Sample records for anticuerpos igm antivirus

  1. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  2. AVG Anti-Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

  3. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  4. New Attack Tricks Antivirus Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Heyman

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, antivirus products stop malicious software by recognizing code signatures unique to different types of malware. When the applications encounter a file with a code string that matches one in their database for a known virus, they block its access to the intended victim's computer. However, with the advent of Web 2.0, in which Web sites make it easy for

  5. Sophos Anti-Virus for Windows, version 7 user manual

    E-print Network

    Sophos Anti-Virus for Windows, version 7 user manual For Windows 2000 and later Document date: August 2008 #12;Contents 1 About Sophos Anti-Virus ........................................................................................................................3 2 Introduction to Sophos Anti-Virus

  6. Lab Anti-Virus Policy 1.0 Purpose

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Lab Anti-Virus Policy COE­LAV­02 1.0 Purpose To establish requirements which must be met by all computers connected to College of Engineering lab networks to ensure effective virus detection facilities must have a reputable vendor's anti-virus software installed, and scheduled to scan the system

  7. Page 1 of 4 University of Warwick Antivirus Policy June 2002 University of Warwick Anti-Virus Policy

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    Page 1 of 4 University of Warwick Antivirus Policy June 2002 University of Warwick Anti-Virus Policy Scope This document describes the measures taken by the University to counter computer viruses and the responsibilities of individuals, departments and IT Services in protecting the University against viruses

  8. AMG Anti-Virus Free Edition 9.0

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With this version of its popular product, AMG Anti-Virus is offering a few new notable highlights. For one, visitors can use the full-featured scheduling utility for automating tasks and checking for new definitions. This version of Anti-Virus also includes new anti-phishing detection techniques and an up-to-date link scanner. Users running Windows 2000 and newer as well as Linux will be able to use this application.

  9. Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection Recommended processes to prevent virus problems

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection COE­AVP­01 Recommended processes to prevent virus problems: · Always run either the current University site licensed anti-virus software, which is available from the University download site or through ECS, or other reputable anti-virus software. · Download and run

  10. Review on the application of artificial intelligence in antivirus detection systemi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-bin Wang; Guang-yuan Yang; Yi-chao Li; Dan Liu

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have played increasingly important role in antivirus detection. At present, some principal artificial intelligence techniques applied in antivirus detection are proposed, including heuristic technique, data mining, agent technique, artificial immune, and artificial neural network. It believes that it will improve the performance of antivirus detection systems, and promote the production of new artificial intelligence algorithm and

  11. Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and Anti-Virus Techniques: A Short Survey

    E-print Network

    Rad, Babak Bashari; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process, anti-virus experts design and develop new methodologies to make them stronger, more and more, every day. The purpose of this paper is to review these methodologies and outline their strengths and weaknesses to encourage those are interested in more investigation on these areas.

  12. IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster

    E-print Network

    IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all locked up? Ever run into these? Help is on the way. NC State has licensed Symantec AntiVirus and NC State students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last

  13. East Tennessee State University Symantec Campus Agreement Student / Employee Personal Computer Antivirus Request

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    East Tennessee State University Symantec Campus Agreement Student / Employee Personal Computer Antivirus Request East Tennessee State University (ETSU) has purchased the Symantec Campus Agreement, which understand that no technical support is provided by East Tennessee State University. _____ I understand

  14. Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

    2014-11-01

    The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

  15. Dust in the IGM: pro and contra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchekinov, Y. A.; Nath, B.

    2011-09-01

    Observations of dust grains in the intergalactic medium (IGM) allow us to study an important aspect in the evolution of galaxies. Although its existence had been previously speculated upon, direct evidence of the presence of dust in the intergalactic space has only been available recently. We discuss various issues regarding the presence of dust in the IGM—its sources, transport mechanisms from galaxies into the IGM, its effect on reddening and on cosmological studies.

  16. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  17. Quick Reference Guide Updating Mac Anti-Virus to ClamXav

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    . This will manually scan your computer for viruses. If your computer is shown to have viruses please contact with viruses will be quarantined by the software If your computer is shown to have viruses please contactQuick Reference Guide Updating Mac Anti-Virus to ClamXav CSUF Last Revised: 06/27/11 Page 1 of 5

  18. active immunity by using pigs previously injected with variable amounts of swine fever antivirus immunoglobins.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    active immunity by using pigs previously injected with variable amounts of swine fever antivirus immunoglobins. The vaccine used was an attenuated strain of swine fever virus : the Thiverval Strain. The immune. Swine fever vaccination of piglets in natural conditions with the « Thiverval » strain in presence

  19. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the impacts of removable storage media and antivirus software on viral spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chenquan; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a new computer virus propagation model, which incorporates the effects of removable storage media and antivirus software, is proposed and analyzed. The global stability of the unique equilibrium of the model is independent of system parameters. Numerical simulations not only verify this result, but also illustrate the influences of removable storage media and antivirus software on viral spread. On this basis, some applicable measures for suppressing virus prevalence are suggested.

  20. IgM nephropathy revisited

    PubMed Central

    Mubarak, Muhammed; Kazi, Javed I

    2012-01-01

    IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is an idiopathic immune complex-mediated glomerulopathy that was first described as a distinct disease in a nephropathology literature in 1978. Here, a historical review and the current status of IgMN in the light of world literature and the current experience will be presented. The Pubmed (www.pubmed.gov) search was made for articles on IgMN as the sole subject of the study or where it constituted a significant number of cases in a biopsy series in the world literature written in English. A total of 41 articles were found. A critical review of the literature was made. Soon after 1978, a series of reports were published mostly from the western world, but the interest in the entity did not withstand the test of time. No substantial basic medical research was carried out and the disease was largely ignored by the western researchers. More recently, a flurry of articles have appeared in the literature on the topic, mostly from tropical countries, and have renewed the interest in the entity. However, most of the current literature on IgMN is based on clinical observations, and experimental models and mechanistic studies of IgMN are lacking. There is an urgent need to develop consensus based criteria for the diagnosis of the condition, as well as, to focus the research on mechanistic studies to understand the pathogenesis of the disease better. PMID:23573499

  1. Nucleotide bias of DCL and AGO in plant anti-virus gene silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thien Ho; Liang Wang; Linfeng Huang; Zhigang Li; Denise W. Pallett; Tamas Dalmay; Kazusato Ohshima; John A. Walsh; Hui Wang

    2010-01-01

    Plant Dicer-like (DCL) and Argonaute (AGO) are the key enzymes involved in anti-virus post-transcriptional gene silencing\\u000a (AV-PTGS). Here we show that AV-PTGS exhibited nucleotide preference by calculating a relative AV-PTGS efficiency on processing\\u000a viral RNA substrates. In comparison with genome sequences of dicot-infecting Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and monocot-infecting Cocksfoot streak virus (CSV), viral-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) displayed positive

  2. Clinical Significance of 7s IgM in Monoclonal IgM Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Paul M.; Hobbs, John R.

    1971-01-01

    The sera from 117 patients with diseases associated with a high production of monoclonal IgM were analysed for the presence of low molecular weight (7s) IgM by using a simple thin-layer Sephadex technique. 7s IgM was found in the sera of patients with myelomata (66%), lymphomata (45%), and Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (20%), but was absent from the sera of patients with benign monoclonal macroglobulinaemia. This technique provides a cheap and practical test which may be valuable in selecting patients with lymphomata from those with benign lesions. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4995405

  3. I use OIT's free anti-virus software to scan my computer at least once every month.

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    I use OIT's free anti-virus software to scan my computer at least once every month. I set up my computer to receive operating system updates automatically. · Windows:update.microsoft.com · Macintosh prompted to do so. My computer has a User Account for everyday use. Ionlyusethe

  4. IgM nephropathy; time to act

    PubMed Central

    Mubarak, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: Much has been published on the epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics of IgM nephropathy, but there is little information on the etiology,pathogenesis and specific therapy of the disease. Controversy still shrouds the definition and nosologic status of the disease. Well-coordinated and concerted international efforts and collaboration between researchers in the developing and developed countries are needed to make further progress on the above aspects of the disease. PMID:24644539

  5. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of ?-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Xiaojun

    Background: Alpha-momorcharin (?-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. ...

  6. IgM Contributes to Glomerular Injury in FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Strassheim, Derek; Renner, Brandon; Panzer, Sarah; Fuquay, Richard; Kulik, Liudmila; Ljubanovi?, Danica; Holers, V. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Glomerular IgM and C3 deposits frequently accompany idiopathic FSGS and secondary glomerulosclerosis, but it is unknown whether IgM activates complement, possibly contributing to the pathogenesis of these diseases. We hypothesized that IgM natural antibody binds to neoepitopes exposed in the glomerulus after nonimmune insults, triggering activation of the complement system and further injury. We examined the effects of depleting B cells, using three different strategies, on adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis. First, we treated wild-type mice with an anti-murine CD20 antibody, which depletes B cells, before disease induction. Second, we evaluated adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis in Jh mice, a strain that lacks mature B cells. Third, we locally depleted peritoneal B cells via hypotonic shock before disease induction. All three strategies reduced deposition of IgM in the glomerulus after administration of adriamycin and attenuated the development of albuminuria. Furthermore, we found that glomerular IgM and C3 were detectable in a subset of patients with FSGS; C3 was present as an activation fragment and colocalized with glomerular IgM, suggesting that glomerular IgM may have bound a cognate ligand. Taken together, these results suggest that IgM activates the complement system within the glomerulus in an animal model of glomerulosclerosis. Strategies that reduce IgM natural antibody or that prevent complement activation may slow the progression of glomerulosclerosis. PMID:23393315

  7. IgM, Fc mu Rs, and malarial immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Salanti, Ali; Ditlev, Sisse B; Shao, Zhifeng; Ghumra, Ashfaq; Rowe, J Alexandra; Pleass, Richard J

    2010-05-01

    IgM is an ancestral Ab class found in all jawed vertebrates, from sharks to mammals. This ancient ancestry is shared by malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) that infect all classes of terrestrial vertebrates with whom they coevolved. IgM, the least studied and most enigmatic of the vertebrate Igs, was recently shown to form an intimate relationship with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In this article, we discuss how this association might have come about, building on the recently determined structure of the human IgM pentamer, and how this interaction could affect parasite survival, particularly in light of the just-discovered Fc mu R localized to B and T cell surfaces. Because this parasite may exploit an interaction with IgM to limit immune detection, as well as to manipulate the immune response when detected, a better understanding of this association may prove critical for the development of improved vaccines or vaccination strategies. PMID:20410497

  8. The biological effects of IgM hexamer formation.

    PubMed

    Randall, T D; King, L B; Corley, R B

    1990-09-01

    The inducible B cell lymphoma, CH12, and its in vitro adapted subclone, CH12-LBK, produce immunoglobulins of identical sequence, specificity and isotype, with equivalent affinities for the hapten trimethyl ammonium. However, the hemolytic efficiencies of the antibody secreted by the two cell lines are quite different. Antibody preparations from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated CH12 cells lyse erythrocytes six- to ten times more effectively than antibody preparations of the same concentration from CH12-LBK cells. Both cell lines secrete polymeric IgM, but while CH12-LBK cells secrete predominantly the canonical pentameric IgM, CH12 cells secrete a mixture of pentamers and hexamers. High-efficiency complement-dependent cytolysis is associated with hexameric IgM, which has a specific activity that is approximately twenty times higher than that of the pentameric form. J chain protein is found in the secreted IgM of both cell lines, but is associated only with the pentameric IgM and not with the hexameric form, nor with any intermediate polymers smaller than a pentamer. A deficit in, or the inaccessibility of, J chain protein appears to facilitate hexamer formation. These experiments confirm previously published data showing that J chain is not necessary either for assembly or secretion of polymeric IgM, and suggest instead that J chain may be important in regulating the lytic efficiency of polymeric IgM by controlling the IgM pentamer/hexamer ratio. The experiments further suggest a mechanism, in addition to isotype switching and somatic mutation, by which the biological efficiency of antibodies from a single clone of B cells can be regulated. PMID:2120070

  9. Impact of Natural IgM Concentration on Gene Therapy with Adenovirus Type 5 Vectors.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qi; Xu, Zhili; Tian, Jie; Moitra, Rituparna; Gunti, Sreenivasulu; Notkins, Abner L; Byrnes, Andrew P

    2015-03-15

    Natural IgM inhibits gene transfer by adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors. We show that polyreactive natural IgM antibodies bind to Ad5 and that inhibition of liver transduction by IgM depends on Kupffer cells. By manipulating IgM concentration in vivo, we demonstrate that IgM inhibits liver transduction in a concentration-dependent manner. We further show that differences in natural IgM between BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice contribute to lower efficiency of Ad5 gene transfer in BALB/c mice. PMID:25552715

  10. Polyreactive igm antibodies in the circulation are masked by antigen binding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Sigounas; Nick Kolaitis; Esteban Monell-Torrens; Abner Louis Notkins

    1994-01-01

    Human plasma containing IgM showed only minimal, if any, reactivity with a panel of antigens as measured by ELISA. In contrast, affinity-purified IgM showed many times more reactivity with the same panel of antigens. When plasma was added back to the affinity-purified IgM, the reactivity of the IgM with antigens was completely inhibited by undiluted plasma and by as much

  11. IGM Heating and AGN activity in Fossil Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Ponman, T. J.; Jetha, N. N.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-07-01

    Fossil galaxy groups are energetically and morphologically ideal environments to study the intergalactic medium (IGM) heating, because their inter-galactic gas is undisturbed due to the lack of recent group scale mergers. We study the role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in heating the IGM in a sample of five fossil galaxy groups by employing properties at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz. We find that two of the dominant galaxies in fossil groups, ESO 3060170 and RX J1416.4+2315, are associated with the radio lobes. We evaluate the PdV work of the radio lobes and their corresponding heating power and compare to the X-ray emission loss within cooling radius. Our results show that the power due to mechanical heating is not sufficiently high to suppress the cooling.

  12. Estudio de los tumores sólidos desarrollados por los ratones durante la producción de Anticuerpos Monoclonales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dasha Fuentes Morales; Ramiro R. González Pumarino; Bárbara O. González Navarro; Natacha Negrín

    2003-01-01

    Los ratones constituyen un elemento fundamental para la producción de líquido ascítico rico en anticuerpos monoclonales (AcM). Durante este proceso suelen aparecer tumores sólidos que afectan directamente el volumen de producción, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en estudiar estas neoformaciones para establecer sus características y de esta manera poder predecir las afectaciones en la producción a

  13. COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF EFFECTS OF THYROXINE, CORTISOL Nutritionnelles, l.N.R.A., Centre de Theix, 63110 Beaumont France Résumé ABSORPTION DES IgGl ET IgM COLOSTRALES conditions. Les résultats suivants ont été obtenus : - la capacité d'absorption des IgGl et des IgM varie

  14. Ly1 B Cells: Functionally Distinct Lymphocytes That Secrete IgM Autoantibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Hayakawa; Richard R. Hardy; Masaaki Honda; Leonard A. Herzenberg; Alfred D. Steinberg; Leonore A. Herzenberg

    1984-01-01

    Studies presented here introduce another perspective on the mechanisms responsible for IgM autoantibody production. A unique subpopulation of B lymphocytes (Ly-1 B) that concomitantly expresses IgM, IgD, Ia, and Ly-1 membrane glycoproteins is present at higher frequencies in NZB and NZB-related mice. The Ly-1 B subpopulation in these autoimmune animals is responsible for the ``spontaneous'' IgM secretion demonstrated with cultured

  15. Heavy element enrichment in the IGM at high redshift

    E-print Network

    S. Savaglio

    1997-09-16

    We present a detailed analysis of the ionisation state and heavy element abundances in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). The CIV doublet is shown by 30 % of the 182 selected optically thin \\lya clouds in 10 QSO lines of sight. Direct metallicity calculations have been performed on individual systems with detected CIV and SiIV (10% of the sample) varying the UV photoionising source, cloud density and size and silicon relative abundance. The best solutions for carbon content in this subsample (redshift coverage $z=2.6 - 3.8$) span between 1/6 and 1/300 of the solar value with no evidence of redshift evolution in both the metallicity and the ionising source. Global properties of the whole sample indicate that the metallicity in \\lya clouds with CIV and SiIV is not typical of the IGM. The redshift evolution of the UVB is one of the possible sources of the observed SiIV/CIV trend presented by Cowie and collaborators during this meeting. Future detection of heavy elements in lower HI column density ($\\log N_{HI} < 14.5$) \\lya clouds relies on the presence of OVI and NV at $z=1-2.5$.

  16. Positive predictive value of anti-HCMV IgM as an index of primary infection.

    PubMed

    De Paschale, Massimo; Agrappi, Carlo; Manco, Maria Teresa; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2010-09-01

    A search for specific IgM antibodies was used for the detection of primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, but the significance of the results is limited by the possible persistence of specific IgM over time, the fact that they are also produced during episodes of reactivation or reinfection, and possible cross-reactions with other viruses. Anti-HCMV antibody screening was carried out to assess the positive predictive value of detecting specific IgM antibodies using IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in 6990 patients examined during the period 2005-2007. In comparison with IgG avidity, the positive predictive value of screening by IgM ELISA alone was 49.3%, which increased to 73% when the presence of IgM was confirmed by an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). The predictive values of highly or weakly positive IgM ELISA alone were respectively 68.8% and 16.4%, but increased to 83.1% and 39.1% if IgM was confirmed by ELFA. The positive predictive value of the IgM/IgG ratio ranged from 26.7% for a low ratio and the detection of IgM by ELISA alone, to 90.7% for a high ratio and ELFA-confirmed IgM detection. These findings indicate that a specimen in which highly positive IgM ELISA values are confirmed by ELFA, or which shows a high IgM/IgG ratio, is a good indicator of infection occurring within the previous three months. PMID:20470827

  17. The contribution of naturally occurring IgM antibodies, IgM cross-reactivity and complement dependency in murine humoral responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah E; Taylor, Philip R; McGreal, Eamon; Zamze, Susanne; Wong, Simon Y C

    2009-09-25

    Immunogenicity of 12 capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from Streptococcus pneumoniae did not correlate with pre-existing levels of natural IgM anti-CPS antibodies in mice. Immunization of mice with individual CPS, with the exception of type 14 (the only neutral CPS tested), increased serum IgM that also bound other CPS serotypes independent of structural similarity or commonly known contaminants. Surprisingly only IgM response to type 4 (which has a small immunodominant epitope) was dependent on either complement C3 or complement receptors CD35/CD21. IgG anti-CPS responses were infrequently induced, but critically dependent on complement. Our results have clarified the role of complement in the induction of IgM and IgG anti-CPS antibody responses in mice and have implications for CPS vaccine development. PMID:19660585

  18. Recovering the topology of the IGM at z~2

    E-print Network

    S. Caucci; S. Colombi; C. Pichon; E. Rollinde; P. Petitjean; T. Sousbie

    2008-01-28

    We investigate how well the 3D density field of neutral hydrogen in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) can be reconstructed using the Lyman-alpha absorptions observed along lines of sight to quasars separated by arcmin distances in projection on the sky. We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to compare the topologies of different fields: dark matter, gas and neutral hydrogen optical depth and to investigate how well the topology of the IGM can be recovered from the Wiener interpolation method implemented by Pichon et al. (2001). The global statistical and topological properties of the recovered field are analyzed quantitatively through the power-spectrum, the probability distribution function (PDF), the Euler characteristics, its associated critical point counts and the filling factor of underdense regions. The local geometrical properties of the field are analysed using the local skeleton by defining the concept of inter-skeleton distance. At scales larger than ~1.4 , where is the mean separation between lines of sight, the reconstruction accurately recovers the topological features of the large scale density distribution of the gas, in particular the filamentary structures. At scales larger than the intrinsic smoothing length of the inversion procedure, the power spectrum of the recovered HI density field matches well that of the original one and the low order moments of the PDF are well recovered as well as the shape of the Euler characteristic. The integral errors on the PDF and the critical point counts are indeed small, less than 20% for ~2.5 arcmin. The small deviations between the reconstruction and the exact solution mainly reflect departures from the log-normal behaviour that are ascribed to highly non-linear objects in overdense regions.

  19. The Insertion Green Monster (iGM) Method for Expression of Multiple Exogenous Genes in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Roth, Frederick

    1 The Insertion Green Monster (iGM) Method for Expression of Multiple Exogenous Genes in Yeast;2 Running title: The Insertion Green Monster Method Key words: synthetic biology, multi-gene insertions Green Monster' (iGM) set of expression vectors that enable precise insertion of many heterologous genes

  20. The importance of natural IgM: scavenger, protector and regulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare A. Notley; Michael R. Ehrenstein

    2010-01-01

    The existence of IgM has been known for more than a century, but its importance in immunity and autoimmunity continues to emerge. Studies of mice deficient in secreted IgM have provided unexpected insights into its role in several diverse processes, from B cell survival to atherosclerosis, as well as in autoimmunity and protection against infection. Among the various distinct properties

  1. Identification of a novel host-specific IgM protease in Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Seele, Jana; Singpiel, Alena; Spoerry, Christian; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph G

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a highly invasive, extracellular pathogen in pigs with the capacity to cause severe infections in humans. This study was initiated by the finding that IgM degradation products are released after opsonization of S. suis. The objective of this work was to identify the bacterial factor responsible for IgM degradation. The results of this study showed that a member of the IdeS family, designated Ide(Ssuis) (Immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of S. suis), is responsible and sufficient for IgM cleavage. Recombinant Ide(Ssuis) was found to degrade only IgM but neither IgG nor IgA. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that Ide(Ssuis) is host specific, as it exclusively cleaves porcine IgM but not IgM from six other species, including a closely related member of the Suidae family. As demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, Ide(Ssuis) modulates binding of IgM to the bacterial surface. Ide(Ssuis) is the first prokaryotic IgM-specific protease described, indicating that this enzyme is involved in a so-far-unknown mechanism of host-pathogen interaction at an early stage of the host immune response. Furthermore, cleavage of porcine IgM by Ide(Ssuis) is the first identified phenotype reflecting functional adaptation of S. suis to pigs as the main host. PMID:23243300

  2. Detection of IgM antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis by enzyme linked fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Numazaki, K; Chiba, S; Yamanaka, T; Moroboshi, T; Aoki, K; Nakao, T

    1985-01-01

    A simple, sensitive enzyme linked fluorescence immunoassay has been developed to detect IgM antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis. Reticulate bodies and elementary bodies from C trachomatis L2/434 Bu strain were isolated and used as antigens in the assay. Of 113 serum samples obtained from infants with pneumonia, 27 (23.9%) had IgM antibodies to C trachomatis L2 reticulate bodies and nine (8.0%) had IgM antibodies to C trachomatis L2 elementary bodies (titre greater than or equal to 1/500). Specific IgM antibodies were not detected in 20 control serum samples obtained from healthy adults and children. The possible use of enzyme linked fluorescence assay to determine IgM antibodies in the serodiagnosis of C trachomatis infection is discussed. PMID:3894429

  3. Potential impact of different cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM assays on an algorithm requiring IgM reactivity as a criterion for measuring CMV IgG avidity.

    PubMed

    Prince, Harry E; Lapé-Nixon, Mary; Brenner, Andrew; Pitstick, Nancy; Couturier, Marc Roger

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG avidity is a powerful tool for identifying individuals with recent CMV infection. Because such patients are expected to be positive for CMV IgM, several investigators have suggested that CMV IgG-positive sera first be screened for CMV IgM and then only the IgM-reactive sera be tested for avidity. We investigated the impact of different CMV IgM assays on such a reflexing algorithm using a panel of 369 consecutive IgG-positive serum samples submitted for avidity testing. A bead-based immunofluorescent assay (BIFA) identified 105 IgM-positive serum samples, whereas an IgM-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) identified 48 IgM-positive serum samples; this marked difference led us to evaluate additional CMV IgM assays. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay (ELFA) and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) were used to test all sera with discordant BIFA/EIA results, all sera with concordant positive results, and selected sera with concordant negative results. The findings indicated that the ELFA would identify 74 CMV IgM-positive samples and the CIA would identify 64. Of the 23 low-avidity serum samples, 2 were IgM negative by BIFA, 3 by ELFA and CIA, and 4 by EIA; of the 23 intermediate-avidity serum samples, 6 were IgM negative by BIFA, 10 by ELFA, and 15 by EIA and CIA. In both these avidity groups, BIFA IgM-negative sera were also negative by the other 3 assays. These findings demonstrate that an algorithm requiring CMV IgM reactivity as a criterion for CMV IgG avidity testing does not identify all low-avidity sera and thus misses some cases of acute CMV infection. PMID:24671558

  4. B-1 cells in the bone marrow are a significant source of natural IgM

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn Soo; Dieter, Jacquelyn A.; Rothaeusler, Kristina; Luo, Zheng; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Summary Natural IgM antibodies secreted in the absence of antigenic challenge are important contributors to antimicrobial immunity and tissue homeostasis. Early studies had identified bone marrow and, to a lesser extent the spleen, as main tissue sources of this spontaneously secreted IgM. However, the responsible B cell subset has never been identified. Using multicolor flow cytometry, cell sorting and chimeric mice in which B-1 and B-2 cells and their secreted antibodies are distinguished by their Ig-allotype, we unequivocally identify the natural IgM secreting cells in spleen, and for the first time in the bone marrow as IgM+ IgDlo/?CD19hi CD43+ CD5+/? B-1 cells. The newly identified population of bone marrow B-1 cells shows many of the phenotypic characteristics of splenic B-1 cells but is distinct from B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity, which generate at best very small amounts of IgM. Antibody-secreting spleen and bone marrow B-1 cells are distinct also from terminally differentiated plasma cells generated from antigen-induced conventional B cells, as they express high levels of surface IgM and CD19 and lack expression of CD138. Together the study identifies populations of non-terminally differentiated B-1 cells in spleen and bone marrow as the most significant producers of natural IgM. PMID:22009734

  5. The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hanala, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

  6. False-positive results in immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibody tests and importance of confirmatory testing: the Platelia Toxo IgM test.

    PubMed

    Liesenfeld, O; Press, C; Montoya, J G; Gill, R; Isaac-Renton, J L; Hedman, K; Remington, J S

    1997-01-01

    Although tests for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibodies have been reported to have a high degree of accuracy, it is well recognized by investigators in the United States and Europe that false-positive results may occur with many of these tests, at times to an alarming degree. Unfortunately, this information is not well documented in the literature. Studies on various toxoplasma IgM test kits are frequently flawed. The investigators often use reference tests which have not previously been carefully evaluated as well as sera that were not appropriate to answer the question of how often false-positive results might occur. We recently had the unique opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the Platelia Toxo IgM test in 575 serum samples obtained during an outbreak of toxoplasmosis which occurred in 1995 in the Capital Regional District of British Columbia, Canada. When compared with results obtained in a reference IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the Platelia Toxo IgM test had a sensitivity of 99.4%, specificity of 49.2%, positive predictive value of 51.9%, negative predictive value of 99.3%, and an overall agreement of 67.0%. In an attempt to resolve discrepancies between these two tests, a serological profile (Sabin-Feldman dye test, IgA and IgE antibody tests, differential agglutination [AC/HS] test, and IgG avidity method) was performed. Of 153 serum samples that were positive in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and negative in the IgM ELISA, 71 (46.4%) were negative in the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of the serum samples that were positive in the dye test, 77 (93.9%) had a serological profile most compatible with an infection acquired in the distant past. These results reveal high numbers of false-positive results in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and highlight the importance of appropriate evaluation of commercial tests that are currently being marked. Our results also emphasize the importance of confirmatory testing to determine whether the results of an IgM antibody test reflect the likelihood of a recently acquired infection. PMID:8968902

  7. Expression and glycoengineering of functionally active heteromultimeric IgM in plants

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Andreas; Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Mehofer, Ulrich; Hensel, Frank; Grandits, Melanie; Oostenbrink, Chris; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Steinkellner, Herta

    2014-01-01

    IgM antibodies are an important player of the human’s innate defense mechanisms and increasingly have gained interest as therapeutics. Although the expression of IgM antibodies in mammalian cell culture is established, this approach remains costly and alternative methods have not been developed yet. Plants have a proven record for the production of therapeutically relevant recombinant proteins. However, whether they are able to express proteins like IgM antibodies, which range among the most complex human proteins, remains unknown so far. Here we report the in planta generation of the functionally active monoclonal antitumor IgM PAT-SM6 (SM6). SM6 efficiently accumulates in plant leaves and assembles correctly into heterooligomers (pentamers and hexamers). Detailed glycosylation analysis exhibited complex and oligomannosidic N-glycans in a site-specific manner on human-serum IgM and on plant- and human-cell-line–produced SM6. Moreover, extensive in planta glycoengineering allowed the generation of SM6 decorated with sialylated human-type oligosaccharides, comparable to plasma-derived IgM. A glycosylated model of pentameric IgM exhibits different accessibility of the glycosylation sites, explaining site-specific glycosylation. Biochemical and biophysical properties and importantly biological activities of plant-derived SM6 glycoforms are comparable to the human-cell–derived counterparts. The in planta generation of one of the most complex human proteins opens new pathways toward the production of difficult-to-express proteins for pharmaceutical applications. Moreover, the generation of IgMs with a controlled glycosylation pattern allows the study of the so far unknown contribution of sugar moieties to the function of IgMs. PMID:24706782

  8. Transcriptional Heterogeneity of IgM+ Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Abós, Beatriz; Castro, Rosario; Pignatelli, Jaime; Luque, Alfonso; González, Lucia; Tafalla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Two major classes of B lymphocytes have been described to date in rainbow trout: IgM+ and IgT+ cells. IgM+ cells are mainly localized in the spleen, peripheral blood and kidney but are also found in other tissues. However, differences among IgM+ cell populations attending to its location are poorly defined in fish. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the expression of different immune molecules such as chemokine receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and transcription factors on sorted IgM+ lymphocytes from different rainbow trout tissues. IgM+ populations from blood, spleen, kidney, gills, intestine and liver were isolated by cell sorting and the constitutive levels of transcription of these genes evaluated by real-time PCR. To further characterize B cells, we identified an MS4A sequence. In humans, the MS4A family includes several genes with immune functions, such as the B cell marker CD20 or FcR?. Subsequently, we have also evaluated the mRNA levels of this MS4A gene in the different IgM+ populations. The relevant differences in transcriptional patterns observed for each of these IgM+ populations analyzed, point to the presence of functionally different tissue-specific B cell populations in rainbow trout. The data shown provides a pattern of genes transcribed in IgM+ B cells not previously revealed in teleost fish. Furthermore, the constitutive expression of all the TLR genes analyzed in IgM+ cells suggests an important role for these cells in innate immunity. PMID:24324826

  9. Interaction between the IGM and a dwarf galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, V.; Raga, A. C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2015-04-01

    Dwarf Galaxies are the most common objects in the Universe and are believed to contain large amounts of dark matter. There are mainly three morphologic types of dwarf galaxies: dwarf ellipticals, dwarf spheroidals and dwarf irregulars. Dwarf irregular galaxies are particularly interesting in dwarf galaxy evolution, since dwarf spheroidal predecessors could have been very similar to them. Therefore, a mechanism linked to gas-loss in dwarf irregulars should be observed, i.e. ram pressure stripping. In this paper, we study the interaction between the ISM of a dwarf galaxy and a flowing IGM. We derive the weak-shock, plasmon solution corresponding to the balance between the post-bow shock pressure and the pressure of the stratified ISM (which we assume follows the fixed stratification of a gravitationally dominant dark matter halo). We compare our model with previously published numerical simulations and with the observed shape of the HI cloud around the Ho II and Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxies. We show that such a comparison provides a straightforward way for estimating the Mach number of the impinging flow.

