Sample records for anticuerpos igm antivirus

  1. Avast Free Antivirus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Avast Free Antivirus has been around for sometime, and this latest edition has some notable new features. Perhaps the most significant change here is the very helpful user interface, which includes a new tabbed section and a context sensitive help menu. Visitors can also use the real-time shields to protect against spyware and viruses originating from hundreds of sources. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

  2. Usability Analysis of Sophos Antivirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacky Cheung; Stanley Li; Alex Totolici; Patrick Zheng

    This paper highlights some of the positive and negative aspects of Sophos Antivirus, in an effort to rate its usability. A user survey, cognitive walkthrough and heuristic evaluation were performed in order to collect appropriate information and identify problem areas. The survey provides a statistical representation of how first-time users feel about the usability of Sophos Antivirus compared to other

  3. Vcatch Antivirus 6.3.1.2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vcatch Antivirus is a program that will help users monitor their incoming emails and downloads in order to protect their computers from viruses and other such nefarious intruders. This program is integrated with Windows Explorer, and includes a detection engine that analyzes all files. Another helpful feature is that this application cooperates with anti-virus programs that are already installed on users' operating system. This program is compatible with all operating systems running Windows 95 and higher.

  4. Page 1 of 4 University of Warwick Antivirus Policy June 2002 University of Warwick Anti-Virus Policy

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    and the responsibilities of individuals, departments and IT Services in protecting the University against viruses for Virex 6, which can provide virus protection for Apple Macintosh computers that run the Macintosh systemPage 1 of 4 University of Warwick Antivirus Policy June 2002 University of Warwick Anti-Virus

  5. Game analysis on the market entry decisions into the mobile antivirus industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiguo Ye; Feida Lin

    2009-01-01

    The mobile antivirus software market is still at its early stage but many companies have entered this market. After analyzing the motivation of the antivirus companies, we find that the mobile antivirus market is not mature enough for so many companies to enter today. We use a game theoretical approach to examine the competition of mobile antivirus software providers. It

  6. CNS-P-I-ANTIVIRUS-A.doc 1/6 Printed on: 23/05/2008 Anti-Virus Policy

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    . Viruses can be transmitted via e- mail or instant messaging attachments, downloadable Internet files, USB Windows OS system. Licensed copies of McAfee anti-virus can be purchased separately online via AUB i) if you were not expecting a specific attachment from that source. 4. Be suspicious of e-mail messages

  7. Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and Anti-Virus Techniques: A Short Survey

    E-print Network

    Rad, Babak Bashari; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process, anti-virus experts design and develop new methodologies to make them stronger, more and more, every day. The purpose of this paper is to review these methodologies and outline their strengths and weaknesses to encourage those are interested in more investigation on these areas.

  8. Effect on the Web: An Analysis of Fake Anti-Virus Distribution Moheeb Abu Rajab

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    The Nocebo Effect on the Web: An Analysis of Fake Anti-Virus Distribution Moheeb Abu Rajab moheeb@google.com Lucas Ballard lucasballard@google.com Panayiotis Mavrommatis panayiotis@google.com Niels Provos niels@google.com Xin Zhao xinzhao@google.com Google Inc. Abstract We present a study of Fake Anti-Virus attacks

  9. Quick Reference Guide Updating Anti-Virus to Microsoft Security Essentials

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Quick Reference Guide Updating Anti-Virus to Microsoft Security Essentials CSUF Last Revised: 06 Microsoft Security Essentials on your PC or laptop at home. If you experience any issues or have any to page 7. #12;Updating Anti-Virus to Microsoft Security Essentials FINAL Last Revised: 06/24/11 Page 2

  10. IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster

    E-print Network

    IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last Symantec AntiVirus managed version from the "Computing Essentials 2004" CD or download it from http

  11. Quick Reference Guide Updating Mac Anti-Virus to ClamXav

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    the new ClamXav virus protection #12;Updating Anti-Virus to ClamXav FINAL Last Revised: 06/27/11 Page 2Quick Reference Guide Updating Mac Anti-Virus to ClamXav CSUF Last Revised: 06/27/11 Page 1 of 5. Processing Steps Screen Shots Step One: Remove McAfee Virus Scan Go to the "Go" menu at the top menu bar

  12. The Underground Economy of Fake Antivirus Software Brett Stone-Gross

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    The Underground Economy of Fake Antivirus Software Brett Stone-Gross§ , Ryan Abman , Richard A to unusual patterns in charge- backs, which can potentially be leveraged by vigilant payment processors lock down system function- ality to prevent victims from accessing files or web sites or from creating

  13. active immunity by using pigs previously injected with variable amounts of swine fever antivirus immunoglobins.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    active immunity by using pigs previously injected with variable amounts of swine fever antivirus immunoglobins. The vaccine used was an attenuated strain of swine fever virus : the Thiverval Strain. The immune. Swine fever vaccination of piglets in natural conditions with the « Thiverval » strain in presence

  14. NTU Supported Anti-Virus products for NTUanywhere AVG 9 and 10 free edition

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    Center Virus Protection (1.x) AOL Safety and Security Center Virus Protection (102.x) AOL Safety and Security Center Virus Protection (2.x) AOL Safety and Security Center Virus Protection (210.x) AVG 6.0 Anti-VirusNTU Supported Anti-Virus products for NTUanywhere AVG 9 and 10 free edition CA eTrustITM Agent (8.x

  15. Allotypes of mouse IgM immunoglobulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel L. Warner; James W. Goding; George A. Gutman; Gregory W. Warr

    1977-01-01

    GENETIC polymorphism of the structural genes encoding the class-specific (heavy) polypeptide chains of the immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules provides a useful set of markers for elucidating the arrangement and expression of these genes. On the basis of various antigenic, physiochemical and biological properties, the immunoglobulins of the mouse have been divided into eight distinct classes, IgM, IgD, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b,

  16. Toward Automatic Discovery of Malware Signature for Anti-Virus Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; Wu, Erik

    Security vendors are facing a serious problem of defeating the complexity of malwares. With the popularity and the variety of zero-day malware over the Internet, generating their signatures for detecting via anti-virus (AV) scan engines becomes an important reactive security function. However, AV security products consume much of the PC memory and resources due to their large signature files. AV cloud computing becomes a popular solution for this problem. In this paper, a novel Automatic Malware Signature Discovery System for AV cloud (AMSDS) is proposed to generate malware signatures from both static and dynamic aspects. Our experiments on millions-scale samples suggest that AMSDS outperforms most state-of-the-art automatic signature generation techniques of both industry and academia.

  17. Gaseous Haloes: Linking Galaxies to the IGM

    E-print Network

    Filippo Fraternali; James Binney; Tom Oosterloo; Renzo Sancisi

    2007-01-15

    In recent years evidence has accumulated that nearby spiral galaxies are surrounded by massive haloes of neutral and ionised gas. These gaseous haloes rotate more slowly than the disks and show inflow motions. They are clearly analogous to the High Velocity Clouds of the Milky Way. We show that these haloes cannot be produced by a galactic fountain process (supernova outflows from the disk) where the fountain gas conserves its angular momentum. Making this gas interact with a pre-existing hot corona does not solve the problem. These results point at the need for a substantial accretion of low angular momentum material from the IGM.

  18. Tri-tier Immune System in Antivirus and Software Fault Diagnosis of Mobile Immune Robot Based on Normal Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Gong; Zixing Cai

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, anti-virus problem and software fault diagnosis of mobile robot, an immune robot, is discussed with proposal\\u000a of a novel tri-tier immune system (TTIS). TTIS is a novel artificial immune system, which is comprised of three computing\\u000a tiers and based on the normal model. The three tiers include inherent immune tier, adaptive immune tier and parallel immune\\u000a tier.

  19. Personal computer security: part 1. Firewalls, antivirus software, and Internet security suites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    Personal computer (PC) security in the era of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) involves two interrelated elements: safeguarding the basic computer system itself and protecting the information it contains and transmits, including personal files. HIPAA regulations have toughened the requirements for securing patient information, requiring every radiologist with such data to take further precautions. Security starts with physically securing the computer. Account passwords and a password-protected screen saver should also be set up. A modern antivirus program can easily be installed and configured. File scanning and updating of virus definitions are simple processes that can largely be automated and should be performed at least weekly. A software firewall is also essential for protection from outside intrusion, and an inexpensive hardware firewall can provide yet another layer of protection. An Internet security suite yields additional safety. Regular updating of the security features of installed programs is important. Obtaining a moderate degree of PC safety and security is somewhat inconvenient but is necessary and well worth the effort. PMID:12975519

  20. Live virus-free or die: coupling of antivirus immunity and programmed suicide or dormancy in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The virus-host arms race is a major theater for evolutionary innovation. Archaea and bacteria have evolved diverse, elaborate antivirus defense systems that function on two general principles: i) immune systems that discriminate self DNA from nonself DNA and specifically destroy the foreign, in particular viral, genomes, whereas the host genome is protected, or ii) programmed cell suicide or dormancy induced by infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Almost all genomic loci encoding immunity systems such as CRISPR-Cas, restriction-modification and DNA phosphorothioation also encompass suicide genes, in particular those encoding known and predicted toxin nucleases, which do not appear to be directly involved in immunity. In contrast, the immunity systems do not appear to encode antitoxins found in typical toxin-antitoxin systems. This raises the possibility that components of the immunity system themselves act as reversible inhibitors of the associated toxin proteins or domains as has been demonstrated for the Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC that interacts with the PrrI restriction-modification system. We hypothesize that coupling of diverse immunity and suicide/dormancy systems in prokaryotes evolved under selective pressure to provide robustness to the antivirus response. We further propose that the involvement of suicide/dormancy systems in the coupled antivirus response could take two distinct forms: 1) induction of a dormancy-like state in the infected cell to ‘buy time’ for activation of adaptive immunity; 2) suicide or dormancy as the final recourse to prevent viral spread triggered by the failure of immunity. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis entails many experimentally testable predictions. Specifically, we predict that Cas2 protein present in all cas operons is a mRNA-cleaving nuclease (interferase) that might be activated at an early stage of virus infection to enable incorporation of virus-specific spacers into the CRISPR locus or to trigger cell suicide when the immune function of CRISPR-Cas systems fails. Similarly, toxin-like activity is predicted for components of numerous other defense loci. Implications of the hypothesis The hypothesis implies that antivirus response in prokaryotes involves key decision-making steps at which the cell chooses the path to follow by sensing the course of virus infection. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Etienne Joly and Nick Grishin. For complete reviews, go to the Reviewers’ reports section. PMID:23151069

  1. Tracing the Remnants of Powerful Quasars to Probe the IGM

    E-print Network

    Torsten A. Ensslin; Rashid A. Sunyaev; Markus Brueggen

    2001-12-17

    Powerful quasars and radio galaxies are injecting large amounts of energy in the form of radio plasma into the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Once this nonthermal component of the IGM has radiatively cooled the remaining radio emission is difficult to detect. Two scenarios in which the fossil radio plasma can be detected and thus be used to probe the IGM are discussed: a) re-illumination of the radio emission due to the compression in large-scale shock waves, and b) inverse Compton scattered radiation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), cosmic radio background (CRB), and the internal very low frequency synchrotron emission of the still relativistic low energy electron population. We present 3-D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of scenario a) and compare them to existing observations. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of the detection of process b) with upcoming instruments.

  2. Evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Sickinger; Hans-Bertram Braun; Gerald Praast; Myriam Stieler; Cordelia Gundlach; Claudia Birkenbach; John Prostko; Mary Ann Palafox; Edwin Frias; Stephen Hsu; Matthew Matias; Dominick Pucci; Michael Hausmann; Ulrich Sagel; Darwin Smith

    2009-01-01

    Development of the ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay has been done to assist the clinician in acute Toxoplasma gondii infection detection, especially in pregnant women. Its use, in conjunction with ARCHITECT Toxo IgG and Toxo Avidity assays, will provide an array of assays particularly useful in the monitoring of pregnant females to determine the risk of maternal transmission of the parasite.

  3. Evaluating the bottlenecks of recombinant IgM production in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Chromikova, Veronika; Mader, Alexander; Steinfellner, Willibald; Kunert, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Despite the fact, that monoclonal antibodies are the fastest growing group of biopharmaceuticals in development, this is not true for the IgM class, which remains as enigmatic as ever. While more examples of usefulness of IgMs for medical applications are emerging, their recombinant production is still not common. In our study, stable monoclonal IgM producing CHO DG44 and HEK 293 cell lines, expressing two model IgM molecules (IgM-617 and IgM-012) were established. Recombinant cell lines were compared in regard of specific productivity, specific growth rate, maximal achieved antibody titer, gene copy numbers and transcription levels of transgene. IgM-617 cell lines were identified as high while IgM-012 clones were low producers. Although differences in gene copy numbers as well as in transcription levels were observed, they did not seem to be a limitation. Levels of relevant endoplasmic reticulum-stress related proteins were analyzed and no indications of unfolded protein response were detected. This could indicate that the difference in the intrinsic protein stability of our model proteins (as was previously observed on purified samples) might cause lower yields of IgM-012. Transcriptomics and/or proteomics follow up studies might be necessary for identification of potential bottlenecks in IgM producing cell lines. PMID:24615530

  4. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  5. Complement activating properties of monoreactive and polyreactive IgM rheumatoid factors.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Y; Sato, R; Watanabe, H; Kogure, A; Watanabe, K; Nishimaki, T; Kasukawa, R; Kuraya, M; Fujita, T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To estimate the complement activating properties of monoclonal, monoreactive, and polyreactive IgM rheumatoid factors derived from Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells isolated from peripheral blood and synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the activation of the classical pathway of complement by monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor. Monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor was bound to IgG Fc adsorbed onto microtitre plates and then reacted with diluted normal human serum as a source of complement. The activation and binding of C4 were measured with F(ab')2 antibody to human C4. The complement activating property of IgM rheumatoid factor bound to IgG Fc was tentatively expressed as the ratio of the amount of bound C4 to the amount of bound IgM rheumatoid factor. RESULTS--The complement activating property of monoreactive IgM rheumatoid factor was shown to be about three times higher than that of polyreactive IgM rheumatoid factor. CONCLUSIONS--Monoreactive IgM rheumatoid factor with the higher complement activating property would result in a greater degree of complement dependent inflammation and might have a more important pathogenic role in RA than polyreactive IgM rheumatoid factor. Images PMID:8250611

  6. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of ?-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yao; Liu, Shuangfeng; Li, Juan; Meng, Yanfa; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Background Alpha-momorcharin (?-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG)2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa). Methodology/principal findings In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), ?-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of ?-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%–70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%–70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts. Conclusion/significance ?-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated ?-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with nanomaterials to be a targeting drug that can further decrease immunogenicity and side effects. Through nanotechnology we can make them low-release drugs, which can further prolong their half-life period in the human body. PMID:22802682

  7. The contribution of naturally occurring IgM antibodies, IgM cross-reactivity and complement dependency in murine humoral responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah E; Taylor, Philip R; McGreal, Eamon; Zamze, Susanne; Wong, Simon Y C

    2009-09-25

    Immunogenicity of 12 capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from Streptococcus pneumoniae did not correlate with pre-existing levels of natural IgM anti-CPS antibodies in mice. Immunization of mice with individual CPS, with the exception of type 14 (the only neutral CPS tested), increased serum IgM that also bound other CPS serotypes independent of structural similarity or commonly known contaminants. Surprisingly only IgM response to type 4 (which has a small immunodominant epitope) was dependent on either complement C3 or complement receptors CD35/CD21. IgG anti-CPS responses were infrequently induced, but critically dependent on complement. Our results have clarified the role of complement in the induction of IgM and IgG anti-CPS antibody responses in mice and have implications for CPS vaccine development. PMID:19660585

  8. Effects of IgM Allotype Suppression on Serum IgM Levels, B-1 and B-2 Cells, and Antibody Responses ir Allotype Heterozygous F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Ann Marie

    1994-01-01

    IgM allotype heterozygous F1 mice were independently suppressed for Igh6a or Igh6b to evaluate the contribution of B-1 and B-2 cells to natural serum IgM levels and Ab responses. B-2 B cells expressing IgM of the suppressed allotype were evident in the spleens of suppressed mice 4 to 6 weeks after cessation of the suppression regimen, whereas B-1 B cells of the suppressed allotype were undetectable for up to 9 months. Although serum IgM of the suppressed allotype was initially depleted in mice suppressed for either allotype, by 7 months of age, there were detectable levels of IgM of the suppressed allotype in the serum; however, the levels were significantly below that found in nonsuppressed mice. When mice were immunized with either the T-independent or T-dependent form of phosphorylcholine, those suppressed for either allotype, and consequently depleted of B-1 B cells of that allotype, did not respond with phosphorylcholine-specific IgM of the suppressed allotype. In contrast, when mice were immunized with ?1-3 dextran, the Igh6a allotype-suppressed mice were able to produce dextran-specific IgM of that allotype. These results show that allotype-bearing B-1 cells of both allotypes can be effectively suppressed by this suppression protocol and this produces long-lasting effects on B-1 cell levels and serum IgM of the suppressed allotype. These observations reflect the derivation of the majority of B-1 cells from fetal-neonatal precursors, which cannot be replaced by newly emerging B-2 cells of adult origin. Their ablation by antibody treatment results in permanent alterations to the adult B-cell repertoire. PMID:7620324

  9. Performance of Indirect Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Serology Tests and IgM Capture Assays for Laboratory Diagnosis of Measles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMUEL RATNAM; GRAHAM TIPPLES; CAROL HEAD; MICHELINE FAUVEL; MARGARET FEARON; BRIAN J. WARD

    As progress is made toward elimination of measles, the laboratory confirmation of measles becomes increasingly important. However, both false-positive and false-negative results can occur with the routinely used indirect measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology tests. The measles IgM capture assay is considered to be more specific, and therefore, its use is indicated for confirmatory testing, but its relative performance has

  10. Identification of a novel host-specific IgM protease in Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Seele, Jana; Singpiel, Alena; Spoerry, Christian; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph G

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a highly invasive, extracellular pathogen in pigs with the capacity to cause severe infections in humans. This study was initiated by the finding that IgM degradation products are released after opsonization of S. suis. The objective of this work was to identify the bacterial factor responsible for IgM degradation. The results of this study showed that a member of the IdeS family, designated Ide(Ssuis) (Immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of S. suis), is responsible and sufficient for IgM cleavage. Recombinant Ide(Ssuis) was found to degrade only IgM but neither IgG nor IgA. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that Ide(Ssuis) is host specific, as it exclusively cleaves porcine IgM but not IgM from six other species, including a closely related member of the Suidae family. As demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, Ide(Ssuis) modulates binding of IgM to the bacterial surface. Ide(Ssuis) is the first prokaryotic IgM-specific protease described, indicating that this enzyme is involved in a so-far-unknown mechanism of host-pathogen interaction at an early stage of the host immune response. Furthermore, cleavage of porcine IgM by Ide(Ssuis) is the first identified phenotype reflecting functional adaptation of S. suis to pigs as the main host. PMID:23243300

  11. The Impact of The IGM on High-Redshift Lyman Alpha Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    Mark Dijkstra; Adam Lidz; Stuart Wyithe

    2007-05-04

    We calculate the impact of the intergalactic medium (IGM) on the observed Lyman alpha lines (hereafter Lya) emitted by galaxies in an ionised IGM at z>4. Our model accounts for gas clumping in the IGM and for the fact that high-redshift galaxies reside in overdense regions, which causes the velocity field of the IGM to depart from the Hubble flow. The observed shape of the Lya line varies widely, with dependence on the intrinsic width and systemic velocity of the line, a galaxies star formation rate and the local extra-galactic UV-background. For large star formation rates and levels of the UV-background, absorption in the IGM does not result in a Lya line that is asymmetric as is common among known high-redshift Lya emitters. For models in which the lines do show the observed strong asymmetry, the IGM typically transmits only 10-30% of the Lya flux. The increase in the ionising background that accompanied the completion of reionisation barely increased the IGM transmission, which suggests that LAEs of comparable luminosity should not appear to be significantly dimmer prior to overlap. In this light, we briefly discuss the potential of Lya emitters as a probe into the epoch of reionisation.

  12. IgM deposits on skin nerves in anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Raffaella; Erne, Beat; Lauria, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Borgna, Monica; Morbin, Michela; Arnold, Andreas; Czaplinski, Adam; Fuhr, Peter; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Steck, Andreas J

    2005-02-01

    Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) neuropathy is a chronic demyelinating neuropathy with predominant involvement of large sensory fibers and deposits of IgM and complement on sural nerve myelinated fibers. We assessed the presence of IgM deposits on skin myelinated nerve fibers and the involvement of unmyelinated axons in anti-MAG neuropathy. Skin biopsies were performed in 14 patients with anti-MAG neuropathy, in 8 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and in 2 patients with IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy. Biopsies were taken at the proximal thigh in 20 patients, at the distal leg in 21 patients, at the proximal arm in 13 patients, and at the hand or fingertip in 10 patients. We found IgM deposits on dermal myelinated fibers in all anti-MAG neuropathy patients, with a greater prevalence at the distal site of the extremities. Deposits were located throughout the length of the fibers and at the paranodal loops. CIDP and IgM paraproteinemic neuropathies did not show any deposit of IgM. Anti-MAG neuropathy and CIPD patients showed a decrease in epidermal nerve fiber density reflecting an associated axonal loss. In anti-MAG neuropathy, both large- and small-diameter nerve fibers are affected, and specific deposits of IgM are found on skin myelinated nerve fibers. PMID:15668968

  13. The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hanala, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

  14. Suppressor T cells prevent in vitro expression of IgM rheumatoid factor in some healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, W.J.

    1981-12-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from 11 of 30 healthy adults elaborated detectable IgM RF when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. The influence of T cells on IgM RF production by autologous B Cells prepared from donors whose unfractionated MNL synthesized IgM RF in response to PMW was investigated. Untreated T cells supported IgM RF production by autologous B cells with optimal synthesis observed at T:B cell ratios of 2:1 at higher T:B cell ratios a decline in IgM RF production occurred. In contrast, at higher T:B cell ratios irradiated T cells supported consistently higher levels of IgM RF production than untreated T cells suggesting the presence of radiosensitive suppressor T cells for IgM RF in these individuals. Irridiated T cells were compared to untreated T cells for capacity to support IgM RF production by autologous B cells from 12 randomly selected donors at T:B cell ratios of 3:1. Untreated T cells from 4 of 12 individuals were capable of cooperating in induction of IgM RF production by autologous B cells, whereas irradiated T cells supported IgM RF production in 6 of 12 individuals. Levels of IgM RF production in all 6 individuals were significantly higher with irradiated T cells than with untreated T cells; in 2 individuals IgM RF synthesis by autologous B cells was observed only in the presence of irradiated T cells. In 4 of 6 individuals increases in the ratio of IgM RF total IgM synthesis occured with irradiated T cells (when compared to untreated T cells), suggesting disproportionate suppression of RF production. These results indicate the presence of radiosensitive T cells capable of suppressing IgM RF production in a significant fraction of healthy adults and raise the possibility that these cells may regulate in vivo expression of RF.

  15. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Emily E.; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C.; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration. PMID:26121639

  16. Unique ligand-binding property of the human IgM Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kazuhito; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Kearney, John F; Kubagawa, Hiromi

    2015-02-15

    The IgM Fc receptor (Fc?R) is the newest FcR, and coligation of Fc?R and Fas/CD95 on Jurkat cells with agonistic IgM anti-Fas mAb was shown to inhibit Fas-induced apoptosis. The ligand-binding activity of human Fc?R was further examined. Fc?R-mediated protection from apoptosis was partially blocked by addition of 10(4) molar excess of IgM or its soluble immune complexes, but it could be inhibited by addition of 10-fold excess of IgM anti-CD2 mAb. This suggests that Fc?R binds more efficiently to the Fc portion of IgM reactive with plasma-membrane proteins than to the Fc portion of IgM in solution. The former interaction occurred in cis on the same cell surface, but not in trans between neighboring cells. This cis engagement of Fc?R resulted in modulation of Ca(2+) mobilization via CD2 on Jurkat cells or BCRs on blood B cells upon cross-linkage with the corresponding IgM mAbs. Several functional changes were observed with Fc?R mutants: 1) significant increase in IgM ligand binding in the cytoplasmic tail-deletion mutant, 2) enhanced cap formation in Fc?R upon IgM binding at 4°C with a point mutation of the transmembrane His to Phe, and 3) less protective activity of Fc?R in IgM anti-Fas mAb-mediated apoptosis assays with a point mutation of the membrane-proximal Tyr to Phe. These findings show the importance of the cis engagement of Fc?R and its critical role in receptor function. Hence, Fc?R on B, T, and NK cells may modulate the function of surface proteins recognized by natural or immune IgM Abs on the shared membrane cell surface. PMID:25601920

  17. Vesiculovirus Neutralization by Natural IgM and Complement

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Mulu Z.; Ammayappan, Arun; Federspiel, Mark J.; Barber, Glen N.; Stojdl, David; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because of its very low human seroprevalence, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has promise as a systemic oncolytic agent for human cancer therapy. However, as demonstrated in this report, the VSV infectious titer drops by 4 log units during the first hour of exposure to nonimmune human serum. This neutralization occurs relatively slowly and is mediated by the concerted actions of natural IgM and complement. Maraba virus, whose G protein is about 80% homologous to that of VSV, is relatively resistant to the neutralizing activity of nonimmune human serum. We therefore constructed and rescued a recombinant VSV whose G gene was replaced by the corresponding gene from Maraba virus. Comparison of the parental VSV and VSV with Maraba G substituted revealed nearly identical host range properties and replication kinetics on a panel of tumor cell lines. Moreover, in contrast to the parental VSV, the VSV with Maraba G substituted was resistant to nonimmune human serum. Overall, our data suggest that VSV with Maraba G substituted should be further investigated as a candidate for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy applications. IMPORTANCE Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of disseminated cancers, but antibody neutralization of circulating oncolytic virus particles remains a formidable barrier. In this work, we developed a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with a glycoprotein of Maraba virus, a closely related but serologically distinct member of the family Rhabdoviridae, which demonstrated greatly diminished susceptibility to both nonimmune and VSV-immune serum neutralization. VSV with Maraba G substituted or lentiviral vectors should therefore be further investigated as candidates for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy applications. PMID:24648451

  18. Characterisation of echidna IgM provides insights into the time of divergence of extant mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Belov; Lars Hellman; Desmond W Cooper

    2002-01-01

    The immunobiology of monotremes is poorly understood. In this paper, we describe the characterisation of the heavy chain of IgM from Tachyglossus aculeatus, the short-beaked echidna. The echidna heavy chain constant region of IgM (C?) was isolated from a spleen cDNA library using a Trichosurus vulpecula probe. It has approximately 46.5% amino acid identity to marsupial and eutherian C?s, and

  19. Human monoclonal IgM antibodies with apoptotic activity isolated from cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Br Andlein; Judith Lorenz; Nele Ruoff; Frank Hensel; Ines Beyer; Justus M Uller; Konrad Neukam; Bertram Illert; Matthias Eck; Hans Konrad M Uller-hermelink; H. Peter Vollmers

    Abstract. Monoclonal antibodies are accepted as ideal adjuvant therapeutic reagents for all kinds of diseases. Polyvalent (cross- linking) and low-mutated IgM antibodies (less immunogenic),are believed to be the most effective weapons,against cancer. The best sources for these types of antibodies are the cancer patients themselves. Using conventional hybridoma technology, not only are fully human monoclonal IgM antibodies isolated, but also

  20. Physiological IgM Class Catalytic Antibodies Selective for Transthyretin Amyloid*

    PubMed Central

    Planque, Stephanie A.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Hara, Mariko; Sonoda, Sari; Murphy, Sarah K.; Watanabe, Kenji; Mitsuda, Yukie; Brown, Eric L.; Massey, Richard J.; Primmer, Stanley R.; O'Nuallain, Brian; Paul, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Peptide bond-hydrolyzing catalytic antibodies (catabodies) could degrade toxic proteins, but acquired immunity principles have not provided evidence for beneficial catabodies. Transthyretin (TTR) forms misfolded ?-sheet aggregates responsible for age-associated amyloidosis. We describe nucleophilic catabodies from healthy humans without amyloidosis that degraded misfolded TTR (misTTR) without reactivity to the physiological tetrameric TTR (phyTTR). IgM class B cell receptors specifically recognized the electrophilic analog of misTTR but not phyTTR. IgM but not IgG class antibodies hydrolyzed the particulate and soluble misTTR species. No misTTR-IgM binding was detected. The IgMs accounted for essentially all of the misTTR hydrolytic activity of unfractionated human serum. The IgMs did not degrade non-amyloidogenic, non-superantigenic proteins. Individual monoclonal IgMs (mIgMs) expressed variable misTTR hydrolytic rates and differing oligoreactivity directed to amyloid ? peptide and microbial superantigen proteins. A subset of the mIgMs was monoreactive for misTTR. Excess misTTR was dissolved by a hydrolytic mIgM. The studies reveal a novel antibody property, the innate ability of IgMs to selectively degrade and dissolve toxic misTTR species as a first line immune function. PMID:24648510

  1. Platelet antibodies of the IgM class in immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Wilson, S.B.; Tomaski, A.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1985-04-01

    The clinical course and response to therapy of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) are not completely determined by the level of IgG present on the platelet surface. It is possible that antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes also play a role in platelet destruction in some of these patients. Therefore, the authors studied 175 patients with ITP for the presence of IgM anti-platelet antibodies using radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM. They observed that 57% of patients with clinical ITP had increased levels of IgM on their platelets, compared with normal controls and patients with thrombocytopenia who did not have ITP. They obtained similar results using either radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM, reagents whose integrity was first characterized using erythrocytes coated with defined amounts of IgM antibody. Among patients with increased platelet-IgM there was a significant correlation both with the presence of increased platelet-C3 as well as the amount of platelet-C3. The authors demonstrated the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in the plasma of two of these patients who were further studied. These studies demonstrate the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in some patients with ITP. They suggest that the binding of complement to platelets by IgM antibodies may initiate platelet clearance as well as enhance the effect of IgG antibodies in ITP.

  2. Differentiation of acute and chronic hepatitis B in IgM anti-HBc positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Won; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Kim, Sung Eun; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Myung Seok; Kim, Hyoung Su; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the factors that differentiate acute hepatitis B (AHB) from chronic hepatitis B with acute exacerbation (CHB-AE). METHODS: From 2004 to 2013, a total of 82 patients (male n = 52, 63.4%; female n = 30, 36.6%) with clinical features of acute hepatitis with immunoglobulin M antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc) were retrospectively enrolled and divided into two groups; AHB (n = 53) and CHB-AE (n = 29). The AHB group was defined as patients without a history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before the episode and with loss of hepatitis B surface antigen within 6 mo after onset of acute hepatitis. Biochemical and virological profiles and the sample/cutoff (S/CO) ratio of IgM anti-HBc were compared to determine the differential diagnostic factors. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis demonstrated that, the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels were meaningful factors. The S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc was significantly higher in the AHB group, while the HBV DNA level was significantly higher in the CHB-AE group. The optimal cutoff values of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels for differentiating the two conditions were 8 S/CO ratio and 5.5 log10 IU/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 96.2% and 89.7% for the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and 81.1% and 72.4% for HBV DNA levels, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves of both the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels were not significantly different (0.933 vs 0.844, P = 0.105). When combining IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA, the diagnostic power significantly improved compared to HBV DNA alone (P = 0.0056). The combination of these factors yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 98.1% and 86.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The combination of the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels was a useful tool for differentiating AHB from CHB-AE in patients with positive IgM anti-HBc. PMID:25852281

  3. Intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal IgM against myelin lipids predicts an aggressive disease course in MS.

    PubMed

    Villar, Luisa M; Sádaba, María C; Roldán, Ernesto; Masjuan, Jaime; González-Porqué, Pedro; Villarrubia, Noelia; Espiño, Mercedes; García-Trujillo, José A; Bootello, Alfredo; Alvarez-Cermeño, José C

    2005-01-01

    Oligoclonal IgM bands restricted to cerebrospinal fluid are an unfavorable prognostic marker in MS, the most common demyelinating disease of the CNS. We have attempted to identify the B cell subpopulation responsible for oligoclonal IgM secretion and the specificity of these bands. In addition, we explored the relationship between specificity and disease evolution. Intrathecal B cell subpopulations present in 29 MS patients with oligoclonal IgM bands and 52 without them were analyzed. A considerable increase in CD5(+) B lymphocytes was found in patients with oligoclonal IgM bands. These cells mostly secrete IgM antibodies recognizing nonproteic molecules. We also studied whether oligoclonal IgM bands present in cerebrospinal fluid of 53 MS patients were directed against myelin lipids. This was the case in most patients, with phosphatidylcholine being the most frequently recognized lipid. Disease course of 15 patients with oligoclonal IgM against myelin lipids and 33 patients lacking them was followed. Patients with anti-lipid IgM suffered a second relapse earlier, had more relapses, and showed increased disability compared with those without anti-lipid IgM. The presence of intrathecal anti-myelin lipid IgM antibodies is therefore a very accurate predictor of aggressive evolution in MS. PMID:15630459

  4. National prevalence estimates for cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG avidity and association between high IgM antibody titer and low IgG avidity.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Sheila C; Staras, Stephanie A S; Amin, Minal M; Schmid, D Scott; Cannon, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the mother during pregnancy presents risk of CMV infection of the fetus with resulting permanent disability. CMV IgM antibody is generated following primary CMV infection but also can appear during nonprimary CMV infection and is thus of limited diagnostic use by itself. In contrast, the presence of low CMV IgG avidity has been shown to be a unique and reliable serologic indicator of primary CMV infection. We measured CMV IgG and IgM antibody levels and IgG avidity in sera from a population sample of 6,067 U.S. women aged 12 to 49 years from NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). The CMV IgG prevalence was 58% overall and increased strongly with age. The CMV IgM prevalence was 3.0% overall and remained relatively flat across age groups. The prevalence of low IgG avidity was 2.0% overall, decreased sharply with age, and was seen mainly among IgM-positive sera. Fourteen to 18% of the CMV IgM-positive sera were low IgG avidity, presumably representing primary CMV infection. High CMV IgM antibody titer was a strong predictor of low IgG avidity. The ability to reliably identify primary CMV infection during pregnancy is important for management of the pregnancy, including possible treatment options for the fetus. Both IgM and IgG avidity measurements provide useful clinical information for evaluating primary CMV infection, although commercial tests for CMV IgG avidity are not yet widely available in the United States. PMID:21918114

  5. Platelet antibodies of the IgM class in immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed Central

    Cines, D B; Wilson, S B; Tomaski, A; Schreiber, A D

    1985-01-01

    The clinical course and response to therapy of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) are not completely determined by the level of IgG present on the platelet surface. It is possible that antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes also play a role in platelet destruction in some of these patients. Therefore, we studied 175 patients with ITP for the presence of IgM anti-platelet antibodies using radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM. We observed that 57% of patients with clinical ITP had increased levels of IgM on their platelets, compared with normal controls and patients with thrombocytopenia who did not have ITP (less than 10%), (P less than 0.01). We obtained similar results using either radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM, reagents whose integrity was first characterized using erythrocytes coated with defined amounts of IgM antibody. Among patients with increased platelet-IgM there was a significant correlation both with the presence of increased platelet-C3 as well as the amount of platelet-C3 (P less than 0.01, r = 0.53). We demonstrated the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in the plasma of two of these patients who were further studied. The isolated IgM fraction from these two plasmas was able to activate complement and place 3H-C3 on normal platelets. These studies demonstrate the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in some patients with ITP. They suggest that the binding of complement to platelets by IgM antibodies may initiate platelet clearance as well as enhance the effect of IgG antibodies in ITP. PMID:4039335

  6. Functional characterization of IgM(+) B cells and adaptive immunity in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.).

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, Anita; Ghebretnsae, Dawit B; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Haugland, Gyri T

    2015-10-01

    The innate immune responses in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) have been shown to be functional, but little is currently known about the B cells, immunoglobulins or adaptive immune responses in this species. We have used anti-IgM antiserum to isolate B cells and compared them morphologically and functionally with other cell types. The fraction of IgM(+) cells among isolated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocytes (HKL) and spleen leukocytes (SL) was in the range of 40%, 12% and 34%, respectively. The IgM(+) B cells had high phagocytic ability and were the predominant phagocytes in blood with higher capacity than IgM(+) B cells in HKL. Interestingly, among PBL, the most potent phagocytes were, in addition to monocytes, some small agranular uncharacterized IgM(-) cells. The IgM(+) B cells were positive for acid phosphatases (AcP), but negative for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophils were positive for MPO, while monocytes/macrophages and dendritic-like cells stained negatively. Monocytes/macrophages and the small, agranular IgM(-) cells stained most strongly positive for AcP corresponding to their high phagocytic capacity. Further, the ability to produce specific antibodies upon immunization verified adaptive immunity in the species. The high proportion of phagocytic IgM(+) B cells and their phagocytic ability indicate a significant role of phagocytic B cells in lumpfish innate immunity. The present analyses also give strong indications that vaccination and immunostimulation of farmed lumpfish can be used to prevent disease and mortality caused by pathogenic organisms. PMID:26021455

  7. Selection and performance of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in an IgM antibody capture enzyme immunoassay for rubella.

    PubMed

    Chantler, S; Evans, C J

    1986-02-27

    Monoclonal anti-human IgM and anti-rubella antibodies were prepared and tested in an IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) for rubella-specific IgM and compared with polyclonal reagents. Assay sensitivity was increased with monoclonal antibodies resulting in the improved discrimination of adult sera with low levels of specific IgM. Despite high IgM binding, interference by IgM anti-Ig was not a major problem. The use of monoclonal antibodies allowed assay simplification by the simultaneous rather than sequential addition of antigen and conjugate. Although comparable results were obtained with 33 test samples in the sequential and simultaneous MACEIA, the specificity and sensitivity of this modification requires further evaluation. PMID:3512718

  8. Distribution of radiolabeled human and mouse monoclonal IgM antibodies in murine models.

    PubMed

    Halpern, S E; Hagan, P L; Chen, A; Birdwell, C R; Bartholomew, R M; Burnett, K G; David, G S; Poggenburg, K; Merchant, B; Carlo, D J

    1988-10-01

    The distribution and kinetics of six human and one murine monoclonal IgM antibodies (MoAb) were studied in BALB/c mice. Labeling was with 111In, 75Se, and 125I. The monomers and pentamers of certain MoAbs were studied. Human distribution studies were also performed. The serum containing [111In]MoAb was obtained from one of the patients 24 hr after administration and injected into mice which were then killed and assayed for 111In distribution. In general, the [75Se] and [111In]MoAbs had distribution and kinetic patterns that were similar while the 125I-labeled MoAbs dehalogenated after 4 hr. Monomers and pentamers had highly similar distributions suggesting that the distribution of IgMs may be based on factors other than molecular size. The murine IgM showed a somewhat different distribution in mice than did human IgMs. Serum from the patient containing [111In]MoAb had a distribution in mice similar to that of the patient with high liver and gastrointestinal uptake. The human imaging indicates that it is possible to target tumor with human IgM MoAbs, but significant problems remain in regard to their clinical use. PMID:3171697

  9. Distribution of radiolabeled human and mouse monoclonal IgM antibodies in murine models

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, S.E.; Hagan, P.L.; Chen, A.; Birdwell, C.R.; Bartholomew, R.M.; Burnett, K.G.; David, G.S.; Poggenburg, K.; Merchant, B.; Carlo, D.J.

    1988-10-01

    The distribution and kinetics of six human and one murine monoclonal IgM antibodies (MoAb) were studied in BALB/c mice. Labeling was with /sup 111/In, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 125/I. The monomers and pentamers of certain MoAbs were studied. Human distribution studies were also performed. The serum containing (/sup 111/In)MoAb was obtained from one of the patients 24 hr after administration and injected into mice which were then killed and assayed for /sup 111/In distribution. In general, the (/sup 75/Se) and (/sup 111/In)MoAbs had distribution and kinetic patterns that were similar while the /sup 125/I-labeled MoAbs dehalogenated after 4 hr. Monomers and pentamers had highly similar distributions suggesting that the distribution of IgMs may be based on factors other than molecular size. The murine IgM showed a somewhat different distribution in mice than did human IgMs. Serum from the patient containing (/sup 111/In)MoAb had a distribution in mice similar to that of the patient with high liver and gastrointestinal uptake. The human imaging indicates that it is possible to target tumor with human IgM MoAbs, but significant problems remain in regard to their clinical use.

  10. Circulating microparticles carry oxidation-specific epitopes and are recognized by natural IgM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Perkmann, Thomas; Afonyushkin, Taras; Mangold, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas A; Papac-Milicevic, Nikolina; Millischer, Vincent; Bartel, Caroline; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Boulanger, Chantal M; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Fischer, Michael B; Witztum, Joseph L; Lang, Irene M; Binder, Christoph J

    2015-02-01

    Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) present on apoptotic cells and oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) represent danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by different arcs of innate immunity, including natural IgM antibodies. Here, we investigated whether circulating microparticles (MPs), which are small membrane vesicles released by apoptotic or activated cells, are physiological carriers of OSEs. OSEs on circulating MPs isolated from healthy donors and patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STE-MI) were characterized by flow cytometry using a panel of OSE-specific monoclonal antibodies. We found that a subset of MPs carry OSEs on their surface, predominantly malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes. Consistent with this, a majority of IgM antibodies bound on the surface of circulating MPs were found to have specificity for MDA-modified LDL. Moreover, we show that MPs can stimulate THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) and human primary monocytes to produce interleukin 8, which can be inhibited by a monoclonal IgM with specificity for MDA epitopes. Finally, we show that MDA(+) MPs are elevated at the culprit lesion site of patients with STE-MI. Our results identify a subset of OSE(+) MPs that are bound by OxLDL-specific IgM. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which anti-OxLDL IgM antibodies could mediate protective functions in CVD. PMID:25525116

  11. Influenza virus-specific neutralizing IgM antibodies persist for a lifetime.

    PubMed

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2014-11-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50 × 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM(+)) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG(+) plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

  12. Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E. Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50× 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM+) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG+ plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

  13. New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER II: Constraints on IGM Properties at z = 7.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan; Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Paper Team

    2015-01-01

    Using a simulation-based framework, we interpret the power spectrum measurements from PAPER of Ali et al. in the context of IGM physics at z = 7.7. A cold IGM will result in strong 21 cm absorption relative to the CMB and leads to a 21 cm fluctuation power spectrum that can exceed 3000 mK^2. The new PAPER measurements allow us to rule out extreme cold IGM models, placing a lower limit on the physical temperature of the IGM. We also compare this limit with a calculation for the predicted heating from the currently observed galaxy population at z = 8.

  14. IgM MGUS associated with anti-MAG neuropathy: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Mir, Muhammad A; Pandey, Manoj K; Sivik, Jeffrey K; Raheja, Divisha

    2015-06-01

    Anti-MAG neuropathy is a very rare form of acquired polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We conducted a retrospective review of 194 consecutive MGUS patients seen at the Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute. We identified six patients among 37 (16 %) with IgM MGUS with anti-MAG neuropathy. Interestingly, an additional patient had anti-MAG neuropathy without MGUS. Common clinical manifestations were numbness and paresthesias of the extremities and gait imbalance. All four patients treated with rituximab and none of the three untreated ones had a subjective improvement of their symptoms. We conclude that all patients with IgM MGUS and neuropathy should be screened for anti-MAG antibodies and, if positive, they should be offered treatment with rituximab. PMID:25572169

  15. Cytogenetic aberrations in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Eurelings, Marijke; Lokhorst, Henk M; Notermans, Nicolette C; Krijtenburg, Pieter Jaap; Kessel, Berris van; Eleveld, Mark J; Bloem, Andries; Wokke, John H; Poot, Martin; Buijs, Arjan

    2007-09-15

    The occurrence and nature of cytogenetic aberrations in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy was determined. Therefore, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied in 22 patients with polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay in 18 of these patients and genome-wide-array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in eight of these 18 patients. Four patients had 10-20% and one patient had 30% B cells with IgH rearrangements; one patient had additional loss of 14qter; one patient had amplification of 6p and loss of 6q. Cytogenetic aberrations may be found in one third of the patients with neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and are mainly associated with indolent Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia. PMID:17543994

  16. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the Hepatitis delta virus

    SciTech Connect

    Farci, P.; Gerin, J.L.; Aragona, M.; Lindsey, I.; Crivelli, O.; Balestrieri, A.; Smedile, A.; Thomas, H.C.; Rizzetto, M.

    1986-03-21

    The IgM class antibody to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was determined in different clinical categories of hepatitis B surface antigen carriers infected by the HDV (positive in the test for total antibody to HDV). The IgM antibody was found at high titers in each 70 patients with inflammatory liver disease and at a low titer in one six patients with inactive cirrhosis; it was not found in eight carriers with normal liver histology. Testing for Igm antibody to HDV distinguishes hepatitis B surface antigen carriers who have underlying inflammatory HDV liver disease from those with past HDV infection and provides prognostic information on the course of chronic HDV hepatitis.

  17. Antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 2 pathway suppresses IL-6-induced immunoglobulin IgM secretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed predominantly in the immune system, particularly in plasma cells, raising the possibility that targeting the CB2 pathway could yield an immunomodulatory effect. Although the role of CB2 in mediating immunoglobulin class switching has been reported, the effects of targeting the CB2 pathway on immunoglobulin secretion per se remain unclear. Methods Human B cell line SKW 6.4, which is capable of differentiating into IgM-secreting cells once treated with human IL-6, was employed as the cell model. SKW 6.4 cells were incubated for 4 days with CB2 ligands plus IL-6 (100 U/ml). The amount of secreted IgM was determined by an ELISA. Cell proliferation was determined by the 3H-Thymidine incorporation assay. Signal molecules involved in the modulation of IgM secretion were examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses or by using their specific inhibitors. Results We demonstrated that CB2 inverse agonists SR144528 and AM630, but not CB2 agonist HU308 or CB1 antagonist SR141716, effectively inhibited IL-6-induced secretion of soluble IgM without affecting cell proliferation as measured by thymidine uptake. SR144528 alone had no effects on the basal levels of IgM in the resting cells. These effects were receptor mediated, as pretreatment with CB2 agonist abrogated SR144528-mediated inhibition of IL-6 stimulated IgM secretion. Transcription factors relevant to B cell differentiation, Bcl-6 and PAX5, as well as the protein kinase STAT3 pathway were involved in the inhibition of IL-6-induced IgM by SR144528. Conclusions These results uncover a novel function of CB2 antagonists and suggest that CB2 ligands may be potential modulators of immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:24913620

  18. Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring a prediversified immunoglobulin repertoire

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring authorship Abstract The human peripheral B cell compartment displays a large population of IgM IgD CD27 The human peripheral B cell compartment displays, in contrast to the mouse, a large population of CD27

  19. Immunobiology Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Immunobiology Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells des Hopitaux de Paris, Kremlin- Bicêtre (France) 10 Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University compartment displays a large population of IgM+ IgD+ CD27+ "memory" B cell carrying a mutated Ig receptor. We

  20. COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF EFFECTS OF THYROXINE, CORTISOL PAR LE VEAU NOUVEAU-NÉ. INFLUENCE DE LA THYROXINE, DU CORTISOL ET DE LA TEMPÉRATURE AMBIANTE À LA. Furthermore, a negative correlation existed between the levels of thyroid hormone in the plasma at birth

  1. Immunological mechanisms that associate with oligoclonal IgM band synthesis in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Villar, Luisa M; Espiño, Mercedes; Cavanillas, María L; Roldán, Ernesto; Urcelay, Elena; de la Concha, Emilio G; Sádaba, Maria C; Arroyo, Rafael; González-Porqué, Pedro; Alvarez-Cermeño, José C

    2010-10-01

    We described previously that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with oligoclonal IgM against myelin lipids (M+) develop an aggressive disease. Our aim was to assess possible mechanisms regulating the production of these antibodies. We studied B cell subsets in 180 patients with MS, and 69 with other neurological diseases. M+ MS patients showed a moderate increase of CD5(+) B-cell percentage in peripheral blood and a considerable augment of these cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that correlated with intrathecal IgM production. The appearance of CD5(+) B cells into the central nervous system (CNS) was related to increased CXCL13 and TNF-alpha levels in CSF. Moreover, the presence of oligoclonal IgM associated with a SNP at position -376 of the TNF-alpha promoter. These results help to elucidate the B lymphocytes responsible for intrathecal IgM secretion in MS and the origin of this abnormal B-cell response in patients with aggressive MS. PMID:20621566

  2. Hyper IgM immunodeficiency. A primary dysfunction of B lymphocyte isotype switching.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, D; Haber, P; Rich, K; Cooper, M D

    1983-01-01

    Immunological evaluations (lymphocyte markers, B cell differentiation, T cell function) were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four individuals with hyper IgM immunodeficiency. Number, proportion, and proliferation of T lymphocytes and T lymphocyte subpopulations were relatively normal in affected individuals. The percentage and number of B cells expressing surface IgM and IgD were either normal or elevated in both blood and lymph nodes. However, surface IgG- and IgA-bearing B lymphocytes were completely absent. In vitro stimulation of blood lymphocytes with both T cell-dependent and T-cell independent polyclonal B cell activators resulted in normal numbers of IgM plasma cells and IgM secretion in cultures, but failed to induce any IgG- or IgA-producing cells. This failure of isotype switching was intrinsic to the B cell population and did not involve aberrant T cell help or suppression. Therefore, individuals with this disorder possess an intrinsic B cell dysfunction that is not related to abnormal T cell regulation. PMID:6605368

  3. AL amyloidosis associated with IgM paraproteinemia: clinical profile and treatment outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashutosh D. Wechalekar; Helen J. Lachmann; Hugh J. B. Goodman; Arthur Bradwell; Philip N. Hawkins; Julian D. Gillmore

    2008-01-01

    AL amyloidosis associated with immu- noglobulin M (IgM) paraproteinemia is rare. We report 103 consecutive such patients evaluated at the National Amy- loidosis Centre (London, United King- dom) between 1988 and 2006. Renal, cardiac, and lymph node amyloid was present in 53%, 35%, and 21% of pa- tients, respectively, at presentation and 2 or more organs were involved in 54%.

