bring the IGM temperature above our lower limits. However, there are significant ranges of parameter space that could produce a signal ruled out by the PAPER measurements; models with a steep drop-off in the star formation rate density at high redshifts or with relatively low values for the X-ray to star formation rate efficiency of high redshift galaxies are generally disfavored. The PAPER measurements are consistent with (but do not constrain) a hydrogen spin temperature above the CMB temperature, a situation which we find to be generally predicted if galaxies fainter than the current detection limits of optical/NIR surveys are included in calculations of X-ray heating.

  5. Cosmic far ultraviolet background. [observations for intergalactic medium properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, A.; Bowyer, S.; Lampton, M.

    1974-01-01

    The expected intensities of various possible components of the far ultraviolet background are discussed. It is concluded that existing results do not place interesting constraints on the density of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Current techniques and instrumentation for far ultraviolet astronomy are, however, sufficient to achieve vastly improved limits. New observations are required to determine whether the IGM can be detected in the far ultraviolet or whether the extragalactic component of the background is masked by radiation with a more local origin.

  6. Metal enrichment of the high-z intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Yu. A. Shchekinov

    2002-05-19

    Recent observations show the presence of metals in low-density Ly$\\alpha$ forest absorbers at high redshift ($z\\sim 3$). It remains still far from being clearly understood what mechanisms spread metals over Mpc scales from the parent galaxies, whether metals are homogeneously distributed in the intergalactic medium (IGM), how metallicity of the IGM does evolve. These questions are briefly addressed in this review.

  7. TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi

    2013-10-20

    The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ?1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10{sup –6} kpc m{sup –20/3} would be expected at z ? 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –3} if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –17/5} if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling ?{sub IGM} ? z {sup 2} for z ?< 1 and (1 + z){sup 0.2–0.5} for z ?> 1.

  8. Preheating of the Universe by cosmic rays from primordial supernovae at the beginning of cosmic reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonov, S.; Sunyaev, R.

    2015-12-01

    The 21-cm signal from the cosmic reionization epoch can shed light on the history of heating of the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM) at z ˜ 30-10. It has been suggested that X-rays from the first accreting black holes could significantly heat the Universe at these early epochs. Here we propose another IGM heating mechanism associated with the first stars. As known from previous work, the remnants of powerful supernovae (SNe) ending the lives of massive Population III stars could readily expand out of their host dark matter minihaloes into the surrounding IGM, aided by the preceding photo-evaporation of the halo's gas by the UV radiation from the progenitor star. We argue that during the evolution of such a remnant, a significant fraction of the SN kinetic energy can be put into low-energy (E ? 30 MeV) cosmic rays that will eventually escape into the IGM. These subrelativistic cosmic rays could propagate through the Universe and heat the IGM by ˜10-100 K by z ˜ 15, before more powerful reionization/heating mechanisms associated with the first galaxies and quasars came into play. Future 21-cm observations could thus constrain the energetics of the first SNe and provide information on the magnetic fields in the primordial IGM.

  9. A shark antibody heavy chain encoded by a nonsomatically rearranged VDJ is preferentially expressed in early development and is convergent with mammalian IgG

    PubMed Central

    Rumfelt, Lynn L.; Avila, David; Diaz, Marilyn; Bartl, Simona; McKinney, E. Churchill; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2001-01-01

    In most vertebrate embryos and neonates studied to date unique antigen receptors (antibodies and T cell receptors) are expressed that possess a limited immune repertoire. We have isolated a subclass of IgM, IgM1gj, from the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum that is preferentially expressed in neonates. The variable (V) region gene encoding the heavy (H) chain underwent V-D-J rearrangement in germ cells (“germline-joined”). Such H chain V genes were discovered over 10 years ago in sharks but until now were not shown to be expressed at appreciable levels; we find expression of H1gj in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues early in life, but in adults only in primary lymphoid tissue, which is identified in this work as the epigonal organ. H1gj chain associates covalently with light (L) chains and is most similar in sequence to IgM H chains, but like mammalian IgG has three rather than the four IgM constant domains; deletion of the ancestral IgM C2 domain thus defines both IgG and IgM1gj. Because sharks are the members of the oldest vertebrate class known to possess antibodies, unique or specialized antibodies expressed early in ontogeny in sharks and other vertebrates were likely present at the inception of the adaptive immune system. PMID:11172027

  10. A Study on the Glycan Specificity of Natural Antibody Repertoires in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Ping; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice and rats are widely used in preclinical investigations evaluating the effectiveness of glycan-based biomecines, however, the glycan specificity repertoires of serum Abs in rodents have not been fully characterized. In the present study, serum antibodies in naïve mice and rats of different inbred strains were analyzed for specificity against 4 representative carbohydrate structures including PGA (1,4-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acids), ?-glucan, mannan and ?-glucan (dextran). Mannan was not recognized by serum Abs from any of the mouse and rat strains. Serum IgM in naïve F344, BN and Lewis rats recognized PGA and ?-glucan and, less strongly, dextran. High titer circulating IgM against PGA were found in mice of BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/NeH and BXSB strains. C3H/NeH was the only strain which also produced low titer IgM against ?-glucan and dextran. Age-related production of high titer IgM, IgA and IgG Abs against ?-glucan was observed in BXSB mice. Intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with ?-glucan elicited strong IgM responses, while immunization with PGA also led to an increase of anti-PGA IgM Ab titers. These results provide useful information on the characteristics of glycan-specific natural antibody repertoires in rodents. PMID:20003821

  11. Unveiling the nature of dark matter with high redshift 21 cm line experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Evoli, C.; Mesinger, A.; Ferrara, A. E-mail: andrei.mesinger@sns.it

    2014-11-01

    Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen will open a new window on the early Universe. By influencing the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), annihilating dark matter (DM) can leave a detectable imprint in the 21 cm signal. Building on the publicly available 21cmFAST code, we compute the 21 cm signal for a 10 GeV WIMP DM candidate. The most pronounced role of DM annihilations is in heating the IGM earlier and more uniformly than astrophysical sources of X-rays. This leaves several unambiguous, qualitative signatures in the redshift evolution of the large-scale (k ? 0.1 Mpc{sup -1}) 21 cm power amplitude: (i) the local maximum (peak) associated with IGM heating can be lower than the other maxima; (ii) the heating peak can occur while the IGM is in emission against the cosmic microwave background (CMB); (iii) there can be a dramatic drop in power (a global minimum) corresponding to the epoch when the IGM temperature is comparable to the CMB temperature. These signatures are robust to astrophysical uncertainties, and will be easily detectable with second generation interferometers. We also briefly show that decaying warm dark matter has a negligible role in heating the IGM.

  12. Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift

    E-print Network

    Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

    2007-07-13

    Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

  13. Constraint on intergalactic dust from thermal history of intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Akio K. Inoue; Hideyuki Kamaya

    2003-03-13

    This Letter investigates the amount of dust in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The dust photoelectric heating can be the most efficient heating mechanism in the IGM where the density is very small and there are a lot of hard ultraviolet photons. Comparing the observational thermal history of IGM with a theoretical one taking into account the dust photoelectric heating, we can put an upper limit on the dust-to-gas ratio, ${\\cal D}$, in the IGM. Since the rate of the dust photoelectric heating depends on the size of dust, we find the following results: If the grain size is $\\ga 100$ \\AA, ${\\cal D}$ at $z \\sim 3$ is $\\la 1/100$ Galactic value corresponding to $\\Omega_{\\rm dust}^{\\rm IGM}\\la 10^{-5}$. On the other hand, if the grain size is as small as $\\sim 10$ \\AA, ${\\cal D}$ is $\\la 1/1000$ Galactic value corresponding to $\\Omega_{\\rm dust}^{\\rm IGM}\\la 10^{-6}$.

  14. Conjunctival Flap Covering Combined with Antiviral and Steroid Therapy for Severe Herpes Simplex Virus Necrotizing Stromal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanni; Li, Suxia; Wang, Ting; Tan, Yaohong; Shi, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) necrotizing stromal keratitis is a common type of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). Antiviral medication alone cannot control the disease, and corticosteroid eye drops may aggravate the ulcer and result in corneal perforation. Amniotic membrane transplantation effectively treats superficial corneal ulcer resulting from necrotizing stromal HSK. However, the efficacy of this approach seems to be limited for more serious cases. This study presented the clinical treatment of severe HSV necrotizing stromal keratitis (ulcer depth greater than half of the corneal stroma) by conjunctival flap covering surgery in 25 patients (25 eyes) combined with antivirus and corticosteroid treatment at Shandong Eye Hospital from January 2007 to December 2013. Clinical results showed that the mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from preoperative 20/333 to postoperative 20/40 (P < 0.05). All patients recovered ocular surface stabilization. There was recurrence in two eyes, which was cured with antiviral medication. Conjunctival flap covering combined with antivirus and corticosteroid treatment is effective in treating severe HSV necrotizing stromal keratitis. PMID:25785282

  15. Malware Detection Module using Machine Learning Algorithms to Assist in Centralized Security in Enterprise Networks

    E-print Network

    Singhal, Priyank; 10.5121/ijnsa.2012.4106

    2012-01-01

    Malicious software is abundant in a world of innumerable computer users, who are constantly faced with these threats from various sources like the internet, local networks and portable drives. Malware is potentially low to high risk and can cause systems to function incorrectly, steal data and even crash. Malware may be executable or system library files in the form of viruses, worms, Trojans, all aimed at breaching the security of the system and compromising user privacy. Typically, anti-virus software is based on a signature definition system which keeps updating from the internet and thus keeping track of known viruses. While this may be sufficient for home-users, a security risk from a new virus could threaten an entire enterprise network. This paper proposes a new and more sophisticated antivirus engine that can not only scan files, but also build knowledge and detect files as potential viruses. This is done by extracting system API calls made by various normal and harmful executable, and using machine l...

  16. ANISOTROPIC ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTFLOWS AND ENRICHMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. II. METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Barai, Paramita; Martel, Hugo; Germain, Joel

    2011-01-20

    We investigate the large-scale influence of outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in enriching the intergalactic medium (IGM) with metals in a cosmological context. We combine cosmological simulations of large-scale structure formation with a detailed model of metal enrichment, in which outflows expand anisotropically along the direction of least resistance, distributing metals into the IGM. The metals carried by the outflows are generated by two separate stellar populations: stars located near the central AGN, and stars located in the greater galaxy. Using this algorithm, we performed a series of five simulations of the propagation of AGN-driven outflows in a cosmological volume of size (128 h{sup -1} Mpc){sup 3} in a {Lambda}CDM universe, and analyze the resulting metal enrichment of the IGM. We found that the metallicity induced in the IGM is greatly dominated by AGNs having bolometric luminosity L>10{sup 9} L{sub sun}, sources with 10{sup 8} < L/L{sub sun} < 10{sup 9} having a negligible contribution. Our simulations produced an average IGM metallicity of [O/H] = -5 at z = 5.5, which then rises gradually, and remains relatively flat at a value [O/H] = -2.8 between z = 2 and z = 0. The ejection of metals from AGN host galaxies by AGN-driven outflows is found to enrich the IGM to >10%-20% of the observed values, the number dependent on redshift. The enriched IGM volume fractions are small at z>3, then rise rapidly to the following values at z = 0: 6%-10% of the volume enriched to [O/H]> - 2.5, 14%-24% volume to [O/H]> - 3, and 34%-45% volume to [O/H]> - 4. At z {>=} 2, there is a gradient of the induced enrichment, the metallicity decreasing with increasing IGM density, enriching the underdense IGM to higher metallicities, a trend more prominent with increasing anisotropy of the outflows. This can explain observations of the metal-enriched low-density IGM at z {approx} 3-4.

  17. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-01-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2) cannot account for the baryon content of the universe at z approximately 3 observed in quasar absorption line gas unless Omega (sub B) significantly exceeds the maximum value allowed by big bang nucleocynthesis. (5) For a CDM model with bias parameter within the allowed range of (lower) values, the lower limit to Omega(sub B) imposed by big bang nucleosynthesis (Omega(sub B) h(sup 2) greater than or equal to 0.01) combines with our results to yield the minimum IGM density for the CDM fodel. For CDM with b = 1 (Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization), we find Omega(sub IGM)(sup min) (z approximately 4) approx. equal 0.02-0.03, and Omega(sub IGM)(sup min)(z approximately 0) approx. equal 0.005-0.03, depending upon the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (6) In general, we find that self-consistent reionization of the IGM by the collapsed baryon fraction has a strong effect on the rate of collapse. (7) As a further example, we show that the feedback effect on the IGM of energy release by the collapsed baryon fraction may explain the slow evolution of the observed comoving QSO number density between z = 5 and z = 2, followed by the sharp decline after z = 2.

  18. THE 21 cm FOREST AS A PROBE OF THE REIONIZATION AND THE TEMPERATURE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yidong; Fan Zuhui; Chen Xuelei; Trac, Hy; Cen, Renyue

    2009-10-20

    Using high-redshift radio sources as background, the 21 cm forest observations probe the neutral hydrogen absorption signatures of early structures along the lines of sight. Directly sensitive to the spin temperature of the hydrogen atoms, it complements the 21 cm tomography observations, and provides information on the temperature as well as the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We use a radiative transfer simulation to investigate the 21 cm forest signals during the epoch of reionization. We first confirmed that the optical depth and equivalent width (EW) are good representations of the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. The features selected by their relative optical depth are excellent tracers of ionization fields, and the features selected by their absolute optical depth are very sensitive to the IGM temperature, so the IGM temperature information could potentially be extracted from 21 cm forest observation, thus breaking a degeneracy in 21 cm tomographic observation. With the EW statistics, we predict some observational consequences for 21 cm forest. From the distributions of EWs and the number evolution of absorbers and leakers with different EWs, we see clearly the cosmological evolution of ionization state of the IGM. The number density of potentially observable features decreases rapidly with increasing gas temperature. The sensitivity of the proposed EW statistic to the IGM temperature makes it a unique and potentially powerful probe of reionization. Missing small-scale structures, such as small filaments and minihalos that are unresolved in our current simulation, and lack of an accurate calculation of the IGM temperature, however, likely have rendered the presented signals quantitatively inaccurate. Finally, we discuss the requirements of the background radio sources for such observations, and find that signals with equivalent widths larger than 1 kHz are hopeful to be detected.

  19. Problem of immunoglobulin M co-detection in serological response to bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens among children suspected of legionellosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was an analysis of the serological response to respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens, in 156 children admitted to hospital in Warsaw with a suspicion of legionellosis. Levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) M to Bordetella pertussis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) t. 1-4 and influenza t. A + B viruses were determined retrospectively by ELISAs. In the prospective examinations (only Legionella pneumophila sg1), a positive level of IgM was found in 35 patients, but in 59 children together with retrospective tests. There were positive results for B. pertussis (21 children), followed by HPIV (10 children), M. pneumoniae (5 patients), RSV (4 persons), adenoviruses (3 children), and influenza A + B virus (3 persons). Positive results for > 1 agent were found in 16 children. The most often co-detected IgM were to L. pneumophila sg1 and B. pertussis (9 children) and L. pneumophila sg1 and M. pneumoniae (5 patients). The distribution of IgM to L. pneumophila sg1, B. pertussis and HPIV among children ? 4 years differed significantly from IgM specific to other pathogens. A high number of HPIV infections, mainly single, was found among infants. Positive results of IgM to L. pneumophila sg1 were mainly found in children aged 4-5 years. and the oldest children (over 10 years.). However, among the oldest children, anti-L. pneumophila sg1 antibodies were often found together with IgM to B. pertussis. Infections due to more than 2 pathogens were only observed among patients with pneumonia, especially due to L. pneumophila sg1 and/or B. pertussis. Conversely, co-detection of IgM ELISA for L. pneumophila and M. pneumoniae were mainly detected among patients hospitalized without pneumonia. PMID:26557031

  20. Relationship between serologic response and clinical symptoms in children with enterovirus 71-infected hand-foot-mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Zhao, Chao; Cao, Ping; Shi, Peng; Cao, Lingfeng; Zhu, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the correlation between clinical symptoms, including rash and fever, and serum antibody reaction to enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in children hospitalized due to hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). From May 2014 to July 2014, a total of 547 children hospitalized due to HFMD in Children’s Hospital of Fudan University were enrolled retrospectively. RNA levels of EV71 and CA16 in fecal, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens were measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and EV71-IgM antibody in the serum was detected using immune colloidal gold assays. Of the 547 fecal specimens, 296 were EV71 RNA positive, 109 were CA16 RNA positive, and 8 were positive for both EV71 RNA and CA16 RNA. The total positive rate for either EV71 or CA16 in feces was 72.58% (397/547). Additionally, 544 serum specimens were collected, and 409 were EV71-IgM positive (75.18%). The duration of rash and fever was found to be correlated to the positive rate of serum EV71-IgM, and the positive rate of serum EV71-IgM plus EV71 RNA in feces. The positive rates of serum EV71-IgM and serum EV71-IgM plus EV71 RNA in fecal collected at day 3 of fever were 79.7% and 52.8%, respectively. In conclusion, EV71 and CA16 were found to be the major pathogens responsible for the epidemics of HFMD in children during May to July 2014 in Shanghai, China. There is a close relationship between the positive rate of serum EV71-IgM and the duration of fever and rash.

  1. Can the intergalactic medium cause a rapid drop in Ly? emission at z > 6?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, Andrei; Aykutalp, Aycin; Vanzella, Eros; Pentericci, Laura; Ferrara, Andrea; Dijkstra, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The large cross-section of the Ly? line makes it a sensitive probe of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we present the most complete study to date of the IGM Ly? opacity, and its application to the redshift evolution of the `Ly? fraction', i.e. the fraction of colour-selected galaxies with a detectable Ly? emission line. We use a tiered approach, which combines large-scale seminumeric simulations of reionization with moderate-scale hydrodynamic simulations of the ionized IGM. This allows us to simultaneously account for evolution in both: (i) the opacity from an incomplete (patchy) reionization, parametrized by the filling factor of ionized regions, QH II; and (ii) the opacity from self-shielded systems in the ionized IGM, parametrized by the average photoionization rate inside H II regions, H II. In contrast to recent empirical models, attenuation from patchy reionization has a unimodal distribution along different sightlines, while attenuation from self-shielded systems is more bimodal. We quantify the average IGM transmission in our (QH II, H II) parameter space, which can easily be used to interpret new data sets. Our new, improved models highly disfavour an evolution in H II as the sole driver of a large change in IGM opacity. Using current observations, we predict that the Ly? fraction cannot drop by more than a factor of ?2 with IGM attenuation alone, even for H II filling factors as low as QH II ? 0.1. Larger changes in the Ly? fraction could result from a co-evolution with galaxy properties. Marginalizing over H II, we find that current observations constrain QH II(z ? 7) ? 0.6, at a 68 per cent confidence level (CL). However, all of our parameter space is consistent with observations at 95 per cent CL, highlighting the need for larger observational samples at z ? 6.