  10. IgM nephropathy; can we still ignore it

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, Aruna

    2013-01-01

    Context:IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is a relatively less recognized clinico-immunopathological entity in the domain of glomerulonephritis , often thought to be a bridge between minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. Results: IgM nephropathy can present as nephritic syndrome or less commonly with subnephrotic proteinuria or rarely hematuria. About 30% patients respond to steroids whereas others are steroid dependent / resistant. They should be given a trial of Rituximab or stem cell therapy. Conclusions:IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is an important and rather neglected pathology responsible for renal morbidity in children and adults in developing countries as compared to developed nations with incidence of 2-18.5% of native biopsies. Abnormal T-cell function with hyperfunctioning suppressor T-cells are believed to be responsible for this disease entity. Approximately one third of the patients are steroid responders where as the remaining two thirds are steroid resistant or dependent. Therapeutic trials including cell therapies targeting suppressor T-cells are required. PMID:24475434

  11. Performance of Indirect Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Serology Tests and IgM Capture Assays for Laboratory Diagnosis of Measles

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, Samuel; Tipples, Graham; Head, Carol; Fauvel, Micheline; Fearon, Margaret; Ward, Brian J.

    2000-01-01

    As progress is made toward elimination of measles, the laboratory confirmation of measles becomes increasingly important. However, both false-positive and false-negative results can occur with the routinely used indirect measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology tests. The measles IgM capture assay is considered to be more specific, and therefore, its use is indicated for confirmatory testing, but its relative performance has not been fully assessed. Four commercial indirect measles IgM serology test kits (the Behring, Clark, Gull, and PanBio assays) and a commercial IgM capture assay (the Light Diagnostics assay) were evaluated for their abilities to detect measles virus-specific IgM antibody with a total of 308 serum samples from patients involved in a measles outbreak and with confirmed cases of measles and 454 samples from subjects without measles. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) IgM capture assay was also used in a part of the evaluation. Among the indirect assays, the overall sensitivities ranged from 82.8% (Clark assay) to 88.6% (Behring assay) and specificity ranged from 86.6% (PanBio assay) to 99.6% (Gull assay). These rates were 92.2 and 86.6%, respectively, for the Light Diagnostics capture assay and 87.0 and 94.8%, respectively, for the CDC capture assay. While the Light Diagnostics capture assay had the best detection rate (80%) with the acute-phase samples compared with those for the rest of the tests (CDC capture assay, 77%; Behring assay, 70%; Gull assay, 69%; PanBio assay, 58%; and Clark assay, 57%), all tests showed a significantly improved sensitivity in the range of 92% (Clark and PanBio assays) to 97% (Light Diagnostics and CDC capture assays) with the convalescent-phase samples, as expected. The best seropositivity rates (in the range of 92 to 100%) were observed with samples collected 6 to 14 days after the onset of symptoms. The Gull assay showed the highest positive predictive value (99.6%), followed by the Behring assay (97.8%) and the CDC capture assay (96.1%). Overall, the Gull and Behring assays were found to be as good as or better than the capture assays. In conclusion, laboratory diagnosis of measles based on IgM serology varies depending on the timing of specimen collection and the test used, and the case for the use of the IgM capture assay as the confirmatory test appears to be uncertain. PMID:10618071

  12. Vesiculovirus Neutralization by Natural IgM and Complement

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Mulu Z.; Ammayappan, Arun; Federspiel, Mark J.; Barber, Glen N.; Stojdl, David; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because of its very low human seroprevalence, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has promise as a systemic oncolytic agent for human cancer therapy. However, as demonstrated in this report, the VSV infectious titer drops by 4 log units during the first hour of exposure to nonimmune human serum. This neutralization occurs relatively slowly and is mediated by the concerted actions of natural IgM and complement. Maraba virus, whose G protein is about 80% homologous to that of VSV, is relatively resistant to the neutralizing activity of nonimmune human serum. We therefore constructed and rescued a recombinant VSV whose G gene was replaced by the corresponding gene from Maraba virus. Comparison of the parental VSV and VSV with Maraba G substituted revealed nearly identical host range properties and replication kinetics on a panel of tumor cell lines. Moreover, in contrast to the parental VSV, the VSV with Maraba G substituted was resistant to nonimmune human serum. Overall, our data suggest that VSV with Maraba G substituted should be further investigated as a candidate for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy applications. IMPORTANCE Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of disseminated cancers, but antibody neutralization of circulating oncolytic virus particles remains a formidable barrier. In this work, we developed a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with a glycoprotein of Maraba virus, a closely related but serologically distinct member of the family Rhabdoviridae, which demonstrated greatly diminished susceptibility to both nonimmune and VSV-immune serum neutralization. VSV with Maraba G substituted or lentiviral vectors should therefore be further investigated as candidates for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy applications. PMID:24648451

  13. Splenectomy associated changes in IgM memory B cells in an adult spleen registry cohort.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul U; Jones, Penelope; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Dunster, Kate; Paul, Eldho; Lewin, Sharon; Woolley, Ian; Spelman, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591). A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140) were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a) changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b) the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45). Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001) reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), occurred early (median 25 days) and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population. PMID:21829713

  14. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Paul U.; Jones, Penelope; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Dunster, Kate; Paul, Eldho; Lewin, Sharon; Woolley, Ian; Spelman, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n?=?591). A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n?=?140) were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a) changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b) the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n?=?45). Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001) reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), occurred early (median 25 days) and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population. PMID:21829713

  15. Human monoclonal IgM antibodies with apoptotic activity isolated from cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Br Andlein; Judith Lorenz; Nele Ruoff; Frank Hensel; Ines Beyer; Justus M Uller; Konrad Neukam; Bertram Illert; Matthias Eck; Hans Konrad M Uller-hermelink; H. Peter Vollmers

    Abstract. Monoclonal antibodies are accepted as ideal adjuvant therapeutic reagents for all kinds of diseases. Polyvalent (cross- linking) and low-mutated IgM antibodies (less immunogenic),are believed to be the most effective weapons,against cancer. The best sources for these types of antibodies are the cancer patients themselves. Using conventional hybridoma technology, not only are fully human monoclonal IgM antibodies isolated, but also

  16. Characterisation of echidna IgM provides insights into the time of divergence of extant mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Belov; Lars Hellman; Desmond W Cooper

    2002-01-01

    The immunobiology of monotremes is poorly understood. In this paper, we describe the characterisation of the heavy chain of IgM from Tachyglossus aculeatus, the short-beaked echidna. The echidna heavy chain constant region of IgM (C?) was isolated from a spleen cDNA library using a Trichosurus vulpecula probe. It has approximately 46.5% amino acid identity to marsupial and eutherian C?s, and

  17. B-1 cells in the bone marrow are a significant source of natural IgM.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Soo; Dieter, Jacquelyn A; Rothaeusler, Kristina; Luo, Zheng; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Natural IgM antibodies secreted in the absence of antigenic challenge are important contributors to antimicrobial immunity and tissue homeostasis. Early studies identified BM and, to a lesser extent the spleen, as main tissue sources of this spontaneously secreted IgM. However, the responsible B-cell subset has never been identified. Using multicolor flow cytometry, cell sorting and chimeric mice in which B-1 and B-2 cells and their secreted antibodies are distinguished by their Ig-allotype, we unequivocally identify the natural IgM-secreting cells in spleen and, for the first time, in the BM as IgM(+) IgD(lo/-) CD19(hi) CD43(+) CD5(+/-) B-1 cells. The newly identified population of BM B-1 cells shows many of the phenotypic characteristics of splenic B-1 cells but is distinct from B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity, which generate at best very small amounts of IgM. Antibody-secreting spleen and BM B-1 cells are distinct also from terminally differentiated plasma cells generated from antigen-induced conventional B cells, as they express high levels of surface IgM and CD19 and lack expression of CD138. Overall, these data identify populations of non-terminally differentiated B-1 cells in spleen and BM as the most significant producers of natural IgM. PMID:22009734

  18. The neonatally thymectomized rat: a model for compensatory IgM antibody formation in exocrine secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, J L; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J

    1979-01-01

    The effect of T-cell deprivation on IgM antibodies in saliva was studied in rats. IgM was never detected in salivas obtained from normal or sham-thymectomized rats, but was detected in saliva samples from 8/15 (53.3%) rats that had undergone neonatal thymectomy. All (6/6) neonatally thymectomized rats exhibited an IgM antibody response to DNP in salivary secretions after local immunization with a T-dependent antigen (DNPBGG), while no IgA anti-DNP activity was detected in saliva from these antimals. IgM antibodies were detected in saliva from 5/7 thymectomized rats following local injection with a T-independent antigen (DNP-Lys-Gicoll). This was accompanied by detectable but substantially reduced levels of secretory IgA antibody in saliva from 7/7 rats. The results suggested that absent or decreased salivary IgA responses accompanying T-cell deprivation in the rats are compensated for by secretion of IgM antibodies into the saliva. The neonatally thymectomized rat may thus provide a model for the study of synthesis, secretion and protective potential of exocrine IgM antibodies. PMID:116959

  19. The role of IgM rheumatoid factor in experimental immune vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, M; Tesar, J T

    1979-01-01

    The effect of IgM rhematoid factor (RF) on reversepassive cutaneous Arthus reaction in rats was studied. The RF was obtained from the serum cryoglobulin of a patient with symptoms of purpura, arthralgia and digital gangrene. The cryoglobulins was of IgG-IgM type and when given i.v it induced a prompt hypocomplementaemia in experimental animals. The purified RF also induced low serum complement levels when injected i.v. along with complexes of non-complement-fixing, aggregated IgG. A reverse passive Arthus reaction was induced by intradermal injection of IgG anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA), followed by an i.v. dose of antigen (Ag). The cutaneous inflammatory reaction was aggravated by simultaneous administration of IgM RF intradermally, but not by IgM without antibody (Ab) properties. Intradermal injection of low concentrations of non-complement-fixing IgG anti-BSA, along with normal human IgM, followed by i.v. injection of BSA, resulted in a complete lack of cutaneous inflammation. At higher Ab concentrations there was only a mild inflammation. However, when IgM RF was substituted for normal IgM and injected with non-complement-fixing anti-BSA, an effective reverse passive cutaneous Arthus reaction and vasculitis was induced. The inflammatory response was greatly suppressed by decomplementation of animals by cobra venom factor. This study provides evidence favouring an inflammatory, complement-dependent role for RF in vasculitis. PMID:157238

  20. Differentiation of acute and chronic hepatitis B in IgM anti-HBc positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Won; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Kim, Sung Eun; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Myung Seok; Kim, Hyoung Su; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the factors that differentiate acute hepatitis B (AHB) from chronic hepatitis B with acute exacerbation (CHB-AE). METHODS: From 2004 to 2013, a total of 82 patients (male n = 52, 63.4%; female n = 30, 36.6%) with clinical features of acute hepatitis with immunoglobulin M antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc) were retrospectively enrolled and divided into two groups; AHB (n = 53) and CHB-AE (n = 29). The AHB group was defined as patients without a history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before the episode and with loss of hepatitis B surface antigen within 6 mo after onset of acute hepatitis. Biochemical and virological profiles and the sample/cutoff (S/CO) ratio of IgM anti-HBc were compared to determine the differential diagnostic factors. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis demonstrated that, the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels were meaningful factors. The S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc was significantly higher in the AHB group, while the HBV DNA level was significantly higher in the CHB-AE group. The optimal cutoff values of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels for differentiating the two conditions were 8 S/CO ratio and 5.5 log10 IU/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 96.2% and 89.7% for the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and 81.1% and 72.4% for HBV DNA levels, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves of both the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels were not significantly different (0.933 vs 0.844, P = 0.105). When combining IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA, the diagnostic power significantly improved compared to HBV DNA alone (P = 0.0056). The combination of these factors yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 98.1% and 86.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The combination of the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels was a useful tool for differentiating AHB from CHB-AE in patients with positive IgM anti-HBc.

  1. J chain synthesis and secretion of hexameric IgM is differentially regulated by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin 5.

    PubMed

    Randall, T D; Parkhouse, R M; Corley, R B

    1992-02-01

    Two functional polymeric forms of IgM can be produced by antibody-secreting B cells. Hexameric IgM lacks detectable J (joining) chain and activates complement 17-fold better than pentameric IgM, which usually contains one J chain per pentamer. Using the inducible B-cell lymphoma CH12, we determined if the synthesis of a particular polymeric form of IgM is a fixed property of B cells or can be altered. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated CH12 cells produced mixtures of IgM hexamers and pentamers, resulting in antibody with high complement-fixing activity. In contrast, interleukin-5-stimulated CH12 cells secreted predominantly pentameric IgM, with a correspondingly lower lytic activity. Differences in lytic activity were due only to the amount of hexameric IgM in the secreted antibody. Interleukin 5 stimulated higher production of J chain RNA and protein than LPS, while LPS induced the highest levels of the secretory form of mu protein. The amount of hexameric IgM secreted was therefore inversely proportional to the level of intracellular J chain protein in the responding B cells. We conclude that the biologic function of IgM produced by B cells differs depending on how they are stimulated and that this difference may be regulated by the relative availabilities of J chain and secretory mu proteins during IgM polymerization. PMID:1736312

  2. A new antibody in rheumatoid arthritis targeting glycated IgG: IgM anti- IgG-AGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. LIGIER; P. R. FORTIN; M. M. NEWKIRK

    1998-01-01

    SUMMARY Hyperglycaemia and\\/or oxidative stress can cause IgG to be modified by advanced glycation end products (AGE). Three patients with aggressive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and vasculitis are described who have high titres of IgM antibodies against AGE-modified IgG (IgM anti-IgG-AGE ). Diabetics and randomly selected patients with rheumatic diseases, including 50 additional RA patients, were tested for IgM and IgA

  3. IgM quantification in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients by a latex card agglutination test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Lejon; D. Legros; M. Richer; J. A. Ruiz; V. Jamonneau; P. Truc; F. Doua; N. Dje; F. X. N'Siesi; S. Bisser; E. Magnus; I. Wouters; J. Konings; T. Vervoort; F. Sultan; P. Buscher

    2002-01-01

    Summary An increased IgM concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), occurring as a consequence of massive intrathecal IgM synthesis, is a marker of interest for diagnosis of the meningo-encephalitic stage in human African trypanosomiasis. However, in current practice, IgM in CSF is not determined because of the lack of a simple and robust test that is applicable in African rural regions

  4. J chain deficiency in human IgM monoclonal antibodies produced by Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Y G; Criss, A B; Georgiadis, K E

    1990-11-01

    Six human IgM monoclonal antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were purified and characterized. On agarose-acrylamide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels run under nonreducing conditions, IgM monoclonal antibodies showed variable amounts of a slower migrating form of IgM in addition to the one co-migrating with plasma IgM. Protein blotting with anti-J chain antibody showed that the slower migrating form did not contain J chain. Analysis of one of the monoclonal antibodies by sucrose gradient centrifugation showed that the J chain-deficient form sedimented faster than the complete IgM. It is known that IgM preparations lacking J chain sediment faster by sucrose gradient centrifugation analysis and tend to form hexamers. The slower migrating form of IgM we observed on SDS gels under nonreducing conditions could be hexameric IgM. Further evaluation of this monoclonal antibody demonstrated that both forms of IgM had the same antigen-binding activity. Glycosylation of the light chain was demonstrated in two of the monoclonal antibodies. PMID:2174785

  5. Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn L Rumfelt; Rebecca L Lohr; Helen Dooley; Martin F Flajnik

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric\\/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that,

  6. IgM quantification in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients by a latex card agglutination test.

    PubMed

    Lejon, V; Legros, D; Richer, M; Ruiz, J A; Jamonneau, V; Truc, P; Doua, F; Djé, N; N'Siesi, F X; Bisser, S; Magnus, E; Wouters, I; Konings, J; Vervoort, T; Sultan, F; Büscher, P

    2002-08-01

    An increased IgM concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), occurring as a consequence of massive intrathecal IgM synthesis, is a marker of interest for diagnosis of the meningo-encephalitic stage in human African trypanosomiasis. However, in current practice, IgM in CSF is not determined because of the lack of a simple and robust test that is applicable in African rural regions where the disease prevails. We describe the development of a sensitive semiquantitative card agglutination test, LATEX/IgM, for IgM quantification in CSF. The test is simple and fast and the lyophilized reagent remains stable even at 45 degrees C. CSF end-titres obtained with LATEX/IgM parallel the IgM concentrations determined by nephelometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Detection of intrathecal IgM synthesis is the most sensitive marker for CNS involvement in sleeping sickness. At a cut-off value of >or= 8, the sensitivity and specificity of LATEX/IgM for intrathecal IgM synthesis are 89.4 and 92.7%. As a consequence, patients with LATEX/IgM end-titres >or= 8 are likely to have intrathecal IgM synthesis, thus central nervous system involvement and therefore should be treated accordingly. Further studies should concentrate on the relationship between the LATEX/IgM end-titres, presence of intrathecal IgM synthesis and occurrence of treatment failures in patients treated with pentamidine. PMID:12167095

  7. The purification and characterisation of cervine IgM and IgG.

    PubMed

    Hibma, M H; Griffin, J F

    1990-12-01

    A procedure is described for the isolation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) from hyperimmune cervine serum. Hybrids of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis) were immunised with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). An immunoglobulin-containing fraction was precipitated from the hyperimmune serum using ammonium sulphate. The antigen-specific immunoglobulins were purified by KLH-conjugated sepharose affinity chromatography and further separated into IgM and IgG by gel-filtration chromatography. Purified immunoglobulin was analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weights and isoelectric points of the composite chains of cervine IgG and IgM are presented. PMID:2075697

  8. Reversal of IgM deficiency following a gluten-free diet in seronegative celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Lucia; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giorgio, Floriana; Covelli, Claudia; Fiore, Maria Grazia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Iannone, Andrea; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo; Principi, Mariabeatrice

    2014-01-01

    Selective IgM deficiency (sIGMD) is very rare; it may be associated with celiac disease (CD). We present the case of an 18-year-old man with sIGMD masking seronegative CD. Symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Laboratory tests showed reduced IgM, DQ2-HLA and negative anti-transglutaminase. Villous atrophy and diffuse immature lymphocytes were observed at histology. Tissue transglutaminase mRNA mucosal levels showed a 6-fold increase. The patient was treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and six months later the symptoms had disappeared, the villous architecture was restored and mucosal tissue transglutaminase mRNA was comparable to that of healthy subjects. After 1 year of GFD, a complete restoration of normal IgM values was observed and duodenal biopsy showed a reduction of immature lymphocytes and normal appearance of mature immune cells. PMID:25516687

  9. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the Hepatitis delta virus

    SciTech Connect

    Farci, P.; Gerin, J.L.; Aragona, M.; Lindsey, I.; Crivelli, O.; Balestrieri, A.; Smedile, A.; Thomas, H.C.; Rizzetto, M.

    1986-03-21

    The IgM class antibody to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was determined in different clinical categories of hepatitis B surface antigen carriers infected by the HDV (positive in the test for total antibody to HDV). The IgM antibody was found at high titers in each 70 patients with inflammatory liver disease and at a low titer in one six patients with inactive cirrhosis; it was not found in eight carriers with normal liver histology. Testing for Igm antibody to HDV distinguishes hepatitis B surface antigen carriers who have underlying inflammatory HDV liver disease from those with past HDV infection and provides prognostic information on the course of chronic HDV hepatitis.

  10. Serum HSV-1 and -2 IgM in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonko, I O; Cookey, T I; Okerentugba, P O; Frank-Peterside, N

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken for the purpose of finding IgM antibodies against HSV-1 and 2 infections among pregnant women and also to evaluate correlation of Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in these pregnant women. A total of 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria were consecutively recruited, after they had given consents to participate in the study. Serum of each sample was assayed for HSV-1&2 IgM antibody using a commercial ELISA. Five (2.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for IgM antibody against HSV-1&2. Marital status mainly correlated (?(2) = 221.5, P < 0.05) with HSV-2 infection and HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection. Age, educational level, occupation, and gestation were not consistently associated (P>0.05) with HSV-1/HSV-2 infection and co-infection. We also observed a high overall anti-HSV-1&2 IgM seronegativity of 97.2% among these pregnant women. Group-specific seronegativity was also high ranging from 93.3-100%. Although the age-groups significantly differed, none of their variables showed statistical association with the seronegativity. This represents the first analysis of HSV IgM antibody reported in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and has important public health implications, particularly for pregnant women. Consideration of this information would benefit physicians providing primary gynecological and obstetric care to this population of women. PMID:25188909

  11. Antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 2 pathway suppresses IL-6-induced immunoglobulin IgM secretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed predominantly in the immune system, particularly in plasma cells, raising the possibility that targeting the CB2 pathway could yield an immunomodulatory effect. Although the role of CB2 in mediating immunoglobulin class switching has been reported, the effects of targeting the CB2 pathway on immunoglobulin secretion per se remain unclear. Methods Human B cell line SKW 6.4, which is capable of differentiating into IgM-secreting cells once treated with human IL-6, was employed as the cell model. SKW 6.4 cells were incubated for 4 days with CB2 ligands plus IL-6 (100 U/ml). The amount of secreted IgM was determined by an ELISA. Cell proliferation was determined by the 3H-Thymidine incorporation assay. Signal molecules involved in the modulation of IgM secretion were examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses or by using their specific inhibitors. Results We demonstrated that CB2 inverse agonists SR144528 and AM630, but not CB2 agonist HU308 or CB1 antagonist SR141716, effectively inhibited IL-6-induced secretion of soluble IgM without affecting cell proliferation as measured by thymidine uptake. SR144528 alone had no effects on the basal levels of IgM in the resting cells. These effects were receptor mediated, as pretreatment with CB2 agonist abrogated SR144528-mediated inhibition of IL-6 stimulated IgM secretion. Transcription factors relevant to B cell differentiation, Bcl-6 and PAX5, as well as the protein kinase STAT3 pathway were involved in the inhibition of IL-6-induced IgM by SR144528. Conclusions These results uncover a novel function of CB2 antagonists and suggest that CB2 ligands may be potential modulators of immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:24913620

  12. Baryonic Content in the Warm-Hot IGM at Low Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Shull, M.; Danforth, C.; Moos, W.

    2007-01-01

    Baryons are 4.5% of the universe's mass/energy density; only 10% of these are in stars, galaxies, and clusters. At low-redshift 90% of baryons are in the IGM, 30% in Ly-alpha forest, but most are in hot gas (10(exp 5-7) K) produced by shocks during structure formation. O VI 1032-38 A are the best tracers of this gas. The distribution of O VI absorbers observed by FUSE rises as N(sup -2+/-0.2, down to 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Integrated to logN=13, 7% of baryons reside in the O VI-bearing IGM at 10% solar metallicity, T approx. 10(exp 5.5) K. At redshift z<0.1 metals have been transported less than 800/h kpc from L* galaxies and 200/h kpc from 0.1 L* galaxies. The steepness of dN/dz means that low-N absorbers contribute an equal mass of hot IGM as higher N gas. The total mass of O VI-bearing gas in the IGM depends on determining the turnover in dN/dz at low N(O VI). Future observations by FUSE are needed to reach lower N and to reduce the uncertainty in the dN/dz power law.

  13. Serological survey of anti-group A rotavirus IgM in UK adults.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, M. J.; Medley, G. F.

    2003-01-01

    Rotaviral associated disease of infants in the UK is seasonal and infection in adults not uncommon but the relationship between these has been little explored. Adult sera collected monthly for one year from routine hospital samples were screened for the presence of anti-group A rotavirus immunoglobulin M class antibodies as a marker of recent infection. Anti-rotavirus IgM was seen in all age groups throughout the year with little obvious seasonal variation in the distribution of antibody levels. IgM concentrations and the proportion seropositive above a threshold both increased with age with high concentrations consistently observed in the elderly. Results suggest either high infection rates of rotavirus in adults, irrespective of seasonal disease incidence in infants, IgM persistence or IgM cross-reactivity. These results support recent evidence of differences between infant and adult rotavirus epidemiology and highlight the need for more extensive surveys to investigate age and time related infection and transmission of rotavirus. PMID:12948372

  14. Acute postoperative inflammatory polyarthritis associated with a lone IgM cardiolipin antibody.

    PubMed

    Chua, Ignatius; Jawad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    While the most recognised complication after joint surgery is septic arthritis, other forms of joint pathology may occur. We present a case of postoperative polyarthritis with high inflammatory markers, which responded to a course of prednisolone. The occurrence of high IgM cardiolipin antibodies that normalised with treatment suggests that this condition is a form of transient autoimmunity. PMID:25733090

  15. Enzyme immunoassays for IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii based on enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, C F

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the clinical performance of enzyme immunoassays for IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii based on enhanced chemiluminescence. METHODS--Classification of routine clinical samples from the originating laboratories was compared with that obtained using the chemiluminescence based assays. Resolution of discordant results was achieved by testing in alternative enzyme immunoassays (IgM) or by an independent laboratory using the dye test (IgG). RESULTS--Compared with resolved data, the IgM assay was found to be highly specific (100%) with a cut off selected to give optimal performance with respect to both the early detection of specific IgM and the detection of persistent levels of specific IgM (sensitivity 98%). Compared with resolved data, the IgG assay was shown to have a sensitivity and a specificity of 99.4%. CONCLUSIONS--The Amerlite Toxo IgM assay possesses high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Assay interference due to rheumatoid factor like substances is not a problem. The Amerlite Toxo IgG assay possesses good sensitivity and specificity, but is less sensitive for the detection of seroconversion than methods detecting both IgG and IgM. PMID:7560174

  16. Prevalence, specificity and functionality of anti-ganglioside antibodies in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; Jacobs, Bart C; Tio-Gillen, Anne P; Eurelings, Marijke; Jansen, Marc D; van den Berg, Leonard H; Notermans, Nicolette C; van der Pol, W-Ludo

    2014-03-15

    IgM antibodies against gangliosides and their complexes were studied in sera from 54 patients with polyneuropathy and IgM monoclonal gammopathy (IgM-PNP) without anti-MAG antibodies. Anti-ganglioside antibodies were found in 19 (35%) patients. Five (9%) patients had antibodies against ganglioside complexes. IgM antibodies against gangliosides activated complement in vitro. Light chain usage was restricted to kappa or lambda in most, but not all patients. In conclusion, anti-ganglioside antibodies in IgM-PNP are common, display pathogenic properties and do not always arise from a monoclonal B cell proliferation. PMID:24529728

  17. Acute inflammatory neuropathy with monoclonal anti-GM2 IgM antibodies, IgM-? paraprotein and additional autoimmune processes in association with a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Milnik, Annette; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Conrad, Karsten; Bartels, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are often associated with autoimmune processes preceding or following the occurrence of a lymphoma. Here, we describe a patient with a history of recurrent diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who suffered from an acute inflammatory neuropathy with specific monoclonal anti-GM2 IgM antibodies and associated IgM-? paraprotein. It was possible in this case to prove that both, anti-GM2 IgM antibodies and IgM-? paraprotein, share the same binding characteristic. In addition, the patient possibly suffered from an immune thrombocytopenia and an early-stage bullous pemphigoid with anti-BP-230 IgG antibodies. Intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis alleviated the acute neuropathy and thrombocytopenia, while the bullous pemphigoid has been aggravated. In summary, the simultaneous occurrence of multiple autoimmune processes was a sign of a dysfunctional immune system preceding the relapse of a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23341581

  18. Three-dimensional structure of the Fab from a human IgM cold agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Cauerhff, A; Braden, B C; Carvalho, J G; Aparicio, R; Polikarpov, I; Leoni, J; Goldbaum, F A

    2000-12-01

    Cold agglutinins (CAs) are IgM autoantibodies characterized by their ability to agglutinate in vitro RBC at low temperatures. These autoantibodies cause hemolytic anemia in patients with CA disease. Many diverse Ags are recognized by CAs, most frequently those belonging to the I/i system. These are oligosaccharides composed of repeated units of N:-acetyllactosamine, expressed on RBC. The three-dimensional structure of the Fab of KAU, a human monoclonal IgM CA with anti-I activity, was determined. The KAU combining site shows an extended cavity and a neighboring pocket. Residues from the hypervariable loops V(H)CDR3, V(L)CDR1, and V(L)CDR3 form the cavity, whereas the small pocket is defined essentially by residues from the hypervariable loops V(H)CDR1 and V(H)CDR2. This fact could explain the V(H)4-34 germline gene restriction among CA. The KAU combining site topography is consistent with one that binds a polysaccharide. The combining site overall dimensions are 15 A wide and 24 A long. Conservation of key binding site residues among anti-I/i CAs indicates that this is a common feature of this family of autoantibodies. We also describe the first high resolution structure of the human IgM C(H)1:C(L) domain. The structural analysis shows that the C(H)1-C(L) interface is mainly conserved during the isotype switch process from IgM to IgG1. PMID:11086081

  19. The evolution of multiple isotypic IgM heavy chain genes in the shark.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victor; Huang, Jing Li; Lui, Ming Fai; Malecek, Karolina; Ohta, Yuko; Mooers, Arne; Hsu, Ellen

    2008-06-01

    The IgM H chain gene organization of cartilaginous fishes consists of 15-200 miniloci, each with a few gene segments (V(H)-D1-D2-J(H)) and one C gene. This is a gene arrangement ancestral to the complex IgH locus that exists in all other vertebrate classes. To understand the molecular evolution of this system, we studied the nurse shark, which has relatively fewer loci, and characterized the IgH isotypes for organization, functionality, and the somatic diversification mechanisms that act upon them. Gene numbers differ slightly between individuals ( approximately 15), but five active IgM subclasses are always present. Each gene undergoes rearrangement that is strictly confined within the minilocus; in B cells there is no interaction between adjacent loci located > or =120 kb apart. Without combinatorial events, the shark IgM H chain repertoire is based on junctional diversity and, subsequently, somatic hypermutation. We suggest that the significant contribution by junctional diversification reflects the selected novelty introduced by RAG in the early vertebrate ancestor, whereas combinatorial diversity coevolved with the complex translocon organization. Moreover, unlike other cartilaginous fishes, there are no germline-joined VDJ at any nurse shark mu locus, and we suggest that such genes, when functional, are species-specific and may have specialized roles. With an entire complement of IgM genes available for the first time, phylogenetic analyses were performed to examine how the multiple Ig loci evolved. We found that all domains changed at comparable rates, but V(H) appears to be under strong positive selection for increased amino acid sequence diversity, and surprisingly, so does Cmicro2. PMID:18490746

  20. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul U. Cameron; Penelope Jones; Malgorzata Gorniak; Kate Dunster; Eldho Paul; Sharon Lewin; Ian Woolley; Denis Spelman

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited

  1. A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

  2. International standards for IgG and IgM anti-?2glycoprotein antibody measurement.

    PubMed

    Willis, R; Grossi, C; Orietta Borghi, M; Martos-Sevilla, G; Zegers, I; Sheldon, J; Meroni, P L

    2014-10-01

    International standards for anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (anti-?2GPI) testing are needed. We evaluated the suitability of polyclonal/monoclonal candidate reference materials (RM) for the assay. IgG/IgM anti-?2GPI were affinity-purified (AP) from high-positive antiphospholipid syndrome sera and IgG from HCAL clone supernatant. Igs were tested for purity by SDS-PAGE, pooled, concentrated, sterile-filtered and the protein concentration determined. One unit was defined as the binding activity of 1 µg/ml of AP anti-?2GPI Ig. IgG/IgM RM were each assigned a unit value using the respective AP material as a calibrator. Polyclonal/monoclonal RM and 30 samples were evaluated for linearity, unit equivalency and commutability. Polyclonal AP material was assigned a value of 100 U IgG and 15 U IgM anti-?2GPI, respectively. IgG-RM had a value of 270 IgG and the IgM-RM of 220.3 IgM anti-?2GPI U. The linearity (R (2)) of each RM curve for the various assays ranged from 0.96 to 0.99. Commutability samples fit very well within 95% prediction intervals and had excellent correlation when comparing assays. IgG and IgM polyclonal and IgG monoclonal RM displayed excellent linearity and commutability, being good candidates for better standardization of anti-?2GPI immunoassays. PMID:25228737

  3. The importance of IgM positivity in laboratory diagnosis of gestational and congenital syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Nemes-Nikodém, É.; Vörös, E.; Pónyai, K.; Párducz, L.; Kárpáti, S.; Rozgonyi, F.; Ostorházi, E.