  4. Placebo-controlled trial of rituximab in IgM anti-myelin–associated glycoprotein neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Viala, Karine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Créange, Alain; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Pouget, Jean; Clavelou, Pierre; Vial, Christophe; Steck, Andreas; Musset, Lucile; Marin, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether rituximab 375 mg/m2 was efficacious in patients with immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-myelin–associated glycoprotein antibody demyelinating neuropathy (IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy). Methods: Fifty-four patients with IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The inclusion criteria were inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) sensory score (ISS) ?4 and visual analog pain scale >4 or ataxia score ?2. The primary outcome was mean change in ISS at 12 months. Results: Twenty-six patients were randomized to a group receiving 4 weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2 rituximab, and 28 patients to placebo. Intention-to-treat analysis, with imputation of missing ISS values by the last observation carried forward method, showed a lack of mean change in ISS at 12 months, 1.0 ± 2.7 in the rituximab group, and 1.0 ± 2.8 in the placebo group. However, changes were observed, in per protocol analysis at 12 months, for the number of patients with an improvement of at least 2 points in the INCAT disability scale (p = 0.027), the self-evaluation scale (p = 0.016), and 2 subscores of the Short Form–36 questionnaire. Conclusions: Although primary outcome measures provide no evidence to support the use of rituximab in IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy, there were improvements in several secondary outcomes in per protocol analysis. Level of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that rituximab is ineffective in improving ISS in patients with IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy. PMID:23667063

  5. Membrane-controlled depletion of complement activity by spin-label-specific IgM.

    PubMed

    Humphries, G M; McConnell, H M

    1977-08-01

    Complement depletion mediated by high molecular weight (IgM) rabbit antibodies specifically bound to spin-label lipid haptens dispersed in model membranes is controlled by various physical attributes of those membranes other than the total number of exposed determinants that they provide. Carrier lipids used at 32 degrees were (i) a "fluid" phosphatidylcholine (PC), (ii) a "solid" PC, and (iii) a cholesterol/PC mixture. The concentration of hapten in the plane of the membranes (two-dimensional concentration) was varied while the overall hapten molarity (three-dimensional concentration) was kept constant. Both specific binding and the efficiency of depletion by IgM are markedly enhanced by systematically decreasing the average distance between haptens (infinity --> 26 A). Heterogeneous distribution was found to be more favorable than a random homogeneous distribution of the same number of haptens in the same total quantity of lipids. IgM efficiency is also markedly increased by the inclusion of cholesterol in PC membranes, an effect thought to result from enhanced projection of the determinant from the surface of the membrane and hence increased accessibility to the antibody-binding site. Furthermore, the efficiency of IgM was increased by using haptens dispersed in fluid rather than in solid PC membranes. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that IgM molecules must be bound to a critical multiple of antigenic determinants at a membrane surface in order to induce complement-mediated attack and that subtle variation of the physical state of membrane antigens can be the crucial factor in determining the outcome of this type of efferent immune response. PMID:198789

  6. IgM Repertoire Biodiversity is Reduced in HIV-1 Infection and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Hou, Wei; Liu, Li; Cai, Yunpeng; Wallet, Mark Andrew; Gardner, Brent Paul; Chang, Kaifen; Lowe, Amanda Catherine; Rodriguez, Carina Adriana; Sriaroon, Panida; Farmerie, William George; Sleasman, John William; Goodenow, Maureen Michels

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV-1 infection or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disrupt B cell homeostasis, reduce memory B cells, and impair function of IgG and IgM antibodies. Objective: To determine how disturbances in B cell populations producing polyclonal antibodies relate to the IgM repertoire, the IgM transcriptome in health and disease was explored at the complementarity determining region 3 (CDRH3) sequence level. Methods: 454-deep pyrosequencing in combination with a novel analysis pipeline was applied to define populations of IGHM CDRH3 sequences based on absence or presence of somatic hypermutations (SHM) in peripheral blood B cells. Results: HIV or SLE subjects have reduced biodiversity within their IGHM transcriptome compared to healthy subjects, mainly due to a significant decrease in the number of unique combinations of alleles, although recombination machinery was intact. While major differences between sequences without or with SHM occurred among all groups, IGHD and IGHJ allele use, CDRH3 length distribution, or generation of SHM were similar among study cohorts. Antiretroviral therapy failed to normalize IGHM biodiversity in HIV-infected individuals. All subjects had a low frequency of allelic combinations within the IGHM repertoire similar to known broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Conclusion: Polyclonal expansion would decrease overall IgM biodiversity independent of other mechanisms for development of the B cell repertoire. Applying deep sequencing as a strategy to follow development of the IgM repertoire in health and disease provides a novel molecular assessment of multiple points along the B cell differentiation pathway that is highly sensitive for detecting perturbations within the repertoire at the population level. PMID:24298273

  7. Clinical evaluation of new automated cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG assays for the Elecsys(®) analyser platform.

    PubMed

    Revello, M G; Vauloup-Fellous, C; Grangeot-Keros, L; van Helden, J; Dickstein, Y; Lipkin, I; Mühlbacher, A; Lazzarotto, T

    2012-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of physical and neurological abnormalities in newborns. Hence, the diagnosis of CMV infection in pregnant women is necessary in order to allow appropriate management of their pregnancy. New assays have been developed for the Roche Elecsys® immunoassay platform that detect CMV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG, with the IgM assay designed to target IgM produced at the start of infection rather than IgM persisting later in infection. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the new assays compared with other commercial kits widely distributed in laboratories. The performance of the Elecsys and comparator CMV IgM and IgG assays was assessed using 967 preselected patient samples characterised by CMV infection status, as well as being compared using 1,668 unselected clinical samples. The Elecsys CMV IgM and IgG assays performed consistently with comparator assays using the preselected samples. The Elecsys CMV IgM assay showed improved sensitivity compared with the Enzygnost® assay in primary infection (91.2 % vs. 79.4 %) and improved specificity over the Architect® assay in potentially cross-reacting samples (94.1 % vs. 82.4 %). The Elecsys IgM assay reported fewer positive results in the later stages of CMV infection compared with ETI-CYTOK-M ELISA, while the Elecsys IgG assay reported slightly fewer negative results in the early stages of infection compared with ETI-CYTOK-G ELISA. There was good agreement between Elecsys and comparator assays using unselected clinical samples (range 90.4-99.4 %). The Elecsys CMV IgM and IgG assays compare well with routinely used assays and are suitable for clinical use. PMID:22850741

  8. A selective defect in IgM antigen receptor synthesis and transport causes loss of cell surface IgM expression on tolerant B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, S E; Goodnow, C C

    1994-01-01

    To explore the biochemical basis for maintaining immunological tolerance by functional inactivation of self-reactive B lymphocytes, transgenic mice carrying rearranged anti-lysozyme immunoglobulin transgenes and a lysozyme transgene were used as a source of large numbers of tolerant self-reactive B cells. Antigen receptors of the IgD isotype were expressed at normal levels on tolerant B cells, contained the heterodimeric MB1/B29 signalling component of the receptor complex and were structurally indistinguishable from IgD on nontolerant B cells. In contrast, cell surface expression of IgM receptor complexes on tolerant B cells was greatly reduced, despite normal expression of mRNA encoding the receptor components. Three-fold fewer immunoreactive mu heavy chains were detectable after a short period of biosynthetic labelling and the immunoreactive mu chains produced were paired with kappa light chains and assembled normally into intact receptor complexes containing the MB1/B29 heterodimer. Nascent IgM receptor complexes nevertheless failed to be processed into an endoglycosidase H-resistant form in the tolerant B cells and thus appeared to be selectively blocked in their transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the medial Golgi. These findings demonstrate that intracellular trafficking of antigen receptor complexes is regulated by exposure to receptor stimuli at the cell surface causing a long-lasting decrease in surface receptor expression on tolerant B cells. Images PMID:8112296

  9. Immunodeficiency in the chicken. II. Production of monomeric IgM following testosterone treatment or infection with Gumboro disease.

    PubMed

    Ivanyi, J

    1975-06-01

    Chickens were treated at an early embryonal age with testosterone propionate or infected neonatally with the virus producing Gumboro disease. Their sera were subsequently fractionated by Sephadex G-200 chromatography, and showed a complete deficiency of IgG and the presence of IgM which was eluted with the 7S protein fraction. Purified and 125-I-labelled monomeric IgM was examined by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to contain both mu and light chains, together with a chain of intermediary size, which was absent from the patterns of 19S IgM or IgG. PMID:166037

  10. Immunodeficiency in the chicken. II. Production of monomeric IgM following testosterone treatment or infection with Gumboro disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ivanyi, J

    1975-01-01

    Chickens were treated at an early embryonal age with testosterone propionate or infected neonatally with the virus producing Gumboro disease. Their sera were subsequently fractionated by Sephadex G-200 chromatography, and showed a complete deficiency of IgG and the presence of IgM which was eluted with the 7S protein fraction. Purified and 125-I-labelled monomeric IgM was examined by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to contain both mu and light chains, together with a chain of intermediary size, which was absent from the patterns of 19S IgM or IgG. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:166037

  11. Searching for Diffuse Ly? Emission in the Local IGM/CGM with HST/COS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, Steven V.; Green, J. C.; Danforth, C.; GTO, HST/COS

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has observed thousands of Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest absorbers with both the G130M grating (0< z < 0.19) and the G160M grating (0.14 < z < 0.48). In this research, we use the two-dimensional nature of the COS FUV detector to constrain the Ly? EMISSION associated with both these Ly? absorbers, AND regions of the IGM not associated with Ly? absorbers. We will divide our Ly? absorber sample based upon proximity to the closest known galaxy to differentiate emission between intergalactic (IGM) and circumgalactic (CGM) regions. We will discuss the limits of these constraints/detections in terms of both cosmological implications and from a technological standpoint (If we were to design a Ly? emission detection/mapping mission, what have we learned from HST+COS ?).

  12. The Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in the Shark1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Lee; Jing Li Huang; Ming Fai Lui; Karolina Malecek; Yuko Ohta; Arne Mooers; Ellen Hsu

    The IgM H chain gene organization of cartilaginous fishes consists of 15-200 miniloci, each with a few gene segments (VH-D1- D2-JH) and one C gene. This is a gene arrangement ancestral to the complex IgH locus that exists in all other vertebrate classes. To understand the molecular evolution of this system, we studied the nurse shark, which has relatively fewer

  13. Synthesis and biodistribution of immunoconjugates of a human IgM and polymeric drug carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. T. Hoes; J. Grootoonk; J. Feijen; P. J. Boon; F. Kaspersen; P. Loeffen; I. Schlachter; M. Winters; E. S. Bos

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and purification of radiolabelled immunoconjugates, composed of a human IgM monoclonal antibody directed against an intracellular tumour-associated antigen and either poly (alpha-L-glutamic acid) (PGA) or poly[N5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-L-glutamine] (PHEG) is described. Coupling of polymers to the antibody was performed through disulfide bond formation involving a single thiol group at the C-terminus of the polymer chain and 2-pyridyldisulfide groups introduced onto

  14. The Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in the Shark1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victor; Huang, Jing Li; Lui, Ming Fai; Malecek, Karolina; Ohta, Yuko; Mooers, Arne; Hsu, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The IgM H chain gene organization of cartilaginous fishes consists of 15–200 miniloci, each with a few gene segments (VH-D1-D2-JH) and one C gene. This is a gene arrangement ancestral to the complex IgH locus that exists in all other vertebrate classes. To understand the molecular evolution of this system, we studied the nurse shark, which has relatively fewer loci, and characterized the IgH isotypes for organization, functionality, and the somatic diversification mechanisms that act upon them. Gene numbers differ slightly between individuals (~15), but five active IgM subclasses are always present. Each gene undergoes rearrangement that is strictly confined within the minilocus; in B cells there is no interaction between adjacent loci located ?120 kb apart. Without combinatorial events, the shark IgM H chain repertoire is based on junctional diversity and, subsequently, somatic hypermutation. We suggest that the significant contribution by junctional diversification reflects the selected novelty introduced by RAG in the early vertebrate ancestor, whereas combinatorial diversity coevolved with the complex translocon organization. Moreover, unlike other cartilaginous fishes, there are no germline-joined VDJ at any nurse shark ? locus, and we suggest that such genes, when functional, are species-specific and may have specialized roles. With an entire complement of IgM genes available for the first time, phylogenetic analyses were performed to examine how the multiple Ig loci evolved. We found that all domains changed at comparable rates, but VH appears to be under strong positive selection for increased amino acid sequence diversity, and surprisingly, so does C?2. PMID:18490746

  15. Serum IgG and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Rombos, A; Evangelopoulou-Katsiri, E; Leventakou, A; Voumvourakis, K; Triantafyllou, N; Papageorgiou, C

    1990-03-01

    To determine whether anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) or myasthenia gravis (MG), sera from 42 patients suffering from MS and from 21 patients with myasthenia were studied, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant difference in IgG or IgM immunoglobulin isotypes between the MS myasthenic patients and controls was found. PMID:2112819

  16. IgG and IgM Antibodies to Rubella Quantitated by Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy B. Johnson Jr; Fred C. Jensen; Christopher R. Peter; Robert M. Nakamura

    1982-01-01

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for rubella antibodies (of IgG, H & L type, IgM-type) is described that requires assay at usually one dilution of serum. Results are reportable in milligrams IgG (or IgM) - equivalents per liter serum and in approximate hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers. The method uses purified rubella virus immobilized by a special process in excess, a 16

  17. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul U. Cameron; Penelope Jones; Malgorzata Gorniak; Kate Dunster; Eldho Paul; Sharon Lewin; Ian Woolley; Denis Spelman

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited

  18. Abnormalities in IgA and IgM are associated with treatment-resistant ITP.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Jon E; Campigotto, Federico; Neuberg, Donna; Bussel, James B

    2012-05-24

    We hypothesized that immune dysregulation, as represented by abnormal immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, may increase immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) severity. A cross-sectional analysis was performed encompassing patients with ITP seen at the New York Presbyterian Platelet Disorder Center in the past 10 years. The subjects' Ig levels were measured, and subjects were analyzed for differences in treatment response. Subjects with an IgA level greater than median had a significantly increased chance of failing to respond to standard treatment (steroids, intravenous Ig, and intravenous anti-D) than did subjects with an IgA level lower than median (37 of 271, 14%; vs 22 of 281, 8%; P = .03) and an increased risk for bleeding (36 of 378, 10%; vs 19 of 386, 5%; P = .02). Subjects with an IgM less than 56 (lower limit of normal) failed to respond to standard treatment more often than patients with a normal IgM (12 of 67, 18%; vs 44 of 467, 9%; P = .05) with a trend toward worsened response to splenectomy (3 of 18, 17%; vs 36 of 86, 42%; P = .06). These observations suggest that immune dysregulation, as represented by elevations in IgA or decreased levels of IgM, are associated with ITP that is more resistant to treatment. PMID:22490683

  19. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

  20. The importance of IgM positivity in laboratory diagnosis of gestational and congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Nemes-Nikodém, E; Vörös, E; Pónyai, K; Párducz, L; Kárpáti, S; Rozgonyi, F; Ostorházi, E

    2012-06-01

    From January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011, from 33,753 blood samples for syphilis screening, Treponema pallidum infections were confirmed in 241 pregnant women at the Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Dermatooncology of Semmelweis University Budapest. In this period, four children born to inadequately or untreated women were confirmed to have connatal syphilis. The height of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer was measured to determine the stage of the infection and to examine the success of the antilues therapy. The diagnosis of maternal syphilis infection was confirmed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and IgG and IgM immunoblots. Maternal IgM immunoblot results identify mothers at risk of delivering babies with connatal syphilis better than the height of maternal RPR titer. The standard serological tests are less useful in newborns because of IgG transfer across the placenta. IgM test which depends on the infant's response has more specificity in diagnosing connatal syphilis. PMID:24672684

  1. Constitutive activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase induces the formation of autoreactive IgM plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Kersseboom, Rogier; Kil, Laurens; Flierman, Roelof; van der Zee, Marten; Dingjan, Gemma M; Middendorp, Sabine; Maas, Alex; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2010-09-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signals provide the basis for B-cell differentiation in the BM and subsequently into follicular, marginal zone, or B-1 B-cell subsets. We have previously shown that B-cell-specific expression of the constitutive active E41K mutant of the BCR-associated molecule Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) leads to an almost complete deletion of immature B cells in the BM. Here, we report that low-level expression of the E41K or E41K-Y223F Btk mutants was associated with reduced follicular B-cell numbers and significantly increased proportions of B-1 cells in the spleen. Crosses with 3-83 mu delta and VH81X BCR Tg mice showed that constitutive active Btk expression did not change follicular, marginal zone, or B-1 B-cell fate choice, but resulted in selective expansion or survival of B-1 cells. Residual B cells were hyperresponsive and manifested sustained Ca(2+) mobilization. They were spontaneously driven into germinal center-independent plasma cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased numbers of IgM(+) plasma cells in spleen and BM and significantly elevated serum IgM. Because anti-nucleosome autoantibodies and glomerular IgM deposition were present, we conclude that constitutive Btk activation causes defective B-cell tolerance, emphasizing that Btk signals are essential for appropriate regulation of B-cell activation. PMID:20623551

  2. Comparative Analysis of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Virus-Like Particles or Virus-Infected Mouse Brain Antigens To Detect IgM Antibody in Sera from Patients with Evident Flaviviral Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek A. Holmes; David E. Purdy; Day-Yu Chao; Amanda J. Noga; Gwong-Jen J. Chang

    The use of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) serves as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute flaviviral infections, since IgM antibody titers are detectable early, peak at about 2 weeks postinfection, and subsequently decline to lower levels over the next few months. Traditionally, virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain (SMB) has been the source

  3. Comparative Analysis of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Virus-Like Particles or Virus-Infected Mouse Brain Antigens To Detect IgM Antibody in Sera from Patients with Evident Flaviviral Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek A. Holmes; David E. Purdy; Day-Yu Chao; Amanda J. Noga; Gwong-Jen J. Chang

    2005-01-01

    The use of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) serves as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute flaviviral infections, since IgM antibody titers are detectable early, peak at about 2 weeks postinfection, and subsequently decline to lower levels over the next few months. Traditionally, virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain (SMB) has been the source

  4. The clinical and laboratory features of chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Willison; C. P. O'Leary; J. Veitch; L. D. Blumhardt; M. Busby; M. Donaghy; P. Fuhr; H. Ford; A. Hahn; S. Renaud; H. A. Katifi; S. Ponsford; M. Reuber; A. Steck; I. Sutton; W. Schady; P. K. Thomas; A. J. Thompson; J.-M. Vallat; J. Winer

    2001-01-01

    Summary The clinical and laboratory phenotype of a para- proteinaemic neuropathy syndrome termed chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM anti- bodies is described in a series of 18 cases. Previous single case reports have outlined some features of this syndrome. All 18 cases were defined by the presence of serum IgM antibodies which react principally with NeuAc (?2-8)NeuAc(?2-3)Gal-configured disialosyl

  5. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients Contain Significantly Less IgM against Mono-Methylated Lysine than Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Younan; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Shao, Yuehu; Gao, Fengying; Wu, Fengqi; Gao, Ruitong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1–19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs) to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31–19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31–19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31–19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31–19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31–19 (H31–19K9me). Our further studies revealed that ?-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31–19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions. PMID:23874652

  6. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Bromage, Erin S.; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D.; Badil, Samantha M.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM+ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

  7. Influence of oligoclonal IgM specificity in multiple sclerosis disease course.

    PubMed

    Villar, Lm; García-Barragán, N; Espiño, M; Roldán, E; Sádaba, Mc; Gómez-Rial, J; González-Porqué, P; Alvarez-Cermeño, Jc

    2008-03-01

    Oligoclonal IgM bands (OCMB) against myelin lipids predict an aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) course. However, the clinical significance of OCMB without lipid specificity, present in other MS patients, remains unknown. We describe here a characterization of these antibodies and study their role in MS progression. Fifty-four MS patients showing CSF-restricted OCMB were included in this study at disease onset and followed-up during 61.1 +/- 2.7 months. The specificity of OCMB and the CSF B-cell profile were investigated. A second CSF IgM study was performed in a group of eight patients. Thirty-eight patients showed OCMB against myelin lipids (M+L+) and other sixteen had OCMB lacking this specificity (M+L-). The CD5+ B cell subpopulation, responsible for most persistent IgM responses, was considerably higher in M+L+ than in M+L- patients (3.3 +/- 0.6% versus 0.8 +/- 0.2, P = 0.009). In addition, M+L+ bands persisted during disease course, while M+L- disappeared during follow-up. M+L+ patients suffered more relapses (4.2 +/- 0.6 versus 1.6 +/- 0.3, P = 0.002) and reached higher disability (EDSS score of 2.2 +/- 0.2 versus 1.2 +/- 0.2, P = 0.02) than M+L- group. These data corroborate that anti-lipid OCMB associate with an aggressive MS course and show that OCMB that do not recognize myelin lipids represent a transient immune response related to a more benign disease course. PMID:17942517

  8. How to Search for Islands of Neutral Hydrogen in the z ~ 5.5 IGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Observations of the Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest may allow reionization to complete as late as z ~ 5.5, provided the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is sufficiently inhomogeneous at these redshifts. In this case, significantly neutral islands may remain among highly ionized gas with the ionized regions allowing some transmission through the Ly? forest. This possibility has the important virtue that it is eminently testable with existing Ly? forest data. In particular, we describe three observable signatures of significantly neutral gas in the z ~ 5.5 IGM. We use mock quasar spectra produced from numerical simulations of reionization to develop these tests. First, we quantify how the abundance and length of absorbed regions in the forest increase with the volume-averaged neutral fraction in our reionization model. Second, we consider stacking the transmission profile around highly absorbed regions in the forest. If and only if there is significantly neutral gas in the IGM, absorption in the damping wing of the Ly? line will cause the transmission to recover slowly as one moves from absorbed to transmitted portions of the spectrum. Third, the deuterium Ly? line should imprint a small but distinctive absorption feature slightly blueward of absorbed neutral regions in the Ly? forest. We show that these tests can be carried out with existing Keck HIRES spectra at z ~ 5.5, with the damping wing being observable for < xH \\scriptsize{I}> ? 0.05 and the deuterium feature observable with additional high-resolution spectra for < xH \\scriptsize{I}> ? 0.2.

  9. Competition between Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA Anti-Glycan Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Xia, Li; Campbell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yalong; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-glycan antibodies are an abundant subpopulation of serum antibodies with critical functions in many immune processes. Changes in the levels of these antibodies can occur with the onset of disease, exposure to pathogens, or vaccination. As a result, there has been significant interest in exploiting anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for many diseases. Serum contains a mixture of anti-glycan antibodies that can recognize the same antigen, and competition for binding can potentially influence the detection of antibody subpopulations that are more relevant to disease processes. The most abundant antibody isotypes in serum are IgG, IgM, and IgA, but little is known regarding how these different isotypes compete for the same glycan antigen. In this study, we developed a multiplexed glycan microarray assay and applied it to evaluate how different isotypes of anti-glycan antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compete for printed glycan antigens. While IgG and IgA antibodies typically outcompete IgM for peptide or protein antigens, we found that IgM outcompete IgG and IgA for many glycan antigens. To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition can account for the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigen specificities appear to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We demonstrate that IgM in maternal sera compete with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear as though certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies. PMID:25807519

  10. Intrathecal somatic hypermutation of IgM in multiple sclerosis and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Eduardo; Obermeier, Birgit; Moser, Markus; Coret, Francisco; Simó-Castelló, María; Boscá, Isabel; Pérez-Miralles, Francisco; Villar, Luisa M; Senel, Makbule; Tumani, Hayrettin; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Casanova, Bonaventura; Dornmair, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Intrathecal oligoclonal bands of the cerebrospinal fluid are considered the most important immunological biomarkers of multiple sclerosis. They typically consist of clonally expanded IgG antibodies that underwent affinity maturation during sustained stimulation by largely unknown antigens. In addition, ?40% of patients with multiple sclerosis have oligoclonal bands that consist of expanded IgM antibodies. We investigated the molecular composition of IgM- and IgG-chains from cerebrospinal fluid of 12 patients with multiple sclerosis, seven patients with other neurological diseases, and eight healthy control subjects by high-throughput deep-sequencing and single-cell PCR. Further, we studied the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the key enzyme for affinity maturation of antibodies, in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 16 patients. From the cerebrospinal fluid of two multiple sclerosis patients we isolated single B cells and investigated the co-expression of antibody chains with activation-induced cytidine deaminase. In striking contrast to IgM-chains from peripheral blood, IgM-chains from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis or neuroborreliosis showed a high degree of somatic hypermutation. We found a high content of mutations that caused amino acid exchanges as compared to silent mutations. In addition, more mutations were found in the complementarity determining regions of the IgM-chains, which interact with yet unknown antigens, as compared to framework regions. Both observations provide evidence for antigen-driven affinity maturation. Furthermore, single B cells from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis co-expressed somatically hypermutated IgM-chains and activation-induced cytidine deaminase, an enzyme that is crucial for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of antibodies and is normally expressed during activation of B cells in germinal centres. Clonal tracking of particular IgM(+) B cells allowed us to relate unmutated ancestor clones in blood to hypermutated offspring clones in CSF. Unexpectedly, however, we found no evidence for intrathecal isotype switching from IgM to IgG. Our data suggest that the intrathecal milieu sustains a germinal centre-like reaction with clonal expansion and extensive accumulation of somatic hypermutation in IgM-producing B cells. PMID:25060097

  11. Molecular interactions between human IgG, IgM rheumatoid factor and streptococcal IgG Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Schröder, A K; Gharavi, A E; Christensen, P

    1988-01-01

    Group A streptococci type M15 were previously shown to bind both human IgG via the Fc component and a purified monoclonal IgM kappa rheumatoid factor (IgM RF). Using 125I-labelled IgG and 125I-labelled IgM RF, the present study gave association constants of 2.2 x 10(7) and 2.9 x 10(8) M-1, respectively. The binding of 125I-IgG to the streptococci was inhibited by unlabelled IgG, IgG Fc and fragment D of staphylococcal protein A but not by the IgM RF or F(ab')2 of anti-idiotype antibodies to RF (anti-Id RF). Inversely, unlabelled IgM RF and anti-Id RF inhibited the binding of 125I-IgM RF markedly and unlabelled human IgG and IgG Fc only slightly or moderately, respectively. Thus, group A streptococci type M15 showed different binding sites for IgG Fc and the antibody combining sites of a human monoclonal RF. The findings were still more complex on a background of previous reports showing that streptococcal IgG Fc receptors and RFs bind to the same amino acids on the Fc molecule. This complex pattern may play a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:3286523

  12. Circulating microparticles carry oxidation-specific epitopes and are recognized by natural IgM antibodies1[S

    PubMed Central

    Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Perkmann, Thomas; Afonyushkin, Taras; Mangold, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas A.; Papac-Milicevic, Nikolina; Millischer, Vincent; Bartel, Caroline; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Fischer, Michael B.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Lang, Irene M.; Binder, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) present on apoptotic cells and oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) represent danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by different arcs of innate immunity, including natural IgM antibodies. Here, we investigated whether circulating microparticles (MPs), which are small membrane vesicles released by apoptotic or activated cells, are physiological carriers of OSEs. OSEs on circulating MPs isolated from healthy donors and patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STE-MI) were characterized by flow cytometry using a panel of OSE-specific monoclonal antibodies. We found that a subset of MPs carry OSEs on their surface, predominantly malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes. Consistent with this, a majority of IgM antibodies bound on the surface of circulating MPs were found to have specificity for MDA-modified LDL. Moreover, we show that MPs can stimulate THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) and human primary monocytes to produce interleukin 8, which can be inhibited by a monoclonal IgM with specificity for MDA epitopes. Finally, we show that MDA+ MPs are elevated at the culprit lesion site of patients with STE-MI. Our results identify a subset of OSE+ MPs that are bound by OxLDL-specific IgM. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which anti-OxLDL IgM antibodies could mediate protective functions in CVD. PMID:25525116

  13. Combined Determination of Coxiella burnetii-Specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA Improves Specificity in the Diagnosis of Acute Q Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER DEVINE; CATHERINE DOYLE; GEOFF LAMBKIN

    1997-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA responses in patients with acute Q fever were compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An increase in both IgM and IgA was observed in paired sera from all 19 patients with acute Q fever, and both IgM and IgA levels showed good correlation with complement fixation test titers. Paired sera from 23 patients with infections other

  14. The Insertion Green Monster (iGM) Method for Expression of Multiple Exogenous Genes in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Suzuki, Yo; Hanly, Timothy J.; Murao, Ayako; Roth, Frederick P.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    Being a simple eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides numerous advantages for expression and functional characterization of proteins from higher eukaryotes, including humans. However, studies of complex exogenous pathways using yeast as a host have been hampered by the lack of tools to engineer strains expressing a large number of genetic components. In addition to inserting multiple genes, it is often desirable to knock out or replace multiple endogenous genes that might interfere with the processes studied. Here, we describe the “insertion Green Monster” (iGM) set of expression vectors that enable precise insertion of many heterologous genes into the yeast genome in a rapid and reproducible manner and permit simultaneous replacement of selected yeast genes. As a proof of principle, we have used the iGM method to replace components of the yeast pathway for methionine sulfoxide reduction with genes encoding the human selenoprotein biosynthesis machinery and generated a single yeast strain carrying 11 exogenous components of the selenoprotein biosynthetic pathway in precisely engineered loci. PMID:24776987

  15. Gravity changes during animal development affect IgM heavy-chain transcription and probably lymphopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Huin-Schohn, Cécile; Guéguinou, Nathan; Schenten, Véronique; Bascove, Matthieu; Koch, Guillemette Gauquelin; Baatout, Sarah; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2013-01-01

    Our previous research demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect antibody production in response to an antigenic stimulation in adult amphibians. Here, we investigated whether antibody synthesis is affected when animal development occurs onboard a space station. To answer this question, embryos of the Iberian ribbed newt, Pleurodeles waltl, were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) before the initiation of immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression. Thus, antibody synthesis began in space. On landing, we determined the effects of spaceflight on P. waltl development and IgM heavy-chain transcription. Results were compared with those obtained using embryos that developed on Earth. We find that IgM heavy-chain transcription is doubled at landing and that spaceflight does not affect P. waltl development and does not induce inflammation. We also recreated the environmental modifications encountered by the embryos during their development onboard the ISS. This strategy allowed us to demonstrate that gravity change is the factor responsible for antibody heavy-chain transcription modifications that are associated with NF-?B mRNA level variations. Taken together, and given that the larvae were not immunized, these data suggest a modification of lymphopoiesis when gravity changes occur during ontogeny. PMID:22993194

  16. Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.

    PubMed

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition. PMID:24568663

  17. Competitive adsorption-desorption of IgM monomers-dimers on silica and modified silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Guha, Suvajyoti; Wayment, Joshua; Rastogi, Vinayak; Li, Mingdong; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2013-07-15

    Understanding competitive adsorption-desorption of proteins onto surfaces is an important area of research in food processing and biomedical engineering. Here, we demonstrate, how electrospray-differential mobility analysis that has been traditionally used for characterizing bionanoparticles, can be used for quantifying complex competitive adsorption-desorption of oligomeric proteins or multiprotein systems using monomers and dimers of IgM as a model example onto silica and modified silica surfaces. Using ES-DMA, we show that IgM dimers show a preference to stay adsorbed to different surfaces although monomers adsorb more easily and desorption rates of monomers and dimers of IgM are surface-type-dependent and are not significantly affected by shear. We anticipate that this demonstration will make ES-DMA a popular "label-free" method for studying multicomponent multi-oligomeric protein adsorption to different surfaces in the future. PMID:23628202

  18. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J; Simchoni, Noa; Black, Samuel; Radigan, Lin; Overbey, Jessica R; Bagiella, Emilia; Bussel, James B; Bossuyt, Xavier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meyts, Isabelle; Cerutti, Andrea; Picard, Capucine; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2014-12-01

    IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and lead to heightened susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Individuals with these primary immunodeficiencies have fewer immunoglobulin M (IgM)(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, a population that resembles murine splenic marginal zone B cells that mount T-independent antibody responses against bacterial antigens. However, the significance of this B-cell subset in humans is poorly understood. Using both a 610 carbohydrate array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies have reduced serum IgM, but not IgG antibody, recognizing T-independent bacterial antigens. Moreover, the quantity of specific IgM correlated with IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell frequencies. As with mouse marginal zone B cells, human IgM(+)CD27(+) B cells activated by TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced phosphorylcholine-specific IgM. Further linking splenic IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells with production of T-independent IgM, serum from splenectomized subjects, who also have few IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, had reduced antibacterial IgM. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impaired TLR-induced proliferation of this B-cell subset, suggesting a means by which loss of this activation pathway leads to reduced cell numbers. Thus, by bolstering the IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell subset, IRAK-4 and MyD88 promote optimal T-independent IgM antibody responses against bacteria in humans. PMID:25320238

  19. Evaluation of the new architect cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity assays.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, K; Bodeus, M; Van Ranst, M; Goubau, P

    2009-06-01

    A panel of new cytomegalovirus (CMV) assays for use on the Architect instrument has been developed, including a CMV avidity assay based on a new technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the fully automated CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity tests on the Architect instrument with those of other available assays. A total of 503 consecutive fresh patient serum specimens (routine serum specimens) and 96 serum specimens from 33 pregnant women with a recent CMV primary infection (seroconversion serum specimens) were tested for CMV IgM and IgG by the Architect (Abbott), Vidas (BioMérieux), and Enzygnost (Siemens) assays. The seroconversion sera and 100 preselected serum specimens IgM negative and IgG positive by the AxSYM assay were also tested by the IgG avidity tests on the Architect and Vidas instruments. The relative agreements for CMV IgM determination with routine sera between the Architect assay and the Vidas, Enzygnost, and AxSYM assays were 97%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, for the CMV IgM tests and 99%, 98%, and 98%, respectively, for the CMV IgG tests. The specificities of the CMV IgG avidity test were 98% for the Architect assay and 76% for the Vidas assay. No high CMV IgG avidity test results were found within the first 3 months after seroconversion by either of those assays. The correlation between the results of the newly developed CMV IgM and IgG tests on the Architect instrument with the Vidas and Enzygnost assays was excellent (> or = 94%). The CMV IgG avidity test reliably excluded patients with recent infections and showed an excellent specificity (98%). PMID:19339470

  20. The clinical and laboratory features of chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Willison, H J; O'Leary, C P; Veitch, J; Blumhardt, L D; Busby, M; Donaghy, M; Fuhr, P; Ford, H; Hahn, A; Renaud, S; Katifi, H A; Ponsford, S; Reuber, M; Steck, A; Sutton, I; Schady, W; Thomas, P K; Thompson, A J; Vallat, J M; Winer, J

    2001-10-01

    The clinical and laboratory phenotype of a paraproteinaemic neuropathy syndrome termed chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies is described in a series of 18 cases. Previous single case reports have outlined some features of this syndrome. All 18 cases were defined by the presence of serum IgM antibodies which react principally with NeuAc (alpha2-8)NeuAc(alpha2-3)Gal-configured disialosyl epitopes common to many gangliosides including GDlb, GD3, GTlb and GQlb. In 17 out of 18 cases, the serum contained benign IgM paraproteins, and in four of these cases at least two IgM paraproteins were present. The IgM antibodies were also cold agglutinins in 50% of cases. The clinical picture comprised a chronic neuropathy with marked sensory ataxia and areflexia, and with relatively preserved motor function in the limbs. In addition, 16 out of 18 cases had motor weakness affecting oculomotor and bulbar muscles as fixed or as relapsing-remitting features. When present in their entirety, these clinical features have been described previously under the acronym CANOMAD: chronic ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, IgM paraprotein, cold agglutinins and disialosyl antibodies. This distribution of clinical features is reminiscent of Miller Fisher syndrome, in which acute-phase anti-disialylated ganglioside IgG antibodies are found. Clinical electrophysiology and nerve biopsy show both demyelinating and axonal features. A partial response to intravenous immunoglobulin and other treatments is reported in some cases. PMID:11571215

  1. Blockade of self-reactive IgM significantly reduces injury in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Michael S.; Alicot, Elisabeth M.; Schuerpf, Franziska; Chiu, Isaac; Li, Jinan; Moore, Francis D.; Carroll, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Coronary artery occlusion resulting in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of mortality in the western world. Circulating natural IgM has been shown to play a significant role in reperfusion injury, leading to the notion of a pathogenic response against self by the innate immune system. A specific self-antigen (non-muscle myosin heavy chain II) was recently identified as the major target of pathogenic natural IgM. Therefore, we hypothesized that a synthetic peptide mimetope (N2) or monoclonal antibodies directed against the self-antigen would prevent specific IgM binding to the self-antigen and reduce reperfusion injury in the heart. Methods and results We find that treatment with N2 peptide reduces infarct size by 47% and serum cardiac troponin-I levels by 69% following 1 h ischaemia and 24 h reperfusion. N2 peptide or an anti-N2 F(ab?)2 (21G6) is also effective at preventing IgM and complement deposition. Additionally, N2 peptide treatment significantly reduces monocyte and neutrophil infiltration at 24 h and collagen deposition at 5 days. Finally, we show that human IgM (hIgM) also includes specificity for the highly conserved self-antigen and that myocardial injury in antibody-deficient mice reconstituted with hIgM is blocked by treatment with N2 peptide or 21G6 F(ab?)2. Conclusion The findings in this study identify potential therapeutics [i.e. N2 peptide or 21G6 F(ab?)2] that prevent specific IgM binding to ischaemic antigens in the heart, resulting in a significant reduction in cardiac I/R injury. PMID:20462867

  2. Teleost fish mount complex clonal IgM and IgT responses in spleen upon systemic viral infection.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rosario; Jouneau, Luc; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Bouchez, Olivier; Giudicelli, Véronique; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Quillet, Edwige; Benmansour, Abdenour; Cazals, Frédéric; Six, Adrien; Fillatreau, Simon; Sunyer, Oriol; Boudinot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Upon infection, B-lymphocytes expressing antibodies specific for the intruding pathogen develop clonal responses triggered by pathogen recognition via the B-cell receptor. The constant region of antibodies produced by such responding clones dictates their functional properties. In teleost fish, the clonal structure of B-cell responses and the respective contribution of the three isotypes IgM, IgD and IgT remain unknown. The expression of IgM and IgT are mutually exclusive, leading to the existence of two B-cell subsets expressing either both IgM and IgD or only IgT. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the variable heavy chain (VH) domain repertoires of the IgM, IgD and IgT in spleen of homozygous isogenic rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) before, and after challenge with a rhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV), using CDR3-length spectratyping and pyrosequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts. In healthy fish, we observed distinct repertoires for IgM, IgD and IgT, respectively, with a few amplified ? and ? junctions, suggesting the presence of IgM- and IgT-secreting cells in the spleen. In infected animals, we detected complex and highly diverse IgM responses involving all VH subgroups, and dominated by a few large public and private clones. A lower number of robust clonal responses involving only a few VH were detected for the mucosal IgT, indicating that both IgM(+) and IgT(+) spleen B cells responded to systemic infection but at different degrees. In contrast, the IgD response to the infection was faint. Although fish IgD and IgT present different structural features and evolutionary origin compared to mammalian IgD and IgA, respectively, their implication in the B-cell response evokes these mouse and human counterparts. Thus, it appears that the general properties of antibody responses were already in place in common ancestors of fish and mammals, and were globally conserved during evolution with possible functional convergences. PMID:23326228

  3. Multicenter evaluation of the Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM tests for the diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Meylan, Pascal; Paris, Luc; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Detection of IgG and IgM antibodies is commonly performed for the diagnosis of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We determined the accuracy of the Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM test at four European laboratories compared to local reference methods. Coefficients of variation for reproducibility ranged from 1.0 to 6.5% for IgG and from 0.8 to 3.2% for IgM. Seroconversion panels revealed high overall concordance with the reference tests. The Elecsys test detected IgG antibodies earlier than the Cobas Core IgG test in 19 of 47 panels; persisting IgM antibodies were observed in the VIDAS but not the Elecsys test in five of 47 panels. In 31.4% of latent stage sera with persistent IgM antibodies (positive LIASON IgM), the Elecsys IgM test gave negative results indicating increased “clinical” specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys IgG assay ranged from 99.45 to 100% and 87.50–99.80%, respectively, and 91.11–95.74 and 98.45–99.79% for the Elecsys IgM assay, respectively. In conclusion, excellent reproducibility and accuracy make the Elecsys Toxo G and M tests highly suitable for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. The lower detection rates for persistent IgM in the Elecsys IgM test increase “clinical” specificity and decrease the need for follow-up testing. PMID:26185683

  4. Call admission control for CDMA systems with Interference Guard Margin (IGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Kumar, Sunil; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-01-01

    A call admission control (CAC) scheme and a resource-reservation estimation (RRE) method suitable for the interference-based wireless system, such as wide-band code division multiple access (W-CDMA), are proposed in this work. The proposed CAC scheme gives preferential treatment to high priority handoff calls by pre-reserving a certain amount of interference margin called the interference guard margin (IGM). The amount of guard margin is determined by the measurement performed by the RRE module in base stations. Each RRE module dynamically adjusts the level of guard margin by considering traffic conditions in neighboring cells based upon handoff requests. A service model is adopted to support multiple services, which includes mobile terminal's data rate, different levels of priorities, mobility and rate adaptivity characteristics. Simulations are conducted with OPNET to study the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of the objective function, blocking probabilities and system utilization under different traffic conditions.

  5. The Impact of a Percolating IGM on Redshifted 21 cm Observations of Quasar HII Regions

    E-print Network

    Paul M. Geil; Stuart Wyithe

    2008-03-04

    We assess the impact of inhomogeneous reionization on detection of HII regions surrounding luminous high redshift quasars using planned low frequency radio telescopes. Our approach is to implement a semi-numerical scheme to calculate the 3-dimensional structure of ionized regions surrounding a massive halo at high redshift, including the ionizing influence of a luminous quasar. As part of our analysis we briefly contrast our scheme with published semi-numerical models. We calculate mock 21cm spectra along the line of sight towards high redshift quasars, and estimate the ability of the planned Murchison Widefield Array to detect the presence of HII regions. The signal-to-noise for detection will drop as the characteristic bubble size grows during reionization because the quasar's influence becomes less prominent. However, quasars will imprint a detectable signature on observed 21cm spectra that is distinct from a region of typical IGM. At epochs where the mean hydrogen neutral fraction is ~30% or greater we find that neutral gas in the IGM surrounding a single quasar will be detectable (at a significance of 5 sigma) within 100 hour integrations in more than 50% of cases. 1000 hour integrations will be required to detect a smaller neutral fraction of 15% in more than 50% of cases. A highly significant detection will be possible in only 100 hours for a stack of 10 smaller 3 proper Mpc HII regions. The accurate measurement of the global average neutral fraction () will be limited by systematic fluctuations between lines of sight for single HII regions. We estimate the accuracy with which the global neutral fraction could be measured from a single HII region to be 50%, 30% and 20% for ~ 0.15, 0.3 and 0.5 respectively.

  6. Osmotic blood-brain barrier opening to IgM monoclonal antibody in the rat.

    PubMed

    Neuwelt, E A; Minna, J; Frenkel, E; Barnett, P A; McCormick, C I

    1986-05-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of iodinated monoclonal antibody (MAb) delivery to normal rat brain were examined. The mean cerebrovascular permeability-surface area (PA; permeability X capillary surface area) to immunoglobulin M (IgM) MAb (mol wt 1,000,000) 10 min after infusion was 0.40 X 10(-6) S-1. When osmotic blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is utilized, the PA increased to 8.36 X 10(-6) S-1. Neither intravenous nor intracarotid MAb administration significantly affected delivery to brain. However, osmotic BBB opening significantly (P less than 0.0005) increased MAb uptake independent of the route of administration. After BBB opening and intracarotid MAb the maximum concentration in brain at 1 h was 0.72% per gram of the total administered dose. For 6 h postdisruption, ipsilateral brain levels were 25- to 100-fold greater than in the contralateral hemisphere or nonbarrier-disrupted controls. MAb concentration in brain slightly decreased over 72 h (P less than 0.05). Antibody recovered from disrupted brain retained 90% of its immunological reactivity for at least 24 h. MAb delivery to ipsilateral brain after BBB disruption was linear over a dose of 0.5-5.0 micrograms IgM, whereas the percentage of the total administered dose remained unchanged. After osmotic treatment, barrier opening was maximal to MAb delivery for 1 min with delivery declining rapidly thereafter. The type of anesthesia used and the administration of a thyroid-blocking agent were found to affect brain MAb levels after BBB disruption. PMID:3706572

  7. Human IgM monoclonal antibody 16.88: pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Haisma, H J; Pinedo, H M; Kessel, M A; van Muijen, M; Roos, J C; Plaizier, M A; Martens, H J; DeJager, R; Boven, E

    1991-12-18

    Twenty colorectal cancer patients were given an intravenous injection of human IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) 16.88 (8 mg) conjugated to 131I for tumor localization. After a 2-week interval, a second injection with 200, 500, or 1000 mg of unlabeled antibody added was given to groups of five patients each. at the end of the 2-hour infusion, 66% of the radioactivity remained in the circulation. Blood clearance of the 131I-labeled MAb 16.88 was biphasic with a mean half-life (T1/2 alpha) of 12 hours and T1/2 beta of 45 hours. Clearance rate was 0.09 L/hour. More than 90% of the 131I in serum was protein bound, with an immunoreactive fraction of 80% in the first 48 hours. Size exclusion chromatography indicated no degradation products other than 131I in serum and urine. The urinary excretion rate of 131I increased to 1.5% of the dose per hour at 24 hours, with 50% of the dose excreted in 34 hours. The pharmacokinetic profile of 131I-labeled MAb 16.88 was neither influenced by the total protein dose of antibody administered nor affected by specific uptake in tumor tissue in individual patients, as determined on early immunoscintigrams. The larger antibody doses showed a slightly slower excretion of 131I. The assays applied to determine immunogenicity were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay, and the dot-blot assay. They had sensitivities ranging from 5 ng/mL to 0.5 micrograms/mL for goat or rabbit antihuman IgM. The assays did not reveal antihuman antibody responses. PMID:1744925

  8. A clinical and neurobiological case of IgM NMDA receptor antibody associated encephalitis mimicking bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Choe, Chi-Un; Karamatskos, Evangelos; Schattling, Benjamin; Leypoldt, Frank; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Gerloff, Christian; Friese, Manuel A; Mulert, Christoph

    2013-07-30

    Autoimmune encephalitis associated with IgG antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunit NR1 (NMDAR) presents with neurological symptoms, such as seizures, and especially psychiatric symptoms, such as hallucinations, psychosis, agitation and anxiety. To date, however, the pathological relevance of IgM NMDAR antibodies remains elusive. Here, we describe clinical, neuroradiological and neurobiological findings of a 28-year-old male presenting with IgM NMDAR antibodies coincident with autoimmune encephalitis characterized by symptoms of bipolar disorder. After repeated steroid treatment, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities improved and no NMDAR antibody was detectable. Using primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that patient's serum containing IgM NMDAR antibodies reduced the detection of NMDAR on neuronal cells and decreased cell survival. Although NMDAR encephalitis with IgG antibodies is increasingly recognized and diagnosed, atypical presentations with NMDAR antibodies with immunoglobulin subclasses other than IgG pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Further clinical and neurobiological studies are needed to study the pathophysiological relevance of IgM NMDAR antibodies. PMID:23246244

  9. Evaluation of an immunochromatographic assay for the detection of anti-hepatitis A virus IgM

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis, which is transmitted by person-to-person contact and via the faecal-oral route. Acute HAV infection is usually confirmed by anti-HAV IgM detection. In order to detect anti-HAV IgM in the serum of patients infected with HAV, we developed a rapid assay based on immunochromatography (ICA) and evaluated the sensitivity of this assay by comparing it with a commercial microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) that is widely used for serological diagnosis. Results The newly developed ICA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity when used to test 150 anti-HAV IgM-positive sera collected from infected patients and 75 negative sera from healthy subjects. Also, the sensitivity of ICA is about 10 times higher than MEIA used in this study by determining end point to detect independent on infected genotype of HAV. In addition, the ICA was able to detect 1 positive sample from among 50 sera from acute hepatitis patients that had tested negative for anti-HAV IgM using the MEIA. Conclusion Conclusively, ICA for the detection of anti-HAV IgM will be very effective for rapid assay to apply clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation on epidemics due to the simplicity, rapidity and specificity. PMID:20637129

  10. The fine specificity of IgM anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) is different from that of IgG ACPA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The antigen recognition pattern of immunoglobulin M (IgM) could, when directed against protein antigens, provide an indication of the antigenic moieties triggering new B cells. The half-life of IgM is short and memory B cells against T-cell-dependent protein antigens typically produce IgG and not IgM antibodies. In this study, we analyzed whether a difference exists between the fine specificity of IgM versus IgG anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). Methods We determined the fine specificity of IgM and IgG ACPAs in 113 ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis patients with IgM cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 (CCP2) levels above 100 AU/ml. Fine specificity was assessed by performing ELISA using citrullinated peptides derived from vimentin, fibrinogen-?, fibrinogen-? and ?-enolase, as well as citrullinated proteins fibrinogen and myelin basic protein. The arginine counterparts were used as controls. Results Recognition of defined citrullinated antigens by IgM ACPA was confined to samples that also displayed recognition by IgG ACPA. However, the IgM ACPA response displayed a more restricted antigen recognition profile than IgG ACPA (OR = 0.26, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Our data show that several defined citrullinated antigens are recognized only by IgG ACPA, whereas others are also recognized by IgM ACPA. These observations suggest that not all citrullinated antigens are able to activate new B cells despite concurrent recognition by IgG ACPA. PMID:22129077

  11. Radio resource management for CDMA systems with interference guard margin (IGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Kumar, Sunil; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2001-11-01

    A call admission control (CAC) scheme and a resource reservation estimation (RRE) method suitable for the wide-band code division multiple access (W-CDMA) systems are proposed in this work. The proposed CAC scheme gives preferential treatment to high priority calls, such as handoff calls, by pre-reserving a certain amount of channel margin against the interference effect. It is called the interference guard margin (IGM) scheme. The amount of guard margin is determined by the measurement performed by the RRE module in base stations. Each RRE module dynamically adjusts the level of guard margin by referencing traffic conditions in neighboring cells based upon users' requests. A comprehensive service model is adopted to accommodate the scenario of multiple services supported in the W-CDMA system. The service model of consideration includes not only mobile terminal's service rate (source rate) but also different levels of priorities, mobility and rate adaptivity characteristics. Simulations are conducted with OPNET to study the performance of the proposed scheme in term of the objective function under different traffic conditions.

  12. Probing the Statistics of the Temperature-Density Relation of the IGM

    E-print Network

    T. Fang; M. White

    2004-03-15

    Gravitational instability induces a simple correlation between the large and small scale fluctuations of the Ly-alpha flux spectrum. However, non-gravitational processes involved in structure formation and evolution will alter such a correlation. In this paper we explore how scatter in the temperature-density relation of the IGM reduces the gravitationally induced scale-scale correlation. By examining whether or not observations of the correlation are close to that predicted by pure gravity, this puts constraints on the scatter in the temperature-density relation and in turn on any physical process which would lead to scatter, e.g. strong fluctuations in the UV background or radiative transfer effects. By applying this method to high resolution Keck spectra of Q 1422+231 and HS 1946+7658, we find the predicted correlation signal induced by gravity, and the diminishing of this correlation signal at small scales. This suggests extra physics affects the small-scale structure of the forest, and we can constrain the scatter in the temperature-density relation to a conservative 20% upper limit. A crude model suggests, if there is any spatial correlation of temperature, the coherence length scale must be smaller than ~ 0.3/h Mpc to be consistent with the Keck data.