  2. Factors associated to infection by Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women attended in Basic Health Units in the city of Rolândia, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renata Cristina Ferreira; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Dias, Rafael André Ferreira; Tokano, Deise Vieira; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and the factors associated to the infection in pregnant women attended in Basic Health Units in Rolândia, Paraná, Brazil. The sample was divided in two groups: group I (320 pregnant women who were analyzed from July 2007 to February 2008) and group II (287 pregnant women who were analyzed from March to October 2008). In group I, it was found 53.1% of pregnant women with IgG reactive and IgM non-reactive, 1.9% with IgG and IgM reactive, 0.3% with IgG non-reactive and IgM reactive and 44.7% with IgG and IgM non-reactive. In group II, it was found 55.1% with IgG reactive and IgM non-reactive and 44.9% with IgG and IgM non-reactive. The variables associated to the presence of IgG antibodies were: residence in rural areas, pregnant women between 35-40 years old, low educational level, low family income, more than one pregnancy, drinking water which does not originate from the public water supply system and the habit of handling soil or sand. Guidance on primary prevention measures and the quarterly serological monitoring of the pregnant women in the risk group are important measures to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21915460

  3. Adaptive prior probability and spatial temporal intensity change estimation for segmentation of the one-year-old human brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Fonov, Vladimir; Dietrich, Cheryl; Vachet, Clement; Hazlett, Heather C.; Smith, Rachel G.; Graves, Mike; Piven, Joseph; Gilmore, John H.; Collins, D. Louis; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The degree of white matter (WM) myelination is rather inhomogeneous across the brain. White matter appears differently across the cortical lobes in MR images acquired during early postnatal development. Specifically at 1-year of age, the gray/white matter contrast of MR T1 and T2 weighted images in prefrontal and temporal lobes is reduced as compared to the rest of the brain, and thus, tissue segmentation results commonly show lower accuracy in these lobes. In this novel work, we propose the use of spatial intensity growth maps (IGM) for T1 and T2 weighted images to compensate for local appearance inhomogeneity. The IGM captures expected intensity changes from 1 to 2 years of age, as appearance homogeneity is greatly improved by the age of 24 months. The IGM was computed as the coefficient of a voxel-wise linear regression model between corresponding intensities at 1 and 2 years. The proposed IGM method revealed low regression values of 1–10% in GM and CSF regions, as well as in WM regions at maturation stage of myelination at 1 year. However, in the prefrontal and temporal lobes we observed regression values of 20–25%, indicating that the IGM appropriately captures the expected large intensity change in these lobes mainly due to myelination. The IGM is applied to cross-sectional MRI datasets of 1-year-old subjects via registration, correction and tissue segmentation of the IGM-corrected dataset. We validated our approach in a small leave-one-out study of images with known, manual ‘ground truth’ segmentations. PMID:23032117

  4. Development and evaluation of a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of rubella immunoglobulin M using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Gerna, I; Zannino, M; Revello, M G; Petruzzelli, E; Dovis, M

    1987-01-01

    A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody was developed which used a panel of labeled monoclonal antibodies to rubella virus hemagglutinin. The rapidity of the test system was increased by using, after 1-h incubation of the test serum, a second 1-h incubation of the serum with a mixture of viral antigen and labeled monoclonal antibody. The new assay was tested for specificity on 371 human sera from people without any recent contact with rubella virus; of these, 66 were sera selected from people with rheumatoid factor or IgM antibody to human cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or other viruses. In parallel, the new assay was performed on 191 sera from patients having recent contact with rubella virus. Results were compared with those obtained by an indirect ELISA method on IgM serum fractions, using purified rubella virus as a solid phase. Of the 371 sera tested for specificity, 5 (1.3%) gave false-positive results with indirect ELISA (1 rheumatoid factor, 2 heterophil antibody, and 2 human cytomegalovirus sera positive for IgM), and none were false-positive with the capture assay. Two sera from a patient with primary cytomegalovirus infection, which were positive for rubella IgM antibody with both methods and were initially interpreted as false-positive, were finally considered to be true-positive, since they were reactive only in the presence of IgM antibody and viral antigen. Of the 191 sera from 92 patients (84 patients with acute rubella, four newborns from mothers with rubella during pregnancy, and four vaccinees), 136 (71.2%) were found to be positive for IgM by direct ELISA, and 128 (67.0%) were positive by capture ELISA; 12 sera drawn during the first 2 days of disease, or at least 40 days after onset (or after vaccination), were detected only by indirect ELISA, and 4 sera were detected only by capture ELISA. Thus, specificity and sensitivity, respectively, were 100 and 91.4% for capture ELISA and 98.6 and 97.1% for indirect ELISA. However, when the number of patients was considered, 86 were detected as IgM positive by indirect ELISA, and 87 were detected positive by capture ELISA. The overall agreement between the two assays was 96.2%. Capture ELISA using monoclonal antibody appears preferable over indirect ELISA on IgM serum fractions because of its higher specificity and shorter time for test performance; furthermore, there is no need for serum fractionation or virus purification for the capture ELISA. PMID:3597747

  5. Deep Chandra observations of HCG 16. II. The development of the intra-group medium in a spiral-rich group

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.; Zezas, A.; Nulsen, P.; Giacintucci, S.; Ponman, T. J.; Raychaudhury, S.; Mamon, G. A.

    2014-10-01

    We use a combination of deep Chandra X-ray observations and radio continuum imaging to investigate the origin and current state of the intra-group medium (IGM) in the spiral-rich compact group HCG 16. We confirm the presence of a faint (L {sub X,} {sub bolo} = 1.87{sub ?0.66}{sup +1.03}×10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}), low-temperature (0.30{sub ?0.05}{sup +0.07} keV) IGM extending throughout the ACIS-S3 field of view, with a ridge linking the four original group members and extending to the southeast, as suggested by previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. This ridge contains 6.6{sub ?3.3}{sup +3.9}× 10{sup 9} M {sub ?} of hot gas and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale H I tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We present evidence that the group is not yet virialized, and show that gas has probably been transported from the starburst winds of NGC 838 and NGC 839 into the surrounding IGM. Considering the possible origin of the IGM, we argue that material ejected by galactic winds may have played a significant role, contributing 20%-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  6. Biological Activities of Rabbit Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, Ann B.; Michael, J. Gabriel

    1970-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG antibodies, prepared in the rabbit against the protective antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa P4, were compared as to their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. In vitro biological activities of these antibodies were determined by passive hemagglutination, bactericidal, and opsonophagocytic tests. Increased effectiveness of IgM over IgG on a molar basis was demonstrated in all of these tests. However, in mouse protection tests, in which the purified globulins were injected intraperitoneally 4 hr prior to challenge with P. aeruginosa suspended in hog gastric mucin, IgM anticapsular antibody was found to be less effective than IgG antibody. The exact mechanism whereby IgG antibody exerts more protective ability than IgM antibody is still unknown. We present evidence to suggest that the difference in activity between the two classes of antibody is due to the ability of the IgG antibody to enter the bloodstream more rapidly than the IgM antibody and also to the ability of IgG to diffuse rapidly through the tissues of the organs. PMID:16557861

  7. Seroepidemiological study of Lyme borreliosis among forestry workers in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Alicja; Rudek, Alicja; Bartosik, Katarzyna; Szymanska, Jolanta; Wojcik-Fatla, Angelina

    2009-12-01

    Forestry workers are a professional group particularly exposed to tick-borne infections; however, continuous monitoring of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in this group enables faster diagnosis and more effective treatment for borreliosis. A group of 1,155 forestry workers from six forest inspectorates in southern Poland were examined with the immunoenzymatic method (ELISA test). The general level of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies was 12.8 % in IgM class, and 25 % in IgG class. Markedly more seropositive results were found in the group of fieldworkers (13.8 % - IgM and 25.0 % - IgG) than in office workers (10.0 % - IgM and 13.7 % - IgG). The highest proportions of infections both in IgM and IgG class (17.4 % and 34.8 %, respectively) were recorded in the group of persons over 50 years of age, the lowest - in the group of workers younger than 30 (IgM - 13.0 %, IgG - 14.1%). Significant differences in the level of seropositive results in IgG class were related to the workers' gender - in women the percentage was 9.8 %, in men - 28.1 %. It was found that in the studied region of southern Poland, considered to be non-endemic, borreliosis occurs as a health risk to forestry workers. PMID:20047259

  8. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Hjetland, Reidar; Nilsen, Roy M; Grude, Nils; Ulvestad, Elling

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a healthy adult population from Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway by different assays. Sera from 1213 blood donors at four different blood banks were analysed in Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE/IgG (IgG), Enzygnost Borreliosis IgM (IgM), and Immunetics C6 Lyme ELISA kit (C6). Sera showing positive or grey-zone reactivities were further examined with Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgG blot and Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgM blot. The seroprevalences were 9.6%, 8.2%, 8.4%, 6.4% and 5.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence for IgG was lower in the eastern part of the county and in owners of pet animals. It was higher in men, and increased with age and number of tick bites. C6 and IgG gave comparable results. IgM only was found in 4.5%, more often in women, did not increase with age, and showed no relationship with geography, and 56.4% were positive in IgM blot. In conclusion, antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. are common in blood donors in western Norway. The results may be used for evaluation of predictive values of test results in patients, as well as a basis for test algorithms in the laboratory. PMID:24730472

  9. Spaceflight-associated changes in immunoglobulin VH gene expression in the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl.

    PubMed

    Bascove, Matthieu; Huin-Schohn, Cécile; Guéguinou, Nathan; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2009-05-01

    Understanding why the immune system is depressed during spaceflight is of obvious importance for future human deep-space missions, such as the foreseen missions to Mars. However, little is known about the effects of these flights on humoral immunity. We previously immunized adult Pleurodeles waltl (urodele amphibian) onboard the Mir space station and showed that heavy-chain variable (VH) domains of specific IgM antibodies are encoded by genes belonging to the VHII and VHVI families. We have now determined how these animals use their individual VHII and VHVI genes by screening IgM heavy-chain cDNA libraries and by quantifying IgM heavy-chain transcripts encoded by these genes. Results were compared with those obtained using control animals immunized on Earth under the same conditions as onboard Mir. Our experiments revealed an increase in the expression of IgM heavy-chain mRNAs encoded by the VHII and VHVI.C genes and a strong decrease in the expression of IgM heavy-chain mRNAs encoded by the VHVI.A and VHVI.B genes in spaceflight animals. Consequently, different heavy-chain mRNAs are expressed by spaceflight animals, demonstrating that this environment affects the humoral response. These observations may be due to a change in B-cell selection under spaceflight conditions. PMID:19141535

  10. High Precision Analyses of Lyman alpha Damping Wing of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Reionization Era: On the Controversial Results from GRB 130606A at z = 5.91

    E-print Network

    Totani, Tomonori; Hattori, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedentedly bright afterglow of GRB 130606A at z = 5.91 gave us a unique opportunity to probe the reionization era by high precision analyses of the redward damping wing of Lyman alpha absorption, but the reported constraints on the neutral hydrogen fraction (f_{HI}) in intergalactic medium (IGM) derived from spectra taken by different telescopes are in contradiction. Here we examine the origin of this discrepancy by analyzing the spectrum taken by VLT with our own analysis code previously used to fit the Subaru spectrum. Though the VLT team reported no evidence for IGM HI using the VLT spectrum, we confirmed our previous result of 3-4 sigma preference for non-zero IGM HI (f_{HI} ~ 0.06, when IGM HI extends to the GRB redshift). The fit residuals of the VLT spectrum by the model without IGM HI show the same systematic trend as the Subaru spectrum. We consider that the likely origin of the discrepancy between the two teams is the difference of the wavelength ranges adopted in the fittings; our waveleng...

  11. Significance of a Positive Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin M Test Result in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Reshika; Gajurel, Kiran; Pomares, Christelle; Talucod, Jeanne; Press, Cynthia J; Montoya, Jose G

    2015-11-01

    A positive Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) result is often interpreted as a marker of an acute infection. However, IgM can persist for several years, and Toxoplasma commercial IgM diagnostic test kits can yield a number of false-positive results. For these reasons, a chronic Toxoplasma infection can be erroneously classified as an acute infection, resulting in serious adverse consequences, especially in pregnant women, leading to emotional distress and unnecessary interventions, including termination of pregnancy. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology at a reference laboratory can help differentiate a recently acquired infection from a chronic infection. Serological test results for 451 patients with positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at nonreference laboratories (NRLs) that were referred to Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory (PAMF-TSL) to determine whether the patient was acutely or chronically infected were retrospectively reviewed. PAMF-TSL results established that of the 451 patients, 335 (74%) had a chronic infection, 100 (22%) had an acute infection, and 7 (2%) were not infected, and for 9 (2%), results were indeterminate. Positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at NRLs cannot accurately distinguish between acute and chronic infections. To do so, testing at reference laboratories is required, as mandated in 1997 in a letter from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to clinicians and laboratories in the United States. PMID:26354818

  12. The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1991-01-01

    The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

  13. Non-coordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp-1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Caitlin D.; Ohta, Yuko; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Blimp-1 is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete “natural” IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp-1. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp-1- antibody secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages. Sharks naturally produce large amounts of both pentameric (classically ‘19S’) and monomeric (classically ‘7S’) IgM, the latter an indicator of adaptive immunity. Consistent with the mammalian paradigm, shark Blimp-1 is expressed in splenic 7S IgM-secreting cells, though rarely detected in the J-chain+ cells producing 19S IgM. Although IgM transcript levels are lower in J-chain+ cells, these cells nevertheless secrete 19S IgM in the absence of Blimp-1, as demonstrated by ELISPOT and metabolic labeling. Additionally, cells in the shark bone marrow equivalent (epigonal) are Blimp-1-. Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal can be maintained for long periods without Blimp-1, but like in mammals, Blimp-1 is required for terminating the B cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen. PMID:23897025

  14. Inter-Specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Forsman, Z.H.; Szabo, Z.; Lewis, T.D.; Aeby, G.S.; Toonen, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  15. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  16. Association of anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies and low complement levels in systemic sclerosis patients--results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    B?l?nescu, Paul; L?daru, Anca; B?l?nescu, Eugenia; B?icu?, Cristian; Dan, Gheorghe Andrei

    2015-10-01

    Some systemic sclerosis (Ssc) patients express antiphospholipid antibodies and their percentage varies within studies in the literature. The particular role of these antibodies in clinical manifestations of Ssc is still unknown. The aim of the study was to examine an extended panel of antiphospholipid antibodies in Ssc patients who did not have any clinical features of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. A cross-sectional study was designed and 36 consecutive patients with Ssc were recruited. A relatively high proportion of patients (14 patients - 38.9%) had antiphospholipid antibody presence. Most Ssc patients (11 patients - 30.6%) had IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies. Serum IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies, IgM anti prothrombin and IgG anti ?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies were associated with low complement levels in Ssc patients. In multivariate analysis, only serum IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies concentration and serum IgG anti ?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies concentration were independently associated with hypocomplementemia after adjusting for age and gender. No other correlations with Ssc clinical characteristics were found. In conclusion, antiphospholipid antibodies are present in a large proportion of Ssc patients who do not have clinical features or a history of antiphospholipid antibodies. IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies seem to be more frequent and the dominant antiphospholipid antibody type in the group recruited from the Romanian Ssc population. PMID:26067612

  17. Serological Study on Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma Gondii in Thalassemia Major Patients of Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghimi, M; Doosti, M; Vahedian-Ardakani, HA; Talebi, A; Akhavan-Ghalibaf, M; Najafi, A; Aminorroaya, MM; Yazdani, Sh; Shayestehpour, M; Bahrami, H; Khodayari, F

    2015-01-01

    Background Beta-thalassemia patients receive blood products from blood transfusion centers repeatedly. Blood transfusion can transmit Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of this study was serological evaluation of these two infectious agents in thalassemia patients. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing was performed to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against CMV and Toxoplasma gondii in 96 thalassemia patients (under 18 years) and 144 healthy people. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results A significant difference was observed in CMVIgM antibody levels between test groups in women (p<0.05). The prevalence of CMV IgM, CMV IgG, Toxo-IgG, and Toxo IgM antibodies in thalassemia patients were 5.2%, 95.9%, 16%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusion In all thalassemia patients, Cytomegalovirus IgG is higher than healthy people. In addition, CMV IgM antibodies are higher in female patients. Antibody screening (IgM) on blood products for detecting Cytomegalovirus is necessary, but for Toxoplasma gondii is not necessary in the Yazd transfusion center. PMID:26705454

  18. Characterization of Japanese eel immunoglobulin M and its level in serum.

    PubMed

    Uchida, D; Hirose, H; Chang, P K; Aranishi, F; Hirayabu, E; Mano, N; Mitsuya, T; Prayitno, S B; Natori, M

    2000-12-01

    Japanese eel immunoglobulin M (IgM) was purified from the sera of Anguilla japonica immunized with Edwardsiella tarda FPU 347 and characterized. Analysis of the purified IgM on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE) under reducing and non-reducing conditions revealed that the eel IgM was a tetrameric protein with a molecular weight of 790,000; it contained an equimolar heavy chain and light chain with molecular weights of 72,000 and 25,000, respectively. While the N-terminal sequence of the heavy chain, VELTQPGSMVLKPGQSLTI, showed similarity to the variable regions of those of teleost fishes Igs, the N-terminal sequence of the light chain, DIVLTQSPAVQSVQLGDT, was similar to the variable regions of chondrostei and mammalian kappa chains. Lectin-binding assays showed that the binding of concanavalin A (Con A) to the Japanese eel IgM heavy chain was competitively inhibited by D-mannose and could be abolished by alpha-mannosidase treatment indicating the presence on the heavy chain of oligosaccharides, whose terminal were a bound mannoses. The average IgM concentration in the sera of the healthy eels was 3.4 mg ml(-1); it amounted to 10.3% of the total serum protein. PMID:11281270

  19. Clinical validation of an antibody-capture anti-rubella IgM-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Wielaard, F; Denissen, A; Van Elleswijk-vd Berg, J; Van Gemert, G

    1985-04-01

    An antibody-capture IgM-ELISA using monoclonal antibodies for conjugate was subjected to clinical validation with respect to sensitivity and specificity. In 103 serum specimens, known to contain anti-rubella IgM by a sucrose density gradient method, IgM was found by the ELISA in 99 sera. In a second study, 16 out of 17 acute rubella infections were detected by the IgM-ELISA. In 17 out of 17 vaccinees, a specific IgM response could be demonstrated. Specificity of the antibody-capture ELISA was found to be high; no interference was seen in 60 rheumatoid-factor positive sera, in 100 highly positive IgG sera or 10 sera with anti-CMV IgM. Only one out of 100 sera with heterophile antibodies showed a positive response. In acute rubella infections, IgM was shown to be detectable from 1 to 4 days after onset of illness up to about 12 wk, with peak values at about 1 wk after onset. PMID:3998043

  20. On modeling and measuring the temperature of the z ? 5 intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lidz, Adam; Malloy, Matthew

    2014-06-20

    The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is sensitive to the timing and nature of hydrogen and He II reionization, and can be measured from Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest absorption spectra. Since the memory of intergalactic gas to heating during reionization gradually fades, measurements as close as possible to reionization are desirable. In addition, measuring the IGM temperature at sufficiently high redshifts should help to isolate the effects of hydrogen reionization since He II reionization starts later, at lower redshift. Motivated by this, we model the IGM temperature at z ? 5 using semi-numeric models of patchy reionization. We construct mock Ly? forest spectra from these models and consider their observable implications. We find that the small-scale structure in the Ly? forest is sensitive to the temperature of the IGM even at redshifts where the average absorption in the forest is as high as 90%. We forecast the accuracy at which the z ? 5 IGM temperature can be measured using existing samples of high resolution quasar spectra, and find that interesting constraints are possible. For example, an early reionization model in which reionization ends at z ? 10 should be distinguishable—at high statistical significance—from a lower redshift model where reionization completes at z ? 6. We discuss improvements to our modeling that may be required to robustly interpret future measurements.

  1. Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows

    E-print Network

    Steven Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

    2001-02-05

    Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function of size and magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We generically find that by a redshift z=3, about 5-20% of the IGM volume is filled by magnetic fields with an energy density >10% of the mean thermal energy density of a photo-ionized IGM (at T=10^4 K). As massive galaxies and X-ray clusters condense out of the magnetized IGM, the adiabatic compression of the magnetic field could result in the field strength observed in these systems without a need for further dynamo amplification. The intergalactic magnetic field could also provide a nonthermal contribution to the pressure of the photo-ionized gas that may account for the claimed discrepancy between the simulated and observed Doppler width distributions of the Ly-alpha forest.

  2. Expressed IgH ? and ? transcripts share diversity segment in ranched Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Mashoof, Sara; Pohlenz, Camilo; Chen, Patricia L; Deiss, Thaddeus C; Gatlin, Delbert; Buentello, Alejandro; Criscitiello, Michael F

    2014-03-01

    It is now appreciated that in addition to the immunoglobulin (Ig)M and D isotypes fish also make the mucosal IgT. In this study we sequenced the full length of Ig ? as well as ? in the commercially important Thunnus orientalis (Pacific bluefin tuna), the first molecular analysis of these two Ig isotypes in a member of the order Perciformes. Tuna IgM and IgT are each composed of four constant (CH) domains. We cloned and sequenced 48 different variable (VH) domain gene rearrangements of tuna immunoglobulins and grouped the VH gene sequences to four VH gene segment families based on 70% nucleotide identity. Three VH gene families were used by both IgM and IgT but one group was only found to be used by IgM. Most interestingly, both ? and ? clones appear to use the same diversity (DH) segment, unlike what has been described in other species, although they have dedicated IgT and IgM joining (JH) gene segments. We complemented this repertoire study with phylogenetic and tissue expression analysis. In addition to supporting the development of humoral vaccines in this important aquaculture species, these data suggest that the DH-JH recombination rather than the VH-DH recombination may be instructive for IgT versus IgM/D bearing lymphocyte lineages in some fish. PMID:24231183

  3. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout the rest of this report. The features are extracted using an instrumented PDF viewer, and are the inputs to a prediction model that scores the likelihood of a PDF file containing malware. The prediction model is constructed from a sample of labeled data by a machine learning algorithm (specifically, decision tree ensemble learning). Preliminary experiments show that the model is able to detect half of the PDF malware in the corpus with zero false alarms. We conclude the report with suggestions for extending this work to detect a greater variety of PDF malware.