    2012-01-01

    From January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011, from 33,753 blood samples for syphilis screening, Treponema pallidum infections were confirmed in 241 pregnant women at the Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Dermatooncology of Semmelweis University Budapest. In this period, four children born to inadequately or untreated women were confirmed to have connatal syphilis. The height of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer was measured to determine the stage of the infection and to examine the success of the antilues therapy. The diagnosis of maternal syphilis infection was confirmed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and IgG and IgM immunoblots. Maternal IgM immunoblot results identify mothers at risk of delivering babies with connatal syphilis better than the height of maternal RPR titer. The standard serological tests are less useful in newborns because of IgG transfer across the placenta. IgM test which depends on the infant’s response has more specificity in diagnosing connatal syphilis. PMID:24672684

  4. IGM Constraints from the SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 Ly? Forest Transmission Probability Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Spergel, David N.; Weinberg, David H.; Hogg, David W.; Viel, Matteo; Bolton, James S.; Bailey, Stephen; Pieri, Matthew M.; Carithers, William; Schlegel, David J.; Lundgren, Britt; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Suzuki, Nao; Schneider, Donald P.; Yèche, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Ly? forest transmission probability distribution function (PDF) is an established probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM) astrophysics, especially the temperature-density relationship of the IGM. We measure the transmission PDF from 3393 Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) quasars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9, and compare with mock spectra that include careful modeling of the noise, continuum, and astrophysical uncertainties. The BOSS transmission PDFs, measured at langzrang = [2.3, 2.6, 3.0], are compared with PDFs created from mock spectra drawn from a suite of hydrodynamical simulations that sample the IGM temperature-density relationship, ?, and temperature at mean density, T 0, where T(?) = T 0?? – 1. We find that a significant population of partial Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with a column-density distribution slope of ?pLLS ~ – 2 are required to explain the data at the low-transmission end of transmission PDF, while uncertainties in the mean Ly? forest transmission affect the high-transmission end. After modeling the LLSs and marginalizing over mean transmission uncertainties, we find that ? = 1.6 best describes the data over our entire redshift range, although constraints on T 0 are affected by systematic uncertainties. Within our model framework, isothermal or inverted temperature-density relationships (? <= 1) are disfavored at a significance of over 4?, although this could be somewhat weakened by cosmological and astrophysical uncertainties that we did not model.

  5. Constraints on the IGM Temperature-Density Relationship from BOSS Lyman-? Forest Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, J.; Spergel, D. N.; Hogg, D. W.; Viel, M.; Pieri, M.; Bolton, J.; Bailey, S. J.; Ge, J.; Schlegel, D. J.; Suzuki, N.; BOSS Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The properties of the photoionized intergalactic medium (IGM) contain vital clues on the thermal history of the Universe, such as reionization events (both HI and HeII), quasar/AGN activity, and galaxy formation. We use 2541 quasar spectra from BOSS Data Release 9 to place constraints on the evolution of the IGM temperature-density relationship (usually parametrized as ?, where log T ? ? log ?) at 2.15IGM studies. We use a MCMC-based method to separate the photon-counting and CCD components of the spectral noise by differencing the individual exposures of each spectrum, while simultaneously providing accurate noise estimates. This allows us to create mock absorption spectra from detailed hydrodynamical simulations generated with different values of ?, with realistic noise properties tailored to each individual BOSS spectrum. For the continuum fitting, we use the mean-flux regulated PCA method, which allows accurate estimates 4% rms errors) of the underlying quasar continuum even in noisy spectra. Comparing the flux PDF from the mock spectra with the observed flux PDF from BOSS, we place constraints on the evolution of ? from z=3 to z=2 and discuss the results in the context of Helium reionization scenarios.

  6. Cloning, expression and evaluation of diagnostic potential of recombinant capsid protein based IgM ELISA for chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Priya, Raj; Khan, Mohsin; Rao, M Kameswara; Parida, Manmohan

    2014-07-01

    The resurgence of chikungunya virus in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic with unusual clinical severity after a gap of 32 years is a point of major public health concern. Definitive diagnosis is critical in differentiating the disease, especially in dengue endemic areas. The immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used for diagnosis of chikungunya infection. However IgM ELISA based on whole virus antigen is associated with biohazard risk. The present study describes the development and evaluation of recombinant capsid protein based indirect IgM antibody capture micro plate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid and accurate diagnosis of chikungunya infection. The gene coding for capsid protein was cloned in frame with GST tag in pET41a+ vector and expressed in E. coli followed by purification with affinity chromatography. The comparative evaluation of in-house chikungunya IgM ELISA vis-a-vis commercially available SD ELISA kit with 90 chikungunya suspected acute phase human patient serum samples revealed 97% accordance. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the reported capsid protein based IgM ELISA was 100% and 95% respectively with 96% PPV and 100% NPV. These findings clearly demonstrated the usefulness of the recombinant capsid protein based CHIKV IgM ELISA for reliable clinical diagnosis of CHIKV infection in human patient. PMID:24681089

  7. Anti-GM(2) IgM antibody-induced complement-mediated cytotoxicity in patients with dysimmune neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, B; Jiang, H; Allaria, S; Carpo, M; Scarlato, G; Nobile-Orazio, E

    2001-03-01

    Anti-GM2 IgM antibodies have been reported in some patients with dysimmune neuropathy or lower motor neuron syndrome. To determine whether these antibodies can induce complement-dependent cytolysis we performed a cytotoxicity assay on neuroblastoma cells with sera from seven patients with demyelinating dysimmune neuropathies and high titers of anti-GM2 IgM. As controls we used sera from seven patients with other anti-neural reactivities, six with the same neuropathies but no anti-GM2 or other anti-neural reactivity and from eight normal subjects. Of the seven positive sera tested, six induced complement-mediated cytotoxicity, while none of the controls had any relevant effect on neuroblastoma cells. Preincubation of positive sera with purified GM2 removed cytotoxic activity. Affinity purified anti-GM2 IgM had the same cytotoxic anti-GM2 effect of whole serum while serum or complement alone did not have any effect. In four anti-GM2-positive patients the percentage of cell lysis correlated with anti-GM2 titers and with IgM staining of neuroblastoma cells while in two the cytotoxic effect was higher than expected from antibody titers. Complement-mediated cell lysis induced by anti-GM2 IgM antibodies may be a possible mechanism of neural damage in patients with dysimmune neuropathy and high titers of anti-GM2 IgM antibodies. PMID:11240036

  8. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Bromage, Erin S.; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D.; Badil, Samantha M.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM+ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

  9. Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis: IgM and Polyclonal B-Cell Activation Lead to Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Eszter; Jayakumar, Asha; Wing Cho, Ka; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; Dondji, Blaise; Lambris, John D.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining lymph node (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JHD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JHD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JHD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to wild type BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5aR (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-?). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20213734

  10. Competition between Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA Anti-Glycan Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Xia, Li; Campbell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yalong; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-glycan antibodies are an abundant subpopulation of serum antibodies with critical functions in many immune processes. Changes in the levels of these antibodies can occur with the onset of disease, exposure to pathogens, or vaccination. As a result, there has been significant interest in exploiting anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for many diseases. Serum contains a mixture of anti-glycan antibodies that can recognize the same antigen, and competition for binding can potentially influence the detection of antibody subpopulations that are more relevant to disease processes. The most abundant antibody isotypes in serum are IgG, IgM, and IgA, but little is known regarding how these different isotypes compete for the same glycan antigen. In this study, we developed a multiplexed glycan microarray assay and applied it to evaluate how different isotypes of anti-glycan antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compete for printed glycan antigens. While IgG and IgA antibodies typically outcompete IgM for peptide or protein antigens, we found that IgM outcompete IgG and IgA for many glycan antigens. To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition can account for the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigen specificities appear to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We demonstrate that IgM in maternal sera compete with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear as though certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies. PMID:25807519

  11. Circulating microparticles carry oxidation-specific epitopes and are recognized by natural IgM antibodies1[S

    PubMed Central

    Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Perkmann, Thomas; Afonyushkin, Taras; Mangold, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas A.; Papac-Milicevic, Nikolina; Millischer, Vincent; Bartel, Caroline; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Fischer, Michael B.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Lang, Irene M.; Binder, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) present on apoptotic cells and oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) represent danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by different arcs of innate immunity, including natural IgM antibodies. Here, we investigated whether circulating microparticles (MPs), which are small membrane vesicles released by apoptotic or activated cells, are physiological carriers of OSEs. OSEs on circulating MPs isolated from healthy donors and patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STE-MI) were characterized by flow cytometry using a panel of OSE-specific monoclonal antibodies. We found that a subset of MPs carry OSEs on their surface, predominantly malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes. Consistent with this, a majority of IgM antibodies bound on the surface of circulating MPs were found to have specificity for MDA-modified LDL. Moreover, we show that MPs can stimulate THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) and human primary monocytes to produce interleukin 8, which can be inhibited by a monoclonal IgM with specificity for MDA epitopes. Finally, we show that MDA+ MPs are elevated at the culprit lesion site of patients with STE-MI. Our results identify a subset of OSE+ MPs that are bound by OxLDL-specific IgM. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which anti-OxLDL IgM antibodies could mediate protective functions in CVD. PMID:25525116

  12. Serologic profile of alphamethyldopa-induced hemolytic anemia: correlation between cell-bound IgM and hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Lalezari, P; Louie, J E; Fadlallah, N

    1982-01-01

    Erythrocyte-bound immunoglobulins have been characterized by a PVP-potentiated antiglobulin test in 11 patients who had developed antibodies after treatment with alpha-methyldopa. Serologic profiles were recognized that could distinguish between the hemolyzing and nonhemolyzing patients: IgM antibodies together with the first component of complement (C1q) were demonstrated on erythrocytes of all eight hemolyzing patients. By contrast, these immunoproteins were absent from the cells of nonhemolyzing patients and became undetectable when the hemolyzing patients recovered. IgG and its subclasses were variably present on erythrocytes of all patients regardless of hemolytic activity. Eluates prepared from erythrocytes of the hemolyzing patients were shown to contain both IgG and IgM, and fixes C1q, C3, and C4. Eluates from the nonhemolyzing patients contained only IgG. The IgM antibodies differed from the commonly occurring cold agglutinins in that they were warm-reactive and were mainly concentrated on the patients' cells rather than being free in the serum. Because of their nonagglutinating property, it is suggested that they are monomeric IgM. It is concluded that the high affinity, warm-reactive IgM and not the IgG antibodies are primarily responsible for clinically manifest anemia in patients receiving alphamethyldopa and that the hemolytic activity is probably mediated by the classic pathway of complement activation. PMID:7053765

  13. IgM in a Human Neuropathy Related to Paraproteinemia Binds to a Carbohydrate Determinant in the Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein and to a Ganglioside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amjad A. Ilyas; Richard H. Quarles; Tracy D. Macintosh; Michael J. Dobersen; Bruce D. Trapp; Marinos C. Dalakas; Roscoe O. Brady

    1984-01-01

    The IgM in three patients with paraproteinemia and peripheral neuropathy was shown to bind to human myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) that had been purified to homogeneity by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-6B. The antigenic determinant reacting with the IgM from all three patients was in the carbohydrate part of the MAG molecule. In addition, the IgM from the same three patients

  14. The insertion Green Monster (iGM) method for expression of multiple exogenous genes in yeast.

    PubMed

    Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M; Suzuki, Yo; Hanly, Timothy J; Murao, Ayako; Roth, Frederick P; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-07-01

    Being a simple eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides numerous advantages for expression and functional characterization of proteins from higher eukaryotes, including humans. However, studies of complex exogenous pathways using yeast as a host have been hampered by the lack of tools to engineer strains expressing a large number of genetic components. In addition to inserting multiple genes, it is often desirable to knock out or replace multiple endogenous genes that might interfere with the processes studied. Here, we describe the "insertion Green Monster" (iGM) set of expression vectors that enable precise insertion of many heterologous genes into the yeast genome in a rapid and reproducible manner and permit simultaneous replacement of selected yeast genes. As a proof of principle, we have used the iGM method to replace components of the yeast pathway for methionine sulfoxide reduction with genes encoding the human selenoprotein biosynthesis machinery and generated a single yeast strain carrying 11 exogenous components of the selenoprotein biosynthetic pathway in precisely engineered loci. PMID:24776987

  15. Bone marrow mastocytosis associated with IgM kappa plasma cell myeloma.

    PubMed

    Stellmacher, Florian; Sotlar, Karl; Balleisen, Leopold; Valent, Peter; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2004-04-01

    An association between mastocytosis and monoclonal gammopathy is a relatively rare but well recognized clinical finding. In the majority of cases, however, overt myeloma or lymphoma is not detectable morphologically. Here we describe the case of a 51 year-old male patient first presenting with paresis of the right facial nerve and the serological finding of IgM kappa paraproteinemia. The patient did not have organomegaly, lytic bone lesions, or urticaria pigmentosa-type skin lesions. Histological examination of a trephine biopsy specimen revealed the unusual coexistence of plasma cell myeloma and mastocytosis. Immunohistochemically, plasma cells were found to exhibit a monotypic staining for Ig heavy chain mu and Ig light chain kappa, thus confirming their neoplastic nature. Mast cells showed prominent spindling and formed dense multifocal infiltrates, thus enabling the diagnosis of bone marrow mastocytosis. Immunohistochemically, mast cells expressed tryptase, chymase, and KIT (CD117). In addition, aberrant expression of CD25 on mast cells was detected, confirming the coexistence of a neoplastic mast cell-proliferative disorder. According to the WHO proposal for classification of hematopoietic malignancies, this unique case, showing the association of two very rare haematologic neoplasms, can therefore best be referred to as bone marrow mastocytosis associated with IgM kappa plasma cell myeloma (SM-AHNMD). PMID:15160959

  16. A role of IgM antibodies in monosodium urate crystal formation and associated adjuvanticity

    PubMed Central

    Kanevets, Uliana; Sharma, Karan; Dresser, Karen; Shi, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Uric acid is released from injured cells and can act as an adjuvant signal to the immune system. Uric acid crystals invoke strong inflammatory responses in tissues. While their biological effects are evident and the associated signalling mechanisms are becoming clear, it remains unexplained as to why uric acid precipitates rapidly in vivo, in sharp contrast to the minimal crystallization in vitro. We report here that a group of IgM antibodies are able to bind to these crystals, which is interesting in light that B cell deficient mice do not sense the proinflammatory adjuvant effect of uric acid. The titers of these antibodies increase upon immunization with uric acid crystals. We have produced large quantities of such monoclonal antibodies. The purified IgM antibodies can significantly facilitate uric acid precipitation to form the inflammatory crystals in vitro. Infusion of these antibodies into B cell deficient mice significantly increases the basal level of inflammation in these recipients and restores the host’s ability to sense uric acid’s adjuvanticity. Therefore, we have identified a factor in determining uric acid precipitation and possibly its ability to function as an endogenous adjuvant. This finding suggests a new mechanism of the pathogenesis of gouty arthritis and uric acid induced immune activation. PMID:19201844

  17. Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.

    PubMed

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition. PMID:24568663

  18. Gravity changes during animal development affect IgM heavy-chain transcription and probably lymphopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Huin-Schohn, Cécile; Guéguinou, Nathan; Schenten, Véronique; Bascove, Matthieu; Koch, Guillemette Gauquelin; Baatout, Sarah; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2013-01-01

    Our previous research demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect antibody production in response to an antigenic stimulation in adult amphibians. Here, we investigated whether antibody synthesis is affected when animal development occurs onboard a space station. To answer this question, embryos of the Iberian ribbed newt, Pleurodeles waltl, were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) before the initiation of immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression. Thus, antibody synthesis began in space. On landing, we determined the effects of spaceflight on P. waltl development and IgM heavy-chain transcription. Results were compared with those obtained using embryos that developed on Earth. We find that IgM heavy-chain transcription is doubled at landing and that spaceflight does not affect P. waltl development and does not induce inflammation. We also recreated the environmental modifications encountered by the embryos during their development onboard the ISS. This strategy allowed us to demonstrate that gravity change is the factor responsible for antibody heavy-chain transcription modifications that are associated with NF-?B mRNA level variations. Taken together, and given that the larvae were not immunized, these data suggest a modification of lymphopoiesis when gravity changes occur during ontogeny. PMID:22993194

  19. The role of colliding galaxies and tidal dwarf galaxies in the ISM/IGM enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, P.-A.

    This review discusses the processes associated with galaxy collisions that contribute to the enrichment of the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Chemical evolution is driven by two main effects: (a) local enrichment of the ISM/IGM following star formation episodes triggered by collisions, occurring in two main modes, (1) a nuclear starburst, which results in superwinds/outflows, with injection of metals up to the intergalactic medium, (2) extended star formation episodes locally enriching up to large distances the surrounding ISM, and even the IGM when occurring within extended tidal tails and in tidal dwarf galaxies (b) radial mixing of the gas, with (1) the funneling of metal-poor gas in the central regions and a dilution of the metals there, (2) the transport of pre-enriched dusty gas towards external regions including tidal structures. The net effect is a flattening of the metallicity gradient of colliding galaxies, which is predicted by numerical simulations and observed in real systems. The last part of the paper addresses and belittles the specific contribution of collisional debris, especially tidal dwarf galaxies, in the pollution of the Universe.

  20. 2D immunoblots show differential response of mouse IgG and IgM antibodies to antigens of mammary carcinoma 4 T1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunosuppression in breast cancer has been reported in women and in the highly metastatic mouse mammary tumor model 4 T1. The immunosuppressive environment complicates the use of the humoral response against the tumor as an immunodiagnostic tool. IgM has not been used in immunodiagnostic in part because its antitumor responses, both innate and adaptive, have not been studied in function of time in breast cancer. We show a new approach to analyzing the mouse humoral immune response, and compare the evolution with time of IgG and IgM responses against the antigens of 4 T1 cells. Methods The study is based on 2-dimensional immunoblotting detection of antigens from 4 T1 cells by the IgG and IgM antibodies in the serum of female mice injected with 4 T1 cells. Results There was a high variability in the intra-and inter-mouse response. Variability in the IgM response was manifested as a pattern of spots that could become a multibinomial variable of 0 and 1, which could represent a signature of the immune response. Different numbers of spots was found in the IgG and IgM responses from week 1 to 5. On average, the IgM had more but the IgG response decrease with the time. The natural IgM at t?=?0 responds stronger than w1; the adaptive response of both IgM and IgG were elicited where, with the former being stronger better than the latter. Antigens that are recognized by some female mice in the first week are also recognized by other female mice at time 0. Contamination of the natural IgM makes difficult use the adaptive IgM as a tool for immunodiagnostic. Conclusions IgM and IgG response varied with the time and individuals. Spot variation in 2D pattern for the natural IgM could be expressed as a binomial signature, which opens up the way to correlate a particular pattern with resistance or susceptibility. This uncovers a battery of IgMs for each individual to confront cancer or infections. The possibility to differentiate between adaptive IgM antibodies from the natural IgM will allow investigation of the adaptive IgM for early immunodiagnosis. PMID:24467921

  1. The majority of human memory B cells recognizing RhD and tetanus resides in IgM+ B cells.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, Luciana; Dohmen, Serge E; Verhagen, Onno J H M; Berkowska, Magdalena A; Vidarsson, Gestur; Ellen van der Schoot, C

    2014-08-01

    B cell memory to T cell-dependent (TD) Ags are considered to largely reside in class-switched CD27(+) cells. However, we previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D(+) erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. We therefore analyzed in this study the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid-specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. Most Ag-specific B cells for both TD Ags were found to reside in the IgM-expressing B cells, including CD27(-) B cells, in both hyperimmunized donors and nonhyperimmunized volunteers. Only shortly after immunization a sharp increase in Ag-specific CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells was observed. Next, B cells were enriched with D(+) erythrocyte ghosts and sorted as single cells. Sequencing of IGHV, IGLV, IGKV, and BCL6 genes from these D-specific B cell clones demonstrated that both CD27(-)IgM(+) and CD27(+)IgM(+) B cells harbored somatic mutations, documenting their Ag-selected nature. Furthermore, sequencing revealed a clonal relationship between the CD27(-)IgM(+), CD27(+)IgM(+), and CD27(+)IgG(+) B cell subsets. These data strongly support the recently described multiple layers of memory B cells to TD Ags in mice, where IgM(+) B cells represent a memory reservoir which can re-enter the germinal center and ensure replenishment of class-switched memory CD27(+) B cells from Ag-experienced precursors. PMID:24965774

  2. Comparative evaluation of tests for detection of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora; Echevarría, Juan Emilio; Del Mar Mosquera, María; Fuertes, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate enzyme immunoassays (EIA) (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) and chemiluminiscent immunoassays (CLIA) (Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy) in their application to detect B19V-IgM and -IgG. For this purpose, one hundred and ninety samples were studied. Of them, 101 came from recent infection cases (B19V-specific IgM (86) and/or PCR (87), 42 from past infections, 18 from non-infected, and 29 from other viral recent infections (Epstein-Barr virus, measles, and rubella). Samples were characterized by capture (for IgM), or indirect (for IgG) EIA (Biotrin, Dublin, Ireland); indeterminate samples were classified by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) (Biotrin). All the samples were used for testing IgM assays, and all but the cases from other viral infections were used for IgG tests. For IgM, CLIA, and EIA identified 76 and 62 of 86 IgM positives, respectively (sensitivity 88.4% and 72.1%). Considering B19V IgM negative samples, negative result was obtained in 95 and 92 of 104, being the specificity values of CLIA and EIA 91.3% and 88.5%, respectively. For IgG, CLIA and EIA identified correctly 114 and 115 of the 122 positive samples (sensitivity 93.4% and 94.3%, respectively), and 39 and 36 of 39 negative samples (specificity 100% and 92.3%). As conclusion, CLIA methods can be used in clinical laboratories as adequate alternatives to the well-established Biotrin EIAs. PMID:23763266

  3. Generation of a novel high-affinity monoclonal antibody with conformational recognition epitope on human IgM.

    PubMed

    Sarikhani, Sina; Mirshahi, Manouchehr; Gharaati, Mohammad Reza; Mirshahi, Tooran

    2010-11-01

    As IgM is the first isotype of antibody which appears in blood after initial exposure to a foreign antigen in the pattern of primary response, detection, and quantification of this molecule in blood seems invaluable. To approach these goals, generation, and characterization of a highly specific mAb (monoclonal antibody) against human IgM were investigated. Human IgM immunoglobulins were used to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells using PEG (polyethylene glycol, MW 1450) as fusogen. The hybridomas were cultured in HAT containing medium and supernatants from the growing hybrids were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using plates coated with pure human IgM and the positive wells were then cloned at limiting dilutions. The best clone designated as MAN-1, was injected intraperitoneally to some Pristane-injected mice. Anti-IgM mAb was purified from the animals' ascitic fluid by protein-G sepharose followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. MAN-1 interacted with human IgM with a very high specificity and affinity. The purity of the sample was tested by SDS-PAGE and the affinity constant was measured (K(a) = 3.5 x 10(9)M(-1). Immunoblotting and competitive ELISA were done and the results showed that the harvested antibody recognizes a conformational epitope on the mu chain of human IgM and there was no cross-reactivity with other subclasses of immunoglobulins. Furthermore, isotyping test was done and the results showed the subclass of the obtained mAb which was IgG(1)kappa. PMID:20162378

  4. Association between haptoglobin and IgM levels and the clinical progression of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sheep caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp), is associated with direct economic losses and presents significant zoonotic potential. Despite the importance of the disease, a satisfactory vaccine model has not been developed. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between haptoglobin (Hp) and IgM levels and the clinical progression of CLA in primarily infected sheep and in sheep immunized with Cp- secreted antigens adjuvanted with Quillaja saponaria saponins. These animals were kept with CLA-positive sheep to simulate natural exposure that occurs in field conditions. During the experiment, the Hp and IgM levels were monitored for 21 days, and the development of internal CLA lesions was investigated through necropsies on day182 post-immunization. Results Primarily infected sheep in Group 2 (inoculated with 2x105 Cp virulent strain) had higher Hp values between the first and ninth days post inoculation (PI) than sheep in Group 1 (control; P?IgM titers than the control group around the ninth and eleventh days PI (P?IgM levels and clinical progression: sheep with high IgM titers had 100.0% less risk of having CLA abscesses than animals with low IgM levels (Odds ratio?=?0.000, P?IgM were predictive of a lower risk of CLA lesion development. Because the immunogen used in this study induced a high production of both Hp and IgM, Q. saponaria saponin should be considered a promising candidate in vaccine formulations against sheep CLA. PMID:24330714

  5. Serum IgM levels against select marine bacteria in the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) from three estuaries.

    PubMed

    Karsten, A H; Rice, C D

    2006-07-01

    The Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) is abundant and easily captured throughout the southeastern United States. Therefore this species serves as an ideal model for generating basic immunological reagents to establish baseline information regarding the immunophysiology of sharks in the wild, and for attempting to correlate shark immune responses to potential pathogens with the quality of the habitat in which they reside. Sharpnose shark serum IgM was purified over a protein-A column and used to generate mouse polyclonal anti-sera to develop indirect ELISAs for quantifying bacteria-specific IgM antibody titers against Vibrio anguillarium, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio charchariae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium marinum. Serum samples from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected in Charleston, SC, Beaufort, SC, and New Brunswick, GA estuaries during the early summer, and again from Charleston, SC in the fall of the same year. Relative antibody titers against E. coli, V. anguillarium, and V. parahaemolyticus differed among the three sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial abundance or immunological responses in sharks from three locations. Overall, antibody titers in Charleston, SC sharks increased between summer and fall. A combination of chronic exposure to specific bacteria and increased antibody responses due to elevated water temperatures are likely responsible for elevated specific IgM in these sharks sampled in the fall. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine IgM responses in elasmobranchs collected directly from their habitat. PMID:16750427

  6. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE RESTRAINT STRESS ON LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND IGM PRODUCTION AND CORTISOL LEVELS IN THE PIG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of acute restraint stress on lymphocyte IgM production and proliferation in vitro and plasma cortisol levels in vivo. Crossbred pigs (n=11; 35 days of age) were restrained and blood collected via jugular venipuncture initially (t = 1:34±0:09 min), and at 3 and 6 mi...

  7. Serologic Cross-Reactivity of Human IgM and IgG Antibodies to Five Species of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Adam; Reed, Zachary; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2011-01-01

    Five species of Ebola virus (EBOV) have been identified, with nucleotide differences of 30–45% between species. Four of these species have been shown to cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in humans and a fifth species (Reston ebolavirus) is capable of causing a similar disease in non-human primates. While examining potential serologic cross-reactivity between EBOV species is important for diagnostic assays as well as putative vaccines, the nature of cross-reactive antibodies following EBOV infection has not been thoroughly characterized. In order to examine cross-reactivity of human serologic responses to EBOV, we developed antigen preparations for all five EBOV species, and compared serologic responses by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in groups of convalescent diagnostic sera from outbreaks in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (n?=?24), Gulu, Uganda (n?=?20), Bundibugyo, Uganda (n?=?33), and the Philippines (n?=?18), which represent outbreaks due to four different EBOV species. For groups of samples from Kikwit, Gulu, and Bundibugyo, some limited IgM cross-reactivity was noted between heterologous sera-antigen pairs, however, IgM responses were largely stronger against autologous antigen. In some instances IgG responses were higher to autologous antigen than heterologous antigen, however, in contrast to IgM responses, we observed strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses to heterologous antigens among all sets of samples. Finally, we examined autologous IgM and IgG antibody levels, relative to time following EHF onset, and observed early peaking and declining IgM antibody levels (by 80 days) and early development and persistence of IgG antibodies among all samples, implying a consistent pattern of antibody kinetics, regardless of EBOV species. Our findings demonstrate limited cross-reactivity of IgM antibodies to EBOV, however, the stronger tendency for cross-reactive IgG antibody responses can largely circumvent limitations in the utility of heterologous antigen for diagnostic assays and may assist in the development of antibody-mediated vaccines to EBOV. PMID:21666792

  8. Observations of Chemically Enriched QSO Absorbers near z ~ 2.3 Galaxies: Galaxy-Formation Feedback Signatures in the IGM

    E-print Network

    Robert A. Simcoe; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Michael Rauch; George D. Becker

    2005-08-03

    We present a study of galaxies and intergalactic gas toward the z=2.73 quasar HS1700+6416, to explore the effects of galaxy formation feedback on the IGM. Our observations and ionization simulations indicate that the volume within 100-200 h_71^{-1} physical kpc of high-redshift galaxies contains very small, dense, and metal-rich absorption-line regions. These systems often contain shock-heated gas seen in OVI, and may exhibit [Si/C] abundance enhancements suggestive of Type II supernova enrichment. We argue that the absorbers resemble thin sheets or bubbles, whose physical properties can be explained with a simple model of radiatively efficient shocks propegating through the IGM. Their high metallicities suggest that these shocks are being expelled from--rather than falling into--star forming galaxies. There is a dropoff in the IGM gas density at galaxy impact parameters beyond ~300 physical kpc that may trace boundaries of gas structures where the galaxies reside. The local heavy-element enhancement covers 100-200 kpc; beyond this the observed abundances blend into the general IGM. Supernova-driven winds or dynamical stripping of interstellar gas appears to affect the IGM near massive galaxies, even at R>~100 kpc. However, these feedback systems represent only a few percent of the Lya forest mass at z~2.5. Their mass could be larger if the more numerous metal-poor CIV systems at >~200 kpc are tepid remnants of very powerful winds. Based on present observations it is not clear that this scenario is to be favored over one involving pre-enrichment by smaller galaxies at z>~6.

  9. Circadian type, chronic fatigue, and serum IgM in the shift workers of an industrial organization

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Masjedi, Mohsen; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Night shift workers are more vulnerable to immune-related diseases. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a potent activator of complement, and complement has a crucial role in defense against bacterial infections. Circadian type is known as an effective agent on vulnerability and adaptation with shift work due to non-compliance with shift stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of circadian type and chronic fatigue with the serum concentration of IgM in a group of shift workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in an industrial organization in Isfahan, Iran. The study population consisted of 221 male employees working at night shifts who were selected by random cluster sampling. The following questionnaires were used: composite morningness (Torsvall and Akerstedt), circadian type (Folkard), and chronic fatigue (Barton and colleagues). The serum concentration of IgM was measured by the nephelometric method. The data were analyzed with the Pearson coefficient correlation and the path analysis for finding the pattern of the structural equations to evaluate the direct and indirect relationships between variables, using the SPSS 15 and LISREL 8.5 statistical software. Results: Significant correlation was documented between morningness, flexibility, languidness, and chronic fatigue with the serum concentration of IgM (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results showed that the shift workers with morningness and languidness experienced more problems during the working hours due to more tiredness, and had decreased serum concentration of IgM. Correct management of shift work may attenuate fatigue in workers and also improve many health issues experienced by the shift workers.

  10. Product sheet CaptureSelect IgM affinity matrix Warranty: Antibody toolbox affinity matrices of BAC BV are supplied for research use only and are intended to be used

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    . This matrix can be used for the purification and isolation of IgM, without cross-binding to otherProduct sheet CaptureSelect IgM affinity matrix Warranty: Antibody toolbox affinity matrices of BAC contact BAC BV. Introduction The CaptureSelect IgM affinity matrix contains a 14 kDa Llama antibody

  11. Expression of a public idiotype by human monoclonal IgM directed to myelin-associated glycoprotein and characterization of the variability subgroup of their heavy and light chains

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Most studies using rabbit or mouse antisera failed to detect CRI between human IgM directed to MAG. We show here that 9 of 10 such IgM express a public CRI as defined by a nonhuman primate antiserum. Shared idiotype is likely involved in (or close to) the combining site of those IgM since antiidiotypic serum inhibited the binding of IgM to MAG and reacted with IgM having different variable regions of light and heavy chains. Partial aminoterminal sequence of heavy and light chains showed that anti-MAG IgM use either lambda chains (one IgM) or kappa light chains (six IgM) of different variability subgroups (V kappa IV in three instances, V kappa I in two, and V kappa II in one), whereas heavy chains belong to the VHIII (six IgM) or to the VHII (1 IgM) subgroup. These features distinguish these IgM from other human monoclonal IgM with a defined antibody activity, such as rheumatoid factors or cold agglutinins. PMID:2478651

  12. Probing the Statistics of the Temperature-Density Relation of the IGM

    E-print Network

    T. Fang; M. White

    2004-03-15

    Gravitational instability induces a simple correlation between the large and small scale fluctuations of the Ly-alpha flux spectrum. However, non-gravitational processes involved in structure formation and evolution will alter such a correlation. In this paper we explore how scatter in the temperature-density relation of the IGM reduces the gravitationally induced scale-scale correlation. By examining whether or not observations of the correlation are close to that predicted by pure gravity, this puts constraints on the scatter in the temperature-density relation and in turn on any physical process which would lead to scatter, e.g. strong fluctuations in the UV background or radiative transfer effects. By applying this method to high resolution Keck spectra of Q 1422+231 and HS 1946+7658, we find the predicted correlation signal induced by gravity, and the diminishing of this correlation signal at small scales. This suggests extra physics affects the small-scale structure of the forest, and we can constrain the scatter in the temperature-density relation to a conservative 20% upper limit. A crude model suggests, if there is any spatial correlation of temperature, the coherence length scale must be smaller than ~ 0.3/h Mpc to be consistent with the Keck data.