  13. The riddle of the dual expression of IgM and IgD.

    PubMed

    Geisberger, Roland; Lamers, Marinus; Achatz, Gernot

    2006-08-01

    Signalling through the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is required for peripheral B lymphocyte maturation, maintenance, activation and silencing. In mature B cells, the antigen receptor normally consists of two isotypes, membrane IgM and IgD (mIgM, mIgD). Although the signals initiated from both isotypes differ in kinetics and intensity, in vivo, the BCR of either isotype seems to be able to compensate for the loss of the other, reflected by the mild phenotypes of mice deficient for mIgM or mIgD. Thus, it is still unclear why mature B cells need expression of mIgD in addition to mIgM. In the current review we suggest that the view that IgD has a simply definable function centred around the basic signalling function should be replaced by the assumption that IgD fine tunes humoral responses, modulates B cell selection and homeostasis and thus shapes the B cell repertoire, defining IgD to be a key modulator of the humoral immune response. PMID:16895553

  14. The riddle of the dual expression of IgM and IgD

    PubMed Central

    Geisberger, Roland; Lamers, Marinus; Achatz, Gernot

    2006-01-01

    Signalling through the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is required for peripheral B lymphocyte maturation, maintenance, activation and silencing. In mature B cells, the antigen receptor normally consists of two isotypes, membrane IgM and IgD (mIgM, mIgD). Although the signals initiated from both isotypes differ in kinetics and intensity, in vivo, the BCR of either isotype seems to be able to compensate for the loss of the other, reflected by the mild phenotypes of mice deficient for mIgM or mIgD. Thus, it is still unclear why mature B cells need expression of mIgD in addition to mIgM. In the current review we suggest that the view that IgD has a simpIy definable function centred around the basic signalling function should be replaced by the assumption that IgD fine tunes humoral responses, modulates B cell selection and homeostasis and thus shapes the B cell repertoire, defining IgD to be a key modulator of the humoral immune response. PMID:16895553

  15. Severe Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in an Infant Caused by Warm-reactive IGM and IGA Autoantibodies: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Cristyn N; Hankins, Jane S; Moreau, Dawn; Nottage, Kerri A

    2015-08-01

    Warm-reactive IgM autoimmune hemolytic anemia is uncommon and carries a poor prognosis in adults. There have been rare reports in children, generally associated with an underlying immunologic deficiency, and outcomes are quite variable. Warm IgM in combination with other antibodies has not been reported in children. We report the first case of severe, steroid-responsive autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by both warm-reactive IgM and IgA autoantibodies in an otherwise healthy 3-month-old. PMID:26181418

  16. Prevalence of Legionella-specific IgG and IgM Antibody in a Dental Clinic Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Fotos; H. N. Westfall; I. S. Snyder; R. W. Miller; B. M. Mutchler

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of Legionella infection in a dental clinic setting. Serum samples from 270 dental clinic personnel were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Legionella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The pooled-species whole-cell-antigen preparation used in these assays was derived from six Legionella pneumophila strains and one strain each from Legionella bozemanii and

  17. Detection of enterovirus specific IgG and IgM antibodies in humans by an indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dörries; V. Meulen

    1980-01-01

    The development of a solid phase radioimmunoassay which is able to detect virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in serum specimens from patients with enterovirus infections is described. Viral antigen partially purified from infected tissue culture fluid was adsorbed passively to individual polystyrene microtiter wells. Dilutions of sera were incubated on these antigens and bound anti-viral antibodies were monitored by the

  18. The HeII Lyman alpha forest and the thermal state of the IGM

    E-print Network

    C. Fechner; D. Reimers

    2006-11-20

    Recent analyses of the intergalactic UV background by means of the HeII Lyman alpha forest assume that HeII and HI absorption features have the same line widths. We omit this assumption to investigate possible effects of thermal line broadening on the inferred HeII/HI ratio eta and to explore the potential of intergalactic HeII observations to constrain the thermal state of the IGM. Deriving a simple relation between the column density and the temperature of an absorber we develop a procedure to fit the parameters of a power law temperature-density relation and eta simultaneously. In an alternative approach the temperature of an absorber, eta, and the redshift scale of eta variations are estimated simultaneously. Tests with artificial data show that well-constrained results can be obtained only if the signal-to-noise ratio in the HeII forest is S/N > 20. Thus, it is impossible to give an estimate of the temperature-density relation with the HeII data available at present (S/N ~5). However, we find that only 45% of the lines in our sample favor turbulent line widths. Furthermore, the inferred eta values are on average about 0.05 dex larger if a thermal component is taken into account, and their distribution is 46% narrower in comparison to a purely turbulent fit. Therefore, variations of eta on a 10% level may be related to the presence of thermal line broadening. The apparent correlation between the strength of the HI absorption and the eta value, which has been found in former studies, essentially disappears if thermal broadening is taken into account. In the redshift range 2.58 < z < 2.74 towards the quasars HE2347-4342 and HS1700+6416 we obtain eta ~ 100. (abridged)

  19. Crystallization of an Fv fragment from a human IgM cryoglobulin by a microseeding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, L.; Guddat, L. W.; Raison, R. L.; Edmundson, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to many fragments of human IgM immunoglobulins, a VL- VH heterodimer (Fv) from a patient (Pot) with macroglobulinemia produces large single crystals in relatively short periods of time (days). It was therefore convenient to segregate the crystal production into the following three processes for study under a variety of conditions: (1) the preparation of seeds, (2) the enlargement of seeds into microcrystals, and (3) the growth of microcrystals into large crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction. The protein could be crystallized in solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) ranging in molecular weight from 600 to 8000. PEG 600 was chosen for the present work because of its lower viscosity. Seeds stable for several hours could be prepared by washing previously grown crystals with 32% (v/v) PEG 600. If stored for more than a day, the seeds formed aggregates which eventually appeared as a cluster of crystals growing in different orientations. When freshly prepared seeds were added to solutions of 40 mg of protein per ml in 25% PEG 600, however, microcrystals with distinctive polyhedral habits could be observed at x250 magnification in 20-30 min. After 1-2 h, an optional number of these microcrystals could be transferred to "sitting drops" of protein in PEG 600 for the final growth period of 2-10 days. The shapes of the crystals could be controlled by adjusting the concentration of PEG 600. In 22% PEG the crystals assumed their "equilibrium shape" of a bipyramid; at 25% the crystals were truncated bipyramids; and at higher concentrations the crystals were small cubes or even unstable rounded forms associated with "normal growth" in all directions. If one end was in contact with a glass or plastic surface, the crystal developed into a pyramid instead of a bipyramid. The system could be further manipulated to study growth rates, as well as the processes leading to the formation of depressions, dislocations and skeletal crystals.

  20. Fetal lambs are depleted of IgM+ cells following a single injection of an anti-IgM antibody early in gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Press, C M; Reynolds, J D; McClure, S J; Simpson-Morgan, M W; Landsverk, T

    1996-01-01

    B-cell depleted fetal sheep were created following a single injection of an anti-IgM monoclonal antibody early in gestation. Six sheep fetuses were given a single intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal antibody directed against IgM at 63 days of gestation (gestation in sheep = 150 days). The fetuses were killed at 138-142 days of gestation and lymphoid tissues were collected for subsequent light microscopy and immunohistochemical examination. The ileal and jejunal Peyer's patch (PP) follicles in four of the six injected fetuses were markedly reduced in size. Cells in the rudimentary follicles of the ileal PP of these animals showed no reactivity for IgM and most were negative for CD45. The dome regions contained many T cells, which were predominantly CD8+ cells and included gamma delta T cells. The interfollicular areas of the PP of the markedly affected fetuses contained large populations of T cells. The spleen and lymph nodes were also markedly depleted of IgM+ cells and these tissues contained only a small, scattered population of weakly IgM+ cells. Follicular accumulations of IgM+ cells were absent. Large populations of T cells were present in the white pulp of the spleen and cortex of the lymph nodes. The liver did not contain IgM+ cells and the medulla of the thymus was depleted of IgM+ cells. The results of this study suggest that a surface IgM+ B-cell population is present in the sheep fetus at 63 days of gestation, which is essential for the colonization of the ileal PP and subsequent B-cell development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8707346

  1. Administration of RRR-?-tocopherol to pregnant mares stimulates maternal IgG and IgM production in colostrum and enhances vitamin E and IgM status in foals.

    PubMed

    Bondo, T; Jensen, S K

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of a vitamin E supplement given to pregnant mares on immunoglobulins (Ig) levels in foals. In addition, the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of the mares' milk was assessed. Milk ?-tocopherol concentrations were compared between pregnant Danish Warmblood mares (n = 17) given a daily oral supplement of 2500 international units (IU) RRR-?-tocopherol in the last 4 weeks of pregnancy and a group of unsupplemented mares (n = 17) receiving 170-320 IU vitamin E daily originating from the feed. Milk ?-tocopherol was higher in supplemented mares (36.7, 12.4 and 9.8 ?mol/l respectively) in relation to control mares (13.1, 6.4 and 5.8 ?mol/l on days 1, 2 and 3 respectively; p < 0.001). Milk IgG was higher on days 2 and 3 post-partum (PP) in supplemented mares (1.03 and 0.73 mg/ml respectively) in relation to control mares (0.79 and 0.56 mg/ml respectively; p < 0.05). Milk IgM was higher on days 2 and 3 post-partum (PP) in supplemented mares (0.19 and 0.17 mg/ml) in relation to control mares (0.13 and 0.11 mg/ml respectively; p < 0.05). Plasma ?-tocopherol in foals was higher from supplemented mares on days 1, 2 and 3 (5.7, 14.8 and 19.2 ?mol/l respectively) in relation to foals from control mares (3.6, 6.1 and 7.6 respectively; p < 0.001). Foal plasma IgM was higher from supplemented mares on day 3 (0.50 mg/ml) in relation to foals from control mares (0.32 mg/ml; p < 0.001). The total FA content in milk was highest on day 1 (21.6 g FA/kg milk) in relation to days 2 and 3 (13.6 and 13.5 g FA/kg milk respectively; p < 0.001). In conclusion, a daily oral supplement of 2500 IU RRR-?-tocopherol increased ?-tocopherol content in mare milk and foal plasma, IgG and IgM in mare milk and IgM in foal plasma. PMID:20796079

  2. Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG to Arboviral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Alison J.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Panella, Amanda J.; Laven, Janeen; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

    2013-01-01

    Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression “Logitboost” as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests. PMID:24086608

  3. Pre-mRNA splicing of IgM exons M1 and M2 is directed by a juxtaposed splicing enhancer and inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Julie L.C.; Green, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    Splicing of certain pre-mRNA introns is dependent on an enhancer element, which is typically purine-rich. It is generally thought that enhancers increase the use of suboptimal splicing signals, and one specific proposal is that enhancers stabilize binding of U2AF65 to weak polypyrimidine (Py) tracts. Here, we test this model using an IgM pre-mRNA substrate, which contains a well-characterized enhancer. Although the enhancer was required for in vitro splicing, we found it had no effect on U2AF65 binding. Unexpectedly, replacement of the natural IgM Py tract, branchpoint, and 5? splice site with consensus splicing signals did not circumvent the enhancer requirement. These observations led us to identify a novel regulatory element within the IgM M2 exon that acts as a splicing inhibitor; removal of the inhibitor enabled splicing to occur in the absence of the enhancer. The IgM M2 splicing inhibitor is evolutionarily conserved, can inhibit the activity of an unrelated, constitutively spliced pre-mRNA, and acts by repressing splicing complex assembly. Interestingly, the inhibitor itself forms an ATP-dependent complex that contains U2 snRNP. We conclude that splicing of IgM exons M1 and M2 is directed by two juxtaposed regulatory elements—an enhancer and an inhibitor—and that a primary function of the enhancer is to counteract the inhibitor. PMID:10049361

  4. Shift of C3 deposition from localization in the glomerulus into the tubulo-interstitial compartment in the absence of secreted IgM in immune complex glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Vaculik, C; Rüger, B M; Yanagida, G; Hollemann, D; Soleiman, A; Losert, U M; Chen, J; Fischer, M B

    2008-01-01

    The role of secretory IgM in protecting kidney tissue from immune complex glomerulonephritis induced by 4 mg horse spleen apoferritin and 0·05 mg lipopolysaccharide has been investigated in mutant mice in which B cells do not secrete IgM, but are capable of expressing surface IgM and IgD and secreting other Ig isotypes. Glomerular size, number of glomeruli per cross-section, glomerular cellularity and urine content of protein and creatinine was comparable in treated secreted IgM (sIgM)-deficient and wild-type mice. Assessment of urinary proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a 30 kDa low molecular weight protein in treated sIgM-deficient animals only, reflecting dysfunction of proximal tubules. A shift of bound C3 from glomeruli to the tubulo-interstitial compartment in sIgM-deficient mice also suggests tubulo-interstitial damage. In contrast, local C3 synthesis within the kidney tissue did not differ between the two treated groups. Apoptosis physiologically present to maintain kidney cell homeostasis was increased slightly in treated wild-type mice. These results indicate that secretory IgM can protect the tubulo-interstitial compartment from immune complex-induced damage without having an effect on the glomerulus. PMID:17991287

  5. Shift of C3 deposition from localization in the glomerulus into the tubulo-interstitial compartment in the absence of secreted IgM in immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Vaculik, C; Rüger, B M; Yanagida, G; Hollemann, D; Soleiman, A; Losert, U M; Chen, J; Fischer, M B

    2008-01-01

    The role of secretory IgM in protecting kidney tissue from immune complex glomerulonephritis induced by 4 mg horse spleen apoferritin and 0.05 mg lipopolysaccharide has been investigated in mutant mice in which B cells do not secrete IgM, but are capable of expressing surface IgM and IgD and secreting other Ig isotypes. Glomerular size, number of glomeruli per cross-section, glomerular cellularity and urine content of protein and creatinine was comparable in treated secreted IgM (sIgM)-deficient and wild-type mice. Assessment of urinary proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a 30 kDa low molecular weight protein in treated sIgM-deficient animals only, reflecting dysfunction of proximal tubules. A shift of bound C3 from glomeruli to the tubulo-interstitial compartment in sIgM-deficient mice also suggests tubulo-interstitial damage. In contrast, local C3 synthesis within the kidney tissue did not differ between the two treated groups. Apoptosis physiologically present to maintain kidney cell homeostasis was increased slightly in treated wild-type mice. These results indicate that secretory IgM can protect the tubulo-interstitial compartment from immune complex-induced damage without having an effect on the glomerulus. PMID:17991287

  6. Tumour localization and pharmacokinetics of iodine-125 human monoclonal IgM antibody (COU-1) and its monomeric and half-monomeric fragments analysed in nude mice grafted with human tumour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Ditzel; Jens W. Rasmussen; Karin Erb; Jens C. Jensenius

    1992-01-01

    Human monoclonal IgM antibodies reactive with cancer-associated antigens may not have the optimal imaging capability due to their large size. Fragmentation of human IgM is less than straight-forward due to the loss of immunoreactivity. From the human monoclonal IgM antibody COU-1 we have prepared monomeric and half-monomeric fragments, which retain the ability to bind to colon cancer cells in vitro.

  7. Prevalence of Legionella-specific IgG and IgM antibody in a dental clinic population.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Westfall, H N; Snyder, I S; Miller, R W; Mutchler, B M

    1985-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of Legionella infection in a dental clinic setting. Serum samples from 270 dental clinic personnel were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Legionella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The pooled-species whole-cell-antigen preparation used in these assays was derived from six Legionella pneumophila strains and one strain each from Legionella bozemanii and Legionella micdadei. Significant levels of IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 20% and 16%, respectively, of the samples. This compares with 8% and 10%, respectively, for a randomly selected non-clinical group from the region (P less than 0.005). Samples from clinic personnel with significant IgG titers (greater than 1:128) were also evaluated for activity to each of the eight single-species antigens, with the following results: L. pneumophila, 45% (combined six strains); L. micdadei, 37%; and L. bozemanii, 18%. Comparing individuals' "years spent in the clinic environment" with the incidence of significant antibody levels strongly suggests that the risk of Legionella infection increases proportionately with increased clinic exposure time (P less than 0.05). Analysis of these data implies that Legionella may be present in the dental clinic environment, thus creating an increased risk for clinical personnel or patients. PMID:3865949

  8. Mutations in PIK3CD Can Cause Hyper IgM Syndrome (HIGM) Associated with Increased Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Crank, M. C.; Grossman, J. K.; Moir, S.; Pittaluga, S.; Buckner, C. M.; Kardava, L.; Agharahimi, A.; Meuwissen, H.; Stoddard, J.; Niemela, J.; Kuehn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant gain of function mutations in the gene encoding PI3K p110? were recently associated with a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, CD4 lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. A subset of affected patients also had elevated serum IgM. Here we describe three patients in two families who were diagnosed with HIGM at a young age and were recently found to carry heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD. These patients had an abnormal circulating B cell distribution featuring a preponderance of early transitional (T1) B cells and plasmablasts. When stimulated in vitro, PIK3CD mutated B cells were able to secrete class-switched immunoglobulins. This finding implies that the patients’ elevated serum IgM levels were unlikely a product of an intrinsic B cell functional inability to class switch. All three patients developed malignant lymphoproliferative syndromes that were not associated with EBV. Thus, we identified a novel subset of patients with PIK3CD mutations associated with HIGM, despite indications of preserved in vitro B cell class switch recombination, as well as susceptibility to non-EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:24610295

  9. Persistence of West Nile Virus (WNV) IgM antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with CNS disease.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Hema; Signs, Kimberly; Somsel, Patricia; Downes, Frances P; Clark, Patricia A; Massey, Jeffrey P

    2004-12-01

    The Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) reported 644 laboratory positive human cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the 2002 outbreak in the US, of which 559 cases presented with either meningitis or encephalitis. The first line test utilized for diagnosis of WNV infection was the immunoglobulin M (IgM)-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). We continued testing for WNV even during winter months of the year 2002-2003 due to the awareness of other modes of WNV transmission (blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental, breast milk, and occupational) as well as concern for people traveling to endemic areas. As a result of year-round testing for WNV infections during 2002-2003, we detected WNV IgM-specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from three patients persisting for 110, 141, and 199 days post acute phase infection in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease. This is a new observation and there is no published data on the persistence of WNV IgM antibodies in CSF specimens beyond 47 days. Thus, it is important to note that the presence of WNV IgM class antibodies may not always reflect acute phase infection with this virus. PMID:15494271

  10. Radio-iodinated and internally labelled (35S) IgM monoclonal antibodies in a syngenic rat model.

    PubMed

    Wanying, Q; Brodin, T; Ceberg, C; Ingvar, C; Norrgren, K; Sjögren, H O; Strand, S E

    1991-01-01

    To simulate the human situation concerning human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we have introduced a new syngenic rat model with an implanted rat colon carcinoma. Rat IgM MAbs (10B12), labelled by the chloramine-T method with 125I or internally with 35S, were injected intravenously into the rats and the biodistribution was studied for 8 days. The radioactivity uptake in the tumours of the 35S label was higher than that of the 125I label and the retention of 35S in the tumours gave tumour/blood ratios 8 times higher than those of 125I at 48 and 96 h after injection. In this model we have shown that dehalogenation of iodinated IgM MAbs is a serious problem. We therefore suggest that internally labelled MAbs should be used and that further investigations should be carried out in a syngenic rat model, since this probably reflects the clinical situation better than the nude mouse model. PMID:2036250

  11. Reduced IgG anti-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with positive IgM anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Palafox Sánchez, Claudia Azucena; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward KL; Carcamo, Wendy C; Muñoz Valle, José Francisco; Orozco Barocio, Gerardo; Oregon Romero, Edith; Navarro Hernández, Rosa Elena; Salazar Páramo, Mario; Cabral Castañeda, Antonio; Vázquez del Mercado, Mónica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by production of autoantibodies to RNA or DNA–protein complexes such as small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). A role of Epstein–Barr virus in the pathogenesis has been suggested. Similar to Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects the majority of individuals at a young age and establishes latency with a potential for reactivation. Homology of CMV glycoprotein B (UL55) with the U1snRNP-70 kDa protein (U1–70 k) has been described; however, the role of CMV infection in production of anti-snRNPs is controversial. We investigated the association of CMV serology and autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Sixty-one Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were tested for CMV and Epstein–Barr virus serology (viral capsid antigen, IgG, IgM) and autoantibodies by immunoprecipitation and ELISA (IgG and IgM class, U1RNP/Sm, U1–70 k, P peptide, rheumatoid factor, dsDNA, ?2-glycoprotein I). Results IgG anti-CMV and IgM anti-CMV were positive in 95% (58/61) and 33% (20/61), respectively, and two cases were negative for both. Clinical manifestation and autoantibodies in the IgM anti-CMV(+) group (n = 20) versus the IgM anti-CMV(-)IgG (+) (n = 39) group were compared. Most (19/20) of the IgM anti-CMV(+) cases were IgG anti-CMV(+), consistent with reactivation or reinfection. IgM anti-CMV was unrelated to rheumatoid factor or IgM class autoantibodies and none was positive for IgM anti-Epstein–Barr virus–viral capsid antigen, indicating that this is not simply due to false positive results caused by rheumatoid factor or nonspecific binding by certain IgM. The IgM anti-CMV(+) group has significantly lower levels of IgG anti-U1RNP/Sm and IgG anti-U1–70 k (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0046, respectively). This finding was also confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Among the IgM anti-CMV(-) subset, anti-Su was associated with anti-U1RNP and anti-Ro (P < 0.05). High levels of IgG anti-CMV were associated with production of lupus-related autoantibodies to RNA or DNA–protein complex (P = 0.0077). Conclusions Our findings suggest a potential role of CMV in regulation of autoantibodies to snRNPs and may provide a unique insight to understand the pathogenesis. PMID:19232124

  12. Improved serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection by detection of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM antibodies against P30 by using the immunoblot technique.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, U; Roos, T; Appoldt, D; Heesemann, J

    1992-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA antibodies against the major surface protein of Toxoplasma gondii were determined in a total of 195 human sera and five human cerebrospinal fluids by using a P30 membrane extract and the immunoblot technique. By using two different T. gondii strains (RH and BK) simultaneously as antigens, we were able to demonstrate diagnostically important strain-specific human antibody responses in 4.5% of the samples tested. A comparison of the immunoblot technique with an IgM immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the IgM and IgA immunoblot seems to be of advantage in the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in certain groups of patients, especially in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. The immunoblot technique described is easy to perform and might be useful as an additional serological assay for routine diagnosis of T. gondii infections. Images PMID:1624560

  13. Anti-bovine IgM monoclonal antibodies produced by hybrid cells after in vitro immunization as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 

    E-print Network

    Hunter, Doris Marie

    1983-01-01

    IgM which had been isolated and pur1f1ed by euglobul1n precipitation and column chromatography was used as the ant1 gen in an in vitro immun1zation to elic1t the product1on of ant1bodies by BALB/c mouse spleen cells. The spleen cells were fused... in polyethylene glycol with BALB/c mouse SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells to produce hybri domas secret1ng monoclonal anti bod1es to bov1ne IgM. This same IgM was used as the antigen in the development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect...

  14. A Toxoplasma gondii 10 kDa in vitro excretory secretory antigen reactive with human IgM and IgA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saadatnia, G; Ghaffarifar, F; Khalilpour, A; Amerizadeh, A; Rahmah, N

    2011-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis can cause serious disease in immunocompromised patients and to congenitally infected foetuses. Appropriate laboratory investigations in potential cases of acute Toxoplasma infection are important. Excretory secretory antigen (ESA) is immunogenic during both human and experimental infections, therefore is considered as a good candidate for investigation into new infection markers. In this study, ESA was prepared from in vitro cultures of Toxoplasma gondii to identify T. gondii ESA antigenic component(s) that is/are most reactive with serum samples from probable acute cases of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples were obtained from several categories of individuals with the following Toxoplasma serology: Group I: IgM+ IgG+ (low IgG avidity) or IgM+ IgG- from sera of patients who had clinical query of toxoplasmosis (n=35). Group II: IgM- IgG+ (high IgG avidity) from chronically infected individuals (n=30). Group III: normal/healthy individuals with anti-Toxoplasma IgMIgG- (n=20). Group IV: individuals with other infections who had anti-Toxoplasma IgM- IgG- (n=10). The ESA was subjected to SDS-PAGE, followed by Western blot analysis using the above sera and probed with peroxidase conjugated anti-human IgM and IgA antibodies. The blots were then developed using chemiluminescence substrate. The selected antigenic band was excised from the gel after two dimensional electrophoresis and sent for mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI TOF-TOF. The most promising antigenic band was a 10 kDa protein which showed sensitivity of 80% in both IgM and IgA blots, and specificity of 96.7% with sera from other infections and healthy controls. The two best identifications for the 10 kDa band were ubiquitin (ribosomal protein CEP52 fusion protein) and polyubiquitin. PMID:22433890

  15. Evaluation of commercially available diagnostic tests for the detection of dengue virus NS1 antigen and anti-dengue virus IgM antibody.

    PubMed

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W; Margolis, Harold S

    2014-10-01

    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%. PMID:25330157

  16. Evaluation of Commercially Available Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen and Anti-Dengue Virus IgM Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A.; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L.; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G.; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Margolis, Harold S.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60–75% and specificity 71–80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38–71% and specificity 76–80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30–96%, with a specificity of 86–92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96–98% and specificity 78–91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88–94%. PMID:25330157

  17. A case of HBs antigen negative fulminant hepatitis with IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen persisting more than seven years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuo Suga; Kaori Shibata; Toshinori Kodama; Kazuhiro Arima; Satoshi Yamada; Akira Yachi

    1991-01-01

    Summary  A 33-year old dentist developed fulminant hepatitis. At admission, a test for IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (IgM\\u000a anti-HBc) was positive, while tests for HBsAg and HBeAg were negative. He was cured of the disease, but in follow-up examinations\\u000a from 1983 to 1990 IgM anti-HBc was continuously detected with radioimmunoassay while HBsAg and HBV-DNA were absent in the

  18. Multiplex detection of IgM and IgG class antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, and cytomegalovirus using a novel multiplex flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Binnicker, M J; Jespersen, D J; Harring, J A

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma, rubella, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (ToRC) IgG and IgM multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and compare the results to those of conventional testing by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). Serum specimens (n = 600) submitted for routine ToRC IgG and IgM testing by EIA (SeraQuest, Doral, FL; Diamedix, Miami, FL) or ELFA (Vidas; bioMérieux, Durham, NC) were also tested by the BioPlex ToRC multiplex immunoassays. Samples showing discordant results were retested by both methods, with further discrepancies being arbitrated by a third assay. Following repeat testing, the BioPlex Toxoplasma, rubella, and CMV IgG assays demonstrated agreements of 98.7 (592/600 specimens), 93.3 (560/600 specimens), and 98.3% (590/600 specimens), respectively, while the ToRC IgM assays yielded agreements of 91.2 (547/600 specimens), 87.3 (524/600 specimens), and 95.2% (571/600 specimens), respectively. The BioPlex ToRC IgG assays provided results comparable to EIA/ELFA results, with kappa coefficients showing near-perfect agreement for the Toxoplasma (? = 0.94) and CMV (? = 0.97) IgG assays and substantial agreement for the rubella IgG assay (? = 0.66). The BioPlex ToRC IgM assays showed lower specificity with only slight agreement for Toxoplasma IgM (? = 0.07), poor agreement for rubella IgM (? = -0.03), and moderate agreement for CMV IgM (? = 0.55). Both the BioPlex IgG and IgM assays reduced turnaround time (1.7 h versus 5.5 h by EIA/ELFA for 100 specimens) and eliminated the necessity to manually pipette or aliquot specimens prior to testing. PMID:20861325

  19. Tumor location using F(ab')/sub /sub 2/. mu. / from a monoclonal IgM antibody: pharmacokinetics. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, B.; Reiland, J.; Levine, G.; Knowles, B.; Hakala, T.R.

    1985-03-01

    A monoclonal IgM antibody (anti-SSEA-1) and its divalent antigen-binding peptic fragment (F(ab')/sub /sub 2/..mu..)/ were compared as in vivo tumor localization reagents in mouse teratocarcinomas. F(ab')/sub /sub 2/..mu../ is cleared more rapidly than whole antibody from the whole body, blood, and all tested organs. A corresponding average improvement in tumor-to-tissue ratio is observed 48 hr after injection and earlier. However, the affinity of the F(ab')/sub /sub 2/..mu../ for antigen is much lower, and a smaller fraction of the antibody fragment is retained in the tumor than with whole antibody. The fragment was not retained by animals bearing nonantigenic tumors.

  20. Electron microscopic evidence for reactions of axial filaments of Leptospira with IgM and IgG antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Annabella; Faine, S.

    1970-01-01

    Serological identifications of structural components of leptospires have not previously been reported although morphological and antigenic studies have been carried out extensively. The antigenic activity of isolated axial filaments was characterized by direct electron-microscopic visualization of immune precipitates with fractionated antisera. The precipitates were composed of axial filament with IgM or IgG antibodies attached. The axial filament is the first structural component of leptospires to be identified serologically. Knowledge of the pattern of cross-reactivity of this axial filament antigen among various serotypes may be of value in helping to establish a new system of classification based on specific antigens rather than the current system using reciprocal agglutinin-absorption tests, which measures the resultant of many antigens. ImagesFIG. 14FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 15FIG. 16FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 13FIG. 1FIG. 9FIG. 4 PMID:5313069

  1. Monoclonal IgM cold agglutinins with anti-Pr1d specificity in a patient with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Herron, B; Willison, H J; Veitch, J; Roelcke, D; Illis, L S; Boulton, F E

    1994-01-01

    A patient with a demyelinating sensory motor polyneuropathy secondary to IgM paraproteinaemia is reported. The paraprotein binds to the gangliosides GD1b, GT1b, GQ1b and GD3, all of which contain disialosyl groups with the sequence NeuAc alpha 2-8NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal. The paraprotein also acts as a cold agglutinin recognising the sialic-acid-dependent Pr1d antigenic determinant of the red cell membrane glycophorins. In this and in similar cases that have been reported, the coexistence of anti-Pr cold agglutinins and peripheral neuropathy suggest that they might be the causative agents of the disease. PMID:7975454

  2. Immune Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome Patients Revealed by High Levels of Serum Anti-N(Glc) IgM Antibody Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Papini, Anna Maria; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

  3. Cerebral toxoplasmosis after umbilical cord blood transplantation diagnosed by the detection of anti-toxoplasma specific IgM antibody in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Akiko; Koh, Hideo; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Okamura, Hiroshi; Inoue, Atsushi; Nanno, Satoru; Nakane, Takahiko; Shimono, Taro; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Hino, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare, potentially fatal, complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Early definitive diagnosis is very difficult and it may be associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we describe a 60-year-old woman who developed cerebral toxoplasmosis after cord blood transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome. During treatment with tacrolimus and methylprednisolone for relapsed grade 2 acute gut GVHD, fever and disturbance of consciousness occurred on day 210. Brain MRI showed multiple ring-enhancing nodular lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia, brainstem, and subcortical white matter. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessment revealed elevations of both anti-to-xoplasma IgM and IgG, which were also elevated in serum, but no evidence of other infections or malignancies. Notably, the IgM level was higher in the CSF than in serum. Thus, cerebral toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. Soon after administration of oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and intravenous clindamycin in combination with short-term dexamethasone for the cerebral edema, her symptoms and signs began to improve. On day 229, both IgM and IgG titers in CSF had clearly decreased but remained essentially constant in serum. She was discharged without clinically significant neurological disorders. This case suggests that CSF specific anti-toxoplasma IgM titers might be useful for early diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis after transplantation. PMID:24850458

  4. Immunohistochemical detection of IgM and IgG in lung tissue of dogs with leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS) is a severe form of leptospirosis. Pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Lung tissues from 26 dogs with LPHS, 5 dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage due to other causes and 6 healthy lungs were labelled for IgG, IgM and leptospiral antigens. Three ...

  5. IL-4 upregulates Ig? and Ig? protein, resulting in augmented IgM maturation and BCR-triggered B cell activation1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Benchang; Rothstein, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is critical for optimal B cell activation and germinal center B cell expansion in T-dependent immune responses; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we found that primary B cells express little Ig? and Ig? protein despite substantial levels of messenger RNA. IL-4 markedly up-regulates Ig? and Ig? protein expression that requires STAT6. Elevated Ig? and Ig? protein form heterodimers that associate with IgM and significantly promote IgM maturation and surface IgM expression, resulting in amplified BCR-initiated signaling that is Lyn-dependent. In vivo, we found that pre-germinal center B cells express upregulated Ig?, Ig?, and surface IgM expression, in conjunction with elevated BCR-triggered pERK ex vivo, that are dependent on IL-4 and reversed by in vivo administration of neutralizing anti-IL-4 antibody. Thus, this study elucidates a novel mechanism for crosstalk between the IL-4 and B cell receptors that programs enhancement of subsequent BCR signaling. PMID:23776171

  6. Immune dysfunction in Rett syndrome patients revealed by high levels of serum anti-N(Glc) IgM antibody fraction.

    PubMed

    Papini, Anna Maria; Nuti, Francesca; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Guerranti, Roberto; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Rovero, Paolo; De Felice, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

  7. Search for QSOS Suitable for Subsequent Observation of he II 304 Absorption Arising in the IGM, Ly-Alpha and ... PART3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytler, David

    1991-07-01

    THIS IS PART Three OF PROPOSAL 3801. IT CONTAINS 40 TARGETS OF HIGH PRIORITY. EXCEPT FOR TARGETS, THIS PROPOSAL IS IDENTICAL TO 3801. Targets are in order of decreasing priority. Priority matters a lot. Best targets are listed first. Ultraviolet images will be obtained in snapshot mode of the 500 known high-redshift (z > 2.8) QSOs in order to identify the few (about 20) targets which have sufficient ultraviolet flux for subsequent FOC/FOS or GHRS observations of He II 304. The detection of absorption by the Helium II Lyman-alpha line at 304 A, one of the most exciting prospects of the HST, will provide the first direct detection of the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM). The absence of Gunn-Peterson H I 1215 absorption shows that the IGM is hot and/or of very low density, thus He I 584 is not expected to be observable. He II 304--the most promising line--should be observable from three sources: the diffuse IGM, the discrete Ly-alpha clouds, and the much rarer metal line absorption systems. The Gunn-Peterson continuum optical depth is not well constrained by models (range 0.3-3000). The mere detection of only one QSO below 304 A would rule out many models, limiting the IGM density, temperature, and ionization mechanisms. Similarly the total absence of flux from several targets would rule out other models.

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Recombinant Immunoglobulin-like Protein A-Based IgM ELISA for the Early Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kitashoji, Emi; Koizumi, Nobuo; Lacuesta, Talitha Lea V.; Usuda, Daisuke; Ribo, Maricel R.; Tria, Edith S.; Go, Winston S.; Kojiro, Maiko; Parry, Christopher M.; Dimaano, Efren M.; Villarama, Jose B.; Ohnishi, Makoto; Suzuki, Motoi; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important but largely under-recognized public health problem in the tropics. Establishment of highly sensitive and specific laboratory diagnosis is essential to reveal the magnitude of problem and to improve treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a recombinant LigA protein based IgM ELISA during outbreaks in the clinical-setting of a highly endemic country. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective study was conducted from October 2011 to September 2013 at a national referral hospital for infectious diseases in Manila, Philippines. Patients who were hospitalized with clinically suspected leptospirosis were enrolled. Plasma and urine were collected on admission and/or at discharge and tested using the LigA-IgM ELISA and a whole cell-based IgM ELISA. Sensitivity and specificity of these tests were evaluated with cases diagnosed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), culture and LAMP as the composite reference standard and blood bank donors as healthy controls: the mean+3 standard deviation optical density value of healthy controls was used as the cut-off limit (0.062 for the LigA-IgM ELISA and 0.691 for the whole cell-based IgM ELISA). Of 304 patients enrolled in the study, 270 (89.1%) were male and the median age was 30.5 years; 167 (54.9%) were laboratory confirmed. The sensitivity and ROC curve AUC for the LigA-IgM ELISA was significantly greater than the whole cell-based IgM ELISA (69.5% vs. 54.3%, p<0.01; 0.90 vs. 0.82, p<0.01) on admission, but not at discharge. The specificity of LigA-IgM ELISA and whole cell-based IgM ELISA were not significantly different (98% vs. 97%). Among 158 MAT negative patients, 53 and 28 were positive by LigA- and whole cell-based IgM ELISA, respectively; if the laboratory confirmation was re-defined by LigA-IgM ELISA and LAMP, the clinical findings were more characteristic of leptospirosis than the diagnosis based on MAT/culture/LAMP. Conclusions/Significance The newly developed LigA-IgM ELISA is more sensitive than the whole cell-based IgM based ELISA. Although the final diagnosis must be validated by more specific tests, LigA-IgM ELISA could be a useful diagnostic test in a real clinical-setting, where diagnosis is needed in the early phase of infection. PMID:26110604

  9. Comparative analysis of immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using virus-like particles or virus-infected mouse brain antigens to detect IgM antibody in sera from patients with evident flaviviral infections.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Derek A; Purdy, David E; Chao, Day-Yu; Noga, Amanda J; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2005-07-01

    The use of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) serves as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute flaviviral infections, since IgM antibody titers are detectable early, peak at about 2 weeks postinfection, and subsequently decline to lower levels over the next few months. Traditionally, virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain (SMB) has been the source of viral antigens used in the assay. In an effort to provide a reliable source of standardized viral antigens for serodiagnosis of the medically important flaviviruses, we have developed a eukaryotic plasmid vector to express the premembrane/membrane and envelope proteins which self-assemble into noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs). In addition to the plasmids for Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) reported earlier, we recently constructed the DENV-1, -3, and -4 VLP expression plasmids. Three blind-coded human serum panels were assembled from patients having recent DENV, SLEV, and WNV infections to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the MAC-ELISA using VLPs or SMB antigens. In addition, serum specimens from patients infected with either Powassan virus or La Crosse encephalitis virus were used to evaluate the cross-reactivity of seven mosquito-borne viral antigens. The results of the present studies showed higher sensitivity when using SLEV and WNV VLPs and higher specificity when using SLEV, WNV, and the mixture of DENV-1 to -4 VLPs in the MAC-ELISA than when using corresponding SMB antigens. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a plot of the sensitivity versus false positive rate (100 - specificity), was applied to discriminate the accuracy of tests comparing the use of VLPs and SMB antigen. The measurement of assay performance by the ROC analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in assay performance between DENV and WNV VLPs and the respective SMB antigens. Additionally, VLPs had a lower cutoff positive/negative ratio than corresponding SMB antigens when employed for the confirmation of current infections. The VLPs also performed better than SMB antigens in the MAC-ELISA, as indicated by a higher positive prediction value and positive likelihood ratio test. Cell lines continuously secreting these VLPs are therefore a significantly improved source of serodiagnostic antigens compared to the traditional sources of virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain. PMID:16000440

  10. Characterization of additional rabbit IgM allotypes and the effect of suppression of a VH locus allotypes on the expression of n C. mu. locus allotype

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman-Sachs, A.; Roux, K.H.; Horing, W.J.; Dray, S.

    1982-01-01

    Anti-allotype antisera were produced that identified eight rabbit IgM allotypic specificities, n80, n81, n82, n83, n84, n85, n86, and n87. The n locus C..mu.. genes controlling these IgM allotypic specificities are closely linked to the a (VH subgroup) locus. The genes controlling these allotypic specificities were found to be in the heavy chain chromosomal region and were assigned to 11 haplotypes present in our rabbit colony. The n locus and a locus genes appeared in the haplotypes in six combinations: a/sup 1/n/sup 81/, a/sup 2/n/sup 81,n87/, a/sup 1/n/sup 80,83/, a/sup 2/n/sup 80,82,87/, a/sup 3/n/sup 81,84,85/ and a/sup 3/n/sup 80,84,86,87/. By radioprecipitation analysis, 70 to 80% of serum IgM reacts with the antiserum directed to each n locus allotypic specificity found encoded in one haplotype; thus, each allotypic specificity of the haplotype is present on the same IgM molecule. When sera from a locus allotype-suppressed homozygous rabbits were tested for expression of each n locus allotypic specificity, n80, n81, and n87 were still expressed, whereas n82, n83, n84, n85, and n86 were not. These data provide direct evidence that some IgM specificities are expressed independently of the a locus (i.e., ''true''), and other s are dependent on the expression of an a locus specificity (i.e., conformational). The expression of the ''true'' allotypic specificities probably reflects genetic control of the germline C..mu.. gene, and the expression of ''conformationally dependent'' allotypic specificities probably reflects the interaction of VH and C..mu.. gene segments. This distinction is important and must be recognized when evaluating the genetics and structure of the IgM molecule.

  11. In vitro synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in response to Staphylococcus aureus, by lymphocytes from healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Karsh, J.

    1986-12-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 healthy adults were tested in vitro for the production of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) or pokeweed mitogen. Fifteen of the 20 normal subjects produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 46 +/- 55 ng/ml) in response to SAC, compared with only 2 of 20 who produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 2 +/- 4 ng/ml) in response to pokeweed mitogen (P = 0.0001). Separation and reconstitution of autologous T and B cell-enriched fractions, with and without prior T cell irradiation, provided evidence for a radiosensitive T helper/inducer cell involved in the IgM-RF response to SAC in 70% of the normal subjects studied. SAC appears to be a potent stimulus of IgM-RF production, with a cellular mechanism distinct from that of other in vitro systems.

  12. Membrane IgM influences membrane IgD mediated antigen internalization in the B cell line Bcl1.

    PubMed

    Geisberger, Roland; Königsberger, Sebastian; Achatz, Gernot

    2006-02-15

    Signalling through the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is required for peripheral B lymphocyte maturation, maintenance, activation and silencing. In mature B cells, the antigen receptor normally consists of two isotypes: membrane IgM and IgD (mIgM, mIgD). Although the signals initiated from both isotypes differ in kinetics and intensity, in vivo, the BCR of either isotype seems to be able to compensate for the loss of the other, reflected by the mild phenotypes of mice deficient for mIgM or mIgD. Thus, it is still unclear why mature B cells need expression of mIgD in addition to mIgM. In the present paper, we used the B cell line Bcl1 and investigated the isotype-specific antigen internalization in dependence of co-stimulation of the reciprocal isotype and analysed whether the signal initiated from mIgM is modulated through signalling from mIgD and vice versa. We clearly showed that cross-linkage of mIgM decreases the rate of mIgD mediated antigen internalization and interpret this influence as a unilateral mIgM mediated control on signals initiated at mIgD. PMID:16219364

  13. Anti-PEG IgM Is a Major Contributor to the Accelerated Blood Clearance of Polyethylene Glycol-Conjugated Protein.

    PubMed

    Mima, Yu; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Limited therapeutic efficacy of polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEGylated) protein drugs has been recently reported in animals and human following repeat injections. Since there are reports that an accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon is caused by repeated injection of PEGylated liposome, there is an assumption that PEGylated proteins lose their long circulating property when they are injected repeatedly due to the induction of anti-PEG antibody. Although induction of anti-PEG antibody by PEGylated protein has been reported, there is little evidence of accelerated blood clearance of PEGylated protein upon repeated injection. Herein, we investigated the blood concentration of PEGylated ovalbumin (PEG-OVA), a model PEGylated protein, upon its repeated injection. A single intravenous administration of PEG-OVA elicited an anti-PEG IgM response but not anti-PEG IgG response, while the administration did not elicit antibody against OVA. At 24 h postinjection of test PEG-OVA, although control mice showed 41.6% dose of PEG-OVA in blood, the mice pretreated with PEG-OVA showed rapid clearance of test PEG-OVA from blood and undetectable level of PEG-OVA. Interestingly, the anti-PEG IgM induced by PEGylated liposome did not affect the blood concentration of subsequent dose of PEG-OVA. Our result suggests that anti-PEG IgM is a major contributor to the accelerated blood clearance of PEG-conjugated protein, but the presence of anti-PEG IgM in blood circulation does not necessarily affect circulating property of entire PEGylated materials. PMID:26070445

  14. Detection of Lassa Virus Antinucleoprotein Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM Antibodies by a Simple Recombinant Immunoblot Assay for Field Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. TER MEULEN; K. KOULEMOU; T. WITTEKINDT; K. WINDISCH; S. STRIGL; S. CONDE; H. SCHMITZ

    1998-01-01

    The nucleoprotein of Lassa virus, strain Josiah, was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally trun- cated, histidine-tagged recombinant protein. Following affinity purification the protein was completely dena- tured and spotted onto nitrocellulose membrane. A total of 1 mg of protein was applied for detection of Lassa virus antibodies (LVA) in a simple immunoblot assay. Specific anti-Lassa immunoglobulin M (IgM)

  15. Simultaneous Detection of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM Antibodies against Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Is Highly Specific for Diagnosis of Acute HEV Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaharu Takahashi; Shigeyuki Kusakai; Hitoshi Mizuo; Kazuyuki Suzuki; Kuniko Fujimura; Kazuo Masuko; Yoshiki Sugai; Tatsuya Aikawa; Tsutomu Nishizawa; Hiroaki Okamoto

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples collected from 68 patients (age, mean the standard deviation (SD), 56.3 12.8 years) at admission who were subsequently molecularly diagnosed as having hepatitis E and from 2,781 individuals who were assumed not to have been recently infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV; negative controls; 52.9 18.9 years), were tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA classes of antibodies

  16. I. Studies on pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase in rat liver mitochondria. II. Identification of the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of IgM in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    The orientation of the transmembrane enzyme, pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase, in the inner mitochondrial membrane of rat liver has been determined by evaluating effects of proteases on the integrity of the enzyme in mitoplasts and submitochondrial particles. Following treatment of these membranes with the non-specific protease, proteinase K, antigenic proteolytic products were detected by immunoblot analysis using polyclonal antibody prepared against purified bovine heart enzyme. Information from these proteolysis studies was used to construct a model of the orientation of transhydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this work, I have used the residualizing label, dilactitol-{sup 125}I-tyramine ({asterisk}I-DLT) to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of the immunoglobulin, IgM. Purified IgM was labeled conventionally with {sup 125}I or with the residualizing label, {asterisk}I-DLT. The circulating half-life of the protein, 2.7 {plus minus} 0.3 days, was the same when measured using either label, indicating that the residualizing label does not affect the kinetics of the protein's catabolism in vivo. At 2.4 or 5.1 days post injection, the liver contained the major fraction of catabolized protein compared to all the other organs in the body. Additionally, following collagenase digestion of the liver, the hepatocytes were shown to be 77% responsible for the catabolism of IgM by the liver. Autoradiography of the liver revealed that the remaining 23% of IgM catabolized by the liver was due to the Kupffer cells.

  17. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations in preschool children measured by laser nephelometry: reference ranges for IgG, IgA, IgM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Isaacs; D G Altman; C E Tidmarsh; H B Valman; A D Webster

    1983-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were determined on sera from 298 healthy children aged six months to six years using the Hyland laser nephelometer PDQ system. Age-specific 95% reference ranges for serum IgG, IgA and IgM are presented; considerable care has been taken to ensure statistical validity of the reference ranges. The wide range of values in children under two years suggest

  18. Gene Dose–Dependent Maturation and Receptor Editing of B Cells Expressing Immunoglobulin (Ig)g1 or Igm/Igg1 Tail Antigen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Sarah L.; Goodnow, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    Conserved differences between the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of membrane immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG may alter the function of antigen receptors on naive versus memory B cells. Here, we compare the ability of these domains to signal B cell allelic exclusion and maturation in transgenic mice. A lysozyme-binding antibody was expressed in parallel sets of mice as IgM, IgG1, or a chimeric receptor with IgM extracellular domains and transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains of IgG1. Like IgM, the IgG1 or chimeric IgM/G receptors triggered heavy chain allelic exclusion and supported development of mature CD21+ B cells. Many of the IgG or IgM/G B cells became CD21high and downregulated their IgG and IgM/G receptors spontaneously, resembling memory B cells and B cells with mutations that exaggerate B cell antigen receptor signaling. Unlike IgM-transgenic mice, “edited” B cells that carry non–hen egg lysozyme binding receptors preferentially accumulated in IgG and IgM/G mice. This was most extreme in lines with the highest transgene copy number and diminished in variant offspring with fewer copies. The sensitivity of B cell maturation to transgene copy number conferred by the IgG transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains may explain the diverse phenotypes found in other IgG-transgenic mouse strains and may reflect exaggerated signaling. PMID:10727464

  19. Evaluation of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Rapid Cassette Test Kits for Diagnosis of Melioidosis in an Area of Endemicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanaporn Wuthiekanun; Premjit Amornchai; Wirongrong Chierakul; Allen C. Cheng; Nicholas J. White; Sharon J. Peacock; Nicholas P. J. Day

    2004-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based rapid cassette immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM immuno- chromogenic test kit was compared to the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) for the diagnosis of acute melioidosis in northeastern Thailand. Admission sera from 70 culture-confirmed septicemic melioidosis patients and 30 patients with localized infections were tested. As a control group, 80 patients with other acute febrile illnesses (other

  20. IgA, igG1, IgG2, IgM, and BSA in serum and mammary secretion throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Guidry, J; Butler, J E; Pearson, R E; Weinland, B T

    1980-12-01

    Bovine IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM were measured in the serum and lacteal secretions of six cows from 10 days prepartum to 240 days of lactation. Immunoglobulins in lacteal secretions were expressed in units of concentration (mg/ml) as well as in total daily output. All isotypes were selectively accumulated during colostrum formation. The rate of IgG1 accumulation decreased rapidly after calving; this decrease corresponded to a return to normal serum levels of this immunoglobulin. Selective accumulation of IgA > IgM > IgG1 was maintained throughout lactation, but IgG2 showed no selective accumulation beyond 5 days postpartum. In serum, IgA and IgM levels were elevated at parturition and showed a significant decrease postpartum. Increases in serum IgA levels 60 days postpartum corresponded to a rise in lacteal concentration. The concentration of all immunoglobulins increased during late lactation, coincident with a major reduction in milk yield. Six strains of mastitis-causing organisms were cultured during the period of the experiment; however, none resulted in clinical mastitis or showed an effect on immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:15615051

  1. Characterization and removal of aggregates formed by nonspecific interaction of IgM monoclonal antibodies with chromatin catabolites during cell culture production.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hui Theng; Lee, Jeremy; Latiff, Sarah Maria Abdul; Chuah, Cindy; Toh, Phyllicia; Lee, Wan Yee; Gagnon, Pete

    2013-05-24

    We observed that IgM monoclonal antibodies and aggregates in mammalian cell culture supernatants were associated nonspecifically with nucleosomes, DNA, and histone proteins derived from nuclei of host cells that died during antibody production. A series of multimodal sample treatments were evaluated for their ability to selectively remove these contaminants without significant antibody loss. The first consisted of adding 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl urea (allantoin) and the DNA intercalating agent 7-ethoxyacridine-3,9-diamine (ethacridine), then flowing the supernatant through a column of mixed porous particles bearing metal affinity, anion exchange, and cation exchange functionalities. A one-step variant of the method was to mix chromatography particles with the allantoin-ethacridine-treated supernatant. An alternative one-step treatment consisted of passing untreated cell supernatant through a chelating monolith in tandem with an anion exchange monolith. All methods eliminated high molecular weight aggregates, and reduced smaller aggregates to 2-4%. They also achieved 98% DNA reduction, 99% reduction of nucleosomes and histones, 30-70% reduction of general host proteins, and 98% IgM recovery. Size exclusion chromatography analysis indicated that IgG monoclonal antibodies benefit similarly from treatment. Subsequent IgM purification reduced DNA levels beneath the level of detectability by fluorescent dye intercalation, histones to less than 10 parts per million by ELISA, and aggregates to less than 0.05% by size exclusion chromatography. The results point to chromatin catabolites as promoters of antibody aggregate formation. PMID:23598159

  2. Patterns of dengue virus IgM and IgG antibodies in suspected cases of dengue in Jamaica, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michelle G; Vickers, Ivan E; Salas, Rose Alba; Smikle, Monica Fisher

    2009-01-01

    The patterns of dengue immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies in patients presenting with dengue-like illnesses during 2003-2006 were investigated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The seroprevalence of dengue antibodies, dengue IgM and dengue IgG antibodies were 59.4% (979/1647), 15.4% (254/1647) and 51.1% (841/1647), respectively. A statistically significantly increasing trend in the prevalence of dengue IgG antibodies with age was observed, ranging from 38.4% in patients aged less than 1 year to 90% in those 60 of years and over (p = 0.000; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.000-0.002). Conversely the seroprevalence of dengue IgM did not differ significantly with age and no seasonality in the number of cases was observed. The patterns of IgM and IgG antibodies found in the present study are consistent with those found in dengue endemic countries during inter-epidemic periods indicating that an increasing risk of a new dengue outbreak due to the accumulation of susceptible population. Preventive measures should be maintained to control the endemic spread and reduce the risk of outbreaks of dengue in Jamaica. The high seroprevalence rate of dengue IgG antibodies might have implications for the emergence of the more severe forms dengue infection in the Jamaican population. PMID:19478396

  3. Further evaluation of the characteristics of Treponema pallidum-specific IgM antibody in syphilis serofast reaction patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Rong; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Tong, Man-Li; Fu, Zuo-Gen; Liu, Gui-Li; Fu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Dai-Wei; Yang, Tian-Ci; Liu, Li-Li

    2011-11-01

    Syphilis serofast reaction (SSR) is common in clinical work. From June 2005 to May 2009, 1208 syphilis patients were chosen for research by the Xiamen Center of Clinical Laboratory in China. Serologic tests were performed with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA). Then, T. pallidum-specific IgM antibody (TP-IgM) was detected with fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) and TPPA. In this study, patients were divided into the following experimental groups according to the results of TRUST and TPPA: (1) the SSR group consisted of 411 cases with (+) TRUST and (+) TPPA, and without clinical manifestations after 1 year of recommended syphilis treatment; (2) the serum cure group, which was further subdivided into group A consisting of 251cases with (-) TRUST and (+) TPPA; (3) group B consisting of 546 cases with (-) TRUST and (-) TPPA; and (4) the blood donor control group which consisted of 100 cases. We demonstrated that a total of 136 cases (33.09%) of 411 SSR patients were TP-IgM positive by TPPA, and this percentage was markedly higher than that in serum cure group A (9.16%). FTA-Abs analyses revealed similar results. All samples in serum cure group B and the control group were TP-IgM negative, which is identical to our previous report. The present study also indicated that the TP-IgM positive rate was not significantly different among patients with different ages, genders, and clinical phases after 1 year of recommended therapy. From the total of 1208 syphilis patients, 289 were randomly selected for TP-DNA detection by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the positive rate of TP-DNA was 32.53%, which was slightly higher than that of FTA-Abs TP-IgM, and no statistically significant difference by chi-square tests, indicating the TP-DNA result is preferably consistent with FTA-Abs and supporting our deduction that TP-IgM could be used as a serologic marker for the relapse and infection of syphilis. PMID:21899981

  4. Diagnosis of Leptospirosis: Comparison between Microscopic Agglutination Test, IgM-ELISA and IgM Rapid Immunochromatography Test

    PubMed Central

    Niloofa, Roshan; Fernando, Narmada; de Silva, Nipun Lakshitha; Karunanayake, Lilani; Wickramasinghe, Hasith; Dikmadugoda, Nandana; Premawansa, Gayani; Wickramasinghe, Rajitha; de Silva, H. Janaka; Premawansa, Sunil; Rajapakse, Senaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is diagnosed on clinical grounds, and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). IgM-ELISA (Serion-Virion) and immunochromatography test (Leptocheck-WB) are two immunodiagnostic assays for leptospirosis. Their sensitivity, specificity and applicability in Sri Lanka have not been systematically evaluated. Methods Clinically diagnosed leptospirosis patients (n = 919) were recruited from three hospitals in the Western Province of Sri Lanka, during June 2012 to December 2013. MAT, IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB were performed on all patient sera. MAT titer of ?400 in single sample, four-fold rise or seroconversion ?100 in paired samples were considered as positive for MAT. For diagnostic confirmation, MAT was performed during both acute and convalescent phases. Anti-leptospiral IgM ?20 IU/ml and appearance of a band in the test window were considered as positive for IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB test respectively. Patients with an alternative diagnosis (n = 31) were excluded. Data analysis was performed using two methods, i) considering MAT as reference standard and ii) using Bayesian latent class model analysis (BLCM) which considers each test as imperfect. Results MAT, IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB positivity were 39.8%, 45.8% and 38.7% respectively during the acute phase. Acute-phase MAT had specificity and sensitivity of 95.7% and 55.3% respectively, when compared to overall MAT positivity. IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB had similar diagnostic sensitivity when compared with acute-phase MAT as the gold standard, although IgM-ELISA showed higher specificity (84.5%) than Leptocheck-WB (73.3%). BLCM analysis showed that IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB had similar sensitivities (86.0% and 87.4%), while acute-phase MAT had the lowest sensitivity (77.4%). However, acute-phase MAT had high specificity (97.6%), while IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB showed similar but lower specificity (84.5% and 82.9%). Conclusions Both IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB shows similar sensitivities and specificities. IgM-ELISA may be superior to MAT during the acute phase and suitable for early diagnosis of leptospirosis. Leptocheck-WB is suitable as a rapid immunodiagnostic screening test for resource limited settings. PMID:26086800

  5. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  6. Receptor-dependent inhibition by vasoactive intestinal peptide of phorbol ester-enhanced IgM secretion by a human B cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.P.J.; Sreedharan, S.P.; Robichon, A.; Gronroos, E.; Goetzl, E.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28 amino acid neuromediator, which is released into tissues during inflammatory reactions. To examine the mechanisms of VIP effects on lymphocyte functions, replicate 5 ml suspensions of 2{times}10{sup 6} cultured SKW 6.4 human B lymphocytes per ml of RPMI 1640 medium with 10% FCS were incubated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) at 37C. After 2 hr of exposure of SKW 6.4 cells to 100 ng/ml of PMA, the specific high-affinity binding of ({sup 125}I)VIP was decreased by 43{plus minus}7.8% and remained suppressed for up to 8 hr. Continued incubation of SKW 6.4 cells with PMA for 7 days increased the specific high-affinity binding of ({sup 125}I)VIP by 55{plus minus}16%. The secretion of IgM by SKW 6.4 cells, as quantified in an ELISA assay, was enhanced a mean of 3.6 fold by 100 ng/ml of PMA after 7 days. The concurrent addition of 10{sup {minus}12}M-10{sup {minus}6}M VIP to the SKW 6.4 cells inhibited the PMA-enhanced secretion of IgM in an concentration-dependent manner with maximal mean inhibition ({plus minus}S.D.) of 40{plus minus}2% by 10{sup {minus}10}M VIP at 7 days, without an effect on unstimulated levels of IgM. The potent inhibition of immunoglobulin production by VIP has apparent specificity for stimulated B cells with an increased number of VIP receptors.