  4. GeV excess electrons upscattering the CMB: a possible resolution to the "Photon Underproduction Crisis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daylan, Tansu; Portillo, Stephen K. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently a gamma-ray excess has been identified in the inner Milky Way, which may be associated with the final state photon shower following DM annihilation to standard model final states. In this scenario ~ GeV electrons are also produced and, given their long energy loss timescale (~ Gyr), they can diffuse and escape the galaxy before losing too much energy. If such an electron population exists in the IGM, one observable consequence would be inverse Compton scattering on the CMB, which would produce UV photons that can efficiently ionize the IGM. This may be a possible resolution to the "Photon Underproduction Crisis", recently pointed out by Kollmeier et al. (2014). Regardless of the relevance to this crisis, the existence of a ~ GeV electron population in the IGM can put constraints on DM annihilation parameters considering the known X-ray backgrounds.

  5. Monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus that can react with a nuclear antigen in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gould, E A; Chanas, A C; Buckley, A; Clegg, C S

    1983-01-01

    An immunoglobulin M (IgM) class monoclonal antibody raised against Japanese encephalitis virus reacted with an epitope on the nonstructural virus protein P74 (NV4 in the old nomenclature) of several flaviviruses and also with an antigen present in the nuclei of a variety of mammalian cell types. This antigen had a characteristic granular distribution by immunofluorescence and may correspond to a polypeptide of molecular weight 56,000 seen in nitrocellulose transfers of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Cross-reactivity with nuclear antigen was also occasionally observed in the IgM antibody fraction of mice early after infection with Japanese encephalitis virus and also in acute sera from some clinical cases of encephalitis containing IgM antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus. Images PMID:6135665

  6. Cosmic Reionization on Computers. III. The Clumping Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2015-09-01

    We use fully self-consistent numerical simulations of cosmic reionization, completed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, to explore how well the recombinations in the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM) can be quantified by the effective “clumping factor.” The density distribution in the simulations (and, presumably, in a real universe) is highly inhomogeneous and more-or-less smoothly varying in space. However, even in highly complex and dynamic environments, the concept of the IGM remains reasonably well-defined; the largest ambiguity comes from the unvirialized regions around galaxies that are over-ionized by the local enhancement in the radiation field (“proximity zones”). That ambiguity precludes computing the IGM clumping factor to better than about 20%. We also discuss a “local clumping factor,” defined over a particular spatial scale, and quantify its scatter on a given scale and its variation as a function of scale.

  7. Outbreak of hepatitis A in an extended family after importation by non-immune travellers.

    PubMed

    Kumbang, J; Ejide, S; Tedder, R S; Ngui, S L

    2012-10-01

    The incidence of hepatitis A in England has declined in recent years, but travel-related cases and imported infections remain a challenge. We report an outbreak of hepatitis A in an extended family where two primary cases were infected while in Pakistan and two secondary cases were infected in England. All four were infected by the same genotype IIIA virus. Testing of the children in the extended family by dried blood spots (DBS) determined that three had evidence of recent past infections (anti-HAV IgM positive), one had a current asymptomatic infection (anti-HAV IgM and HAV RNA positive) and one was incubating the virus (anti-HAV IgM negative, HAV RNA positive). HAV RNA from the DBS was identical to the adult cases. This outbreak demonstrates secondary spread of hepatitis A by asymptomatic children after importation from abroad and highlights the importance of preventing travel-associated hepatitis A infection. PMID:22142642

  8. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a great imitator?

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Annabel M; Vegting, Irene L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B

    2010-01-01

    The patient in this case was seen by numerous doctors for a long time before the diagnosis was made because, right from the start, an abscess or a cancer of the breast was suspected. She was first seen by her general practitioner (GP); thereafter, she went to two consultant physicians and a surgeon in a regional hospital and eventually an idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) diagnosis was made by a specialist in internal medicine in a university hospital. When the diagnosis IGM was made, the patient was treated with steroids and made a complete recovery. Although the incidence of IGM is not high, the GPs are likely to see these patients initially and should be aware of the existence of this disease, which may spare the patient unnecessary consultations, diagnostics tests or even mastectomy. PMID:22798482

  9. Functional reconstitution of an immunoglobulin antigen receptor in T cells

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Humoral immune responses are initiated by binding of antigen to the immunoglobulins (Igs) on the plasma membrane of B lymphocytes. On the cell surface, Ig forms a complex with several other proteins, two of which, MB-1 and B29, have been implicated in receptor assembly. We have reconstituted Ig receptor function in T lymphocytes by transfection of cloned receptor components. We found that efficient transport of IgM to the surface of T cells required coexpression of B29. Furthermore, IgM and B29 alone were sufficient to reconstitute antigen-specific signal transduction by Ig in the transfected T cells. Crosslinking of IgM with either antireceptor antibodies or antigen induced a calcium flux, phosphoinositol turnover, and interleukin secretion in T cells. These experiments establish a requirement for B29 in Ig receptor function, and suggest that the signaling apparatus of T and B cells is structurally homologous. PMID:1588287

  10. Detection of immunoglobulin M in cerebrospinal fluid from syphilis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J B; Farshy, C E; Hunter, E F; Hambie, E A; Wobig, G H; Larsen, S A

    1986-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were evaluated in an immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) for syphilis with sonic extracts of Treponema pallidum coated on polystyrene plates. The ELISA procedure was reproducible, and T. pallidum antigens were stable., A total of 15 CSF samples from patients with neurosyphilis, 18 CSF samples from patients with syphilis, 12 CSF samples from patients treated for syphilis, and 494 CSF samples from patients with neurologic or other systemic diseases were tested. The IgM ELISA gave reactive results in all of six symptomatic and congenital neurosyphilitic patients and none of nine asymptomatic neurosyphilitic patients. Of 524 CSF samples from nonneurosyphilitic individuals, 513 were nonreactive, resulting in 98% test specificity. The IgM ELISA in CSF should prove to be useful for confirmation of symptomatic neurosyphilis. PMID:3533984

  11. Detecting and Mapping Hidden Baryons in the Intergalactic Medium in the Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher

    I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed designed to discover and map emission from the Intergalactic Medium in the rest ultraviolet. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2IGM emission in the 0.3IGM in the space UV. I will report on preliminary results from FIREBALL and CWI and on technology developments that will support a UV IGM mapping mission in next decade. :

  12. Bilateral granulomatous mastitis with a different etiology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Hyouk; Jang, Ki Seok; Chung, Min Sung

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) and Tuberculosis mastitis (TM) are rare inflammatory diseases of the breast that can clinically mimic malignancy causing misdiagnosis as breast cancer. We present a rare case of bilateral granulomatous mastitis with a different etiology. An initial lesion developed in the right breast was diagnosed as IGM, which was treated with antibiotics and surgery. A subsequent lesion developed in the contralateral breast 5 months later and was diagnosed as TM, which also completely responded to antituberculosis medication without surgical excision. Differential diagnosis was made using the results of the polymerase chain reaction for tuberculosis (TBC-PCR) of both of the breast lesions in addition to typical pathologic findings of IGM in the right breast and an antituberculosis medication response in the left breast. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral granulomatous mastitis with a different etiology. PMID:25519013

  13. Fc receptors of rat peritoneal macrophages: immunoglobulin class specificity and sensitivity to drugs affecting the microfilament or microtubule system.

    PubMed Central

    Medgyesi, G A; Fóris, G; Dezsö, B; Gergely, J; Bazin, H

    1980-01-01

    Macrophage-cytophilic antibody activity of various immunoglobulin classes and subclasses was tested in two different rosetting systems. Cytophilic antibody activity of IgM, IgG2a and IgG1 was verified in the SRBC system, while IgM, IgG2a and IgG2c were found to be active in the trypanosome system. Sensitivity to cytochalasin B treatment of SRBC rosette formation was dependent on the class of antibody and decreased in the following order: IgM > IgG1 > IgG2a. Trypanosome rosette formation was prevented by the same drug regardless the type of antibody. Vinblastin caused an enhancement of rosette formation in the SRBC system in low concentration, except when the antibody belonged to subclass IgG1. The enhancing effect was less pronounced in the trypanosome system. Images Figure 1 PMID:7191828

  14. Cosmic Reionization On Computers III. The Clumping Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2015-09-09

    We use fully self-consistent numerical simulations of cosmic reionization, completed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, to explore how well the recombinations in the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM) can be quantified by the effective "clumping factor." The density distribution in the simulations (and, presumably, in a real universe) is highly inhomogeneous and more-or-less smoothly varying in space. However, even in highly complex and dynamic environments, the concept of the IGM remains reasonably well-defined; the largest ambiguity comes from the unvirialized regions around galaxies that are over-ionized by the local enhancement in the radiation field ("proximity zones"). This ambiguity precludes computing the IGM clumping factor to better than about 20%. Furthermore, we discuss a "local clumping factor," defined over a particular spatial scale, and quantify its scatter on a given scale and its variation as a function of scale.

  15. Cosmic Reionization On Computers III. The Clumping Factor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2015-09-09

    We use fully self-consistent numerical simulations of cosmic reionization, completed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, to explore how well the recombinations in the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM) can be quantified by the effective "clumping factor." The density distribution in the simulations (and, presumably, in a real universe) is highly inhomogeneous and more-or-less smoothly varying in space. However, even in highly complex and dynamic environments, the concept of the IGM remains reasonably well-defined; the largest ambiguity comes from the unvirialized regions around galaxies that are over-ionized by the local enhancement in the radiation field ("proximity zones"). This ambiguity precludesmore »computing the IGM clumping factor to better than about 20%. Furthermore, we discuss a "local clumping factor," defined over a particular spatial scale, and quantify its scatter on a given scale and its variation as a function of scale.« less

  16. Characterization of Markers of the Progression of Human Parvovirus B19 Infection in Virus DNA-Positive Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bonjoch, Xavier; Obispo, Francesc; Alemany, Cristina; Pacha, Ana; Rodríguez, Esteban; Xairó, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Accurate characterization of the infection stage in parvovirus B19(B19V)-positive plasma donations would help establish the donation deferral period to contribute to a safe fractionation pool of plasma. Methods Viral DNA load of 74 B19V DNA-positive plasma samples from whole blood donations was determined by titration using nucleic acid testing. Markers of cellular (neopterin) and humoral (B19V-specific IgM and IgG) immune response were determined by ELISA in 32 B19V DNA-positive samples and in 13 B19V DNA-negative samples. The infection progression profile was estimated according to B19V DNA load and the presence of immune response markers. Results B19V DNA load in the 74 samples was 106-1013 IU/ml. The distribution of 14 out of 32 selected B19V DNA-positive samples plus 2 B19V DNA-negative samples with no immune response marker followed along an upward curve according to B19V DNA load. After the peak, the distribution of 18 immune marker-positive samples followed along a downward curve according to their B19V DNA load and was grouped as follows: neopterin (n = 4), neopterin+ IgM (n = 8), neopterin + IgM + IgG (n = 3), IgM + IgG (n = 2), IgM (n = 1). There were 11 B19V DNA-negative IgG-positive samples. Conclusion This study of B19V-DNA load and levels of neopterin, IgM, and IgG allows for reliable characterization and distribution into the different stages of B19V infection. PMID:26557815

  17. An evolutionarily conserved program of B-cell development and activation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Page, Dawne M; Wittamer, Valerie; Bertrand, Julien Y; Lewis, Kanako L; Pratt, David N; Delgado, Noemi; Schale, Sarah E; McGue, Caitlyn; Jacobsen, Bradley H; Doty, Alyssa; Pao, Yvonne; Yang, Hongbo; Chi, Neil C; Magor, Brad G; Traver, David

    2013-08-22

    Teleost fish are among the most ancient vertebrates possessing an adaptive immune system with B and T lymphocytes that produce memory responses to pathogens. Most bony fish, however, have only 2 types of B lymphocytes, in contrast to the 4 types available to mammals. To better understand the evolution of adaptive immunity, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which the major immunoglobulin M (IgM(+)) B-cell subset expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) (IgM1:eGFP). We discovered that the earliest IgM(+) B cells appear between the dorsal aorta and posterior cardinal vein and also in the kidney around 20 days postfertilization. We also examined B-cell ontogeny in adult IgM1:eGFP;rag2:DsRed animals, where we defined pro-B, pre-B, and immature/mature B cells in the adult kidney. Sites of B-cell development that shift between the embryo and adult have previously been described in birds and mammals. Our results suggest that this developmental shift occurs in all jawed vertebrates. Finally, we used IgM1:eGFP and cd45DsRed;blimp1:eGFP zebrafish to characterize plasma B cells and investigate B-cell function. The IgM1:eGFP reporter fish are the first nonmammalian B-cell reporter animals to be described. They will be important for further investigation of immune cell evolution and development and host-pathogen interactions in zebrafish. PMID:23861249

  18. Administration in vivo of recombinant interleukin 2 protects mice against septic death.

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, C; Goronzy, J; Fathman, C G; O'Hanley, P

    1987-01-01

    Administration in vivo of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to mice induces a polyclonal IgM response. When co-administered with a specific antigen, rIL-2 can enhance concentrations of murine IgM antibodies specific for the antigen by fivefold within 7 d of initial treatment. IgM antibodies that are induced after injection of rIL-2 include antibodies specific for J5, a cell wall core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen that is shared by the different members of the Enterobactericeae family. We report here that mice pretreated with rIL-2 or immunized with J5 antigen 7 d before bacterial challenge were protected from septic death that is caused by intraperitoneal challenges with Escherichia coli. Optimal protection was provided by a combined J5 antigen and rIL-2 treatment. Acquisition of the rIL-2 and J5 antigen-induced protection against lethal bacterial infection coincided temporally with maximal serum IgM titers that also contained IgM antibodies specific for the J5 antigen. In passive immunization experiments, the affinity-purified IgM fraction in sera of rIL-2-treated animals was identified as necessary and sufficient for protection. The IgM-depleted serum had no protective effect. The nonspecific augmentation of host-defense mechanisms without the induction of endotoxin manifestations makes rIL-2 a potential candidate to any alternative LPS-containing vaccines for the prevention of bacterial infections by gram-negative organisms since the core LPS antigen is shared among gram-negative bacteria. PMID:3294901

  19. An evolutionarily conserved program of B-cell development and activation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wittamer, Valerie; Bertrand, Julien Y.; Lewis, Kanako L.; Pratt, David N.; Delgado, Noemi; Schale, Sarah E.; McGue, Caitlyn; Jacobsen, Bradley H.; Doty, Alyssa; Pao, Yvonne; Yang, Hongbo; Chi, Neil C.; Magor, Brad G.; Traver, David

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fish are among the most ancient vertebrates possessing an adaptive immune system with B and T lymphocytes that produce memory responses to pathogens. Most bony fish, however, have only 2 types of B lymphocytes, in contrast to the 4 types available to mammals. To better understand the evolution of adaptive immunity, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which the major immunoglobulin M (IgM+) B-cell subset expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) (IgM1:eGFP). We discovered that the earliest IgM+ B cells appear between the dorsal aorta and posterior cardinal vein and also in the kidney around 20 days postfertilization. We also examined B-cell ontogeny in adult IgM1:eGFP;rag2:DsRed animals, where we defined pro-B, pre-B, and immature/mature B cells in the adult kidney. Sites of B-cell development that shift between the embryo and adult have previously been described in birds and mammals. Our results suggest that this developmental shift occurs in all jawed vertebrates. Finally, we used IgM1:eGFP and cd45DsRed;blimp1:eGFP zebrafish to characterize plasma B cells and investigate B-cell function. The IgM1:eGFP reporter fish are the first nonmammalian B-cell reporter animals to be described. They will be important for further investigation of immune cell evolution and development and host-pathogen interactions in zebrafish. PMID:23861249

  20. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in increasing cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn study.

    PubMed

    van Sloten, Thomas T; Henry, Ronald M A; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Unger, Thomas; Schram, Miranda T; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2014-12-01

    In the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events, interaction between risk factors has seldom been identified. However, endothelial dysfunction on the one hand and type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), and insulin resistance on the other may act synergistically (ie, interact) in the development of cardiovascular disease. We therefore investigated the interaction between endothelial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus, IGM, and insulin resistance with regard to risk of cardiovascular events. In a prospective population-based cohort (n=445; 69 years; 55% women; 23% type 2 diabetes mellitus, 28% IGM [by design]), endothelial dysfunction (brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation), glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test), and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA2-IR]) were determined. After a median follow-up of 7.6 years, 106 participants had had a cardiovascular event. After adjustments, 1 SD less flow-mediated dilatation was associated with cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 1.69 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.52]) and IGM (1.50 [0.95-2.37]) and among those in the highest HOMA2-IR tertile (1.92 [1.42-2.60]), but not in normal glucose metabolism (0.85 [0.63-1.16]) or among those in the lower 2 HOMA2-IR tertiles combined (0.85 [0.65-1.12]). Interaction between flow-mediated dilatation and type 2 diabetes mellitus, IGM, or insulin resistance was present on an additive (relative excess risk caused by interaction>0) and on a multiplicative scale (P interaction<0.05). Endothelial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus, IGM, or insulin resistance synergistically increase cardiovascular event risk. This identifies endothelial dysfunction as a key therapeutic target in these individuals. PMID:25225211

  1. Anti-phospholipid antibody levels as biomarker for monitoring tuberculosis treatment response.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Amador; Cueva, Carla; Lahiff, Maureen; Muzanye, Grace; Johnson, John L; Nahid, Payam; Riley, Lee W

    2012-05-01

    Standard methods to monitor tuberculosis (TB) treatment response rely on sputum microscopy and culture conversion. Alternatives to these methods are needed for those patients whose sputum tests are smear or culture negative. Here, we examine anti-phospholipid IgM antibody level changes as a biomarker for treatment response in smear positive TB patients. Serum samples were obtained from 40 pulmonary TB patients at the start and end of the intensive phase treatment (IPT) from the CDC-TB Trials Consortium randomized clinical trial in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were screened by ELISA for IgM levels against five phospholipids found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host cells. Lipid antigens included cardiolipin (CL), phosphatidyl inositol (PI), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidyl choline (PTC), and sphingolipid (SL). Levels of IgM against all phospholipids significantly decreased (p = 0.034, 0.001, 0.008 0.008, 0.040, respectively) following anti-TB drug treatment in patients without lung cavitary disease at baseline. The mean sensitivity of this test in these patients was 83% when the IgM response to a single lipid antigen was used; it was >90% when responses to 2 or more lipids were assessed. In contrast, cavitary TB patients showed an overall IgM increase, with a significant rise against PE (p = 0.025). There was no significant difference in the change in antibody levels between patients who remained culture-positive and those who culture-converted after 40 doses of drug therapy. The measurement of IgM anti-phospholipid antibodies may be a useful biomarker to monitor treatment response in non-cavitary TB patients. PMID:22406155

  2. The Lyman ? forest as a cosmic thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irši?, Vid; Viel, Matteo

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high resolution hydrodynamic simulations in terms of Lyman ? and Lyman ? one dimensional flux power spectra P?? and P??). In particular, we focus on the behaviour that the flux auto-power spectra and cross-power spectra P??) display when the intergalactic medium (IGM) thermal history is changed in a range of values that bracket a reference model, while cosmological parameters are kept fixed to best fit the cosmic microwave background data. We present empirical fits that describe at the sub-percent level the dependence of the power spectra on the thermal parameters. At the largest scales, the power spectra show a constant bias between each other that is set by the parameters describing the IGM thermal state. The cross-power spectrum has an oscillatory pattern and crosses zero at a scale which depends on T0, the IGM temperature at the mean density, for reasonable values of the power-law index ? of the IGM temperature-density relation T=T0(1+?)?-1). By performing a Fisher matrix analysis, we find that the power spectrum P?? is more sensitive to the thermal history than P?? alone, due to the fact that it probes denser regions than Lyman ?. When we combine the power and cross spectra the constraints on ? can be improved by a factor ~ 4, while the constraints on T0 improve by a factor of ~ 2. We address the role of signal-to-noise and resolution by mocking realistic observations and we conclude that the framework presented in this work can significantly improve the knowledge of the IGM thermal state, which will in turn guarantee better constraints on IGM-derived cosmological parameters.

  3. Quantitative radiommunoassay for DNA-binding antibodies. [Iodine 131, Iodine 125

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Guyer, R.L.; Minami, R.M.; Teplitz, R.L.