  13. Involvement of Stat3 in interleukin-6-induced IgM production in a human B-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Faris, M; Kokot, N; Stahl, N; Nel, A E

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important B-cell growth and differentiation factor. IL-6 treatment of the human lymphoblastoid cell line, SKW6.4, leads to increased IgM production. We have previously shown that IL-6 induces activation of JAK1 and JAK2 in human B cell lines. A chimeric IL-6 receptor, comprised of the intracellular tail of the IL-6 receptor subunit gp130 fused to the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, was stably transfected into SKW6.4 cells. EGF treatment induced IgM production in cells transfected with an intact gp130 cytoplasmic tail, but not in untransfected cells or cells transfected with a cytoplasmic tail lacking all four signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) binding sites. Moreover, EGF treatment induced Stat3 phosphorylation in cells transfected with the intact chimeric EGF-gp130 receptor along with induction of DNA-mobility shift of a classical interferon-gamma-activated site. To define further the relation between Stat3 activation and enhanced IgM production, we determined the effect of chimeric gp130 on the transcriptional activation of a genetic element linked to immunoglobulin production, namely the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer (IgH-enhancer). Parental as well as transfected SKW6.4 cells were transiently transfected with an IgH-enhancer-luciferase construct. The transcriptional activity of the IgH-luciferase construct was induced upon ligation of the full-length chimeric receptor but not by truncated gp130 receptors. Moreover, the gp130-induced activity of this reporter gene was abrogated by Stat3EE, a mutant Stat3 incapable of binding DNA. These results indicate that IL-6-induced B-cell differentiation, as measured by IgM production, may be controlled by Stat3 proteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9155640

  14. Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis at birth: what is the value of testing for IgM and IgA?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wallon; D. Dunn; D. Slimani; V. Girault; F. Gay-Andrieu; F. Peyron

    1999-01-01

    Recommandations vary on the best combination of tests to use for the diagnosis of subclinical congenital toxoplasmosis at\\u000a birth. The diagnostic accuracy of IgM and IgA tests was assessed in the context of routine clinical practice on 233 newborns\\u000a with congenital toxoplasmosis and 661 healthy controls. IgM\\/IgA sensibility and specificity were compared in cord and postnatal\\u000a samples. Both tests were

  15. Anti-GM2 IgM antibodies: clinical correlates and reactivity with a human neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, B; Carpo, M; Pedotti, R; Scarpini, E; Meucci, N; Allaria, S; Scarlato, G; Nobile-Orazio, E

    1999-02-01

    Anti-GM2 IgM antibodies have been reported in some patients with dysimmune neuropathy or lower motor neuron syndrome, in whom they were often associated with a concomitant reactivity with GM1. To investigate the possible clinical and pathogenetic relevance of these antibodies we measured serum anti-GM2 IgM titers by ELISA in 224 patients with different neuropathies and motor neuron disease and examined their binding to SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). High titers of anti-GM2 IgM antibodies were found in eight patients with dysimmune neuropathies including two with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), two with purely motor demyelinating neuropathy without conduction block (MN) and four with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In two MMN patients reactivity with GM2 was associated with anti-GM1 reactivity and in one MN patient with anti-GM1, -GD1a and -GD1b reactivity. All but one patient had a concomitant reactivity with GalNAc-GD1a. Serum IgM from all positive patients intensely stained by IIF the surface of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. This reactivity was blocked by serum pre-incubation with GM2, was not observed with sera from patients without anti-GM2 antibodies including those with high anti-GM1 or other anti-glycolipid antibodies, and correlated with the presence of GM2 in the SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. These findings indicate that anti-GM2 antibodies, though infrequent, are strictly associated with dysimmune neuropathies and suggest that SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells can be a suitable in vitro model to study the functional and biological effects of these antibodies. PMID:10376949

  16. Complement-mediated anti-HIV-1 effect induced by human IgM monoclonal antibody against ganglioside GM2.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Okada, N; Momota, H; Irie, R F; Okada, H

    1999-01-01

    HIV-infected cells aberrantly express a high level of antigenic glycosidic structures such as GM2 and Gg4. Some normal sera containing natural IgM Abs to GM2 and/or Gg4 cause C-mediated cytolysis of HIV-infected cells. In the present study we demonstrated that a human IgM anti-GM2 mAb (L55 Ab) can induce cytolysis of HIV-infected cells. Increased GM2 expression by HIV-1 infection of a human T cell line (MOLT4), a human monocyte cell line (U937), and human lymphoblastoid cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining with L55 Ab. These infected cells were readily lysed by L55 Ab in the presence of fresh human serum as a C source that alone did not cause cytolysis. L55 Ab also had the ability to destroy HIV-1 particles via C-mediated lysis. By adding L55 Ab together with human C to mixed culture of HIV-infected cells and naive cells, HIV-1 replication was significantly suppressed, and this effect was synergistic when L55 Ab was combined with a reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a proteinase inhibitor. Therefore, a human IgM anti-GM2 mAb may be effective in treating HIV-infected patients, especially when used together with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:9886430

  17. Cerebellar ataxia and polyneuropathy in a patient with IgM M-protein specific to the Gal(beta 1-3)GalNAc epitope.

    PubMed

    Hitoshi, S; Kusunoki, S; Chiba, A; Takatsu, R; Sunada, Y; Nukina, N; Tai, T; Kanazawa, I

    1994-11-01

    A 79-year-old man with sensory dominant polyneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and palatal myoclonus had serum IgM M-protein that specifically bound to GM1, GD1b, and asialo-GM1. IgM with the same specificity was detected in his cerebrospinal fluid. Results of immunohistochemical studies showed specific binding of this monoclonal IgM to the cerebellar granular layer, dentate nucleus, inferior olive, and gray matter of the cerebrum and spinal cord. Monoclonal antibody GGR12, monospecific to GD1b, had an immunostaining distribution similar to that of the patient's IgM M-protein. The binding of M-protein may be associated with the development of cerebellar ataxia and palatal myoclonus in this patient. PMID:7531761

  18. IgM phosphorylcholine antibodies inhibit cell death and constitute a strong protection marker for atherosclerosis development, particularly in combination with other auto-antibodies against modified LDL

    PubMed Central

    Fiskesund, Roland; Su, Jun; Bulatovic, Ivana; Vikström, Max; de Faire, Ulf; Frostegård, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Background We have reported that anti-phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) IgM is a protection marker for human cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. We here investigate the anti-PC autoantibodies in a well-defined cohort with regard to idiotype, atherosclerosis progression and mechanisms for its protective action. Methods Serum levels and binding specificities of different anti-PC isotypes were determined in 226 hypertensive individuals enrolled in European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis using ELISA. The mean of the maximum Intima-Media Thicknesses (IMT) in the far walls of common carotids and bifurcations was assessed at the time of inclusion, and four years afterwards. Apoptosis in immune cells was induced with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and quantified using the MTT-assay. Results Anti-PC IgM, IgA and IgG1 (but not IgG2) was negatively associated with IMT-progression. Combining anti-PC IgM with data on antibodies against oxidized- and malondialdehyde-modified LDL further strengthened this association. At very high levels, anti-PC IgM exhibited a striking negative association with atherosclerosis progression (OR 0.05; CI 0.006–0.40). Analysis of serum samples taken four years apart in study participants affirmed the stability of anti-PC IgM titers over time. Examination of fine specificities revealed that the protective isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgG1) are of the Group I idiotype whereas the non-protective IgG2 subclass was Group II. Anti-PC IgM inhibited LPC-induced cell death of immune cells. Conclusion Group I anti-PC antibodies, particularly of the IgM class, are independent protection markers for atherosclerosis progression. One potential mechanism of action is inhibition of LPC-induced cell cytotoxicity. PMID:24371562

  19. Fetal lambs are depleted of IgM+ cells following a single injection of an anti-IgM antibody early in gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Press, C M; Reynolds, J D; McClure, S J; Simpson-Morgan, M W; Landsverk, T

    1996-01-01

    B-cell depleted fetal sheep were created following a single injection of an anti-IgM monoclonal antibody early in gestation. Six sheep fetuses were given a single intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal antibody directed against IgM at 63 days of gestation (gestation in sheep = 150 days). The fetuses were killed at 138-142 days of gestation and lymphoid tissues were collected for subsequent light microscopy and immunohistochemical examination. The ileal and jejunal Peyer's patch (PP) follicles in four of the six injected fetuses were markedly reduced in size. Cells in the rudimentary follicles of the ileal PP of these animals showed no reactivity for IgM and most were negative for CD45. The dome regions contained many T cells, which were predominantly CD8+ cells and included gamma delta T cells. The interfollicular areas of the PP of the markedly affected fetuses contained large populations of T cells. The spleen and lymph nodes were also markedly depleted of IgM+ cells and these tissues contained only a small, scattered population of weakly IgM+ cells. Follicular accumulations of IgM+ cells were absent. Large populations of T cells were present in the white pulp of the spleen and cortex of the lymph nodes. The liver did not contain IgM+ cells and the medulla of the thymus was depleted of IgM+ cells. The results of this study suggest that a surface IgM+ B-cell population is present in the sheep fetus at 63 days of gestation, which is essential for the colonization of the ileal PP and subsequent B-cell development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8707346

  20. Evaluation of Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA in Mothers with Spontaneous Abortion in Zanjan, Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Abbas; Mazloomzadeh, S.; Haniloo, A.; Mohammadian, F.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the major agents of infectious abortions and due to its worldwide distribution can threat healthy pregnant women who had no previous exposure to this parasite. The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of T. gondii to spontaneous abortions in Zanjan, Northwest of Iran, using ELISA method. Blood Samples were collected from 264 mothers referred to the provincial hospitals of Zanjan due to spontaneous abortion. The sera were isolated and subjected to evaluate the anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. The results showed IgG positive (IgG+) in 99 cases (37.5%). A total of 68 women (25.8%) showed seroconversion with IgM or IgA or both IgM and IgA. They included: IgM+ in 21 (8.0%), IgA+ in 23 (8.7%) and both IgM+ and IgA+ in 24 (9.1%) subjects. In 23 cases, positive titers of IgM and IgG were accompanied. In general, the analysis of anti-Toxoplasma antibody patterns, showed that about 17% of the spontaneous abortions were associated with serological patterns of acute infection. According to these findings, a considerable proportion of spontaneous abortions can be attributed to T. gondii in the study area. PMID:23230339

  1. Observations of HI 21-cm absorption by the neutral IGM during the epoch of re-ionization with the Square Kilometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Gnedin, N.; Furlanetto, S.; Owen, F.

    2004-12-01

    We explore the possibility of detecting HI 21-cm absorption by the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) toward very high redshift radio sources, and by gas associated with the first collapsed structures, using the Square Kilometer Array at low frequency (100-200 MHz). The epoch considered is between the time when the first ionizing sources form and when the bulk of the neutral IGM becomes ionized. Expected IGM absorption signal includes ˜1% absorption by the mean neutral IGM (the radio 'Gunn-Peterson' effect), plus deeper, narrow lines (>5%, a few km s -1) arising in mild density inhomogeneities with typical values of cosmic overdensity ? ˜ 10, precisely the structures that at later times give rise to the Ly? forest (the '21-cm forest'). Absorption can also arise in gas associated with collapsed structures ( ? > 100), including 'minihalos' (?10 7M?) and protodisks (>10 8M?). We consider SKA sensitivity limits and the evolution of radio source populations, and conclude that it is reasonable to hypothesize the existence of an adequate number of high- z radio sources against which such absorption studies could be performed, provided that reionization occurs at z < 10. Lastly, we discuss the possibility of 'line confusion' due to radio recombination lines arising in the ionized IGM. Overall, SKA absorption studies should provide a fundamental probe of the thermal state of the neutral IGM during the epoch of reionization, as well as critical insight into the process and sources of reionization.

  2. MgII Absorption Line Systems: Galaxy Halos or the Metal-Enriched IGM?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, David

    2006-07-01

    MgII QSO absorption lines detected in the spectra of background QSOs were used over a decade ago to infer that all redshift z > 0.2 galaxies have gaseous halos of radius 60 kpc. The actual size of the halo was believed to be proportional to the luminosity of the galaxy. However, these conclusions are now much harder to understand in light of the results from numerical simulations which show how gas evolves in the universe. These models predict that gas and galaxies merely share the same filamentary structures defined by dark matter. If these models are correct, how are MgII systems and galaxies really related? We can better understand the distribution of absorbing gas if we FIRST select galaxies close to QSO sightlines and THEN search for MgII absorption at the redshift of the intervening galaxies. This is the antithesis of the original experiments which sought to find absorbing galaxies based on known MgII systems. The frequency with which we detect MgII lines from randomly selected galaxies should enable us to better understand if absorption arises in the halos of individual galaxies, or if MgII merely arises in the same IGM that galaxies inhabit.We have used ground-based telescopes to indentify twenty z = 0.31-0.55 galaxies within 14-51 kpc of a g < 20 QSO, and to search for MgII absorption at the galaxies' redshifts. Surprisingly, we find that only 50% of our QSOs show MgII absorption. In this proposal, we seek multi-color ACS images of twelve of the fields to i} correlate the incidence of MgII with galaxy morphology; ii} determine if absorption {or lack thereof} is related to galaxy disks or halos; iii} search for signs of galaxy interactions which may explain the large cross-sections of MgII systems; and iv} look for faint interloping galaxies closer to the line of sight than the one we identified. An important component of the program is to observe each field in the SDSS g-, r- and i-bands, to permit an estimate of the photometric redshift of any objects which lie closer to the QSO sightline than the identified galaxy, and which might actually be responsible for the absorption.

  3. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Alan F; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C; Mikulski, Rose L; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G; Ling, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

  4. Serum IgM antibodies contribute to high levels of opsonophagocytic activities in toddlers immunized with a single dose of the 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Simell, Birgit; Nurkka, Anu; Ekström, Nina; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Käyhty, Helena; Dagan, Ron

    2012-10-01

    In immunogenicity trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), only IgG antibody concentrations to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPSs) are usually determined, along with the opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antipneumococcal antibodies. We aimed to determine the role of both IgG and IgM in OPA in toddlers receiving one dose of 9-valent PCV (PCV9). The IgG and IgM antibody concentrations to PPSs of serotypes 6A, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay in sera from toddlers (ages 18 to 35 months) 1 month after a single PCV9 dose. The OPA for the same serotypes was measured by multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Further, IgG and IgM concentrations and MOPA were measured to PPS of serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F in sera collected 12 months after vaccination. The detected MOPA titers were high in comparison to the IgG concentrations 1 month after immunization. The IgM concentrations were higher than IgG concentrations for serotypes 6A and 14 (P < 0.001) and as high as IgG for serotypes 9V, 19F, and 23F. Correlation of the IgM antibody concentrations with MOPA (r = 0.35 to 0.65) was stronger compared to that of the IgG antibodies (r = 0.07 to 0.41). The depletion of IgG antibodies in three sets of pooled sera only slightly decreased the OPA activity against serotype 14. At 12 months after immunization, 50 to 100% of serum samples still showed detectable MOPA activity against serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F. Our results suggest that IgM contributes to OPA 1 month after a single PCV9 vaccination in toddlers and that functionally active IgM and IgG antibodies persist for at least a year. PMID:22875604

  5. Absence of platelet CD40L identifies patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inwald, D P; Peters, M J; Walshe, D; Jones, A; Davies, E G; Klein, N J

    2000-06-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L), a membrane protein expressed on activated T cells, plays a pivotal role in B cell proliferation and differentiation. Mutations in the CD40L gene are associated with a rare immunodeficiency state, X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (XLHIGM). Recently, platelets have been described as capable of expressing CD40L within minutes of stimulation. We have developed a rapid technique to determine expression of CD40L on activated platelets by flow cytometry in whole blood. We have demonstrated that this technique is useful in neonatal screening, in rapid diagnosis and in determining reconstitution by donor bone marrow post-transplantation. PMID:10844529

  6. Absence of platelet CD40L identifies patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Inwald, D P; Peters, M J; Walshe, D; Jones, A; Davies, E G; Klein, N J

    2000-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L), a membrane protein expressed on activated T cells, plays a pivotal role in B cell proliferation and differentiation. Mutations in the CD40L gene are associated with a rare immunodeficiency state, X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (XLHIGM). Recently, platelets have been described as capable of expressing CD40L within minutes of stimulation. We have developed a rapid technique to determine expression of CD40L on activated platelets by flow cytometry in whole blood. We have demonstrated that this technique is useful in neonatal screening, in rapid diagnosis and in determining reconstitution by donor bone marrow post-transplantation. PMID:10844529

  7. [A case of IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy associated with anti-sulfated glucuronic paragloboside (SGPG) IgG antibody without anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) activity].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Haruko; Endo, Masanao; Sugawara, Eriko; Kuwahara, Motoi; Kusunoki, Susumu; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy associated with anti-sulfated glucuronic paragloboside (SGPG) IgG antibody. An 84-year old man complained of numbness on the left side of the face and in the distal portions of the limbs. Neurological examination showed mild sensory ataxia. The laboratory tests revealed the presence of IgM lambda paraproteinemia and anti-SGPG IgG antibody without anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) activity and anti-MAG/SGPG IgM antibody. Results of nerve conduction study showed decreased sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude, indicating the presence of sensory-dominant axonal polyneuropathy, and the prolongation of distal latency was not observed. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in a rapid improvement in neurological abnormalities. In IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy associated with anti-MAG/SGPG antibody, distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy and resistance to immunological treatments are the characteristic pathologic and clinical features, respectively. On the other hand our rare case of IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy positive for anti-SGPG IgG antibody presented with axonal sensory polyneuropathy and a good responsiveness to corticosteroids. PMID:24225562

  8. IFN-?-producing CD4+ T cells promote generation of protective germinal center-derived IgM+ B cell memory against Salmonella Typhi.

    PubMed

    Perez-Shibayama, Christian; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Hisaki, Emiliano; Chai, Qian; Onder, Lucas; Scandella, Elke; Regen, Tommy; Waisman, Ari; Isibasi, Armando; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2014-06-01

    Abs play a significant role in protection against the intracellular bacterium Salmonella Typhi. In this article, we investigated how long-term protective IgM responses can be elicited by a S. Typhi outer-membrane protein C- and F-based subunit vaccine (porins). We found that repeated Ag exposure promoted a CD4(+) T cell-dependent germinal center reaction that generated mutated IgM-producing B cells and was accompanied by a strong expansion of IFN-?-secreting T follicular helper cells. Genetic ablation of individual cytokine receptors revealed that both IFN-? and IL-17 are required for optimal germinal center reactions and production of porin-specific memory IgM(+) B cells. However, more profound reduction of porin-specific IgM B cell responses in the absence of IFN-?R signaling indicated that this cytokine plays a dominant role. Importantly, mutated IgM mAbs against porins exhibited bactericidal capacity and efficiently augmented S. Typhi clearance. In conclusion, repeated vaccination with S. Typhi porins programs type I T follicular helper cell responses that contribute to the diversification of B cell memory and promote the generation of protective IgM Abs. PMID:24778443

  9. Human Immunoglobulin (Ig)M 1 IgD 1 Peripheral Blood B Cells Expressing the CD27 Cell Surface Antigen Carry Somatically Mutated Variable Region Genes: CD27 as a General Marker for Somatically Mutated (Memory) B Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Klein; Klaus Rajewsky; Ralf Küppers

    Summary Immunoglobulin (Ig)M 1 IgD 1 B cells are generally assumed to represent antigen-inexperi- enced, naive B cells expressing variable (V) region genes without somatic mutations. We report here that human IgM 1 IgD 1 peripheral blood (PB) B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry mutated V genes, in contrast to CD27-negative IgM 1 IgD 1 B cells.

  10. Mutations in PIK3CD can cause hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM) associated with increased cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Crank, M C; Grossman, J K; Moir, S; Pittaluga, S; Buckner, C M; Kardava, L; Agharahimi, A; Meuwissen, H; Stoddard, J; Niemela, J; Kuehn, H; Rosenzweig, S D

    2014-04-01

    Autosomal dominant gain of function mutations in the gene encoding PI3K p110? were recently associated with a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, CD4 lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. A subset of affected patients also had elevated serum IgM. Here we describe three patients in two families who were diagnosed with HIGM at a young age and were recently found to carry heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD. These patients had an abnormal circulating B cell distribution featuring a preponderance of early transitional (T1) B cells and plasmablasts. When stimulated in vitro, PIK3CD mutated B cells were able to secrete class-switched immunoglobulins. This finding implies that the patients' elevated serum IgM levels were unlikely a product of an intrinsic B cell functional inability to class switch. All three patients developed malignant lymphoproliferative syndromes that were not associated with EBV. Thus, we identified a novel subset of patients with PIK3CD mutations associated with HIGM, despite indications of preserved in vitro B cell class switch recombination, as well as susceptibility to non-EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:24610295

  11. Mutations in PIK3CD Can Cause Hyper IgM Syndrome (HIGM) Associated with Increased Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Crank, M. C.; Grossman, J. K.; Moir, S.; Pittaluga, S.; Buckner, C. M.; Kardava, L.; Agharahimi, A.; Meuwissen, H.; Stoddard, J.; Niemela, J.; Kuehn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant gain of function mutations in the gene encoding PI3K p110? were recently associated with a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, CD4 lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. A subset of affected patients also had elevated serum IgM. Here we describe three patients in two families who were diagnosed with HIGM at a young age and were recently found to carry heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD. These patients had an abnormal circulating B cell distribution featuring a preponderance of early transitional (T1) B cells and plasmablasts. When stimulated in vitro, PIK3CD mutated B cells were able to secrete class-switched immunoglobulins. This finding implies that the patients’ elevated serum IgM levels were unlikely a product of an intrinsic B cell functional inability to class switch. All three patients developed malignant lymphoproliferative syndromes that were not associated with EBV. Thus, we identified a novel subset of patients with PIK3CD mutations associated with HIGM, despite indications of preserved in vitro B cell class switch recombination, as well as susceptibility to non-EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:24610295

  12. IgM and IgG antibody profiles after immunization of man with a HDCS-vaccine (preliminary communication).

    PubMed

    Steck, F; Spengler, G A; Hauser, R; Keller, H; Wandeler, A I

    1978-01-01

    HDCS vaccine was given to 20 healthy, not rabies-exposed people on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90. Ten of them received in addition 20 IU/kg of human antirabies immunoglobulin. Vaccine potency in NIH tests was 1.8 (WHO). Most individuals did not show any measurable neutralizing antibody titer on days 3 and 7. On days 14, 28, 90 and 300 the mean of titres was above 1:200; with one exception, no titer was lower than 1:50. The sera of days 14 and 90 were separated on "Sephadex G-200" columns. On day 14 at least 46% of the rabies antibody was found in the IgM fraction, while 15% was recovered from the IgG fraction. On day 90 the proportion recovered from the IgM fraction had decreased to 17%; the IgG antibody had increased to 30% of the titres found in whole serum. Almost no antirabies activity was found in the IgG fractions. PMID:680387

  13. Passive immunization with a monoclonal IgM antibody specific for Strongyloides ratti HSP60 protects mice against challenge infection.

    PubMed

    Ben Nouir, Nadia; Piédavent, Melanie; Osterloh, Anke; Breloer, Minka

    2012-07-13

    It is estimated that 30-100 million people are infected with the pathogenic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis worldwide but parasite control is still based on anti-helminthic treatment. To develop protective vaccination strategies, we use the murine model of Strongyloides ratti infection. We have shown recently that vaccination with alum-precipitated, but not with native or CFA-emulsified S. ratti heat shock protein 60 (srHSP60) conferred protection to challenge infection. Here we describe the generation of a monoclonal IgM specific for srHSP60. Anti-srHSP60 detected human and srHSP60 and stained S. ratti infective larvae in vitro. Passive immunization of mice with monoclonal anti-srHSP60 IgM led to reduced numbers of migrating larvae in lung and head, reduced numbers of parasitic adults in the small intestine and reduced larval output upon S. ratti challenge infection. Taken together, our findings highlight the relevance of srHSP60 as vaccine candidate for the induction of antibody-mediated protection against Strongyloides infection. PMID:22658927

  14. IgM anti-ganglioside antibodies induced by melanoma cell vaccine correlate with survival of melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Johnson, T D; Nishinaka, Y; Morton, D L; Irie, R F

    1999-02-01

    Melanoma cells express ganglioside antigens GM3, GD3, GM2, and GD2 on their surface. This study examined whether immunization with a melanoma cell vaccine induced anti-ganglioside antibody responses in melanoma patients and whether these responses were correlated with survival. Sixty-six patients who had received melanoma cell vaccine immunotherapy after surgical removal of regional metastatic melanoma were identified. Cryopreserved serum samples from these patients were used in an enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay to determine the IgM antibody levels to GM2, GD2, GM3, and GD3 prior to melanoma cell vaccine treatment and 4 wk after the first melanoma cell vaccine immunization. All antibody levels significantly increased by week 4 (p < 0.001 for all four antibodies) and all increases were significantly associated with survival (anti-GD2, p < 0.001; anti-GM2, p = 0.001; anti-GD3, p < 0.001; anti-GM3, p < 0.001). Anti-tumor activity of these antibodies was proved using five representative antibody-positive sera in a complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay with cultured melanoma cell lines. These studies suggest that GM2, GD2, GM2, and GD3 expressed by melanoma cells can induce specific IgM antibodies and that high levels of these antibodies might have a beneficial impact on survival. PMID:9989797

  15. The role of single sample detection of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgM in accurate evaluation of seroconversion during acquired toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Fattah, M M; Etewa, S E; Nada, S M; el-Ridi, A M

    1990-06-01

    Specific IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were sought in 94 serum samples by means of D.S. IgM ELISA. These antibodies were detected in all cases of acute toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy, but up to 13 months from onset of symptoms and in out of 20 patients with chronic toxoplasmosis and in one out of 20 seronegative individuals. They were neither detected in samples from 4 infants with high IgG IFAT titres associated with hydrocephalus and cerebral calcification, nor in samples from patients containing rheumatoid factors and those with lymphoma or infectious mononucleosis. Thus the detection of IgM antibodies seems non decisive mean for identifying infected infants and for determination of the exact date of acquiring the infection. PMID:2332645

  16. Reduced IgM levels and elevated IgG levels against oxidized low-density lipoproteins in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. Oxidized forms of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are present in atherosclerotic lesions and constitute major epitopes for natural antibodies. IgM has been shown to be protective against atherosclerosis, whereas the role of corresponding IgG is less clear. The objective of this study was to determine if HIV?+?individuals have disturbed levels of IgM and IgG directed against oxidized forms of LDL as compared to HIV- individuals. Methods Ninety-one HIV?+?patients and 92 HIV- controls were included in this retrospective study. Circulating levels of IgG and IgM directed against two forms of oxidized LDL; copper oxidized (OxLDL) and malondialdehyde modified (MDA-LDL), total IgM and IgG, C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble CD14, and apolipoproteins A1 and B were determined. Results HIV?+?individuals had slightly lower levels of IgM against MDA-LDL and higher levels of IgG against MDA-LDL, OxLDL, and total IgG, than HIV- controls. Anti-MDA-LDL and Anti-OxLDL IgG displayed a positive correlation with viral load and a negative correlation with the CD4+ T-cell count. HIV?+?individuals also displayed elevated CRP and soluble CD14 levels compared to HIV- individuals, but there were no correlations between CRP or soluble CD14 and specific antibodies. Conclusions HIV infection is associated with higher levels of IgG including specific IgG against oxidized forms of LDL, and lower IgM against the same epitope. In addition to dyslipidemia, immune activation, HIV-replication and an accumulation of risk factors for atherosclerosis, this adverse antibody profile may be of major importance for the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV?+?individuals. PMID:24636004

  17. Evaluation of Commercially Available Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen and Anti-Dengue Virus IgM Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A.; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L.; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G.; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Margolis, Harold S.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60–75% and specificity 71–80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38–71% and specificity 76–80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30–96%, with a specificity of 86–92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96–98% and specificity 78–91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88–94%. PMID:25330157

  18. [[Virus-like particle-based immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-dong; Zhang, Quan-fu; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Chuan; Liu, Qin-zhi; Liang, Mi-fang; Li, De-xin

    2014-11-01

    To establish a MacELISA method for the detection of IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), we prepared virus like particle (VLP) antigens of CHIKV using the whole structural protein C-E3-E2-6K-E1 encoding gene with a baculovirus expression system in Sf9 insect cells. The VLPs were purified and used to immunize Kunming mice. Then, polyclonal antibodies were purified from the samples of ascites with a protein G HiTrap SP column and labeled with horseradish peroxidase. A MacELISA method for the detection of IgM antibodies against CHIKV was assembled with goat anti-human IgM antibody, VLP antigens and an enzyme-labeled polyclonal antibody. The results were evaluated with a serum panel containing serum samples from laboratory-confirmed CHIK, HFRS patients, healthy donors, and commercially available CHIKV IgM as a quality control. It was shown that the MacELISA had a specificity of 99% (99/100), the coefficients of variation (CoV) within a plate were <10%, and the CoV of different ELISA plates in terms of the plate variation coefficient was <15%. A comparative analysis was performed to compare the current method against a commercial CHIKV IgM antibody detection kit for IIFA-IgM. The detection limit of MacELISA was significantly lower than that of the IIFA-IgM commercial kit (P< 0.0001). Here, we demonstrate that the VLP-based MacELISA is a promising tool for the early diagnosis and epidemiological investigation of CHIKV infection, with a high level of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of IgM antibodies against CHIKV. PMID:25868272

  19. Multiplex Detection of IgM and IgG Class Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella Virus, and Cytomegalovirus Using a Novel Multiplex Flow Immunoassay ?