  7. Single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei and inulin on growth, non-specific immunity and IgM expression in leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Gracia-Lopez, Vicente; Macias, Ma Esther; Roa, Marcos Cadena; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei with inulin suitable for immunological in vivo studies in farmed fish. By in vitro assays, L. sakei strain 5-4 showed antibacterial activities against all assayed fish pathogens (except the Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM-1793). L. sakei was able to survive at high fish bile concentrations. Fermentation of the agave inulin resulted in a large increase in number of lactobacilli. For the in vivo study, fish were fed for 8 weeks four practical diets: control diet (control), L. sakei 5-4 (10(7) CFU/g), inulin (1% or 10 g/kg) and L. sakei + inulin (10(7) CFU/g + 10 g/kg). The weight gain showed clearly the synergistic effect of L. sakei 5-4 and inulin at 6 and 8 weeks of treatments. Leopard grouper fed with L. sakei alone or combined with inulin have significantly increased the assayed physiological and humoral immune parameters. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin M (IgM) were found to be higher expressed in intestine, head kidney, mucus, gill, spleen and skin. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IgM in head kidney and anterior intestine were measured by real-time PCR. L. sakei 5-4 and L. sakei + inulin supplemented diet up-regulated the expression of IgM at week 4 and 8 in intestine and head kidney, respectively. These results support the idea that the L. sakei 5-4 alone or combined with agave inulin improved growth performance and stimulates the immune system of leopard grouper. PMID:24464476

  8. Comparison patterns of 4 T1 antigens recognized by humoral immune response mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies in female and male mice with breast cancer using 2D-immnunoblots.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Zaragoza, Mariana; Hernández-Ávila, Ricardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Mendoza, Luis; Meneses-Ruíz, Dulce María; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    The early detection of cancer is one of the most promising approaches to reduce its growing burden and develop a curative treatment before the tumor is established. The early diagnosis of breast cancer is the most demanding of all tumors, because it is the most common cancer in women worldwide. We have described a new approach to analyze humoral immune reactions against 4 T1 cell antigens in female mice, reporting that the IgG and IgM responses differed and varied over time and between individuals. In this study, we compared and analyzed the detection of tumor antigens with IgG and IgM from the sera of male mice that were injected with 4 T1 cells into the mammary gland nipple in 2D immunoblot images. The variability in IgM and IgG responses in female and male mice with breast cancer at various stages of disease was characterized, and the properties with regard to antigen recognition were correlated statistically with variables that were associated with the individuals and tumors. The ensuing IgG and IgM responses differed. Only the IgG response decreased over time in female mice - not in male mice. The IgM response was maintained during tumor development in both sexes. Each mouse had a specific pattern of antigen recognition - ie, an immunological signature - represented by a unique set of antigen spots that were recognized by IgM or IgG. These data would support that rationale IgM is a better tool for early diagnosis, because it is not subject to immunosuppression like IgG in female mice with breast cancer. PMID:26026196

  9. Two Distinct Subtypes of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute Liver Failure Are Separable By Quantitative Serum IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Doan Y; Hynan, Linda S.; Yuan, He-Jun; Sanders, Corron; Balko, Jody; Attar, Nahid; Lok, Anna S.F.; Word, R. Ann; Lee, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus-related acute liver failure (HBV-ALF) may occur following acute HBV infection (AHBV-ALF) or during an exacerbation of chronic HBV infection (CHBV-ALF). Clinical differentiation of the two is often difficult if a prior history of hepatitis B is not available. Quantitative measurements of anti-hepatitis B core immunoglobulin M (IgM anti-HBc) titers and of HBV viral loads (VLs) might allow separation of acute from chronic HBV-ALF. Methods Of 1602 patients with ALF, 60 met clinical criteria for AHBV-ALF and 27 for CHBV-ALF. Sera were available on 47 and 23 patients, respectively. A quantitative immunoassay was used to determine IgM anti-HBc levels, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) to determine HBV VLs. Results AHBV-ALFs had much higher IgM anti-HBc titers than CHBV-ALFs, (signal to noise (S/N) ratio median 88.5, range 0–1,120, vs. 1.3, 0–750, p<0.001); a cut point for S/N ratio of 5.0 correctly identified 44/46 (96%) AHBV-ALFs and 16/23 (70%) CHBV-ALFs; the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.86, p<0.001. AHBV-ALF median admission VL was 3.9 (0–8.1) log10 IU/mL, vs. 5.2 (2.0–8.7) log10 IU/mL for CHBV-ALF, p<0.025. Twenty percent (12/60) of the AHBV-ALF group had no hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) detectable on admission to study, while no CHBV-ALF patients experienced HBsAg clearance. Rates of transplant-free survival were 33% (20/60) for AHBV-ALF vs. 11% (3/27) for CHBV-ALF, p=0.030. Conclusions AHBV-ALF and CHBV-ALF differ markedly in IgM anti-HBc titers, in HBV VLs and in prognosis, suggesting that the two forms are indeed different entities that might each have a unique pathogenesis. PMID:21987355

  10. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in Antarctic summer expeditioners and their relationship with seasickness.

    PubMed

    Mishra, K P; Yadav, A P; Shweta; Chanda, Sudipta; Majumdar, D; Ganju, Lilly

    2011-01-01

    The Antarctic continent is full of environmental extremes like isolation, cold, UV exposure, and blizzards etc. The present study was conducted to analyze the effect of ship borne journey and the impact of Antarctic harsh environment on serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA) levels and their relationship with seasickness in Indian expeditioners. It was observed that one month onboard ship journey induced an increase in serum IgA levels and decrease in IgG levels while after being one month off board at the Indian research station Maitri, decreased levels of IgG and increased levels of IgA were found. IgM levels were not altered in comparison to the base line control. Moreover, serum IgG level showed a positive correlation while IgA level showed a negative correlation with seasickness. The stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with serum of expeditioner at different places showed that IgA at lower dose induces the release of pro-inflammatory IL-1?, and IL-6 cytokines from PBMCs while higher dose of IgA decreases proinflammatory cytokine production. The release of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-?1 and IL-10 was not significantly altered. Thus, the present study concluded that ship borne journey and Antarctic environment lead to increased serum IgA levels while decreased IgG levels. It also suggests that serum IgA level could be a possible biomarker for environmental stress. PMID:21714963

  11. Effects of (Anti) Androgenic Endocrine Disruptors (DEHP and Butachlor) on Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Leukocytes Counts of Male Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Ahmadivand, Sohrab; Farahmand, Hamid; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Eagderi, Soheil; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-06-01

    The effect of two anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting compounds, i.e. the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and herbicide butachlor, were evaluated for their effects on immunoglobulin M (IgM) and leukocytes in male rainbow trout. Also, plasma testosterone (T) concentration was measured to confirm their anti-androgenic effects. In the first experiment, trout were treated with 50 mg/kg (body weight) DEHP intraperitoneally, and in the second one, fish were exposed to 0.39 mg/L butachlor for 10 days. The results showed that T concentrations and white blood cells were significantly lower in fish exposed to either DEHP or butachlor compared to control fish (p < 0.05). Fish showed significantly elevated neutrophil levels and decreased lymphocyte levels in the butachlor (p < 0.05); however, no significant difference was observed in lymphocyte and neutrophils values in the DEHP treatment (p > 0.05). In addition, no significant differences were found in IgM, eosinophil and monocyte parameters in either DEHP or butachlor treatments (p > 0.05). These results confirmed that leukocytes counts can be considered as a novel marker of immunotoxicity triggered by (anti) androgenic endocrine disruptors. PMID:25708297

  12. Characterization of the gene for the membrane and secretory form of the IgM heavy-chain constant region gene (C mu) of the cow (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, M; Rabbani, H; Pilström, L; Hammarström, L

    1998-01-01

    Our present understanding of the evolution of immunoglobulins is derived from a few vertebrate species. In order to obtain additional information on the development of the humoral immune system, we cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the bovine cDNA and genomic IgM heavy-chain constant region gene (C mu). The gene contains four constant region domain-encoding exons (CH1 to CH4) and two exons encoding the transmembrane domain (TM1, TM2), expressed in the membrane-bound receptor form of the IgM. The sequence of a cDNA clone encoding the 3' portion of the membrane form of the mu-chain revealed that the TM1 exon is spliced to the CH4 exon, as occurs in other mammals. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequence data from different vertebrates revealed a high similarity to sheep C mu (88%) and a lower degree of similarity to pig (62%), rat (62%), rabbit (58%) human (56%), hamster (55%), mouse (54%), chicken (28%) and horned shark (22%) C mu. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9659232

  13. Serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) versus immunoglobulins (IgG., IgM., and IgE.) in Egyptian scabietic children.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Alfy, M S; Arafa, M A; Salama, M M; Habib, K S

    1995-12-01

    The tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha or Cachectin) is a protein produced mainly by macrophages, with a wide range of biological activities and in inflammatory process. On the other hand, scabies is a skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei which is typified by severe itching (particularly at night), red papules and often secondary infection. The female mite tunnels in the skin to lay her eggs and the newly hatched mites pass easily from person to person by contact. Commonly the infested areas are the groin, penis, nipples and the skin between the fingers. In this paper, the serum levels of TNF-alpha versus IgG., IgM., and IgE. were estimated in parasitologically proven scabietic male children (8-13 years) with no secondary infection or other parasitic infection. The results showed high significant elevation of serum TNF-alpha in 94.1% (P = 7.763E-04) and IgE in 100% (P = 1.530E-07) in the scabietic patients than in the control group, and non significant increase in IgG in 47% (P = 0.0605) and in IgM in 5.9% (P = 0.9404). It was concluded that TNF-alpha plays a role in the pathogenesis of human scabies. Extensive study is ongoing to clarify the outcome of TNF-alpha in human scabies. PMID:8586872

  14. Kinetics of Dengue Non-Structural Protein 1 Antigen and IgM and IgA Antibodies in Capillary Blood Samples from Confirmed Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, Séverine; Pham, Thai Binh; Labeau, Bhetty; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Lacoste, Vincent; Deparis, Xavier; Marechal, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiological surveillance of dengue in the field and dengue patient management require simple methods for sample collection, storage, and transportation as well as effective diagnostic tools. We evaluated the kinetics of three biological markers of dengue infection—non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgA—in sequential capillary blood samples collected from fingertips of confirmed dengue patients. The overall sensitivities and specificities of the tests were 96% and 100%, respectively, for NS1, 58.1% and 100%, respectively, for IgM, and 33% and 100%, respectively, for IgA. During the acute phase of the disease, NS1 was the best marker of dengue infection, with a sensitivity of 98.7%, whereas from day 5, all three markers exhibited relevant levels of sensitivity. This first descriptive study of the kinetics of biological markers of dengue in capillary blood samples confirms the usefulness of this biological compartment for dengue diagnosis and argues for its exploitation in community-level and remote settings. PMID:24470561

  15. Reference Intervals for Serum Immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and Complements C3 and C4 in Iranian Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Kardar, GA; Oraei, M; Shahsavani, M; Namdar, Z; Kazemisefat, GE; Haghi Ashtiani, MT; Shams, S; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Determination of reference ranges of each serum protein in normal population of each country is required for studies and clinical interpretation. The aim of this study was defining reference range values of immunoglobulins and complement components in Iranian healthy children. Methods: This study was conducted from June 2003 to June 2006 in Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Serum levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4 in 800 Iranian healthy children from newborn to 18 years of age in four population were measured by nephelometry. Kolmogrov-Smirnov tests and Pearson correlation tests were used for analysis. Results: Our results mainly agree with previous reports, except for some discrepancy that might be due to the ethnic and geographic variety. There was a significant difference between two sexes only with IgA in the group of 1–3 months old, which was higher in male group and IgM in groups of 3–5, 6–8 and 9–11 years old that were higher in female groups. Mean of other serum immunoglobulins and complements was not significantly different between male and female groups. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a local reference for use in laboratories, clinical interpretations, and research for Iranian children. PMID:23113211

  16. PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Weiner, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chen, H.-W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cooksey, K. L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-611, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Mulchaey, J. S., E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org, E-mail: bjw@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: hchen@oddjob.uchicago.edu, E-mail: kcooksey@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 213 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with z{sub em} {approx} 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM). The survey is magnitude limited (R {approx} 19.5 mag) and highly complete out to 10' from the quasar in each field. It was designed to detect dwarf galaxies (L {approx} 0.1L*) at an impact parameter {rho} {approx} 1 Mpc (z = 0.1) from a quasar. The complete sample (all 20 fields) includes R-band photometry for 84,718 sources and confirmed redshifts for 2800 sources. This includes 1198 galaxies with 0.005 < z < (z{sub em} - 0.01) at a median redshift of 0.18, which may associated with IGM absorption lines. All of the imaging was acquired with cameras on the Swope 40'' telescope and the spectra were obtained via slit mask observations using the WFCCD spectrograph on the Dupont 100'' telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction, imaging analysis, photometry, and spectral analysis of the survey. We tabulate the principal measurements for all sources in each field and provide the spectroscopic data set online.

  17. Study of FTA-CFS test using monospecific anti-immunoglobulin conjugates IgG, IgM, and IgA *

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, G.; Giroux, M.; Birry, A.; Kasatiya, S.

    1978-01-01

    The fluorescent treponemal antibody test for cerebrospinal fluid (FTA-CSF) using monospecific conjugates anti-IgG, IgM, and IgA was used to determine the presence of anti-treponemal antibodies in the spinal fluid of 335 patients with primary, secondary, and latent syphilis and symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis and of patients with certain neurological disorders. Of these, 230 (68·65%) patients had non-reactive results to this test. Of the remaining 105 patients, 78, 63, and 10 had reactive results with anti-IgG, IgM, and IgA conjugates respectively. Of the 129 cases of known syphilis, 11 were diagnosed as primary, 32 as secondary, and 50 as latent, and 36 patients had neurosyphilis. None of the specimens from the patients with primary syphilis gave reactive results to the test. Specimens from 21 (65·62%) of the 32 patients with secondary syphilis, 30 (60%) of the 50 patients with latent syphilis, and all (97·22%), except one, of the 36 patients with neurosyphilis gave reactive results to one at least of the IgG, IgM, or IgA FTA-CSF tests. Among the specimens from patients with secondary syphilis twice as many gave reactive results with anti-IgG conjugate than with anti-IgM conjugate. However, with specimens from patients with latent syphilis and neurosyphilis this ratio was diminished to 1·5:1. The Kolmer complement-fixation test, although superior in sensitivity and specificity to the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, in patients with secondary and latent syphilis and neurosyphilis, was greatly inferior to the FTA-CSF test. Data indicate that anti-treponemal antibodies can be detected in the spinal fluid even in patients with no neurological symptoms in cases of secondary syphilis and that the FTA-CSF test can be a valuable tool in the early detection of an immunological response to treponemal infection in the spinal fluid. PMID:361168

  18. A case study of a child with chronic hemolytic anemia due to a Donath-Landsteiner positive, IgM anti-I autoantibody.

    PubMed

    Karafin, Matthew S; Shirey, R Sue; Ness, Paul M; King, Karen E; Keefer, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    In children, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is generally considered an acute self-limited autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by an IgG biphasic auto-anti-P antibody identified by the Donath-Landsteiner (D-L) test. We report a case of a 5-year-old female with a chronic hemolytic anemia. The etiology of the hemolysis appears to be an unusual D-L positive, IgM antibody with specificity for the I antigen. The clinical course is described and a discussion of PCH and the D-L antibody is presented. We also discuss intravenous immunoglobulin infusions as a therapy for children with this form of severe chronic autoimmune hemolytic anemia. PMID:22553072

  19. IgM rheumatoid factor and the inhibition of covalent binding of C4b to IgG in immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, J N; Lockman, J C; Levine, R P

    1993-01-01

    Work by other investigators has shown that IgM-rheumatoid factors (IgM-RF's) can impede complement-mediated inhibition of immune precipitation. We examined the binding of complement component C4b to radiolabelled IgG in model immune complexes and demonstrate that IgM-RF's are capable of reducing the covalent binding of C4b to 125I-IgG in the complexes. Reduced binding to IgG, however, may not be accompanied by binding of C4b to IgM-RF's within the complex, as we also demonstrate that IgM-RF's are relatively poor at C4b capture compared with normal IgM. PMID:8508555

  20. Variable region structure and staphylococcal protein A binding specificity of a mouse monoclonal IgM anti-laminin-receptor antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Feijó, G C; Sabbaga, J; Carneiro, C R; Brígido, M M

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A is a cell wall-attached polypeptide that acts as a B-lymphocyte superantigen. This activation correlates with specific VH gene segment usage in the B-cell receptor. B-cell receptor assembled from members of the VH3 family in humans, or S107 family in mice, has an intrinsic affinity for protein A. Human VH3-derived antibodies bind to domain D of protein A. We have characterized a mouse IgM monoclonal antibody that binds protein A. The sequencing of the variable region suggests an almost germline-encoded VH derived from S107 family and a V kappa 8-derived VL. The binding specificity of the monoclonal antibody was tested with various recombinant constructions derived from protein A. We show that, unlike human VH3-derived antibody, mouse S107-derived immunoglobulin binds to the B domain of the bacterial superantigen. PMID:9301540

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-induced IgM production is not suppressed by antigen receptor ligation in B cells from some autoimmune strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C C; Rahimpour, R; Sinclair, N R

    1994-01-01

    Ligation of surface immunoglobulin on resting or activated nonautoimmune B cells inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced total IgM production. B cells from NZB, (NZB x NZW)F1, and BXSB mice were relatively resistant, but B cells from NZW or MRL/lpr mice were inhibited. The resistance occurs in B cells from young and old NZB mice, and in both resting and activated splenic NZB B cells. Anti-ssDNA responses induced by lipopolysaccharide occur in the presence of antigen-receptor-ligating antibody in NZB, but not in DBA/2, B cells. Antagonism in signaling between the antigen and LPS receptor is not a general B cell hyporesponsiveness, but defects in antagonism specifically between antigen and LPS signaling may be a predisposing factor to autoimmune disease in some autoimmune strains of mice. PMID:7897258

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 in clinically isolated syndrome patients: Association with oligoclonal IgM bands and prediction of Multiple Sclerosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Diana; Galli, Veronica; Vitetta, Francesca; Simone, Anna Maria; Bedin, Roberta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Morselli, Franca; Filippini, Maria Maddalena; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Sola, Patrizia

    2015-06-15

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CXCL13 was shown to correlate with markers of intrathecal inflammation and CSF oligoclonal IgM bands (IgMOB) have been associated with a more severe Multiple Sclerosis (MS) course. We correlated CSF CXCL13 levels with clinical, MRI and CSF parameters, including CSF IgMOB, in 110 Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) patients. CSF CXCL13 levels correlated with CSF cell count, total protein, IgG Index and with the presence of CSF IgGOB and IgMOB. CSF CXCL13 levels ?15.4pg/ml showed a good positive predictive value and specificity for a MS diagnosis and for a clinical relapse within one year from onset. PMID:26004159

  3. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein inhibits IgM pre-mRNA splicing by diverting U2 snRNA base-pairing away from the branch point.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuexiu; Cho, Sunghee; Moon, Heegyum; Loh, Tiing Jen; Oh, Huyn Kyung; Green, Michael R; Shen, Haihong

    2014-04-01

    The mouse immunoglobulin (IgM) pre-mRNA contains a splicing inhibitor that bears multiple binding sites for the splicing repressor polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB). Here we show that the inhibitor directs assembly of an ATP-dependent complex that contains PTB and U1 and U2 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Unexpectedly, although U2 snRNA is present in the inhibitor complex, it is not base-paired to the branch point. We present evidence that inhibitor-bound PTB contacts U2 snRNA to promote base-pairing to an adjacent branch point-like sequence within the inhibitor, thereby preventing the U2 snRNA-branch point interaction and resulting in splicing repression. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism by which PTB represses splicing. PMID:24572809

  4. Molecular cloning of a new immunomodulatory protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which induces B cell IgM secretion through a T-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Tsai-Jen; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chang, Wen-Ying; Sheu, Fuu

    2011-01-01

    An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF) was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity. PMID:21698210

  5. Molecular Cloning of a New Immunomodulatory Protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which Induces B Cell IgM Secretion through a T-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Tsai-Jen; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chang, Wen-Ying; Sheu, Fuu

    2011-01-01

    An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF) was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity. PMID:21698210

  6. Shielding of a Lipooligosaccharide IgM Epitope Allows Evasion of Neutrophil-Mediated Killing of an Invasive Strain of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a frequent cause of noninvasive mucosal inflammatory diseases but may also cause invasive diseases, such as sepsis and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is characterized by recruitment of neutrophilic granulocytes. Despite the presence of a large number of neutrophils, infections with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are often not cleared effectively by the antimicrobial activity of these immune cells. Herein, we examined how nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae evades neutrophil-mediated killing. Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) was used on an isolate resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing to identify genes required for its survival in the presence of human neutrophils and serum, which provided a source of complement and antibodies. Results show that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae prevents complement-dependent neutrophil-mediated killing by expression of surface galactose-containing oligosaccharide structures. These outer-core structures block recognition of an inner-core lipooligosaccharide epitope containing glucose attached to heptose HepIII-?1,2-Glc by replacement with galactose attached to HepIII or through shielding HepIII-?1,2-Glc by phase-variable attachment of oligosaccharide chain extensions. When the HepIII-?1,2-Glc-containing epitope is expressed and exposed, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is opsonized by naturally acquired IgM generally present in human serum and subsequently phagocytosed and killed by human neutrophils. Clinical nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates containing galactose attached to HepIII that are not recognized by this IgM are more often found to cause invasive infections. PMID:25053788

  7. Effects of aerobic conditioning on salivary IgA and plasma IgA, IgG and IgM in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Martins, R A; Cunha, M R; Neves, A P; Martins, M; Teixeira-Veríssimo, M; Teixeira, A M

    2009-12-01

    As people age, they experience a decline in immune responses. Unusually heavy acute or chronic exercise could increase the risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) whereas regular moderate physical activity may reduce URTI symptomatology. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an aerobic exercise program would promote chronic adaptations in plasma IgA, IgG and IgM, and salivary IgA (Sal-IgA) in both elderly women and men. Forty-three independently living men and women, aged between 65 and 96 years, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercising or a control group. Each participant underwent three evaluations (pre, post at 16 weeks and follow-up at 32 weeks). The aerobic exercise group increased resting plasma IgA concentration from 1.08 g. L (-1)+/-0.50 g. L (-1) to 2.29 g. L (-1)+/-0.93 g. L (-1), whereas salivary IgA concentration was unchanged. The control group maintained the plasma IgA values but experienced a decrease in Sal-IgA. The IgG and IgM plasma concentrations increased in both groups, however, only the exercise group maintained higher values in the final follow-up evaluation. Regular aerobic exercise may be effective in promoting IgA immunity and protecting against the deterioration in Sal-IgA values observed in the control group. No gender differences in the immunoglobulin responses to aerobic training were observed. PMID:19941250

  8. IgM and IgG autoantibodies from microscopic polyangiitis patients but not those with other small- and medium-sized vessel vasculitides recognize multiple endothelial cell antigens.

    PubMed

    Chanseaud, Youri; García de la Peña-Lefebvre, Paloma; Guilpain, Philippe; Mahr, Alfred; Tamby, Mathieu C; Uzan, Michèle; Guillevin, Loïc; Boissier, Marie Christophe; Mouthon, Luc

    2003-11-01

    Using a quantitative immunoblotting technique on extracts of macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells (EC), we analyzed serum IgM and IgG reactivities of patients with active disease fulfilling the ACR and Chapel Hill criteria for the diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) (n = 8), PAN related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (HBV-PAN) (n = 5), Wegener's granulomatosis (n = 6), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) (n = 18), Churg-Strauss syndrome (n = 8), and patients with chronic HBV infection without PAN (n = 5) and age- and gender-matched healthy individuals (n = 45). MPA patients' IgM bound to 200-, 105-, 80-, 65-, 45-, 35-, and 33-kDa major bands, whereas IgM from controls and other patients bound predominantly to the 65-kDa band in EC extracts. MPA patients' IgG reacted mainly with 105-, 70-, 55-, and 38-kDa protein bands, whereas IgG from controls and other patients did not. Our results provide evidence that IgM and to a lesser degree IgG from MPA patients specifically recognize multiple EC antigens. PMID:14597215

  9. Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT

    E-print Network

    J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy

    2007-10-24

    A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

  10. Distribution and kinetics of 131I-labeled human IgM monoclonal antibody 16.88 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Roos, J C; Plaizier, M A; van Lingen, A; Haisma, H J; den Hollander, W; Martens, H J; Nauta, J J; Dejager, R L; Teule, G J; Boven, E

    1993-01-01

    Sequential immunoscintigrams were used to describe the relative distribution and kinetics of 8 mg 131I-labeled human IgM monoclonal antibody 16.88 in 20 patients with colorectal cancer. The results show that the initial activity was higher and the clearance rate was faster (P < 0.05) from the left ventricle and liver than from most organs. In bone marrow the reverse was observed (P < 0.05). The biological half-life of 131I(-16.88) in tumor tissue (range 35.4-47.5 h) was longer (P < 0.01) than that in normal tissue (30.2-41.9 h). The image contrast ratio between liver metastases and background increased from 0.8 to 1.3 and for lesions outside the liver from 1.1 to 1.6. The estimated effective dose equivalent was 0.12 mSv/MBq. A second infusion 2 weeks after the first with the addition of unlabeled 16.88 up to 1000 mg for improvement of tumor tissue uptake was not of clinical relevance. PMID:8193268

  11. Tumour localisation with 131I-labelled human IgM monoclonal antibody 16.88 in advanced colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Boven, E; Haisma, H J; Bril, H; Martens, H J; van Lingen, A; den Hollander, W; Kessel, M A; DeJager, R L; Roos, J C

    1991-01-01

    Human IgM monoclonal antibody 16.88 recognised an intracellular antigen strongly expressed in colorectal cancer tissue in 51% of our patients. Tumour localisation was carried out with 185 MBq 131I-16.88 (8 mg) in 20 of these patients with advanced disease. In 16 patients (80%) immunoscintigraphy was positive in at least one organ site with disease. Of all sites, 55% could be visualized. In general, lesions less than 3 cm could not be detected. Sequential immunoscintigrams of liver metastases showed variable patterns. Initial "cold" lesions corresponded to liver metastases with poor blood supply as indicated by 99mTc-sulphur-colloid and 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy, respectively. The mean (S.D.) biological half-life (whole body clearance of radioactivity) was 37.6 (5.0) h. A second infusion of 131I-16.88 with the addition of high doses of unlabelled 16.88 could be done safely, but did not result in better visualisation of tumour lesions or affect radioactivity clearance from the body. PMID:1835859

  12. The proteolytic activity of milk fat, whey and casein for iodinated, extrinsic bovine IgG1, IgG2, SIgA and IgM.

    PubMed

    Frenyo, V L; Butler, J E

    1986-11-01

    Purified, iodinated bovine immunoglobulins (Igs) were incubated with fresh Guernsey milk or with the casein, fat and whey fraction of such milk for up to 12 hr at 37 degrees C. Igs incubated in whole milk, showed little evidence of proteolysis in either the whey, fat or casein fractions although the amount of radioactivity which became associated with the latter two fractions prevented adequate analysis. When the individual milk fractions were first prepared and then incubated with iodinated Igs, we found no evidence for proteolysis of any Ig in whey or casein but ca. 25% breakdown or dissociation of the IgM and SIgA which had been incubated with milk fat. Breakdown of these Igs in fat was not inhibited with benzamidine-HCl, sodium azide or EDTA. These data show that: only those Igs which associate with milk fat are degraded or dissociated by it and the Ig fragments described from cows milk or recovered during studies on Ig transport cannot be ascribed to the proteolytic activity of fresh milk. PMID:3492071

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of IgM and IgG in lung tissue of dogs with leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS).

    PubMed

    Schuller, Simone; Callanan, John J; Worrall, Sheila; Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane; Kohn, Barbara; Klopfleisch, Robert; Posthaus, Horst; Nally, Jarlath E

    2015-06-01

    Leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS) is a severe form of leptospirosis. Pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Lung tissues from 26 dogs with LPHS, 5 dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage due to other causes and 6 healthy lungs were labelled for IgG (n=26), IgM (n=25) and leptospiral antigens (n=26). Three general staining patterns for IgG/IgM were observed in lungs of dogs with LPHS with most tissues showing more than one staining pattern: (1) alveolar septal wall staining, (2) staining favouring alveolar surfaces and (3) staining of intra-alveolar fluid. Healthy control lung showed no staining, whereas haemorrhagic lung from dogs not infected with Leptospira showed staining of intra-alveolar fluid and occasionally alveolar septa. Leptospiral antigens were not detected. We conclude that deposition of IgG/IgM is demonstrable in the majority of canine lungs with naturally occurring LPHS, similar to what has been described in other species. Our findings suggest involvement of the host humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of LPHS and provide further evidence to support the dog as a natural disease model for human LPHS. PMID:25963899

  14. Serodiagnosis of Varicella-Zoster virus infection in pregnancy and standardization of the ELISA IgG and IgM antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Enders, G

    1982-01-01

    It is recognized that varicella virus infection in early pregnancy may cause severe congenital malformation and that varicella virus infection during the last 4 days of gestation until 48 h. after delivery can be dangerous for the child. Maternal Zoster has also been suggested as a cause of some congenital defect, but this association is poorly documented. Sensitive, specific and rapid indirect (ELISA) and direct (ELA) enzyme-linked-immunoassays for detecting Varicella and Herpes simplex virus, IgM-, IgA and IgG antibodies are employed for serodiagnosis of infection in the mother and the newborn and for determining the immunity status in high risk individuals who are exposed to V-Z infection. In the latter situation serological findings may serve as a guide for passive immunisation with Zoster-hyperimmunoglobulin (ZIG). The antibody concentration of the latter can now easily be standardized by the indirect ELISA-IgG-test. For determining the antibody concentration in the patient's sera in the indirect and direct ELISA with the method of Mona (Multiples of normal activity) a standardized test procedure using 2 optimal working dilutions has been established. PMID:6762304

  15. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) directly enhanced IgM production in the human B cell line BALL-1.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shinjiro; Akasaka, Taiki; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2009-07-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) prepared from the basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor has been used as a biological response modifier for the treatment of cancer patients. Many studies describing the immunomodulatory effects and direct anti-cancer effects of PSK have been reported. Most of studies describing the immunomodulatory effects focused on cellular immunity, although there were several studies which focused on humoral immunity where PSK was shown to be able to induce antibody production in vivo. However, even in these humoral immunity studies, it is thought that the enhancement of antibody production was due to the activation of cellular immunity. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of PSK on B cells and discovered that PSK was able to enhance IgM production in the human B cell line BALL-1. Furthermore, BALL-1 was shown to have the characteristic features of B-1a cells, which are independently involved in the primary immune response. These results show that there is a possibility that PSK directly acts on B cells and simultaneously enhances both humoral immunity and cellular immunity. PMID:18848763

  16. Cloning of the IgM heavy chain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), and initial analysis of VH gene usage.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Mats L; Kohlberg, Kathleen E; Gefroh, Holly A; Arnaud, Philippe; Middleton, Darlene L; Romano, Tracy A; Warr, Gregory W

    2002-07-01

    Clones encoding the dolphin IgM heavy (micro) chain gene were isolated from a cDNA library of peripheral blood leukocytes. Genomic Southern blot analyses showed that the dolphin IGHM gene is most likely present in a single copy, and its sequence shows greatest similarity to those of the IGHM gene of the sheep, pig and cow, evolutionarily related artiodactyls. The transmembrane (TM) form of the IGHM chain was isolated by 3' RACE. While showing similarities to the TM regions of other mammalian IGHM chains, the highly conserved Ser residue of the CART motif is substituted with a Gly in the dolphin. In contrast to the pig and cow, which utilize only a single VH family, the dolphin expresses at least two distinct VH families, belonging to the mammalian VH clans I and III. At least two JH genes were identified in the dolphin. Some CDR3 regions of the dolphin VH are long (up to 21 amino acids), and contain multiple Cys residues, hypothesized to stabilize the CDR3 structure through disulfide bond formation. PMID:12031415

  17. Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 1 (P30) expressed in Escherichia coli is recognized by human Toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Harning, D; Spenter, J; Metsis, A; Vuust, J; Petersen, E

    1996-01-01

    The immunodominant surface antigen of Toxoplasma gondii, surface antigen 1 (SAG1), was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein containing a majority of the SAG1 protein supplied with six histidyl residues in the N-terminal end. The recombinant protein was purified on a Ni-chelate column and then on a fast-performance liquid chromatography column and was in a nonreduced condition. It was recognized by T. gondii-specific human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies as well as by a mouse monoclonal antibody (S13) recognizing only nonreduced native SAG1. Antibodies induced in mice by the recombinant SAG1 recognized native SAG1 from the T. gondii RH isolate in culture. Recombinant SAG1 is suitable for use in diagnostic systems for detecting anti-SAG1-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. PMID:8705683

  18. Diagnostic Value of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM Anti-Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Tests Based on HEV RNA in an Area Where Hepatitis E Is Not Endemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHEN-CHUN LIN; JAW-CHING WU; TING-TSUNG CHANG; WEN-YU CHANG; MING-LUNG YU; ALBERT W. TAM; SHEN-CHIN WANG; YI-HSIANG HUANG; FULL-YOUNG CHANG; SHOU-DONG LEE

    2000-01-01

    Acute hepatitis E (AHE) has rarely been reported in industrialized countries, but the rate of seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies (anti-HEV) is inappropriately high. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay used to test for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM anti-HEV have not been well established in areas where hepatitis E is not endemic (hereafter referred to as

  19. Tumour localization and pharmacokinetics of iodine-125 human monoclonal IgM antibody (COU-1) and its monomeric and half-monomeric fragments analysed in nude mice grafted with human tumour.

    PubMed

    Ditzel, H; Rasmussen, J W; Erb, K; Jensenius, J C

    1992-01-01

    Human monoclonal IgM antibodies reactive with cancer-associated antigens may not have the optimal imaging capability due to their large size. Fragmentation of human IgM is less than straight-forward due to the loss of immunoreactivity. From the human monoclonal IgM antibody COU-1 we have prepared monomeric and half-monomeric fragments, which retain the ability to bind to colon cancer cells in vitro. The pharmacokinetics and tumour localization were evaluated in nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma and human melanoma grafts. Faster clearance from the circulation was seen for the smaller half-monomeric fragment with a half-life (rapid phase/slow phase) of 2 h/16 h compared with the intact antibody, 4 h/25 h, and the monomeric fragment, 3 h/27 h. Intact COU-1 as well as the fragments accumulated in the colon tumour graft. Higher amounts of radioactivity were found in the colon tumour as compared to normal organs for intact COU-1 at days 4 and 6, for the monomeric fragment at day 4, and for the half-monomeric fragment at day 2 after injection. This investigation demonstrates the favourable biodistribution of the half monomeric COU-1 fragment. The fast clearance of this fragment resulted in a tumour-to-muscle ratio as high as 22 on day 2 after injection. Also, only this fragment gave a positive tumour-to-blood ratio. Normal IgM and its fragments were used as controls. Radioimmunoscintigraphy demonstrated the colon tumour discriminatory properties of each of the three iodine-labelled antibody preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1618232

  20. Studies of human leprosy lesions in situ using suction-induced blisters: cell changes with IgM antibody to PGL-1 and interleukin-2 receptor in clinical subgroups of erythema nodosum leprosum.

    PubMed

    Bhoopat, L; Scollard, D M; Theetranont, C; Chiewchanvit, S; Nelson, D L; Utaipat, U

    1991-12-01

    To examine the immunopathogenesis of type 2 erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reactions in leprosy, we studied cellular and soluble immunologic components of skin lesions in 57 patients with reactions (19 acute ENL and 38 chronic ENL), 61 active patients without reactions, and 33 control patients whose leprosy had been treated and cured. Cells, IgM antibody to PGL-1 and Tac peptide levels were obtained from fluid aspirated from blisters induced by suction directly over representative skin lesions. During ENL reactions: a) the lesions in chronic ENL showed a decreased number of CD8+ (T-suppressor) cells and increased helper/suppressor ratio as compared to those in acute ENL and non-reactional leprosy; b) Tac peptide and IgM antibody to PGL-1 levels were elevated in the chronic ENL lesions; c) and systemic administration of corticosteroids appeared to cause a reduction in the intralesional CD4+ cell population and IgM antibody to PGL-1 but did not change CD8+ cell population and the levels of Tac peptide in the lesions. The elevated levels of Tac peptide were localized in the skin lesions while increased levels of IgM anti-PGL-1 seemed to be filtered from the peripheral blood. We conclude that spontaneous lymphocyte activation in situ, primarily of decreased CD8+ and relatively increased CD4+ cells, are important features of chronic, recurrent ENL reactions and may be an intermittent or cyclic phenomenon during the reaction. Understanding the mechanisms of these spontaneous changes in immunity in leprosy will enlarge our knowledge of reactions and of the underlying determinants of delayed type hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immunity in leprosy, which in turn will allow us to realize the potential for artificially manipulating these responses as proposed with vaccines or immunotherapy. PMID:1807258

  1. Comparison of human B cell antigen receptor complexes: membrane- expressed forms of immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgD, and IgG are associated with structurally related heterodimers

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have recently reported that on human B lymphocytes, membrane IgM (mIgM) associates with a heterodimer of 47- and 37-kD polypeptides, the 47-kD subunit being encoded by the mb-1 gene. We show here that expression of mb-1, both at the mRNA and the protein level, is not restricted to IgM+ B cells but can also be found in IgM- pre-B cells and mIgM-IgG+ B cells. Membrane forms of IgD and IgG, isolated from freshly isolated human B cells and B cell lines, are expressed together with heterodimeric protein structures biochemically similar to the mIgM- associated polypeptides, and these were shown to comprise the products of the mb-1 and B29 genes, or homologous genes. Finally, all three classes of antigen receptors are linked to protein kinases, capable of phosphorylating the Ig-associated heterodimers. Our findings provide insight in the structural organization of the different antigen receptors on human B cells and have implications for their function. PMID:1375264

  2. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals. PMID:25116637

  3. Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae is not altered when ascending from the nasopharynx to the middle ears in children with otitis media.

    PubMed

    Langereis, Jeroen D; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Stol, Kim; Venekamp, Roderick P; Schilder, Anne G M; Hermans, Peter W M

    2013-12-01

    We have previously found that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) collected from the middle ear of children with otitis media (OM) exhibit increased levels of complement resistance compared to NTHi collected from the nasopharynx. However, it is unknown whether bacteria develop complement resistance in the middle ear, or whether resistance is present when residing in the nasopharynx. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the levels of complement resistance of isolates collected from the middle ear were similar to those of isolates from the nasopharynx with an identical MLST type. We included 62 children with recurrent acute OM, chronic OM with effusion or acute tympanostomy tube otorrhea. NTHi was simultaneously isolated from the nasopharynx and middle ear fluid. MLST, resistance to complement-mediated killing, IgG binding, IgM binding and phosphorylcholine expression was determined. In 41 children, NTHi isolated from the middle ear and nasopharynx showed to have an identical MLST type. Isolates collected from the middle ear showed a highly similar level of complement resistance and IgM binding with isolates collected from the nasopharynx, whereas this was not the case for IgG binding and phosphorylcholine incorporation into lipooligosaccharide. Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding of NTHi isolates with an identical MLST type collected from the middle ear and nasopharynx of children with OM was highly similar. PMID:23775521

  4. Increased chronic lymphocytic leukemia proliferation upon IgM stimulation is sustained by the upregulation of miR-132 and miR-212.

    PubMed

    Tavolaro, Simona; Colombo, Teresa; Chiaretti, Sabina; Peragine, Nadia; Fulci, Valerio; Ricciardi, Maria R; Messina, Monica; Bonina, Silvia; Brugnoletti, Fulvia; Marinelli, Marilisa; Di Maio, Valeria; Mauro, Francesca R; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Macino, Giuseppe; Foà, Robin; Guarini, Anna

    2015-04-01

    To assess the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in B-cell receptor (BCR) stimulation, we first evaluated miRNA profiling following IgM cross-linking in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and in normal B lymphocytes. Second, we combined miRNA and gene expression data to identify putative miRNA functional networks. miRNA profiling showed distinctive patterns of regulation after stimulation in leukemic versus normal B lymphocytes and identified a differential responsiveness to BCR engagement in CLL subgroups according to the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region mutational status and clinical outcome. The most significantly modulated miRNAs in stimulated CLL are miR-132 and miR-212. Notably, these miRNAs appeared regulated in progressive but not in stable CLL. Accordingly, gene profiling showed a significant transcriptional response to stimulation exclusively in progressive CLL. Based on these findings, we combined miRNA and gene expression data to investigate miR-132 and miR-212 candidate interactions in this CLL subgroup. Correlation analysis pointed to a link between these miRNAs and RB/E2F and TP53 cascades with proproliferative effects, as corroborated by functional analyses. Finally, basal levels of miR-132 and miR-212 were measured in an independent cohort of 20 unstimulated CLL cases and both showed lower expression in progressive compared to stable patients, suggesting an association between the expression of these molecules and disease prognosis. Overall, our results support a model involving miR-132 and miR-212 upregulation in sustaining disease progression in CLL. These miRNAs may therefore provide new valuable strategies for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25645730

  5. Expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) epitopes in human non-neural cells revealed by two anti-MBP IgM monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Chignola, R; Cestari, T; Guerriero, C; Riviera, A P; Ferrari, S; Brendolan, A; Gobbo, M; Amato, S; Sartoris, S; Fracasso, G; Liuzzi, M G; Riccio, P; Tridente, G; Andrighetto, G

    2000-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (1H6.2 and 45.30) were raised against MBP purified from human brain under experimental conditions that allowed MBP to retain binding to surrounding myelin lipids (human lipid-bound MBP (hLB-MBP)). 1H6.2 and 45.30 MoAbs were selected on the basis of their different binding properties to: hLB-MBP, human lipid-free-MBP (hLF-MBP) and bovine lipid-free-MBP (bLF-MBP). Although the isotype of both MoAbs was IgM, their specificity, as tested in ELISA assays against chemical haptens and unrelated protein antigens, was restricted to MBP. 1H6.2 and 45.30 MoAbs stained MBP from human brain white matter tissue extracts, as well as bLF-MBP, in Western blot assays. Both MoAbs stained oligodendrocytes and myelin in immunohistochemical analysis of white matter from human brain. Tissue sections from human peripheral nerves were labelled by 1H6.2 only, however, demonstrating that the MoAbs recognize two different epitopes. Epitopes recognized by 1H6.2 and 45.30 MoAbs were also expressed by a wide array of human non-neural cells of either normal or pathological origin, as evidenced by cytofluorimetric assays. In particular, MBP epitopes (MEs) were expressed by lymphoid cells as well as by cells which play a pivotal role in immune homeostasis and in the immune response, such as thymic epithelial cells and professional antigen-presenting cells. Both MoAbs were efficiently internalized by cells from a human B cell line, suggesting trafficking of MEs along the endocytic pathways. These findings support hypotheses regarding the role of MEs expressed by non-neural cells in establishing self-tolerance and/or in triggering the immune response against MBP antigen. PMID:11122251

  6. Avira AntiVir Personal-Free Antivirus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Viruses are quite pesky, and the free version of Avira AntiVir Personal can help those bedeviled by such afflictions. This application will help users locate and remove Trojans, worms, and backdoor programs. Users can customize their scans and they can elect to fully scan all hard drives. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP, and Vista.

  7. Production and characterization of a murine monoclonal IgM antibody to human C1q receptor (C1qR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ghebrehiwet, B.

    1986-07-15

    A hybridoma cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cell surface C1q receptor (C1qr) has been produced by fusion of the P3 x 63-Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cell line with the spleen cells of a CD-1 mouse that had been hyperimmunized with viable Raji cell suspensions (5 x 10/sup 7/ cells/inoculum). This MAb, designated II1/D1, is an IgM antibody with lambda-light chain specificity. Radiolabeled or unlabeled, highly purified II1/D1 was used to determine that: a) this antibody competes for C1q binding sites on C1qR-bearing cells; b) the molecule recognized by this MAb is the C1qR; and c) cells that are known to bind C1q also bind II1/D1 in a specific manner. Western blot analysis of solubilized Raji, or U937 cell membranes, showed that the /sup 125/I-MAb detected a major protein band of approximately 85000 m.w. in its unreduced state, indicating that the C1qR is similar, if not identical, in both types of cells. Analyses of /sup 125/I-II/D1 binding experiments revealed that the antibody bound to Raji cells or u937 cells in a specific manner. Uptake of the antibody was saturable, with equilibrium virtually attained within 35 min. Scatchard analysis of the binding data using the intact MAb suggests that the affinity constant K/sub D/ is 2.9 x 10/sup -10/ M, and at apparent saturation, 24.6 ng of the antibody were bound per 2 x 10/sup 6/ cells, giving an estimated 7.8 x 10/sup 3/ antibody molecules bound per cell. That the II1/D1 antibody is specifically directed to the C1q was further evidenced by an ELISA in which the ability of C1qR-bearing cells to bind the MAb was abrogated by c-C1q in a specific dose-dependent manner.

  8. Hypophysectomy and neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy reduce serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG and intestinal IgA responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Jarillo-Luna, Rosa Adriana; Oliver-Aguillón, Gabriela; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Rivera-Aguilar, Victor; Berczi, Istvan; Kovacs, Kalman

    2006-03-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, and increased susceptibility to infections. To our knowledge, there are no studies on the humoral immune response of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue after HYPOX. We have reported that decreased secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin due to neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) diminishes humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. However, no data have been published on whether NIL can affect intestinal immune responses. We analyzed the effects of HYPOX and NIL on bacterial colonization of the intestinal lumen, Peyer's patches, and spleen as well as the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM and specific intestinal IgA levels in response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium oral infection. Results showed the following: (i) Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was eliminated from the intestinal lumen at the same rate in rats that underwent a sham operation, HYPOX, and NIL; (ii) Salmonella serovar Typhimurium colonization of Peyer's patches and spleen was significantly higher in both HYPOX and NIL rats than in sham-operated rats; (iii) serum IgG and IgM and intestinal IgA against surface proteins of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium were significantly lower in HYPOX and NIL rats than in sham-operated rats; and (iv) compared to NIL rats, higher Peyer's patch and spleen bacterial colonization and decreased IgG, IgM, and IgA production were observed in HYPOX rats. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the systemic and gastrointestinal humoral immune responses through different mechanisms. PMID:16495563

  9. Immunogenic cells in the regional lymph nodes after painting with the contact sensitizers picryl chloride and oxazolone: evidence for the presence of IgM antibody on their surface

    PubMed Central

    Asherson, G. L.; Colizzi, V.; Watkins, Madeleine C.

    1983-01-01

    The lymph node cells of mice painted with contact sensitizing agents immunize recipient mice when injected into their footpads. In practice 2 × 106 nylon wool purified T cells are used from mice painted with picryl chloride or oxazolone (4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyloxazolone). The ability of cells taken 4 days after painting to immunize other mice was abolished by treatment with rabbit complement but cells taken at 1 day were unaffected. This effect of rabbit complement was due to IgM anti-hapten antibody on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The antibody could be eluted from the cells with appropriate picryl or oxazolone-?-aminocaproic acid. It adhered to insolubilized anti-IgM and behaved like IgM on gel filtration. To confirm the role of this antibody, mice were rendered unresponsive with picrylated pneumococcal polysaccharide type III before being painted. This abolishes antibody production but leaves contact sensitivity intact. The lymph node cells of animals treated in this way were unaffected by rabbit complement and this suggested that antibody was required for this phenomenon. Moreover although lymph nodes normally lose the ability to immunize at day 6 after painting, the lymph node cells of unresponsive mice, which fail to make antibody immunize other mice up to day 8 after painting. This effect of unresponsiveness is reversed by the injection of serum taken 8 days after painting. It was concluded that IgM antibody which appears on the surface of lymph nodes 4 days after painting depresses their ability to immunize other mice. PMID:6826205

  10. Evaluation of 12 commercial tests and the complement fixation test for Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies, with PCR used as the "gold standard".