    1981-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) is described for the measurement of serum immunoglobulins capable of binding to double-standard or single-standard DNA. DNA attached to Sephadex G-50 by ultraviolet radiation was used as a solid- phase immunoabsorbent for DNA-binding proteins from serum. Goat anti-human (GAH) IgG (/sup 125/I-labeled) were used to detect the human immunoglobulins bound onto the washed DNA-Sephadex. The quantities of immunoglobulins bound were determined by comparison with a standard curve constructed by dilution of a plasma from an systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient containing known amounts of bound, DNA-specific IgM and IgG. Another RIA was employed for measuring levels of IgG and IgM. In combination with measurements of the total serum IgM and IgG, the RIA allowed for the determination of the fraction of the total serum IgM or IgG that was specific for double- or single-standard DNA. For a pool of normal human sera the quantities were as follows: 0.04% of the total IgM and 0.001% of the total IgG bound double-standard DNA; 0.22% of the total IgM and 0.05% of the total IgG bound single-stranded DNA. This capability is important because information regarding the quantitative measurement of antibodies to DNA and their class determination may be of significance in monitoring the status of subjects with SLE.

  4. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  5. The Lyman ? forest as a cosmic thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Irši?, Vid; Viel, Matteo E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high resolution hydrodynamic simulations in terms of Lyman ? and Lyman ? one dimensional flux power spectra P{sub ??} and P{sub ??}). In particular, we focus on the behaviour that the flux auto-power spectra and cross-power spectra P{sub ??}) display when the intergalactic medium (IGM) thermal history is changed in a range of values that bracket a reference model, while cosmological parameters are kept fixed to best fit the cosmic microwave background data. We present empirical fits that describe at the sub-percent level the dependence of the power spectra on the thermal parameters. At the largest scales, the power spectra show a constant bias between each other that is set by the parameters describing the IGM thermal state. The cross-power spectrum has an oscillatory pattern and crosses zero at a scale which depends on T{sub 0}, the IGM temperature at the mean density, for reasonable values of the power-law index ? of the IGM temperature-density relation T=T{sub 0}(1+?){sup ?-1}). By performing a Fisher matrix analysis, we find that the power spectrum P{sub ??} is more sensitive to the thermal history than P{sub ??} alone, due to the fact that it probes denser regions than Lyman ?. When we combine the power and cross spectra the constraints on ? can be improved by a factor ? 4, while the constraints on T{sub 0} improve by a factor of ? 2. We address the role of signal-to-noise and resolution by mocking realistic observations and we conclude that the framework presented in this work can significantly improve the knowledge of the IGM thermal state, which will in turn guarantee better constraints on IGM-derived cosmological parameters.

  6. Association of anti-cardiolipin antibodies with vascular thrombosis and neurological manifestation of Behçets disease.

    PubMed

    al-Dalaan, A N; al-Ballaa, S R; al-Janadi, M A; Bohlega, S; Bahabri, S

    1993-03-01

    We have studied 44 patients with Behçet's Disease (BD) to look for any correlation of arterial and venous thrombosis or central nervous system (CNS) manifestations with anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACLA). Twenty patients were positive for ACLA by MELISA method. Ten patients had IgG antibody, four had IgM and six had both IgG and IgM. Of these patients, 11 had a history of vascular thrombosis and thrombophlebitis and nine had CNS manifestations. The association of ACLA with vascular thrombosis or CNS manifestation of Behçet's disease was statistically not significant. PMID:8467608

  7. Quasar absorption lines with a nonzero cosmological constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Edwin L.; Ikeuchi, Satoru

    1992-01-01

    Quasar absorption lines in flat universes with nonzero cosmological constant Lambda are examined and compared with more conventional zero Lambda universes. Various evolution effects for intergalactic absorbers and the observed number density evolution of each absorption system are examined in order to discriminate between evolution effects and the cosmological models. An interesting interaction between Lambda effects and cosmic absorption phenomena is explored. Equations describing IGM absorption statistics are developed for nonzero Lambda cosmologies, both for unevolving absorber populations and some of the more popular physical models for the IGM and intergalactic clouds which include the effects of the absorber evolution.

  8. Limits on Intergalactic Dust during Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imara, N.; Loeb, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we constrain the dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts. We employ models for dust in the local universe to constrain the dust-to-gas ratio during the epoch of reionization at redshifts z ? 6–10. The observed level of reddening of high redshift galaxies implies that the IGM was enriched to an intergalactic dust-to-gas ratio of less than 3% of the Milky Way value by a redshift of z = 10.

  9. Unusual serological response to hepatitis E virus in plasma donors consistent with re-infection.

    PubMed

    Baylis, S A; Crossan, C; Corman, V M; Blümel, J; Scobie, L; Dalton, H R

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV)-positive plasma donations, identified by a plasma mini-pool screening approach, were analysed using serological methods for the presence of anti-HEV IgM and IgG. Avidity testing was performed on the IgG-reactive donations. Anti-HEV IgG with high avidity was observed in two donors together with high viral loads, but with the absence of anti-HEV IgM. These data are suggestive of re-infection in a small proportion of plasma donors, which has not previously been reported. PMID:26031310

  10. A case of Mediterranean spotted fever associated with severe respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dželalija, Boris; Punda-Poli?, Volga; Medi?, Alan; Mraovi?, Boris; Šimurina, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is usually a mild endemic rickettsial disease occurring in southern Croatia. We have reported the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of an acute MSF case associated with severe respiratory distress syndrome and hemodynamical instability. The patient recovered completely after antimicrobial treatment. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (FOCUS Diagnostics Inc.) was performed to detect IgM and IgG antibodies to Rickettsia conorii. A significant increase of both IgM and IgG antibody titres found in paired acute- and convalescent-phase serum confirmed the diagnosis of acute MSF. PMID:26344605

  11. Suitability of Frozen Serum Stored in Gel Separator Primary Sampling Tubes for Serological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Sampedro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Camacho, Enrique; Manrique, Ester

    2004-01-01

    The suitability of frozen serum after storage in primary sampling tubes with a gel separator for serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing (hepatitis B virus surface antigen [HBs Ag], anti-HBs Ag, anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G [IgG], anti-rubella virus IgG, anti-cytomegalovirus IgM, and anti-Epstein-Barr virus IgM) was evaluated for 375 samples. No difference was found among test results using fresh or stored frozen serum PMID:14715572

  12. Stacking Lyman-alpha Forest Absorbers in the SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 Quasar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, Matthew; Mortonson, M. J.; Weinberg, D. H.; Lundgren, B.; Lee, K.; Aubourg, E.; Bailey, S. J.; Croft, R. A.; Mathur, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from stacking Lyman-alpha forest absorbers in the BOSS sample to achieve a variety of goals. Chief among them is the measurement of metals in the intergalactic medium (IGM) associated with the forest using various transitions, including several elements and species only seen using this technique. Metals in the IGM provide a valuable tracer of mechanical feedback - a crucial component of our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Surveys of galaxies with low transverse separation from quasar lines of sight and simulations allows us to make inferences on the nature of these absorbers.

  13. [Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Néel, A; Graveleau, J; Masseau, A; Agard, C; Caillon, J; Hamidou, M

    2013-06-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare localized granulomatosis of unknown aetiology that usually affects women of childbearing age. It often mimics breast carcinoma or abscess. Histopathologic evaluation and elimination of the others aetiologies of granuloma play a crucial role in the diagnosis. Its etiopathogeny remains poorly understood, but Corynebacteria might be involved. The disease course is usually protracted, with a significant impact on quality of life. The management of IGM remains controversial, but corticosteroids are usually the first-line treatment. PMID:22981187

  14. Abundances in the high-redshift Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Joop Schaye; Anthony Aguirre

    2005-09-06

    The enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM) with heavy elements provides us with a record of past star formation and with an opportunity to study the interactions between galaxies and their environments. We summarize current data analysis methods and observational constraints on abundances in the diffuse, high-redshift (z > 2) IGM. This review is targeted at interested outsiders and attempts to answer the following questions: Why should you care? What do we want to measure? How do we do it? What do we know? What are the common misconceptions?

  15. Cosmological Blastwaves and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    G. Mark Voit

    1996-05-13

    Winds from protogalactic starbursts and quasars can drive shocks that heat, ionize, and enrich the intergalactic medium. The Sedov-Taylor solution for point-like explosions adequately describes these blastwaves early in their development, but as the time since the explosion ($t - t_1$) approaches the age of the universe ($t$), cosmological effects begin to alter the blastwave's structure and growth rate. This paper presents an analytical solution for adiabatic blastwaves in an expanding universe, valid when the IGM is homogeneous and contains only a small fraction of the total mass density ($\\Omega_{\\rm IGM} intergalactic gas at $z \\sim 2 - 4$.

  16. A study of malware detection on smart mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Guobin

    2013-05-01

    The growing in use of smart mobile devices for everyday applications has stimulated the spread of mobile malware, especially on popular mobile platforms. As a consequence, malware detection becomes ever more critical in sustaining the mobile market and providing a better user experience. In this paper, we review the existing malware and detection schemes. Using real-world malware samples with known signatures, we evaluate four popular commercial anti-virus tools and our data shows that these tools can achieve high detection accuracy. To deal with the new malware with unknown signatures, we study the anomaly based detection using decision tree algorithm. We evaluate the effectiveness of our detection scheme using malware and legitimate software samples. Our data shows that the detection scheme using decision tree can achieve a detection rate up to 90% and a false positive rate as low as 10%.

  17. A Study on Architecture of Malicious Code Blocking Scheme with White List in Smartphone Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kijeong; Tolentino, Randy S.; Park, Gil-Cheol; Kim, Yong-Tae

    Recently, the interest and demands for mobile communications are growing so fast because of the increasing prevalence of smartphones around the world. In addition, the existing feature phones were replaced by smartphones and it has widely improved while using the explosive growth of Internet users using smartphones, e-commerce enabled Internet banking transactions and the importance of protecting personal information. Therefore, the development of smartphones antivirus products was developed and launched in order to prevent malicious code or virus infection. In this paper, we proposed a new scheme to protect the smartphone from malicious codes and malicious applications that are element of security threats in mobile environment and to prevent information leakage from malicious code infection. The proposed scheme is based on the white list smartphone application which only allows installing authorized applications and to prevent the installation of malicious and untrusted mobile applications which can possibly infect the applications and programs of smartphones.

  18. Design of Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm through System Base Behavior Analysis and Memory Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Cagalaban, Giovanni; Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

    More recently, botnet-based cyber attacks, including a spam mail or a DDos attack, have sharply increased, which poses a fatal threat to Internet services. At present, antivirus businesses make it top priority to detect malicious code in the shortest time possible (Lv.2), based on the graph showing a relation between spread of malicious code and time, which allows them to detect after malicious code occurs. Despite early detection, however, it is not possible to prevent malicious code from occurring. Thus, we have developed an algorithm that can detect precursor symptoms at Lv.1 to prevent a cyber attack using an evasion method of 'an executing environment aware attack' by analyzing system behaviors and monitoring memory.

  19. The effect of infected external computers on the spread of viruses: A compartment modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2013-12-01

    Inevitably, there exist infected computers outside of the Internet. This paper aims to understand how infected external computers affect the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a new virus-antivirus spreading model, which takes into account the effect of infected/immune external computers, is established. A systematic study shows that, unlike most previous models, the proposed model admits no virus-free equilibrium and admits a globally asymptotically stable viral equilibrium. This result implies that it would be practically impossible to eradicate viruses on the Internet. As a result, inhibiting the virus prevalence to below an acceptable level would be the next best thing. A theoretical study reveals the effect of different parameters on the steady virus prevalence. On this basis, a number of suggestions are made so as to contain virus spreading.

  20. Collecting Autonomous Spreading Malware Using High-Interaction Honeypots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuge, Jianwei; Holz, Thorsten; Han, Xinhui; Song, Chengyu; Zou, Wei

    Autonomous spreading malware in the form of worms or bots has become a severe threat in today's Internet. Collecting the sample as early as possible is a necessary precondition for the further treatment of the spreading malware, e.g., to develop antivirus signatures. In this paper, we present an integrated toolkit called HoneyBow, which is able to collect autonomous spreading malware in an automated manner using high-interaction honeypots. Compared to low-interaction honeypots, HoneyBow has several advantages due to a wider range of captured samples and the capability of collecting malware which propagates by exploiting new vulnerabilities. We validate the properties of HoneyBow with experimental data collected during a period of about nine months, in which we collected thousands of malware binaries. Furthermore, we demonstrate the capability of collecting new malware via a case study of a certain bot.

  1. Interaction of nanodiamonds materials with influenza viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, V. T.; Ivanova, M. V.; Spitsyn, B. V.; Garina, K. O.; Trushakova, S. V.; Manykin, A. A.; Korzhenevsky, A. P.; Burseva, E. I.

    2012-02-01

    The perspectives of the application of modern materials contained nanodiamonds (ND) are considered in this study. The interaction between detonation paniculate ND, soot and influenza A and B viruses, fragments of cDNA were analyzed at the normal conditions. It was shown that these sorbents can interact with the following viruses: reference epidemic strains of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)v, A(H3N2) and B viruses circulated in the word in 2000-2010. The allantoises, concentrated viruses, cDNA can be absorbed by ND sorbents and getting removed from water solutions within 20 min. ND sorbents can be used for the preparation of antivirus filters for water solution and for future diagnostic systems in virology.

  2. Metamorphic Virus Variants Classification Using Opcode Frequency Histogram

    E-print Network

    Rad, Babak Bashari

    2011-01-01

    In order to prevent detection and evade signature-based scanning methods, which are normally exploited by antivirus software, metamorphic viruses use several various obfuscation approaches. They transform their code in new instances as look entirely or partly different and contain dissimilar sequences of string, but their behavior and function remain unchanged. This obfuscation process allows them to stay away from the string based signature detection. In this research, we use a statistical technique to compare the similarity between two files infected by two morphed versions of a given metamorphic virus. Our proposed solution based on static analysis and it uses the histogram of machine instructions frequency in various offspring of obfuscated viruses. We use Euclidean histogram distance metric to compare a pair of portable executable (PE) files. The aim of this study is to show that for some particular obfuscation methods, the presented solution can be exploited to detect morphed varieties of a file. Hence,...

  3. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  4. Lack of security of networked medical equipment in radiology.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vinu; Korah, Ipeson

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. There are few articles in the literature describing the security and safety aspects of networked medical equipment in radiology departments. Most radiologists are unaware of the security issues. We review the security of the networked medical equipment of a typical radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All networked medical equipment in a radiology department was scanned for vulnerabilities with a port scanner and a network vulnerability scanner, and the vulnerabilities were classified using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. A network sniffer was used to capture and analyze traffic on the radiology network for exposure of confidential patient data. We reviewed the use of antivirus software and firewalls on the networked medical equipment. USB ports and CD and DVD drives in the networked medical equipment were tested to see whether they allowed unauthorized access. Implementation of the virtual private network (VPN) that vendors use to access the radiology network was reviewed. RESULTS. Most of the networked medical equipment in our radiology department used vulnerable software with open ports and services. Of the 144 items scanned, 64 (44%) had at least one critical vulnerability, and 119 (83%) had at least one high-risk vulnerability. Most equipment did not encrypt traffic and allowed capture of confidential patient data. Of the 144 items scanned, two (1%) used antivirus software and three (2%) had a firewall enabled. The USB ports were not secure on 49 of the 58 (84%) items with USB ports, and the CD or DVD drive was not secure on 17 of the 31 (55%) items with a CD or DVD drive. One of three vendors had an insecure implementation of VPN access. CONCLUSION. Radiologists and the medical industry need to urgently review and rectify the security issues in existing networked medical equipment. We hope that the results of our study and this article also raise awareness among radiologists about the security issues of networked medical equipment. PMID:25615757

  5. The distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1988-01-01

    The evolution and distribution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM) have been studied, along with collisionless dark matter in a Universe dominated by cold dark matter. The Einstein-deSitter universe with omega sub 0 = 1 and h = 0.5 was considered (here h = H sub 0 bar 100/kms/Mpc and H sub 0 is the present value of the Hubble constant). It is assumed that initially dark matter composes 90 pct and baryonic matter composes 10 pct of total mass, and that the primordial baryonic matter is comprised of H and He, with the abundance of He equal to 10 pct of H by number. Galaxies are allowed to form out of the IGM, if the total density and baryonic density satisfy an overdensity criterion. Subsequently, the newly formed galaxies release 10 to the 60th ergs of energy into the IGM over a period of 10 to the 8th years. Calculations have been performed with 32 to the 3rd dark matter particles and 32 to the 3rd cells in a cube with comoving side length L = 9.6/h Mpc. Dark matter particles and galaxies have been followed with an N-body code, while the IGM has been followed with a fluid code.

  6. Teaching the Structure of Immunoglobulins by Molecular Visualization and SDS-PAGE Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory class combines molecular visualization and laboratory experimentation to teach the structure of the immunoglobulins (Ig). In the first part of the class, the three-dimensional structures of the human IgG and IgM molecules available through the RCSB PDB database are visualized using freely available software. In the second part, IgG…

  7. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for Patients With Primary Immune Deficiencies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-08

    SCID; Omenn's Syndrome; Reticular Dysgenesis; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome; Common Variable Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; CD40 Ligand Deficiency; Hyper IgM Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Griscelli Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Langerhan's Cell Histiocytosis

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the measurement of specific antibodies in experimentally induced ovine toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, R. A.; Joynson, D. H.; Wilsmore, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Tachyzoites of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii were inoculated intravenously into sheep following which serum samples were collected at approximately weekly intervals for 9 months. The sera were examined by the toxoplasma dye test and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) specifically developed for investigations of ovine toxoplasmosis. One was an antibody class capture assay for the detection of anti-toxoplasma specific IgM, the other an indirect assay which detected anti-toxoplasma IgG. Some of the sheep had antibodies to toxoplasma prior to inoculation but none had specific IgM. Sera collected 17 days after inoculation showed that all had raised specific antibody levels but the only sheep that produced specific antitoxoplasma IgM were those that were initially without any antibody. Specific IgM could be detected in all these particular sheep for at least 1 month after infection and up to 3 months in some. Specific IgG persisted at high levels for at least 3 months and could still be detected at moderate levels for at least 9 months. The ELISA methods described are simple to perform and could clearly distinguish between previous infection and this experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:3356219

  9. A Comparative Study of Conservative versus Surgical Treatment Protocols for 77 Patients with Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Yabano?lu, Hakan; Çolako?lu, Tamer; Belli, Sedat; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Bolat, Filiz Aka; Pourbagher, Ay?in; Tezcaner, Tugan; Yildirim, Sedat; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and demographic data of patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) and to compare the results of conservative versus surgical treatment protocols. The demographic data, clinical findings, microbiological and pathologic features, scanning and treatment methods, recurrence, and recovery rates of 77 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the type of treatment received. Core biopsies were used to diagnose 37 patients: 26 using incisional biopsies and 14 using excisional biopsies. Of the patient population with IGM, 31 were treated with surgical excision, one with a simple mastectomy, and one with a subcutaneous mastectomy combined with a breast implant, whereas 44 were treated with steroids. The recovery rates of the 44 patients who were treated conservatively were 6 (1-15) months while for the 33 patients who were treated surgically, it was 1 (1-5) month (p = 0.001). Nine patients from the conservative treatment group experienced a recurrence while there were no recurrences in the surgically treated group (p = 0.009). Among all patients, the recurrence rate was 11.7% (9/77) while the average follow-up period was 16.57 ± 18.57 months. As a comparative study between conservative treatment protocols and surgical ones for patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM), this study is the largest to date. A wide surgical excision is the preferred approach for treating patients with IGM because of the low recurrence rate. PMID:25858348

  10. Management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: dilemmas in diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory disease. Because of it’s uncommon etiology and rareness, diagnosis and treatment is still a challenge. Owing to wide spectrum of IGM it is difficult to standardize and optimize the treatment. The aim of this study was to report and describe the clinical signs, radiological findings, management, clinical course and the recurrence rate of the patients which were treated due to IGM. Methods In this retrospective review of patients diagnosed with IGM histopathologically between January 2006 and December 2011, medical reports, ultrasonography (US) and mammograhy (MMG) findings, follow-up information and recurrence were obtained from records. Results Painful, firm and ill defined mass was the symptom of all patients. While parenchymal heterogeneity, abscess and mass were the findings of US, increased asymmetric density was the main finding of MMG. Wide local excision was performed in 15 (62.5%) patients, incisional biopsy with abscess drainage was performed in 9 (37.5%) patients. Median follow-up was 34.8 (range 10–66) months. Conclusions While the physical examination give rise to thought of breast carcinoma, the appearance of parenchymal heterogeneity and abscess formation on US especially with enlarged axillary lymph nodes support the presence of an inflammatory process. But these findings do not exclude carcinoma. Hereby, histopathologic confirmation is mandatory to ensure that a malignancy is not missed. PMID:25189179

  11. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: Comparison of Wide Local Excision with or without Corticosteroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Akcan, Alper; Öz, A. Bahadir; Dogan, Serap; Akgün, Hülya; Akyüz, Muhammet; Ok, Engin; Gök, Mustafa; Talih, Tutkun

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon chronic inflammatory disease of the breast with uncertain optimal treatment regimen. In this study, our purpose was to report our clinical experience with 74 IGM patients who were treated wide local excision with or without steroid therapy. Patients and Method 74 cases diagnosed histologically as IGM were identified from surgical and pathological records between January 1995 and January 2012. Group 1 (surgery-only group) comprised 53 patients, and the 21 patients in group 2 were treated with corticosteroids prior to surgical treatment (steroid-and-surgery group). Results Follow-up data were complete for 67 (91.7%) of the 73 patients. Recurrence developed in 4 (7.5%) patients in the surgery-only group, while there was no recurrence in the steroid-and-surgery group; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.19). Conclusion Systemic steroid therapy with surgical resection is the recommended first-line treatment strategy for IGM. PMID:24944554

  12. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: An Autoimmune Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Karakece, Engin; Kivilcim, Taner; Dikicier, Enis; Cakmak, Guner; Celebi, Fehmi; Ciftci, Ihsan Hakk?