    PubMed Central

    Binnicker, M. J.; Jespersen, D. J.; Harring, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma, rubella, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (ToRC) IgG and IgM multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and compare the results to those of conventional testing by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). Serum specimens (n = 600) submitted for routine ToRC IgG and IgM testing by EIA (SeraQuest, Doral, FL; Diamedix, Miami, FL) or ELFA (Vidas; bioMérieux, Durham, NC) were also tested by the BioPlex ToRC multiplex immunoassays. Samples showing discordant results were retested by both methods, with further discrepancies being arbitrated by a third assay. Following repeat testing, the BioPlex Toxoplasma, rubella, and CMV IgG assays demonstrated agreements of 98.7 (592/600 specimens), 93.3 (560/600 specimens), and 98.3% (590/600 specimens), respectively, while the ToRC IgM assays yielded agreements of 91.2 (547/600 specimens), 87.3 (524/600 specimens), and 95.2% (571/600 specimens), respectively. The BioPlex ToRC IgG assays provided results comparable to EIA/ELFA results, with kappa coefficients showing near-perfect agreement for the Toxoplasma (? = 0.94) and CMV (? = 0.97) IgG assays and substantial agreement for the rubella IgG assay (? = 0.66). The BioPlex ToRC IgM assays showed lower specificity with only slight agreement for Toxoplasma IgM (? = 0.07), poor agreement for rubella IgM (? = ?0.03), and moderate agreement for CMV IgM (? = 0.55). Both the BioPlex IgG and IgM assays reduced turnaround time (1.7 h versus 5.5 h by EIA/ELFA for 100 specimens) and eliminated the necessity to manually pipette or aliquot specimens prior to testing. PMID:20861325

  20. Multiplex detection of IgM and IgG class antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, and cytomegalovirus using a novel multiplex flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Binnicker, M J; Jespersen, D J; Harring, J A

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma, rubella, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (ToRC) IgG and IgM multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and compare the results to those of conventional testing by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). Serum specimens (n = 600) submitted for routine ToRC IgG and IgM testing by EIA (SeraQuest, Doral, FL; Diamedix, Miami, FL) or ELFA (Vidas; bioMérieux, Durham, NC) were also tested by the BioPlex ToRC multiplex immunoassays. Samples showing discordant results were retested by both methods, with further discrepancies being arbitrated by a third assay. Following repeat testing, the BioPlex Toxoplasma, rubella, and CMV IgG assays demonstrated agreements of 98.7 (592/600 specimens), 93.3 (560/600 specimens), and 98.3% (590/600 specimens), respectively, while the ToRC IgM assays yielded agreements of 91.2 (547/600 specimens), 87.3 (524/600 specimens), and 95.2% (571/600 specimens), respectively. The BioPlex ToRC IgG assays provided results comparable to EIA/ELFA results, with kappa coefficients showing near-perfect agreement for the Toxoplasma (? = 0.94) and CMV (? = 0.97) IgG assays and substantial agreement for the rubella IgG assay (? = 0.66). The BioPlex ToRC IgM assays showed lower specificity with only slight agreement for Toxoplasma IgM (? = 0.07), poor agreement for rubella IgM (? = -0.03), and moderate agreement for CMV IgM (? = 0.55). Both the BioPlex IgG and IgM assays reduced turnaround time (1.7 h versus 5.5 h by EIA/ELFA for 100 specimens) and eliminated the necessity to manually pipette or aliquot specimens prior to testing. PMID:20861325

  1. Clinicopathologic Characterization of Diffuse-Large-B-Cell Lymphoma with an Associated Serum Monoclonal IgM Component

    PubMed Central

    Scarpino, Stefania; Salerno, Gerardo; Tatarelli, Caterina; Talerico, Caterina; Lombardi, Mariangela; Monarca, Bruno; Amadori, Sergio; Ruco, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with serum IgM monoclonal component (MC) has been shown to be a very poor prognostic subset although, detailed pathological and molecular data are still lacking. In the present study, the clinicopathological features and survival of IgM-secreting DLBCL were analyzed and compared to non-secreting cases in a series of 151 conventional DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. IgM MC was detected in 19 (12.5%) out of 151 patients at disease onset. In 17 of these cases secretion was likely due to the neoplastic clone, as suggested by the expression of heavy chain IgM protein in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. In IgM-secreting cases immunoblastic features (p<.0001), non-GCB-type (p?=?.002) stage III-IV(p?=?.003), ?2 extra nodal sites (p<.0001), bone-marrow (p?=?.002), central-nervous-system (CNS) involvement at disease onset or relapse (p<.0001), IPI-score 3–5 (p?=?.009) and failure to achieve complete remission (p?=?.005), were significantly more frequent. FISH analyses for BCL2, BCL6 and MYC gene rearrangements detected only two cases harboring BCL2 gene translocation and in one case a concomitant BCL6 gene translocation was also observed. None of the IgM-secreting DLBCL was found to have L265P mutation of MYD88 gene. Thirty-six month event-free (11.8% vs 66.4% p<.0001), progression-free (23.5% vs 75.7%, p<.0001) and overall (47.1% vs 74.8%, p<.0001) survivals were significantly worse in the IgM-secreting group. In multivariate analysis IgM-secreting (p?=?.005, expB?=?0.339, CI?=?0.160-0.716) and IPI-score 3–5 (p?=?.010, expB?=?0.274, CI?=?0.102–0.737) were the only significant factors for progression-free-survival. Notably, four relapsed patients, who were treated with salvage immmunochemotherapy combined with bortezomib or lenalidomide, achieved lasting remission. Our data suggests that IgM-secreting cases are a distinct subset of DLBCL, originating from activated-B-cells with terminally differentiated features, prevalent extra nodal dissemination and at high risk of CNS involvement. PMID:24705344

  2. Substance P acts directly upon cloned B lymphoma cells to enhance IgA and IgM production.

    PubMed

    Pascual, D W; Xu-Amano, J C; Kiyono, H; McGhee, J R; Bost, K L

    1991-04-01

    The IgA producing murine B lymphoma, CH12.LX.C4.4F10 (4F10) and the IgM producing murine lymphoma, CH12.LX.C4.5F5 (5F5) were found to express substantial numbers of substance P (SP) receptors having dissociation constants equal to 0.69 nM. Binding of SP by these B lymphoma cells was via the tachykinin-specific C-terminus sequence, Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, because SP, SP antagonist (D-Pro2-D-Phe7-D-Trp9-SP), eledoisin, and substance K could effectively inhibit radiolabeled SP binding, whereas the SP N-terminus fragment, SP (1-4), could not. The functionality of these receptors could be demonstrated by the ability of subnanomolar concentrations of SP to induce Ig secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. However, the presence of a second stimulus in these cultures was required to obtain maximal increases. IgA secretion by 4F10 cells was elevated only 25 to 37%, and IgM secretion by 5F5 cells was not significantly increased in cultures in which nanomolar concentrations of SP were present. Conversely, coculturing 5F5 cells with a suboptimal concentration of LPS (50 ng/ml) and 10(-10)M SP resulted in an approximate threefold increase in supernatant IgM when compared to control cultures stimulated with LPS alone. While not as dramatic, 10(-10) M SP also enhanced IgA secretion of LPS-stimulated 4F10 cells by approximately 45%. This enhancement of Ig secretion was SP-specific, as evidenced by the ability of 1000-fold excess of SP antagonist to block SP-induced, but not LPS-induced, Ig production. Clearly, SP could act synergistically with LPS to enhance Ig secretion; therefore, we questioned whether this augmentation was also reflected at the level of H chain mRNA expression. 10(-9)M SP induced modest increases (50 to 60%) in mu-chain mRNA expression by LPS-stimulated 5F5 cells when compared with cells stimulated with LPS alone. The 4F10 cells did not display this magnitude of difference for alpha-chain mRNA expression. Thus, although SP-induced increases of mu-chain mRNA by 5F5 cells may contribute to the increased Ig secretion observed by these LPS-activated lymphocytes, it is unlikely that increased mRNA expression can totally account for the threefold increases in secretion that were observed. PMID:1706387

  3. Development and evaluation of a Sarcocystis neurona-specific IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J E; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Meadows, C; Bolten, K; Saville, W J A

    2006-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses caused primarily by the protozoal parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Currently available antemortem diagnostic testing has low specificity. The hypothesis of this study was that serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of horses experimentally challenged with S neurona would have an increased S neurona-specific IgM (Sn-IgM) concentration after infection, as determined by an IgM capture enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). The ELISA was based on the S neurona low molecular weight protein SNUCD-1 antigen and the monoclonal antibody 2G5 labeled with horseradish peroxidase. The test was evaluated using serum and CSF from 12 horses experimentally infected with 1.5 million S neurona sporocysts and 16 horses experimentally infected with varying doses (100 to 100,000) of S neurona sporocysts, for which results of histopathologic examination of the central nervous system were available. For horses challenged with 1.5 million sporocysts, there was a significant increase in serum Sn-IgM concentrations compared with values before infection at weeks 2-6 after inoculation (P < .0001). For horses inoculated with lower doses of S neurona, there were significant increases in serum Sn-IgM concentration at various points in time after inoculation, depending on the challenge dose (P < .01). In addition, there was a significant increase between the CSF Sn-IgM concentrations before and after inoculation (P < .0001). These results support further evaluation of the assay as a diagnostic test during the acute phase of EPM. PMID:16594589

  4. Plasma exchange and chlorambucil in polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM gammopathy. IgM-associated Polyneuropathy Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Oksenhendler, E; Chevret, S; Léger, J M; Louboutin, J P; Bussel, A; Brouet, J C

    1995-01-01

    The study compared chlorambucil alone with chlorambucil in combination with plasma exchange in patients with polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM. Forty four patients were prospectively randomly assigned, in a comparative open trial, to receive either 0.1 mg/kg/day chlorambucil orally, for 12 months or chlorambucil associated with 15 courses of plasma exchange, during the first four months of treatment. They were evaluated by a neuropathy disability score and nerve conduction studies. No difference was found between the two treatment groups. The average neuropathy disability score improved by 2.1 points from baseline (21.0 to 18.9) in the chlorambucil group and by 1.8 points (20.4 to 18.6) in the chlorambucil + plasma exchange group (P = 0.70). The mean motor nerve conduction velocity decreased from 20.0 to 18.2 m/s in the chlorambucil group and increased from 20.5 to 22.5 m/s in the chlorambucil + plasma exchange group (P = 0.51). A slight improvement of the sensory component of the neuropathy disability score (from 10.5 to 8.3) was noted in both groups (P = 0.01). At the end of the study and according to self evaluation, 15 patients--eight from the chlorambucil group and seven from the chlorambucil + plasma exchange group--reported clinical improvement, whereas 15--eight from the chlorambucil group and seven from the chlorambucil + plasma exchange group--reported clinical worsening. Neuropathy remained stable in the others. Thus plasma exchange seemed to confer no additional benefit in the treatment of polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM. PMID:7673949

  5. T cell-dependent IgM Memory B Cells Generated During Bacterial Infection are Required for IgG Responses to Antigen Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Jennifer L.; Racine, Rachael; McBride, Kevin M.; Winslow, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Immunological memory has long considered to be harbored in B cells that express high affinity class-switched IgG. IgM-positive memory B cells can also be generated following immunization, although their physiological role has been unclear. Here we show that bacterial infection elicited a relatively large population of IgM memory B cells that were uniquely identified by their surface expression of CD11c, CD73, and PD-L2. The cells lacked expression of cell surface markers typically expressed by GC B cells, were CD138-negative, and did not secrete antibody ex vivo. The population was also largely quiescent, and accumulated somatic mutations. The IgM memory B cells were located in the region of the splenic marginal zone, and were not detected in blood or other secondary lymphoid organs. Generation of the memory cells was CD4 T cell-dependent, and required IL-21R signaling. In vivo depletion of the IgM memory B cells abrogated the IgG recall responses to specific antigen challenge, demonstrating that the cell population was required for humoral memory, and underwent class switch recombination following antigen encounter. Our findings demonstrate that T cell-dependent IgM memory B cells can be elicited at high frequency, and can play an important role in maintaining long-term immunity during bacterial infection. PMID:23804710

  6. Immune Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome Patients Revealed by High Levels of Serum Anti-N(Glc) IgM Antibody Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Papini, Anna Maria; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

  7. Immune dysfunction in Rett syndrome patients revealed by high levels of serum anti-N(Glc) IgM antibody fraction.

    PubMed

    Papini, Anna Maria; Nuti, Francesca; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Guerranti, Roberto; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Rovero, Paolo; De Felice, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

  8. Probing the Reionization Epoch of IGM Helium: A Detailed Follow-up Study of Three High-Quality He II Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphers, David

    2012-10-01

    The full reionization of intergalactic helium likely occurred at redshifts between z=2.7 and 4, dramatically affecting the state of the IGM, including strong heating of the gas. Detailed UV spectral studies of He II Ly-alpha absorption toward a handful of quasars at 2.7IGM probes, but the very small sample {3 sightlines} with detailed, high-S/N information limits the confidence in cosmological inferences. In recent cycles we have been very successful in identifying many new He II quasars at a wide range of redshifts. Here we follow up on the best of these, three uniquely bright He II quasars, including one at higher redshift. SDSSJ0915+4756, at z=3.34, is the brightest confirmed in the FUV at z>2.9, while HS1024+1849 and 4C57.27 are the brightest He II quasars without existing high-resolution and high-S/N observations. We propose a 25-orbit program that will study: {1} the currently ill-constrained evolution of He II reionization, from its end to well before completion; {2} the He II Ly-alpha forest; {3} the interaction of quasars and the IGM with the line-of-sight and transverse proximity effects; {4} high-redshift, high-opacity IGM He II using both Ly-alpha and Ly-beta Gunn-Peterson troughs.

  9. Role of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 in the activation of IgM secretion by CD40 and CD120b.

    PubMed

    Hostager, Bruce S; Bishop, Gail A

    2002-04-01

    TNFR-associated factors (TRAFs) participate in the signaling of many TNFR family members, including CD40, CD120a (TNFR1), and CD120b (TNFR2). Previously, we found that a dominant-negative TRAF2 molecule inhibits CD40-mediated Ab secretion by the mouse B cell line CH12.LX. However, disruption of the TRAF2 binding site in the cytoplasmic domain of CD40 does not diminish the ability of CD40 to stimulate Ab secretion, nor is this mutation able to circumvent the inhibition of Ab secretion by dominant-negative TRAF2. Here we demonstrate that CD40-induced TNF stimulates IgM production through CD120b and that CD120b signaling is required for optimal CD40-induced IgM secretion. Furthermore, although both CD40 and CD120b can bind TRAF2, TRAF2-dependent CD40 signals cannot substitute for TRAF2-dependent CD120b signals in the activation of IgM secretion. Our results indicate a potentially important role for CD120b in the activation of IgM secretion and that TRAF2 is used by CD40 and CD120b in distinct ways. PMID:11907088

  10. Antibodies specific for Ig idiotype, but not isotype, can substitute for antigen to induce IgM secretion by a B cell clone.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G A; Pennell, C A; Travis, W; Haughton, G; Frelinger, J A

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the mouse B cell clone, CH12.LX, secrete IgM when cultured with nominal antigen (sheep erythrocytes, SRBC) and mAbs which bind their membrane Ek molecules. To determine whether anti-Ig antibodies can substitute for antigen in the induction of IgM secretion by CH12.LX, the B cells were cultured with anti-Ek mAbs and anti-IgM or anti-idiotype antibodies. Anti-IgM antibodies were capable of cross-linking the membrane IgM of CH12.LX, and inhibited mitogen-induced differentiation of the B cells. However, anti-IgM could not substitute for SRBC in delivering a major histocompatibility complex-restricted differentiative signal. In contrast, either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies specific for the CH12.LX Ig idiotype were fully capable of substituting for antigen in the induction of IgM secretion by CH12.LX. The binding of anti-IgM antibodies did not prevent anti-idiotype antibodies from delivering a differentiative signal. Thus, binding of ligand to different parts of the membrane Ig molecule can result in the delivery of different biological signals to the B cell. PMID:2278988

  11. IgM, IgA and IgG producing cells in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, A; Kam-Hansen, S; Link, H

    1985-01-01

    The protein A plaque assay was used to enumerate IgM, IgA and IgG producing cells per 20 X 10(3) lymphocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) from 37 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in PB from healthy controls. Fifty-seven percent of the MS patients displayed in CSF cells producing IgM, 70% IgA and 89% IgG. IgM or IgA producing cells predominated in CSF from 10 patients, IgG in 27. Immunoglobulin producing cells were often present when the corresponding CSF Ig index was normal, confirming that enumeration of Ig producing cells is a more sensitive variable of the intrathecal immune status. No Ig producing cells were found in CSF from four patients with tension headache, indicating absence of intrathecal Ig synthesis in healthy individuals. The patients with MS had higher numbers of IgM, IgA and IgG producing cells in PB than healthy controls, confirming occurrence of an extrathecal B cell response in MS. Active and stable MS patients did not differ regarding Ig producing cells in CSF nor in PB, which speaks in favour of continuous immune activity within as well as outside the CNS independent of clinical symptoms. PMID:4064372

  12. Cloning and expression of domain III of the envelope gene of Japanese encephalitis virus: evaluation for early clinical diagnosis by IgM ELISA.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Jyoti; Bhargava, Rakesh; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Tripathi, Nagesh; Rao, P V Lakshmana

    2009-06-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the single largest cause of childhood viral encephalitis in the world with an estimated 50,000 cases and 10,000 deaths annually. The laboratory diagnosis is based essentially on IgM ELISA owing to low transient viremia making virus isolation difficult. In addition the requirement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample for confirmatory molecular diagnosis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) makes IgM ELISA the test of choice for early clinical diagnosis. The development and evaluation of a highly sensitive and specific IgM ELISA using the recombinant domain III envelope protein (rJEV-DIII) for rapid, early and accurate diagnosis of JEV is reported in the present study. The gene coding for the envelope protein of JEV was cloned and expressed in pET 30a vector followed by purification of recombinant protein by affinity chromatography. An indirect IgM microplate ELISA using purified rJEV-DIII was optimized that had no reactivity with healthy persons. The comparative evaluation accomplished with the JE-Dengue IgM Combo ELISA (PanBio, Brisbane, Australia) and JEV Chex (XCyton Diagnostic Ltd., Bangalore, India) ELISA kits, by subjecting 120 acute phase of clinical samples revealed more than 95% accordance. The rJEV-DIII ELISA and the PanBio ELISA were found to have a sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 96%, respectively. The compared positivity of the rJEV-DIII ELISA and SYBR green-I based real-time RT-PCR assay in CSF samples revealed higher positivity. The specificity of this assay was confirmed with serum samples obtained from patients with dengue and chikungunya. The recombinant domain III envelope protein based JEV specific ELISA will be useful for rapid screening of large numbers of clinical samples in endemic areas during outbreaks. PMID:19428586

  13. Reconstituted human polyclonal plasma-derived secretory-like IgM and IgA maintain the barrier function of epithelial cells infected with an enteropathogen.

    PubMed

    Longet, Stéphanie; Vonarburg, Cédric; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia; Zuercher, Adrian; Corthésy, Blaise

    2014-08-01

    Intravenous administration of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies has proven to be a clinically valid approach in the treatment, or at least relief, of many acute and chronic pathologies, such as infection, immunodeficiency, and a broad range of autoimmune conditions. Plasma-derived IgG or recombinant IgG are most frequently used for intravenous or subcutaneous administration, whereas a few IgM-based products are available as well. We have established recently that secretory-like IgA and IgM can be produced upon association of plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM with a recombinant secretory component. As a next step toward potential future mucosal administration, we sought to unravel the mechanisms by which these secretory Igs protect epithelial cells located at the interface between the environment and the inside of the body. By using polarized epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers and Shigella flexneri as a model enteropathogen, we found that polyspecific plasma-derived SIgA and SIgM fulfill many protective functions, including dose-dependent recognition of the antigen via formation of aggregated immune complexes, reduction of bacterial infectivity, maintenance of epithelial cell integrity, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by epithelial cells. In this in vitro model devoid of other cellular or molecular interfering partners, IgM and secretory IgM showed stronger bacterial neutralization than secretory IgA. Together, these data suggest that mucosally delivered antibody preparations may be most effective when combining both secretory-like IgA and IgM, which, together, play a crucial role in preserving several levels of epithelial cell integrity. PMID:24951593

  14. Characterization of RAG1 and IgM (mu chain) marking development of the immune system in red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ming-Guang; Lei, Ji-Lin; Alex, Perálvarez-Marín; Hong, Wan-Shu; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2012-10-01

    In vertebrates, lymphoid-specific recombinase protein encoded by recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) plays a key role in V(D)J recombination of the T-cell receptor and B-cell receptor. In this study, both RAG1 and the immunoglobulin M (IgM) mu chain were cloned to characterize their potential role in the immune defense at developmental stages of red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara. The open reading frame (ORF) of E. akaara RAG1 included 2778 nucleotide residues encoding a putative protein of 925 amino acids, while the ORF of the IgM mu chain had 1734 nucleotide residues encoding 578 amino acids including variable (VH) and constant (CH1-CH2-CH3-CH4) regions. E. akaara RAG1 was composed of a zinc-binding dimerization domain (ZDD) with a RING finger and zinc finger A (ZFA) in the non-core region and a nonamer-binding region (NBR), with a zinc finger B (ZFB), the central and C-terminal domains in the core region. Tridimensional models of the ZDD and NBR of E. akaara RAG1 were constructed for the first time in fishes, while a 3D model of the E. akaara IgM mu chain was also clarified. The RAG1 mRNA was only detected in the thymus and kidney of 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers using qPCR, and the RAG1 protein was confirmed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IgM mu mRNA was examined in most tissues except the gonad. RAG1 and IgM mu gene expression were observed at 15 dph (days post-hatching) and 23 dph respectively, and increased to a higher level at 37 dph. In addition, this was the first time that the morphology of the E. akaara thymus was characterized. The oval-shaped thymus of 4-month old fish was clearly seen and there were amounts of T lymphocytes present. The results suggested that the immune action of E. akaara was likely to start to develop around 15 dph to 29 dph. The transcript level of the RAG1 gene and the number of lymphocytes in the thymus between 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers indicated that age-related thymic atrophy also occurs in fishes. The similar functional structures of RAG1 and IgM protein between fish and mammals indicated that teleost species share a similar mechanism of V(D)J recombination with higher vertebrates. PMID:22796426

  15. Functionally Responsive Self-Reactive B Cells of Low-Affinity Express Reduced Levels of Surface IgM1

    PubMed Central

    Kirchenbaum, Greg A.; St. Clair, James B.; Detanico, Thiago; Aviszus, Katja; Wysocki, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Somatic gene rearrangement generates a diverse repertoire of B cells, including B cell receptors (BCR) possessing a range of affinities for self-Ag. Newly generated B cells express high and relatively uniform amounts of surface IgM (sIgM), while follicular (FO) B cells express sIgM at widely varying levels. It is plausible, therefore, that down-modulation of sIgM serves as a mechanism to maintain weakly self-reactive B cells in a responsive state by decreasing their avidity for self-Ag. We tested this hypothesis by performing comparative functional tests with FO IgMhi and IgMlo B cells from the unrestricted repertoire of wildtype (WT) mice. We found that FO IgMlo B cells mobilized Ca2+ equivalently to IgMhi B cells when the same number of sIgM molecules was engaged. In agreement, FO IgMlo B cells were functionally competent to produce an antibody response following adoptive transfer. The FO IgMlo cell population had elevated levels of Nur77 transcript, and was enriched with nuclear-reactive specificities. Hybridoma sampling revealed that these BCR were of low affinity. Collectively, these results suggest that sIgM down-modulation by low-affinity, self-reactive B cells preserves their immunocompetence and circumvents classical peripheral tolerance mechanisms that would otherwise reduce diversity within the B cell compartment. PMID:24375379

  16. The utility of IgM, CD21, HGAL and LMO2 in the diagnosis of pediatric follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Tejashree; Ozawa, Michael G; Lefterova, Martina; Luna-Fineman, Sandra; Alvarez, Elysia; Link, Michael; Zehnder, James L; Arber, Daniel A; Ohgami, Robert S

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric follicular lymphoma (pFL) is a rare neoplasm with features differing from follicular lymphoma arising in adults. Here, we describe a rare case of pFL that showed morphologic features partially overlapping with progressive transformation of germinal centers and reactive follicular hyperplasia. As typical of pFL, neoplastic B cells within follicles did not express B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2). However, this case showed additional distinctive abnormal findings, which contributed to the diagnosis: (1) diffuse and uniform staining of immunoglobulin M (IgM) on cells within and outside of follicles, (2) abnormally dim expression of CD21 on follicular dendritic cells, and (3) expression of human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) and LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) on B cells in interfollicular and follicular areas. This case demonstrates the utility of these abnormal features, which can be seen in adult- or usual-type follicular lymphoma, in the diagnosis of pFL. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the significance of these findings in other cases of pFL. PMID:25701230

  17. In vitro synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in response to Staphylococcus aureus, by lymphocytes from healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Karsh, J.

    1986-12-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 healthy adults were tested in vitro for the production of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) or pokeweed mitogen. Fifteen of the 20 normal subjects produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 46 +/- 55 ng/ml) in response to SAC, compared with only 2 of 20 who produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 2 +/- 4 ng/ml) in response to pokeweed mitogen (P = 0.0001). Separation and reconstitution of autologous T and B cell-enriched fractions, with and without prior T cell irradiation, provided evidence for a radiosensitive T helper/inducer cell involved in the IgM-RF response to SAC in 70% of the normal subjects studied. SAC appears to be a potent stimulus of IgM-RF production, with a cellular mechanism distinct from that of other in vitro systems.

  18. Congenital toxoplasmosis: evaluation of serological methods for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, I M X; Castro, A M; Gomes, M B F; Amaral, W N; Avelino, M M

    2009-05-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the presence of serological markers for the immunodiagnosis of the vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis. We tested the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (positive and negative) of different serological methods for the early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. In a prospective longitudinal study, 50 infants with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis were followed up in the ambulatory care centre of Congenital Infections at University Hospital in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, from 1 January 2004-30 September 2005. Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA), Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) and Immune-Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT) were used to detect specific IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and a capture ELISA was used to detect specific IgA antibodies. The results showed that 28/50 infants were infected. During the neonatal period, IgM was detected in 39.3% (11/28) of those infected infants and IgA was detected in 21.4% (6/28). The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (positive and negative) of each assay were, respectively: MEIA and ELFA: 60.9%, 100%, 100%, 55.0%; IFAT: 59.6%, 91.7%, 93.3%, 53.7%; IgA capture ELISA: 57.1%, 100%, 100%, 51.2%. The presence of specific IgM and IgA antibodies during the neonatal period was not frequent, although it was correlated with the most severe cases of congenital transmission. The results indicate that the absence of congenital disease markers (IgM and IgA) in newborns, even after confirming the absence with several techniques, does not constitute an exclusion criterion for toxoplasmosis. PMID:19547868

  19. Detection of erythrocyte binding IgM and IgG by flow cytometry in sick dogs with Babesia canis canis or Babesia canis vogeli infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Carli; S. Tasca; M. Trotta; T. Furlanello; M. Caldin; L. Solano-Gallego

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine by means of flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) if sick dogs infected with Babesia canis canis (B. c. canis) or Babesia canis vogeli (B. c. vogeli) had anti-erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and\\/or IgM at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis of Babesia infection was assessed by blood smear and by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism

  20. Suppression of murine IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE antibody responses by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, M G; Herscowitz, H B

    1993-01-01

    Freshly recovered pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AM) and the AM-derived established cell line, MH-S, have previously been shown to be highly suppressive of in vitro IgM anti-sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) responses. Supernatants obtained from cultures of AM incubated with antigen-stimulated lymphocytes or from the MH-S cell line alone have also been shown to be suppressive when added to the in vitro antibody-forming system. In order to determine if AM and MH-S cells, owing to their mucosal location, could differentially regulate antibody responses including immunoglobulin isotypes other than IgM, an in vitro system for the detection of cells producing IgG, IgA and IgE anti-2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) antibody was developed. These studies demonstrate that AM, MH-S cells, and MH-S culture supernatants suppress the in vitro generation of IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE anti-DNP spot-forming cells (SFC). No apparent differential regulation of any of the four murine IgG anti-DNP antibody subclasses was observed. Time-course experiments suggested that optimal AM- and MH-S-mediated suppression occurred 18 hr after culture initiation. Both AM and MH-S cells suppressed IgM and IgG anti-DNP antibody responses in a dose-related manner, suggesting that MH-S is a good model for the study of AM-mediated immunoregulation. PMID:8244465

  1. Detection of Lassa Virus Antinucleoprotein Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM Antibodies by a Simple Recombinant Immunoblot Assay for Field Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. TER MEULEN; K. KOULEMOU; T. WITTEKINDT; K. WINDISCH; S. STRIGL; S. CONDE; H. SCHMITZ

    1998-01-01

    The nucleoprotein of Lassa virus, strain Josiah, was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally trun- cated, histidine-tagged recombinant protein. Following affinity purification the protein was completely dena- tured and spotted onto nitrocellulose membrane. A total of 1 mg of protein was applied for detection of Lassa virus antibodies (LVA) in a simple immunoblot assay. Specific anti-Lassa immunoglobulin M (IgM)

  2. Multiplex immunoassay for Lyme disease using VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies: improving test performance through bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Porwancher, Richard B; Hagerty, C Greg; Fan, Jianqing; Landsberg, Lisa; Johnson, Barbara J B; Kopnitsky, Mark; Steere, Allen C; Kulas, Karen; Wong, Susan J

    2011-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends a 2-tier serologic approach to Lyme disease laboratory diagnosis, comprised of an initial serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi followed by supplementary IgG and IgM Western blotting of EIA-positive or -equivocal samples. Western blot accuracy is limited by subjective interpretation of weakly positive bands, false-positive IgM immunoblots, and low sensitivity for detection of early disease. We developed an objective alternative second-tier immunoassay using a multiplex microsphere system that measures VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies simultaneously in the same sample. Our study population comprised 79 patients with early acute Lyme disease, 82 patients with early-convalescent-phase disease, 47 patients with stage II and III disease, 34 patients post-antibiotic treatment, and 794 controls. A bioinformatic technique called partial receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) regression was used to combine individual antibody levels into a single diagnostic score with a single cutoff; this technique enhances test performance when a high specificity is required (e.g., ? 95%). Compared to Western blotting, the multiplex assay was equally specific (95.6%) but 20.7% more sensitive for early-convalescent-phase disease (89.0% versus 68.3%, respectively; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] for difference, 12.1% to 30.9%) and 12.5% more sensitive overall (75.0% versus 62.5%, respectively; 95% CI for difference, 8.1% to 17.1%). As a second-tier test, a multiplex assay for VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies performed as well as or better than Western blotting for Lyme disease diagnosis. Prospective validation studies appear to be warranted. PMID:21367982

  3. Defective Expression of the CD40 Ligand in X Chromosome-Linked Immunoglobulin Deficiency with Normal or Elevated IgM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramsay Fuleihan; Narayanaswamy Ramesh; Richard Loh; Haifa Jabara; Fred S. Rosen; Talal Chatila; Shu Man Fu; Ivan Stamenkovic; Raif S. Geha

    1993-01-01

    B lymphocytes from patients with X chromosome-linked immunoglobulin deficiency with normal or elevated serum IgM are unable to switch from the synthesis of IgM\\/IgD to that of other immunoglobulin isotypes. Isotype switch recombination was evaluated in three affected males by examining interleukin 4-driven IgE synthesis. T-cell-dependent IgE synthesis was completely absent in the B lymphocytes of the patients. In contrast,

  4. [Diagnostic use of ELISA, IgG, IgM, IgA and ELISA IgG avidity in recent and chronic toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Contreras, M C; Sandoval, L; Salinas, P; Muñoz, P; Vargas, S

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a world-wide zoonotic infection, is generally asymptomatic and benign in immunocompetent individuals, but it can be serious in immunodeficiencies particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in children infected in utero. So, it is important to dispose methods which permit discriminate between recent and chronic infections. In order to contribute to improve the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis ELISA IgG, IgM, IgA and ELISA IgG avidity were performed in 15 and 24 sera from patients suspected of having acute and chronic infection respectively, according dye test (DT) titres. ELISA IgG was positive in both groups, ELISA IgM was positive in 78.6 and 58.3% respectively, while ELISA IgA was positive in 85.7 and 33.3% of recent and chronic group respectively. In those sera with low IgG avidity (18.8%) we found specific IgM in 71.5 and 4.2% and IgA in 78.6 and 0.0% of recent and chronic groups respectively. Parallelling, 208 sera samples were classified according to the results of DT, indirect hemagglutination and complement fixation tests in the following groups: acute (97), intermediate (36), chronic (35) and negative (40). The results were: acute (96.9-64.9-55.6 and 65.9%); intermediate (97.2-63.8-44.4 and 47.2%); chronic (45.7-42.8-5.7 and 34.3%) for IgG, IgM, IgA and low IgG avidity respectively. The use of both acute markers, IgA and low IgG avidity in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is discussed. PMID:11757412

  5. Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olajide, Okikiola M; Aminu, Maryam; Randawa, Abdullahi J; Adejo, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Background Rubella is a contagious viral infection that in pregnant women leads to the infection of a developing fetus, causing fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Objective Pregnant women are not routinely screened for rubella in Nigeria. Epidemiological data on rubella is therefore necessary to create awareness and sensitize health care administrators and providers. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital between June and August 2012 to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to rubella virus in pregnant women using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Seroprevalence was compared among 160 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and 20 nonpregnant women of childbearing age studying at Ahmadu Bello University. Prior to sample collection, questionnaires were administered to the women to obtain data on sociodemographics, awareness and knowledge of rubella, possible risk factors, and clinical symptoms associated with the viral infection. Results Of the 160 pregnant women, 149 (93.1%) and 62 (38.8%) were positive for anti-rubella IgM and IgG antibodies, respectively. Similarly, of the 20 nonpregnant women, 18 (90%) and eight (40%) were positive for rubella IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. None of the possible risk factors studied were significantly associated with infection. Age and other sociodemographic factors were of little significance, and awareness of rubella was low. Conclusion The prevalence of rubella was high in both pregnant (93.1%) and nonpregnant women (90%), suggesting sustained transmission, which further suggests endemicity. The presence of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies in pregnant women predisposes babies to congenital rubella syndrome and emphasizes the need for the initiation of a national rubella vaccination program in Nigeria. PMID:25610003

  6. Both IgM and IgG Anti-DNA Antibodies Are the Products of Clonally Selective B Cell Stimulation in (NZB x NZW)FI Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Tillman; Nainn-Tsyr Jou; Robert J. HiU; Tony N. Marion

    1992-01-01

    Summary Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus is closely associated with the appearance of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody to native DNA in both humans and mice. Like normal antibody responses, the anti-DNA autoantibody first appears as IgM and then switches to IgG. Structural studies of IgG anti-DNA suggest that these antibodies are the products of clonally selected, specifically stimulated B cells.