    PubMed

    Beersma, Matthias F C; Dirven, Kristien; van Dam, Alje P; Templeton, Kate E; Claas, Eric C J; Goossens, Herman

    2005-05-01

    Serology and nucleic acid amplification are the main diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Since no reference standard is generally accepted, serologic assays for M. pneumoniae have not been evaluated on a broad scale. In this study, 12 commercially available serologic assays (for immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgM) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were evaluated by using M. pneumoniae DNA detection by real-time PCR as the "gold standard." The assays tested were Platelia EIA (Bio-Rad), SeroMP EIA (Savyon), Serion classic EIA (Virion/Serion), Biotest EIA (Biotest), Ridascreen EIA (r-Biopharm), AniLabsystems EIA (Labsystems), Novum EIA (Novum Diagnostica), Diagnosys EIA (MP products), Genzyme/Virotech EIA, ImmunoWell EIA (Genbio), ImmunoCard EIA (Meridian), and SerodiaMycoII microparticle agglutination (Fujirebio). Serum samples (n = 46) from 27 PCR-positive patients with a known first day of disease and sera (n = 33) from PCR-negative controls were obtained from prospective studies of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Additionally, control sera (n = 63) from patients with acute viral or bacterial respiratory infections other than those caused by M. pneumoniae were tested. The results showed low specificities for both the Novum and the ImmunoCard IgM assays. The IgM assays with the best performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity were AniLabsystems (77% and 92%, respectively), SeroMP (71% and 88%, respectively), and CFT (65% and 97%, respectively). Good receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve were found for CFT (0.94), the Platelia assay (0.87), and the AniLabsystems assay (0.85). We conclude that there are few commercial serologic assays for the detection of M. pneumoniae infections with appropriate performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity and that PCR has become increasingly important for the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infections in defined groups of patients. PMID:15872256

  11. Glycosphingolipid antigens in cultured bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells: sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside as a target of monoclonal IgM in demyelinative neuropathy [corrected] [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1994 Oct;127(1):265

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Since a number of anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) antibody activities have been demonstrated in patients with various neurological disorders, the presence of common antigens between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and the nervous tissues presents a potential mechanism for the penetration of macromolecules from the circulation to the nervous system parenchyma. We first investigated GSL composition of cultured bovine BMECs. Bovine BMECs express GM3(NeuAc) and GM3(NeuGc) as the major gangliosides, and GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, as well as sialyl paragloboside and sialyl lactosaminylparagloboside as the minor species. Sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside was also found to be a component of the BMEC acidic GSL fraction, but its concentration was lower in older cultures. On the other hand, the amounts of neutral GSLs were extremely low, consisting primarily of glucosylceramide. In addition, we analyzed the effect of anti-SGPG IgM antibody obtained from a patient of demyelinative polyneuropathy with macroglobulinemia against cultured BMECs. Permeability studies utilizing cocultured BMEC monolayers and rat astrocytes revealed that the antibody facilitated the leakage of [carboxy-14C]-inulin and 125I-labeled human IgM through BMEC monolayers. A direct cytotoxicity of this antibody against BMECs was also shown by a leakage study using [51Cr]-incorporated BMECs. This cytotoxicity depended on the concentration of the IgM antibody, and was almost completely blocked by preincubation with the pure antigen, sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside. Our present study strongly supports the concept that immunological insults against BMECs induce the destruction or malfunction of the blood-nerve barrier, resulting in the penetration of the immunoglobulin molecule to attach peripheral nerve parenchyma. PMID:8027181

  12. Anti-type II collagen antibodies, anti-CCP, IgA RF and IgM RF are associated with joint damage, assessed eight years after onset of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early appearance of antibodies specific for native human type II collagen (anti-CII) characterizes an early inflammatory and destructive phenotype in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-CII, IgM RF, IgA RF and anti-CCP in serum samples obtained early after diagnosis, and to relate the occurrence of autoantibodies to outcome after eight years of disease in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods The Nordic JIA database prospectively included JIA patients followed for eight years with data on remission and joint damage. From this database, serum samples collected from 192 patients, at a median of four months after disease onset, were analysed for IgG anti-CII, IgM RF, IgA RF and IgG anti-CCP. Joint damage was assessed based on Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index for Articular damage (JADI-A), a validated clinical instrument for joint damage. Results Elevated serum levels of anti-CII occurred in 3.1%, IgM RF in 3.6%, IgA RF in 3.1% and anti-CCP in 2.6% of the patients. Occurrence of RF and anti-CCP did to some extent overlap, but rarely with anti-CII. The polyarticular and oligoarticular extended categories were overrepresented in patients with two or more autoantibodies. Anti-CII occurred in younger children, usually without overlap with the other autoantibodies and was associated with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) early in the disease course. All four autoantibodies were significantly associated with joint damage, but not with active disease at the eight-year follow up. Conclusions Anti-CII, anti-CCP, IgA RF and IgM RF detected early in the disease course predicted joint damage when assessed after eight years of disease. The role of anti-CII in JIA should be further studied. PMID:24944545

  13. Fully human IgG and IgM antibodies directed against the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Gold 4 epitope and designed for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Garambois, Véronique; Glaussel, Fabienne; Foulquier, Elodie; Ychou, Marc; Pugnière, Martine; Luo, Robin X; Bezabeh, Binyam; Pèlegrin, André

    2004-01-01

    Background Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for colon cancer radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to allow for repeated injections. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) being the reference antigen for immunotargeting of these tumors, we developed human anti-CEA MAbs. Methods XenoMouse®-G2 animals were immunized with CEA. Among all the antibodies produced, two of them, VG-IgG2? and VG-IgM, were selected for characterization in vitro in comparison with the human-mouse chimeric anti-CEA MAb X4 using flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance, and binding to radiolabeled soluble CEA and in vivo in human colon carcinoma LS174T bearing nude mice. Results Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated binding of MAbs on CEA-expressing cells without any binding on NCA-expressing human granulocytes. In a competitive binding assay using five reference MAbs, directed against the five Gold CEA epitopes, VG-IgG2? and VG-IgM were shown to be directed against the Gold 4 epitope. The affinities of purified VG-IgG2? and VG-IgM were determined to be 0.19 ± 0.06 × 108 M-1 and 1.30 ± 0.06 × 108 M-1, respectively, as compared with 0.61 ± 0.05 × 108 M-1 for the reference MAb X4. In a soluble phase assay, the binding capacities of VG-IgG2? and VG-IgM to soluble CEA were clearly lower than that of the control chimeric MAb X4. A human MAb concentration of about 10-7 M was needed to precipitate approximatively 1 ng 125I-rhCEA as compared with 10-9 M for MAb X4, suggesting a preferential binding of the human MAbs to solid phase CEA. In vivo, 24 h post-injection, 125I-VG-IgG2? demonstrated a high tumor uptake (25.4 ± 7.3%ID/g), close to that of 131I-X4 (21.7 ± 7.2%ID/g). At 72 h post-injection, 125I-VG-IgG2? was still concentrated in the tumor (28.4 ± 11.0%ID/g) whereas the tumor concentration of 131I-X4 was significantly reduced (12.5 ± 4.8%ID/g). At no time after injection was there any accumulation of the radiolabeled MAbs in normal tissues. A pertinent analysis of VG-IgM biodistribution was not possible in this mouse model in which IgM displays a very short half-life due to poly-Ig receptor expression in the liver. Conclusion Our human anti-CEA IgG2? is a promising candidate for radioimmunotherapy in intact form, as F(ab')2 fragments, or as a bispecific antibody. PMID:15488142

  14. Comparison of the Specificities of IgG, IgG-Subclass, IgA and IgM Reactivities in African and European HIV-Infected Individuals with an HIV-1 Clade C Proteome-Based Array

    PubMed Central

    Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

  15. Two years' performance of an in-house ELISA for diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease: detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies against Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, 3 and 6 in human serum.

    PubMed

    Elverdal, P L; Jørgensen, C S; Krogfelt, K A; Uldum, S A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an in-house ELISA for the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease (LD) by detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Legionella (L.) pneumophila serogroups (sg) 1, 3 and 6. The evaluation was done throughout a two-year period in a diagnostic routine laboratory. Furthermore, the sensitivity of four different methods, the in-house L. pneumophila antibody test (ELISA), the urinary antigen test (Binax® EIA), an in-house PCR and culture, both alone and in combination was evaluated. From 2008 to 2010, 12,158 serum samples from 10,503 patients were analysed. During the same period, 361 cases of laboratory-confirmed LD cases were recorded in Denmark, but of these only 113 had a serum sample examined. The positive predictive value of the in-house ELISA was calculated to be 12.8 and the negative predictive value was 99.6, using only the confirmed LD cases as true positives. The sensitivity of the in-house ELISA for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies in the confirmed LD cases was 61% and 36%, respectively. By combining the two ELISA assays the sensitivity increased to 66%. The sensitivity of the Legionella urinary antigen test (Binax® EIA) was 63%, of the in-house PCR 87% and of culture 69%. When all the different methods were combined, a higher sensitivity was calculated--for in-house ELISA (IgM+IgG) and Binax® EIA 91%, in-house ELISA (IgM+IgG) and in-house PCR 93%, in-house ELISA (IgM+IgG) and culture 93%, Binax® EIA and in-house PCR 79%, Binax® EIA and culture 68% and in-house PCR and culture 94%. This study confirms that the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA is an important diagnostic tool, also during the initial phase of the disease. Furthermore, we showed that LD in Denmark with or without serum samples collected exhibits the same age and sex distribution and epidemiology, as in the rest of Europe, i.e., mostly men are infected, infections are mostly community acquired, followed by infection from travelling abroad. Apart from patients with notified LD, the patients investigated by serology were evenly distributed in all age groups; there was only a slightly higher ratio of men tested for "atypical pneumonia" in the serology laboratory. PMID:23657054

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum in calves: kinetics and immunoblot analysis of specific serum and local antibody responses (immunoglobulin A [IgA], IgG, and IgM) after natural and experimental infections.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, J E; Villacorta, I; Vanopdenbosch, E; Vandergheynst, D; Naciri, M; Ares-Mazás, E; Yvoré, P

    1992-01-01

    Fecal and serum anti-Cryptosporidium parvum immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after experimental and natural infection of calves with C. parvum. Although all experimentally infected calves showed high levels of colostral antibodies in the feces, they acquired C. parvum infection. Three of five animals died. Calves which acquired natural infection showed only diarrhea. Levels of colostral coproantibodies dropped quickly. Experimental infection was followed by a rise in local anti-C. parvum IgM levels from day 5 postinfection (p.i.). IgM peaked at day 14 p.i. and then disappeared quickly. Anti-C. parvum IgA levels rose between days 7 and 14 p.i. and decreased slowly. Rising levels of coproantibodies coincided with falling oocyst output. Fecal anti-C. parvum IgG levels rose slightly during oocyst output, and IgG disappeared 3 weeks p.i. Similar kinetics were established in naturally infected calves. Although fecal anti-C. parvum IgA levels declined slowly, reinfections were established 5, 7, and 14 weeks after the primary contact. Serum anti-C. parvum IgG levels rose during maximal oocyst excretion, whereas serum anti-C. parvum IgA levels peaked later than did local IgA levels. Challenge reinfection of naturally infected calves at day 112 was not followed by clinical signs or oocyst output or by a secondary antibody response. Sequential Western immunoblotting with fecal extracts revealed up to 32 different parasite antigens. Convalescent-phase sera recognized up to 23 antigens. Fecal IgA reacted intensely with antigens with relative molecular weights (M(r)) of approximately 11,000 and 15,000. These antigens were not recognized by convalescent-phase serum IgG. Both local IgA and serum IgG also showed strong reactions with 23,000- and 44,000-M(r) antigens and with several antigens of between 66,200 and 200,000 M(r). Most bands remained detectable for at least 16 weeks p.i. Images PMID:1587597

  17. Characterization of Human Class-Switched Polymeric (Immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgA) Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibodies 2F5 and 2G12

    PubMed Central

    Wolbank, Susanne; Kunert, Renate; Stiegler, Gabriela; Katinger, Hermann

    2003-01-01

    We have previously generated human monoclonal anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) antibodies 2F5IgG and 2G12IgG with an exceptional cross-clade neutralizing potential. 2F5IgG and 2G12IgG passively administrated to macaques were able to confer complete protection from both intravenous and mucosal challenge with pathogenic HIV-simian immunodeficiency virus chimeric strains and have shown beneficial effects in a phase-1 clinical trial. We now class-switched 2F5 and 2G12 to the immunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgA isotype, to enforce features like avidity, complement activation, or the potential to neutralize mucosal transmission. For this purpose we expressed functional polymeric 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies in CHO cells and evaluated their anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. The class switch had a strong impact on the protective potential of 2F5 and 2G12. 2G12IgM inhibited HIV-1 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures up to 28-fold-more efficiently than the corresponding IgG and neutralized all of the primary isolates tested. The 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies of all isotypes were able to interact with active human serum to inhibit viral infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polymeric 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies but not the corresponding IgGs could interfere with HIV-1 entry across a mucosal epithelial layer in vitro. Although polymeric 2F5 antibodies had only limited potential in the standard neutralization assay, the results from the mucosal assay suggest that 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies may have a high potential to prevent natural HIV-1 transmission in vivo. PMID:12634368

  18. CD40 Ligand Deficient C57BL/6 Mouse Is a Potential Surrogate Model of Human X-Linked Hyper IgM (X-HIGM) Syndrome for Characterizing Immune Responses against Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Saucedo, Catalina; Bernal-Reynaga, Rodolfo; Zayas-Jahuey, Jesus; Galindo-Gomez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Garcia-Galvez, Carlos; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with X-HIGM syndrome fail to express functional CD40 ligand; consequently they cannot mount effective protective antibody responses against pathogenic bacteria. We evaluated, compared, and characterized the humoral immune response of wild type (WT) and C57-CD40L deficient (C57-CD40L?/?) mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium. Basal serum isotype levels were similar for IgM and IgG3 among mice, while total IgG and IgG2b concentrations were significantly lower in C57-CD40L?/? mice compared with WT. Essentially IgG1 and IgG2c levels were detectable only in WT mice. C57-CD40L?/? animals, orally inoculated with 2 × 109 CFU, presented several clinical manifestations since the second week of infection and eventually died. In contrast at this time point no clinical manifestations were observed among C57-CD40L?/? mice infected with 1 × 107 CFU. Infection was subclinical in WT mice inoculated with either bacterial dose. The serum samples from infected mice (1 × 107 CFU), collected at day 14 after infection, had similar C. rodentium-specific IgM titres. Although C57-CD40L?/? animals had lower IgG and IgG2b titres than WT mice, C57-CD40L?/? mice sera displayed complement-mediated bactericidal activity against C. rodentium. C. rodentium-infected C57-CD40L?/? mice are capable of producing antibodies that are protective. C57-CD40L?/? mouse is a useful surrogate model of X-HIGM syndrome for studying immune responses elicited against pathogens.

  19. Evaluation of a colloidal gold immunochromatography assay in the detection of Treponema pallidum specific IgM antibody in syphilis serofast reaction patients: a serologic marker for the relapse and infection of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Rong; Tong, Man-Li; Fu, Zuo-Gen; Dan, Bing; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Chang-Gong; Yang, Tian-Ci; Zhang, Zhong-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Syphilis remains as a worldwide public health problem; hence, it is necessary to develop a new diagnostic approach that is easier and faster than conventional tests. A new testing method to detect Treponema pallidum IgM (TP-IgM), named colloidal gold immunochromatography assay (GICA), is presented in place of fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs). TP-IgM was detected using GICA developed on syphilis-specific recombinant proteins TPN17 and TPN47. The FTA-Abs IgM test was set as the gold standard. A GICA TP-IgM test was performed to detect syphilis in 1208 patients who received recommended therapy for syphilis for more than 1 year at the Xiamen Center of Clinical Laboratory in China from June 2005 to May 2009. One hundred blood donors were set up as control. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 98.21%, 99.04%, 93.75%, 99.73%, 102.3, and 0.018, respectively. Detection on 500 interference specimens indicated that the biological false-positive rate of the GICA test was extremely low and was free from other biological and chemical factors. The patients were divided into the following experimental groups based on the results of toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) and treponemal pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA): (1) the syphilis serofast reaction (SSR) group consisted of 411 cases with (+) TRUST and (+) TPPA, which exhibited no clinical manifestations of syphilis after 1 year of recommended syphilis treatment; (2) the serum cure group, which was further subdivided into group A, a group that consisted of 251 cases with (-) TRUST and (+) TPPA, and (3) group B, a group that consisted of 546 cases with (-) TRUST and (-) TPPA; and (4) the blood donor control group, which consisted of 100 healthy persons with (-) ELISA-TP and (-) TPPA. We used the FTA-Abs method and the GICA method to detect TP-IgM; the positive rate of TP-IgM in 411 SSR patients was 34.55% and 36.01%, respectively. However, in serum cure group A, the positive rate of TP-IgM was 10.36% and 11.16%, respectively. The ?(2) test revealed that there is a significant difference in the positive rate between these 2 groups (P < 0.01). The TP-IgM positive rate in the same group, as detected by the GICA method and the FTA-Abs method, had no significant difference in statistics. However, as detected by the GICA method and the FTA-Abs method, all the samples in serum cure group B and the control group were negative for TP-IgM. The TP-IgM-positive result demonstrated that active T. pallidum remained in the bodies of SSR patients. In summary, the characteristics of GICA TP-IgM correspond to that of FTA-Abs TP-IgM; this can be used as a serologic marker for the relapse and infection of syphilis in place of the conventional FTA-Abs IgM test. PMID:21388769

  20. A Microarray-Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Approach for Site-specific Protein N-glycosylation Analysis, as Demonstrated for Human Serum Immunoglobulin M (IgM).

    PubMed

    Pabst, Martin; Küster, Simon Karl; Wahl, Fabian; Krismer, Jasmin; Dittrich, Petra S; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a new approach for the site-specific identification and characterization of protein N-glycosylation. It is based on a nano-liquid chromatography microarray-matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-MS platform, which employs droplet microfluidics for on-plate nanoliter reactions. A chromatographic separation of a proteolytic digest is deposited at a high frequency on the microarray. In this way, a short separation run is archived into thousands of nanoliter reaction cavities, and chromatographic peaks are spread over multiple array spots. After fractionation, each other spot is treated with PNGaseF to generate two correlated traces within one run, one with treated spots where glycans are enzymatically released from the peptides, and one containing the intact glycopeptides. Mining for distinct glycosites is performed by searching for the predicted deglycosylated peptides in the treated trace. An identified peptide then leads directly to the position of the "intact" glycopeptide clusters, which are located in the adjacent spots. Furthermore, the deglycosylated peptide can be sequenced efficiently in a simple collision-induced dissociation-MS experiment. We applied the microarray approach to a detailed site-specific glycosylation analysis of human serum IgM. By scanning the treated spots with low-resolution matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-MS, we observed all five deglycosylated peptides, including the one originating from the secretory chain. A detailed glycopeptide characterization was then accomplished on the adjacent, untreated spots with high mass resolution and high mass accuracy using a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-Fourier transform-MS. We present the first detailed and comprehensive mass spectrometric analysis on the glycopeptide level for human polyclonal IgM with high mass accuracy. Besides complex type glycans on Asn 395, 332, 171, and on the J chain, we observed oligomannosidic glycans on Asn 563, Asn 402 and minor amounts of oligomannosidic glycans on the glycosite Asn 171. Furthermore, hybrid type glycans were found on Asn 402, Asn 171 and in traces Asn 332. PMID:25802287

  1. Reverse Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Monoclonal Antibodies against SAG1-Related Sequence, SAG2A, and p97 Antigens from Toxoplasma gondii To Detect Specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA Antibodies in Human Sera?

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fernando R.; Silva, Deise A. O.; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P.; Souza, Maria A.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Béla, Samantha R.; Faria, Gabriele G.; Lopes, Carolina S.; Mineo, José R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in reverse enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in 175 serum samples from patients at different stages of T. gondii infection, as defined by both serological and clinical criteria, as follows: recent (n = 45), transient (n = 40), and chronic (n = 55) infection as well as seronegative subjects (n = 35). The results were compared with those obtained by indirect ELISA using soluble Toxoplasma total antigen (STAg). Our data demonstrated that MAb A3A4 recognizes a conformational epitope in SAG1-related-sequence (SRS) antigens, while A4D12 and 1B8 recognize linear epitopes defined as SAG2A surface antigen and p97 cytoplasmatic antigen, respectively. Reverse ELISA for IgG with A3A4 or A4D12 MAbs was highly correlated with indirect ELISA for anti-STAg IgG, whereas only A4D12 reverse ELISA showed high correlation with indirect ELISA for IgM and IgA isotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report analyzing the performance of a reverse ELISA for simultaneous detection of IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes active toward native SAG2A, SRS, and p97 molecules from STAg, using a panel of human sera from patients with recent and chronic toxoplasmosis. Thus, reverse ELISA based on the capture of native SAG2A and SRS antigens of STAg by MAbs could be an additional approach for strengthening the helpfulness of serological tests assessing the stage of infection, particularly in combination with highly sensitive and specific assays that are frequently used nowadays for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy or congenital infection in newborns. PMID:18562566

  2. Characterization and antivirus activities of a novel bovine IFN-omega24.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiuxin; Guo, Yongli; Bao, Jun; Liu, Ying; An, Dong; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2015-08-01

    A novel bovine interferon-? (BoIFN-?) gene, which encodes a protein of 195 amino acids with a 23-amino acid signal peptide, was amplified from bovine liver genomic DNA through PCR and named BoIFN-?24 according to its position in the bovine genome. In this study, the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and antiviral or antiproliferation activity was determined in vitro. Results showed that BoIFN-?24 exhibits high antiviral activity, which can be abrogated using PAb against BoIFN-?24, and inhibits cell proliferation. BoIFN-?24 also presents high sensitivity to trypsin and stability at pH 2.0 or 65°C, which are typical characteristics of type I IFN. This study revealed that BoIFN-?24 is a potential novel effective therapeutic agent and provided a basis for further research on the BoIFN-? multigene family. PMID:25951414

  3. Cyber Security Challenges: Designing Efficient Intrusion Detection Systems and Antivirus Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivas Mukkamala; Andrew Sung; Ajith Abraham

    Abstract: Introduction to Intrusion Detection SystemsIntrusion detection an important component of information security technology helps indiscovering, determining, and identifying unauthorized use, duplication, alteration, anddestruction of information and information systems. Intrusion detection relies on the assumptionthat information and information systems under attack exhibit several distinguishable behavioralpatterns or characteristics to that of the normal ones. Though intrusion detection...

  4. Fibrocytes are potent stimulators of anti-virus cytotoxic T cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Balmelli; Nicolas Ruggli; Kenneth McCullough; Artur Summerfield

    2005-01-01

    Fibrocytes (Fb) are a population of cir- culating leukocytes reported to be capable of pre- senting antigen to CD4 T lymphocytes. In con- trast, no information is available about their capac- ity to stimulate CD8 cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. To this end, Fb were isolated from porcine blood to investigate their ability to stimulate CTL responses using a classical

  5. A dual function of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Mohan; Beloglazova, Natalia; Flick, Robert; Graham, Chris; Skarina, Tatiana; Nocek, Boguslaw; Gagarinova, Alla; Pogoutse, Oxana; Brown, Greg; Binkowski, Andrew; Phanse, Sadhna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koonin, Eugene V.; Savchenko, Alexei; Emili, Andrew; Greenblatt, Jack; Edwards, Aled M.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) and the associated proteins (Cas) comprise a system of adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids in prokaryotes. Cas1 is a CRISPR-associated protein that is common to all CRISPR-containing prokaryotes but its function remains obscure. Here we show that the purified Cas1 protein of Escherichia coli (YgbT) exhibits nuclease activity against single-stranded and branched DNAs including Holliday junctions, replication forks, and 5?-flaps. The crystal structure of YgbT and site-directed mutagenesis have revealed the potential active site. Genome-wide screens show that YgbT physically and genetically interacts with key components of DNA repair systems, including recB, recC and ruvB. Consistent with these findings, the ygbT deletion strain showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage and impaired chromosomal segregation. Similar phenotypes were observed in strains with deletion of CRISPR clusters, suggesting that the function of YgbT in repair involves interaction with the CRISPRs. These results show that YgbT belongs to a novel, structurally distinct family of nucleases acting on branched DNAs and suggest that, in addition to antiviral immunity, at least some components of the CRISPR-Cas system have a function in DNA repair. PMID:21219465

  6. Research on the anti-virus system of military network based on cloud security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xin; Huang Ting-lei; Ren Zhi-jian

    2010-01-01

    With the stepping up of information technology in military, information is increasingly playing a key role which enhance efficiency for military command, training, battle. Connecting With the military networks among in army universities, research institutes, the size of the military information network is rapidly expanding, while the Hidden danger of information security also increase with the virus develop from the

  7. UNDERGRADUATE RESIDENCE INRES SERVICES NEW USER CHECKLIST

    E-print Network

    an anti-virus software? We recommend using Symantec Endpoint Protection that is supported by UITNet. Anti-virus Software Ensure your computer has an anti-virus software installed. Ensure the latest anti-virus

  8. The evolution of the physical state of the IGM

    E-print Network

    Tae-Sun Kim; Stefano Cristiani; Sandro D'Odorico

    2002-01-14

    Using a new, increased dataset of 7 QSOs from VLT/UVES observations combined with one QSO from the literature, the minimum Doppler parameters as a function of neutral hydrogen column density N(HI), b_c(N), of the Lyman-alpha forest has been derived at three redshifts z = 2.1, 3.3 and 3.8. When incompleteness of the number of the observed lines towards lower N(HI) is accounted for, the derived slopes of b_c(N), (Gamma-1), are consistent with no-redshift evolution with an indication of lower value at z = 3.3, while b_c(N) at a fixed column density N(HI) = 10^(13.6) cm^(-2), b_c(13.6), increases as z decreases. Assuming a QSO-dominated UV background, the slope of the equation of state (gamma-1) shows no z-evolution within large uncertainties and the temperature at the mean density, T_0, decreases as z decreases at three redshift ranges. There is a large fluctuation of (Gamma-1) and b_c(13.6) even at the similar redshifts, in particular at z = 3.3 and 3.8. The lower (Gamma-1) and higher b_c(13.6) values at z ~ 3.1 and 3.6 compared to ones at z ~ 3.4 and 3.9 are caused by a lack of lower-N(HI) and lower-b lines, probably due to the HeII reionization. This result suggests that an impact from the HeII reionization on the forest might be mainly on the lower-N(HI) forest. We find some forest clouds with a high ratio of SiIV column density to CIV column density at z < 2.5, although the bulk of the forest clouds shows lower N(SiIV)/N(CIV). This high N(SiIV)/N(CIV) at z < 2.5 suggests that some forest clouds are exposed to a soft UV background.

  9. A facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis of rhombohedral CuFeO2 crystals with antivirus property.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Min; Sunada, Kayano; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2012-07-28

    The rhombohedral-like CuFeO(2) crystals are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route by using propionaldehyde as a reducing agent. The obtained CuFeO(2) crystals show promising efficiency in the inactivation of bacteriophage Q?. PMID:22711005

  10. I use OIT's free anti-virus software to scan my computer at least once every month.

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    the hard drive clean before getting rid of my computer. I never leave my laptop and cell phone unattended. Iownandusealaptopsecuritycable. I have registered my laptop and cell phone with the UMass Amherst Police Department (UMPD). I. I choose the UMASS-SECURE1X network when using wireless on campus. I keep track of sensitive data

  11. File: How to Meet the Health Check Secure Remote Access Page 1 of 7 January 2013 Security Requirements

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    .....................................................................................................................................................1 Anti-Virus Protection: Symantec Endpoint Protection is the University's recommended and officially supported anti-virus solution.....................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Appendix: Anti-virus Tools (Products and Versions) Compatible with the Health Check

  12. DETECCIÓN DE ANTICUERPOS Y ANTÍGENOS PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE Fasciola hepatica EN ALPACAS NATURALMENTE INFECTADAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Otero

    The aim of this study was to standardize the indirect ELISA test for the detection of antibodies and to evaluate a coproantigen detection test (ES-78 sandwich ELISA) for the Fasciola hepatica diagnoses in alpacas. For the indirect ELISA, the excretion-secretion products (ES) were used as antigens and a peroxidasa anti IgG immunoconjugate of alpaca was obtained through protein A affinity

  13. Canakinumab, un anticuerpo monoclonal frente a IL1?, con utilidad potencial en distintos procesos inflamatorios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Carné

    2011-01-01

    Canakinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeted at IL-1? which has shown to be effective in the control the symptoms of patients affected by CAPS and other autoinflammatory diseases. Its effect is rapid and sustained. In clinical trials conducted up until now, the most common adverse effects reported with the use of this drug have been different types of

  14. YORK APARTMENTS INRES SERVICES NEW USER CHECKLIST

    E-print Network

    . Do not have an anti-virus software? We recommend using Symantec Endpoint Protection that is supported on to ResNet. Anti-virus Software Ensure your computer has an anti-virus software installed. Ensure the latest anti-virus update definitions have been applied and these updates are set to automatically apply

  15. MOSAIC at the E-ELT: A multi-object spectrograph for astrophysics, IGM and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, F.; Barbuy, B.; Cuby, J. G.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S.; Evans, C. J.; Jagourel, P.; Dalton, G.; Rees, P.; Puech, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Pearson, D.; Disseau, K.

    2014-08-01

    The Universe is comprised of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each populated by hundreds of billions of stars. Astrophysics aims to understand the complexity of this almost incommensurable number of stars, stellar clusters and galaxies, including their spatial distribution, formation, and current interactions with the interstellar and intergalactic media. A considerable fraction of astrophysical discoveries require large statistical samples, which can only be addressed with multi-object spectrographs (MOS). Here we introduce the MOSAIC study of an optical/near-infrared MOS for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which has capabilities specified by science cases ranging from stellar physics and exoplanet studies to galaxy evolution and cosmology. Recent studies of critical technical issues such as sky-background subtraction and multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) have demonstrated that such a MOS is feasible with current technology and techniques. In the 2020s the E-ELT will become the world's largest optical/IR telescope, and we argue that it has to be equipped as soon as possible with a MOS. MOSAIC will provide a vast discovery space, enabled by a multiplex of ˜ 200 and spectral resolving powers of R = 5 000 and 20 000. MOSAIC will also offer the unique capability of 10-to-20 `high-definition' (MOAO) integral-field units, optimised to investigate the physics of the sources of reionisation, providing the most efficient follow-up of observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The combination of these modes will enable the study of the mass-assembly history of galaxies over cosmic time, including high-redshift dwarf galaxies and studies of the distribution of the intergalactic medium. It will also provide spectroscopy of resolved stars in external galaxies at unprecedented distances, from the outskirts of the Local Group for main-sequence stars, to a significant volume of the local Universe, including nearby galaxy clusters, for luminous red supergiants.

  16. IgG and IgM levels in dairy cows during the periparturient period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Herr; H. Bostedt; K. Failing

    2011-01-01

    In dairy cows, the incidence of infectious diseases during the periparturient period is high. The most common diseases ante partum (a.p.) and post partum (p.p.) are mastitis and puerperal toxicaemia, puerperal septicaemia, and chronic endometritis, respectively. Studies suggest that this is related to an immunosuppressed status during this period.Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the periparturient immune

  17. Warm Dark Matter, the Temperature of the IGM, and the Ly-Forest

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    and/or quasars. · Temperature-density relation: · Gas-pressure smoothing: neutral hydrogen traces dark. Cosmology/ thermodynamics. · T_0, : thermal state of gas. · HI : intensity of UV background from galaxies/quasars that keep gas ionized. #12;Temperature-Density Relation · T_0, depend on when and how gas is reionized! Gas

  18. 69 FR 58371 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Serological Assays (IgM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-09-30

    ...Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Serological Assays...Administration (FDA) is proposing to reclassify hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays from...signs and symptoms consistent with acute hepatitis A or for determining if an...

  19. Feedback between Stars, ISM and IGM in IR-Luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitherer, Claus

    2010-09-01

    We propose COS G130M mode spectroscopy between 1150 and 1450 Angstroms of four ultraviolet-bright, infrared-luminous starburst galaxies. Our selected sightlines towards the starburst nuclei probe the physical conditions in the starburst-driven galactic superwinds. The spectral resolution of about 20 km/s is an order of magnitude improvement over existing HST data and allows a study of the complex gas conditions. Previous observations at lower resolution found strong, blueshifted interstellar absorption lines whose strength and velocity indicate signficant mass outflow. High-resolution data are required to verify or reject suggestions of velocity dispersion and/or covering factor variations being the prime mechanism responsible for the line properties. The proposed observations will constrain the energetics of the cool and warm gas and help determine if the outflow material can escape from the galaxies. Several weak lines will be measured at sufficiently high S/N to derive the column densities and abundances in the dominant ions entrained within the outflow. In combination with the kinematic properties we will estimate the mechanical energy and mass outflow rate and perform a comparison with the star-formation rate. We will investigate whether the outflows quench star formation and ultimately regulate the starburst as has been suggested for high-redshift galaxies. The chosen sightlines will allow us to generalize our results to the overall properties of galaxy outflows, to search for implications for similar galaxies at cosmological distances, and to add to our understanding of QSO absorption lines. Outflows may be the long-sought mechanism for distributing the products of stellar nucleosynthesis over large volumes in the universe.

  20. Production and Characterization of IgM Monoclonal Antibodies Against Hyphal Antigens of Stachybotrys Species

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M.; Vesper, Stephen J.; Schmechel, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has been proposed to exacerbate respiratory morbidity. To date, advances in Stachybotrys detection have focused on the identification of unique biomarkers that can be detected in human serum; however, the availability of immunodiagnostic reagents to Stachybotrys species have been limited. In this study, we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a semi-purified cytolytic S. chlorohalonata preparation (cScp) derived from hyphae. BALB/c mice were immunized with cScp and hybridomas were screened against the cScp using an antigen-mediated indirect ELISA. Eight immunoglobulin M MAbs were produced and four were specifically identified in the capture ELISA to react with the cScp. Cross-reactivity of the MAbs was tested against crude hyphal extracts derived from 15 Stachybotrys isolates representing nine Stachybotrys species as well as 39 other environmentally abundant fungi using a capture ELISA. MAb reactivity to spore and hyphal antigens was also tested by a capture ELISA and by fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). ELISA analysis demonstrated that all MAbs strongly reacted with extracts of S. chartarum but not with extracts of 39 other fungi. However, four MAbs showed cross-reactivity to the phylogenetically related genus Memnoniella. fHIA analysis confirmed that greatest MAb reactivity was ultrastructurally localized in hyphae and phialides. The results of this study further demonstrate the feasibility of specific MAb-based immunoassays for the detection of S. chartarum. PMID:21466283

  1. IgM ganglioside GM1 antibodies in patients with autoimmune disease or neuropathy, and controls.

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, A S; Abdul-Karim, B; Malik, R A; Goulding, P; Pumphrey, R S; Boulton, A J; Holt, P L; Wilson, P B

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the titre of anti-ganglioside antibodies (AGA) to GM1 ganglioside in patients with central and peripheral neurological disease and pure motor and sensorimotor neuropathy, in patients with classic autoimmune diseases, and controls. METHODS--AGA to GM1 were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, highly purified bovine GM1 ganglioside, and sequential dilution of control and test sera. Antibody titre was calculated using the optical density readings of three consecutive serum dilutions multiplied by the dilution factor. RESULTS--A considerable overlap was evident in the titre of AGA to GM1 in control and test sera. High antibody titres were most frequent in patients with multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block (MMNCB). Low AGA titre were observed in several patient groups. Compared with the controls, the median titre of AGA to GM1 was significantly higher in patients with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, the median titre in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, motor neurone disease, sensorimotor neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy was no different from that in normal control subjects. CONCLUSIONS--Estimation of AGA to GM1 may be helpful in the diagnosis of MMNCB in patients with a pure motor neuropathy but in few other conditions. Low titre AGA to GM1 are evident in several autoimmune conditions. The pathogenetic importance of AGA to GM1 in patients with neuropathy is not clear. PMID:8027366

  2. A unique proteomic profile on surface IgM ligation in unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Aurore; Pionneau, Cédric; Nadaud, Sophie; Davi, Frédéric; Leblond, Véronique; Jacob, Frédéric; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Herbrecht, Raoul; Béné, Marie-Christine; Gribben, John G; Bahram, Seiamak; Vallat, Laurent

    2011-07-28

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a highly variable clinical course with 2 extreme subsets: indolent, ZAP70(-) and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (M-CLL); and aggressive, ZAP70(+) and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain (UM-CLL). Given the long-term suspicion of antigenic stimulation as a primum movens in the disease, the role of the B-cell receptor has been extensively studied in various experimental settings; albeit scarcely in a comparative dynamic proteomic approach. Here we use a quantitative 2-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis technology to compare 48 proteomic profiles of the 2 CLL subsets before and after anti-IgM ligation. Differentially expressed proteins were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. We show that unstimulated M- and UM-CLL cells display distinct proteomic profiles. Furthermore, anti-IgM stimulation induces a specific proteomic response, more pronounced in the more aggressive CLL. Statistical analyses demonstrate several significant protein variations according to stimulation conditions. Finally, we identify an intermediate form of M-CLL cells, with an indolent profile (ZAP70(-)) but sharing aggressive proteomic profiles alike UM-CLL cells. Collectively, this first quantitative and dynamic proteome analysis of CLL further dissects the complex molecular pathway after B-cell receptor stimulation and depicts distinct proteomic profiles, which could lead to novel molecular stratification of the disease. PMID:21602524

  3. Destructive arthritis in a patient with chikungunya virus infection with persistent specific IgM antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Malvy; Khaled Ezzedine; Maria Mamani-Matsuda; Brigitte Autran; Hugues Tolou; Marie-Catherine Receveur; Thierry Pistone; Jérome Rambert; Daniel Moynet; Djavad Mossalayi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chikungunya fever is an emerging arboviral disease characterized by an algo-eruptive syndrome, inflammatory polyarthralgias, or tenosynovitis that can last for months to years. Up to now, the pathophysiology of the chronic stage is poorly understood. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first case of CHIKV infection with chronic associated rheumatism in a patient who developed progressive erosive arthritis with expression

  4. Optical and analytical investigations on dengue virus rapid diagnostic test for IgM antibody detection.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, Peyman; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of binding between analytes and its relevant ligands on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is of considerable importance for accurate determination and screening of an interference in immunosensors. Dengue virus serotype 2 was used as a case study in this investigation. This research work compares and interprets the results obtained from analytical analysis with the experimental ones. Both the theoretical calculations and experimental results are verified with one sample from each category of dengue serotypes 2 (low, mid, and high positive), which have been examined in the database of established laboratorial diagnosis. In order to perform this investigation, the SPR angle variations are calculated, analyzed, and then validated via experimental SPR angle variations. Accordingly, the error ratios of 5.35, 6.54, and 3.72 % were obtained for the low-, mid-, and high-positive-specific immune globulins of patient serums, respectively. In addition, the magnetic fields of the biosensor are numerically simulated to show the effect of different binding mediums. PMID:25791696

  5. Production and characterization of IgM monoclonal antibodies against hyphal antigens of Stachybotrys species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has...

  6. IgM antigen receptor complex contains phosphoprotein products of B29 and mb-1 genes.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, K S; Hager, E J; Friedrich, R J; Cambier, J C

    1991-01-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) and mIgD are major B-lymphocyte antigen receptors, which function by internalizing antigens for processing and presentation to T cells and by transducing essential signals for proliferation and differentiation. Although ligation of mIgM or mIgD results in rapid activation of a phospholipase C and a tyrosine kinase(s), these receptors have cytoplasmic tails of only three amino acid residues (Lys-Val-Lys), which seem ill suited for direct physical coupling with cytoplasmic signal transduction structures. In this report, we identify the alpha, beta, and gamma components of the mIgM-associated phosphoprotein complex, which may play a role in signal transduction. Proteolytic peptide mapping demonstrated that the IgM-alpha chain differs from Ig-beta and Ig-gamma. The chains were purified, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed identity with two previously cloned B-cell-specific genes. One component, IgM-alpha, is a product of the mb-1 gene, and the two additional components, Ig-beta and Ig-gamma, are products of the B29 gene. Immunoblotting analysis using rabbit antibodies prepared against predicted peptide sequences of each gene product confirmed the identification of these mIgM-associated proteins. The deduced sequence indicates that these receptor subunits lack inherent protein kinase domains but include common tyrosine-containing sequence motifs, which are likely sites of induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Images PMID:2023945

  7. Bone-marrow plasma cell burden correlates with IgM paraprotein concentration in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sant-Rayn Pasricha; Surender K Juneja; David A Westerman; Neil A Came

    2011-01-01

    AimsCorrelations between the marrow histopathology and clinical findings in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) are not well defined, and the pathophysiology of the plasma cell involvement is poorly understood. The authors used a standardised immunohistological approach to the enumeration of B lymphocyte and plasma cell compartments in the bone-marrow trephine to investigate associations between bone-marrow morphology and clinical\\/laboratory indices.MethodsIn 80 newly diagnosed,

  8. Asociación entre anticuerpos contra el virus del síndrome disgenésico y respiratorio porcino y anticuerpos contra otros patógenos Association between antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and other pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Diosdado Vargas; Dolores González-Vega; Luis Pedro Moles-Cervantes; Antonio Morilla González

    In order to investigate a possible association between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and other viral and bacterial pathogenic agents found in swine, a serological model was followed. For this study, 3600, 4 to 6 month-old fi nishers were bled and tested for antibodies against various infectious agents. The specifi c antibodies against PRRSV, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV),

  9. Evaluación de Anticuerpos Desarrollados Contra la Proteína Recombinante de la Cápside del Virus Tristeza de los Cítricos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant coat protein (rCP) p25 gene of (Citrus tristeza virus = CTV), were developed for isolates MX08 and MX14 from México and B227 from India. The reactivity of rCP antibodies was evaluated using healthy and CTV infected tissue. The combination of rCP ant...

  10. The Creative Writing Program at UBC: Resources for Distance Education Students

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Antivirus Software UBC has contracted with Sophos, an antivirus company, to provide free software for all this software updated on your computer. http://www.it.ubc.ca/service_catalogue/information-security/sophos

  11. ffnungszeiten Mo-Fr 7:30-21:30 Uhr, Beratung 9:00-18:00 Uhr Fr McAfee-Antivirus-Nutzer gibt es aktuelle Anpassungen ("Patches"), die die Sicherheit des

    E-print Network

    Huber, Bernhard A.

    Mietlizenzen und der Nutzung der ,,Creative Cloud" für Creative-Suite-Produkte ist der zum 1.1.2013 neu nicht mehr verfügbar. Der Upgrade Plan für CS soll zukünftig ausschließlich über die Creative Cloud einiger Zeit den Adobe CLP Rahmenvertragsbeitritt verlängert und verlängert gerade die Mc

  12. Myelodysplastic syndrome with 5q deletion following IgM monoclonal gammopathy, showing gene mutation MYD88 L265P.

    PubMed

    Zagaria, Antonella; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Tota, Giuseppina; Anelli, Luisa; Minervini, Angela; Casieri, Paola; Cellamare, Angelo; Minervini, Crescenzio Francesco; Brunetti, Claudia; Ricco, Alessandra; Orsini, Paola; Cumbo, Cosimo; Specchia, Giorgina; Albano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Patients affected by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) very rarely develop a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, it was also demonstrated that MGUS patients had a significantly increased risk of developing MDS compared to the general population. We report a case of 5q-syndrome following a MGUS IgMk with mutation of MYD88 L256P. To our knowledge, this is the first case of del(5q) MDS following MGUS IgMk with the MYD88 L256P mutation in which there is coexistence of the markers of the two clonal diseases, but as an expression of distinct pathological features. PMID:25159121

  13. Synergistic antitumor effects of 131I-LC-1 IgM and IL-12 vaccine on Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao Ling; Yan, Xuexian; Wen, Ming; Peng, Zhi Ping; Li, Shao Lin

    2010-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the antitumor effects of iodine-131 labeled monoclonal antibody LC-1 ((131)I-LC-1), interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccine, or the combination of both on C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors. Tumor-bearing mice models were randomly divided into 4 groups that were respectively injected intratumorally with phosphate buffered solution (PBS), IL-12 vaccine gene therapy (GT), (131)I-LC-1 radioimmuno-therapy (RIT), or GT+RIT. Tumor volumes were measured before and after treatment. ELISA and RT-PCR determined the expression of IL-l2. LC-1 monoclonal antibody (Mab) was labeled with Na(131)I. Cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity assay, Natural Killer cell (NK) activity assay and apoptosis analysis were performed. Intratumoral (131)I-LC-1 injection leads to higher delivery of the antibody to the tumor. Tumor apoptosis occurred in the GT, RIT and GT+RIT groups. Tumor growth was inhibited in the GT, RIT and GT+RIT groups. Compared with other groups, the combination of GT+RIT up-regulated the expression of IL-l2 gene and inhibited the tumor growth more effectively than either GT or RIT alone (p<0.05). These results suggest that GT+RIT have the synergistic antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice. PMID:19951748

  14. Synergistic antitumor effects of 131I-LC-1 IgM and IL12 vaccine on Lewis lung carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Ling Yin; Xuexian Yan; Ming Wen; Zhi Ping Peng; Shao Lin Li

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antitumor effects of iodine-131 labeled monoclonal antibody LC-1 (131I-LC-1), interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccine, or the combination of both on C57BL\\/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors. Tumor-bearing mice models were randomly divided into 4 groups that were respectively injected intratumorally with phosphate buffered solution (PBS), IL-12 vaccine gene therapy (GT), 131I-LC-1 radioimmuno-therapy (RIT),

  15. Cellular targets and mechanistic strategies of remyelination-promoting IgMs as part of the naturally occurring autoantibody repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Watzlawik, Jens O; Wootla, Bharath; Painter, Meghan M; Warrington, Arthur E; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins with germline sequences occur in invertebrates and vertebrates and are named naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs). NAbs may target foreign antigens, self- or altered self-components and are part of the normal immunoglobulin repertoire. Accumulating evidence indicates that naturally occurring antibodies can act as systemic surveillance molecules, which tag, damaged or stressed cells, invading pathogens and toxic cellular debris for elimination by the immune system. In addition to acting as detecting molecules, certain types of NAbs actively signal in different cell types with a broad range of responses from induction of apoptosis in cancer cells to stimulation of remyelination in glial cells. This review emphasizes functions and characteristics of NAbs with focus on remyelination-promoting mouse and human antibodies. Human remyelination-promoting NAbs are potential therapeutics to combat a wide spectrum of disease processes including demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. We will highlight the identified glycosphingolipid (SL) antigens of polyreactive remyelination-promoting antibodies and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. The nature of the identified antigens suggests a lipid raft-based mechanism for remyelination-promoting antibodies with SLs as most essential raft components. However, accumulating evidence also suggests involvement of other antigens in stimulation of remyelination, which will be discussed in the text. PMID:24053345

  16. PREDOMINANCE OF IgM ANTI-U1RNP ANTIBODIES IN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. VLACHOYIANNOPOULOS; A. GUIALIS; A. G. TZIOUFAS; H. M. MOUTSOPOULOS

    1996-01-01

    SUMMARY Anti-UlRNP antibodies occur in patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), systemic sclerosis (SSc), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other ill-defined connective tissue diseases. To associate the isotypes of anti-UlRNP antibodies with the diagnosis of the disease, namely SLE or MCTD, sequential sera of patients positive for anti-UlRNP antibodies by counterimmunoelectrophorcsis (CIE) (32 with SLE, 35 with MCTD) were

  17. Chromatin–IgG complexes activate B cells by dual engagement of IgM and Toll-like receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Leadbetter; Ian R. Rifkin; Andreas M. Hohlbaum; Britte C. Beaudette; Mark J. Shlomchik; Ann Marshak-Rothstein

    2002-01-01

    Autoreactive B cells are present in the lymphoid tissues of healthy individuals, but typically remain quiescent. When this homeostasis is perturbed, the formation of self-reactive antibodies can have serious pathological consequences. B cells expressing an antigen receptor specific for self-immunoglobulin-? (IgG) make a class of autoantibodies known as rheumatoid factor (RF). Here we show that effective activation of RF+ B

  18. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1?, TNF?, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1?, TNF?, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections. PMID:25450998

  19. Enterprise Information Security Management Framework [EISMF

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Dhirendra, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    There are several technological solutions available in the market to help organizations with information security breach detection and prevention such as intrusion detection and prevention systems, antivirus software, ...