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the autoimmune basis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) by determining the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) levels of patients diagnosed with IGM. Material and Methods. Twenty-six IGM patients were evaluated. Serum samples were analyzed for autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using a substrate kit that induced fluorescein-conjugated goat antibodies to human immunoglobulin G (IgG). IIF patterns were read at serum dilutions of 1?:?40 and 1?:?100 for ANA positivity. Using the immunoblot technique, the sera of patients were assayed at dilutions of 1?:?40 and 1?:?100 for human autoantibodies of the IgG class to 15 lines of highly purified ENAs. Results. In the IIF studies for ANA, positivity was identified for four different patterns in the 1?:?40 diluted preparations, for three different patients in the 1?:?100 diluted preparations and only one pattern was identified at the 1?:?320 dilution. In the ENA studies, positivity was identified for four different pattern in the 1?:?40 dilution, and only one pattern was identified at the 1?:?100 dilution. Conclusion. This study was not able to support the eventual existence of an autoimmune basis for IGM. PMID:24082849

  13. Glycolipoprotein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a protective antigen against P. aeruginosa infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Sensakovic, J W; Bartell, P F

    1977-01-01

    After primary subcutaneous immunization of rabbits with glycolipoprotein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa BI, indirect hemagglutinating and bacterial agglutinating activities appeared in the antiserum 6 days after immunization and reached a peak between 15 and 20 days. Both these in vitro activities paralleled in vivo antipseudomonas-induced leukopenia and mouse passive-protection activities. Further experiments indicated that a functional association exists between the hemagglutinating and passive-protection activities, and that passive protection depends on activity levels in the plasma rather than in the peritoneum. After intraperitoneal injection in mice, in vitro and in vivo activities of antiglycolipoprotein serum declined in the peritoneal cavity as the plasma levels increased. After intravenous injection of the antiglycolipoprotein serum, initially high levels of in vitro and in vivo activity declined at approximately equal rates. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) fractions from 15-day antiglycolipoprotein serum were assayed for biological activity. Most of the hemagglutinating and bacterial agglutinating activity and all of the mouse passive-protection activity were found in the IgM fraction. Assay of antiglycolipoprotein serum after 2-mercaptoethanol inactivation of IgM showed that most of the in vitro and all of the passive-protection activities had been destroyed, again locating these activities principally in the IgM fraction of the original antiserum. Images PMID:411754

  14. Estimation and Identification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae Protective Antibody in Sera of Rabbits and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Stark, D. M.; Norcross, N. L.; Leahey, J. E.

    1969-01-01

    Rabbit and cow anti-Streptococcus dysgalactiae sera were tested by bacterial agglutination, complement fixation, hemagglutination, and immunodiffusion for the presence of antibody. The results of these tests were compared with mouse-protection studies on the same serum to estimate which in vitro test would best reflect the in vivo protective capacity of serum. Identification of the antibody constituents responsible for the mouse protection, hemagglutination, and complement fixation titers were established by reacting whole and diluted antisera with mercaptoethanol before and after testing. Results indicate that the complement fixation test may be a more accurate indicator of IgG protective bovine and rabbit antibody, whereas the hemagglutination test may more readily reflect a wider range of protective antibody levels and IgM. The complement fixation test showed some shared responses to IgG and IgM in both the rabbit and cow, whereas the IgM components seemed to be the predominant factor influencing hemagglutination titers in the rabbit and more so in the bovine. Mouse protection tests with mercaptoethanol-treated cow and rabbit sera indicate that the protective capacity of these antisera is shared between IgM and IgG components. PMID:4980066

  15. B and CD4+ T cell expression of TLR2 are critical for optimal induction of a T cell-dependent humoral immune response to intact Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, S.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Colino, Jesus; Yeh, T-J; Chen, Q.; Sen, G.; Snapper, C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary TLR2?/? mice immunized with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pn) elicit normal IgM, but defective CD4+ T cell-dependent (TD) type 1 IgG isotype production, associated with a largely intact innate immune response. We studied the TD phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific IgG3 versus the T cell-independent IgM response to Pn to determine whether TLR2 signals directly via the adaptive immune system. Pn-activated TLR2?/? bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC) have only a modest defect in cytokine secretion, undergo normal maturation, and when transferred into naive WT mice elicit a normal IgM and IgG3 anti-PC response, relative to WT BMDC. Pn synergizes with BCR and TCR signaling for DNA synthesis in purified WT B and CD4+ T cells, respectively, but is defective in cells lacking TLR2. Pn primes TLR2?/? mice for a normal CD4+ T cell IFN-? recall response. Notably, TLR2?/? B cells transferred into RAG-2?/? mice with WT CD4+ T cells, or TLR2?/? CD4+ T cells transferred into athymic nude mice, each elicit a defective IgG3, in contrast to normal IgM, anti-PC response relative to WT cells. These data are the first to demonstrate a major role for B cell and CD4+ T cell expression of TLR2 for eliciting an anti-bacterial humoral immune response. PMID:19003933

  16. Carla Remulla Genomics and Medicine

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    , found in the blood and lymph fluid and are the first antibody made in the immune response. IgE. The types of immunoglobulins and deficiency syndromes associated with them include IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD and Ig and the Effects on One's Life Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are substances that attach to foreign

  17. Correlation of Gene Expression and Genome Mutation in Single B-Cells

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    of the antibody heavy chain gene, initially expressed as IgM and IgD classes, may change to IgG, IgA, or IgE applied this method by quantifying the relationships between gene expression and antibody mutation specific to antigens. For B- cells, these receptors, called immunoglobulins, or antibodies, form

  18. Immunobiology, 27 April 2014 1 Collegekaartnummer

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    respiratory problems within minutes. This process is most likely mediated by: a. IgG antibodies b. IgE antibodies c. IgM antibodies d. NK cells 2. Which statement is most correct? a. The MHC is polygenic is present in Fruit flies and regulates antibody responses d. The MHC is polymorphic and evolved about 450

  19. Fuzzy Support for Serodiagnosis

    E-print Network

    Steimann, Friedrich

    .g., IgG, IgM, IgA, or more, and the subjectof this article,patho- IgE), and in the quality with acquired im- cific antibodies, a variety of tests are avail- mune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able. Tests differ in the type of antibody exposed to itsdevastating effects. Further- they respond to (e

  20. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, June 2006, p. 43784385 Vol. 26, No. 11 0270-7306/06/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/MCB.02375-05

    E-print Network

    Papavasiliou, F. Nina

    . This allows a B cell to switch from the production of IgM to the production of IgG, IgE, or IgA. Even though as it moves away from the promoter. Antibody gene diversification in the secondary lymphoid or- gans, thereby allowing for selection of high-affinity antibody variants. Class switch recom- bination

  1. INSTRUCTIONS 0778.520510 20512

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    of Ig (i.e., IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE and IgD). Protein L also binds single chain variable fragments (Scfv ....................................................................................................................................................1 Gravity-flow Column Procedure for Antibody Purification than other antibody-binding proteins such as Protein A or Protein G. Protein L binds to all classes

  2. Protein Sequence and Structure Analysis of Antibody Variable Domains

    E-print Network

    Martin, Andrew C.R.

    domains (IgM and IgE have an additional CH4 domain). Various fragments are generated artificiallyChapter 3 Protein Sequence and Structure Analysis of Antibody Variable Domains Andrew C.R. Martin 3 on Sequence Variability and Antibody Structure Porter (1959) first proposed the four-chain model

  3. Suppression of Fc?-Receptor-Mediated Antibody Effector Function during Persistent Viral Infection

    E-print Network

    Yamada, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of IgE antinuclear antibodies in rheumatoidof antibody Fc components (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA) thatantibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) (97, 98). The Fc portion of IgE

  4. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii infection in human adults. From three rural communities in Derango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is scarce information concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people of rural Mexico. Anti-T. Gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 462 adult inhabitants from 3 rural communities of Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 110 (23.8% of ...

  5. Significantly improved accuracy of diagnosis of early Lyme disease by peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the borreliacidal antibody epitope of Borrelia burgdorferi OspC.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Dean A; Lovrich, Steven D; Asp, Krista E; Mathiason, Michelle A; Albrecht, Stephanie E; Schell, Ronald F; Callister, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Highly specific borreliacidal antibodies are induced by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, and the immunodominant response during early Lyme disease is specific for an epitope within the 7 amino acids nearest the C terminus of OspC. We evaluated the ability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a synthetic peptide (OspC7) that matched the region to detect the response and compared the sensitivity during early Lyme disease to that for an FDA-approved Western blot. When the optical density value was adjusted to 98% specificity based on the results from testing normal or uncharacterized sera (n = 236) or sera from patients with blood factors or illnesses that commonly produce antibodies that cross-react with B. burgdorferi antigens (n = 77), 115 (73%) of 157 sera from patients likely to have early Lyme disease were positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and 17 (11%) also had IgG antibodies. In addition, the IgM ELISA reactivities and the titers of antibodies detected by a flow cytometric borreliacidal antibody test correlated closely (r = 0.646). Moreover, the IgM ELISA was significantly more sensitive (P < 0.001) than the Western blot procedure. The findings therefore confirmed that the peptide IgM ELISA detected OspC borreliacidal antibodies and provided strong evidence that the test can eliminate the necessity for confirming early Lyme disease by a supplementary test such as Western blotting. PMID:18417666

  6. DNA detection of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep milk and blood samples in relation to phase of infection.

    PubMed

    Luptakova, L; Benova, K; Rencko, A; Petrovova, E

    2015-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that is important both for veterinary medicine (economic losses in the herd) and for public health (immunocompromised patients and pregnant women). An important source of Toxoplasma infection in humans is consumption of contaminated meat and milk (undercooked meat and unpasteurized milk). Small ruminants are important in both milk and meat production throughout the world because of free-range husbandry. The purpose of our study was to detect the presence of T. gondii DNA in ewes' milk 1 month after the term, and to determine the relationship between the occurrence of this DNA in blood and milk based on the phase of infection. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the animals were divided into two groups (immunoglobulin M positive (IgM+), IgM-). With real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), T. gondii DNA was detected in seven milk samples (28%) and five blood samples (20%) of the IgM+ group (25 samples). In the IgM- group T. gondii DNA was detected in two milk samples (3.6%) out of 55 samples. PMID:25630551

  7. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in renal patients: rate, pattern, predictors and related morbidity.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Hajar; El-Taweel, Hend; Abou-Holw, Sahar; Khalil, Safia; Wagdy, Eman

    2015-04-01

    Infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to their depressed immunity. T. gondii is a ubiquitous parasite that causes severe manifestations in immunocomprmised patients. The present study investigated rate, pattern, predictors and related morbidity of T. gondii seropositivity in CKD patients. The study included four groups: i- patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD; n = 60); ii- patients with systemic lupus erythematosus on immunosuppressive therapy for lupus nephritis (SLE; n = 30) iii-Renal transplant recipients (RTR; n = 30) and iv- healthy controls (HC; n = 30). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM & IgG avidity were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Patients' medical data and information on plausible risk factors for toxoplasmosis were recorded. Results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity rates in HD, SLE and RTR groups (61.7, 60 & 70% respectively) were significantly high compared to HC (30 %). Among seropositive patients, 79% of those with negative IgM displayed high IgG avidity confirming past infection. None of IgM positive patients had low IgG avidity. The latter was detected in some IgM negative patients. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was significantly associated with undercooked meat consumption (adjusted OR = 6.256, CI = 2.167-18.056) and blood transfusion (adjusted OR = 5.953, CI = 2.987-11.864). No significant association could be found between T. gondii seropositivity and the clinical manifestations of CKD patients. PMID:26084054

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among healthy blood donors in south-east of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, H; Saedi Dezaki, E; Soleimani, S; Baneshi, M R; Kheirandish, F; Ezatpour, B; Zia-Ali, N

    2015-07-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies and the associated risk factors among healthy blood donors in Kerman province, south-eastern Iran. Structured questionnaires (before the donors gave blood) were used to obtain information on risk factors for infection. Totally, 500 serum samples from healthy blood donors of Kerman Blood Transfusion Organization (KBTO) at Kerman, Iran, were screened for IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Roche Elecsys Toxo IgM assay. Real-time PCR was used to detect DNA of T. gondii in the IgM-positive samples. Seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies was 28.8% and 3.2%, respectively. In the multiple logistic regression, it could be observed that living in rural regions, having B blood type, being in contact with cats, consuming raw vegetables and raw milk/egg and doing agricultural activities were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. T. gondii DNA was also found in one (9.0%) of IgM-positive samples. In this study, it was found that T. gondii infection was present among healthy blood donors in south-east of Iran. Therefore, it is suggested to design screening programmes for preventing transfusion-transmitted toxoplasmosis. PMID:25891186

  9. Validation of a Microsphere Immunoassay for Serological Leptospirosis Diagnosis in Human Serum by Comparison to the Current Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Wynwood, Sarah J.; Burns, Mary-Anne A.; Graham, Glenn C.; Weier, Steven L.; McKay, David B.; Craig, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    A microsphere immunoassay (MIA) utilising Luminex xMap technology that is capable of determining leptospirosis IgG and IgM independently was developed. The MIA was validated using 200 human samples submitted for routine leptospirosis serology testing. The traditional microscopic agglutination (MAT) method (now 100 years old) suffers from a significant range of technical problems including a dependence on antisera which is difficult to source and produce, false positive reactions due to auto-agglutination and an inability to differentiate between IgG and IgM antibodies. A comparative validation method of the MIA against the MAT was performed and used to determine the ability of the MIA to detect leptospiral antibodies when compared with the MAT. The assay was able to determine samples in the reactive, equivocal and non-reactive ranges when compared to the MAT and was able to differentiate leptospiral IgG antibodies from leptospiral IgM antibodies. The MIA is more sensitive than the MAT and in true infections was able to detect low levels of antibody in the later stages of the acute phase as well as detect higher levels of IgM antibody earlier in the immune phase of the infection. The relatively low cost, high throughput platform and significantly reduced dependency on large volumes of rabbit antisera make this assay worthy of consideration for any microbiological assay that currently uses agglutination assays. PMID:25807009

  10. Isotype restricted exceptionally long CDR3H expression and extensive somatic mutations contribute to antibody diversification in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibody diversification in IgM and IgG antibodies was analyzed in an 18-month old bovine (Bos taurus) suffering from naturally occurring chronic and recurrent infections due to bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) involving impaired leukocyte Beta-2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) expression in le...

  11. Protective T Cell–Independent Antiviral Antibody Responses Are Dependent on Complement

    PubMed Central

    Ochsenbein, Adrian F.; Pinschewer, Daniel D.; Odermatt, Bernhard; Carroll, Michael C.; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1999-01-01

    Complement is part of the innate immune system and one of the first lines of host defense against infections. Its importance was evaluated in this study in virus infections in mice deficient either in soluble complement factors (C3?/?, C4?/?) or in the complement signaling complex (complement receptor [CR]2?/?, CD19?/?). The induction of the initial T cell–independent neutralizing immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibody response to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), poliomyelitis virus, and recombinant vaccinia virus depended on efficient antigen trapping by CR3 and -4–expressing macrophages of the splenic marginal zone. Neutralizing IgM and IgG antibody responses were largely independent of CR2-mediated stimulation of B cells when mice were infected with live virus. In contrast, immunizations with nonreplicating antigens revealed an important role of B cell stimulation via CR2 in the switch to IgG. The complement cascade was activated after infection with VSV via the classical pathway, and active complement cleavage products augmented the effector function of neutralizing IgM and IgG antibodies to VSV by a factor of 10–100. Absence of the early neutralizing antibody responses, together with the reduced efficiency of neutralizing IgM in C3?/? mice, led to a drastically enhanced susceptibility to disease after infection with VSV. PMID:10523614

  12. Investigation of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Isotypes in an Ancestral Mucosal Immune Model 

    E-print Network

    Du, Christina

    2012-10-19

    . On the other hand, the refined Ag-specific ELISA protocol did present a significant increase in serum IgM response in frogs immunized systemically over orally immunized animals, but not an overall IgX response. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that, contrary...

  13. Evolution of Mucosal Immunoglobulins: Xenopus Laevis IgX and Thunnus Orientalis IgZ/T 

    E-print Network

    Mashoof, Sara

    2014-04-15

    Perciformes. Tuna IgM and IgT are each composed of four constant (CH) domains. We cloned and sequenced 48 different variable (VH) domain rearrangements of tuna immunoglobulins and grouped the VH gene sequences to four VH gene segment families based on 70...

  14. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Tiffany F.; Díaz-González, Esteban E.; Erasmus, Jesse H.; Malo-García, Iliana R.; Langsjoen, Rose M.; Patterson, Edward I.; Auguste, Dawn I.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-01-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  15. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Tiffany F; Díaz-González, Esteban E; Erasmus, Jesse H; Malo-García, Iliana R; Langsjoen, Rose M; Patterson, Edward I; Auguste, Dawn I; Forrester, Naomi L; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-11-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  16. Protective T cell-independent antiviral antibody responses are dependent on complement.

    PubMed

    Ochsenbein, A F; Pinschewer, D D; Odermatt, B; Carroll, M C; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M

    1999-10-18

    Complement is part of the innate immune system and one of the first lines of host defense against infections. Its importance was evaluated in this study in virus infections in mice deficient either in soluble complement factors (C3(-/-), C4(-/-)) or in the complement signaling complex (complement receptor [CR]2(-/-), CD19(-/-)). The induction of the initial T cell-independent neutralizing immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibody response to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), poliomyelitis virus, and recombinant vaccinia virus depended on efficient antigen trapping by CR3 and -4-expressing macrophages of the splenic marginal zone. Neutralizing IgM and IgG antibody responses were largely independent of CR2-mediated stimulation of B cells when mice were infected with live virus. In contrast, immunizations with nonreplicating antigens revealed an important role of B cell stimulation via CR2 in the switch to IgG. The complement cascade was activated after infection with VSV via the classical pathway, and active complement cleavage products augmented the effector function of neutralizing IgM and IgG antibodies to VSV by a factor of 10-100. Absence of the early neutralizing antibody responses, together with the reduced efficiency of neutralizing IgM in C3(-/-) mice, led to a drastically enhanced susceptibility to disease after infection with VSV. PMID:10523614

  17. Rene Fassbender , MPE Tel: 30000-3319, rfassben@mpe.mpg.de

    E-print Network

    Boehringer, Hans

    to Observational Cosmology II ­ SS10 6 Definition of Extragalactic Cosmic Backgrounds: mean integrated quasi a strict upper limit for luminosity density evolution models of a contributing source population integrated population of highly relativistic electrons pervading the intergalactic medium (IGM) · such a population

  18. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXIII: fetal piglets infected with a vaccine strain of PRRS virus display the same immune dysregulation seen in isolator piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ig levels and antibody repertoire diversification in fetal piglets infected with an attenuated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) were measured. Serum Ig levels were greatly elevated in PRRSV-infected fetuses; IgG was elevated >10-fold, IgM > 8-fold and IgA >2-fold comp...