  7. Identification of a stem-loop structure important for polyadenylation at the murine IgM secretory poly(A) site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy Phillips; Christina B. Kyriakopoulou; Anders Virtanen

    1999-01-01

    We have previously shown that a distal GU-rich downstream element of the mouse IgM secretory poly(A) site is important for polyadenylation in vivo and for polyadenylation specific complex formation in vitro. This element can be predicted to form a stem- loop structure with two asymmetric internal loops. As stem-loop structures commonly define protein RNA binding sites, we have probed the

  8. Production of Anti-LPS IgM by B1a B Cells Depends on IL-1? and Is Protective against Lung Infection with Francisella tularensis LVS

    PubMed Central

    Lantier, Louis; Reynolds, Joseph M.; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; Re, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The role of IL-1? and IL-18 during lung infection with the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis LVS has not been characterized in detail. Here, using a mouse model of pneumonic tularemia, we show that both cytokines are protective, but through different mechanisms. Il-18-/- mice quickly succumb to the infection and showed higher bacterial burden in organs and lower level of IFN? in BALF and serum compared to wild type C57BL/6J mice. Administration of IFN? rescued the survival of Il-18-/- mice, suggesting that their decreased resistance to tularemia is due to inability to produce IFN?. In contrast, mice lacking IL-1 receptor or IL-1?, but not IL-1?, appeared to control the infection in its early stages, but eventually succumbed. IFN? administration had no effect on Il-1r1-/- mice survival. Rather, Il-1r1-/- mice were found to have significantly reduced titer of Ft LPS-specific IgM. The anti-Ft LPS IgM was generated in a IL-1?-, TLR2-, and ASC-dependent fashion, promoted bacteria agglutination and phagocytosis, and was protective in passive immunization experiments. B1a B cells produced the anti-Ft LPS IgM and these cells were significantly decreased in the spleen and peritoneal cavity of infected Il-1b-/- mice, compared to C57BL/6J mice. Collectively, our results show that IL-1? and IL-18 activate non-redundant protective responses against tularemia and identify an essential role for IL-1? in the rapid generation of pathogen-specific IgM by B1a B cells. PMID:25768794

  9. Serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, and IgA in maternal cord blood pairs from infants of normal and low birthweights in Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, E R

    1981-01-01

    Serum total protein, albumin, IgG, IgM, and IgA were determined in cord blood of 54 term infants appropriate-for-gestation-age (AGA), 14 preterm AGA infants, and 21 small-for-dates infants, and in their mothers immediately after delivery in Dar-es-Salaam. The mean serum levels of total protein, albumin, and IgG in mothers who delivered a term AGA infant were 6.8 g/100 ml, 2.9 g/100 ml, and 1840 mg/100 ml respectively, whereas those from their infants were 6.9 g/100 ml, 4.1 g/100 ml, and 1471 mg/100 ml. The de novo synthesis of IgM and IgA during fetal life seems to be activated at an earlier gestational age than in infants in Western countries; this fact subsequently resulted in a higher detection rate for IgM and IgA in cord blood of term AGA infants. IgG in Tanzanian mothers was generally higher than in corresponding cord blood sera, which is contrary to the finding in Europe. PMID:7469449

  10. Detection of erythrocyte binding IgM and IgG by flow cytometry in sick dogs with Babesia canis canis or Babesia canis vogeli infection.

    PubMed

    Carli, E; Tasca, S; Trotta, M; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M; Solano-Gallego, L

    2009-05-26

    The aim of this study was to examine by means of flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) if sick dogs infected with Babesia canis canis (B. c. canis) or Babesia canis vogeli (B. c. vogeli) had anti-erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and/or IgM at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis of Babesia infection was assessed by blood smear and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 30 sick dogs. Signalment, clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests of B. c. canis (n=24) and of B. c. vogeli (n=6) infected dogs were studied. The majority of B. c. canis infected dogs showed anemia (92%) predominantly non-regenerative (94%), while the B. c. vogeli infected dogs had a regenerative anemia (67%). Eccentrocytosis was present in 33% of the B. c. canis infections. Four of six B. c. vogeli infected dogs had erythrocytes membrane antibodies. One dog resulted uncertain and one resulted negative to FCI. In contrast, all the B. c. canis infected dogs were negative for erythrocytes membrane binding immunoglobulins detection. In addition, the mean percentages of erythrocytes binding IgG and IgM were statistically much lower in B. c. canis than in B. c. vogeli infected dogs. At the time of the diagnosis, the formation of erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and IgM by immune mechanisms appears not to be involved in B. c. canis infections while it is present in the majority of B. c. vogeli infections. PMID:19269745

  11. Detection of IgM Antibrucella Antibody in the Absence of IgGs: A Challenge for the Clinical Interpretation of Brucella Serology

    PubMed Central

    Solís García del Pozo, Julián; Lorente Ortuño, Santiago; Navarro, Elena; Solera, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies antibrucella has become widespread in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. IgM anti-Brucella antibodies are indicative of acute infection. Between 2009–2013, 5307 patients were evaluated for serologic diagnosis at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Albacete General Hospital. A ELISA IgM-positive, IgG-negative anti-Brucella antibody serology pattern was detected in 17 of those patients. Epidemiology data, symptoms, laboratory data, treatment and outcome from these patients were reviewed. Sixteen patients presented with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or fever and 1 was asymptomatic. Five patients received treatment with doxycycline combined with rifampin, gentamycin or streptomycin during 6–12 weeks, with no improvement. None of the 17 patients were finally diagnosed with brucellosis. Our results indicate that anti-Brucella IgM positive serology, per se, is not enough to diagnose acute brucellosis and other methods should be used for confirmation. Brucella serology data should be interpreted taking into account the patient's clinical history and epidemiological context. PMID:25474572

  12. Pelikloon anti-M (IgG) monoclonal K1302 Pelikloon anti-N (IgG) monoclonal K1303 Pelikloon anti-S (IgM) monoclonal K1304 Pelikloon anti-P1 (IgM) monoclonal K1305 Pelikloon anti-Le

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CX Amsterdam

    a and Le b ) or human (S) IgG or IgM antibodies and have been specially selected and developed to provide a reliable alternative to polyclonal reagents. These reagents meet the requirements of the concerned standards and guidelines. Performance characteristics are mentioned in the release documents, which are supplied with the product upon request. The principle of the test is

  13. Molecular mechanisms and selective influences that shape the kappa gene repertoire of IgM+ B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, S J; Brezinschek, H P; Brezinschek, R I; Lipsky, P E

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the human kappa chain repertoire and the influences that shape it, a single cell PCR technique was used that amplified Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements from genomic DNA of individual human B cells. More than 350 productive and 250 nonproductive Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements were sequenced. Nearly every functional Vkappa gene segment was used in rearrangements, although six Vkappa gene segments, A27, L2, L6, L12a, A17, and O12/O2 were used preferentially. Of these, A27, L2, L6, and L12a showed evidence of positive selection based on the variable region and not CDR3, whereas A17 was overrepresented because of a rearrangement bias based on molecular mechanisms. Utilization of Jkappa segments was also nonrandom, with Jkappa1 and Jkappa2 being overrepresented and Jkappa3 and Jkappa5 underrepresented in the nonproductive repertoire, implying a molecular basis for the bias. In B cells with two Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements, marked differences were noted in the Vkappa segments used for the initial and subsequent rearrangements, whereas Jkappa segments were used comparably. Junctional diversity was generated by n-nucleotide addition in 60% and by exonuclease trimming in 75% of the Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements analyzed. Despite this large degree of diversity, a strict CDR3 length was maintained in both productive and nonproductive rearrangements. More than 23% of the productive rearrangements, but only 7% of the nonproductive rearrangements contained somatic hypermutations. Mutations were significantly more frequent in Vkappa sequences derived from CD5- as compared with CD5+ B cells. These results document that the gene segment utilization within the Vkappa repertoire is biased by both intrinsic molecular processes as well as selection after light chain expression. Moreover, IgM+ memory cells with highly mutated kappa genes reside within the CD5- but not the CD5+ B cell compartment. PMID:9120005

  14. Tumor cell reactivity mediated by IgM antibodies in sera from melanoma patients vaccinated with GM2 ganglioside covalently linked to KLH is increased by IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Livingston, P; Zhang, S; Adluri, S; Yao, T J; Graeber, L; Ragupathi, G; Helling, F; Fleisher, M

    1997-01-01

    Natural IgM antibodies against the melanoma cell-surface ganglioside GM2, and IgM antibodies induced by vaccination with GM2 adherent to bacillus Calmette-Guerin, have been correlated with increased disease-free and overall survival in melanoma patients in previous phase I and II clinical trials. A vaccine containing GM2 covalently attached to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) plus the immunological adjuvant QS-21 now induces higher-titer, longer-lasting IgM antibodies against GM2 and has recently entered phase III clinical trials. For the first time this new vaccine also induces IgG antibodies against GM2 in the majority of immunized patients. With regard to immunity against bacteria, IgM antibodies have been described to be 1000-fold more effective than IgG antibodies at opsonification, complement-mediated cytotoxicity and protection from bacterial challenge. Though IgG antibodies have the theoretical advantage of being able to mediate antibody-directed cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), they may inhibit complement mediated IgM effector mechanisms against melanoma cells. Our goal was to confirm the functional characteristics of the anti-GM2 IgM and IgG antibodies induced by vaccination and to determine the impact that IgG antibodies might have on IgM antibody reactivity with GM2-positive tumor cells. Post-immunization sera from seven immunized patients were separated by size-exclusion chromatography into IgM and IgG fractions and a variety of serological assays were performed with the individual fractions and their combinations. Assays identifying specific IgM or IgG reactivity demonstrated partial inhibition by the opposite fraction. However, when the endpoint was complement-mediated lysis or overall antibody binding, which may more faithfully predict in vivo complement-mediated opsonification and lysis, the combinations of IgM and IgG fractions consistently demonstrated higher reactivity than either fraction alone. In addition, ADCC was induced in all seven patients. The results were the same whether the sera were obtained after 2 months or 2 years of immunizations. These findings suggest that IgG antibodies induced by the GM2-KLH plus QS-21 vaccine will not inhibit and should further augment the clinical impact of induced IgM antibodies. PMID:9067403

  15. High density of intraepithelial ?? lymphocytes and deposits of immunoglobulin (Ig)M anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in the jejunum of coeliac patients with IgA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, M; Maglio, M; Agnese, M; Paparo, F; Gentile, S; Colicchio, B; Tosco, A; Auricchio, R; Troncone, R

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) represents a special challenge in selective immunoglobulin (Ig)A deficiency (IgAD). A high density of T cell receptor (TCR)??+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and intestinal IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibody deposits are suggestive of CD. We analysed the density of TCR??+ IELs and the deposition of IgM anti-TG2 antibodies in the jejunal mucosa of IgAD patients with and without CD. Immunohistochemical analyses for the number of CD3+ and TCR??+ IELs and double immunofluorescence assay for IgM anti-TG2 antibody deposits were performed in biopsies from 25 children with IgAD (nine untreated CD, seven potential CD and nine without CD). Sixteen immunologically intact children without CD represented the controls. IgAD without CD had a higher number of CD3+ and TCR??+ IELs than controls (P < 0·05), but lower than IgAD with CD (P < 0·01). No significant differences were noted between IgAD subjects without CD and those with potential CD. Furthermore, IgAD patients without CD showed a higher TCR??+/CD3+ ratio than the control group (P < 0·05), while the ratio was similar to subjects with CD and potential CD. Intestinal IgM anti-TG2 antibody deposits were present in six of seven of the IgAD patients with untreated CD, one of seven with potential CD and none of those without CD. Most of the patients with IgAD show immune activation in the jejunal mucosa. IgM anti-TG2 antibody deposits are present only in CD. Intestinal IgM anti-TG2 and immunohistochemical markers do not discriminate between IgAD and potential CD with IgAD. Therefore, the serum IgG CD-associated autoantibodies remains very important for the diagnosis of CD in IgAD. PMID:20030673

  16. Both IgM and IgG anti-DNA antibodies are the products of clonally selective B cell stimulation in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus is closely associated with the appearance of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody to native DNA in both humans and mice. Like normal antibody responses, the anti-DNA autoantibody first appears as IgM and then switches to IgG. Structural studies of IgG anti-DNA suggest that these antibodies are the products of clonally selected, specifically stimulated B cells. The origins of the IgM anti-DNA have been less clear. To determine whether the earlier appearing IgM anti-DNA antibody in autoimmune mice also derives from clonally selected, specifically stimulated B cells or B cells activated by nonselective, polyclonal stimuli, we have analyzed the molecular and serological characteristics of a large number of monoclonal IgM anti- DNA antibodies from autoimmune (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. We have also analyzed IgM and IgG anti-DNA hybridomas obtained from the same individual mice to determine how the later-appearing IgG autoantibody may be related to the earlier-appearing IgM autoantibody within an individual mouse. The results demonstrate that: (a) IgM anti-DNA, like IgG, has the characteristics of a specifically stimulated antibody; (b) IgM and IgG anti-DNA antibodies have similar variable region structures and within individual mice may be produced by B cells derived from the same clonal precursors; (c) recurrent germline and somatically derived VH and VL structures may influence the specificity of anti-DNA monoclonal antibody for denatured vs. native DNA; and (d) the results provide a structural explanation for the selective development of IgG antibody to native DNA as autoimmunity to DNA progresses in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. PMID:1512540

  17. Modulation of IgM secretion and H chain mRNA expression in CH12.LX.C4.5F5 B cells by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Bost, K L; Clarke, B L; Xu, J C; Kiyono, H; McGhee, J R; Pascual, D

    1990-12-15

    The murine B cell line CH12.LX.C4.5F5 (CH12 (5F5) expresses adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) receptors, which can modulate IgM secretion by these cells. Interestingly, the response to ACTH was concentration dependent, inducing IgM secretion at subnanomolar amounts and suppressing secretion at micromolar amounts. With the use of an enzyme-linking immunospot assay it was possible to demonstrate that the ACTH-induced increase in IgM secretion by CH12 (5F5) cells was caused at least in part by an increase in the number of cells secreting IgM. CH12 (5F5) cells activated with suboptimal concentrations of LPS demonstrated a similar biphasic response. ACTH at concentrations of 10(-13) to 10(-9) M augmented IgM secretion in LPS-activated cells as much as sixfold, whereas 10(-6) M ACTH slightly decreased LPS-induced IgM secretion. At the mRNA level, subnanomolar concentrations of ACTH increased microH chain mRNA expression up to twofold in unstimulated or LPS-stimulated CH12 (5F5) cells. Taken together, these studies show that physiologically relevant concentrations of ACTH can interact directly with receptors on these B lymphocytes to enhance IgM secretion and microH chain mRNA expression. Although ACTH does increase intracellular cAMP levels in CH12 (5F5) B cells, it is unlikely that the induction of this second messenger pathway is by itself responsible for the ACTH induced B cell differentiation. The concentration of ACTH necessary to stimulate significant intracellular cAMP increases was 10- to 100-fold higher than that required to increase IgM secretion. Furthermore, CH12 (5F5) cells treated with varying concentrations of 8-bromo cAMP or cholera toxin were inhibited in their ability to secrete IgM. These results strongly suggest that the enhancing effects of ACTH on CH12 (5F5) IgM secretion are via mechanisms independent of those mediated by cAMP. PMID:2175328

  18. Cloning and expression of an envelope gene of West Nile virus and evaluation of the protein for use in an IgM ELISA.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Divyasha; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, Putcha Venkata L; Kumar, Jyoti S

    2013-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis. The early confirmatory diagnosis of WNV infections is important for timely clinical management and epidemiologic control in areas where multiple flaviviruses are endemic. The coexistence of WNV along with other members of flaviviruses like dengue and Japanese encephalitis in India has complicated the serodiagnosis due to cross-reactive antigens. In the present study, the development and evaluation of a highly sensitive and specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the recombinant envelope protein (rWNV-Env) for rapid, early, and accurate diagnosis of WNV are reported. The gene coding for the envelope protein of WNV was cloned and expressed in pET 28a vector followed by purification of recombinant protein by affinity chromatography. An indirect IgM microplate ELISA using purified rWNV-Env protein was optimized having no cross reactivity with healthy human serum. Furthermore, the specificity of this assay was confirmed by cross checking with serum samples obtained from patients with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. The comparative evaluation of this rWNV-Env protein-specific IgM ELISA with plaque reduction neutralization test assay using 105 acute phase of clinical samples revealed 95% concordance with sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 97%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of recombinant-based Env ELISA were 94% and 96%, respectively. The recombinant envelope protein-based WNV-specific ELISA reported in this study will be useful for rapid screening of large numbers of clinical samples in endemic areas during outbreaks. PMID:23357292

  19. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  20. Protection against candidiasis by an immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) monoclonal antibody specific for the same mannotriose as an IgM protective antibody.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Riesselman, M H; Cutler, J E

    2000-03-01

    We previously reported that a liposome-mannan vaccine (L-mann) of Candida albicans induces production of mouse antibodies that protect against disseminated candidiasis and vaginal infection. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibody (MAb) B6.1, specific for a C. albicans cell surface beta-1,2-mannotriose, protects mice against both infections. Another IgM MAb, termed B6, which is specific for a different cell surface mannan epitope, does not protect against disseminated candidiasis. The B6.1 epitope is displayed homogeneously over the entire cell surface, compared to a patchy distribution of the B6 epitope. To determine if protection is restricted to an IgM class of antibody, we tested an IgG antibody. MAb C3.1 was obtained from L-mann-immunized mice. By results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunodiffusion tests, MAb C3.1 is an IgG3 isotype. By epitope inhibition assays, we determined that MAb C3.1 is specific for same mannotriose as MAb B6. 1. As expected by the results of the inhibition assays, immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the C3.1 epitope is distributed on the yeast cell surface in a pattern identical to that of the B6.1 epitope. Kidney CFU and mean survival times of infected mice pretreated with MAb C3.1 indicated that the antibody enhanced resistance of mice against disseminated candidiasis. Mice in pseudoestrus that were given MAb C3.1 prior to vaginal infection developed fewer vaginal Candida CFU than control animals that received buffered saline instead of the antibody. The finding that an IgG3 antibody is protective is consistent with our hypothesis that epitope specificity and complement activation are related to the ability of an antibody to protect against candidiasis. PMID:10678984

  1. Single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei and inulin on growth, non-specific immunity and IgM expression in leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Gracia-Lopez, Vicente; Macias, Ma Esther; Roa, Marcos Cadena; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei with inulin suitable for immunological in vivo studies in farmed fish. By in vitro assays, L. sakei strain 5-4 showed antibacterial activities against all assayed fish pathogens (except the Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM-1793). L. sakei was able to survive at high fish bile concentrations. Fermentation of the agave inulin resulted in a large increase in number of lactobacilli. For the in vivo study, fish were fed for 8 weeks four practical diets: control diet (control), L. sakei 5-4 (10(7) CFU/g), inulin (1% or 10 g/kg) and L. sakei + inulin (10(7) CFU/g + 10 g/kg). The weight gain showed clearly the synergistic effect of L. sakei 5-4 and inulin at 6 and 8 weeks of treatments. Leopard grouper fed with L. sakei alone or combined with inulin have significantly increased the assayed physiological and humoral immune parameters. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin M (IgM) were found to be higher expressed in intestine, head kidney, mucus, gill, spleen and skin. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IgM in head kidney and anterior intestine were measured by real-time PCR. L. sakei 5-4 and L. sakei + inulin supplemented diet up-regulated the expression of IgM at week 4 and 8 in intestine and head kidney, respectively. These results support the idea that the L. sakei 5-4 alone or combined with agave inulin improved growth performance and stimulates the immune system of leopard grouper. PMID:24464476

  2. Expression of a new antigen, Tml on T cells after modulation by anti-T3 antibodies of IgM class

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, L.K.L.; Hara, T.; Fu, S.M.

    1986-03-05

    During the modulation of the T3/Ti complex by anti-T3 antibody, 235, of IgM class, a new antigen, Tml was detected with an IgGl mAb produced against mAb 235 treated T cells. This antigen was inducible only on T cells modulated by IgM anti-T3 (mAb 235 and mAb 38.1) and not by anti-T3 of other isotypes. Tml was a 33Kd molecule which was detectable in a small percentage of T cells and B cells but not on granulocytes, platelets, erythrocytes and thymocytes. Significantly, monocytes displayed this antigen on their cell surfaces. While not detectable on leukemic T cells HPB-ALL and Jurkat, Tml was expressed when these cell lines were modulated with 235. T cells activated by PHA, Con A, TPA, PWM, PPD, and allo-antigens showed little increase in the expression of Tml. In contrast, B cells activated by S. aureus or goat anti-mu antibodies along with BCGF showed increased expression of this antigen. Attempts to precipitate Tml from activated B cells have not been successful. On T cells, Tml appeared after 30 minutes of T3 modulation, before the disappearance of T3 antigen. Cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, did not block Tml expression, suggesting that the molecule was present before the modulation process. The expression of Tml is induced uniquely by IgM anti-T3 mAbs. Perturbation of the membrane by these mAbs may have allowed the emergence of an intracellular antigen, Tml, on the cell surface.

  3. Detection of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in renal transplant recipients using ELFA, ELISA and ISAGA methods: comparison of pre- and post-transplantation status

    PubMed Central

    GHARAVI, M J; JALALI, S; KHADEMVATAN, S; HEYDARI, S

    2011-01-01

    In the transplant recipient patients receive immunosuppressive therapy, the possibility of reactivation of the old infection or acquisition of infection from a donor’s tissue increases. In this study, IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins seroconversion in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have been evaluated before and after transplantation. This is a prospective cohort study on a total of 102 RTRs. Two serum samples were obtained from each patient. The first was taken before administration of any immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids and the second was taken 3 months after transplantation. The IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were assayed by enzyme-linked flourescence assay (ELFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. IgM/immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) method has also been used. All RTRs were tested for toxoplasmosis before and after transplantation. ELFA identified 65 (63.7%) pre-transplantation samples as IgG+ and did not detect any positive IgM samples. However, IgM was detected in three (2.9%) post-transplantation samples by this method. Forty-nine (48%) pre-transplantation samples were reported IgG+ by ELISA and no IgM positive sample was identified by this method. ELISA has detected two (1.9%) IgM-positive reactions in post-transplantation samples. By IgM/ISAGA method, we have detected no IgM positive reactions in pre-transplantation samples, whereas 3 months later (second sampling) IgM antibody was detected in 3 (2.9%) cases. Secondary toxoplasmosis infection was observed in 30 cases per 1000 RTRs, which indicates that screening for toxoplasmosis infection should be performed in developed countries for these patients. On the other hand, as the risk of re-active toxoplasmosis infection exists in developing nations, they should consider the necessary preventive measures to control this condition. PMID:21929878

  4. Detection of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in renal transplant recipients using ELFA, ELISA and ISAGA methods: comparison of pre- and post-transplantation status.

    PubMed

    Gharavi, M J; Jalali, S; Khademvatan, S; Heydari, S

    2011-07-01

    In the transplant recipient patients receive immunosuppressive therapy, the possibility of reactivation of the old infection or acquisition of infection from a donor's tissue increases. In this study, IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins seroconversion in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have been evaluated before and after transplantation. This is a prospective cohort study on a total of 102 RTRs. Two serum samples were obtained from each patient. The first was taken before administration of any immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids and the second was taken 3 months after transplantation. The IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were assayed by enzyme-linked flourescence assay (ELFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. IgM/immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) method has also been used. All RTRs were tested for toxoplasmosis before and after transplantation. ELFA identified 65 (63·7%) pre-transplantation samples as IgG+ and did not detect any positive IgM samples. However, IgM was detected in three (2·9%) post-transplantation samples by this method. Forty-nine (48%) pre-transplantation samples were reported IgG+ by ELISA and no IgM positive sample was identified by this method. ELISA has detected two (1·9%) IgM-positive reactions in post-transplantation samples. By IgM/ISAGA method, we have detected no IgM positive reactions in pre-transplantation samples, whereas 3 months later (second sampling) IgM antibody was detected in 3 (2·9%) cases. Secondary toxoplasmosis infection was observed in 30 cases per 1000 RTRs, which indicates that screening for toxoplasmosis infection should be performed in developed countries for these patients. On the other hand, as the risk of re-active toxoplasmosis infection exists in developing nations, they should consider the necessary preventive measures to control this condition. PMID:21929878

  5. Amyloid-? Oligomer Specificity Mediated by the IgM Isotype – Implications for a Specific Protective Mechanism Exerted by Endogenous Auto-Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lindhagen-Persson, Malin; Brännström, Kristoffer; Vestling, Monika; Steinitz, Michael; Olofsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background Alzheimers disease (AD) has been strongly linked to an anomalous self-assembly of the amyloid-? peptide (A?). The correlation between clinical symptoms of AD and A? depositions is, however, weak. Instead small and soluble A? oligomers are suggested to exert the major pathological effects. In strong support of this notion, immunological targeting of A? oligomers in AD mice-models shows that memory impairments can be restored without affecting the total burden of A? deposits. Consequently a specific immunological targeting of A? oligomers is of high therapeutic interest. Methodology/Principal Findings Previously the generation of conformational-dependent oligomer specific anti-A? antibodies has been described. However, to avoid the difficult task of identifying a molecular architecture only present on oligomers, we have focused on a more general approach based on the hypothesis that all oligomers expose multiple identical epitopes and therefore would have an increased binding to a multivalent receptor. Using the polyvalent IgM immunoglobulin we have developed a monoclonal anti-A? antibody (OMAB). OMAB only demonstrates a weak interaction with A? monomers and dimers having fast on and off-rate kinetics. However, as an effect of avidity, its interaction with A?-oligomers results in a strong complex with an exceptionally slow off-rate. Through this mechanism a selectivity towards A? oligomers is acquired and OMAB fully inhibits the cytotoxic effect exerted by A?(1-42) at highly substoichiometric ratios. Anti-A? auto-antibodies of IgM isotype are frequently present in the sera of humans. Through a screen of endogenous anti-A? IgM auto-antibodies from a group of healthy individuals we show that all displays a preference for oligomeric A?. Conclusions/Significance Taken together we provide a simple and general mechanism for targeting of oligomers without the requirement of conformational-dependent epitopes. In addition, our results suggest that IgM anti-A? auto-antibodies may exert a more specific protective mechanism in vivo than previously anticipated. PMID:21085663

  6. Identification of high-mannose and multiantennary complex-type N-linked glycans containing alpha-galactose epitopes from Nurse shark IgM heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J; Crispin, Max; Moffatt, Beryl E; Smith, Sylvia L; Sim, Robert B; Rudd, Pauline M; Dwek, Raymond A

    2009-11-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, negative ion nano-electrospray MS/MS and exoglycosidase digestion were used to identify 36 N-linked glycans from 19S IgM heavy chain derived from the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). The major glycan was the high-mannose compound, Man(6)GlcNAc(2) accompanied by small amounts of Man(5)GlcNAc(2), Man(7)GlcNAc(2) and Man(8)GlcNAc(2). Bi- and tri-antennary (isomer with a branched 3-antenna) complex-type glycans were also abundant, most contained a bisecting GlcNAc residue (beta1-->4-linked to the central mannose) and with varying numbers of alpha-galactose residues capping the antennae. Small amounts of monosialylated glycans were also found. This appears to be the first comprehensive study of glycosylation in this species of animal. The glycosylation pattern has implications for the mechanism of activation of the complement system by nurse shark IgM. PMID:19156518

  7. Characterization of the gene for the membrane and secretory form of the IgM heavy-chain constant region gene (C mu) of the cow (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, M; Rabbani, H; Pilström, L; Hammarström, L

    1998-01-01

    Our present understanding of the evolution of immunoglobulins is derived from a few vertebrate species. In order to obtain additional information on the development of the humoral immune system, we cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the bovine cDNA and genomic IgM heavy-chain constant region gene (C mu). The gene contains four constant region domain-encoding exons (CH1 to CH4) and two exons encoding the transmembrane domain (TM1, TM2), expressed in the membrane-bound receptor form of the IgM. The sequence of a cDNA clone encoding the 3' portion of the membrane form of the mu-chain revealed that the TM1 exon is spliced to the CH4 exon, as occurs in other mammals. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequence data from different vertebrates revealed a high similarity to sheep C mu (88%) and a lower degree of similarity to pig (62%), rat (62%), rabbit (58%) human (56%), hamster (55%), mouse (54%), chicken (28%) and horned shark (22%) C mu. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9659232

  8. Kinetics of Dengue Non-Structural Protein 1 Antigen and IgM and IgA Antibodies in Capillary Blood Samples from Confirmed Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, Séverine; Pham, Thai Binh; Labeau, Bhetty; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Lacoste, Vincent; Deparis, Xavier; Marechal, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiological surveillance of dengue in the field and dengue patient management require simple methods for sample collection, storage, and transportation as well as effective diagnostic tools. We evaluated the kinetics of three biological markers of dengue infection—non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgA—in sequential capillary blood samples collected from fingertips of confirmed dengue patients. The overall sensitivities and specificities of the tests were 96% and 100%, respectively, for NS1, 58.1% and 100%, respectively, for IgM, and 33% and 100%, respectively, for IgA. During the acute phase of the disease, NS1 was the best marker of dengue infection, with a sensitivity of 98.7%, whereas from day 5, all three markers exhibited relevant levels of sensitivity. This first descriptive study of the kinetics of biological markers of dengue in capillary blood samples confirms the usefulness of this biological compartment for dengue diagnosis and argues for its exploitation in community-level and remote settings. PMID:24470561

  9. Development of new, broadly reactive, rapid IgG and IgM lateral flow assays for diagnosis of scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Srisamut, Nujorn; Ekpo, Pattama; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chao, Chien-Chung; Ching, Wei-Mei; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two broadly reactive rapid immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for detection of IgM and IgG against Orientia tsutsugamushi by using archived acute-phase serum samples from 102 patients with laboratory-confirmed scrub typhus, and from 62 archived serum samples from patients with other causes of fever as a negative control. These ICTs were constructed by using a mixture of recombinant proteins: 1) C1, a chimeric protein containing epitopes of the 56-kD antigen from Karp and TA763 strains; 2) Ktr56; and 3) Gmr56. Sensitivities of the ICTs for detection of IgM and IgG were 90.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 84.4-96.0%) and 86.3% (95% CI = 80.9-93.8%), respectively. Specificities were 85.5% (95% CI = 73.9-92.2%) and 96.8% (95% CI = 90.3-100%), respectively. Both assays were more sensitive and specific than the standard immune immunofluorescence assay for the early diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:22764306

  10. IgM and IgA Rheumatoid Factors Purified from Rheumatoid Arthritis Sera Boost the Fc Receptor- and Complement-Dependent Effector Functions of the Disease-Specific Anti-Citrullinated Protein Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Anquetil, Florence; Clavel, Cyril; Offer, Géraldine; Serre, Guy; Sebbag, Mireille

    2015-04-15

    Rheumatoid factors (RF) and the disease-specific anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies (ACPA) coexist in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients where they probably contribute to synovitis. We investigated the influence of IgM and IgA RF on the FcR- and complement-dependent effects of ACPA immune complexes (ACPA-IC). When stimulated by ACPA-IC formed in the presence of IgM RF or IgA RF fractions purified from RA serum pools, M-CSF-generated macrophages skewed their cytokine response toward inflammation, with increases in the TNF-?/IL-10 ratio and in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, and decreases in the IL-1Ra/IL-1? ratio. In the IgM RF-mediated amplification of the inflammatory response of macrophages, the participation of an IgM receptor was excluded, notably by showing that they did not express any established receptor for IgM. Rather, this amplification depended on the IgM RF-mediated recruitment of more IgG into the ACPA-IC. However, the macrophages expressed Fc?RI and blocking its interaction with IgA inhibited the IgA RF-mediated amplification of TNF-? secretion induced by ACPA-IC, showing its major implication in the effects of RF of the IgA class. LPS further amplified the TNF-? response of macrophages to RF-containing ACPA-IC. Lastly, the presence of IgM or IgA RF increased the capacity of ACPA-IC to activate the complement cascade. Therefore, specifically using autoantibodies from RA patients, the strong FcR-mediated or complement-dependent pathogenic potential of IC including both ACPA and IgM or IgA RF was established. Simultaneous FcR triggering by these RF-containing ACPA-IC and TLR4 ligation possibly makes a major contribution to RA synovitis. PMID:25769920

  11. Tumor cell reactivity mediated by IgM antibodies in sera from melanoma patients vaccinated with GM2 ganglioside covalently linked to KLH is increased by IgG antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Livingston; Shengle Zhang; Sucharita Adluri; Tzy-Jynn Yao; Linda Graeber; Govindaswami Ragupathi; F. Helling; Martin Fleisher

    1997-01-01

    Natural IgM antibodies against the melanoma cell-surface ganglioside GM2, and IgM antibodies induced by vaccination with\\u000a GM2 adherent to bacillus Calmette-Guerin, have been correlated with increased disease-free and overall survival in melanoma\\u000a patients in previous phase I and II clinical trials. A vaccine containing GM2 covalently attached to keyhole limpet hemocyanin\\u000a (KLH) plus the immunological adjuvant QS-21 now induces higher-titer,

  12. Low levels of IgM antibodies to oxidized cardiolipin increase and high levels decrease risk of cardiovascular disease among 60-year olds: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibodies against cardiolipin (aCL) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We here determine the role of antibodies against oxidized CL (aOxCL). Methods One third of sixty-year olds from the Stockholm County were screened (2039 men, 2193 women), where 211 incident CVD-cases and 633 age- and sex-matched controls were identified (5–7 year follow-up). Antibodies were determined by ELISA and uptake of oxLDL in macrophages by FACScan. Results IgM aOxCL was lower among CVD cases than controls (p=0.024). aOxCL-levels were divided in quartiles with the highest quartile set as the reference group. After adjustment for smoking, BMI, type II diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension, an increased risk was determined in the lowest quartile of IgM aOxCL (OR: 1.80, CI: 1.12–2.91, p=0.0159); OR for men in the lowest quartile was 2.46 (CI 1.34–4.53, p=0.0037) for CVD and for stroke: 12.28 (CI: 1.48-101.77, p=0.02). IgG aOxCL levels did not differ between quartiles in CVD-risk. High levels of IgM aOxCL (reaching significance above 86th) and IgG aOxCL (above 95th percentile) were associated with decreased risk of CVD (OR: 0.485, CI: 0.283-0.829; p=0.0082 and OR: 0.23, CI: 0.07-0.69; p=0.0091). aCL were not associated with CVD. oxCL but not CL competed out uptake of OxLDL in macrophages, and aOxLDL recognized oxCL but not CL. In contrast to aCL, aOxCL was not dependent on co-factor Beta2-glycoprotein-I. Conclusions aOxCL is a novel risk/protection marker for CVD, with therapeutic implications. OxCL competes with oxLDL for uptake in macrophages and the possibility that aOxCL inhibits such uptake by interfering with same or similar epitopes in oxCL and oxLDL should be further studied. PMID:23294904

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent suppression by 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin of IgM secretion in activated B cells.