  20. CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restori...

  1. Stimulation of surface IgM of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induces an unfolded protein response dependent on BTK and SYK

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Andrew J.; Coelho, Vania; Linley, Adam; Sanchez Hidalgo, Marina; Carter, Matthew; Potter, Kathleen N.; Kennedy, Benjamin; Duncombe, Andrew S.; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Forconi, Francesco; Stevenson, Freda K.; Packham, Graham

    2014-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling plays a key role in the behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, cellular consequences of signaling are incompletely defined. Here we explored possible links between BCR signaling and the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress response pathway that can promote survival of normal and malignant cells. Compared with normal B cells, circulating CLL cells expressed increased, but variable, levels of UPR components. Higher expression of CHOP and XBP1 RNAs was associated with more aggressive disease. UPR activation appeared due to prior tissue-based antigenic stimulation because elevated expression of UPR components was detected within lymph node proliferation centers. Basal UPR activation also correlated closely with surface immunoglobulin M (sIgM) signaling capacity in vitro in both IGHV unmutated CLL and within mutated CLL. sIgM signaling increased UPR activation in vitro with responders showing increased expression of CHOP and XBP1 RNAs, and PERK and BIP proteins, but not XBP1 splicing. Inhibitors of BCR-associated kinases effectively prevented sIgM-induced UPR activation. Overall, this study demonstrates that sIgM signaling results in activation of some components the UPR in CLL cells. Modulation of the UPR may contribute to variable clinical behavior, and its inhibition may contribute to clinical responses to BCR-associated kinase inhibitors. PMID:25170122

  2. Passive immunization with monoclonal IgM antibodies against phosphorylcholine reduces accelerated vein graft atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose R. Faria-Neto; Kuang-Yuh Chyu; Xiaojun Li; Paul C. Dimayuga; Carmel Ferreira; Juliana Yano; Bojan Cercek; Prediman K. Shah

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorylcholine (PC) headgroup is one of the neoantigens exposed by LDL oxidation that can elicit an immune response. Active immunization with Streptococcus pneumoniae, which bears PC on its cell wall, reduced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice and this effect was attributed to an immune response to PC. In this study we tested the hypothesis that passive immunization with a monoclonal anti-PC

  3. Advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-damaged IgG and IgM autoantibodies to IgG-AGE in patients with early synovitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianna M Newkirk; Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky; Jennifer Lee; Joseph Hoxworth; Angie McCoy; Cheryl Yarboro; John Klippel; Hani S El-Gabalawy

    2003-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-damaged IgG occurs as a result of hyperglycemia and\\/or oxidative stress. Autoantibodies to IgG-AGE were previously demonstrated in patients with severe, longstanding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether IgG-AGE and anti-IgG-AGE antibodies were present early in the course of RA and other inflammatory arthropathies. We prospectively followed a cohort of 238 patients with inflammatory arthritis of duration

  4. Fully human IgG and IgM antibodies directed against the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Gold 4 epitope and designed for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of colorectal cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Véronique Garambois; Fabienne Glaussel; Elodie Foulquier; Marc Ychou; Martine Pugnière; Robin X Luo; Binyam Bezabeh; André Pèlegrin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for colon cancer radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to allow for repeated injections. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) being the reference antigen for immunotargeting of these tumors, we developed human anti-CEA MAbs. METHODS: XenoMouse®-G2 animals were immunized with CEA. Among all the antibodies produced, two of them, VG-IgG2? and VG-IgM, were selected for characterization in vitro in comparison

  5. Binding specificity of anti-HNK-1 IgM M-protein in anti-MAG neuropathy: possible clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Hirano, Makito; Kuwahara, Motoi; Samukawa, Makoto; Takada, Kazuo; Morise, Jyoji; Yabuno, Keiko; Oka, Shogo; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2015-02-01

    Anti-myelin-associated-glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy is an intractable autoimmune polyneuropathy. The antigenic region of MAG is the human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate. We and others previously suggested that the extension of antibody reactivities to HNK-1-bearing proteins other than MAG was associated with treatment resistance, without statistical analyses. In this study, we established an ELISA method with recombinant proteins to test binding specificities of currently available monoclonal antibodies to MAG and another HNK-1-bearing protein, phosphacan. Using this system, we found the distinct binding specificities of anti-MAG antibody in 19 patients with anti-MAG neuropathy. Their clinical relevance was then determined retrospectively with the adjusted 10-points INCAT disability score (0 = normal and 10 = highly disable). The results showed that strong reactivities of anti-MAG antibodies to phosphacan were significantly associated with treatment resistance or progressive clinical courses, indicating a possible clinical relevance of the binding specificities. PMID:25450311

  6. Anti-annexin V IgG and IgM antibodies in sickle cell disease patients with vaso-occlusive crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mai S. Sater; Najat Mahdi; Iman K. Al-Absi; Abeer M. Al-Subaie; Khadija Al-Ola; Fatema A. Mohammed; Wassim Y. Almawi

    2011-01-01

    Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients; however,\\u000a its mechanisms are poorly understood. In view of their prothrombotic nature, we hypothesized that SCA-associated VOC may be\\u000a due to the presence of anti-annexin V antibodies. Anti-annexin V antibodies were measured with ELISA in 177 VOC and 81 steady-state\\u000a SCA patients. Anti-annexin

  7. Field Evaluation and Impact on Clinical Management of a Rapid Diagnostic Kit That Detects Dengue NS1, IgM and IgG

    PubMed Central

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ngan, Chantha; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Sroin, Kim Kim; Te, Vantha; Y, Bunthin; Try, Patrich Lorn; Buchy, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue diagnosis is complex and until recently only specialized laboratories were able to definitively confirm dengue infection. Rapid tests are now available commercially making biological diagnosis possible in the field. The aim of this study was to evaluate a combined dengue rapid test for the detection of NS1 and IgM/IgG antibodies. The evaluation was made prospectively in the field conditions and included the study of the impact of its use as a point-of-care test for case management as well as retrospectively against a panel of well-characterized samples in a reference laboratory. Methodology/Principal Findings During the prospective study, 157 patients hospitalized for a suspicion of dengue were enrolled. In the hospital laboratories, the overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the NS1/IgM/IgG combination tests were 85.7%, 83.9%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively, whereas they were 94,4%, 90.0%, 97.5% and 77.1% respectively in the national reference laboratory at Institut Pasteur in Cambodia. These results demonstrate that optimal performances require adequate training and quality assurance. The retrospective study showed that the sensitivity of the combined kit did not vary significantly between the serotypes and was not affected by the immune status or by the interval of time between onset of fever and sample collection. The analysis of the medical records indicates that the physicians did not take into consideration the results obtained with the rapid test including for care management and use of antibiotic therapy. Conclusions In the context of our prospective field study, we demonstrated that if the SD Bioline Dengue Duo kit is correctly used, a positive result highly suggests a dengue case but a negative result doesn't rule out a dengue infection. Nevertheless, Cambodian pediatricians in their daily practice relied on their clinical diagnosis and thus the false negative results obtained did not directly impact on the clinical management. PMID:23301110

  8. 22222 JUNE 2005JUNE 2005JUNE 2005JUNE 2005JUNE 2005 Editor:Editor:Editor:Editor:Editor: Helen Martin

    E-print Network

    Aycock, John

    for all kinds of malicious software. With mobile phone worms spreading in the wild, virus-like behaviour being exhibited by Sims 2 hacks, and proof-of-concept PDF file worms, is there any logical limit anti-virus software on our desktops, laptops, and mobile phones; anti-virus for game machines probably

  9. Security Risks and Modern Cyber Security Technologies for Corporate Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wajeb Gharibi; Abdulrahman Mirza

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to highlight current trends on the market of corporate antivirus solutions. Brief overview of modern security threats that can destroy IT environment is provided as well as a typical structure and features of antivirus suits for corporate users presented on the market. The general requirements for corporate products are determined according to the last report from av-comparatives.org

  10. An Attack Vector for Deception Through Persuasion Used by Hackers and Crakers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mosin I. Hasan; Nilesh B. Prajapati

    2009-01-01

    We always uses the Anti-virus or Anti- Spyware software to secure our data but still most of our computers are infected by the Malware because we thought computer security as just technical field and anti-virus or firewall only can prevent us. Despite all the technological advancement in security, there is still one attack vector that leaves our network and computer

  11. IT Security Practices While Departmental and Campus IT units are accountable for the

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    threat protection software installed on it. The anti-virus software should be constantly updated with new sure that your computer will be as safe as possible from viruses and other malicious programs and installed software. Learn More 2. Install Anti-virus/Anti-spyware software Every machine should have Anti-virus

  12. UNCORRECTED JCS ios2a v.2007/10/19 Prn:21/12/2007; 10:35 F:jcs311.tex; VTEX/Diana p. 1

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Partha

    's machine to spread viruses or worms, steal sensitive information, make the host into a zombie, botnet security threats. They can be designed to be resistant to anti-virus and security software and even remain of rootkits. The checker can be extended to encompass all applications and anti-virus software. Our system can

  13. Towards Automated Malware Creation: Code Generation and Code Integration

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    and biological viruses are more than obvious. The very idea of an artificial ecosystem where malicious soft- ware for exploiting an evo- lutionary algorithm to devise malware: the former targeting heuristic-based anti-virus, or checking the reliability of the heuristic scan of anti-virus software could be interesting for the research

  14. An Analysis of Rogue AV Campaigns Marco Cova1

    E-print Network

    Yang, Junfeng

    of this difference by ana- lyzing the economic balance of the rogue antivirus ecosystem. We track 372,096 victims of the rogue antivirus threat ecosystem, focusing on the structure and dynamics of this threat and its- ings by comparing them to a different threat ecosystem, that of browser exploits. We underline

  15. Les particules prverbales du roumain Dana-Marina Dumitriu

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gaspard Monge (IGM), Université Paris-Est, dumitriu@univ-mlv.fr 2 Institut Gaspard Monge (IGM), Université Paris-Est, cristianaciocanea@yahoo.com 3 Institut Gaspard Monge (IGM), Université Paris-Est, livia7nadis

  16. www.it.northwestern.edu NorthwesternUniversityInformationTechnology

    E-print Network

    Shahriar, Selim

    remote support · improved security for information and devices DSS strives to be proactive in solving it the most. Plus, preemptive maintenance keep your systems, data, and devices protected, reducing · Proactive system management, which includes: · Endpoint antivirus protection · Operating system

  17. On the effectiveness of service registration-based worm defense

    E-print Network

    Bahk, Saewoong

    ], and even cause DoS simply through propagation activity [5]. Researchers are working on this problem, giving ample time to anti-virus vaccine industry to react. However, worms are automated and the epidemic

  18. Designing security into software

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Chang Tony

    2006-01-01

    When people talk about software security, they usually refer to security applications such as antivirus software, firewalls and intrusion detection systems. There is little emphasis on the security in the software itself. ...

  19. Summer Dormnet 2013: Ethernet Registration You are about to register your computer with the Campus Hostmaster and subscribe to

    E-print Network

    addresses: Ethernet Adapter Physical address: __ __ - __ __ - __ __ - __ __ - __ __ - __ __ Wireless Adapter address: __ __ - __ __ - __ __ - __ __ - __ __ - __ __ (see attached for help finding your addresses) Operating System: (i.e. Windows 2000/XP/Vista, Mac OS, Linux, etc.) Antivirus definitions updated Windows

  20. Eradicating Computer Viruses on Networks

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jinyu

    2012-01-01

    Spread of computer viruses can be modeled as the SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic propagation. We show that in order to ensure the random immunization or the targeted immunization effectively prevent computer viruses propagation on homogeneous networks, we should install antivirus programs in every computer node and frequently update those programs. This may produce large work and cost to install and update antivirus programs. Then we propose a new policy called "network monitors" to tackle this problem. In this policy, we only install and update antivirus programs for small number of computer nodes, namely the "network monitors". Further, the "network monitors" can monitor their neighboring nodes' behavior. This mechanism incur relative small cost to install and update antivirus programs.We also indicate that the policy of the "network monitors" is efficient to protect the network's safety. Numerical simulations confirm our analysis.

  1. October 29, 2012 Boguslaw P. Nocek | Phone: 630-935-0793 | Email: bnocek@anl.gov 1 of 8

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    meningitidis M1 alanine aminopeptidase by fluorogenic substrate profiling, inhibitory studies and molecular, A.M., Yakunin, A.F. A dual function of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA

  2. Combating computer viruses: IBM's new computer immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Hedberg

    1996-01-01

    At IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center (in Yorktown Heights, New York), the Anti-Virus Science and Technology group is doing groundbreaking work in automatic virus detection and eradication. IBM incorporated some of the group's work in virus detection using machine learning techniques into its AntiVirus product. The group has also developed a prototype computer immune system. Modeled after the human\\/vertebrate

  3. Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates Development and application in parasitology-mycology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Aubert; F. Foudrinier; M. L. Kaltenbach; D. Guyot-Walser; C. Marx-Chemla; R. Geers; H. Lepan; J. M. Pinon

    1995-01-01

    Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning

  4. Whole-body inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane suppresses the IgM response to sheep red blood cells in female B6C3F1 mice and Fisher 344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Munson, Albert E; Butterworth, Leon F; Germolec, Dori; Morgan, Daniel L; Roycroft, Joseph A; Dill, Jeffrey; Meade, B J

    2010-02-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is categorized as a high-production-volume chemical and is currently used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and other chemicals. Its usage is estimated to be around 5 million pounds per year, resulting in the potential for widespread exposure in the workplace. Case reports and animal studies have suggested exposure to this compound may cause adverse reproductive and neurological effects. Using a battery of immunological assays, the immunotoxicity of 1-BP after whole body inhalation exposure in both mice and rats was evaluated. Significant decreases in the spleen immunoglobulin (Ig) M response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were observed in both mice (125-500 ppm) and rats (1000 ppm) after exposure to 1-BP for 10 wk. In addition, total spleen cells and T cells were significantly decreased after approximately 4 wk of 1-BP exposure in both mice (125-500 ppm) and rats (1000 ppm). No change in natural killer (NK) cell activity was observed. The observed alterations in spleen cellularity, phenotypic subsets, and impairment of humoral immune function across species raise further concern about human exposure to 1-BP and demonstrate the need for additional investigations into potential adverse health effects. PMID:20041805

  5. NEUROMUSCULAR CLINICAL LABORATORY: Antibody Testing Neuromuscular Disease Center

    E-print Network

    Baloh, Bob

    IgM vs: GA1, NP-9, GD1b, NS6S, MAG, HH3, GD1a IgM & IgG vs: GM1, GalNAc-GD1a [ ] GM1 (IgM vs GM1 & GD1a) [ ] GM1 (IgG vs GM1 & Sulfatide) [ ] GD1b (IgM vs GD1b & HH3) [ ] GD1b (IgG vs GD1b & Sulfatide) [ ] GALOP (IgM vs GALOP & NP9) [ ] Sulfatide (IgM & IgG vs Sulfatide & GM1) [ ] -Tubulin (IgM & IgG vs

  6. Detection of Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies at 3–4 Years Following Yellow Fever Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, Katherine B.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Panella, Amanda J.; Kosoy, Olga I.; Delorey, Mark J.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin

    2012-01-01

    The duration of anti-yellow fever (YF) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies following YF vaccination is unknown, making it difficult to interpret positive IgM antibody results in previously vaccinated travelers. We evaluated the frequency and predictors of YF IgM antibody positivity 3–4 years following YF vaccination. Twenty-nine (73%) of 40 participants had YF IgM antibodies 3–4 years postvaccination. No demographic or exposure variables were predictive of YF IgM positivity. However, persons who were YF IgM positive at 3–4 years postvaccination had earlier onset viremia and higher neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers at 1 month and 3–4 years postvaccination compared with persons who were YF IgM negative. Detection of YF IgM antibodies several years postvaccination might reflect remote YF vaccination rather than recent YF vaccination or YF virus infection. PMID:23109371

  7. A fast scalable automaton-matching accelerator for embedded content processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-kun Tseng; Yuan-cheng Lai; Ying-dar Lin; Tsern-huei Lee

    2009-01-01

    Home and office network gateways often employ a cost-effective embedded network processor to handle their network services. Such network gateways have received strong demand for applications dealing with intrusion detection, keyword blocking, antivirus and antispam. Accordingly, we were motivated to propose an appropriate fast scalable automaton-matching (FSAM) hardware to accelerate the embedded network processors. Although automaton matching algorithms are robust

  8. A STREAM-BASED MAIL PROXY WITH INTERLEAVED DECOMPRESSION AND VIRUS SCANNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Dar Lin; Szu-Hao Chen; Po-Ching Lin; Yuang-Chen Lai

    Anti-virus systems can operate on access gateways for centralized management and early virus blocking. When serving a group of computers, the traditional storage- based mechanism is less scalable because the mail should be stored. This work designs a stream-based mail proxy that processes the mail segment by segment without storing the entire mail and interleaves the MIME parsing, decoding, decompression

  9. ffnungszeiten Mo-Fr 7:30-21:30 Uhr, Beratung 9:00-18:00 Uhr Im Modul "Statistische Auswertung mit SPSS" vom 27.02. bis 09.03. sind noch Pltze frei.

    E-print Network

    Huber, Bernhard A.

    Jahresbeginn läuft der neue Landes-Lizenzvertrag für Sophos-Antivirus, der für die Universität zusätzliche April auf die Institute umlegen. Im Zusammenhang mit dem neuen Lizenzvertrag wurde auch die neue Sophos auf die neue Version 10, Sophos-Anwender unter Windows erkennen dies z.B. am neuen Sophos-Logo im

  10. Centrally controlled intrusions — the future threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Computer viruses have been at the top of the news recently as new strains emerge as a result perhaps of turf wars between virus writers. Plenty of innocent end users have suffered considerable grief as a result, and if anything the level of threat has worsened over the last year. Leading anti-virus packages from the likes of Sophos and Norton

  11. An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

    2002-01-01

    With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

  12. How To: Protect against a Zero-Hour Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Rob

    2005-01-01

    In the last year, a series of viruses and worms that caused damage across the Internet in record time has made very clear how vulnerable computer systems are. The MS Blaster, Slammer, Sasser, and Korgo.W worms have shown that signature-based antivirus software and traditional firewalls are not enough to protect networks. Everyone is worried about…

  13. January, 2014 IT Help Desk

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    ://cf.umaryland.edu/software_sales/ Windows 8.1 Professional upgrade (32 or 64 bit) Office 2013 Professional Plus (Windows) Windows 8 Professional upgrade (32 or 64 bit) Office 2010 Professional Plus (Windows) Windows 7 Ultimate upgrade (32 or 64 bit) Office 2011 Standard (MAC) Windows Vista Ultimate upgrade (32 bit) Symantec Anti-Virus (End

  14. Single and Multiple Viral Infections in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikael Gencay; Michael Roth; Mirjam Christ-Crain; Beat Mueller; Michael Tamm; Daiana Stolz

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) often leads to hospitalization, and it was indicated that causative viral infections are underestimated. Objectives: It was our aim to compare the frequency of 8 relevant viruses in 109 hospitalized LRTI patients and 144 healthy controls. Methods: Virus infection was determined by seroconversion and ELISA for anti-virus antibodies in repeated serum samples. Bacterial infection

  15. A small business has many ongoing needs: to better organize and safeguard business information, to communicate effectively and professionally with customers and suppliers,

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    -connected PC or a Windows Mobile® phone, so you can be responsive even when you are away from the office information is not secure? SBS 2008 helps keep your vital business data secure with antispam, antivirus, and state-of-the-art security technology. Need to work while you are out of the office? SBS 2008 gives you

  16. The Information Technology Newsletter for University of Maryland Students Welcome Edition Congratulations on attending the University of

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    for software downloads. Programs such as Microsoft Office 2013, Windows 8, and select Adobe products, including security software there, like the virtual private networking (VPN) and anti-virus software recommended that will help you get your computer and phone up and running: ·Use the Get Connected! instruction manual

  17. Crypto Corner Editors: Peter Gutmann, pgut001@cs.auckland.ac.nz

    E-print Network

    Tanenbaum, Andrew S.

    prompted reactions from the RFID industry, the antivirus industry, and the US and Dutch governments worms rely on network connections to propagate, whereas RFID viruses do not. RFID worms download self-repli- cate without an Internet connec- tion by copying itself into the back-end database, where

  18. Large-scale malware indexing using function-call graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Hu; Tzi-cker Chiueh; Kang G. Shin

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge of the anti-virus (AV) industry is how to ef- fectively process the huge influx of malware samples they receive every day. One possible solution to this problem is to quickly de- termine if a new malware sample is similar to any previously-seen malware program. In thispaper, we design, implement and evaluate a malware database management system called

  19. Standard software installations Standard software, as listed below, is installed free of charge on all University of Aberdeen supplied PCs and Windows laptops.

    E-print Network

    Pym, David J.

    Standard software installations Standard software, as listed below, is installed free of charge with Microsoft Windows 7 64-bit Enterprise Edition as standard. Software Name Description 7-Zip Used to open transfer Microsoft Security Centre Endpoint Protection (SCEP) 2012 Anti-virus software for University

  20. Security Adoption in Heterogeneous Networks: the Influence of Cyber-insurance Market

    E-print Network

    Lui, John C.S.

    Security Adoption in Heterogeneous Networks: the Influence of Cyber-insurance Market Zichao Yang the awareness of these risks and the availability of anti-virus software, investment in security protection is still scare, hence, epi- demic risk is still prevalent. Deciding whether to invest in security

  1. Laptop security OnGuardOnline.gov

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    've installed a firewall. You update your antivirus software. You protect your information with a strong or at least up against your leg, so that you're aware of it. Keep your passwords elsewhere. Remembering strong unattended. That said, if you must leave your laptop behind, keep it out of sight. Don't leave it "for just

  2. Student Computing Support Computing @ The

    E-print Network

    Young, Paul Thomas

    , scanners and laser printers Application and antivirus software High-speed Internet access Extensive is not impossible, but highly improbable. #12;Student Computing Support June 2010 Addlestone Library Computer Lab 66 PCs in Reference (12 public stations) 50 PCs in two lab classrooms 130 PCs in main lab (149 new

  3. Artificial Immune System against Viral Attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyungjoon Lee; Wonil Kim; Manpyo Hong

    2004-01-01

    Since the first computer virus has been found, scanning detection has been used as a primarily method in virus detection systems. As computer viruses and worms become more complex and sophisticated, the scanning detection method is no longer able to detect various forms of viruses and worms effectively. Many anti-virus researchers proposed various detection methods including artificial immune system to

  4. A Hierarchical Artificial Immune Model for Virus Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Pengtao Zhang; Ying Tan; Xingui He

    2009-01-01

    As viruses become more complex, existing antivirus methods are inefficient to detect various forms of viruses, especially new variants and unknown viruses. Inspired by immune system, a hierarchical artificial immune system (AIS) model, which is based on matching in three layers, is proposed to detect a variety of forms of viruses. In the bottom layer, a non-stochastic but guided candidate

  5. The impact of countermeasure propagation on the prevalence of computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-chiou Chen; Kathleen M. Carley

    2004-01-01

    Countermeasures such as software patches or warnings can be effective in helping organizations avert virus infection problems. However, current strategies for disseminating such countermeasures have limited their effectiveness. We propose a new approach, called the countermeasure competing (CMC) strategy, and use computer simulation to formally compare its relative effectiveness with three antivirus strategies currently under consideration. CMC is based on

  6. Defense Against the Dark Arts Computer science faculty must attract and retain students by offer-

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Mark W.

    . Our initial vision was to offer a course covering computer viruses--a subject that even a novice. Keywords Anti-virus software, compilers, computer viruses, computer sci- ence education. 1 INTRODUCTION's students consider relevant. Given that computer security breaches, including those committed by viruses

  7. Multi-Stage Delivery of Malware Marco Ramilli

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Introduction Ever since Cohen's 1984 paper [6] described computer viruses in detail, a battle has raged between virus writers and anti-virus defenders. The simple computer virus has evolved into more complex stealth Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95616-8562, USA bishop

  8. A modified epidemiological model for computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Roberto C. Piqueira; Vanessa O. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Since the computer viruses pose a serious problem to individual and corporative computer systems, a lot of effort has been dedicated to study how to avoid their deleterious actions, trying to create anti-virus programs acting as vaccines in personal computers or in strategic network nodes. Another way to combat viruses propagation is to establish preventive policies based on the whole

  9. MultiStage Delivery of Malware Marco Ramilli

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Introduction Ever since Cohen's 1984 paper [6] described computer viruses in detail, a battle has raged between virus writers and anti­virus defenders. The simple computer virus has evolved into more complex stealth Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95616­8562, USA bishop

  10. Computer viruses: a quantitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Coulthard; T. A. Vuori

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides interesting insights for anti-virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e-mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and

  11. Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance

    E-print Network

    Lakhotia, Arun

    interconnected nature of today's computers and the reactive nature of anti-virus (AV) technologies. A virus formal specification [2]. It has previously been argued that computer viruses are artificial life forms. Unlike a biological life form, the organs of a computer virus may not be physically distinguishable from

  12. Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

    1995-01-01

    Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

  13. A Distributed Approach to Computer Virus Detection and Neutralization by Autonomous and Heterogeneous Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Okamoto; Yoshiteru Ishida

    1999-01-01

    Recent expansion of the computer network opened a possibility of explosive spread of computer viruses. We propose a distributed approach against computer virus using also the computer network that allows distributed and agent-based approach. Our anti-virus system consists of several heterogeneous agents similarly to the immune system. Among these agents, antibody agents use the information of “self” (files of host

  14. The effectiveness of vaccinations on the spread of email-borne computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Data; Hui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, computer viruses have caused tremendous losses to organizations. New viruses continue to cause havoc, in spite of having better antivirus software. It is thus imperative that we understand what factors significantly influence the spread of viruses. In this paper, we model the networks of users as graphs. For simplicity, we assume that every user works only

  15. In Proceedings of Eleventh Working Conference on Reverse Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands, November 2004, pp. 161-171. Copyright 2004, IEEE Computer Society Press.

    E-print Network

    Lakhotia, Arun

    on itself to create a different variant before propagation. Metamorphic computer viruses thwart current anti-virus from zero form of a virus, and not the original version. 1. Introduction A metamorphic computer virus, November 2004, pp. 161-171. © Copyright 2004, IEEE Computer Society Press. Imposing Order on Program

  16. Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Luite Menno Pieter van Zelst About half a year ago, Alban Ponse, my thesis supervisor, suggested that the topic of `computer viruses indus- try and the creators of computer viruses. After all, the anti-virus industry stands to lose a lot

  17. The Queen's College ICT Rules and Regulations for the use of Computing Facilities

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    of facilities 1. Your computer MUST have up-to-date anti-virus software that updates automatically from for University members. http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/viruses/ 2. Your computer MUST be kept up-to-date with operating computer vulnerable to viruses, malware and malicious attacks which could result in your computer being

  18. In an effort to further protect the IT community, OMC is asking for your help in updating the local PC Symantec Anti Virus (SAV) client which is installed on you computer.

    E-print Network

    Sachs, Frederick

    PC Symantec Anti Virus (SAV) client which is installed on you computer. The manufacturer of the Anti-virus software which protects individual computers, our servers and by extension the network for us all has, but OMC does need your assistance to update every PC. You should do this on each and every computer

  19. Open Problems in Computer Virus Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve R. White

    1998-01-01

    Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

  20. A Mission-Impact-Based Approach to INFOSEC Alarm Correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip A. Porras; Martin W. Fong; Alfonso Valdes

    2002-01-01

    We describe a mission-impact-based approach to the analysis of security alerts produced by spatially distributed heterogeneous information security (INFOSEC) devices, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, authentication services, and antivirus software. The intent of this work is to deliver an automated capa- bility to reduce the time and cost of managing multiple INFOSEC devices through a strategy of topology analysis,

  1. Page 1 of 2 www.city.ac.uk/wifi

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    Page 1 of 2 www.city.ac.uk/wifi Wireless Network Connection Instructions ­ Microsoft Windows 8 updates have been applied. An up-to-date Anti-virus client is installed and active. Windows 8 1. Firstly" button. d. Untick "Automatically use my Windows logon..." 13. Click "Ok" twice Windows 8 #12;Page 2 of 2

  2. Gatekeeper: Monitoring Auto-Start Extensibility Points (ASEPs) for Spyware Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-min Wang; Roussi Roussev; Chad Verbowski; Aaron Johnson; Ming-wei Wu; Yennun Huang; Sy-yen Kuo

    2004-01-01

    Spyware is a rapidly spreading problem for PC users causing significant impact on system stability and privacy concerns. It attaches to extensibility points in the system to ensure the spyware will be instantiated when the system starts. Users may willingly install free versions of software containing spyware as an alternative to paying for it. Traditional anti-virus techniques are less effective

  3. Get Connected IT Quick Reference Guide for Students

    E-print Network

    serves as a password for your HUID. To create a PIN, go to pin.harvard.edu. Connect Your Computer and password: Protect Your Computer If your Mac or PC does not have anti-virus software, you can obtain.harvard.edu. If you forward your Harvard email to a di erent provider, regularly check the spam folder on your Harvard

  4. Revised: June 2, 2003 MICL Equipment

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Revised: June 2, 2003 MICL Equipment: Workstations(25), file servers(2), scanner, laser printer. Utilities: Acrobat Reader Ghost View McAffee Antivirus Paint Shop Pro Quickdraw 3D Quicktime SSH Winzip #12;, color laser printer, D-size large format printer. Equipment Location 14 Win2K Machines Dell P4, 2.3 GHz

  5. How to get help help@ece.neu.edu fred@ece.neu.edu

    E-print Network

    Ayers, Joseph

    How to get help help@ece.neu.edu fred@ece.neu.edu Contact Fred for: New purchasing of computers, reinstalling of old computers Software Availability such as Matlab, Office, Anti-Virus help@coe.neu.edu Contact COE Help for: User Accounts COE/ECE accounts and email www.coe.neu.edu/computer (help and FAQ) Setup

  6. Three-Dimensional Based Trust Management Scheme for Virus Control in P2P Networks

    E-print Network

    Rojas-Cessa, Roberto

    is the use of an anti-virus program. The successful detection by this protection software is basedThree-Dimensional Based Trust Management Scheme for Virus Control in P2P Networks Lin Cai. In these networks, worms, viruses and intruding files find an open door to the downloading host, creating

  7. BOSTON UNIVERSITY Policy BU 000-005D

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Frank

    provides anti-virus software and updates for its workstations at http://www.bu.edu/tech/desktop/virus-protection workstations at http://www.bu.edu/tech/desktop/virus-protection- security/spyware/preventing/. #12;: Protection from Malicious Software Policy Policy ID: BU 000-005D HIPAA Section: 164.308(a)(1) Version: 1

  8. IMDS: Intelligent Malware Detection System Department of Computer

    E-print Network

    Li, Tao

    protection against new and unknown threats. However, this kind of virus de- tection is usually inefficient-based anti- virus systems fail to detect polymorphic and new, previously un- seen malicious executables for classification. A comprehensive experimental study on a large col- lection of PE files obtained from the anti-virus

  9. Schrepel, Eric From: Jenkins, Kris

    E-print Network

    .. We have reviewed the Fifth Power Plan and find it lacking in its protection of low-income consumers 83707 (208) 375-7382 Fax (208) 321-4819 --- Outgoing mail is certified Virus Free. #12;2 Checked by AVG anti-virus system (http://www.grisoft.com). Version: 6.0.799 / Virus Database: 543 - Release Date: 11

  10. Advanced Metamorphic Techniques in Computer Philippe Beaucamps

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of virus protection techniques against detection and then study the METAPHOR virus, today's most advanced mutate its binary form on each replication: as early as in 1988 a first virus protected itself using "popularity". Nevertheless antiviruses quickly adapted to this protection by letting viruses decrypt

  11. Towards More Effective Virus Detectors Raghunathan Srinivasan and Partha Dasgupta

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Partha

    of prevention. Software such as Anti-Virus (AV) solutions, and firewalls offer some protection against computerTowards More Effective Virus Detectors Raghunathan Srinivasan and Partha Dasgupta Arizona State University 1. Introduction Viruses (or malware) are a scourge, with potentially unlimited fraudulent uses

  12. Lockwood 1 E10 Internet Worm and Virus Protection in Dynamically Reconfigurable Hardware

    E-print Network

    Lockwood, John W.

    Lockwood 1 E10 Internet Worm and Virus Protection in Dynamically Reconfigurable Hardware John W, demonstrating once again the ineffectiveness of current protection mechanisms. Today, most anti-virus solutions and filters Internet traffic for Internet worms and viruses at multi-Gigabit/second rates using the Field

  13. Addressing Malicious SMTP-based Mass-Mailing Activity Within an Enterprise Network

    E-print Network

    Van Oorschot, Paul

    by a steady stream of emails infected with malicious code (mass-mailing worms and viruses), unwanted product to enable the commission of fraudulent activity (phishing). The use of gateway anti-virus (and per client to detect zero-day worms and viruses, often quarantine legitimate emails misidentified as spam, and do

  14. INFORMATION SECURITY THREATS Computer any electronic device used for storing, processing and transmitting data

    E-print Network

    Brinkmann, Peter

    . Viruses almost always corrupt or modify files. Zombie · a computer connected to the internet that has been and authoritative sites (e.g. banking, anti-virus). Phishing · a deceptive attack to acquire your sensitive a computer virus. Can appear to be a legitimate program or system resource. Worm · self-replicating malware

  15. Bureau de la scurit informatique (DGTIC) Communiqu du Bureau de la scurit informatique (DGTIC)

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    Bureau de la sécurité informatique (DGTIC) Communiqué du Bureau de la sécurité informatique (DGTIC déploiement de la nouvelle version de l'antivirus institutionnel pour les systèmes informatiques Windows de Bureau de la sécurité Informatique (DGTIC) soutiendront exclusivement la version 8.5i. · Obligation d

  16. WISC Software New Student Checklist

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    .uwm.edu; click on "Policies & Procedures" 3. Protect your computer with free campus anti-virus software. security.uwm.edu 4. Set up your laptop and mobile devices to use UWM WiFi. UWMWiFi.uwm.edu 5. Download UWM's free including music, movies and games. dmca.uwm.edu 9. If needed, give designate access to your PAWS account

  17. Profiling and accelerating string matching algorithms in three network content security applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-ching Lin; Zhi-xiang Li; Ying-dar Lin; Yuan-cheng Lai; Frank C. Lin

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of string matching algorithms is essential for network con- tent security applications, such as intrusion detection systems, anti-virus sys- tems, and Web content filters. This work reviews typical algorithms and profiles their performance under various situations to study the influence of the number, the length, and the character distribution of the signatures on performance. This profiling can reveal

  18. Computer Forensics Investigations in a Corporate Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deniz Sinangin

    2002-01-01

    Most organizations today accept that it is a fundamental business requirement to protect electronic information assets, and are implementing an increasing number of information security counter_measures, such as intrusion detection systems (IDS), access control mechanisms, and anti_virus products to protect their IT systems from potential security threats.

  19. B-1 and B-2 Cell–Derived Immunoglobulin M Antibodies Are Nonredundant Components of the Protective Response to Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarth, Nicole; Herman, Ometa C.; Jager, Gina C.; Brown, Lorena E.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Chen, Jianzhu

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the role of secreted immunoglobulin (Ig)M in protection from infection with influenza virus and delineated the relative contributions of B-1 versus B-2 cell–derived IgM in this process. Mice deficient in secreted IgM but capable of expressing surface IgM and secreting other Ig classes show significantly reduced virus clearance and survival rates compared with wild-type controls. Irradiation chimeras in which only either B-1 or B-2 cells lack the ability to secrete IgM show mortality rates similar to those of mice in which neither B-1 nor B-2 cells secrete IgM. Dependence on both sources of IgM for survival is partially explained by findings in allotype chimeras that broadly cross-reactive B-1 cell–derived natural IgM is present before infection, whereas virus strain–specific, B-2 cell–derived IgM appears only after infection. Furthermore, lack of IgM secreted from one or both sources significantly impairs the antiviral IgG response. Reconstitution of chimeras lacking B-1 cell–derived IgM only with IgM-containing serum from noninfected mice improved both survival rates and serum levels of virus-specific IgG. Thus, virus-induced IgM must be secreted in the presence of natural IgM for efficient induction of specific IgG and for immune protection, identifying B-1 and B-2 cell–derived IgM antibodies as nonredundant components of the antiviral response. PMID:10899913

  20. An Unusual Case of Bilateral Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Pistolese, C. A.; Di Trapano, R.; Girardi, V.; Costanzo, E.; Di Poce, I.; Simonetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM. PMID:23781373

  1. Cell surface immunoglobulin. XVIII. Functional differences of B lymphocytes bearing different surface immunoglobulin isotypes

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Three populations of murine splenic B lymphocytes have been characterized previously (6, 7, 9) as those bearing only IgM, those bearing only IgD, and a population bearing both isotopes. These studies were designed to test the response of the IgM+ cells (IgM-only or IgM plus IgD) vs. the IgD-only cells to the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide. Results that after 1-4 days of culture, in the presence of mitogen, the IgM+ cells enlarge and elaborate an IgM polyclonal response. The IgD-only cells, in contrast, do not exhibit an IgM polyclonal response, but instead undergo blastogenesis and proliferation. PMID:1083417

  2. The Antibody Response Following Hepatitis A Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Locarnini; Allan A. Ferris; Noreen I. Lehmann; Ian D. Gust

    1977-01-01

    Summary A specific IgM response to hepatitis A virus was detected in sera from patients suffering acute hepatitis A infection. The presence of virus-specific IgM in 19S components of acute and early convalescent phase sera was detected by immune electron microscopy and solid-phase radioimmunoassay. The presence of virus-specific IgM in whole serum specimens was demonstrated by indirect immunoferritin labeling. Following

  3. An unusual cause of recurrent pneumonia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Varun; Sagar, Vinay; Aggarwal, Ashutosh; Rawat, Amit; Singhal, Manphool

    2014-01-01

    Selective IgM deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency defined as isolated low levels of IgM. It presents with recurrent infections and has been described as first presenting in adulthood with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Unlike its better known counterpart of IgA deficiency, this particular immunodeficiency is often overlooked. We present a case of selective IgM deficiency who presented with recurrent respiratory infections. PMID:25125825

  4. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Treponema pallidum in a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mtiller; M. Moskophidis; H.-L. Borkhardt

    1987-01-01

    The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies toTreponema pallidum in sera of syphilitic patients is complicated by false positive reactions due to the interference of IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) activity and the presence of treponemal IgG antibodies. Another source of error producing false negative results is the competition between treponemal IgG and IgM antibodies

  5. Elisa for Human IgG and IpM Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Antibodies with Indirect Standardization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Fomsgaard; Bo Dinesen

    1987-01-01

    A new attempt to standardize ELISAs for the quantitation of human IgM and IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide antibodies (anti-LPS), without the use of a specific standard material, is described. Sandwich ELISAs for total IgG and IgM were combined with indirect ELISAs for anti-LPS IgG and IgM antibodies on a 96-well microtest plate using identical assay conditions. The concentration of specific IgG or

  6. Thermal Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton Sanderbeck, Phoebe; McQuinn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The thermal evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) can provide clues regarding the reionization history of the IGM. Recent temperature measurements of the IGM from Lyman alpha forest data have given insight into the timeline of these reionization events, specifically the reionization of HeII at z~3. We model the thermal history of the IGM from HI reionization through HeII reionization based on well established heating and cooling processes. We present a comparison of such modeling of the thermal evolution with the recent observational constraints anddiscuss additional heating mechanisms.

  7. Distributive immunization of networks against viruses using the `honey-pot' architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Shavitt, Yuval; Shir, Eran; Solomon, Sorin

    2005-12-01

    Although computer viruses cause tremendous economic loss, defence mechanisms fail to adapt to their rapid evolution. Previous immunization strategies have been characterized as being static and centralized, which has made virus containment difficult or even impossible. We suggest, instead, to propagate the immunization agent as an epidemic. The main problem with epidemic vaccine propagation is that it is bound to lag behind the virus. We suggest giving the vaccine an advantage over the virus by allowing it to leapfrog through a separate, overlapping, partially correlated network. This enables the antivirus to contain the epidemic efficiently. We systemize this concept with a `honey-pot' architecture that achieves both early virus discovery and rapid antivirus dissemination. We present analytic, as well as simulation, results for a set of realistic topologies that illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  8. The WildList Organization International

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The WildList is a free list of all known computer viruses that are spreading in the world, as compiled by volunteer antivirus experts of the WildList Organization International. It is updated monthly and, as one can imagine, is quite lengthy. The site has many other interesting features besides the list. For example, a somewhat humorous article by the WildList's founder describes his views on "how scientific naming works" for computer viruses. Several other papers are also offered that deal with virus issues. Some links to sites that test products or describe viruses are given as well. This site takes a very objective approach to releasing information and, therefore, does not endorse any particular antivirus software.

  9. Beyond Firewalls: Professional Certification Ensures Your Staff Will Understand Information Security in Its Proper Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to security, many people do not know what they do not know. Consider for example, an administrator who leaves her password taped under her keyboard, or a teacher who doesn't change his password (ever!) or can't be bothered to log out or lock the computer, all the firewalls and antivirus programs in the world will not protect a…

  10. Effects of zhaoyangwan on chronic hepatitis B and posthepatic cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cui-Ping Zhang; Zi-Bin Tian; Xi-Shuang Liu; Qing-Xi Zhao; Jun Wu; Yong-Xin Liang

    AIM: To study the therapeutic effects of zhaoyangwan (ZYW) on chronic hepatitis B and hepatic cirrhosis and the anti-virus, anti-fibrosis and immunoregulatory mechanisms of ZYW. METHODS: Fifty cases of chronic hepatitis B and posthepatic cirrhosis with positive serum HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-Hbc and HBV-DNA were divided randomly and single-blindly into the treatment group (treated with ZYW) and the control group (treated

  11. Designing and evaluating interleaving decompressing and virus scanning in a stream-based mail proxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-dar Lin; Szu-hao Chen; Po-ching Lin; Yuan-cheng Lai

    2008-01-01

    A storage-based anti-virus access gateway is not scalable because it stores the entire mail under processing. This work designs and evaluates a stream-based mail proxy constructed from several open-source packages. This proxy processes mail in segments, and inter- leaves MIME parsing, decoding, decompressing and virus scanning. It is seven times faster than the storage-based one on forwarding, three times faster

  12. Chicken recombinant antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus are able to form antibody–virus immune complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ignjatovic; G. Gould; L. Trinidad; S. Sapats

    2006-01-01

    Virus particles exposed to specific anti-virus antibodies result in the formation of immune complexes (Icx). Recent vaccination strategies have employed this feature, and an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine based on Icx has been released and is expected to replace conventional IBDV vaccines. We evaluated whether chicken recombinant antibodies (rAb) specific for IBDV, rather than conventional chicken anti-IBDV sera,

  13. A Two-Layer Approach for Novel Email Worm Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The rapid proliferation of novel email-borne worms poses new challenges for systems adminis- trators. Traditional techniques for scanning email messages for viruses rely on up-to-date virus sig- natures. However, these signatures are primarily manually generated, can only be created after a sample of a virus has been received and identified by an antivirus company, and must be dissem- inated to

  14. Metamorphic Viruses with Built-In Buffer Overflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronak Shah

    2010-01-01

    Metamorphic computer viruses change their structure—and thereby their signature—each time they infect a system. Metamorphic viruses are potentially one of the most dangerous types of computer viruses because they are difficult to detect using signature-based methods. Most anti-virus software today is based on signature detection techniques. In this project, we create and analyze a metamorphic virus toolkit which creates viruses

  15. Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein Jahankhani; Branko Antonijevic; Terry Walcott

    2008-01-01

    The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously.\\u000a In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus\\u000a software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools\\u000a are marketed as

  16. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Nai Fovino; Andrea Carcano; Marcelo Masera; Alberto Trombetta

    2009-01-01

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks\\u000a and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security\\u000a solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks\\u000a that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version

  17. A Study on Relationship Migration among Social Networking Providers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suran Li; Lei Wang; Zhenquan Qin; Zhu Ming; Lei Shu

    2011-01-01

    User profiles backup and migration among social networking providers have become more urgent after the conflict between Tencent1, the largest Instant Messaging(IM) service provider in China, and Qihu3602, the largest antivirus company in China. So far, exchanging contact list among emails has been wildly used. Mainstream email service providers commonly make use of Comma Separated Value (CSV) files to export\\/import

  18. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

    2001-01-01

    Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

  19. An analysis of signature overlaps in Intrusion Detection Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic Massicotte; Yvan Labiche

    2011-01-01

    An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) protects computer networks against attacks and intrusions, in combina- tion with firewalls and anti-virus systems. One class of IDS is called signature-based network IDSs, as they monitor network traffic, looking for evidence of malicious behaviour as specified in attack descriptions (referred to as signatures). Many studies report that IDSs, including signature-based network IDSs, have problems

  20. Cell-based analysis of Chikungunya virus membrane fusion using baculovirus-expression vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szu-Cheng Kuo; Ying-Ju Chen; Yu-Ming Wang; Ming-Der Kuo; Tzyy-Rong Jinn; Wen-Shuo Chen; Yen-Chung Chang; Kuo-Lun Tung; Tzong-Yuan Wu; Szecheng J. Lo

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus infection has emerged in many countries over the past decade. There are no effective drugs for controlling the disease. To develop cell-based system for screening anti-virus drugs, a bi-cistronic baculovirus expression system was utilized to co-express viral structural proteins C (capsid), E2 and E1 and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells (Sf21). The

  1. News 2.0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stanik

    2005-01-01

    So you’ve got your firewall, anti-virus, anti-spyware, and anti-key-loggerssolidly installed. Think you’re safe? Think again. Researchers at the Universityof California, Berkeley, have shown they can retrieve up to 96 percent of thecharacters you type, just by recording your taps and clicks with a cheap microphone.Software developed at Berkeley learns to recognize the audio prints of differentkeys on the keyboard, which—though

  2. Exposure, infection, systemic cytokine levels and antibody responses in young children concurrently exposed to

    E-print Network

    Mutapi, Francisca

    children. Levels of IgM, IgE, IgG4 directed against schistosome cercariae, egg and adult worm and IgM, Ig to parasite antigens, were positively associated with cercariae-specific IgE re- sponses, while Plasmodium cercariae to acquire significant levels of infection, and (2) that low levels of infection carried by pre

  3. Curriculum Vitae Personal Information

    E-print Network

    Rapaport, Iván

    of Helsinki, Finland, and Institut Gaspard Monge (IGM), Universit´e de Marne-la-Vall´ee, France. Areas), Universidad de Valladolid (Spain), Universidad Michoacana (Morelia, Michoac´an, Mexico), Institut Gaspard Monge (IGM, Universit´e de Marne-la-Vall´ee, France), Univer- sity of Joensuu (Finland), Universidad

  4. Orientation of cell-surface antigens in the lipid bilayer of lymphocyte plasma membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank S. Walsh; Michael J. Crumpton

    1977-01-01

    Human HLA-A, B, C and Ia antigens were labelled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed iodination of the inner surface of lymphocyte plasma membrane and thus are transmembrane proteins. In contrast, membrane-bound human IgM and mouse IgM, IgD and Thy-1 antigen were not labelled on the inner membrane surface.

  5. Quasar number density evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Stocke; S. C. Perrenod

    1981-01-01

    A simple model of quasar number density evolution is presented based on the occurrence of quasar-like radio galaxies (i.e., strong optical emission lines and type 2 radio morphology) exclusively in regions of low galaxy and intergalactic medium (IGM) density. This suggests a limit for the IGM density of 10 to the -4th (+ or - 1) per cu cm below

  6. Performance characteristics of six IMMULITE 2000 TORCH assays.

    PubMed

    Owen, William E; Martins, Thomas B; Litwin, Christine M; Roberts, William L

    2006-12-01

    TORCH is an acronym for Toxoplasma gondii (Toxo), other microorganisms (eg, syphilis), rubella virus (RV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) that are associated with congenital abnormalities from maternal infection. We evaluated linearity, imprecision, and comparison with commercially available methods of the IMMULITE 2000 (Diagnostic Products, Los Angeles, CA) Toxo IgG, Toxo IgM, RV IgG, RV IgM, CMV IgG, and HSV IgG assays. Linearity and imprecision results were acceptable. The IMMULITE 2000 assays show good concordance with other commercially available methods except for Toxo IgM and RV IgM. Toxo IgM showed better concordance with a consensus of 3 of 4 (Access, Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA; IMMULITE 2000; Platelia, Bio-Rad Laboratories Diagnostics Group, Redmond, WA; and Vidas, bioMerieux, Hazelwood, MO) assays than with Access alone. The RV IgM assay showed better concordance with the Zeus method than with the Diamedix method (Diamedix, Miami, FL). The IMMULITE 2000 TORCH assays studied show acceptable performance and are suitable for routine clinical use. Some commercial assays for Toxo IgM and RV IgM show rather poor concordance. PMID:17074686

  7. Measurement of the sensitivity of different commercial assays in the diagnosis of CMV infection in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gentile, M; Galli, C; Pagnotti, P; Di Marco, P; Tzantzoglou, S; Bellomi, F; Ferreri, M L; Selvaggi, C; Antonelli, G

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the performance of different commercial assays for the detection of recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) in pregnancy, the sensitivity and specificity of assays for CMV-specific IgM antibodies were compared. Routine specimens from pregnant women were screened for CMV IgM using the Abbott AxSYM assay. Sera that were reactive according to AxSYM were further tested for IgM by other commercial assays. In selected IgM positive samples a CMV IgG avidity assay (Radim) and virus isolation from urine (shell vial) were also performed. The positivity rate for IgM anti-CMV by AxSYM was relatively high (140 out of 492, combining reactive and grayzone results). Only 26 of the 140 samples were positive for IgM according to Radim. The IgG avidity was low in 16 of the 43 samples tested, and the Radim and DiaSorin IgM assays were negative in 5 of them; 2 of the latter cases were also positive for viral isolation according to a shell vial method. There are differences in the sensitivity of the commercially available tests for CMV antibodies. CMV screening in pregnancy is performed as a first step by immunoassays and the choice of highly sensitive IgM test associated with further serological and virological methods could help to identify early primary infections. PMID:19360443

  8. The Hot Inter-Galactic Medium and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Michael Fisher

    2007-05-01

    The physical characteristics of the Lyman-alpha forest cloud systems are combined with observations on the baryonic mass density of the Universe and constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis to set boundary conditions on the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) at the epoch of z=2.5. The Universe is considered a closed system and allowed to expand adiabatically from the epoch when QSOs first ionized the IGM (5 <= z_on <= 20). The average kinetic energy of a gas is calculated in the region where the gas transitions from relativistic to non-relativistic behavior. All of the above measurements are then used to determine the thermal history of the IGM in the redshift range 2.5 <= z <= z_on. The hot IGM is assumed to inverse Compton scatter photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMBR) and consequently distort the CMBR as seen at the present epoch. The temperature of the IGM at z=2.5 and the epoch z_on are adjusted, within the constraints defined above, to give the best overall agreement with published data on the temperature of the IGM. We find that the model of the IGM proposed here does not grossly distort the CMBR, and in fact agrees quite closely with the preliminary results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. However, our model of the IGM cannot explain the observed cosmic x ray background. This paper was originally written in 1990. It was never submitted for publication.

  9. X-ray constraints on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldcroft, Thomas; Elvis, Martin; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Fiore, Fabrizio

    1994-01-01

    We use ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectra of z approximately equal 3 quasars to constrain the density and temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Strong low-energy cutoffs in PSPC spectra of high-redshift quasars are common. However, the absence of absorption toward some high-redshift quasars can be used to put limits on the possible cosmological density, Omega(sub G), of a hot diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM), via an X-ray Gunn-Peterson test using edge and line opacity in the soft X-rays. The K-edges of oxygen, neon, and carbon and the L-edge of iron produce most of the absorption which is spread out by the redshift of the source. We assume an isotropic, isothermal, nonevolving model of the IGM and calculate the optical depth of this absorption. We find that this test can constrain an enriched IGM at temperatures near 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) K, intermediate between the hot IGM ruled out by COBE, and the cold IGM ruled out by the traditional Ly alpha Gunn -Peterson test. Photoionization if the IGM by the ultraviolet and X-ray background has a large effect. We give results for three z approximately equal 3 quasars and discuss how the various trade-offs among temperature, abundance, and backgroud radiation strength affect the limits on Omega (sub G). In addition to the high-redshift case, we discuss techniques for constraining the IGM using X-ray spectra of low-redhift quasars (z approximately equal 0.1 - 0.3). Currently available X-ray spectral data have insufficient energy resolution to constrain the IGM umambiguously, and so expected detection limits for future high-resolution spectrometers are presented. We find that with a large effective area (approximately 2000 sq cm), it is possible to substantially constrain or detect the IGM at the densities which are typically predicted.

  10. Human anti-HLA-DQw2 monoclonal antibody secreted by an Epstein-Barr-virus--transformed lymphoblastoid cell line: assessment of the monoclonality, allospecificity, and target.

    PubMed

    Pistillo, M P; Tanigaki, N; Chua, R; Mazzoleni, O; Ferrara, G B

    1989-04-01

    IgM molecules were purified by the use of anti-IgM antibody-coupled Sepharose from the culture supernatant of an Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line, MP1, that secretes alloantibodies possessing HLA-DQw2 specificity as defined by the cytotoxicity assay. The obtained IgM preparation was labeled with radioactive iodine-125I and fractionated by gel filtration. It contained pentameric IgM and smaller oligomeric IgMs. When tested by the direct cellular binding assay against a panel of HLA-typed cell lines, they all showed the DR3 and DR7 association pattern characteristic of DQw2. A weak but significant binding was detected for DR1, DR6, and DR9. On isoelectrofocusing, MP1 pentameric IgM gave a restricted banding pattern comparable to monoclonal IgM obtained from a patient with Waldenström's syndrome. Moreover, the pattern was identical to that of IgM purified from the culture supernatant of a defined hybrid clone, 162, that was generated by fusing MP1 cells with heteromyeloma D33 cells. The target class II molecules showed the dimeric structure that conforms to DQw2 molecules. PMID:2540128

  11. Numerical study of the properties of optical vortex array laser tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Chu et al. constructed a kind of Ince-Gaussian modes (IGM)-based vortex array laser beams consisting of p x p embedded optical vortexes from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e)(p,p) modes [Opt. Express 16, 19934 (2008)]. Such an IGM-based vortex array laser beams maintains its vortex array profile during both propagation and focusing, and is applicable to optical tweezers. This study uses the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to study the properties of the IGM-based vortex array laser tweezers while it traps dielectric particles. This study calculates the resultant force exerted on the spherical dielectric particles of different sizes situated at the IGM-based vortex array laser beam waist. Numerical results show that the number of trapping spots of a structure light (i.e. IGM-based vortex laser beam), is depended on the relation between the trapped particle size and the structure light beam size. While the trapped particle is small comparing to the beam size of the IGM-based vortex array laser beams, the IGM-based vortex array laser beams tweezers are suitable for multiple traps. Conversely, the tweezers is suitable for single traps. The results of this study is useful to the future development of the vortex array laser tweezers applications. PMID:24216863

  12. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays Using Recombinant Envelope Protein Expressed in COS-1 and Drosophila S2 Cells for Detection of West Nile Virus Immunoglobulin M in Serum or Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Muerhoff, A. Scott; Dawson, George J.; Dille, Bruce; Gutierrez, Robin; Leary, Thomas P.; Gupta, Malini C.; Kyrk, Charles R.; Kapoor, Hema; Clark, Patricia; Schochetman, Gerald; Desai, Suresh M.