  19. MFR PAPER 1287 Cellular Immunity in Fish as Measured

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1287 Cellular Immunity in Fish as Measured by Lymphocyte Stimulation M. MICHAEL SIGEL to be capable of regulating immune re- sponse. These include the IgM natural antibodies (some of which have nonspecific immunologic reactivity), immune complexes, and suppressor cells. All of these may combine

  20. CLINICAL AND VACCINE IMMUNOLOGY, May 2011, p. 851859 Vol. 18, No. 5 1556-6811/11/$12.00 doi:10.1128/CVI.00409-10

    E-print Network

    Fan, Jianqing

    Immunoassay for Lyme Disease Using VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM Antibodies: Improving Test Performance through approach to Lyme disease laboratory diagnosis, comprised of an initial serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA with early acute Lyme disease, 82 patients with early-convalescent-phase disease, 47 patients with stage II

  1. Generation of B cell-deficient pigs by highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengjiao; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Yilin; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Zijian; Jin, Yong; Liu, Xiaorui; Xiong, Qiang; Chen, Qin; Zhang, Manling; Li, Xiaokang; Zhao, Lihua; Li, Ze; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Yanfei; Hu, Feifei; Huang, Juan; Li, Rongfeng; Dai, Yifan

    2015-08-20

    Generating B cell-deficient mutant is the first step to produce human antibody repertoires in large animal models. In this study, we applied the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system to target the JH region of the pig IgM heavy chain gene which is crucial for B cell development and differentiation. Transfection of IgM-targeting Cas9 plasmid in primary porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) enabled inducing gene knock out (KO) in up to 53.3% of colonies analyzed, a quarter of which harbored biallelic modification, which was much higher than that of the traditional homologous recombination (HR). With the aid of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, three piglets with the biallelic IgM heavy chain gene mutation were produced. The piglets showed no antibody-producing B cells which indicated that the biallelic mutation of the IgM heavy chain gene effectively knocked out the function of the IgM and resulted in a B cell-deficient phenotype. Our study suggests that the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT technology is an efficient genome-editing approach in pigs. PMID:26336800

  2. The imprint of the cosmic supermassive black hole growth history on the 21 cm background radiation

    E-print Network

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L; Perna, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    The redshifted 21 cm transition line of hydrogen tracks the thermal evolution of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) at "cosmic dawn," during the emergence of the first luminous astrophysical objects (~100 Myr after the Big Bang) but before these objects ionized the IGM (~400-800 Myr after the Big Bang). Because X-rays, in particular, are likely to be the chief energy courier for heating the IGM, measurements of the 21 cm signature can be used to infer knowledge about the first astrophysical X-ray sources. Using analytic arguments and a numerical population synthesis algorithm, we argue that the progenitors of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) should be the dominant source of hard astrophysical X-rays---and thus the primary driver of IGM heating and the 21 cm signature---at redshifts $z 20$. An absence of such a signature in the forthcoming observational data would imply that SMBH formation occurred later (e.g. via so-called direct collapse scenarios), that it was not a common occurrence in early galaxies ...

  3. Thinking outside the halo: tracing the large-scale distribution of diffuse cosmic metals with semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shattow, Genevieve M.; Croton, Darren J.; Bibiano, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    With the installation of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, measurements of the metal content of the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) are now available. Using a new grid-based model for diffuse gas coupled to the SAGE semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, we examine the impact of supernova feedback on the pollution of the IGM. We consider different assumptions for the reheating and ejection of gas by supernovae and their dependence on galaxy circular velocity and gas surface density. Where metals are present, we find the most likely metallicity to be -1.5 IGM with the highest metallicities will be near galaxies with M* ˜ 1010.5 h-1 M? and in environments of densities ˜10 times the mean. We also find that 90 per cent of IGM metals at z = 0 are ejected by galaxies with stellar masses less than 1010.33 h-1 M?.

  4. Joint Action, Group Minds and Musical Improvisation: A Philosophical Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Kevin

    2013-11-27

    In this thesis, I shall explore the possibility of offering a non-reductive theory of group minds and joint action in performances of IGM. What makes my account distinct from many currently on offer is that I suggest group minds exist as both...

  5. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. )

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  6. Identification of functional exonic splicing enhancer motifs recognized

    E-print Network

    of the mouse IgM gene. This 73-nucleotide ESE is essential for splicing of the preceding intron between exons MIdentification of functional exonic splicing enhancer motifs recognized by individual SR proteins identified three novel classes of exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) recognized by human SF2/ASF, SRp40

  7. Effect of Rheumatoid Factor on Complement-Mediated Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    McDuffie, F. C.; Brumfield, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    The frequency and amount of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) correlate with the severity of the disease and the number of complications. Though previous studies of RF in subacute bacterial endocarditis have shown that RF inhibits phagocytosis of microorganisms by granulocytes, the presence of low levels of complement (C) in blood and synovial fluid of patients with the highest titers of RF suggests that an interaction between RF and C may contribute to the inflammatory process in RA. We thus employed a quantitative methodology to examine the effect of RF on complement-dependent phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes by rabbit granulocytes. Addition of 2500 molecules of IgM RF to sheep cells heavily coated with IgG antibody (195,000 molecules per cell) resulted in virtually complete inhibition of uptake of C3 (?1c) and prevention of phagocytosis, an effect resulting from inhibition of uptake of C1 by the cells. When erythrocytes coated with only 34,000 molecules of IgG antibody were employed, phagocytosis was similarly inhibited. However the effect of RF on such cells was shown to be primarily mediated through inhibition of C4 rather than C1 uptake. Although the results do not exclude the participation of an IgM RF of higher avidity, present only in the tissues in rheumatoid inflammation, circulating IgM RF probably does not play a potentiating role in rheumatoid inflammation. PMID:4640945

  8. A saponification-triggered gelation of ester-based Zn(II) complex through conformational transformations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Dubey, Mrigendra; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2014-09-11

    Novel saponification-triggered gelation in an ester-based bis-salen Zn(II) complex (1) is described. Strategic structural modifications induced by NaOH in 1 tune the dipolar-/?-interactions leading to J-aggregation and the creation of an inorganic gel material (IGM), which has been established by photophysical, DFT and rheological studies. PMID:25045866

  9. Evaluation of immunostimulatory effect of the arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea. L) in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kumalasari, Ika Dyah; Harmayani, Eni; Lestari, Lily Arsanti; Raharjo, Sri; Asmara, Widya; Nishi, Kosuke; Sugahara, Takuya

    2012-03-01

    Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea. L) is an underutilized local crop potentially to be developed as carbohydrate source and functional food in Indonesia. The objectives of this research are to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of arrowroot extracts in vitro by using animal cell culture techniques, and in vivo by using BALB/c mice. The arrowroot tuber extracts were prepared by heat-treatment at 121 °C for 20 min in distilled water. The IgM production stimulatory activity of arrowroot tuber extracts against human hybridoma HB4C5 cells and mouse splenocytes was assessed. The result indicated that the arrowroot tuber extract stimulated IgM production by HB4C5 cells and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM) production by splenocytes in vitro. In addition, the arrowroot tuber extracts strongly enhanced interferon ? production by splenocytes. In vivo study indicated that the diet containing arrowroot extracts increased the serum IgG, IgA and IgM levels in mice. These results revealed that the arrowroot tuber extracts have immunostimulatory effects in vivo as well as in vitro. PMID:22038480

  10. Fossil Ionized Bubbles Around Dead Quasars During Reionization

    E-print Network

    Steven Furlanetto; Zoltan Haiman; S. Peng Oh

    2008-03-24

    One of the most dramatic signatures of the reionization era may be the enormous ionized bubbles around luminous quasars (with radii reaching ~40 comoving Mpc), which may survive as "fossil'' ionized regions long after their source shuts off. Here we study how the inhomogeneous intergalactic medium (IGM) evolves inside such fossils. The average recombination rate declines rapidly with time, and the brief quasar episode significantly increases the mean free path inside the fossil bubbles. As a result, even a weak ionizing background generated by galaxies inside the fossil can maintain it in a relatively highly and uniformly ionized state. For example, galaxies that would ionize 20-30% of hydrogen in a random patch of the IGM can maintain 80-90% ionization inside the fossil, for a duration much longer than the average recombination time in the IGM. Quasar fossils at zfossils, at z>10 have a weaker galaxy-generated ionizing background and a higher gas density, so they can attain a swiss-cheese topology similar to the rest of the IGM, but with a smaller contrast between the ionized bubbles and the partially neutral regions separating them. Analogous HeIII-fossils should exist around the epoch of HeII/HeIII reionization at z~3, although rapid recombinations inside the HeIII-fossils will be more common. Our model of inhomogeneous recombination also applies to "double reionization'' models and shows that a non-monotonic reionization history is even more unlikely than previously thought.

  11. Suppression by ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol of the primary immunoglobulin M response by human peripheral blood B cells is associated with impaired STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Carney, Stephen; Crawford, Robert; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to gain insights into the mechanism for ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC)-mediated suppression of primary immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses in humans. An in vitro activation model, which employs cell surface-expressed CD40 ligand (CD40L) and recombinant cytokines (interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10), was used to differentiate human peripheral blood (HPB) naïve B cells into IgM secreting cells. Pretreatment with ?(9)-THC significantly decreased the number of IgM secreting cells as determined by ELISPOT. The attenuation of IgM secretion by ?(9)-THC involved, at least in part, the impairment of plasma cell differentiation as evidenced by suppression of immunoglobulin joining chain (IgJ) mRNA expression. The analysis at each of two different stages critically involved in plasma cell differentiation indicates that ?(9)-THC impaired both the primary activation stage and proliferation of B cells. Interestingly, ?(9)-THC selectively suppressed the surface expression of CD80, but not other measured B-cell activation markers (CD69, CD86, and ICAM1). Furthermore, pretreatment with ?(9)-THC was accompanied by a robust decrease of STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas the phosphorylation of the p65 NF?B subunit was not affected. Collectively, these data provide new insights into the mechanisms for impaired B cell function by ?(9)-THC. PMID:23727458

  12. The Lyman-beta forest as a cosmic thermometer

    E-print Network

    Irši?, Vid

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high resolution hydrodynamic simulations in terms of Lyman-alpha and Lyman-beta one dimensional flux power spectra ($P_{\\alpha\\alpha}$ and $P_{\\beta\\beta}$). In particular, we focus on the behaviour that the flux auto-power spectra and cross-power spectra ($P_{\\alpha\\beta}$) display when the intergalactic medium (IGM) thermal history is changed in a range of values that bracket a reference model, while cosmological parameters are kept fixed to best fit the cosmic microwave background data. We present empirical fits that describe at the sub-percent level the dependence of the power spectra on the thermal parameters. At the largest scales, the power spectra show a constant bias between each other that is set by the parameters describing the IGM thermal state. The cross-power spectrum has an oscillatory pattern and crosses zero at a scale which depends on $T_0$, the IGM temperature at the mean density, for reasonable values of the power-law index $\\gamma$ of the IGM tempera...

  13. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Patients With Primary Immunodeficiencies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-10-14

    Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immunodeficiency; Graft Versus Host Disease; X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; Familial Erythrophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome; Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome

  14. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a mennonite community in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of information concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Mennonites (an ethnic group of Mexican citizens of German descent living in rural communities). The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was examined in 152 Mennonites in Durango State, Mexic...

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika I; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), respectively. Of the studied patients' characteristics, only age was significantly associated with anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity, with older patients being about twice more likely exposed to infection. However, no statistically significant association was found with IgM. In addition, seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG, but not IgM, was significantly associated with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders; however, neither IgG nor IgM showed a significant association with cognitive impairment as indicated by the intelligence quotient scores. PMID:26656562

  16. [Diagnosis of maternofetal infections].

    PubMed

    Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Bouthry, Elise

    2015-06-01

    Prevention is an essential aspect of management of infections that can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy: The prescription and interpretation of serologic markers differ according to clinical context: screening, counts, clinical signs, or ultrasound signs. Testing for rubella IgG antibodies is recommended at the beginning of pregnancy, in the absence of written results proving either immunity or previous vaccination with two doses. Monthly serologic monitoring (IgG and IgM) is recommended for woman lacking immunity to toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of a primary infection requires the concomitant detection of IgG and IgM. Nonetheless, the presence of specific IgM is not necessarily a marker of recent infection. IgG avidity must be measured to confirm or rule out a recent primary infection when IgM is positive. The observation of stable antibody titers is often inaccurately considered to be reassuring. In fact, depending on the individuals tested and especially the technique used, antibodies may reach a plateau several days or several weeks after the onset of the infection. Clinical diagnosis of rubella is not reliable, and its rarity today means that physicians are unlikely to recognize it or consider it as a possible differential diagnosis. Nonetheless, residual circulation of the rubella virus continues in France. A chickenpox rash is diagnosed clinically. For atypical eruptions, the virus can be sought directly in the vesicular fluid. Serology is not helpful in this case. PMID:26033555

  17. 56 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OCTOBER 2002 PlacesSpace comes in degrees of

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    a spider web. These investigations began to gather momentum, and the past two years have seen an explosion- idence: the cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar spectra, x-rays from galaxy clusters and magnetic field mea- surements. The microwave background provides a snapshot of the IGM at the moment it

  18. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...Serological Reagents § 866.3310 Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG,...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...Serological Reagents § 866.3310 Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG,...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...Serological Reagents § 866.3310 Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG,...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...Serological Reagents § 866.3310 Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG,...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...Serological Reagents § 866.3310 Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays...antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG,...

  3. Rapid diagnosis of viral infections in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Grandien, M; Olding-Stenkvist, E

    1984-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of viral infections in the central nervous system has become increasingly important. Antiviral treatment, prevention of spread of disease and differentiation from infections caused by agents sensitive to antibiotics may be the important consequences of a virus specific diagnosis gained early in the disease. The diagnosis can be obtained by detection of virus or viral antigen in the human specimen: herpes simplex virus by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence or immunosorbent assays in brain biopsies; rabies virus by immunofluorescence in corneal cells or skin and mucous membranes. The presence of measles or influenza antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions, shown by immunofluorescence or enzyme immunoassays, may diagnose an encephalitis caused by either of these viruses. Where suitable material is not available the detection of virus-specific IgM in a single serum specimen may be used for diagnosis. Mumps specific IgM activity is detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or indirect immunofluorescence techniques; tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) specific IgM by immunosorbent assays or by reduction of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titer by 2-mercaptoethanol treatment of serum. Reports have been given on the detection of IgM activity by ELISA also in other arboviral infections such as Japanese and LaCrosse encephalitis. The demonstration of an intrathecal production of virus-specific immunoglobulins may reveal the type of virus causing the infection in the central nervous system. PMID:6320356

  4. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Hepatitis markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg) IgA IgG IgE IgM Infectious mononucleosis Rheumatoid factor... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.927 General immunology. (a) Program content... must provide a minimum of five samples per testing event. There must be at least three testing...

  5. Immune regulation by Fc?/? receptor (CD351) on marginal zone B cells and follicular dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Akira; Honda, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    Although both Fc?/? receptor (Fc?/?R) and polymeric Ig receptor (poly-IgR) are Fc receptors for IgA and IgM and are functionally and genetically related, the expression profile of Fc?/?R is unique. Unlike poly-IgR, Fc?/?R is expressed on marginal zone (MZ) B cells and follicular dendritic cells, suggesting that Fc?/?R plays an important role in humoral immune responses. Fc?/?R mediates endocytosis of the IgM immune complex (IC). Recent research demonstrated that Fc?/?R downregulated retention of the IgM IC with a T-independent (TI) antigen on MZ B cells and follicular dendritic cells due to endocytosis of the IgM IC, suppressing germinal center formation, affinity maturation, and memory B-cell generation in response to TI antigen challenge. In addition, Fc?/?R physically associates with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and augments TLR4 oligomerization and signaling in MZ B cells upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, leading to increased proinflammatory cytokine production by MZ B cells. Thus, Fc?/?R is a unique Fc receptor that is involved in humoral immune responses and inflammation. PMID:26497528

  6. First Case of Equine West Nile Virus at OADDL in 2015 The year's first case of equine West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Oklahoma was

    E-print Network

    's serum tested positive by IgM ELISA, an indicator of acute infection. Testing was performed in-house at the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (OADDL). The majority of Oklahoma equine WNV cases occur and Forestry to offer subsidized testing of horses with central nervous system disease. Additional information

  7. Pathogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus are derived from both self-reactive and non-self-reactive B cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Jacobi, Annett M; Wang, Tao; Diamond, Betty

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that both murine and human anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies can develop from non-DNA-reactive B cells and suggest a crucial role for somatic mutation in dsDNA binding. However, since only a limited number of human anti-dsDNA antibodies have been analyzed previously, we could not exclude other mechanisms for the generation of anti-dsDNA antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we isolated IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies from peripheral blood B cells of a patient with SLE. Three somatically mutated IgM anti-DNA antibodies with pathogenic potential (glomerular binding) were reverted to their germline configuration. Although all three IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies came from the same lupus patient, they displayed different profiles. Reversion to the germline sequence of autoantibodies A9 and B5 resulted in decreased dsDNA binding. In contrast, the germline form of G3-recognized dsDNA as well as the mutated counterpart. These results suggest that mutated IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies may develop from both DNA- and non-DNA-reactive B cells. The implications are that B cell activation occurs in response to self and non-self antigens, while selection after activation may be mediated by self antigen in SLE. Moreover, ineffective tolerance checkpoints may exist before and after antigen activation in SLE. PMID:18677426

  8. Flows of matter between galaxies and the intergalactic medium at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Galaxies are thought to grow through the infall of gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) and through the accretion of smaller building blocks. At the same time, galaxies return chemically enriched gas and radiation to intergalactic space. At high redshift, where these processes are most active, our understanding of the underlying physical processes is largely limited to theoretical modeling, as the constituents of a galactic halo (tenuous gas and distributed stellar populations) are hard to observe.I will report on how ultra-deep spectroscopic searches for HI Lyman alpha and other emission features combined with deep HST imaging can be used to pinpoint actively forming galactic halos and to observe their gaseous and stellar ingredients, giving us detailed observational insights into exchanges of matter and radiation between high z galaxies and the IGM.Galaxies hosting extended, often spatially asymmetric Lyman alpha halos have started to yield plausible glimpses of accretion streams. Such observations suggest a more complicated picture of the metal enrichment of the IGM than often implied by the simplest "outflow" paradigm, emphasizing the role of satellite galaxies and interactions within a halo, and of relative motions between galaxies and the IGM.

  9. Temperature fluctuations in the intergalactic medium Tom Theuns,1P

    E-print Network

    Zaroubi, Saleem

    Temperature fluctuations in the intergalactic medium Tom Theuns,1P Saleem Zaroubi,2 Tae-Sun Kim,3-density intergalactic medium (IGM) is set by the balance between adiabatic cooling resulting from the expansion ­ intergalactic medium ­ quasars: absorption lines ­ cosmology: theory ­ large-scale structure of Universe. 1 I NT

  10. Gamma ray bursts, supernovae and metallicity in the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Shlomo Dado; Arnon Dar; A. De Rujula

    2007-10-22

    The mean iron abundance observed in the intergalactic medium (IGM) within galaxy clusters and without galaxy clusters is consistent with the mean amount of iron per unit volume in the Universe which has been produced by standard supernova (SN) explosions with a rate proportional to the cosmic star-formation rate. If most SNe took place inside galaxies, then the IGM could have been enriched with their metals by galactic winds and jets that swept most of the galactic gas with the SNe ejecta into the IGM. A significant fraction of the early SNe, however, could have taken place outside galaxies or within dwarf galaxies, which were later disrupted by tidal interactions, and/or mass loss through fast winds, SN ejecta and jets. Little is known about such intergalactic SNe at high red-shifts. They could have occurred primarily in highly obscured environments, avoiding detection. Supporting evidence for intergalactic SNe is provided by SNe associated with gamma ray bursts (GRBs) without a host galaxy and from the ratio of well localized GRBs with and without a host galaxy. A direct test of whether a significant contribution to the iron abundance in the IGM came from intergalactic SNe would require the measurement of their rate per comoving unit volume as function of red-shift. This may be feasible with IR telescopes, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  11. INTERMITTENCE OF THE MAP OF THE KINETIC SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT AND TURBULENCE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Weishan; Feng Longlong; Fang Lizhi

    2011-06-10

    We investigate the possibility of detecting the turbulent state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) with the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect. Being sensitive to the divergence-free component of the momentum field of the IGM, the kSZ effect might be used to probe the vorticity of the turbulent IGM. With cosmological hydrodynamical simulation in the concordance {Lambda}CDM universe, we find that the structure functions of two-dimensional kSZ maps show strong intermittence, and the intermittent exponents follow a law similar to the She-Leveque scaling formula of fully developed turbulence. We also find that the intermittence is weak in the maps of thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. Nevertheless, the superposition of the kSZ and tSZ effects still contain significant intermittence. We conclude that the turbulent behavior of the IGM may be revealed by the observation of the SZ effect on angular scales equal to or less than 0.5 arcmin, corresponding to the multipole parameter l {>=} 2 x 10{sup 4}.