    PubMed

    Sulentic, C E; Holsapple, M P; Kaminski, N E

    1998-04-01

    The immune system has been identified as a sensitive target for the toxic effects produced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Furthermore, the B cell has been identified as a sensitive cellular target of TCDD by previous cell-type fractionation studies from this laboratory. The mechanism responsible for the immunotoxic effects produced by TCDD is unclear; however, many of the biological effects of TCDD are thought to be mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here, we describe two B cell lines that differ considerably in their expression of the AhR and in their sensitivity to TCDD. Our results demonstrated a marked expression of the AhR protein in the CH12.LX B cell line but not in the BCL-1 B cell line. Transcripts for the AhR were not detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the BCL-1 cells. The AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) protein was highly expressed in both cell lines. In addition, the AhR and ARNT are functional in CH12.LX cells as demonstrated by TCDD-induced CYP1A1 induction. TCDD did not induce CYP1A1 in BCL-1 cells. Furthermore, TCDD treatment resulted in suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IgM secretion in CH12.LX cells. Conversely, TCDD-induced inhibition of IgM secretion was not demonstrated in LPS-stimulated BCL-1 cells, implicating a role for the AhR in the inhibition of B cell effector function. LPS-induced differentiation of the CH12.LX cells also resulted in a marked induction of Ahr expression which was not induced in LPS-stimulated BCL-1 cells. These studies have implicated the AhR as a critical factor in TCDD-induced inhibition of IgM secretion and have demonstrated an induction of AhR gene and protein expression after B cell activation. PMID:9547351

  14. Anti-bovine IgM monoclonal antibodies produced by hybrid cells after in vitro immunization as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    E-print Network

    Hunter, Doris Marie

    1983-01-01

    -bovine IgG 1: 1 Mouse anti-bovine IgG 1:5 Culture media 1. 095 0. 792 0. 063 ~Anti en Bovine IgG at 200 ng/we11 17 Optical density at 280 nm 2. 000 1, 000 . 699 . 523 . 397 . 301 . 222 . 155 . 100 . 046 Fraction; 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30... 25 20 15 10 5 Figure 2: Chromatographic separation of euglobulin fraction of bovine serum. 18 1. Fractions 1-13 2. 14-20 21-34 35-43 O 0? 5. 44-56 6. Whole bovine serum control A. Mouse anti-bovine IgM Figure 3: Agar gel immunodiffusion...

  15. Molecular Cloning of a New Immunomodulatory Protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which Induces B Cell IgM Secretion through a T-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Tsai-Jen; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chang, Wen-Ying; Sheu, Fuu

    2011-01-01

    An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF) was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity. PMID:21698210

  16. Molecular cloning of a new immunomodulatory protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which induces B cell IgM secretion through a T-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Tsai-Jen; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chang, Wen-Ying; Sheu, Fuu

    2011-01-01

    An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF) was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity. PMID:21698210

  17. Imatinib Treatment Induces CD5+ B Lymphocytes and IgM Natural Antibodies with Anti-Leukemic Reactivity in Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Catellani, Silvia; Pierri, Ivana; Gobbi, Marco; Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2011-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a first line treatment of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and of a rare form of gastrointestinal stromal cancer, where the response to the drug is also linked to the immune system activation with production of antineoplastic cytokines. In this study, forty patients in the chronic phase of disease, treated with imatinib mesylate, were analyzed. Bone marrow aspirates were drawn at diagnosis, after 3, 6, 12, 18 months for haematological, cytofluorimetric, cytogenetic, biomolecular evaluation and cytokine measurement. Responder and non responder patients were defined according to the European LeukemiaNet recommendations. In responder patients (n?=?32), the percentage of bone marrow CD20+CD5+sIgM+ lymphocytes, and the plasma levels of IgM, were significantly higher, at 3 months and up to 9 months, than in non responders. These IgM reacted with O-linked sugars expressed by leukemic cells and could induce tumor cell apoptosis. In responeìder patients the stromal-derived factor-1 and the B-lymphocyte-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family significantly raised in the bone marrow after imatinib administration, together with the bone morphogenetic proteins-2 and ?7. All patients with high number of CD20+CD5+sIgM+ cells and high stromal-derived factor-1 and B lymphocyte activating factor levels, underwent complete cytogenetic and/or molecular remission by 12 months. We propose that CD20+CD5+sIgM+ lymphocytes producing anti-carbohydrate antibodies with anti-tumor activity, might contribute to the response to imatinib treatment. As in multivariate analysis bone marrow CD20+CD5+sIgM+ cells and stromal-derived factor-1 and B-lymphocyte-activating factor levels were significantly related to cytogenetical and molecular changes, they might contribute to the definition of the pharmacological response. PMID:21533122

  18. Human plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM antibodies associate with secretory component to yield biologically active secretory-like antibodies.

    PubMed

    Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M; Zuercher, Adrian W; Corthésy, Blaise

    2013-02-01

    Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

  19. Shielding of a Lipooligosaccharide IgM Epitope Allows Evasion of Neutrophil-Mediated Killing of an Invasive Strain of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a frequent cause of noninvasive mucosal inflammatory diseases but may also cause invasive diseases, such as sepsis and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is characterized by recruitment of neutrophilic granulocytes. Despite the presence of a large number of neutrophils, infections with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are often not cleared effectively by the antimicrobial activity of these immune cells. Herein, we examined how nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae evades neutrophil-mediated killing. Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) was used on an isolate resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing to identify genes required for its survival in the presence of human neutrophils and serum, which provided a source of complement and antibodies. Results show that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae prevents complement-dependent neutrophil-mediated killing by expression of surface galactose-containing oligosaccharide structures. These outer-core structures block recognition of an inner-core lipooligosaccharide epitope containing glucose attached to heptose HepIII-?1,2-Glc by replacement with galactose attached to HepIII or through shielding HepIII-?1,2-Glc by phase-variable attachment of oligosaccharide chain extensions. When the HepIII-?1,2-Glc-containing epitope is expressed and exposed, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is opsonized by naturally acquired IgM generally present in human serum and subsequently phagocytosed and killed by human neutrophils. Clinical nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates containing galactose attached to HepIII that are not recognized by this IgM are more often found to cause invasive infections. PMID:25053788

  20. High frequency class switching of an IgM+ B lymphoma clone CH12F3 to IgA+ cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Kondo, S; Sugai, M; Nazarea, M; Imamura, S; Honjo, T

    1996-02-01

    We have developed an efficient in vitro class switching system using a subclone (CH12F3) of the IgM+ CH12.LX lymphoma cell line. CH12F3 cells switched from surface IgM+ cells to surface IgA+ cells at a high frequency (50%) after 72 h stimulation with IL-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and CD40L. No other class isotype-producing cells were detected, indicating that the CH12F3 clone is exclusively committed to IgA isotype switching. To understand the molecular basis of the isotype commitment, we studied the methylation profiles of I region promoters and I region transcription of CH12F3 cells. No germline transcripts other than those from the I alpha region were detected and only the I alpha promoter was demethylated in uninduced CH12F3 cells. TGF-beta, CD40L and IL-4 synergistically induced efficient switch recombination in CH12F3 cells, suggesting that the three stimulations up-regulate different steps of switch recombination in isotype-committed B cells such as CH12F3 cells. Stimulation of CH12F3 cells by IL-4 or TGF-beta, but not by CD40L, induced transient but complete methylation of the I alpha region. TGF-beta and CD40L, but not IL-4, increased the amounts of germline alpha transcripts. We found that the extents of methylation and the amounts of germline transcripts do not necessarily correlate with the efficiency of recombination in induced CH12F3 cells. These results led to the proposal that switch recombination can be separated into at least two phases, i.e. commitment and recombination. The roles of IL-4, TGF-beta and CD40L in the two phases are discussed. PMID:8671604

  1. A new enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) for use with peroxidase-antibody conjugates: a comparison with ELISA for the quantitation of IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen.

    PubMed

    Dave, J R; Taylor, P; Grange, J M; Gaya, H

    1986-05-01

    A new enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) suitable for use with peroxidase-antibody conjugates is described. The substrate for the assay is p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, the fluorescent product of which is stable and unaffected by light. The assay compared favourably with a standard ELISA for the quantitation of IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen. PMID:3517341

  2. Possible false-negative results on therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin using a particle enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay in a patient with a high level of IgM.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kenshiro; Saruwatari, Junji; Enoki, Yuhuki; Iwata, Kazufumi; Urata, Yukino; Aizawa, Keiji; Ueda, Kentaro; Shirouzono, Takumi; Imamura, Motoki; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hirata, Sumio; Maruyama, Toru; Fukunaga, Eiko

    2014-10-01

    : In this report, the authors described the unusual case of a patient in whom the plasma phenytoin concentration was unexpectedly not detected on a particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (PETINIA) technique, a typical immunoassay for phenytoin. The plasma concentration was measured using PETINIA and high-performance liquid chromatography in a 69-year-old male patient treated with fosphenytoin intravenously at the standard dose for 7 days. Although the plasma concentration of phenytoin was below the limit of detection (<0.5 mcg/mL) on PETINIA after the administration of fosphenytoin, the trough plasma concentration was estimated to be between 5 and 10 mg/L on high-performance liquid chromatography. When the plasma concentrations of IgM and IgG were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the plasma IgG level was within the reference range, whereas the plasma IgM level was 2-3 times higher than the upper limit of the reference range. We concluded that the PETINIA method yielded a possible false-negative result regarding the phenytoin level in this patient, perhaps because of some hindrance to the measurement process by IgM. This case suggests that false-negative results should be considered when therapeutic drug monitoring reveals abnormally low values using PETINIA and that it is necessary to evaluate the plasma IgM level. PMID:24632808

  3. IgM and IgG autoantibodies from microscopic polyangiitis patients but not those with other small- and medium-sized vessel vasculitides recognize multiple endothelial cell antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youri Chanseaud; Paloma García de la Peña-Lefebvre; Philippe Guilpain; Alfred Mahr; Mathieu C Tamby; Michèle Uzan; Loïc Guillevin; Marie-Christophe Boissier; Luc Mouthon

    2003-01-01

    Using a quantitative immunoblotting technique on extracts of macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells (EC), we analyzed serum IgM and IgG reactivities of patients with active disease fulfilling the ACR and Chapel Hill criteria for the diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) (n = 8), PAN related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (HBV-PAN) (n = 5), Wegener's granulomatosis (n = 6),

  4. Increased prevalence of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and low levels of natural IgM antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is reported to be increased in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We recently reported a negative association between natural IgM-antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) in the general population, high anti-PC levels leading to decreased atherosclerosis development and low levels to increased risk of CVD. Potential mechanisms include anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) in macrophages. The objective herein was to study atherosclerosis in SLE in detail and in relation to traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Methods A total of 114 patients with SLE were compared with 122 age- and sex-matched population-based controls. Common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), calculated intima-media area (cIMa) and plaque occurrence were determined by B-mode ultrasound as a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis. Plaques were graded according to echogenicity and grouped as 1 to 4, with 1 being echoluscent, and considered most vulnerable. Anti-PC was studied by ELISA. Results Hypertension, triglycerides and insulin resistance (determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were increased in SLE (P < 0.01) while smoking, LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL) did not differ between groups. Low levels of anti-PC IgM (lowest tertile) were more common in SLE patients than in controls (P = 0.0022). IMT and cIMa did not differ significantly between groups. However, plaques were more often found in SLE patients (P = 0.029). Age, LDL and IgM anti-PC (lowest tertile) were independently associated with plaque occurrence in SLE. Further, in the left carotid arteries echoluscent plaques (grade 1) were more prevalent in SLE as compared to controls (P < 0.016). Conclusions Plaque occurrence in the carotid arteries is increased in SLE and is independently associated with age, LDL and low anti-PC levels. Vulnerable plaques were more common in SLE. Anti-PC could be a novel risk marker also with a therapeutic potential in SLE. PMID:21092251

  5. Dengue virus infection induces broadly cross-reactive human IgM antibodies that recognize intact virions in humanized BLT-NSG mice.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Smita; Smith, Kenneth; Ramirez, Alejandro; Woda, Marcia; Pazoles, Pamela; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A; Mathew, Anuja

    2015-01-01

    The development of small animal models that elicit human immune responses to dengue virus (DENV) is important since prior immunity is a major risk factor for developing severe dengue disease. This study evaluated anti-DENV human antibody (hAb) responses generated from immortalized B cells after DENV-2 infection in NOD-scid IL2r?(null) mice that were co-transplanted with human fetal thymus and liver tissues (BLT-NSG mice). DENV-specific human antibodies predominantly of the IgM isotype were isolated during acute infection and in convalescence. We found that while a few hAbs recognized the envelope protein produced as a soluble recombinant, a number of hAbs only recognized epitopes on intact virions. The majority of the hAbs isolated during acute infection and in immune mice were serotype-cross-reactive and poorly neutralizing. Viral titers in immune BLT-NSG mice were significantly decreased after challenge with a clinical strain of dengue. DENV-specific hAbs generated in BLT-NSG mice share some of the characteristics of Abs isolated in humans with natural infection. Humanized BLT-NSG mice provide an attractive preclinical platform to assess the immunogenicity of candidate dengue vaccines. PMID:25125497

  6. Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT

    E-print Network

    J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy

    2007-10-24

    A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

  7. Avira AntiVir Personal-Free Antivirus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Viruses are quite pesky, and the free version of Avira AntiVir Personal can help those bedeviled by such afflictions. This application will help users locate and remove Trojans, worms, and backdoor programs. Users can customize their scans and they can elect to fully scan all hard drives. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP, and Vista.

  8. Improvement of Lyme borreliosis serodiagnosis by a newly developed recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM line immunoblot assay and addition of VlsE and DbpA homologues.

    PubMed

    Goettner, Gereon; Schulte-Spechtel, Ulrike; Hillermann, Ruth; Liegl, Gabi; Wilske, Bettina; Fingerle, Volker

    2005-08-01

    We developed and evaluated a recombinant Borrelia line immunoblot assay based on 18 homologues of seven different antigens, i.e., p100, p58, p41i, BmpA, VlsE, OspC, and DbpA. Each recombinant antigen can be detected separately and is distinct even from homologues with identical molecular weights. This blot was compared to the recently described recombinant Borrelia Western immunoblot assay (U. Schulte-Spechtel, G. Lehnert, G. Liegl, V. Fingerle, C. Heimerl, B. J. Johnson, and B. Wilske, J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:1299-1303, 2003). To verify sensitivity and specificity, both blots were evaluated for reactivity with Borrelia-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies with 85 sera from patients with different manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and 110 controls. According to European interpretation criteria for Borrelia Western blots, which define a serum as positive when it recognizes at least two bands, sensitivity increased significantly from 70.6% (Western blot) to 84.7% (line blot) for IgG (P = 0.042) and from 40.0% (Western blot) to 73.8% (line blot) for IgM (P < 0.005). The increased sensitivity for IgG detection is due to the new line blot technique, whereas the improvement in detection of IgM is mainly achieved through incorporation of the additional antigens. Notably, the recombinant VlsE of Borrelia garinii strain PBi displayed the highest sensitivity of all antigens tested for IgG detection and is also one of the most useful antigens for IgM. Due to its excellent sensitivity and specificity combined with ease of evaluation, this line immunoblot assay offers a useful improvement in serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:16081885

  9. Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA Antibody Response against Cytomegalovirus-Specific Proteins in Renal Transplant Recipients during Primary and Secondary\\/Recurrent Infection as Determined by Immunoblotting Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kaden; U. Ludwig; R. Preyer

    A total of 190 selected serum samples from 30 kidney graft recipients obtained in temporal connection with the first occurrence of CMV-pp65- antigen positive leukocytes or IgM-anti-CMV-antibodies were analysed by immunoblot (IB) in a blinded manner. In all sera the number of IgG, IgM and IgA specificities against 8 defined CMV polypeptides and the intensity of reactions were measured. In

  10. Combination assays for IgG class and IgM class anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase complex(PDC)-E2 by ELISA using recombinant autoantigen to diagnose primary biliary cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Miyakawa; Naomi Kawaguchi; Kentaro Kikuchi; Hirotoshi Fujikawa; Eriko Kitazawa; Masanao Matsushita; Kazuhiro Abe; Makoto Kako

    1998-01-01

    IgG and IgM class anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)-E2 were studied in sera from anti-M2-positive 84 patients with PBC by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the usefulness of combination assays. We used recombinant antigen coding the autoantigenic epitopes of PDC-E2 comprising the lipoic acid binding sites. Antigen specificity of this ELISA was confirmed by inhibition test with pre-incubation of recombinant

  11. Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis: the more the better?

    PubMed

    Dessau, Ram B; Møller, Jens K; Kolmos, Birte; Henningsson, Anna J

    2015-03-01

    A multiplex-bead-based assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was evaluated. The assay contained 13 different antigens in both the IgG and the IgM assay; thus, a total of 26 measurement results were available from each sample. A total of 49 Danish patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), 218 Danish blood donor controls, a set of 61 Swedish patients with LNB and 139 Swedish non-LNB patients investigated for suspected LNB were used. There are four parts developed in this study: a characterization of the sero-epidemiological antibody-response pattern, the construction of a diagnostic score, evaluation of the scoring method using an independent dataset and an assessment of the analytical quality of the multiplex assay. The VlsE IgG had the highest diagnostic value with an AUC (area under the curve) of 96% on the receiver operating characteristic curve. The OspC IgM had AUCs just above 80%. All the other antigens had both low quantitative reactivity and lower contrast in the patients with LNB compared to controls. The diagnostic value of the assay may be improved by using a logistic model giving a sensitivity of 90 and 79% for the specificities at 92 and 98%, respectively. Overall, the patients with LNB had serum reactivity in IgG VlsE, but modest antibody reactivity in the remaining 12 IgG and 13 IgM antibody measurements. Using a logistic regression model with five IgG and two IgM antigens, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay was improved; but the IgG VlsE component alone contributed most of the diagnostic contrast. PMID:25587083

  12. Ig isotype switching in B lymphocytes. Isolation and characterization of clonal variants of the murine Ly-1+ B cell lymphoma, CH12, expressing isotypes other than IgM.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L W; Grdina, T A; Whitmore, A C; Haughton, G

    1988-06-15

    We have selected and cloned variant cells from the murine B cell lymphoma, CH12, that produce a variety of other Ig isotypes in addition to or in place of the original IgM and IgD. Variants were selected by flow cytometry and automated cloning and isotype production was analyzed by membrane immunofluorescence and ELISA of culture fluids. Variants have been isolated that produce the single isotypes IgA, IgG2b, and IgG3, as well as variants that produce more than one isotype simultaneously, i.e., IgM, IgD, and IgA; IgG2b and IgA; IgG3 and IgA. All isotypes have been seen as cell surface proteins and all except IgD have been found in culture supernatants. All isotypes display the same idiotype and Ag-binding specificity for phosphatidyl choline as the original IgM and all are translated from the same VDJH and VJ kappa gene assemblies. Production of more than one isotype by a variant clone is due to simultaneous production of all the isotypes by each cell within the clone. The finding that the variants producing more than one isotype are all tetraploid suggests the interesting possibility that each isotype is derived from an independently switching chromosome. All isotype variants can be stimulated by LPS to secrete the appropriate Ig isotype at an increased rate similar to the IgM expressing parent. The variants differ in stability; some have remained stable for more than 9 months in culture, whereas other have undergone further isotype switching. The facts that some isotypes have not been seen, that multistep switching has occurred, and that many variants produce IgA in addition to another isotype are discussed in relation to current notions of isotype switching mechanisms. PMID:3131432

  13. Purification, characterization of O-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates- specific IgM, and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis and follow-up of Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumi Bandyopadhyaya; Mitali Chatterjee; Santanu Pal; Ross F. Waller; Shyam Sundar; Malcolm J. McConville; Chitra Mandala

    The surface expression of 9-O-acetylated sialic acid (9-OAcSA) is elevated on hematopoietic cells and erythrocytes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. In this study, we show that VL patients contain elevated levels of IgM antibodies directed against 9- O- acetylated sialoglycoconjugates (9-OAcSG). These antibodies were affinity purified with bovine submaxillary protein as the affinity matrix containing the terminal epitope, 9-OAcSA2-6GalNAc. They

  14. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: usefulness of IgA detection and IgG avidity determination in a patient with a persistent IgM antibody response to toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed

    Bertozzi; Suzuki; Rossi

    1999-05-01

    We report the detection of specific IgA antibodies and the determination of IgG avidity in sequential serum samples from a patient exhibiting significant levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies for seven years after the onset of the clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis. IgM antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test and by three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Anti-T. gondii IgA was quantified by the alpha-capture ELISA technique using a commercial kit. As defined by the manufacturer of the IgA ELISA test used, most patients with acute toxoplasmosis have antibody levels > 40 arbitrary units per ml (AU/mL). At this cut-off level, the patient still had a positive ELISA result (45 AU/mL) in a serum sample taken one year after the beginning of clinical manifestations. The IgG avidity-ELISA test was performed with the Falcon assay screening test (F.A.S.T.(R)) - ELISA system. Avidity indices compatible with a recent Toxoplasma infection were found only in serum samples taken during the first 5 months after the onset of the clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis. These results show that the interpretation of positive IgM results as indicative of recently acquired toxoplasmosis requires additional laboratory confirmation either by other tests or by the demonstration of a significant rise in the antibody titers in sequential serum samples. PMID:10529837

  15. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals. PMID:25116637

  16. Increased chronic lymphocytic leukemia proliferation upon IgM stimulation is sustained by the upregulation of miR-132 and miR-212.

    PubMed

    Tavolaro, Simona; Colombo, Teresa; Chiaretti, Sabina; Peragine, Nadia; Fulci, Valerio; Ricciardi, Maria R; Messina, Monica; Bonina, Silvia; Brugnoletti, Fulvia; Marinelli, Marilisa; Di Maio, Valeria; Mauro, Francesca R; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Macino, Giuseppe; Foà, Robin; Guarini, Anna

    2015-04-01

    To assess the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in B-cell receptor (BCR) stimulation, we first evaluated miRNA profiling following IgM cross-linking in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and in normal B lymphocytes. Second, we combined miRNA and gene expression data to identify putative miRNA functional networks. miRNA profiling showed distinctive patterns of regulation after stimulation in leukemic versus normal B lymphocytes and identified a differential responsiveness to BCR engagement in CLL subgroups according to the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region mutational status and clinical outcome. The most significantly modulated miRNAs in stimulated CLL are miR-132 and miR-212. Notably, these miRNAs appeared regulated in progressive but not in stable CLL. Accordingly, gene profiling showed a significant transcriptional response to stimulation exclusively in progressive CLL. Based on these findings, we combined miRNA and gene expression data to investigate miR-132 and miR-212 candidate interactions in this CLL subgroup. Correlation analysis pointed to a link between these miRNAs and RB/E2F and TP53 cascades with proproliferative effects, as corroborated by functional analyses. Finally, basal levels of miR-132 and miR-212 were measured in an independent cohort of 20 unstimulated CLL cases and both showed lower expression in progressive compared to stable patients, suggesting an association between the expression of these molecules and disease prognosis. Overall, our results support a model involving miR-132 and miR-212 upregulation in sustaining disease progression in CLL. These miRNAs may therefore provide new valuable strategies for therapeutic intervention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25645730

  17. IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesis in vitro in persons suffering from yersinia arthritis and in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed Central

    Vuento, R; Eskola, J; Leino, R; Koskimies, S; Viander, M

    1984-01-01

    In ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and in yersinia arthritis the main findings in serum immunoglobulin (Ig) studies have been raised IgA in AS and a high anti-yersinia IgA and IgG response and the persistence of IgA class antibodies in yersinia arthritis. In order to study predisposition to high IgA response in AS and yersinia arthritis we measured the in-vitro Ig production in patients with AS and in persons who have once had yersinia arthritis, and we compared it with the Ig production in persons who have had yersiniosis but recovered without getting arthritis and with that in healthy controls. IgA secretion by peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen was the same in all 4 groups, and no signs of higher IgA production in AS patients could be found. In AS patients lymphocyte activation by whole yersinia bacteria resulted in higher total IgG production than in healthy controls. The total number of plaque-forming cells in yersinia-stimulated cultures was significantly higher in persons who have had yersiniosis without arthritis than in persons who have suffered from yersinia arthritis or in persons in other groups. AS patients had low IgM production, which reverted to normal when hydrocortisone was added to the culture. The in-vitro Ig production in general did not correlate with the presence of the HLA B27 antigen but rather with the clinical history of the subjects studied. PMID:6370149

  18. Production and characterization of a murine monoclonal IgM antibody to human C1q receptor (C1qR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ghebrehiwet, B.

    1986-07-15

    A hybridoma cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cell surface C1q receptor (C1qr) has been produced by fusion of the P3 x 63-Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cell line with the spleen cells of a CD-1 mouse that had been hyperimmunized with viable Raji cell suspensions (5 x 10/sup 7/ cells/inoculum). This MAb, designated II1/D1, is an IgM antibody with lambda-light chain specificity. Radiolabeled or unlabeled, highly purified II1/D1 was used to determine that: a) this antibody competes for C1q binding sites on C1qR-bearing cells; b) the molecule recognized by this MAb is the C1qR; and c) cells that are known to bind C1q also bind II1/D1 in a specific manner. Western blot analysis of solubilized Raji, or U937 cell membranes, showed that the /sup 125/I-MAb detected a major protein band of approximately 85000 m.w. in its unreduced state, indicating that the C1qR is similar, if not identical, in both types of cells. Analyses of /sup 125/I-II/D1 binding experiments revealed that the antibody bound to Raji cells or u937 cells in a specific manner. Uptake of the antibody was saturable, with equilibrium virtually attained within 35 min. Scatchard analysis of the binding data using the intact MAb suggests that the affinity constant K/sub D/ is 2.9 x 10/sup -10/ M, and at apparent saturation, 24.6 ng of the antibody were bound per 2 x 10/sup 6/ cells, giving an estimated 7.8 x 10/sup 3/ antibody molecules bound per cell. That the II1/D1 antibody is specifically directed to the C1q was further evidenced by an ELISA in which the ability of C1qR-bearing cells to bind the MAb was abrogated by c-C1q in a specific dose-dependent manner.