    2004-01-01

    Humans infected with West Nile virus (WNV) develop immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies soon after infection. The microtiter-based assays for WNV IgM antibody detection used by most state public health and reference laboratories utilize WNV antigen isolated from infected Vero cells or recombinant envelope protein produced in COS-1 cells. Recombinant antigen produced in COS-1 cells was used to develop a WNV IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A supplementary EIA using WNV envelope protein expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells was also developed. Both assays detected WNV IgM in the sera of experimentally infected rhesus monkeys within approximately 10 days postinfection. Human sera previously tested for WNV IgM at a state public health laboratory (SPHL) were evaluated using both EIAs. Among the sera from 20 individuals with laboratory-confirmed WNV infection (i.e., IgM-positive cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]) that were categorized as equivocal for WNV IgM at the SPHL, 19 were IgM positive and one was negative by the new EIAs. Of the 19 IgM-positive patients, 15 were diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis; the IgM-negative patient was not diagnosed with neurological disease. There was 100% agreement between the EIAs for the detection of WNV IgM. CSF samples from 21 individuals tested equivocal for WNV IgM at the SPHL; all 21 were positive in both bead assays, and 16 of these patients were diagnosed with neurological disease. These findings demonstrate that the new EIAs accurately identify WNV infection in individuals with confirmed WNV encephalitis and that they exhibit enhanced sensitivity over that of the microtiter assay format. PMID:15242936

  13. Influence of the ?-chain C-terminal sequence on polymerization of immunoglobulin M

    PubMed Central

    Getahun, A; Lundqvist, M; Middleton, D; Warr, G; Pilström, L

    1999-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (IgM) is found in various states of covalent polymerization (?L)n, where n is typically 8, 10, or 12. The usual form of IgM of bony fish is tetrameric (8 ?L units) as compared to the pentameric form (10 ?L units) observed in cartilaginous fish and mammals. Two hypotheses were tested in this study. First, that the length of the ?-chain C terminus following Cys575 determines whether an IgM polymerizes as a tetramer or as a pentamer. This was tested by examining the covalent polymerization state of mouse IgM mutated to contain a series of ?-chain C-termini from bony and cartilaginous fish. The results proved this hypothesis wrong: mouse IgM bearing the C-terminal sequence of shark, salmon and cod ?-chain behaved identically to native mouse IgM, forming predominantly (?L)10 and (?L)12 forms. The second hypothesis was that an additional Cys residue near the C terminus of the ?-chain is responsible for the multiple covalent structures seen in IgM of the channel catfish. The addition of a catfish C terminus to the mouse ?-chain resulted, as predicted, in the production of a series of covalently bonded forms, with the major species being (?L)4. When a Ser-Cys unit was removed from the catfish C terminus added to the mouse ?-chain, this resulted in production of IgM indistinguishable in structure from that of wild-type mouse IgM. PMID:10447761

  14. A model for the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter-dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the cold-dark-matter (CDM) and baryonic components of CDM-dominated cosmological models are characterized, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. The evolution and distribution of matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe on length scales small enough so that the Newtonian approximation is valid is followed chronologically, assuming (1) that the galaxies, CDM, and the intergalactic medium (IGM) are coupled by gravity, (2) that galaxies form by taking mass and momentum from the IGM, and (3) that the IGM responds to the energy input from the galaxies. The results of the numerical computations are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail.

  15. Bent-Double Radio Sources as Probes of the Intragroup Medium

    E-print Network

    E. Freeland; E. Wilcots

    2007-07-25

    Galaxy groups likely contain a significant fraction of the total baryonic mass in the local universe within their intragroup medium (IGM). However, aside from a handful of UV absorption line and X-ray observations, almost nothing is known about the IGM. We present early results from a research program that combines low-frequency radio continuum observations and optical spectroscopy of bent-double radio sources and their neighbors in groups of galaxies. These observations allow us to probe the density of the IGM to an unprecedented degree by examining its impact on the jets of radio galaxies.

  16. [125I]IgM (KAU) human monoclonal cold agglutinin: labelling and studies on its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Vigorito, E; Robles, A; Balter, H; Nappa, A; Goñi, F

    1995-10-01

    In order to study the interaction between an IgM cold agglutinin and the erythrocyte I antigen, the former antibody was labelled with 125I using the Chloramine-T, IODOGEN and Bolton-Hunter methods. High incorporation and adequate stability of the labelled IgM were obtained with all procedures. However, suitable biological activity was maintained only with the Bolton-Hunter method. Further studies suggest that tyrosine iodination affects antigen recognition by this IgM, whereas iodination of amino groups does not. The reagent thus prepared allowed the determination of the number of I sites per erythrocyte as well as the antibody affinity constant. PMID:7496374

  17. Immunological properties of a radioiodinated monoclonal antibody and its F(ab')2mu fragments directed against the polymorphic epithelial mucin of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, M; Nuti, M; Cascialli, G; Turchi, V; Clemente, M; Rossetto, G; Centi Colella, A; Pala, A

    1992-01-01

    The purification of the IgM monoclonal antibody 436 against a breast tumor antigen from mouse ascitic fluid is reported. The purified immunoglobulin was radioiodinated and the resulting product assessed for its binding capacity and binding specificity. Purified IgM-436 served for F(ab')2 mu preparation which was tested for its antigen binding capacity. Radioiodinated IgM-436 and its F(ab')2 mu retained their immunological activity which was never lower than those of the corresponding cold products. PMID:1491175

  18. Plasma Effects on Extragalactic Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Ray Hadron Beams in Cosmic Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2014-07-01

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (? b ? 106) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 1015 eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times that are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilizes and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the IGM.

  19. Measurement of the sensitivity of different commercial assays in the diagnosis of CMV infection in pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gentile; C. Galli; P. Pagnotti; P. Di Marco; S. Tzantzoglou; F. Bellomi; M. L. Ferreri; C. Selvaggi; G. Antonelli

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of different commercial assays for the detection of recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) in pregnancy,\\u000a the sensitivity and specificity of assays for CMV-specific IgM antibodies were compared. Routine specimens from pregnant women\\u000a were screened for CMV IgM using the Abbott AxSYM assay. Sera that were reactive according to AxSYM were further tested for\\u000a IgM by other commercial assays.

  20. Avian Diseases An international journal dedicated to avian health

    E-print Network

    para la deteccio´n de anticuerpos contra la influenza aviar en patos reales (Anas platyrhynchos Nobuto paper strips for the detection of avian influenza antibodies was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Blood was collected 2 wk

  1. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  2. System Toolbox

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

  3. Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hossein; Antonijevic, Branko; Walcott, Terry

    The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously. In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools are marketed as perfect solutions to the ever culminating problems such as loss of data and privacy in networked and world wide intercommunications. We provide a forum for addressing these perceived problems in this paper.

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  5. Malware distributed collection and pre-classification system using honeypot technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégio, André R. A.; Oliveira, Isabela L.; Santos, Rafael D. C.; Cansian, Adriano M.; de Geus, Paulo L.

    2009-04-01

    Malware has become a major threat in the last years due to the ease of spread through the Internet. Malware detection has become difficult with the use of compression, polymorphic methods and techniques to detect and disable security software. Those and other obfuscation techniques pose a problem for detection and classification schemes that analyze malware behavior. In this paper we propose a distributed architecture to improve malware collection using different honeypot technologies to increase the variety of malware collected. We also present a daemon tool developed to grab malware distributed through spam and a pre-classification technique that uses antivirus technology to separate malware in generic classes.

  6. Identification of Malicious Web Pages by Inductive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peishun; Wang, Xuefang

    Malicious web pages are an increasing threat to current computer systems in recent years. Traditional anti-virus techniques focus typically on detection of the static signatures of Malware and are ineffective against these new threats because they cannot deal with zero-day attacks. In this paper, a novel classification method for detecting malicious web pages is presented. This method is generalization and specialization of attack pattern based on inductive learning, which can be used for updating and expanding knowledge database. The attack pattern is established from an example and generalized by inductive learning, which can be used to detect unknown attacks whose behavior is similar to the example.

  7. The Lunar Radio Array (LRA) Point of Contact: Joseph Lazio

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    Ages"? How does the IGM evolve during this important time? What were the properties of high-z galaxies micro-sats, small lunar payloads Low-mass, high- capability, autonomous rovers 7­10 years $5M Mars

  8. Acceleration of primary and secondary particles in galaxy clusters by compressible MHD turbulence: from radio halos to gamma rays

    E-print Network

    Brunetti, G

    2010-01-01

    Radio observations discovered large scale non thermal sources in the central Mpc regions of dynamically disturbed galaxy clusters (radio halos). The morphological and spectral properties of these sources suggest that the emitting electrons are accelerated by spatially distributed and gentle mechanisms, providing some indirect evidence for turbulent acceleration in the inter-galactic-medium (IGM). Only deep upper limits to the energy associated with relativistic protons in the IGM have been recently obtained through gamma and radio observations. Yet these protons should be (theoretically) the main non-thermal particle component in the IGM implying the unavoidable production, at some level, of secondary particles that may have a deep impact on the gamma ray and radio properties of galaxy clysters. Following Brunetti and Lazarian (2007), in this paper we consider the advances in the theory of MHD turbulence to develop a comprehensive picture of turbulence in the IGM and extend our previous calculations of partic...

  9. Responsiveness of B cells is regulated by the hinge region of IgD.

    PubMed

    Übelhart, Rudolf; Hug, Eva; Bach, Martina P; Wossning, Thomas; Dühren-von Minden, Marcus; Horn, Anselm H C; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Kometani, Kohei; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Binder, Christoph J; Sticht, Heinrich; Nitschke, Lars; Reth, Michael; Jumaa, Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Mature B cells express immunoglobulin M (IgM)- and IgD-isotype B cell antigen receptors, but the importance of IgD for B cell function has been unclear. By using a cellular in vitro system and corresponding mouse models, we found that antigens with low valence activated IgM receptors but failed to trigger IgD signaling, whereas polyvalent antigens activated both receptor types. Investigations of the molecular mechanism showed that deletion of the IgD-specific hinge region rendered IgD responsive to monovalent antigen, whereas transferring the hinge to IgM resulted in responsiveness only to polyvalent antigen. Our data suggest that the increased IgD/IgM ratio on conventional B-2 cells is important for preferential immune responses to antigens in immune complexes, and that the increased IgM expression on B-1 cells is essential for B-1 cell homeostasis and function. PMID:25848865

  10. Feedback and its Feedback Effect on Feedback: Photoionization Suppression and its Impact on Galactic Outflows

    E-print Network

    Matthew M. Pieri; Hugo Martel

    2007-05-02

    We show that radiative feedback due to reionization has a pronounced effect on the extent of mechanical feedback due to galactic outflows. The photoionization of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) suppresses low-mass galaxy formation by photoheating the gas and limiting atomic line cooling. The number of low-mass galaxies is central for the enrichment of the IGM as these objects have the capacity to enrich a significant fraction (by volume) of the Universe. We use a modified version of our galactic outflow model, combined with a simple criterion for suppression, to investigate the potential impact upon the IGM. We find that this suppression strongly reduces the enrichment of the IGM and is sensitive to the reionization history. We also investigate the contribution of halos of different masses with varying degrees of suppression.

  11. Bio-Rad Laboratories q u a l i t y c o n t r o l Assayed Chemistry Control

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    (Pancreatic) Apolipoprotein A-1 Apolipoprotein B AST/SGOT Bilirubin (Direct) Bilirubin (Indirect) BilirubinG IgM Iron Iron (TIBC) Iron (UIBC) Lactate (Lactic Acid) LAP-Arylamidase LDH Lipase Lithium Magnesium

  12. Bio-Rad Laboratories S E R U M C H E M I S T R Y C O N T R O L S Chemistry Control (Human)

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    (Pancreatic) Apolipoprotein A-1 Apolipoprotein B AST/SGOT Bilirubin (Direct) Bilirubin (Indirect) BilirubinG IgM Iron Iron (TIBC) Iron (UIBC) Lactate (Lactic Acid) LAP-Arylamidase LDH Lipase Lithium Magnesium

  13. Using the IMSL MATH/LIBRARY in Numerical Methods Courses

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    , 1990 Abstract This article describes our experience using the IMSL MATH/ LIBRARY in five numerical to a combined class of about 100 third­year industrial, geotechnical, and metallurgical engineering (IGME

  14. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for detecting immunoglobulin M antibodies to Sindbis virus and further evidence that Pogosta disease is caused by a western equine encephalitis complex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C H; Meurman, O; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Halonen, P E; Muth, D J

    1985-01-01

    An antibody capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was adapted for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Sindbis (SIN) virus. Sera from humans with a febrile illness characterized by rash and arthralgia in eastern Finland (Pogosta [POG] disease) and Sweden (Ockelbo disease) and from humans with western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus infection in the United States were tested for IgM antibodies by EIA. Seroconversions were documented in patients with POG disease and with WEE virus infections by using SIN virus as antigen and rabbit anti-SIN virus immunoglobulin; this confirms previous observations that POG disease is caused by a virus closely related to SIN virus and that IgM antibodies to WEE complex alphaviruses are not type specific. This IgM EIA provided a sensitive diagnostic and research tool applicable to epidemiologic problems posed by POG disease. PMID:3908469

  15. The Effects of Photoionization on Galaxy Formation - I: Model and Results at z=0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Benson; C. G. Lacey; C. M. Baugh; S. Cole; C. S. Frenk

    2001-01-01

    We develop a coupled model for the evolution of the global properties of the\\u000aintergalactic medium (IGM) and the formation of galaxies, in the presence of a\\u000aphotoionizing background due to stars and quasars. We use this model to predict\\u000athe thermodynamic history of the IGM when photoionized by galaxies forming in a\\u000acold dark matter (CDM) universe. The evolution

  16. Antibodies to endotoxin core in sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B A Oppenheim; G R Barclay; J Morris; F Knox; A Barson; D B Drucker; B A Crawley

    1994-01-01

    To assess the possible role of endotoxaemia in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), antibodies to endotoxin core (EndoCAb), which have previously been shown to be depressed by systemic endotoxaemia, were measured. IgG and IgM EndoCAb and total serum IgG and IgM were measured in serum samples from 25 children who had died from SIDS and 164 control

  17. Disparity in the kinetics of onset of hypermutation in immunoglobulin heavy and light chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harjeet Van Der Keyl; Ziad F Gellad; Judith A Owen

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes a comparative analysis of light chains associated with primary and secondary IgM, as well as with secondary IgG antibodies to fluorescein, undertaken in order to explore the relationship between light chain somatic hypermutation and the isotype switch. The data reveal a disparity in the frequency of somatic hypermutation of secondary IgM heavy versus light chains. Among

  18. Fluctuations in anti-nRNP levels in patients with mixed connective tissue disease are related to disease activity as part of a polyclonal B cell response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P M Houtman; C G Kallenberg; P C Limburg; M A van Leeuwen; M H van Rijswijk; T H The

    1986-01-01

    In a follow up study of 11 patients with mixed connective tissue disease the levels of antibodies to nuclear ribonucleoprotein (nRNP) as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were related to clinical activity of disease. To assess the relation between anti-nRNP levels and disease activity the levels of total immunoglobulin G, IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF), and antibodies

  19. Comparison of available methods to elute serum from dried blood spot samples for measles serology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Mercader; David Featherstone; William J. Bellini

    2006-01-01

    Six existing protocols for the extraction of serum from blood spots dried onto filter paper were compared. Assessment criteria included: detection of measles IgM and IgG by the Dade Behring Enzygnost® immunoassays, volumes of recovered eluates, reproducibility, processing time and throughput, difficulty of protocol, equipment required, safety and estimated costs. Detection of measles IgM in eluates obtained by four of

  20. Time course localization of immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody and its fragments in leukemic tumor-bearing mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Maillet; Annie-Claude Roche; Fabienne Thérain; Michel Monsigny

    1985-01-01

    In vivo localization of a mouse monoclonal antibody (F2-10.23 IgM) binding leukemic L 1210 cells was studied in DBA\\/2 mice bearing an L 1210 tumor. F(ab')2 fragments were prepared and their specific binding to L 1210 cells was analyzed by flow cytofluorometry. Radiolocalization studies were performed by using 125I- or 131I-labeled IgM monoclonal antibody or its F(ab')2 fragments to ascertain

  1. [ 125I]IgM (KAU) Human monoclonal cold agglutinin: Labelling and studies on its biological activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Vigorito; A. Robles; H. Balter; A. Nappa; F. Goñi

    1995-01-01

    In order to study the interaction between an IgM cold agglutinin and the erythrocyte I antigen, the former antibody was labelled with 125I using the Chloramine-T, IODOGEN and Bolton-Hunter methods. High incorporation and adequate stability of the labelled IgM were obtained with all procedures. However, suitable biological activity was maintained only with the Bolton-Hunter method. Further studies suggest that tyrosine

  2. Chimeric interleukin 2 receptor ? chain antibody derivatives with fused ? and ? chains permit improved recruitment of effector functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Schäffner; Christine François; Brigitte Kaluza; Yannick Jacques; Ulrich H. Weidle

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of shuffling effector functions of monoclonal antibodies, we constructed chimeric antibodies with fused heavy chains. The derivatives studied are based on a monoclonal antibody directed against the ? chain of the human I12-R. Derivatives studied were the IgG1 and IgM isotypes; IgM?, lacking the ability of multimerization due to a deletion; IgMc?1 and IgG1c?,

  3. Antibody Overview 1-3 Introduction to Antibody Production, Purification and Modification 1

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Fragments 42 Fragmentation of IgG 43 Fragmentation of IgM 48 Antibody Labeling 50-69 Overview 50 Enzyme Labeling 51 Biotin Labeling 57 Fluorescent Labeling 63 Iodine Labeling 67 Contents #12;This ability (ELISA). Determining the class (e.g., IgG vs. IgM) and subclass (e.g., IgG1 vs. IgG2a) of an antibody

  4. The cancer recognition (CARE) antibody test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry T. Thornthwaite; Emily C. McDuffee; Robert B. Harris; Julie R. Secor McVoy

    2004-01-01

    The cancer recognition (CARE) antibody (Ab) test is a serologic assay for a specific IgM that is elevated in cancer patients. All tests are measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of human serum. The target polypeptide in the CARE Ab test is the IgM binding epitope (LT-11) of the CARE antigen (Ag) consisting of a 16 mer structure

  5. Hydrophobic blocks of PEG-conjugates play a significant role in the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Hamano, Mikiko; Ma, Huili; Kawano, Kumi; Maitani, Yoshie; Aoshi, Taiki; Ishii, Ken J; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2013-02-10

    Injections of poly(ethylene glycol)-modified liposomes (PEG-liposomes) cause rapid clearance of the second dose of PEG-liposomes. This phenomenon is known as the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon. Previous studies have suggested that PEG-specific IgM (anti-PEG IgM) can play a major role in the ABC phenomenon. In our previous study, however, a PEG-shell-possessing polymeric micelle with hydrophilic inner core (PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd) micelle) did not induce the ABC phenomenon nor the IgM responses, and exhibited no change in its plasma concentration in PEG-liposome-injected mice. In the present paper, we studied the ABC-phenomenon in more detail by comparing the behaviors between PEG-liposomes, PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd) micelle, and hydrophobic-core-possessing PEG-PBLA micelles. We demonstrated that the PEG-PBLA micelle induced similar IgM responses as observed in PEG-liposome; however, the second dose of PEG-PBLA micelle exhibited no decreases in their plasma concentration, while the second dose of PEG-liposome did exhibit rapid clearances. Furthermore, we did not observe any PEG main chain specific IgM in PEG-liposome injected mice by sandwich ELISA which can measure more specific IgM to the PEG main chain theoretically. These results suggested that the induced IgM recognizes an interface between PEG chain and hydrophobic chain, rather than PEG main chain, and the anti-PEG IgM hypothesis should be re-evaluated. PMID:23220106

  6. Human Antiganglioside Autoantibodies: Validation of ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mepur H. Ravindranath; Sakunthala Muthugounder; Thiruverkadu S. Saravanan; Naftali Presser; Donald L. Morton

    2005-01-01

    Gangliosides have a hydrophilic sugar chain that contains antigenic determinants and a hydrophobic ceramide. In humans, gangliosides elicit a T-cell independent IgM response; antiganglioside IgM autoantibodies may be pentameric or polymeric. A correlation between specific neuropathies and antiganglioside autoantibodies has been confirmed. Although many neurologists attempt to lower titers of antiganglioside autoantibodies, oncologists are developing strategies to augment production of

  7. Nephrotic Syndrome due to Immunologically Mediated Hypocomplementic Glomerulonephritis in a Patient of Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Souichiro Haraguchi; Yoshiyuki Tomiyoshi; Shigehisa Aoki; Takanobu Sakemi

    2002-01-01

    A 72-year-old man was diagnosed as having nephritic syndrome complicated by Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (WM). A monoclonal IgM lamda protein and decreased serum complements were observed. The renal biopsy disclosed the capillary occluded by thrombi which was stained with IgG, IgA, IgM, C4, lamda light chain and slight kappa light chain in a granular pattern. Electron dense deposits were noted in

  8. Occurrence of a rheumatoid factor cross-reactive kappa light-chain idiotope in rheumatoid arthritis families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Schrohenloher; G. S. Alarcón; W. J. Koopman

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and RF-associated?-III light-chain idiotope identified by monoclonal antibody 6B6.6 in the serum from 22 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 68 relatives without connective tissue diseases in 15 families was determined by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum IgM RF was present in 19 RA patients from 12 families and 12 arthritis-free relatives of

  9. Leptospirosis among patients presenting with dengue-like illness in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Bruce; E. J. Sanders; J. A. D. Leake; O. Zaidel; S. L. Bragg; T. Aye; K. A. Shutt; C. C. Deseda; J. G. Rigau-Perez; J. W. Tappero; B. A. Perkins; R. A. Spiegel; D. A. Ashford

    2005-01-01

    Leptospirosis is difficult to distinguish from dengue fever without laboratory confirmation. Sporadic cases\\/clusters of leptospirosis occur in Puerto Rico, but surveillance is passive and laboratory confirmation is rare. We tested for leptospirosis using an IgM ELISA on sera testing negative for dengue virus IgM antibody and conducted a case–control study assessing risk factors for leptospirosis, comparing clinical\\/laboratory findings between leptospirosis

  10. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wei, Dianjun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG) is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808) and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615) were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91). In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard ? coefficient = 0.882). This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration. PMID:25915947

  11. FcE RECEPTOR, A SPECIFIC DIFFERENTIATION MARKER TRANSIENTLY EXPRESSED ON MATURE B CELLS BEFORE ISOTYPE SWITCHING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HITOSHI KIKUTANI; MASAKI SUEMURA; HAJIME OWAKI; HIROSHIGE NAKAMURA; RYOICHI SATO; KATSUHIKO YAMASAKI; EDWARD L. BARSUMIAN; RICHARD R. HARDY; TADAMITSU KISHIMOTO

    B lymphocytes originate from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and differ- entiate into antibody-secreting cells through multistep differentiation stages, such as pre-B cells, immature B cells with surface IgM, and mature B cells with surface IgM and IgD . A number of human B cell antigens have been defined by in Abs (I-10) . However, most B cell-specific mAbs, except for

  12. A generalized framework for interactive dynamic simulation for multirigid bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wookho Son; Kyunghwan Kim; Nancy M. Amato; Jeffrey C. Trinkle

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized framework for dynamic simulation realized in a prototype simulator called the Interactive Generalized Motion Simulator (I-GMS), which can simulate motions of multirigid-body systems with contact interaction in virtual environments. I-GMS is designed to meet two important goals: generality and interactivity. By generality, we mean a dynamic simulator which can easily support various systems of rigid

  13. Comparison of a Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Immunofluorescence and Complement Fixation Tests for Detection of Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever) Immunoglobulin M

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER R. FIELD; JODY L. MITCHELL; AVELINA SANTIAGO; DAVID J. DICKESON; SAU-WAN CHAN; DAVID W. T. HO; ALAN M. MURPHY; ANDREA J. CUZZUBBO; PETER L. DEVINE

    2000-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of Q fever (PanBio Coxiella burnetii immunoglobulin M (IgM) ELISA, QFM-200) was compared to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for C. burnetii IgM and the complement fixation test (CFT). The ELISA demonstrated 92% agreement with the reference method (IFAT), and gave a sensitivity of 99% (69 of 70 samples)

  14. Kinetics of CMV seroconversion in a Swiss pregnant women population.

    PubMed

    Maine, Gregory T; Stricker, René; Stricker, Reto

    2012-07-01

    Retrospective evaluation of the kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroconversion with CMV IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity assays, in a Swiss pregnant women population, has shown that the current published CMV serologic diagnostic algorithms were valid and fit for use. In 19% of the cases analyzed, CMV-specific IgM was detected before IgG. PMID:22541330

  15. Gangliosides, Ab1 and Ab2 antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro López-Requena; Marco Bestagno; Cristina Mateo de Acosta; Michela Cesco-Gaspere; Ana María Vázquez; Rolando Pérez; Oscar R. Burrone

    2007-01-01

    P3 mAb is an IgM monoclonal antibody specific for N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides. The immunogenicity of the P3 idiotype has been previously described by immunizing syngeneic BALB\\/c mice with the purified murine IgM or the mouse-human chimeric IgG antibody. In the present work we study the antibody response against the idiotype of P3 mAb through immunization with DNA. We used small immune

  16. Immunoglobulins and the X-chromosome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rhodes; R. L. Markham; P. M. Maxwell; M. E. Monk-Jones

    1969-01-01

    Serum levels of immunoglobulins (Ig) G, M, and A were determined in 28 women with an additional X-chromosome (XXX), and in equal numbers of age-matched normal women and men. Mean IgM levels were found to be highest in the XXX group, intermediate in normal women, and lowest in men; these differences were statistically significant. Mean IgM values obtained from seven

  17. Acute viral hepatitis in Hanoi, Viet Nam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Corwin; T. C. Dai; Dao Dinh Duc; P. I. Suu; Nguyen Thu Van; Le Dang Ha; M. Janick; L. Kanti; Anni Sie; R. Soderquist; R. Graham; S. F. Wignall; K. C. Hyams

    1996-01-01

    A study of acute hepatitis was conducted in Hanoi, Viet Nam, from January 1993 to February 1995; 188 sera from clinical hepatitis cases were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin (Ig) M anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV), IgM anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc), IgG anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), IgG anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) and IgM anti-HEV. Additionally, 187 sera from

  18. How to Determine the Accuracy of an Alternative Diagnostic Test when It Is Actually Better than the Reference Tests: A Re-Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests for Scrub Typhus Using Bayesian LCMs

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Cherry; Paris, Daniel H.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Kantipong, Pacharee; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Cooper, Ben S.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-01-01

    Background The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is considered a reference test for scrub typhus. Recently, the Scrub Typhus Infection Criteria (STIC; a combination of culture, PCR assays and IFA IgM) were proposed as a reference standard for evaluating alternative diagnostic tests. Here, we use Bayesian latent class models (LCMs) to estimate the true accuracy of each diagnostic test, and of STIC, for diagnosing scrub typhus. Methods/Principal Findings Data from 161 patients with undifferentiated fever were re-evaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar, and tested with blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, IFA IgM, and the Panbio IgM immunochromatographic test (ICT). True sensitivity and specificity of culture (24.4% and 100%), 56kDa PCR assay (56.8% and 98.4%), 47kDa PCR assay (63.2% and 96.1%), groEL PCR assay (71.4% and 93.0%), IFA IgM (70.0% and 83.8%), PanBio IgM ICT (72.8% and 96.8%), presence of eschar (42.7% and 98.9%) and STIC (90.5% and 82.5%) estimated by Bayesian LCM were considerably different from those obtained when using STIC as a reference standard. The IgM ICT had comparable sensitivity and significantly higher specificity compared to IFA (p=0.34 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions The low specificity of STIC was caused by the low specificity of IFA IgM. Neither STIC nor IFA IgM can be used as reference standards against which to evaluate alternative diagnostic tests. Further evaluation of new diagnostic tests should be done with a carefully selected set of diagnostic tests and appropriate statistical models. PMID:26024375

  19. Intermittent Features of the QSO Ly$?$ Transmitted Flux: Results from Hydrodynamic Cosmological Simulations

    E-print Network

    Long-Long Feng; Jesus Pando; Li-Zhi Fang

    2003-01-02

    It has been recently found that the local fluctuations of the QSO's Ly$\\alpha$ absorption spectrum transmitted flux show spiky structures. This implies that the mass fields of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is intermittent. This feature cannot be explained by the clustering evolution of cosmic mass field in the linear regimes and is also difficult to incorporate into the hierarchical clustering scenario. We calculate the structure functions and intermittent exponent of the IGM and HI for full hydrodynamical simulation samples. The result shows the intermittent features of the Ly$\\alpha$ transmitted flux fluctuations as well as the mass field of the IGM. We find that within the error bars of current data, all the intermittent behavior of the simulation samples are consistent with the observation. This result is different from our earlier result (Pando et al 2002), which shows that the intermittent behavior of samples generated by pseudo-hydro simulation cannot be fitted with observed data. One difference between the pseudo-hydro and full hydro simulations is in treating the dynamical relation between the IGM (or HI) and dark matter fields. The former assumes that the IGM density distribution traces the underlying dark matter point-by-point on scales larger than the Jeans length in either the linear or nonlinear regimes. However, hydrodynamic studies have found that a statistical discrepancy between the IGM field and underlying dark matter in nonlinear regime is possible. We find that the point-by-point correlation between the IGM density perturbations and dark matter become weaker on comoving scales less than 2 h$^{-1}$ Mpc (in LCDM model), which is larger than the IGM Jeans length.

  20. Further Evaluation of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Melioidosis in an Area of Endemicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathew O'Brien; Kevin Freeman; Gary Lum; Allen C. Cheng; Susan P. Jacups; Bart J. Currie

    2004-01-01

    Immunochromatographic test (ICT) kits for the rapid detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were compared to the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) assay. In 138 culture-confirmed melioidosis cases, sensitivities were 80, 77, and 88% for IHA, ICT IgG, and ICT IgM, respectively. In a prospective study of 160 consecutive sera samples sent for melioidosis serology, respective specificities

  1. Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium by Radiation Pressure Driven Dust Efflux

    E-print Network

    Anthony Aguirre; Lars Hernquist; Neal Katz; Jeffrey Gardner; David Weinberg

    2001-06-08

    The presence of metals in hot cluster gas and in Ly-alpha absorbers, as well as the mass-metallicity relation of observed galaxies, suggest that galaxies lose a significant fraction of their metals to the intergalactic medium (IGM). Theoretical studies of this process have concentrated on metal removal by dynamical processes or supernova-driven winds. Here, we investigate the enrichment of the IGM by the expulsion of dust grains from galaxies by radiation pressure. We use already completed cosmological simulations, to which we add dust assuming that most dust can reach the equilibrium point between radiation pressure and gravitational forces. We find that the expulsion of dust and its subsequent (partial) destruction in the IGM can plausibly account for the observed level of C and Si enrichment of the z=3 IGM. At low-z, dust ejection and destruction could explain a substantial fraction of the metals in clusters, but it cannot account for all of the chemical species observed. Dust expelled by radiation pressure could give clusters a visual opacity of up to 0.2-0.5 mag in their central regions even after destruction by the hot intracluster medium; this value is interestingly close to limits and claimed observations of cluster extinction. We also comment on the implications of our results for the opacity of the general IGM. Finally, we suggest a possible `hybrid' scenario in which winds expel gas and dust into galaxy halos but radiation pressure distributes the dust uniformly through the IGM.

  2. Confirmation of a false-positive result in CA 125 immunoradiometric assay caused by human anti-idiotypic immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Klug, T L; Green, P J; Zurawski, V R; Davis, H M

    1988-06-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) involving a monoclonal antibody (MAb OC125) to an ovarian carcinoma-associated antigenic determinant (CA 125) has been tested as one component in a strategy for early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer. We characterized one confirmed "false-positive" sample by murine antibody blocking studies, Western blotting, immunoaffinity, size-exclusion chromatography, and reactivity with polyclonal rabbit antisera to CA 125 antigen. The positive response of this serum in the CA 125 IRMA was due to a human IgM. The discrepant IgM was isolated from the serum by successive immunoaffinity steps with nonspecific murine MAb, MAb OC125, and goat antibodies to human IgM Fc. Purified IgM inhibited the binding of MAb OC125 to CA 125. Furthermore, rabbit antisera to CA 125 antigen competitively inhibited the binding of MAb OC125 to both CA 125 and the discrepant IgM. The discrepant activity thus appears to reflect binding of this human IgM to a idiotope of MAb OC125. Radioiodination of MAb OC125 by a different technique eliminated the discrepant activity and decreased the incidence of CA 125 positivity in an at-risk population of apparently healthy women, increasing the specificity of the IRMA to 99.8% in this group. PMID:2454168

  3. Constant Domain-regulated Antibody Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Sapparapu, Gopal; Planque, Stephanie; Mitsuda, Yukie; McLean, Gary; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Paul, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Some antibodies contain variable (V) domain catalytic sites. We report the superior amide and peptide bond-hydrolyzing activity of the same heavy and light chain V domains expressed in the IgM constant domain scaffold compared with the IgG scaffold. The superior catalytic activity of recombinant IgM was evident using two substrates, a small model peptide that is hydrolyzed without involvement of high affinity epitope binding, and HIV gp120, which is recognized specifically by noncovalent means prior to the hydrolytic reaction. The catalytic activity was inhibited by an electrophilic phosphonate diester, consistent with a nucleophilic catalytic mechanism. All 13 monoclonal IgMs tested displayed robust hydrolytic activities varying over a 91-fold range, consistent with expression of the catalytic functions at distinct levels by different V domains. The catalytic activity of polyclonal IgM was superior to polyclonal IgG from the same sera, indicating that on average IgMs express the catalytic function at levels greater than IgGs. The findings indicate a favorable effect of the remote IgM constant domain scaffold on the integrity of the V-domain catalytic site and provide a structural basis for conceiving antibody catalysis as a first line immune function expressed at high levels prior to development of mature IgG class antibodies. PMID:22948159

  4. Unveiling the nature of dark matter with high redshift 21 cm line experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evoli, C.; Mesinger, A.; Ferrara, A.

    2014-11-01

    Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen will open a new window on the early Universe. By influencing the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), annihilating dark matter (DM) can leave a detectable imprint in the 21 cm signal. Building on the publicly available 21cmFAST code, we compute the 21 cm signal for a 10 GeV WIMP DM candidate. The most pronounced role of DM annihilations is in heating the IGM earlier and more uniformly than astrophysical sources of X-rays. This leaves several unambiguous, qualitative signatures in the redshift evolution of the large-scale (k simeq 0.1 Mpc-1) 21 cm power amplitude: (i) the local maximum (peak) associated with IGM heating can be lower than the other maxima; (ii) the heating peak can occur while the IGM is in emission against the cosmic microwave background (CMB); (iii) there can be a dramatic drop in power (a global minimum) corresponding to the epoch when the IGM temperature is comparable to the CMB temperature. These signatures are robust to astrophysical uncertainties, and will be easily detectable with second generation interferometers. We also briefly show that decaying warm dark matter has a negligible role in heating the IGM.

  5. Evaluation of four commercial IgG- and IgM-specific enzyme immunoassays for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody: comparison with particle agglutination assay.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Soo Jin; Oh, Hye-Jeon; Shin, Bo-Moon

    2007-10-01

    Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is important due to its variable clinical manifestations and absence of response to beta-lactams. Introduction of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for serologic diagnosis of M. pneumoniae has made it possible to separate the analyses of specific IgG and IgM antibodies. We compared four different commercial EIAs, ImmunoWELL IgG, IgM (GenBio), Medac IgG, IgA, IgM (Medac), Platelia IgG, IgM (Sanofi Pasteur), and Ridascreen IgG, IgA, IgM (r-Biopharm) with indirect particle agglutination assay (PA), Serodia-MycoII (Fujirebio). We tested 91 specimens from 73 pediatric patients (2-17 yr) hospitalized at a tertiary-care hospital between December 2005 and January 2006. The measurements of IgM EIAs were correlated with PA titers (Spearman's correlation coefficient, from 0.89 to 0.92) with high concordance rates, ranging from 82.4% to 92.3%. However, some negative IgM-EIA results in PA-positive specimens indicated that serial samplings with convalescent sera would be necessary to confirm M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:17982225

  6. A Study on the Glycan Specificity of Natural Antibody Repertoires in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Ping; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice and rats are widely used in preclinical investigations evaluating the effectiveness of glycan-based biomecines, however, the glycan specificity repertoires of serum Abs in rodents have not been fully characterized. In the present study, serum antibodies in naïve mice and rats of different inbred strains were analyzed for specificity against 4 representative carbohydrate structures including PGA (1,4-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acids), ?-glucan, mannan and ?-glucan (dextran). Mannan was not recognized by serum Abs from any of the mouse and rat strains. Serum IgM in naïve F344, BN and Lewis rats recognized PGA and ?-glucan and, less strongly, dextran. High titer circulating IgM against PGA were found in mice of BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/NeH and BXSB strains. C3H/NeH was the only strain which also produced low titer IgM against ?-glucan and dextran. Age-related production of high titer IgM, IgA and IgG Abs against ?-glucan was observed in BXSB mice. Intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with ?-glucan elicited strong IgM responses, while immunization with PGA also led to an increase of anti-PGA IgM Ab titers. These results provide useful information on the characteristics of glycan-specific natural antibody repertoires in rodents. PMID:20003821

  7. In vitro idiotypic suppression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes secreting monoclonal immunoglobulin M anti-sheep erythrocyte antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Bona, C A; Fauci, A S

    1980-01-01

    A patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was found to have B cells with surface immunoglobulin (Ig)M manifesting anti-sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) specificity together with a high titer serum monoclonal anti-SRBC IgM antibody. By immunizing a sheep with the monoclonal IgM antibody, followed by multiple absorptions against normal human IgM, an anti-idiotype (Id) antibody was obtained. The serum IgM anti-SRBC antibody was then demonstrated to share the same idiotypic determinants with the surface IgM with anti-SRBC specificity on the patient's B cells. The anti-Id antibody suppressed the spontaneous secretion of anti-SRBC antibody as well as the pokeweed mitogen-induced anti-SRBC antibody production as measured by a hemolysis-in-gel plaque-forming cell assay. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen-induced anti-SRBC plaque-forming cell responses of normal individuals were not suppressed by the anti-Id antibody. Thus, this study demonstrates in vitro suppression of human B-cell function by anti-Id antibody. PMID:6986413

  8. Malware Detection Module using Machine Learning Algorithms to Assist in Centralized Security in Enterprise Networks

    E-print Network

    Singhal, Priyank; 10.5121/ijnsa.2012.4106

    2012-01-01

    Malicious software is abundant in a world of innumerable computer users, who are constantly faced with these threats from various sources like the internet, local networks and portable drives. Malware is potentially low to high risk and can cause systems to function incorrectly, steal data and even crash. Malware may be executable or system library files in the form of viruses, worms, Trojans, all aimed at breaching the security of the system and compromising user privacy. Typically, anti-virus software is based on a signature definition system which keeps updating from the internet and thus keeping track of known viruses. While this may be sufficient for home-users, a security risk from a new virus could threaten an entire enterprise network. This paper proposes a new and more sophisticated antivirus engine that can not only scan files, but also build knowledge and detect files as potential viruses. This is done by extracting system API calls made by various normal and harmful executable, and using machine l...

  9. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-01-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2) cannot account for the baryon content of the universe at z approximately 3 observed in quasar absorption line gas unless Omega (sub B) significantly exceeds the maximum value allowed by big bang nucleocynthesis. (5) For a CDM model with bias parameter within the allowed range of (lower) values, the lower limit to Omega(sub B) imposed by big bang nucleosynthesis (Omega(sub B) h(sup 2) greater than or equal to 0.01) combines with our results to yield the minimum IGM density for the CDM fodel. For CDM with b = 1 (Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization), we find Omega(sub IGM)(sup min) (z approximately 4) approx. equal 0.02-0.03, and Omega(sub IGM)(sup min)(z approximately 0) approx. equal 0.005-0.03, depending upon the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (6) In general, we find that self-consistent reionization of the IGM by the collapsed baryon fraction has a strong effect on the rate of collapse. (7) As a further example, we show that the feedback effect on the IGM of energy release by the collapsed baryon fraction may explain the slow evolution of the observed comoving QSO number density between z = 5 and z = 2, followed by the sharp decline after z = 2.

  10. Can the intergalactic medium cause a rapid drop in Ly? emission at z > 6?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, Andrei; Aykutalp, Aycin; Vanzella, Eros; Pentericci, Laura; Ferrara, Andrea; Dijkstra, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The large cross-section of the Ly? line makes it a sensitive probe of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we present the most complete study to date of the IGM Ly? opacity, and its application to the redshift evolution of the `Ly? fraction', i.e. the fraction of colour-selected galaxies with a detectable Ly? emission line. We use a tiered approach, which combines large-scale seminumeric simulations of reionization with moderate-scale hydrodynamic simulations of the ionized IGM. This allows us to simultaneously account for evolution in both: (i) the opacity from an incomplete (patchy) reionization, parametrized by the filling factor of ionized regions, QH II; and (ii) the opacity from self-shielded systems in the ionized IGM, parametrized by the average photoionization rate inside H II regions, H II. In contrast to recent empirical models, attenuation from patchy reionization has a unimodal distribution along different sightlines, while attenuation from self-shielded systems is more bimodal. We quantify the average IGM transmission in our (QH II, H II) parameter space, which can easily be used to interpret new data sets. Our new, improved models highly disfavour an evolution in H II as the sole driver of a large change in IGM opacity. Using current observations, we predict that the Ly? fraction cannot drop by more than a factor of ?2 with IGM attenuation alone, even for H II filling factors as low as QH II ? 0.1. Larger changes in the Ly? fraction could result from a co-evolution with galaxy properties. Marginalizing over H II, we find that current observations constrain QH II(z ? 7) ? 0.6, at a 68 per cent confidence level (CL). However, all of our parameter space is consistent with observations at 95 per cent CL, highlighting the need for larger observational samples at z ? 6.

  11. Constraining the Evolution of the Ionizing Background and the Epoch of Reionization with z ~ 6 Quasars II: A Sample of 19 Quasars

    E-print Network

    Xiaohui Fan; Michael A. Strauss; Robert H. Becker; Richard L. White; James E. Gunn; Gillian R. Knapp; Gordon T. Richards; Donald P. Schneider; J. Brinkmann; Masataka Fukugita

    2006-03-19

    We study the evolution of the ionization state of the IGM at the end of the reionization epoch using spectra of a sample of nineteen quasars at 5.745.7: the optical depth evolution changes from tau ~ (1+z)^{4.3} to (1+z)^{>11}, and the average length of dark gaps with tau>3.5 increases from 80 comoving Mpc. The dispersion of IGM properties along different lines of sight also increases rapidly, implying fluctuations by a factor of >4 in the UV background at z>6, when the mean free path of UV photons is comparable to the correlation length of galaxies. The mean length of dark gaps shows the most dramatic increase at z~6, as well as the largest varianace. We suggest using dark gap statistics as a powerful probe of the ionization state of the IGM at yet higher redshift. The sizes of HII regions around quasars decrease rapidly towards higher redshift, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the IGM has increased by a factor of >10 from z=5.7 to 6.4. The mass-averaged neutral fraction is 1-4% at z~6.2 based on the GP optical depth and HII region sizes. The observations suggest that z~6 is the the end of the overlapping stage of reionization, and are inconsistent with a neutral IGM at z~6, as indicated by the finite length of dark absorption gaps.

  12. Redshifted 21cm Observations of High Redshift Quasar Proximity Zones

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe

    2008-04-03

    The introduction of low-frequency radio arrays is expected to revolutionize the study of the reionization epoch. Observation of the contrast in redshifted 21cm emission between a large HII region and the surrounding neutral inter-galactic medium (IGM) will be the simplest and most easily interpreted signature. However the highest redshift quasars known are thought to reside in an ionized IGM. Using a semi-analytic model we describe the redshifted 21cm signal from the IGM surrounding quasars discovered using the i-drop out technique (i.e. quasars at z~6). We argue that while quasars at z<6.5 seem to reside in the post overlap IGM, they will still provide valuable probes of the late stages of the overlap era because the light-travel time across a quasar proximity zone should be comparable to the duration of overlap. For redshifted 21cm observations within a 32MHz bandpass, we find that the subtraction of a spectrally smooth foreground will not remove spectral features due to the proximity zone. These features could be used to measure the neutral hydrogen content of the IGM during the late stages of reionization. The density of quasars at z~6 is now well constrained. We use the measured quasar luminosity function to estimate the prospects for discovery of high redshift quasars in fields that will be observed by the Murchison Widefield Array.

  13. The effect of Galactic foreground subtraction on redshifted 21-cm observations of quasar HII regions

    E-print Network

    Paul. M. Geil; Stuart Wyithe; Nada Petrovic; Peng Oh

    2008-05-01

    We assess the impact of Galactic synchrotron foreground removal on the observation of high-redshift quasar HII regions in redshifted 21-cm emission. We consider the case where a quasar is observed in an intergalactic medium (IGM) whose ionisation structure evolves slowly relative to the light crossing time of the HII region, as well as the case where the evolution is rapid. The latter case is expected towards the end of the reionisation era where the highest redshift luminous quasars will be observed. In the absence of foregrounds the fraction of neutral hydrogen in the IGM could be measured directly from the contrast between the HII region and surrounding IGM. However, we find that foreground removal lowers the observed contrast between the HII region and the IGM. This indicates that measurement of the neutral fraction would require modelling to correct for this systematic effect. On the other hand, foreground removal does not modify the most prominent features of the 21-cm maps. Using a simple algorithm we demonstrate that measurements of the size and shape of observed HII regions will not be affected by continuum foreground removal. Moreover, measurements of these quantities will not be adversely affected by the presence of a rapidly evolving IGM.

  14. [Interaction of thyroid hormones with immunoglobulins isolated from human blood serum. II. Structural elements and localization of thyroxine-binding segment in the immunoglobulin M molecule].

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, M N; Sviridov, O V

    1994-01-01

    The structural characteristics and topography of the thyroxine T4-binding site on the human immunoglobulin M (IgM) molecule have been studied using affinity binding with T4 structural analogs blocking the formation of the T4-IgM complex with proteins displaying an affinity for individual structural components of IgM and proteolytic fragmentation followed by determination of the T4-binding activity of the isolated fragments. It has been found that IgM has a poor selectivity towards the binding of T4 structural analogs which is characteristic of transport proteins but not of autoantibodies. The T4-binding region of IgM lies outside the variable portion of the Fab-fragment and is apparently constituted by the Cmu 1-domain of the heavy chain and the constant part of the light chain linked via a disulphide bridge. The T4-binding site located within this region possesses no stereospecificity and contains structural elements complementary to the iodine atoms of the outer ring and the aliphatic chain of the iodothyronine molecule. PMID:8117839

  15. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of xenografted human thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, K; Yokoyama, K; Watanabe, N; Kawabata, S; Shuke, N; Kinuya, S; Aburano, T; Tonami, N; Hisada, K; Sato, N

    1988-05-01

    We developed monoclonal antibodies against human thyroid cancer-associated antigen by fusing mouse myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells immunized by insoluble fraction of homogenized thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. One monoclonal antibody (KTC-3, IgM) was selected to evaluate basic usefulness for radioimmunoscintigraphy in xenografted human thyroid carcinoma. KTC-3 was labeled with 131I by Iodogen method of 20 to 1 Iodogen to IgM molar ratio. It was also labeled with 111In by cyclic DTPA anhydride method of 20 to 1 DTPA to IgM molar ratio. The labeling efficiency and specific activity for 131I labeling were 16.5% and 0.66 mCi/mg IgM respectively, and those for 111In labeling were 12.7% and 1.6 mCi/mg IgM. Imaging and biodistribution of labeled KTC-3 were evaluated in nude mice bearing thyroid anaplastic carcinoma (THC-5-JCK). The tumors were well visualized 3 and 5 days after injection of 131I KTC-3. Tumor uptake of 131I KTC-3 on day 7 was 0.52 +/- 0.27% ID/g and tumor to blood ratio was 1.98 +/- 0.76 (n = 6). Those of 111In KTC-3 were 0.88 +/- 0.09% ID/g and 5.51 +/- 3.36 (n = 6). In conclusion, KTC-3 is promising for radioimmunoscintigraphy of thyroid cancer. PMID:3275101

  16. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Hjetland, Reidar; Nilsen, Roy M; Grude, Nils; Ulvestad, Elling

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a healthy adult population from Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway by different assays. Sera from 1213 blood donors at four different blood banks were analysed in Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE/IgG (IgG), Enzygnost Borreliosis IgM (IgM), and Immunetics C6 Lyme ELISA kit (C6). Sera showing positive or grey-zone reactivities were further examined with Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgG blot and Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgM blot. The seroprevalences were 9.6%, 8.2%, 8.4%, 6.4% and 5.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence for IgG was lower in the eastern part of the county and in owners of pet animals. It was higher in men, and increased with age and number of tick bites. C6 and IgG gave comparable results. IgM only was found in 4.5%, more often in women, did not increase with age, and showed no relationship with geography, and 56.4% were positive in IgM blot. In conclusion, antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. are common in blood donors in western Norway. The results may be used for evaluation of predictive values of test results in patients, as well as a basis for test algorithms in the laboratory. PMID:24730472

  17. Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows

    E-print Network

    Steven Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

    2001-02-05

    Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function of size and magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We generically find that by a redshift z=3, about 5-20% of the IGM volume is filled by magnetic fields with an energy density >10% of the mean thermal energy density of a photo-ionized IGM (at T=10^4 K). As massive galaxies and X-ray clusters condense out of the magnetized IGM, the adiabatic compression of the magnetic field could result in the field strength observed in these systems without a need for further dynamo amplification. The intergalactic magnetic field could also provide a nonthermal contribution to the pressure of the photo-ionized gas that may account for the claimed discrepancy between the simulated and observed Doppler width distributions of the Ly-alpha forest.