  12. Observational Tests of Intergalactic Enrichment Models

    E-print Network

    Anthony Aguirre; Joop Schaye

    2005-04-19

    We summarize recent results assessing the carbon and silicon abundances of the intergalactic medium (IGM) using the `pixel optical depth' technique. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for models of intergalactic enrichment, focusing on distinguishing `early' z >> 4 enrichment by the first generations of stars and objects from `late' enrichment by 2 intergalactic enrichment at z > 2.

  13. Quasar Absorption Lines and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Buell T. Jannuzi

    1996-01-24

    The importance of HST for the study of quasar absorption lines and of the nature of the intergalactic medium is illustrated by reviewing selected results from past HST observations. Topics reviewed include the study of Ly-alpha absorbers at low redshift and the search for a diffuse IGM at high redshifts.

  14. PROBING THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM/GALAXY CONNECTION. V. ON THE ORIGIN OF Ly? AND O VI ABSORPTION AT z < 0.2

    E-print Network

    Prochaska, J. Xavier

    We analyze the association of galaxies with Ly? and O VI absorption, the most commonly detected transitions of the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM), in the fields of 14 quasars with z[subscript em] = 0.06–0.57. Confirming ...

  15. Sequential Cadaveric Lung and Bone Marrow Transplant for Immune Deficiency Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID); Immunodeficiency With Predominant T-cell Defect, Unspecified; Severe Chronic Neutropenia; Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD); Hyper IgE Syndromes; Hyper IgM Deficiencies; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease; Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID)

  16. Genetic and Non-Genetic Inheritance of Natural Antibodies Binding Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin in a Purebred Layer Chicken Line

    PubMed Central

    Berghof, T. V. L.; van der Klein, S. A. S.; Arts, J. A. J.; Parmentier, H. K.; van der Poel, J. J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are defined as antibodies present in individuals without known antigenic challenge. Levels of NAb binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in chickens were earlier shown to be heritable, and to be associated with survival. Selective breeding may thus provide a strategy to improve natural disease resistance. We phenotyped 3,689 white purebred laying chickens for KLH binding NAb of different isotypes around 16 weeks of age. Heritabilities of 0.12 for the titers of total antibodies (IgT), 0.14 for IgM, 0.10 for IgA, and 0.07 for IgG were estimated. We also estimated high, positive genetic, and moderate to high, positive phenotypic correlations of IgT, IgM, IgA, and IgG, suggesting that selective breeding for NAb can be done on all antibody isotypes simultaneously. In addition, a relatively substantial non-genetic maternal environmental effect of 0.06 was detected for IgM, which may reflect a transgenerational effect. This suggests that not only the genes of the mother, but also the maternal environment affects the immune system of the offspring. Breaking strength and early eggshell whiteness of the mother’s eggs were predictive for IgM levels in the offspring, and partly explained the observed maternal environmental effects. The present results confirm that NAb are heritable, however maternal effects should be taken into account. PMID:26114750

  17. Hydrogen and the First Stars: First Results from the SCI-HI 21-cm all-sky spectrum experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha; Peterson, Jeffrey; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose-Miguel; SCI-HI Experiment Team

    2015-01-01

    The 'Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro' (SCI-HI) experiment is an all-sky 21-cm brightness temperature spectrum experiment studying the cosmic dawn (z~15-35). The experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Initial deployment of the SCI-HI experiment occurred in June 2013 on Guadalupe; a small island about 250 km off of the Pacific coast of Baja California in Mexico. Preliminary measurements from this deployment have placed the first observational constraints on the 21-cm all-sky spectrum around 70 MHz (z~20), see Voytek et al (2014).Neutral Hydrogen (HI) is found throughout the universe in the cold gas that makes up the intergalactic medium (IGM). HI can be observed through the spectral line at 21 cm (1.4 GHz) due to hyperfine structure. Expansion of the universe causes the wavelength of this spectral line to stretch at a rate defined by the redshift z, leading to a signal which can be followed through time.Now the strength of the 21-cm signal in the IGM is dependent only on a small number of variables; the temperature and density of the IGM, the amount of HI in the IGM, the UV energy density in the IGM, and the redshift. This means that 21-cm measurements teach us about the history and structure of the IGM. The SCI-HI experiment focuses on the spatially averaged 21-cm spectrum, looking at the temporal evolution of the IGM during the cosmic dawn before reionization.Although the SCI-HI experiment placed first constraints with preliminary data, this data was limited to a narrow frequency regime around 60-85 MHz. This limitation was caused by instrumental difficulties and the presence of residual radio frequency interference (RFI) in the FM radio band (~88-108 MHz). The SCI-HI experiment is currently undergoing improvements and we plan to have another deployment soon. This deployment would be to Socorro and Clarion, two islands further from mainland Mexico than Guadalupe. With the new data, we anticipate being able to place tighter constraints over a wider range of redshifts than our current results.

  18. Chikungunya outbreak in a rural area of Western Cameroon in 2006: A retrospective serological and entomological survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although arboviral infections including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are common in sub-Saharan Africa, data on their circulation and prevalence are poorly documented. In 2006, more than 400 cases of dengue-like fever were reported in Kumbo (Northwest Region of Cameroon). The aim of this study was to identify the aetiology of this fever and to define its extent in the area. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey one year after clinical investigations to define the extent of the infection. An entomological survey consisted of the collection and identification of mosquito immature stages in water containers in or around human dwellings. Results A total of 105 sera were obtained from volunteers and tested for CHIKV, O'Nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) and Dengue virus (DENV) specific IgM and IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). CHIKV infection was defined as the presence of IgM antibodies to CHIKV. There was serological evidence for recent Chikungunya infection, as 54 subjects (51.4%) had detectable IgM anti-CHIKV in their sera. Amongst these, 52 showed both anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG, and 2 (1.9%) had IgM anti-CHIKV in the absence of IgG. Isolated anti-CHIKV IgG positives were detected in 41 (39%) cases. No anti-ONNV and anti-DENV IgM antibodies were found amongst the sample tested. Out of 305 larvae collected in the different breeding sites, 87 developed to the adult stage; 56 (64.4%) were Aedes africanus and the remaining Culex spp. Conclusions These findings suggest that the outbreak of febrile illness reported in three villages of Western Cameroon was due to CHIKV. The issue of a possible persistence of anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies is discussed. Ae. africanus which was found to be relatively abundant among the raffia palm bushes probably plays a role in the transmission of CHIKV along the chain of sylvatic/domestic mosquito species in this rural area. Particular attention should therefore be given to arbovirus infections in the Central African sub-region where these infections are becoming an emerging public health threat. PMID:20444282

  19. Diagnostic Value of a Rec-ELISA Using Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1, and GRA1 Proteins in Murine Models Infected Orally with Tissue Cysts and Oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Dö?kaya, Mert; Caner, Ay?e; Can, Hüseyin; Gülçe ?z, Sultan; Gedik, Yaprak; Dö?kaya, Aysu De?irmenci; Kalantari-Dehaghi, Mina; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns resulting with fetal anomalies. Determining the initiation time of infection is very important for pregnant women and current serological assays have drawbacks in distinguishing the recently acute toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of recently acute infection may be improved by using stage specific antigens in serological assays. In the present study, the diagnostic value of sporozoite specific SporoSAG, bradyzoite specific BAG1 proteins and GRA1 protein expressed by all forms of the parasite have been evaluated ELISA using sera systematically collected from mice administered orally with tissue cyst and oocysts. The anti-SporoSAG IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 1, 10, and 15 (P<0.01). The anti-BAG1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly at days 15, 40, and 120 (P<0.05). The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 2, 10, and 40 (P<0.01). The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly only at day 40 (P<0.05). The anti-SporoSAG, anti-BAG1, and anti-GRA1 IgG titers of mice showed significant increases at day 40 (P<0.05) and decrement started for only anti-GRA1 IgG at day 120. The presence of anti-SporoSAG IgM and IgG antibodies can be interpreted as recently acute infection between days 10–40 because IgM decreases at day 40. Similarly, presence of anti-BAG1 IgM and absence of IgG can be evaluated as a recently acute infection that occurred 40 days before because IgG peaks at day 40. A peak in anti-GRA1 antibody level at first testing and reduction in consecutive sample can be considered as an infection approximately around day 40 or prior. Overall, recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1 and GRA1 proteins can be accepted as valuable diagnostic markers of recently acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:25268351

  20. Interference of rheumatoid factor activity by aspartame, a dipeptide methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Ramsland, P A; Movafagh, B F; Reichlin, M; Edmundson, A B

    1999-01-01

    Circulating autoimmune complexes of IgM rheumatoid factors (RF) bound to the Fc portions of normal, polyclonal IgG antibodies are frequently present in humans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The sweet tasting methyl ester of L-Asp-L-Phe (aspartame or APM) was found to relieve pain and improve joint mobility in subjects with osteo- and mixed osteo/rheumatoid arthritis [Edmundson, A. B. and Manion, C. V. (1998). Clin. Pharmac. Ther. 63, 580-593]. These clinical observations prompted the testing of the inhibition by APM of the binding interactions of human IgM RFs with IgG Fc regions. The propensity of APM to inhibit IgM RF binding was assessed by competitive enzyme immunoassays with solid-phase human IgG. Ten RA serum samples and three purified monoclonal cryoglobulins, all of which had RF activity, were tested in this system. We found that the presence of APM significantly reduced the binding of IgM RFs. The inhibitory propensity of APM with monoclonal RF cryoglobulins was increased by the addition of CaCl(2) to the binding buffer. Similar inhibition of the binding of RA derived RFs to IgG was observed for Asp-Phe and its amidated derivative, indicating that the methyl ester is not required for APM's interaction with IgM antibodies. A human (Mez) IgM known to bind octameric peptides derived from the Fc portion of a human IgG(1) antibody was tested for binding of dipeptides by the Pepscan method of combinatorial chemistry. The relative binding constants of Asp-Phe and Phe-Asp were ranked among the highest values for 400 possible combinations of the 20 most common amino acids. Possible blocking interactions of APM were explored by computer-assisted docking studies with the model of a complex of an RF Fab with the Fc of a human IgG(4) antibody. Modeling of ternary immune complexes revealed a few key residues, which could act as molecular recognition sites for APM. A structural hypothesis is presented to explain the observed interference with RF reactivity by APM. Extrapolations of the current results suggest that APM may inhibit the binding of IgG in a substantial proportion of IgM RFs. Interference of RF reactivity, especially in RA patients, may alleviate the pain and immobility resulting from chronic inflammation of the joints. PMID:10777254

  1. Interference of rheumatoid factor activity by aspartame, a dipeptide methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Ramsland, P A; Movafagh, B F; Reichlin, M; Edmundson, A B

    1999-01-01

    Circulating autoimmune complexes of IgM rheumatoid factors (RF) bound to the Fc portions of normal, polyclonal IgG antibodies are frequently present in humans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The sweet tasting methyl ester of L-Asp-L-Phe (aspartame or APM) was found to relieve pain and improve joint mobility in subjects with osteo- and mixed osteo/rheumatoid arthritis [Edmundson, A. B. and Manion, C. V. (1998). Clin. Pharmac. Ther. 63, 580-593]. These clinical observations prompted the testing of the inhibition by APM of the binding interactions of human IgM RFs with IgG Fc regions. The propensity of APM to inhibit IgM RF binding was assessed by competitive enzyme immunoassays with solid-phase human IgG. Ten RA serum samples and three purified monoclonal cryoglobulins, all of which had RF activity, were tested in this system. We found that the presence of APM significantly reduced the binding of IgM RFs. The inhibitory propensity of APM with monoclonal RF cryoglobulins was increased by the addition of CaCl(2) to the binding buffer. Similar inhibition of the binding of RA derived RFs to IgG was observed for Asp-Phe and its amidated derivative, indicating that the methyl ester is not required for APM's interaction with IgM antibodies. A human (Mez) IgM known to bind octameric peptides derived from the Fc portion of a human IgG(1) antibody was tested for binding of dipeptides by the Pepscan method of combinatorial chemistry. The relative binding constants of Asp-Phe and Phe-Asp were ranked among the highest values for 400 possible combinations of the 20 most common amino acids. Possible blocking interactions of APM were explored by computer-assisted docking studies with the model of a complex of an RF Fab with the Fc of a human IgG(4) antibody. Modeling of ternary immune complexes revealed a few key residues, which could act as molecular recognition sites for APM. A structural hypothesis is presented to explain the observed interference with RF reactivity by APM. Extrapolations of the current results suggest that APM may inhibit the binding of IgG in a substantial proportion of IgM RFs. Interference of RF reactivity, especially in RA patients, may alleviate the pain and immobility resulting from chronic inflammation of the joints. PMID:10440996

  2. Comparison of different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains for detection of immune response in patients with erythema migrans.

    PubMed

    Merljak Skocir, Lilijana; Ruzi?-Sablji?, Eva; Maraspin-Carman, Vera; Lotric-Furlan, Stanka; Logar, Mateja; Strle, Franc

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish which combination of serological method and Borrelia strain used as an antigen would provide the most appropriate demonstration of borrelial infection in patients with eythema migrans residing in Slovenia. Four different strains were chosen as antigens: two strains of B. afzelii and two strains of B. garinii which differed in their expression of the outer proteins OspA, OspB and OspC. Each individual strain was used as antigen in immunofluorescence test (IFT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) with whole borrelial cells, and EIA with ultrasonicated borrelial cells. With these 12 different tests, 100 samples were examined for the presence of specific IgM and IgG antibodies: 50 sera of blood donors and 50 sera of patients with erythema migrans. The latter were further subdivided into skin culture-positive and -negative subgroups. A commercial Western blot (WB) test was performed for 26 sera of the control group and 25 sera of patients with erythema migrans. The four different methods had distinct specificity and sensitivity. The most specific approaches were IFT (100% for IgM and 90-92% for IgG) and the WB test (100% for IgM and 73% for IgG), followed by EIA with whole borrelial cells (80-98% for IgM and 76-84% for IgG) and EIA with ultrasonicated borrelial cells (76-94% for IgM and 72-80% for IgG). The sensitivity levels of all these tests were low. The most sensitive were EIA tests with whole borrelial cells (28-36% for IgM and 32-42% for IgG) followed by EIA with ultrasonicated borrelial cells (22-32% for IgM and 24-36% for IgG), the WB test (16% for IgM and 32% for IgG) and IFT (0-2% for IgM and 14-20% for IgG). The following methods gave significant differences between patients and negative controls in detecting IgM antibodies: EIA with whole borrelial cells with both B. afzelii antigens and with antigen B. garinii that expressed OspA and OspC, EIA with ultrasonicated borrelial cells with antigen B. afzelii that expressed OspA, OspB and OspC. In detecting IgG antibodies, significant differences were observed between EIA with whole borrelial cells and with antigen B. afzelii that expressed OspA and OspB. Borreliae were isolated from the skin of 34/50 (68%) patients with erythema migrans: two strains failed to grow, while 26/32 (81%) strains were identified as B. afzelii, 5/32 (16%) as B. garinii and 1/32 (3%) as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. No statistically significant differences in serologic test results between culture-positive and -negative patients with erythema migrans were found. PMID:17892971

  3. Regulation of cytokine expression by an autoreactive B cell clone derived from MRL/MP-lpr/lpr mice

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, T; Hamano, T; Fujimoto, J; Ogata, A; Kakishita, E

    1998-01-01

    The B cell line, MRL159.5, was established by somatic hybridization between splenic MRL/MP-lpr/lpr (lpr) mice B cells and 2.52M, a hypoxanthine-aminopterine-thymidine (HAT) medium-sensitive B cell line mutant. It possessed a receptor molecule for mouse erythrocytes treated with bromelain (Br-MRBC) on its surface, likely to be an autoreactive B cell clone specific for Br-MRBC as detected by rosette-forming assay with Br-MRBC. MRL159.5 spontaneously produced IL-6 and secreted IgM, and was induced to augment IgM secretion when treated with Br-MRBC or IL-6. Triggering of CD40 led to an augmentation of IgM secretion as well as IL-6 expression. Blocking the binding of IL-6 to its cellular receptor through the use of inhibitory antibodies inhibited CD40-induced IgM secretion, suggesting a possible autocrine role of IL-6 for CD40-induced differentiation of this B cell hybridoma. Addition of IL-4 or Br-MRBC augmented IL-6 expression as well as IgM secretion by CD40-activated MRL159.5 cells. CD40 also augmented tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression but resulted in decreased IL-10 expression. Furthermore, under conditions where IL-6 expression was augmented, IL-6R? (gp80) expression was down-regulated, suggesting a negative feedback mechanism of an IL-6 autocrine loop in this hybridoma. These results demonstrate a role by which T cell-dependent activation through CD40 regulates an IL-6 autocrine loop, controlling differentiation of autoreactive B cells in autoimmune disease. PMID:9764595

  4. Probing high-redshift galaxies with Ly? intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comaschi, P.; Ferrara, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the cosmological Ly? emission signal at z > 4. Our goal is to predict the power spectrum of the spatial fluctuations that could be observed by an intensity mapping survey. The model uses the latest data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) legacy fields and the abundance matching technique to associate UV emission and dust properties with the haloes, computing the emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM), including the effects of reionization, self-consistently. The Ly? intensity from the diffuse IGM emission is 1.3 (2.0) times more intense than the ISM emission at z = 4(7); both components are fair tracers of the star-forming galaxy distribution. However the power spectrum is dominated by ISM emission on small scales (k > 0.01 h Mpc-1) with shot noise being significant only above k = 1 h Mpc-1. At very large scales (k < 0.01 h Mpc-1) diffuse IGM emission becomes important. The comoving Ly? luminosity density from IGM and galaxies, dot{? }_{{Ly? } }^IGM = 8.73(6.51) {×} 10^{40} erg s^{-1 } Mpc^{-3} and dot{? }_{{Ly? } }^ISM = 6.62(3.21) {×} 10^{40} erg s^{-1} Mpc^{-3} at z = 4(7), is consistent with recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey determinations. We predict a power k3PLy?(k, z)/2?2 = 9.76 × 10-4(2.09 × 10-5)nW2m-4 sr-2 at z = 4(7) for k = 0.1 h Mpc-1.

  5. Evaluation of ELISA and Brucellacapt tests for diagnosis of human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Peeridogaheh, Hadi; Golmohammadi, Mohammad Ghasem; Pourfarzi, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and human brucellosis is endemic in all parts of the country. Because of the difficulty in the diagnosis of brucellosis, particularly in endemic areas, the use of new and feasible diagnostic tests seem to be of great importance for resolving the diagnostic obstacles. We evaluated the usefulness of a new serological test based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique in comparison with ELISA test for serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Materials and Methods A total of 11 patients with brucellosis, who had positive blood cultures for Brucella species, and 47 suspected patients were included in this study. Serum samples collected from these patients were tested by brucellacapt and ELISA and the results were, consequently, compared. Results In patients with positive blood culture, all the samples gave positive results with brucellacapt test while IgM ELISA, IgG ELISA and (IgG + IgM) ELISA tests were positive in 8, 9 and 11 patients, respectively. Out of the 46 suspected patients, (IgG + IgM) ELISA, Brucellacapt, IgG ELISA and IgM ELISA were positive in 37, 15, 34 and 37 patients, respectively.The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG was 10.78 IU/ml which produced the maximal sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. Conclusion Both the (IgG + IgM) ELISA and Brucellacapt tests demonstrate a high specificity in this study. According to the results of the current study, it is found that both tests are valuable tools for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran as an endemic area of brucellosis. It is strongly suggested that a combination of both tests to be used for the diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:23467496

  6. Identification of dendritic cells, B cell and T cell subsets in Tasmanian devil lymphoid tissue; evidence for poor immune cell infiltration into devil facial tumors.