  18. Serological markers of viral, syphilitic and toxoplasmic infection in children and teenagers with nephrotic syndrome: case series from Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Silvania França da Silva; Donatti, Teresinha Lermen; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Some infections can be the cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of a Renal Disease Reference Clinic from Central Brazil, in which serological markers of some infectious agents are systematically screened in children with nephrotic syndrome. Data were obtained from the assessment of medical files of all children under fifteen years of age, who matched nephrotic syndrome criteria. Subjects were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii and cytomegalovirus; antibodies against Herpes simplex, hepatitis C virus and HIV; and surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus. The VDRL test was also performed. 169 cases were studied. The median age on the first visit was 44 months and 103 (60.9%) patients were male. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM were found in 70.4% and 4.1%, respectively. IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii were present in 32.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Two patients were positive for HBsAg, but none showed markers for HIV, hepatitis C, or Treponema pallidum. IgG and IgM against herpes simplex virus were performed on 54 patients, of which 48.1% and 22.2% were positive. IgM antibodies in some children with clinical signs of recent infection suggest that these diseases may play a role in the genesis of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25351544

  19. Determination of the accuracy and optimal cut-off point for ELISA test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hasibi, Mehrdad; Jafari, Sirus; Mortazavi, Habibollah; Asadollahi, Marjan; Esmaeeli Djavid, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    In endemic area the most challenging problem for brucellosis is to find a reliable diagnostic method. In this case-control study, we investigated the accuracy of ELISA test for diagnosis of human brucellosis and determined the optimal cut-off value for ELISA results in Iran. The laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was performed by blood isolation of Brucella organism with a BACTEC 9240 system and/or detection of Brucella antibodies by standard agglutination test (titer ? 1:160). Serum level of ELISA IgG and ELISA IgM from 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 126 controls were compared with each other by Box plot graph and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Box plot graphs showed the high degree of dispersion for IgG and IgM data in patients compared with all controls. We observed partially overlapping for IgM data (not for IgG) between cases and controls in graphs. The area under ROC curve for distinguishing between cases and controls was larger for IgG compared to IgM. Based on results of this study, ELISA IgG test was more reliable than ELISA IgM test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran. Using a cut-off of 10 IU/ml and 50 IU/ml had most sensitivity (92.9%) and most specificity (100%) for ELISA IgG test, respectively. PMID:24338140

  20. Production of a monoclonal antibody against serum immunoglobulin M of South American camelids and assessment of its suitability in two immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Adrián; Ledesma, Martín; Landone, Ignacio; Ferrari, Alejandro; Leoni, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced against immunoglobulin M (IgM) of South American camelids. A single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to measure IgM in serum samples. Isotype and specificity of the mAb were assessed. The performance of the SRID assay was preliminarily evaluated in terms of working range, plate stability over a 4-week period, and initial intra- and interassay variation. The concentration of IgM was determined in 55 samples by SRID assay and ELISA, and results were not significantly different by t-test (0.64 ± 0.19 mg/ml for the SRID assay, and 0.58 ± 0.24 mg/ml for ELISA; P = 0.1489). The mAb was shown to be stable over the 4-week evaluation period, and the SRID assay was reproducible when tested in triplicate for intra-assay variability and in quadruplicate for interassay variability, with a percentage coefficient of variation of less than or equal to 5%. Also, the SRID assay proved to be sensitive enough to measure IgM levels in undiluted serum samples, and had a good correlation with ELISA. The current study is intended to submit a preliminary report of a mAb against IgM of South American camelids, and suggest the future potential of the mAb developed for diagnostic application, including use in the SRID assay. PMID:25057160

  1. SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF VIRAL, SYPHILITIC AND TOXOPLASMIC INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME: CASE SERIES FROM MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Silvania França da Silva; Donatti, Teresinha Lermen; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Some infections can be the cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of a Renal Disease Reference Clinic from Central Brazil, in which serological markers of some infectious agents are systematically screened in children with nephrotic syndrome. Data were obtained from the assessment of medical files of all children under fifteen years of age, who matched nephrotic syndrome criteria. Subjects were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii and cytomegalovirus; antibodies against Herpes simplex, hepatitis C virus and HIV; and surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus. The VDRL test was also performed. 169 cases were studied. The median age on the first visit was 44 months and 103 (60.9%) patients were male. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM were found in 70.4% and 4.1%, respectively. IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii were present in 32.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Two patients were positive for HBsAg, but none showed markers for HIV, hepatitis C, or Treponema pallidum. IgG and IgM against herpes simplex virus were performed on 54 patients, of which 48.1% and 22.2% were positive. IgM antibodies in some children with clinical signs of recent infection suggest that these diseases may play a role in the genesis of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25351544

  2. The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1991-01-01

    The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

  3. Anti-apoptogenic function of TGFß1 for human synovial cells: TGFß1 protects cultured synovial cells from mitochondrial perturbation induced by several apoptogenic stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, A; Urayama, S; Yamasaki, S; Hida, A; Miyashita, T; Kamachi, M; Nakashima, K; Tanaka, F; Ida, H; Kawabe, Y; Aoyagi, T; Furuichi, I; Migita, K; Origuchi, T; Eguchi, K

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Isolated synovial cells, treated or not with TGFß1, were cultured in the presence or absence of anti-Fas IgM, proteasome inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-aldehyde (LLL-CHO), etoposide, or C2-ceramide. After cultivation, apoptosis of synovial cells was examined by the presence of hypodiploid DNA+ cells, the presence of terminal deoxy (d)-UTP nick end labelling+ cells (TUNEL+ cells), activation of caspases, and disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m). Results: Activation of caspase-9 and ??m was found in anti-Fas IgM treated synovial cells. The increment of both hypodiploid DNA+ cells and TUNEL+ cells accompanied by the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 was also determined in anti-Fas IgM treated synovial cells. These hallmarks for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas IgM were significantly suppressed in TGFß1 treated synovial cells. LLL-CHO, etoposide, and C2-ceramide also caused ??m, the increment of both hypodiploid DNA+ cells and TUNEL+ cells, and the activation of both Leu-Glu-His-Asp ase (LEHDase; caspase-9 like activity) and Asp-Glu-Val-Asp ase (DEVDase; caspase-3 like activity) in synovial cells. As determined in anti-Fas IgM treatment, TGFß1 significantly reduced apoptotic cell death of synovial cells induced by the above chemicals. Conclusions: The protective effect of TGFß1 for mitochondrial homoeostasis may be important in the anti-apoptogenic function of TGFß1 for synovial cells. PMID:14672900

  4. Alpha C Protein-Specific Immunity in Humans with Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Invasive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pannaraj, Pia S.; Kelly, Joanna K.; Rench, Marcia A.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Edwards, Morven S.; Baker, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    Alpha C protein, found in 76% of non-type III strains of group B Streptococcus (GBS), elicits antibodies protective against ? C-expressing strains in experimental animals, making it an appealing carrier for a GBS conjugate vaccine. We determined whether natural exposure to ? C elicits antibodies in women. Geometric mean concentrations of ? C-specific IgM and IgG were similar by ELISA in sera from 58 ? C GBS strain colonized and 174 age-matched non-colonized women (IgG 245 and 313 ng/ml; IgM 257 and 229 ng/ml, respectively), but acute sera from 13 women with invasive ? C-expressing GBS infection had significantly higher concentrations (IgM 383 and IgG 476 ng/ml [p=0.036 and 0.038, respectively]). Convalescent sera from 5 of these women 16–49 days later had high ? C-specific IgM and IgG concentrations (1355 and 4173 ng/ml, respectively). In vitro killing of ? C-expressing GBS correlated with total ? C-specific antibody concentration. Invasive disease but not colonization elicits ? C-specific IgM and IgG in adults. PMID:18155812

  5. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO)

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout the rest of this report. The features are extracted using an instrumented PDF viewer, and are the inputs to a prediction model that scores the likelihood of a PDF file containing malware. The prediction model is constructed from a sample of labeled data by a machine learning algorithm (specifically, decision tree ensemble learning). Preliminary experiments show that the model is able to detect half of the PDF malware in the corpus with zero false alarms. We conclude the report with suggestions for extending this work to detect a greater variety of PDF malware.

  6. Anti-B-series ganglioside-recognizing autoantibodies in an acute sensory neuropathy patient cause cell death of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, T; Miyatake, T; Yuki, N

    1993-07-23

    To examine the cytotoxicity of a patient's serum with an acute relapsing sensory neuropathy syndrome, dorsal root ganglion neurons from young adult rats were cultured in the presence of the patient's serum which had an extremely higher-titer monoclonal IgM antibody recognizing B-series gangliosides, GD2, GD1b, GT1b and GQ1b. By the addition of the inactivated patient's serum, the relatively larger cells died after undergoing of metamorphosis during several hours of culture, whilst the smaller cells survived. The IgM fraction isolated from the patient's serum showed similar cytotoxicity towards the neurons as the inactivated whole serum. No cytotoxicity was observed with the IgM fraction-containing medium after it had been absorbed with ganglioside GD1b. The results suggested that the anti-B-series ganglioside-directed antibody is the causal agent for the human neurologic disease. PMID:8233048

  7. Immunoglobulin production by coeliac biopsies in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, G M; Shires, S; Howdle, P D; Losowsky, M S

    1986-01-01

    The production of immunoglobulins by jejunal mucosa during organ culture has been studied. In 18 untreated coeliac patients the amounts of IgA, secretory IgA and IgM in the culture medium were higher than in those from 17 normal controls. The results in 15 treated coeliac patients did not differ from the control subjects. Mucosal biopsies from patients with serum IgA deficiency produced very little IgA, but large amounts of IgG and IgM. The addition of neither Frazer's gluten fraction III, nor alpha-gliadin to the culture system stimulated any additional increased secretion of immunoglobulins from the untreated coeliac patients. Production of IgA and IgM by the small bowel mucosa continues during organ culture, but that of IgG appears insignificant. PMID:3781327

  8. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Lin, S; Wei, L; Shang, W

    2014-06-01

    A 16-year-old female with fever was admitted to our hospital. On admission, her serum IgM antibody against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was positive. Then, the disease aggravated and acute kidney injury occurred gradually. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) was confirmed by serum test and kidney biopsy. The patient was treated with oral methylprednisolone. Along with the disappearance of the IgM anti-EBV antibody, the AAV also relieved without relapse during follow-up for half a year. Although a previous study indicated that there was a high positive rate of ANCA in the sera positive for IgM antibodies to EBV and EBV infection might trigger the relapse of AAV, this is the first case of incipient AAV associated with acute EBV infection. One possible explanation might be that EBV infection stimulated the production of ANCA. PMID:24610176

  9. A new isotype of immunoglobulin heavy chain in the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl predominantly expressed in larvae.

    PubMed

    Schaerlinger, Bérénice; Bascove, Matthieu; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2008-02-01

    Up to now, it was thought that urodele amphibians possessed only two IgH isotypes, IgM (mu) and IgY (upsilon). By screening a Pleurodeles waltl Ig cDNA mini-library, we identified three isotypes: IgM, IgY and a previously unknown class. IgM are multimeric molecules and represent the most abundant isotype throughout the life of P. waltl. IgY are likely the counterpart of mammalian IgA. The new isotype has typical Ig H-chain characteristics and is expressed as both secretory and membrane forms. Our analyses indicate that this isotype is restricted to Pleurodeles. Consequently, we named it "IgP" (pi) for Pleurodeles. This isotype is mainly expressed after hatching. Its expression decreases after metamorphosis. Our data indicate that IgP-expressing B cells present some similarities with mammalian B1-cells. PMID:17681605

  10. ELT requirements for future observations of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Tom Theuns; Raghunathan Srianand

    2006-01-27

    We summarise the science cases for an ELT that were presented in the parallel session on the intergalactic medium, and the open discussion that followed the formal presentations. Observations of the IGM with an ELT provides tremendous potential for dramatic improvements in current programmes in a very wide variety of subjects. These range from fundamental physics (expansion of the Universe, nature of the dark matter, variation of physical constants), cosmology (geometry of the Universe, large-scale structure), reionisation (ionisation state of the IGM at high redshift>6, to more traditional astronomy, such as the interactions between galaxies and the IGM (metal enrichment, galactic winds and other forms of feedback), and the study of the interstellar medium in high redshift galaxies through molecules. The requirements on ELTs and their instruments for fulfilling this potential are discussed.

  11. Immunoglobulin profile in mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, A; Joshi, K R; Sharma, J C; Vyas, M C

    1996-07-01

    Serum samples obtained from 25 patients of mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomi in 18, Streptomyces somaliensis in 5, Streptomyces madurae and streptomyces palletierii from 1 each and also from 25 healthy controls were evaluated for immunoglobulins IgG, IgM and IgA by radial immunodiffusion method using tripartigen plates. All the three classes of immunoglobulins showed increased concentration in cases of mycetoma by M. mycetomi and S. pelletierii. The raised levels of IgG and IgM in cases of mycetoma caused by S. madurae and S. somaliensis where bones were involved, were not statistically significant. IgA was consistently high in all cases of mycetoma irrespective of causative agent and tissue involved. These alterations may possibly reflect relatively poor IgG and IgM response in individuals with extension of mycetoma lesion to bones. PMID:8972149

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CHICKEN LYMPHOID SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Sung; Good, Robert A.

    1972-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of Ig by chicken lymphoid cells was studied. Both spleen and bursa cells synthesize and secrete IgM and IgG whereas Ig was not detected in thymus cells. In contrast to the spleen cells which synthesize H and L chains in balanced quantities, the bursa cells synthesize and secrete free L chains. In addition to the lymphoid cells which secrete IgM or IgG, the bursa appears to contain a cell population which synthesizes nonsecretory Ig. The structure of this Ig was studied by specific serological precipitation and by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The H chains of this nonsecretory Ig are serologically related to µ-chains and exhibit a smaller molecular weight (i.e., ?50,000) in SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis than H chains of IgG and IgM synthesized by the spleen cells (i.e., ?70,000). PMID:5022177

  13. Did Cosmic Rays Reionize the Intergalactic Medium?

    E-print Network

    Biman B. Nath; Peter L. Biermann

    1993-06-02

    We investigate the role of cosmic rays from young galaxies in heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift. Using the IRAS observations at $60 \\mu m$, we estimate the cosmic ray luminosity density at the present epoch. We consider various forms of luminosity evolution in redshift and calculate (a) the thresholds corresponding to the upper limits of Gunn-Peterson optical depth, (b) the Compton $y$ parameter for an IGM heated by cosmic rays and compare with the upper limits from COBE measurements and (c) an estimated limit from the integral of metal enrichment. We show that certain models, with rather strong evolution and early formation of galaxies, allow reionization of the IGM, consistent with all known constraints.

  14. [Characterisation of a monoclonal antibody against Trypanosoma evansi and its application for detecting circulating antibodies].

    PubMed

    Monzón, C M

    2006-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against Trypanosoma evansi. The 2-4F6 IgM monoclonal antibody (Mab) was chosen for the study because of its ability to detect antigens and its specificity (as it did not recognise T. cruzi, T. equiperdum, Babesia equi or B. caballi). The immunoblot test revealed that the 2-4F6 IgM Mab recognises epitopes in two antigenic bands, one measuring 85 kDa and the other 122 kDa. An immunoassay for antigen detection in serum using polyclonal antibodies for capture, the Mab 2-4F6 as primary antibody and an antimouse IgM as secondary antibody gave positive results in 10 of the 11 equidae infected with T. evansi, whereas 20 controls gave negative results. These research results show that the Mab 2-4F6 and the antigen it recognises are useful in identifying equidae infected with T. evansi. PMID:17361770

  15. Clinical evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the diagnosis of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sang, C T; Hoon, L S; Cuzzubbo, A; Devine, P

    1998-05-01

    A rapid immunochromatographic test was compared to the hemagglutination inhibition assay for separate determinations of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels in paired serum specimens from 92 patients (34 with primary dengue virus infection, 35 with secondary dengue virus infection, and 23 without dengue virus infection). The rapid test showed 99% sensitivity in the diagnosis of dengue virus infection. The majority (30 of 34 [88%]) of patients with primary infection showed positive IgM but negative IgG, while 34 of 35 (97%) patients with secondary infection showed positive IgG with or without IgM. Specificity in nonflavivirus infections was 96% (1 of 23 positive). The rapid test should be a useful aid in rapid diagnosis of dengue virus infection. PMID:9606000

  16. Application to immunoglobulin M capture hemadherence assays of hemagglutination of monkey erythrocytes by native and recombinant human parvovirus B19 antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Cubel, R C; Alferes, A C; Cohen, B J; Nascimento, J P

    1994-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 recently was shown to agglutinate baboon and human erythrocytes. We have now demonstrated that both recombinant and native B19 antigens agglutinate rhesus, cynomolgus, and Saimiri monkey erythrocytes. Using cynomolgus erythrocytes and the recombinant antigen, we developed an immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture hemadherence test (MACHAT) for the detection of specific B19 IgM antibodies in human sera. The results obtained with MACHAT were compared with those obtained with an IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) employing the native antigen routinely used in our laboratory. For 229 patient serum samples, we found 96% agreement between the results of the two assays. There was some evidence that MACHAT was slightly more sensitive than MACEIA. Our results add to the range of erythrocytes that can be agglutinated by B19 virus and show that native as well as recombinant antigens may be used in MACHAT. PMID:7989556

  17. Autoimmune mice make anti-Fc gamma receptor antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We demonstrate, using a recombinant truncated Fc gamma RII molecule as a probe, the presence of anti-Fc gamma R antibodies in several strains of autoimmune mice. Affinity chromatography on a truncated Fc gamma R column of pooled sera from aged NZB females resulted in isolation of 16 micrograms of IgM per ml of serum, approximately 2% of the total IgM; no anti-Fc gamma R IgM was found in sera from C58/J mice. Mice with high titers of anti-Fc gamma R IgM also had anti-Fc gamma R IgG. Affinity-purified anti-Fc gamma R IgG bound to Fc gamma R-bearing cells. A good correlation was found between the presence of anti-Fc gamma R Ig and impaired phagocytosis of immune complexes in autoimmune strains such as NZB or NZB/NZW F1. Sera with high titers of anti-Fc gamma R Ig from NZB and motheaten mice inhibited the binding of soluble immune complexes. Furthermore, BXSB, a lupus-prone mouse strain that does not produce anti-Fc gamma R Ig, shows normal macrophage binding and phagocytosis of immune complexes. A set of four IgM mAbs that bind to Fc gamma R was identified. These antibodies were polyspecific; some were directed against DNA, and others recognized a wide variety of antigens including histones, thyroglobulin, and transferrin, but all anti-Fc gamma R IgM antibodies effectively inhibited the binding of IgG1 anti-DNP/DNP20BSA complexes to J774 macrophages. The role of anti- Fc gamma R Ig in autoimmunity remains to be established. It may act to crosslink and activate Fc gamma Rs on neutrophils, macrophages, NK, and mesangial cells, or it may desensitize Fc gamma R function of Fc gamma R-bearing cells. PMID:2139698

  18. Taxing the Rich: Recombinations and Bubble Growth During Reionization

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Furlanetto; S. Peng Oh

    2005-08-16

    Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present an analytic model for the evolving topology of reionization that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers. As a result, reionization resembles "punctuated equilibrium," with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles stop growing when recombinations balance ionizations. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, it may be much smaller if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the universe has for all intents and purposes entered the "post-overlap" stage, so the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z>6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the "bubble-dominated" topology characteristic of reionization and the "web-dominated" topology characteristic of the later universe. [Abridged

  19. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in patients suspected to have active toxoplasmosis: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Jafarnezghad, Gholam-Abbas; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distribution of anti-toxoplasma-specific IgM and IgG tantibodies in patients suspected to have toxoplasmosis and investigate for any association between IgM and IgG antibodies and some toxoplasmosis risk factors as well. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, 70 patients suspected to had active toxoplasmosis and 30 control volunteers, who gave informed consent, entered the study. In each group, patient age, sex, signs of appearance, education level, residency status (urban / rural), occupation, frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, abortion history, and some risk factors (Direct cat exposure, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption) were recorded. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (EUROIMMUN®, United Kingdom) were used for the evaluation of anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies according to the manufacturer's instructions. All analyses were done using SPSS-20. Results: The frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies like: Direct cat exposures, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). The history of previous abortions in women in the toxoplasmosis-suspected group was significantly higher than that in the controls (31.4% versus 6.7%; P = 0.009). Conclusion: The frequency of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in toxoplasmosis suspected in the toxoplasmosis and control groups was not statistically significant. PMID:25538922

  20. Characterization of a reduction-sensitive factor from human plasma responsible for apparent false activity in competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, E F; Weare, J A; Randell, R; Holland, P V; Madsen, G; Decker, R H

    1991-01-01

    Addition of reducing agents to competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) eliminates apparent false reactivity of specimens obtained from individuals with no prior history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and without other serological markers of HBV infection. We have purified and characterized a reduction-sensitive factor (RSF) isolated from the plasma of several volunteer blood donors. Column fractions were assayed fro anti-HBc by using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence assay with a detection of 0.15 Paul Ehrlich Institut units per ml at 50% inhibition. Gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 indicated that reductant-sensitive samples possessed anti-HBc activity that was associated with immunoglobulin M (IgM), whereas reductant-stable activity was associated with IgG. Gel filtration followed by metal chelate affinity chromatography resulted in a 55-fold purification and demonstrated that RSF activity copurifies with IgM. RSF was recovered from a recombinant hepatitis B core antigen matrix and shown to be an IgM species by immunoblot. In addition, RSF activity coeluted with IgM protein from anti-mu-chain Sepharose. Discrepancies between enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay procedures for anti-HBc (Corzyme and Corab, respectively: Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) appear to be due to the relative sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay for IgM anti-HBc (sevenfold greater than the radioimmunoassay using a specific panel). The biological basis for the occurrence of low levels of nonspecific IgM anti-HBc reactivity in individuals not previously exposed to HBV remains to be elucidated. PMID:2037679

  1. Quantitative radiommunoassay for DNA-binding antibodies. [Iodine 131, Iodine 125

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Guyer, R.L.; Minami, R.M.; Teplitz, R.L.

    1981-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) is described for the measurement of serum immunoglobulins capable of binding to double-standard or single-standard DNA. DNA attached to Sephadex G-50 by ultraviolet radiation was used as a solid- phase immunoabsorbent for DNA-binding proteins from serum. Goat anti-human (GAH) IgG (/sup 125/I-labeled) were used to detect the human immunoglobulins bound onto the washed DNA-Sephadex. The quantities of immunoglobulins bound were determined by comparison with a standard curve constructed by dilution of a plasma from an systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient containing known amounts of bound, DNA-specific IgM and IgG. Another RIA was employed for measuring levels of IgG and IgM. In combination with measurements of the total serum IgM and IgG, the RIA allowed for the determination of the fraction of the total serum IgM or IgG that was specific for double- or single-standard DNA. For a pool of normal human sera the quantities were as follows: 0.04% of the total IgM and 0.001% of the total IgG bound double-standard DNA; 0.22% of the total IgM and 0.05% of the total IgG bound single-stranded DNA. This capability is important because information regarding the quantitative measurement of antibodies to DNA and their class determination may be of significance in monitoring the status of subjects with SLE.

  2. Administration in vivo of recombinant interleukin 2 protects mice against septic death.

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, C; Goronzy, J; Fathman, C G; O'Hanley, P

    1987-01-01

    Administration in vivo of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to mice induces a polyclonal IgM response. When co-administered with a specific antigen, rIL-2 can enhance concentrations of murine IgM antibodies specific for the antigen by fivefold within 7 d of initial treatment. IgM antibodies that are induced after injection of rIL-2 include antibodies specific for J5, a cell wall core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen that is shared by the different members of the Enterobactericeae family. We report here that mice pretreated with rIL-2 or immunized with J5 antigen 7 d before bacterial challenge were protected from septic death that is caused by intraperitoneal challenges with Escherichia coli. Optimal protection was provided by a combined J5 antigen and rIL-2 treatment. Acquisition of the rIL-2 and J5 antigen-induced protection against lethal bacterial infection coincided temporally with maximal serum IgM titers that also contained IgM antibodies specific for the J5 antigen. In passive immunization experiments, the affinity-purified IgM fraction in sera of rIL-2-treated animals was identified as necessary and sufficient for protection. The IgM-depleted serum had no protective effect. The nonspecific augmentation of host-defense mechanisms without the induction of endotoxin manifestations makes rIL-2 a potential candidate to any alternative LPS-containing vaccines for the prevention of bacterial infections by gram-negative organisms since the core LPS antigen is shared among gram-negative bacteria. PMID:3294901

  3. Acute Hepatitis E Infection Accounts for Some Cases of Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Davern, Timothy J.; Chalasani, Naga; Fontana, Robert J.; Hayashi, Paul H.; Protiva, Petr; Kleiner, David E.; Engle, Ronald E.; Nguyen, Hanh; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.; Tillmann, Hans L.; Gu, Jiezhun; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury relies upon exclusion of other causes, including viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been proposed as another cause of suspected drug-induced liver disease. We assessed the frequency of HEV infection among patients with drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Methods The drug-induced liver injury network (DILIN) is a prospective study of patients with suspected drug-induced liver injury; clinical information and biological samples are collected to investigate pathogenesis and disease progression. We analyzed serum samples, collected from patients enrolled in DILIN, for immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM against HEV; selected samples were tested for HEV RNA. Results Among 318 patients with suspected drug-induced liver injury, 50 (16%) tested positive for anti-HEV IgG and 9 (3%) for anti-HEV IgM. The samples that contained anti-HEV IgM (collected 2 to 24 weeks after onset of symptoms) included 4 that tested positive for HEV RNA, genotype 3. Samples from the 6-month follow-up visit were available from 4 patients; they were negative for anti-HEV IgM, but levels of anti-HEV IgG increased with time. Patients that had anti-HEV IgM were mostly from older men (89%; mean age, 67 years) and 2 were HIV positive. Clinical reassessment of the 9 patients with anti-HEV IgM indicated that acute hepatitis E was the most likely diagnosis for 7 and might be the primary diagnosis for 2. Conclusion HEV infection contributes to a small but important proportion of cases of acute liver injury that are suspected of being drug induced. Serologic testing for HEV infection should be performed—particularly if clinical features are compatible with acute viral hepatitis. PMID:21855518

  4. Measurement of isotype-specific antibody responses to Aujeszky's disease virus in sera and mucosal secretions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Kimman, T G; Brouwers, R A; Daus, F J; van Oirschot, J T; van Zaane, D

    1992-02-15

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of porcine IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies directed against Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) are described. ADV-specific IgA and IgM were detected in an antibody capture assay, and ADV-specific IgG1 and IgG2 were detected in an indirect double antibody sandwich assay. A selected set of samples was tested in the four ELISAs and in a 24 h virus neutralization assay. Comparison of the results showed that the ELISAs were isotype-specific, sensitive, and reproducible. Samples with ADV antibody of one isotype showed that ADV-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgM were able to neutralize the virus in vitro. In vitro neutralization of virus can be enhanced by complement. ADV-specific IgA neutralized virus only weakly. ADV-infected cells activated complement in the absence of antibody. Specific IgG2 and IgM enhanced complement activation. Analysis of the time course of antibody responses after infection or vaccination revealed that the isotype-specific ELISAs are suitable to study the humoral antibody response of pigs to the virus in mucosal secretions. Wild-type virus (strain NIA-3) and an attenuated vaccine strain (Bartha) administered intranasally induced mucosal IgM and IgA responses to the virus. In contrast, a killed vaccine (Nobivac) administered intramuscularly induced only weak mucosal IgM responses. The attenuated vaccine strain primed for a mucosal IgA memory response evoked upon challenge infection with wild-type virus. PMID:1315087

  5. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  6. An evolutionarily conserved program of B-cell development and activation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Page, Dawne M; Wittamer, Valerie; Bertrand, Julien Y; Lewis, Kanako L; Pratt, David N; Delgado, Noemi; Schale, Sarah E; McGue, Caitlyn; Jacobsen, Bradley H; Doty, Alyssa; Pao, Yvonne; Yang, Hongbo; Chi, Neil C; Magor, Brad G; Traver, David

    2013-08-22

    Teleost fish are among the most ancient vertebrates possessing an adaptive immune system with B and T lymphocytes that produce memory responses to pathogens. Most bony fish, however, have only 2 types of B lymphocytes, in contrast to the 4 types available to mammals. To better understand the evolution of adaptive immunity, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which the major immunoglobulin M (IgM(+)) B-cell subset expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) (IgM1:eGFP). We discovered that the earliest IgM(+) B cells appear between the dorsal aorta and posterior cardinal vein and also in the kidney around 20 days postfertilization. We also examined B-cell ontogeny in adult IgM1:eGFP;rag2:DsRed animals, where we defined pro-B, pre-B, and immature/mature B cells in the adult kidney. Sites of B-cell development that shift between the embryo and adult have previously been described in birds and mammals. Our results suggest that this developmental shift occurs in all jawed vertebrates. Finally, we used IgM1:eGFP and cd45DsRed;blimp1:eGFP zebrafish to characterize plasma B cells and investigate B-cell function. The IgM1:eGFP reporter fish are the first nonmammalian B-cell reporter animals to be described. They will be important for further investigation of immune cell evolution and development and host-pathogen interactions in zebrafish. PMID:23861249

  7. Luminosity Functions of Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies and Cosmic Reionization of Hydrogen

    E-print Network

    Mark Dijkstra; Stuart Wyithe; Zoltan Haiman

    2007-05-29

    Recent observations imply that the observed number counts of Lya Emitters (LAEs) evolved significantly between z=5.7 and z=6.5. It has been suggested that this was due to a rapid evolution in the ionisation state, and hence transmission of the IGM which caused Lya flux from z=6.5 galaxies to be more strongly suppressed. In this paper we consider the joint evolution of the Lya and UV luminosity functions (LFs) and show that the IGM transmission evolved between z=6.5 and z=5.7 by a factor 1.1 0.5.

  8. Simulating matched filter detection of ionized bubble around a quasar in the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Suman; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy

    2012-12-01

    The recent discovery of the z = 7.085 quasar has opened up a new window to peep into the inter galactic medium during the epoch of reionization (EoR). The detection of the ionized region around such a high redshift quasar is in principle capable of constraining the neutral fraction of the IGM and the quasar's age. Here we present the possibility of detection of such an ionized region around a quasar at z = 8 using redshifted 21-cm observations of the neutral hydrogen and possible ways to constrain IGM neutral fraction and quasar's age through this detection.

  9. THE SYNTHESIS, ASSEMBLY, AND SECRETION OF GAMMA GLOBULIN BY MOUSE MYELOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, J.; Scharff, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    The study of the synthesis, assembly, and secretion of IgM by seven murine myeloma tumors has revealed that free mu chain can be detected intracellularly after release from the ribosome. It combines with light chains to form µL. The major intracellular protein in six of the seven tumors was the 8S subunit. One tumor contained considerable amounts of 19S material intracellularly. Those tumors that did not contain 19S IgM intracellulariy appeared to assemble the subunits outside the cell. PMID:4717123

  10. The physics of Reionization: processes relevant for SKA observations

    E-print Network

    Semelin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The local intensity of the 21 cm signal emitted during the Epoch of Reionization that will be mapped by the SKA is modulated by the amount of neutral hydrogen. Consequently, understanding the process of reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is crucial for predicting and interpreting the upcoming observations. After presenting the basic physics and most meaningful quantities pertaining to the process of reionization, we will review recent progress in our understanding of the production and escape of ionizing photons in primordial galaxies and of their absorption in the IGM especially in so-called minihalos and Lyman Limit Systems.

  11. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry (II): Applications to formation and combustion reactions of liquid organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2015-03-01

    The harmonic solvation model (HSM), which was recently developed for evaluating condensed-phase thermodynamics by quantum chemical calculations (Nakai and Ishikawa, 2014), was applied to formation and combustion reactions of simple organic molecules. The conventional ideal gas model (IGM) considerably overestimated the entropies of the liquid molecules. The HSM could significantly improve this overestimation; mean absolute deviations for the Gibbs energies of the formation and combustion reactions were (49.6, 26.7) for the IGM and (9.7, 5.4) for the HSM in kJ/mol.

  12. A novel Western blot test containing both viral and recombinant proteins for anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M detection.

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarotto, T; Maine, G T; Dal Monte, P; Ripalti, A; Landini, M P

    1997-01-01

    We devised a novel Western blot (WB) test for anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) detection which contains viral structural polypeptides, significant portions of recombinant p150 (ppUL32), and a significant portion of the most immunogenic nonstructural protein p52 (ppUL44). This new test was evaluated in latently infected blood donors, pregnant women, and transplant recipients with ongoing HCMV infection and shown to be more sensitive and specific than traditional WB and conventional enzyme immunoassay for the detection of HCMV-specific IgM. PMID:9003603

  13. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to glycoprotein G-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D W; Field, P R; Irving, W L; Packham, D R; Cunningham, A L

    1993-01-01

    Western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in patients' sera were developed. The locations of the type-specific glycoprotein G (gpG-2) of HSV-2 (92- and 140-kDa forms) and glycoprotein C of HSV-1 (gpC-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blot assays for IgM antibody to gpC-1 or gpG-2 were performed after depletion of IgG by precipitation with anti-human IgG. In patients with primary HSV-2 genital infections, seroconversion of IgM and IgG antibodies to both the 92- and 140-kDa forms of gpG-2 was observed, although both antibodies appeared in convalescent-phase serum after the first week. IgM and IgG antibodies to low-molecular-size polypeptides (40 to 65 kDa) were the first antibodies observed in patients with primary infection, but these antibodies were cross-reactive with HSV-1 and HSV-2. However, in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections, IgG antibodies to both forms of gpG-2 and the low-molecular-size polypeptides were found no matter how early after onset the patient was bled, and IgM to gpG-2 did not appear. In patients with nonprimary initial genital HSV-2 infections, IgG antibody to HSV-1 was demonstrated in the first serum specimen, and HSV-2-specific IgM was found in 39% of the serum specimens. Hence, the Western blot assay can be used to test for IgM antibody to gpG-2, allowing for the retrospective diagnosis of inital HSV-2 infections and its use as a supplementary test to the gpG-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed elsewhere. In contrast, IgM antibody to gpG-2 is not usually detected in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Images PMID:7508453

  14. Design of Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm through System Base Behavior Analysis and Memory Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Cagalaban, Giovanni; Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

    More recently, botnet-based cyber attacks, including a spam mail or a DDos attack, have sharply increased, which poses a fatal threat to Internet services. At present, antivirus businesses make it top priority to detect malicious code in the shortest time possible (Lv.2), based on the graph showing a relation between spread of malicious code and time, which allows them to detect after malicious code occurs. Despite early detection, however, it is not possible to prevent malicious code from occurring. Thus, we have developed an algorithm that can detect precursor symptoms at Lv.1 to prevent a cyber attack using an evasion method of 'an executing environment aware attack' by analyzing system behaviors and monitoring memory.

  15. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects and Antioxidative Activities of Saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Nutshell

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Quancheng

    2013-01-01

    Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5–68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18–2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner. PMID:23990897

  16. Interaction of nanodiamonds materials with influenza viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, V. T.; Ivanova, M. V.; Spitsyn, B. V.; Garina, K. O.; Trushakova, S. V.; Manykin, A. A.; Korzhenevsky, A. P.; Burseva, E. I.

    2012-02-01

    The perspectives of the application of modern materials contained nanodiamonds (ND) are considered in this study. The interaction between detonation paniculate ND, soot and influenza A and B viruses, fragments of cDNA were analyzed at the normal conditions. It was shown that these sorbents can interact with the following viruses: reference epidemic strains of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)v, A(H3N2) and B viruses circulated in the word in 2000-2010. The allantoises, concentrated viruses, cDNA can be absorbed by ND sorbents and getting removed from water solutions within 20 min. ND sorbents can be used for the preparation of antivirus filters for water solution and for future diagnostic systems in virology.

  17. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  18. Design, Synthesis and Antiviral Activity Studies of Schizonepetin Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Beihua; Meng, Zheng; Li, Nianguang; Meng, Zhengjie; Zhang, Li; Cao, Yudan; Yao, Weifeng; Shan, Mingqiu; Ding, Anwei

    2013-01-01

    A series of schizonepetin derivatives have been designed and synthesized in order to obtain potent antivirus agents. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 and influenza virus H3N2 as well as the cytotoxicity of these derivatives was evaluated by using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay in vitro. Compounds M2, M4, M5 and M34 showed higher inhibitory activity against HSV-1 virus with the TC50 values being in micromole. Compounds M28, M33, and M35 showed higher inhibitory activity against influenza virus H3N2 with their TC50 values being 96.4, 71.0 and 75.4 ?M, respectively. Preliminary biological activity evaluation indicated that the anti-H3N2 and anti-HSV-1 activities improved obviously through the introduction of halogen into the structure of schizonepetin. PMID:23965980

  19. Stay Safe Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sponsored by the National Cyber Security Alliance, Stay Safe Online works to educate the public on the importance of protecting their personal computers from online intruders. If proper security procedures are not implemented, computers can become victims to viruses, denial of service attacks, Trojan horse programs, and other malicious activities that take advantage of computer vulnerabilities and result in billions of dollars of damage. Designed to provide information needed to protect home and small business computers, this Web site provides the top ten security tips on how to safeguard computer systems, such as using anti-virus software, not opening e-mail from unknown sources, and backing up computer data. The site also contains a self-guided cyber security test, educational materials, and links to other Internet security sources. In all, this is an important resource for all computer users to explore.

  20. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  1. Anti-tumor activities of matrine and oxymatrine: literature review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Yang; Ji, Weidan; Li, Xiaoya; Sun, Bin; Gao, Quangen; Su, Changqing

    2014-06-01

    Matrine (MT) and oxymatrine (OMT), two kinds of alkaloid components found in the roots of Sophora species, have various pharmacological activities and are demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-virus, anti-fibrotic, and cardiovascular protective effects. They are recently proved to have anti-cancer potentials, such as inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest, accelerating apoptosis, restraining angiogenesis, inducing cell differentiation, inhibiting cancer metastasis and invasion, reversing multidrug resistance, and preventing or reducing chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced toxicity when combined with other chemotherapeutic drugs. In this review, we summarize the recent investigations regarding the anti-cancer activities and possible molecular targets of MT and OMT for cancer prevention and treatment in order to provide clues and references for further study. PMID:24526416

  2. Observations from Integrated Ground Motion Using EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. D.; Fouch, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Ground Motion (IGM) is a new method for visualizing and investigating long-term changes in seismic background levels. These new time series present an opportunity to evaluate variations in background seismic levels on intermediate time scales longer than those usually considered in processing seismic event data, but shorter than the time scales typically utilized when measuring the power spectral density (PSD) function of a seismic channel or instrument. Example uses for this new method include determining relationships between weather and seismic noise, detection of uncataloged small seismic and slow slip events, detection and characterization of remotely triggered seismicity, detection and monitoring of induced seismicity and detection of non-seismic signals. Here we apply the IGM processing method to broadband seismic data from the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA) [www.usarray.org], and present some preliminary observations of the observed patterns in seismicity. We generate IGM time series from raw broadband seismic data by filtering and evaluating the envelope of a sliding time window. We further process the resulting IGM time series to remove peaks from short-duration seismic events by clipping the series at the 95th percentile value and normalizing each resulting series on a 0-1 scale. For this initial evaluation, we process IGM from overlapping 15-minute windows sampled every 5 minutes from four weeks of TA data for the western US in early 2008, bandpass filtering over four different ranges: 7-19 Hz, 1-8 Hz, 1-20 sec, and 20-100 sec. We create a series of animations overlaying the IGM values on a map of the western US and compressing the time scale to 2 hours/second. We observe that IGM in the 7-19 Hz and 1-8 Hz bands is primarily influenced by diurnal variations in background seismic levels, which generally overwhelm the signals from small (M<1.5) local earthquakes. Small earthquakes are somewhat more visible in the 1-8 Hz band. In our test data set, both the 1-8 Hz and 7-19 Hz IGM series also show a series of signal sources which appear to move at ~200 m/s and are visible over only a few stations; we speculate that these sources represent low-flying military test flights. IGM in the 1-20 second band appears to be influenced by a combination of local and teleseismic earthquakes plus large, long-term variations in background levels. Since this is the frequency band occupied by primary and secondary microseism, we hypothesize that the longer-term variations are mainly weather and oceanic wave related, and plan to test for correlation with weather and wave-height data. IGM in the 20-100 second band appears to be primarily related to large-magnitude (M>5) teleseismic events, although we observe some longer-term elevated IGM levels in the Pacific Northwest which may be due to either low-frequency slip events or oceanic winter storm-related noise sources.

  3. Lack of security of networked medical equipment in radiology.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vinu; Korah, Ipeson

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. There are few articles in the literature describing the security and safety aspects of networked medical equipment in radiology departments. Most radiologists are unaware of the security issues. We review the security of the networked medical equipment of a typical radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All networked medical equipment in a radiology department was scanned for vulnerabilities with a port scanner and a network vulnerability scanner, and the vulnerabilities were classified using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. A network sniffer was used to capture and analyze traffic on the radiology network for exposure of confidential patient data. We reviewed the use of antivirus software and firewalls on the networked medical equipment. USB ports and CD and DVD drives in the networked medical equipment were tested to see whether they allowed unauthorized access. Implementation of the virtual private network (VPN) that vendors use to access the radiology network was reviewed. RESULTS. Most of the networked medical equipment in our radiology department used vulnerable software with open ports and services. Of the 144 items scanned, 64 (44%) had at least one critical vulnerability, and 119 (83%) had at least one high-risk vulnerability. Most equipment did not encrypt traffic and allowed capture of confidential patient data. Of the 144 items scanned, two (1%) used antivirus software and three (2%) had a firewall enabled. The USB ports were not secure on 49 of the 58 (84%) items with USB ports, and the CD or DVD drive was not secure on 17 of the 31 (55%) items with a CD or DVD drive. One of three vendors had an insecure implementation of VPN access. CONCLUSION. Radiologists and the medical industry need to urgently review and rectify the security issues in existing networked medical equipment. We hope that the results of our study and this article also raise awareness among radiologists about the security issues of networked medical equipment. PMID:25615757

  4. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. (Yale Univ. School of medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  5. Evaluation of serological assays for identification of parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M.

    PubMed Central

    Tolfvenstam, T; Rudén, U; Broliden, K

    1996-01-01

    Three different enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (Parvoscan-B19, IBL parvovirus B19, and IDEIA parvovirus B19) and one immunofluorescence assay (Biotrin Parvo B19 IFA) were evaluated for detection of parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in 203 clinical serum samples. An IgM antibody capture radioimmunoassay was used as a reference test. Serum specimens obtained from patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of parvovirus B19 infections were used to evaluate the sensitivities of the assays, which were shown to be comparable for the Biotrin IFA and IDEIA (97%) and lower for the other two EIAs (90%). In order to test the specificity of the assays, clinical serum samples with IgM antibodies against other viruses were examined, as well as sera with rheumatoid factor activity and sera from healthy pregnant women. The specificities of B19 IgM antibody detection were 96% for the Biotrin IFA, 96% for IDEIA, 90% for Parvoscan, and 88% for the IBL assay. These results show that all four assays can be recommended for diagnostic purposes, although false-positive results may be seen with other acute viral infections, healthy pregnant women, and rheumatoid factor-positive samples. PMID:8991627

  6. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (6), pp. 517-521, June 2005 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB

    E-print Network

    Roche, Benjamin

    M on cerebrospinal fluid for improving stage determination of Human African Trypanosomiasis P. Truc1 *, Vincent Trypanosomiasis starts with the haematolymphatic or first stage (P1). The meningoencephalitic or second stage (P2 Trypanosomiasis, stage determination, Latex IgM. INTRODUCTION The clinical evolution of the chronic form of Human

  7. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii infection in human adults. From three rural communities in Derango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is scarce information concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people of rural Mexico. Anti-T. Gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 462 adult inhabitants from 3 rural communities of Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 110 (23.8% of ...

  8. Fluctuations in 21cm Emission After Reionization

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

    2007-08-26

    The fluctuations in the emission of redshifted 21cm photons from neutral inter-galactic hydrogen will provide an unprecedented probe of the reionization era. Conventional wisdom assumes that this 21cm signal disappears as soon as reionization is complete, when little atomic hydrogen is left through most of the volume of the inter-galactic medium (IGM). However observations of damped Ly-alpha absorbers indicate that the fraction of hydrogen in its neutral form is significant by mass at all redshifts. Here we use a physically-motivated model to show that residual neutral gas, confined to dense regions in the IGM with a high recombination rate, will generate a significant post-reionization 21cm signal. We show that the power-spectrum of fluctuations in this signal will be detectable by the first generation of low-frequency observatories at a signal-to-noise that is comparable to that achievable in observations of the reionization era. The statistics of 21cm fluctuations will therefore probe not only the pre-reionization IGM, but rather the entire process of HII region overlap, as well as the appearance of the diffuse ionized IGM.

  9. Faculty Immunization Clearance Form 2013-2014: Requirements With the release of the new Standards for Immunization of Post-Secondary Health Care Students from

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    of a month & year** Tetanus, Diptheria, Pertussis All health care students are now proof of DISEASE will be accepted. If a student has been diagnosed with mumps disease & has a copy of their Mumps IgM or PCR results from the time

  10. Studying reionization with the next generation of Ly-alpha emitter surveys

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Hannes; Iliev, Ilian; Laursen, Peter; Mellema, Garrelt; Zackrisson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We study the prospects for constraining the ionized fraction of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at $z>6$ with the next generation of large Ly$\\alpha$ emitter surveys. We make predictions for the upcoming Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Ly$\\alpha$ survey and a hypothetical spectroscopic survey performed with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Considering various scenarios where the observed evolution of the Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity function of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters at $z>6$ is explained partly by an increasingly neutral IGM and partly by intrinsic galaxy evolution, we show how clustering measurements will be able to distinguish between these scenarios. We find that the HSC survey should be able to detect the additional clustering induced by a neutral IGM if the global IGM neutral fraction is greater than $\\sim$20 per cent at $z=6.5$. If measurements of the Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent widths (EWs) are also available, neutral fractions as small as 10 per cent may be detectable by looking for correlation between the EW an...

  11. [Diagnosis of maternofetal infections].

    PubMed

    Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Bouthry, Elise

    2015-06-01

    Prevention is an essential aspect of management of infections that can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy: The prescription and interpretation of serologic markers differ according to clinical context: screening, counts, clinical signs, or ultrasound signs. Testing for rubella IgG antibodies is recommended at the beginning of pregnancy, in the absence of written results proving either immunity or previous vaccination with two doses. Monthly serologic monitoring (IgG and IgM) is recommended for woman lacking immunity to toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of a primary infection requires the concomitant detection of IgG and IgM. Nonetheless, the presence of specific IgM is not necessarily a marker of recent infection. IgG avidity must be measured to confirm or rule out a recent primary infection when IgM is positive. The observation of stable antibody titers is often inaccurately considered to be reassuring. In fact, depending on the individuals tested and especially the technique used, antibodies may reach a plateau several days or several weeks after the onset of the infection. Clinical diagnosis of rubella is not reliable, and its rarity today means that physicians are unlikely to recognize it or consider it as a possible differential diagnosis. Nonetheless, residual circulation of the rubella virus continues in France. A chickenpox rash is diagnosed clinically. For atypical eruptions, the virus can be sought directly in the vesicular fluid. Serology is not helpful in this case. PMID:26033555

  12. Investigation of immunoglobulins in skin of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Maria Rosaria; Simoniello, Palma; Giacomelli, Stefano; Oreste, Umberto; Motta, Chiara Maria

    2014-08-01

    The presence and production of IgM in the skin of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii were investigated in this study. Immunoglobulins purified from cutaneous mucus and analysed by SDS-PAGE run under non-reducing and reducing conditions, were composed of heavy and light chains of 78 kDa and 25 kDa respectively, with a relative molecular mass of 830 kDa indicating that mucus IgM are tetramers as the serum IgM. Mature transcripts encoding the constant domains of both the secretory and membrane-bound Ig? chain were seen in T. bernacchii skin using a PCR strategy and the expression of the secretory Ig? chain in the skin was compared with that in other tissues by Real-time PCR. Cytological investigations revealed the presence of either immunoglobulins or their transcripts in occasional lymphocytes distributed close to the basal membrane. IgM once produced here, enters the filament-containing cells and is released into the mucus when these cells degenerate and detach from the epidermis. Our findings indicate that a cutaneous defence mechanism, functioning as anatomical and physiological barrier under subzero conditions, is present in this Antarctic species as an important component of the immune system. PMID:24821425

  13. Isotype restricted exceptionally long CDR3H expression and extensive somatic mutations contribute to antibody diversification in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibody diversification in IgM and IgG antibodies was analyzed in an 18-month old bovine (Bos taurus) suffering from naturally occurring chronic and recurrent infections due to bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) involving impaired leukocyte Beta-2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) expression in le...

  14. Serological and parasitological study and report of the first case of human babesiosis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Leonardo; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Blair, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    A study on the presence of Babesia in humans was performed in Puerto Berr o (Latitude 6.50deg. Longitude: -74.38deg. River: Magdalena. Area: 74.410km , Colombia-South America). Indirect immunofluorescence, thin and thick blood smears were used to study 194 individuals. Patients were grouped according to their risk-factors for Babesia infection: (group 1) individuals with fever, chills, sweating and other malaria-type symptoms; (group 2) symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals from local cattle ranches, which were enrolled in an active form, and (group 3) workers from the local slaughterhouse. Seven individuals were serologically positive for Babesia: Three individuals presented IgM antibodies against B. bovis, while one had IgG against this species; one individual had IgM against B. bigemina, another had IgG and a third both IgM and IgG against this species. Only one individual was parasitologically positive for Babesiaand serologically positive for Babesia bovis (IgM 1:64) PMID:12937727

  15. Brandon Burkholder Structures

    E-print Network

    Safro, Ilya

    of the largest repositories of astrophysical data outside of national facilities #12; Viewed on sufficiently distribution initial conditions 25 TB output data, > 1 month computing time Eris (galactic formation) 6e7 Matter distribution, DM halos, galaxies & clusters, IGM, intracluster gas #12; Pleiades NASA Ames

  16. Setting the stage: ultralumnous galaxies in a cosmological context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Heckman

    1999-01-01

    I will try to put the ultraluminous galaxy phenomenoninto a broad cosmological context. Viewed from this perspective,the significance of ultraluminous galaxies and the `starburstvs. monster' debate becomes clear. Ultraluminous galaxiesare fascinating in their own right, allow detailedstudy of the processes by which massive spheroids were builtand the IGM was heated and polluted, and resemble the mostluminous and dustiest galaxies at

  17. Setting the stage: ultralumnous galaxies in a cosmological context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Heckman

    1999-01-01

    I will try to put the ultraluminous galaxy phenomenon into a broad cosmological context. Viewed from this perspective, the significance of ultraluminous galaxies and the `starburst vs. monster' debate becomes clear. Ultraluminous galaxies are fascinating in their own right, allow detailed study of the processes by which massive spheroids were built and the IGM was heated and polluted, and resemble

  18. Occurrence of hepatitis E virus infection in acute hepatitis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Siripanyaphinyo, U; Boon-Long, J; Louisirirotchanakul, S; Takeda, N; Chanmanee, T; Srimee, B; Namsai, A; Pounsawat, P; Khupulsap, K

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the enterically transmitted types of hepatitis. The present study was undertaken to estimate the occurrence of HEV infection in sporadic acute hepatitis in Thailand. Serum samples were obtained from 614 suspected acute hepatitis patients at two large hospitals in Bangkok during 2008, 2009, and 2011. Acute hepatitis E was identified by the presence of anti-HEV IgM (4.8%) using indirect ELISA kits and/or HEV RNA (4.5%) by a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. HEV IgM was the most common marker for detection (77%) at diagnosis, either by positive HEV IgM alone or together with HEV RNA, whereas HEV RNA alone was detected in 23% of patients. Overall, 4.2% of cases (26 out of 614) were acute HEV infection with the highest attack rate in the elderly age group. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of five HEV samples revealed 92.8-99.8% homology. All viruses were clustered into HEV genotype 3 and were similar genetically to swine HEV strains previously detected in the same area. Therefore, the occurrence of HEV infection with closely related to swine genotype 3 was approximately 4-5% of acute hepatitis cases in Thailand. Anti-HEV IgM was the most common marker at diagnosis. PMID:24984976

  19. BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711 C Hawaii Biotech, Inc., 99 Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels

  20. Validation of a microsphere immunoassay for serological leptospirosis diagnosis in human serum by comparison to the current gold standard.

    PubMed

    Wynwood, Sarah J; Burns, Mary-Anne A; Graham, Glenn C; Weier, Steven L; McKay, David B; Craig, Scott B

    2015-03-01

    A microsphere immunoassay (MIA) utilising Luminex xMap technology that is capable of determining leptospirosis IgG and IgM independently was developed. The MIA was validated using 200 human samples submitted for routine leptospirosis serology testing. The traditional microscopic agglutination (MAT) method (now 100 years old) suffers from a significant range of technical problems including a dependence on antisera which is difficult to source and produce, false positive reactions due to auto-agglutination and an inability to differentiate between IgG and IgM antibodies. A comparative validation method of the MIA against the MAT was performed and used to determine the ability of the MIA to detect leptospiral antibodies when compared with the MAT. The assay was able to determine samples in the reactive, equivocal and non-reactive ranges when compared to the MAT and was able to differentiate leptospiral IgG antibodies from leptospiral IgM antibodies. The MIA is more sensitive than the MAT and in true infections was able to detect low levels of antibody in the later stages of the acute phase as well as detect higher levels of IgM antibody earlier in the immune phase of the infection. The relatively low cost, high throughput platform and significantly reduced dependency on large volumes of rabbit antisera make this assay worthy of consideration for any microbiological assay that currently uses agglutination assays. PMID:25807009