    PubMed

    Howson, Lauren J; Morris, Katrina M; Kobayashi, Takumi; Tovar, Cesar; Kreiss, Alexandre; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Corcoran, Lynn; Belov, Katherine; Woods, Gregory M

    2014-05-01

    The Tasmanian devil is under threat of extinction due to the transmissible devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). This fatal tumor is an allograft that does not induce an immune response, raising questions about the activity of Tasmanian devil immune cells. T and B cell analysis has been limited by a lack of antibodies, hence the need to produce such reagents. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgG were closely related to other marsupials. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgG by generating bacterial fusion proteins. These, and commercial antibodies against CD1a and CD83, identified T cells, B cells and dendritic cells by immunohistochemistry. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were identified in pouch young thymus, adult lymph nodes, spleen, bronchus- and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Their anatomical distribution was characteristic of mammalian lymphoid tissues with more CD4(+) than CD8(+) cells in lymph nodes and splenic white pulp. IgM(+) and IgG(+) B cells were identified in adult lymph nodes, spleen, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, with more IgM(+) than IgG(+) cells. Dendritic cells were identified in lymph node, spleen and skin. This distribution is consistent with eutherian mammals and other marsupials, indicating they have the immune cell subsets for an anti-tumor immunity. Devil facial tumor disease tumors contained more CD8(+) than CD4(+) cells, but in low numbers. There were also low numbers of CD1a(+) and MHC class II(+) cells, but no CD83(+) IgM(+) or IgG(+) B cells, consistent with poor immune cell infiltration. PMID:24664954

  7. Characterizing the Pressure Smoothing Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-10-01

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 6 constrains the nature and timing of cosmic reionization events, but its inference from the Ly? forest is degenerate with the 3D structure of the IGM on ˜100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T ? 104 K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z < 6, the gas density power spectrum does not exhibit the expected filtering scale cutoff, because dense gas in collapsed halos dominates the small-scale power masking pressure smoothing effects. We introduce a new statistic, the real-space Ly? flux, Freal, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The Freal power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at ?F, allowing us to rigorously quantify the pressure smoothing scale for the first time: we find ?F = 79 kpc (comoving) at z = 3 for our fiducial thermal model. This statistic has the added advantage that it directly relates to observations of correlated Ly? forest absorption in close quasar pairs, recently proposed as a method to measure the pressure smoothing scale. Our results enable one to quantify the pressure smoothing scale in simulations, and ask meaningful questions about its dependence on reionization and thermal history. Accordingly, the standard description of the IGM in terms of the amplitude T0 and slope ? of the temperature-density relation T={T}0{(? /\\bar{? })}? -1 should be augmented with a third pressure smoothing scale parameter ?F.

  8. Can the Soft X-Ray Opacity Toward High-redshift Sources Probe the Missing Baryons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, Ehud; Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon; Laor, Ari

    2011-06-01

    Observations with the Swift satellite of X-ray afterglows of more than a hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with known redshift reveal ubiquitous soft X-ray absorption. The directly measured optical depth ? at a given observed energy is found to be constant on average at redshift z > 2, i.e., lang?(0.5 keV)rang z > 2 = 0.40 ± 0.02. Such an asymptotic optical depth is expected if the foreground diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) dominates the absorption effect and if the metallicity of the diffuse IGM reaches 0.2-0.4 solar at z = 0. To further test the IGM absorption hypothesis, we analyze the 12 highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) (>5000 photons) z > 2 quasar spectra from the XMM-Newton archive, which are all extremely radio loud. The quasar optical depths are found to be consistent with the mean GRB value. The four lowest-z quasars (2 < z < 2.5), however, do not show significant absorption. The best X-ray spectra of radio-quiet quasars at z > 2 provide only upper limits to the absorption, which are still consistent with the radio-loud quasers (RLQs), albeit with much lower S/N (lsim 1000 photons at z ? 4). Lack of quasar absorption poses a challenge to the smooth IGM interpretation and could allude to the opacity being rather due to the jets in RLQs and GRBs. However, the jet absorbing column would need to appear in RLQs only at z >~ 2.5 and in GRBs to strongly increase with z in order to produce the observed tendency to a constant mean ?. High X-ray spectral resolution can differentiate between an absorber intrinsic to the source that produces discernible spectral lines, and the diffuse IGM that produces significant absorption, but no discrete features.

  9. Comparative sensitivity of commercial tests for hepatitis E genotype 3 virus antibody detection.

    PubMed

    Avellon, Ana; Morago, Lucia; Garcia-Galera del Carmen, Maria; Munoz, Milagros; Echevarría, Jose-Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) acute infection is often diagnosed only by anti-HEV IgM ELISA methods, whose sensitivity varies, according to different reports. Reports assessing the specificity of commercial assays for anti-HEV IgG testing are scarce, and estimates of sensitivity and specificity are both controversial. The aim of this work is to assess the sensitivity of different commercial techniques for HEV genotype 3 antibody (anti-HEV) IgM and IgG detection in entirely specific sample panels including both high and low antibody concentrations. The anti-HEV IgM and IgG ELISA methods compared were: DSI, Mikrogen, Wantai, Euroimmun, MP, and Dia.pro. The rapid test All Diag was also included in the anti-HEV IgM comparison. Our results show that low anti-HEV IgM concentrations were better detected by DSI, Mikrogen, and All Diag, these tests being the most sensitive in our study. Euroimmun, MP and Dia.pro gave concordant results, showing lower sensitivity than the others. Regarding anti-HEV IgG our results revealed similar anti-HEV IgG sensitivity. Furthermore, there was a striking overall lack of concordance among the results. We present a thorough review of previous comparative reports, with particular reference to the anti-HEV IgG comparison, since published results differ from ours. This discrepancy may be related to the improved versions of the tests for MP and Dia.pro that we employed. PMID:25959136

  10. Immunological responses to Salmonella R antigens. The bacterial cell and the protein edestin as carriers for R oligosaccharide determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorff, K K; Schlecht, S; Rüde, E; Westphal, O

    1975-01-01

    Responses in rabbits to heat-killed Salmonella minnesota R mutants (chemotypes Ra, Rc and Re) were heterogeneous with respect to the amounts and specific haemagglutinin activities (SHAA) of IgM and IgG antibodies produced to each mutant. Amounts of antibodies in IgM and IgG fractions of sera were determined by quantitative precipitation. For comparison, antibodies were also isolated using an R oligosaccharide-specific immunoadsorbent and quantitated spectrophotometrically. SHAA (haemagglutinating units/mg antibody) of IgG antibodies were similar for all three mutants. In contrast, the Ra mutant induced IgM antibodies with the highest SHAA, while the Re mutant induced IgM antibodies 10-fold lower in activity. The ratio of the amount of IgM/IgG produced was approximately 1/1 for both the Ra and the Rc mutants, while the ratio for the Re mutant was about 1/2. Salmonella R oligosaccharide-protein conjugates (chemotypes Rb2, Rc and Re) were prepared, and the responses to these antigens were compared with those to the heat-killed mutants. The conjugates were specific for the given chemotype, and they were strongly immunogenic when incorporated into Freund's complete adjuvant and administered intramuscularly. Haemagglutinin titres were relatively high, but amounts of antibodies were considerably reduced when the conjugates were administered intravenously without adjuvant. Rabbits immunized with the conjugates in the same manner as with heat-killed R mutants produced predominantly IgM responses in all three cases. PMID:49297

  11. An outbreak of hepatitis E in an urban area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haque, F; Banu, S S; Ara, K; Chowdhury, I A; Chowdhury, S A; Kamili, S; Rahman, M; Luby, S P

    2015-11-01

    We investigated an outbreak of jaundice in urban Bangladesh in 2010 to examine the cause and risk factors and assess the diagnostic utility of commercial assays. We classified municipal residents reporting jaundice during the preceding 4 weeks as probable hepatitis E cases and their neighbours without jaundice in the previous 6 months as probable controls. We tested the sera collected from probable cases and probable controls for IgM anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV), and the IgM-negative sera for IgG anti-HEV using a commercial assay locally. We retested the IgM-positive sera for both IgM and IgG anti-HEV using another assay at the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA. Probable cases positive for IgM anti-HEV were confirmed cases; probable controls negative for both IgM and IgG anti-HEV were confirmed controls. We explored the local water supply and sanitation infrastructure and tested for bacterial concentration of water samples. Probable cases were more likely than probable controls to drink tap water (adjusted odds ratio: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.2-9.2). Fifty-eight percentage (36/62) of the case sera were IgM anti-HEV positive; and 75% of the IgM-positive samples were confirmed positive on retesting with another assay at CDC. Compared to confirmed controls, cases confirmed using either or both assays also identified drinking tap water as the risk factor. Two tap water samples had detectable thermotolerant coliforms. Research exploring decentralized water treatment technologies for sustainable safe water might prevent HEV transmission in resource-poor cities. Detection of serological markers in a majority of probable cases implied that available diagnostic assays could adequately identify HEV infection during outbreaks. PMID:25817821

  12. The imprint of the cosmic supermassive black hole growth history on the 21 cm background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; O'Leary, Ryan M.; Perna, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    The redshifted 21 cm transition line of hydrogen tracks the thermal evolution of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) at `cosmic dawn', during the emergence of the first luminous astrophysical objects (˜100 Myr after the big bang) but before these objects ionized the IGM (˜400-800 Myr after the big bang). Because X-rays, in particular, are likely to be the chief energy courier for heating the IGM, measurements of the 21 cm signature can be used to infer knowledge about the first astrophysical X-ray sources. Using analytic arguments and a numerical population synthesis algorithm, we argue that the progenitors of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) should be the dominant source of hard astrophysical X-rays - and thus the primary driver of IGM heating and the 21 cm signature - at redshifts z ? 20, if (i) they grow readily from the remnants of Population III stars and (ii) produce X-rays in quantities comparable to what is observed from active galactic nuclei and high-mass X-ray binaries. We show that models satisfying these assumptions dominate over contributions to IGM heating from stellar populations, and cause the 21 cm brightness temperature to rise at z ? 20. An absence of such a signature in the forthcoming observational data would imply that SMBH formation occurred later (e.g. via so-called direct collapse scenarios), that it was not a common occurrence in early galaxies and protogalaxies, or that it produced far fewer X-rays than empirical trends at lower redshifts, either due to intrinsic dimness (radiative inefficiency) or Compton-thick obscuration close to the source.

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aqeely, Hussein; El-Gayar, Eman K.; Najmi, Abdullah; Alvi, Ayesha; Bani, Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Abdalla, Saif Elden; Elhassan, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG) and active toxoplasmosis (IgM) was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195), whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195). Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.). The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.). Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women. PMID:25484905

  14. A COMBINED LOW-RADIO FREQUENCY/X-RAY STUDY OF GALAXY GROUPS. I. GIANT METREWAVE RADIO TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS AT 235 MHz AND 610 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Giacintucci, Simona; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Vrtilek, Jan; David, Laurence P.; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Gitti, Myriam; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Ponman, Trevor; Venturi, Tiziana; Athreya, Ramana M.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Murgia, Matteo; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.

    2011-05-10

    We present new Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz of 18 X-ray bright galaxy groups. These observations are part of an extended project, presented here and in future papers, which combines low-frequency radio and X-ray data to investigate the interaction between central active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the intra-group medium (IGM). The radio images show a very diverse population of group-central radio sources, varying widely in size, power, morphology, and spectral index. Comparison of the radio images with Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray images shows that groups with significant substructure in the X-ray band and marginal radio emission at {approx}>1 GHz host low-frequency radio structures that correlate with substructures in IGM. Radio-filled X-ray cavities, the most evident form of AGN/IGM interaction in our sample, are found in half of the systems and are typically associated with small, low-, or mid-power double radio sources. Two systems, NGC5044 and NGC4636, possess multiple cavities, which are isotropically distributed around the group center, possibly due to group weather. In other systems the radio/X-ray correlations are less evident. However, the AGN/IGM interaction can manifest itself through the effects of the high-pressure medium on the morphology, spectral properties, and evolution of the radio-emitting plasma. In particular, the IGM can confine fading radio lobes in old/dying radio galaxies and prevent them from dissipating quickly. Evidence for radio emission produced by former outbursts that co-exist with current activity is found in six groups of the sample.

  15. Anti-vascular endothelial cell antibodies (AECA): comparison of two assay methods and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Meyer, O; Kaiser, P; Haim, T; Edgell, C J; Pasquier, C; de Bandt, M; Bridey, F; Sellak, H; Lansaman, J; Kahn, M F

    1995-12-01

    Vascular endothelial cells may be a target for autoantibodies (AECAs) against membrane antigens that are constitutively expressed, induced or bound to their surface. To test this hypothesis, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with two types of human endothelial cells as the substrate, i.e., human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or the hybrid cell line EAhy-926 obtained by fusion of HUVECs with the bronchial carcinoma cell line A549. A comparative functional study of these two cell types demonstrated that EAhy-926 cells produced only small amounts of VIII von Willebrand factor and tissular factor, did not contain Weibel Palade bodies visible under the electron microscope, and expressed ICAM-1 and selectin E in levels of no more than 15% of those expressed by human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells both after stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and under basal conditions. However, the two assay methods yielded similar IgG AECA titers when used on sera from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis or antiphospholipid syndrome. These antibodies did not exhibit cytotoxicity for cord vein or EAhy-926 cells. They were not specific for endothelium, since their activity decreased by a mean of 40% after incubation of sera with the epithelial cell line A549. A cross-sectional study of 565 sera demonstrated that anti-vascular IgG and IgM AECAs reactive with EAhy-926 cells occurred mainly in patients with dermatomyositis (IgG, 58%; IgM, 22%), systemic scleroderma (IgG, 48%; IgM, 18%), primary Sjögren's syndrome (IgG, 44%; IgM, 12%) and secondary and primary systemic vasculitides (IgG, 38%; IgM, 18%) including Wegener's granulomatosis. A longitudinal study in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis showed that AECAS were predictive of disease activity. PMID:8869215

  16. Cold urticaria associated with acute serologic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miralles López, J C; López Andreu, F R; Sánchez-Gascón, F; López Rodríguez, C; Negro Alvarez, J M

    2005-01-01

    Cold urticaria is defined as a urticarial and/or angioedematous reaction of the skin to contact with cold objects, water or air. Types of urticaria associated with infectious diseases, such as mononucleosis, rubeola, varicella, syphilis, hepatitis, and HIV infection have been reported. We present the case of a patient who developed cold urticaria associated with acute serologic toxoplasmosis. The patient was a 34-year-old man who for the previous 2 months had presented cutaneous pruritus accompanied by several papular lesions in parts of the skin exposed to cold as well as those in contact with cold water. The result of an "ice-cube test" was positive. Serologic tests for Toxoplasma gondii showed an IgG level of 68 UI/ml and were positive for IgM, while a test for cryoglobulins was positive. One month later cryoglobulins were negative and a serologic test for T. gondii showed an IgG concentration of 75 UI/ml and positive IgM. Three months later cryoglobulins were still negative, IgG for T. gondii was 84 UI/ml, and IgM was positive. After 6 months cryoglobulins were still negative, IgG level was 68 UI/ml and IgM was still slightly positive. In the final evaluation, 14 months later, IgG level was 32 UI/ml and IgM was negative. The patient continues to present clinical manifestations of cold urticaria, although he has experienced some improvement and his tolerance to cold has increased after treatment with cetirizine. PMID:15946632

  17. Helium Reionization Simulations: Seeing the Forest for the Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Plante, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Helium reionization is an important epoch in the Universe's history and the most recent large-scale transition of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Reionization is driven largely by quasars, and has important implications on the thermal history of the IGM. Numerical simulations are ideally suited to investigate this problem due to the highly biased nature of observed quasars and the large degree of photoheating expected from quasar spectral energy distribution measurements. Recently, we have run a new suite of large-scale cosmological simulations that solve N-body, hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer simultaneously in order to study the impact of helium reionization on the IGM. Running fully coupled simulations allows us to capture the crucial impact that reionization has on thermal properties of the gas, which in previous studies has been typically included only in post-processing. We have developed a model to include a quasar population in our simulations that accurately reflects observations from the most recent BOSS and SDSS measurements. Our model reproduces the quasar luminosity function and the two point correlation function, the two main observational constraints on the high-redshift quasar population. Using this model, we vary the timing of helium reionization in order to isolate key observable features that can provide insight to properties of helium reionization, such as its duration and timing. We make predictions for the temperature density relation of the IGM and synthetic measuements related to the Lyman-alpha forest, both for HI and HeII. We process our synthetic spectra to measure the effective optical depth, the flux PDF, and the one-dimensional flux power spectrum. We show that features of reionization are readily visible in the HeII Lyman-alpha forest spectra and in the temperature evolution of the mean-density IGM, and might be detectable in the HI forest as well.

  18. The Origin of Cosmic Rays - A 96-Year-Old Puzzle Solved?

    E-print Network

    Arnon Dar

    2004-08-17

    There is mounting evidence that long duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are produced by ultra-relativistic jets of ordinary matter which are ejected in core collapse supernova (SN) explosions. Such jets are extremely efficient cosmic ray (CR) accelerators which can accelerate the swept up ambient particles on their way to the highest observed CR energies. The bulk of the jet kinetic energy is used to accelerate CRs while only a tiny fraction is used to produce the GRB and its afterglow. Here we use the remarkably successful cannonball (CB) model of GRBs to show that the bipolar jets from SN explosions, which produce GRBs most of which are not beamed towards Earth, can be the main origin of cosmic rays at all energies. The model explains very simply the elemental composition of CRs and their observed spectra at all energies. In particular it explains the origin of the CR knees and ankle. Above the CR ankle, the Galactic magnetic fields can no longer delay the free escape of ultra-high energies CRs (UHECR) from the Galaxy, and the CRs from the intergalactic medium (IGM), which were injected there by SN jets from all the galaxies and isotropized there by the IGM magnetic fields, dominate the Galactic CR spectrum. A Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) effect due to the interaction of UHECRs with the microwave background radiation is expected. The CR nuclei which diffuse out of galaxies, or are directly deposited in the IGM by the relativistic SN jets, may be the origin of the IGM magnetic fields. Inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR) by the CR electrons in the IGM produces the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background radiation (GBR).

  19. Origin of IgM(+)IgG(+) lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ekino, Shigeo; Sonoda, Kayoko; Inui, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    IgM(+)IgG(+) B cells were detected, by immunofluorescence staining of single cells, in the bursa of Fabricius after hatching. To study the role of maternal IgG (MIgG) in this emergence of IgM(+)IgG(+) B cells, MIgG-free chicks were established from surgically bursectomized hens. Deprivation of MIgG in chicks completely prevented the appearance of IgM(+)IgG(+) B cells in the bursa 1 week after hatching. However, introduction of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled MIgG to MIgG-free chick embryos on day 18 of incubation retrieved IgM(+)IgG(+) B cells in the bursa 1 week after hatching. Thus, IgM(+)IgG(+) B cells are induced by the binding of MIgG to IgM(+) B cells in the bursa after hatching. Nevertheless, no binding of MIgG to IgM(+) B cells was observed in the bursa of chick embryos in which B-cell proliferation and differentiation were independent of external antigens (Ags). Additionally, the binding of MIgG to IgM(+) B cells after hatching was prevented by the isolation of the bursa from environmental stimuli by bursal duct ligation. Therefore, Ag stimulation from the external environment to the bursa is indispensable for the binding of MIgG to IgM(+) B cells in the bursa. Taken together, the data demonstrate that IgM(+)IgG(+) B cells are generated by Ag-dependent binding of MIgG to IgM(+) B cells in the bursa after hatching. PMID:25948483

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus among Adults in South-West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Taherkhani, Reza; Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge regarding prevalence of HEV in general population can be an indicator of the public health and hygiene. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of HEV among adults in South-West of Iran. Methods. Blood samples were taken from 510 participants, 206 (40.4%) males and 304 (59.6%) females from February to July 2014. Detection of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out by ELISA test. Results. The overall anti-HEV IgG and IgM prevalence rates were 46.1% and 1.4%, respectively. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM seropositivity were not statistically associated with gender and race/ethnicity. Meanwhile, there were significant differences between the age groups regarding HEV IgG and IgM seropositivity. HEV IgG seroprevalence increased with age from 14.3% in subjects aged 18–30 years to 71.4% in persons over 71 years old, and considerably individuals aged 61 to 70 years had the highest HEV prevalence (90.9%). Also, 5.7% in the age group 18–30 years and 2.2% in the age group 31–40 years were positive for anti-HEV IgM antibodies and the highest rate was observed in subjects aged 18–30 years. Conclusion. In conclusion, high HEV IgG seroprevalence of 46.1% was observed among adults in South-West of Iran. PMID:26199756