  19. Antagonism of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and inhibition of IgM expression by di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jaehong; Kang, Jong Soon; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2003-02-15

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are ubiquitous environment contaminants that produce many of their toxic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, several investigations have demonstrated that certain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, principally di-ortho-chlorinated PCB congeners, or mixtures containing multiple di-ortho-chlorinated PCBs, inhibit AhR-mediated responses induced by other toxic HAHs. Most relevant to the present study are past reports demonstrating antagonism by these uniquely acting PCB congeners on AhR agonist-mediated inhibition of humoral immune responses. The mechanism responsible for antagonism of AhR agonists by certain PCBs is presently unknown. The present study evaluated the antagonist activity of several di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners [PCB47 (2,2',4,4'), PCB52 (2,2',5,5'), PCB128 (2,2',3,3',4,4'), and PCB153 (2,2',4,4',5,5')] when present in combination with AhR agonists [TCDD (2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), PCB126 (3,3',4,4',5), and PCB77 (3,3',4,4')] on CYP1A1 induction and inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunoglobulin production in the CH12.LX B cell line. In contrast to non-ortho-substituted PCB (PCB77), which showed additive effects on CYP1A1 induction in combination with TCDD, all of the di-ortho-substituted PCBs examined produced antagonism. Di-ortho-substituted PCB (PCB52) also antagonized TCDD- or PCB126- mediated inhibition of IgM secretion and immunoglobulin heavy chain mRNA expression in the LPS-activated B cells. In addition, PCB52 inhibited TCDD-induced AhR DNA binding to a dioxin-responsive element. Collectively, these results suggest that the mechanism responsible for antagonism by di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners of AhR agonist-mediated CYP1A1 induction and inhibition of antibody responses in B cells occurs through interference with agonist activation of the cytosolic AhR complex. PMID:12628580

  20. Glycosphingolipid antigens in cultured bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells: sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside as a target of monoclonal IgM in demyelinative neuropathy [corrected] [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1994 Oct;127(1):265

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Since a number of anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) antibody activities have been demonstrated in patients with various neurological disorders, the presence of common antigens between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and the nervous tissues presents a potential mechanism for the penetration of macromolecules from the circulation to the nervous system parenchyma. We first investigated GSL composition of cultured bovine BMECs. Bovine BMECs express GM3(NeuAc) and GM3(NeuGc) as the major gangliosides, and GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, as well as sialyl paragloboside and sialyl lactosaminylparagloboside as the minor species. Sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside was also found to be a component of the BMEC acidic GSL fraction, but its concentration was lower in older cultures. On the other hand, the amounts of neutral GSLs were extremely low, consisting primarily of glucosylceramide. In addition, we analyzed the effect of anti-SGPG IgM antibody obtained from a patient of demyelinative polyneuropathy with macroglobulinemia against cultured BMECs. Permeability studies utilizing cocultured BMEC monolayers and rat astrocytes revealed that the antibody facilitated the leakage of [carboxy-14C]-inulin and 125I-labeled human IgM through BMEC monolayers. A direct cytotoxicity of this antibody against BMECs was also shown by a leakage study using [51Cr]-incorporated BMECs. This cytotoxicity depended on the concentration of the IgM antibody, and was almost completely blocked by preincubation with the pure antigen, sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside. Our present study strongly supports the concept that immunological insults against BMECs induce the destruction or malfunction of the blood-nerve barrier, resulting in the penetration of the immunoglobulin molecule to attach peripheral nerve parenchyma. PMID:8027181

  1. Evaluation of a commercial IgE ELISA in comparison with IgA and IgM ELISAs, IgG avidity assay and complement fixation for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Kodym, P; Machala, L; Rohácová, H; Sirocká, B; Malý, M

    2007-01-01

    A panel of sera from patients with known case histories representative of acute toxoplasmosis (primarily lymphadenopathy, n = 106), latent toxoplasmosis (asymptomatic, n = 368) and negative samples (n = 54) was used to evaluate the capacity of five serological tests to differentiate among patients with acute or latent toxoplasmosis and non-infected individuals. Positive IgA, IgE and IgM ELISA results and low IgG avidity and complement fixation test (CFT) titres of >or=256 were considered to be indicative of acute toxoplasmosis. The most sensitive methods were IgM ELISA (98.1%) and CFT (97.1%), albeit with low specificity (65.0% and 64.5%, respectively) and positive predictive values (43.3% and 42.7%, respectively). IgG avidity assay and IgE ELISA had the highest specificity (97.7% and 91.7%, respectively) and the highest positive predictive values (89.4% and 75.6%, respectively). The best association between serological results and clinical findings was obtained with IgE ELISA (86%, as expressed via Youden's index). In a subset of 259 samples categorised by the period between the onset of clinical symptoms and sampling, >50% of patients had enlarged lymph nodes for <4 months, despite a broad range of differences. However, IgM remained positive for 12-18 months, IgA for 6-9 months and IgE for 4-6 months. IgG avidity remained low for a maximum of 4 months, after which avidity increased despite the persistence of enlarged lymph nodes and a positive IgE assay. Detection of IgE appears to be a highly specific test for confirming the acute nature of Toxoplasma infections that have been detected by other sensitive methods. PMID:17184286

  2. Putative link between transcriptional regulation of IgM expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/dioxin-responsive enhancer signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sulentic, C E; Holsapple, M P; Kaminski, N E

    2000-11-01

    The B-cell, a major cellular component of humoral immunity, has been identified as a sensitive target of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The actual molecular mechanism responsible for the immunotoxic effects produced by TCDD is unclear; however, many of the biological effects produced by TCDD are thought to be mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Using the CH12.LX B-cell line, the present studies show that inhibition of mu gene expression and IgM protein secretion by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners follow a structure-activity relationship for AhR binding. Furthermore, these effects may be mediated by the two dioxin-responsive enhancer (DRE)-like sites that were identified within the Ig heavy chain 3'alpha-enhancer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay-Western analysis demonstrated TCDD-induced binding of the AhR nuclear complex to both DRE-like sites as well as TCDD-induced binding of several nuclear factor-kappa B/Rel proteins to a kappa B site, which overlaps one of the DRE-like sites. Interestingly, kappa B binding in the AhR-deficient BCL-1 B-cells was also induced by TCDD, demonstrating an AhR-independent effect of TCDD on kappa B binding. Taken together, these results support an AhR/DRE-mediated mechanism for TCDD-induced inhibition of IgM expression. PMID:11046109

  3. Comparison of the specificities of IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM reactivities in African and European HIV-infected individuals with an HIV-1 clade C proteome-based array.

    PubMed

    Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

  4. Specific IgM, IgG and IgG1 directed against Toxoplasma gondii detected by flow cytometry and their potential as serologic tools to support clinical indirect fundoscopic presumed diagnosis of ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucinia Peixoto; Peixe, Ricardo Guerra; Silva-Dos-Santos, Priscila Pinto; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-02-01

    In the present study we evaluated the anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin profiles of a group of 118 individuals living in an endemic area. The aim of the study was to select biomarkers to support the ophthalmological diagnosis of retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection. Overall anti-T. gondii reactivity of the IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses was investigated by flow cytometry-based anti-fixed tachyzoite antibodies (FC-AFTA) in four groups of subjects, referred to as: i) TOXO(L) - seropositive patients with retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection; these patients were further subdivided according to morphological aspects of their ocular scar lesions as A, B or C; ii) TOXO(NL) - seropositive patients without ocular scar lesions; iii) NEG(L) - T. gondii seronegative patients presenting retinal lesions; and iv) NEG(NL) - T. gondii seronegative without retinal lesions (negative controls). Our data demonstrated that anti-T. gondii IgG profiles were able to discriminate the mean reactivity of TOXO(L) from all other clinical groups. Analysis of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin profiles revealed that IgM and IgG were good biomarkers capable of discriminating between individual reactivity in patients with retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection [TOXO(L)] from those caused by other clinical conditions. Furthermore, anti-T. gondii IgG1 reactivity was able to discriminate TOXO(L) from all other clinical groups. In conclusion, the pre-selected IgM, IgG and IgG1 anti-T. gondii antibody subclasses were able to segregate both TOXO(L) and the other subgroups, including the scar lesion group types (A, B, C), from other clinical conditions. These results suggest the applicability of this technique in the clinical laboratory to detect putative biomarker for diagnosis of ocular lesions in T. gondii-infected patients. Studies in other areas implementing the methods described in the present study would be of value and enable evaluation of a system for classification of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis scar lesions. This classification would make comparative studies on ocular toxoplasmosis conducted in different regions around the world possible. PMID:25527345

  5. Comparison of the Specificities of IgG, IgG-Subclass, IgA and IgM Reactivities in African and European HIV-Infected Individuals with an HIV-1 Clade C Proteome-Based Array

    PubMed Central

    Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

  6. Human rheumatoid factor crossidiotypes. II. Primary structure-dependent crossreactive idiotype, PSL2-CRI, present on Wa monoclonal rheumatoid factors is present on Bla and other IgM kappa monoclonal autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the L-CDR2 (complementarity-determining region) of Bla mRF (monoclonal rheumatoid factor) is identical to that of the Wa mRFs. The PSL2-CRI (crossreactive idiotype), as determined by anti-PSL2, which has been shown to be present on all Wa mRFs, is also present on the Bla mRF and other monoclonal autoantibodies. PSL2-CRI is, therefore, not unique to Wa mRFs and may be present on most IgM kappa monoclonal autoantibodies. Whether PSL2-CRI is a crossidiotype (XId) that is selectively present on autoantibodies or represents an allotypic marker for a V kappa III gene is undetermined. PMID:3098895

  7. IgM, IgG, and IgA Antibody Responses to Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Hemagglutinin in Infected Persons during the First Wave of the 2009 Pandemic in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Seh-Ching; Carney, Paul J.; Li, Ji; Liu, Feng; Lu, Xiuhua; Liu, Merry; Stevens, James; Levine, Min; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Hancock, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The novel influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus caused an influenza pandemic in 2009. IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin (HA) following A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection were analyzed to understand antibody isotype responses. Age-matched control sera collected from U.S. residents in 2007 and 2008 were used to establish baseline levels of cross-reactive antibodies. IgM responses often used as indicators of primary virus infection were mainly detected in young patient groups (?5 years and 6 to 15 years old), not in older age groups, despite the genetic and antigenic differences between the HA of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and pre-2009 seasonal H1N1 viruses. IgG and IgA responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 HA were detected in all age groups of infected persons. In persons 17 to 80 years old, paired acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples demonstrated ?4-fold increases in the IgG and IgA responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 HA in 80% and 67% of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus-infected persons, respectively. The IgG antibody response to A(H1N1)pdm09 HA was cross-reactive with HAs from H1, H3, H5, and H13 subtypes, suggesting that infections with subtypes other than A(H1N1)pdm09 might result in false positives by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lower sensitivity compared to hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays and the detection of cross-reactive antibodies against homologous and heterologous subtype are major drawbacks for the application of ELISA in influenza serologic studies. PMID:24872516

  8. Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Hesong; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yuanxin; Wang, Kangping

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg) or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III) in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers. PMID:23644827

  9. Expression pattern of the most J[sub H]-proximal human V[sub H] gene segment (V[sub H]6) in the B cell and antibody repertoire suggests a role of V[sub H]6-encoded IgM antibodies in early ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Van Es, J.H.; Tol, M.J.D. van; Gmelig Meyling, F.H.J.; Logtenberg, T. (University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Raaphorst, F.M. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a mAb (JE-6) that recognizes an Id encoded by the most J[sub H]-proximal human V[sub H] gene segment (V[sub H]6) in or near germ-line configuration. This mAb was used to determine the frequency of Id JE6[sup +] B cells in large collections of monoclonal EBV-transformed and short term B cell lines derived from fetal, neonatal, and adult lymphoid tissues. Moreover, they investigated the presence of Id JE-6[sup +] lg in sera from neonates and adults and determined the (auto)antigen binding properties of V[sub H]6-encoded IgM mAb. They detected a fivefold overrepresentation of V[sub H]6-expression IgM producing B cells in fetal tissues, cord blood, and adult bone marrow relative to adult blood. In cord blood, but not in adult blood sera, germ-line V[sub H]6-encoded IgM molecules were readily detectable. IgM secreted by V[sub H]6-expressing B cell clones displayed highly conserved and virtually identical autoantigen binding properties, independent of the length and composition of the IgH chain CDR3 region and L chain isotype. Collectively, these results suggest that the V[sub H]6 gene and the antibodies it encodes play an important role in early human ontogeny. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of the Architect Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM, and EBV nuclear antigen 1 IgG chemiluminescent immunoassays for detection of EBV antibodies and categorization of EBV infection status using immunofluorescence assays as the reference method.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Isabel; Giménez, Estela; Navarro, David

    2014-05-01

    Commercial immunoassays for detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), viral capsid antigens (VCA), and IgGs toward EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) are routinely used in combination to categorize EBV infection status. In this study, we evaluated the performances of the Architect EBV VCA IgG, VCA IgM, and EBNA-1 IgG chemiluminescent microparticle assays (CMIAs) in EBV serological analyses using indirect immunofluorescence assays and anticomplement immunofluorescence assays as the reference methods for VCA IgG, VCA IgM, and EBNA-1 IgG antibody detection, respectively. A total of 365 serum samples representing different EBV serological profiles were included in this study. The ? values (concordances between the results) obtained in the Architect CMIA and those in the reference assays were 0.905 (P < 0.0001) for VCA IgM, 0.889 (P < 0.0001) for VCA IgG, and 0.961 (P < 0.0001) for EBNA-1 IgG. The sensitivities and specificities were, respectively, 91.08% and 99.48% for VCA IgM, 99.23% and 86.27% for VCA IgG, and 96.77% and 99.16% for EBNA-1 IgG. The sensitivities and specificities of the Architect CMIA panel were, respectively, 99.15% and 98.6% for diagnosing a primary infection, 97.62% and 93.39% for diagnosing a past EBV infection, and 92.42% and 97.82% for diagnosing the absence of an EBV infection. In summary, we demonstrated that the Architect EBV antibody panel performs very well for EBV antibody detection and correctly categorizes clinically relevant EBV infection states. PMID:24623623

  11. Point mutations cause the somatic diversification of IgM and IgG2a antiphosphorylcholine antibodies [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1990 Aug 1;172(2):669

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The genetic mechanism responsible for the somatic diversification of two mAbs was determined. The two PC-binding hybridomas were representative of events early and late in the immune response. The P28 cell line that produces an IgM antibody and thus represents events early in the immune response, was found to have 3 bp changes in its heavy chain variable (VH) region, with some changes in antibody affinity or specificity. The RP93 cell line that produces an IgG2a antibody and thus represents later events in the immune response, was found to have 9 bp changes in its VH region resulting in decreased affinity for PC and altered specificity. Oligonucleotides specific for linked base changes in the second hypervariable regions of both of these antibodies were used to look for previously undescribed V regions or other donor sequences that could have been responsible for these base changes. Since no donor sequences were found, we have concluded that somatic point mutation rather than gene conversion, V region replacement or the expression of an unidentified germline VH region gene is truly responsible for at least some of the somatic diversification of these antibodies. PMID:3127529

  12. Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates. Development and application in parasitology-mycology.

    PubMed

    Aubert, D; Foudrinier, F; Kaltenbach, M L; Guyot-Walser, D; Marx-Chemla, C; Geers, R; Lepan, H; Pinon, J M

    1995-10-26

    Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning each of the 96 wells of a standard microplate in 32 different locations. The inherent advantages of the automatic reader were further maximized by coupling it to a dedicated computer running customized software designed to process data coming on-line from the spectrophotometer. This approach has been applied to the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis and candidosis. Suspensions of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites or of sensitised erythrocytes were used for the determination of IgG antibodies or the quantification of IgM, IgA, or IgE specific isotypes. This procedure allows the simple and reproducible collection of objective results. Moreover, it permits a reduction in cut-off values and direct interpretation of results with automatic conversion of scores into titer, units, index, or into any other scale appropriate for standardization purposes. PMID:7594632

  13. Role of T cell-replacing factor (TRF) in the murine B cell differentiation: induction of increased levels of expression of secreted type IgM mRNA.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Tominaga, A; Harada, N; Takatsu, K

    1987-03-15

    T cell-replacing factor (TRF) is known to play a critical role in the regulation of B cell growth and differentiation. In this study, the role of TRF in the expression of mRNA for both IgM and IgG1 class was investigated. The TRF was purified from cellfree supernatants from a T cell hybridoma, B151K12. RNA was isolated from chronic B cell leukemia (BCL1) cells, DNP-KLH-primed B cells, or normal B cells cultured with or without LPS, and LPS plus TRF or LPS plus BSF-1. The steady state level of isotype-specific mRNA was assessed by Northern blot analysis with a mu-specific or a gamma 1-specific probe. It was demonstrated that BCL1 and purified B cells cocultured with TRF expresses increased levels (twofold and fourfold, respectively) of secreted forms of mu mRNA. Purified B cells from DNP-KLH-primed mice also expressed increased levels (twofold to fourfold) of mu as well as gamma 1 mRNA for secreted form by stimulation with TRF. Total expression of mu mRNA, however, was approximately threefold higher than that of gamma 1 mRNA. The stimulation of normal B cells with LPS plus TRF induced an increase in the levels of mu mRNA and gamma 1 mRNA expression, fourfold and threefold, respectively. However, the levels of gamma 1 mRNA expression was one-third of that induced in B cells stimulated with LPS plus BSF-1. These results indicate that TRF preferentially induces increased levels of secreted type of mu mRNA and induces less gamma 1 mRNA than BSF-1. The differential role of TRF from BSF-1 in the expression of Ig mRNA will be discussed. PMID:3102602

  14. Evidence of unrelaxed IGM around IC 1262

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinchieri, G.; Breitschwerdt, D.; Pietsch, W.; Sulentic, J.; Wolter, A.

    2007-02-01

    Aims:A peculiar morphology of the hot gas was discovered at the center of IC 1262 with the ROSAT HRI. Sensitive Chandra and XMM-Newton data were requested to investigate the characteristics of this structure to understand its nature. Methods: We have exploited the high resolution and sensitivity of Chandra's ACIS-S to investigate the peculiar morphology and spectral characteristics of hot gas in the group around IC 1262. XMM-Newton data are only partially usable due to very heavy high background contamination, but they are useful to confirm and strengthen the results from Chandra. Results: The Chandra data show a quite dramatic view of the IC 1262 system: a sharp discontinuity east of the central galaxy, with steep drops and a relatively narrow feature over 100 kpc long, plus an arc/loop to the N, are all indicative of a turmoil in the high energy component. Their morphologies could suggest them to be tracers of shocked material caused either by peculiar motions in the system or by a recent merger process, but the spectral characteristics indicate that the structure is cooler than its surroundings. The lack of evidence of significant structures in the velocity distribution of the group members and the estimated scale of the phenomenon make the interpretation of its physical nature challenging. We review a few possible interpretations, in light of similar phenomena observed in clusters and groups. The ram pressure stripping of a bright spiral galaxy, now near the center of the group, is a promising interpretation for most of the features observed. The relation with the radio activity requires a better sampling of the radio parameters that can only be achieved with deeper and higher resolution observations.

  15. Antivirus agent, Ro 09-0410, binds to rhinovirus specifically and stabilizes the virus conformation.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Y; Ohsawa, C; Aoyama, M; Umeda, I; Suhara, Y; Ishitsuka, H

    1984-04-30

    The antiviral mechanisms of Ro 09-0410 (4'-ethoxy-2'-hydroxy-4,6'-dimethoxychalcone), which inactivates rhinovirus exclusively, have been investigated. It was suggested that Ro 09-0410 bound to human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV-2) and made it inactive, since the reduced infectivity was completely restored to original levels by extraction of the agent with chloroform [H. Ishitsuka, Y. Ninomiya, C. Ohsawa, M. Fujiu, and Y. Suhara (1982) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22, 617-621]. This was confirmed using radioactively labeled Ro 09-0410 and HRV-2. HRV-2 was inactive while bound to the agent, whereas a subline of HRV-2 resistant to the agent had no binding site for the agent. Ro 09-0410 appeared to bind to some specific site(s) on the virion of susceptible virus strains. Treatment of rhinovirus at pH 5 or 56 degrees caused a change of the virion size and greatly reduced its infectivity. Ro 09-0410 could no longer bind to HRV-2 after such treatment. On the other hand, when the virion bound with Ro 09-0410 was treated at pH 5 or 56 degrees, the Ro 09-0410 remained bound and the conformational alteration of the virion did not take place. Furthermore, Ro 09-0410 protected HRV-2 from the reduction of infectivity caused by mild acid or heat treatment, as revealed by infectivity measurements after extraction of the agent with chloroform. These results suggest that Ro 09-0410 binds to the HRV-2 virion and prevents viral replication in the cell. PMID:6100571

  16. ADAM: An Automatic and Extensible Platform to Stress Test Android Anti-Virus Systems

    E-print Network

    Lui, John C.S.

    of Hong Kong {mzheng,pclee,cslui}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract. With the rising threat of smartphone malware to defend against smartphone malware. Thus, how to assess the effec- tiveness of these defense mechanisms of smartphone malware becomes more formidable. TGDaily [49] reported that there was a 33% increase in smartphone

  17. Effect on the Web: An Analysis of Fake Anti-Virus Distribution Moheeb Abu Rajab

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    sensitive information such as bank log-ins and credit cards. As computer systems become more difficult in prevalence, both abso- lutely, and relative to other forms of web-based mal- ware. Fake AV currently accounts including spam web sites and on-line Ads. These attacks account for 60% of the malware dis- covered

  18. Antivirus antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity during murine cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Manischewitz, J E; Quinnan, G V

    1980-01-01

    BALB/c mice infected with murine cytomegalovirus were studied to determine whether antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity contributes to the immune control of this infection. Antibody-dependent killer cells from uninfected mice were used as effector cells to assay for antibody in sera of infected mice. Secondary immune sera were found to contain both cytomegalovirus-specific and autoreactive antibodies. After primary infection only cytomegalovirus-specific antibodies were found. These were detected by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity within 8 to 10 days after onset of infection, but usually not until day 21, by a neutralizing antibody assay. Antibody titers were about 10-fold higher by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity than by neutralization. The results indicate that cellular immunity to cytomegalovirus infection includes an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity response which is likely to be highly efficient and may contribute significantly to control of both acute and later stages of infection. PMID:6253395

  19. Interferon s: the modulators of antivirus, antitumor, and immune responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingcai Li; Xiaojin Liu; Yanchun Zhou; Shao Bo Su

    2009-01-01

    IFN-s, including IFN-1, IFN-2, and IFN-3, also known as IL-29, IL-28A, or IL-28B, are a newly described group of cytokines distantly related to the type I IFNs and IL-10 family members. The IFN-R complex con- sists of a unique ligand-binding chain, IFN-R1 (also designated IL-28R), and an accessory chain, IL-10R2, which is shared with receptors for IL-10-related cyto- kines. IFN-s

  20. Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG Norwalk virus-specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with baculovirus-expressed Norwalk virus capsid antigen in adult volunteers challenged with Norwalk virus.

    PubMed

    Gray, J J; Cunliffe, C; Ball, J; Graham, D Y; Desselberger, U; Estes, M K

    1994-12-01

    Pre- and postexposure sera collected from 17 adult volunteers challenged with Norwalk virus as described previously (D. Y. Graham, X. Jiang, T. Tanaka, A. Opekun, P. Madore, and M. K. Estes, J. Infect. Dis. 170:34-43, 1994) were examined for Norwalk virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with recombinant Norwalk virus antigen bound to the solid phase. Sixteen of the 17 volunteers had evidence of past infection, all presenting with preexisting IgG antibody of high avidity; only one volunteer had no evidence of previous infection. Virus infection was detected in 14 of the 16 volunteers with evidence of past infection, and 9 of the infected volunteers had symptomatic illness. A significant rise in both virus-specific IgA and IgG titers was detected after challenge in all of the volunteers who became ill. Five of the asymptomatic volunteers who were infected had rising titers of virus-specific IgG, but only two of the five had a concomitant rise in their virus-specific IgA antibody titers. Antibody rises were detectable in eight of nine ill volunteers 8 to 11 days after challenge but in the asymptomatic volunteers only after more than 15 days had elapsed. Virus-specific IgM was detected after challenge in all 14 infected volunteers. Between symptomatic and asymptomatic volunteers there were no significant differences in titers of virus-specific IgG and IgA in serum before challenge; however, there were significantly higher titers in symptomatic volunteers between 8 and > 90 days after challenge for virus-specific IgG and 8 and 24 days after challenge for virus-specific IgA. PMID:7883902

  1. Securing PCs and Data in Libraries and Schools: A Handbook with Menuing, Anti-Virus, and Other Protective Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    This handbook is designed to help readers identify and eliminate security risks, with sound recommendations and library-tested security software. Chapter 1 "Managing Your Facilities and Assessing Your Risks" addresses fundamental management responsibilities including planning for a secure system, organizing computer-related information, assessing…

  2. A mathematical model to study the effect of hepatitis B virus vaccine and antivirus treatment among the Canadian Inuit population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O’Leary; Z. Hong; F. Zhang; M. Dawood; G. Smart; K. Kaita; J. Wu

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B among the Canadian Inuit population is 4%. This study will use a mathematical model to compare\\u000a the roles of vaccination and therapy to predict future prevalence and incidence among the Canadian Inuit population for the\\u000a next 50 years. We applied a mathematical model developed by Medley et al. (Nat Med 7(5):619–624, 2001), combined with data\\u000a on

  3. The evolution of the physical state of the IGM

    E-print Network

    Tae-Sun Kim; Stefano Cristiani; Sandro D'Odorico

    2002-01-14

    Using a new, increased dataset of 7 QSOs from VLT/UVES observations combined with one QSO from the literature, the minimum Doppler parameters as a function of neutral hydrogen column density N(HI), b_c(N), of the Lyman-alpha forest has been derived at three redshifts z = 2.1, 3.3 and 3.8. When incompleteness of the number of the observed lines towards lower N(HI) is accounted for, the derived slopes of b_c(N), (Gamma-1), are consistent with no-redshift evolution with an indication of lower value at z = 3.3, while b_c(N) at a fixed column density N(HI) = 10^(13.6) cm^(-2), b_c(13.6), increases as z decreases. Assuming a QSO-dominated UV background, the slope of the equation of state (gamma-1) shows no z-evolution within large uncertainties and the temperature at the mean density, T_0, decreases as z decreases at three redshift ranges. There is a large fluctuation of (Gamma-1) and b_c(13.6) even at the similar redshifts, in particular at z = 3.3 and 3.8. The lower (Gamma-1) and higher b_c(13.6) values at z ~ 3.1 and 3.6 compared to ones at z ~ 3.4 and 3.9 are caused by a lack of lower-N(HI) and lower-b lines, probably due to the HeII reionization. This result suggests that an impact from the HeII reionization on the forest might be mainly on the lower-N(HI) forest. We find some forest clouds with a high ratio of SiIV column density to CIV column density at z < 2.5, although the bulk of the forest clouds shows lower N(SiIV)/N(CIV). This high N(SiIV)/N(CIV) at z < 2.5 suggests that some forest clouds are exposed to a soft UV background.

  4. Constraining the Thermal State of the IGM at z~20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhill, Lincoln J.; LEDA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of observational cosmology is to trace the thermal history of the Universe during the Dark Age, before the first stars, and immediately following. Theory suggests that the 21 cm transition of Hydrogen can serve as a unique thermometer for the intergalactic medium during this era, and thermal evolution is believed to have depended on a relatively small set of fundamental processes. Detection of the 21cm transition at redshift ~20 should enable strong tests of cosmological models. The ground-based Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Age (LEDA) is working to establish direct constraint on the thermal history through detection of sky-averaged spectral-line absorption of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the 21cm transition. I will present the latest results from LEDA obtained using stations of the Long Wavelength Array facility and outline technical milestones such as construction of one of the largest radio astronomical correlators in the world and instantaneous confusion-limited images of the full sky (2pi steradian) below 80 MHz.

  5. Production and characterization of IgM monoclonal antibodies against hyphal antigens of Stachybotrys species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has...

  6. Production and Characterization of IgM Monoclonal Antibodies Against Hyphal Antigens of Stachybotrys Species

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M.; Vesper, Stephen J.; Schmechel, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has been proposed to exacerbate respiratory morbidity. To date, advances in Stachybotrys detection have focused on the identification of unique biomarkers that can be detected in human serum; however, the availability of immunodiagnostic reagents to Stachybotrys species have been limited. In this study, we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a semi-purified cytolytic S. chlorohalonata preparation (cScp) derived from hyphae. BALB/c mice were immunized with cScp and hybridomas were screened against the cScp using an antigen-mediated indirect ELISA. Eight immunoglobulin M MAbs were produced and four were specifically identified in the capture ELISA to react with the cScp. Cross-reactivity of the MAbs was tested against crude hyphal extracts derived from 15 Stachybotrys isolates representing nine Stachybotrys species as well as 39 other environmentally abundant fungi using a capture ELISA. MAb reactivity to spore and hyphal antigens was also tested by a capture ELISA and by fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). ELISA analysis demonstrated that all MAbs strongly reacted with extracts of S. chartarum but not with extracts of 39 other fungi. However, four MAbs showed cross-reactivity to the phylogenetically related genus Memnoniella. fHIA analysis confirmed that greatest MAb reactivity was ultrastructurally localized in hyphae and phialides. The results of this study further demonstrate the feasibility of specific MAb-based immunoassays for the detection of S. chartarum. PMID:21466283

  7. IgM Monoclonal Gammopathy Accompanied by Nodular Glomerulosclerosis, Urine-Concentrating Defect, and Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Nakamoto; Hirokazu Imai; Sumiko Hamanaka; Kohsaku Yoshida; Tetsuo Akihama; Akira B. Miura

    1985-01-01

    A 54-year-old male had monoclonal IgM-kappa light chains in the serum and free monoclonal kappa light chains in the urine. Renal biopsy revealed nodular glomerulosclerosis associated with the accumulation of kappa light chains. Isolated microscopic hematuria was present for over 1 year. He also showed a defect in urine concentration for which the light chains deposited along the basement membrane

  8. IgG and IgM levels in dairy cows during the periparturient period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Herr; H. Bostedt; K. Failing

    2011-01-01

    In dairy cows, the incidence of infectious diseases during the periparturient period is high. The most common diseases ante partum (a.p.) and post partum (p.p.) are mastitis and puerperal toxicaemia, puerperal septicaemia, and chronic endometritis, respectively. Studies suggest that this is related to an immunosuppressed status during this period.Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the periparturient immune

  9. Probing the Universe with the Lyman-alpha Forest: I. Hydrodynamics of the Low Density IGM

    E-print Network

    Nickolay Y. Gnedin; Lam Hui

    1997-06-20

    We introduce an efficient and accurate alternative to full hydrodynamic simulations, Hydro-PM (HPM), for the study of the low column density Lyman-alpha forest. It consists of a Particle-Mesh solver, modified to compute, in addition to the gravitational potential, an effective potential due to the gas pressure. Such an effective potential can be computed from the density field because of a tight correlation between density and pressure in the low density limit, which can be calculated for any photo-reionization history by a method outlined in Hui & Gnedin (1997). Such a correlation exists, in part, because of minimal shock-heating in the low density limit. We compare carefully the density and velocity fields as well as absorption spectra, computed using HPM versus hydrodynamic simulations, and find good agreement. We show that HPM is capable of reproducing measurable quantities, such as the column density distribution, computed from full hydrodynamic simulations, to a precision comparable to that of observations. We discuss how, by virtue of its speed and accuracy, HPM can enable us to use the Lyman-alpha forest as a cosmological probe. We also discuss in detail the smoothing of the gas (or baryon) fluctuation relative to that of the dark matter on small scales due to finite gas pressure. It is shown the conventional wisdom that the linear gas fluctuation is smoothed on the Jeans scale is incorrect for general reionization (or reheating) history; the correct linear filtering scale is in general smaller than the Jeans scale after reheating, but larger prior to it. (abridged)

  10. Probing the Universe with the Lyman-alpha Forest; 1, Hydrodynamics of the Low Density IGM

    E-print Network

    Gnedin, N Yu; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Hui, Lam

    1997-01-01

    We introduce an efficient and accurate alternative to full hydrodynamic simulations, Hydro-PM (HPM), for the study of the low column density Lyman-alpha forest. It consists of a Particle-Mesh solver, modified to compute, in addition to the gravitational potential, an effective potential due to the gas pressure. Such an effective potential can be computed from the density field because of a tight correlation between density and pressure in the low density limit, which can be calculated for any photo-reionization history by a method outlined in Hui & Gnedin (1997). Such a correlation exists, in part, because of minimal shock-heating in the low density limit. We compare carefully the density and velocity fields as well as absorption spectra, computed using HPM versus hydrodynamic simulations, and find good agreement. We show that HPM is capable of reproducing measurable quantities, such as the column density distribution, computed from full hydrodynamic simulations, to a precision comparable to that of obser...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gas exchanges between galaxies and IGM (Rodrigues+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Rothberg, B.; Flores, H.

    2013-03-01

    The galaxies presented in this paper are a subsample of Rodrigues et al. (2008A&A...492..371R) which have available archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data. The imaging is used to measure their gas radius and to derive their gas fraction. The targets have been gathered from the IMAGES-FORS2 survey, a representative sample drawn from both spectroscopic and MJ selection criteria (see Rodrigues et al., 2008A&A...492..371R). (2 data files).

  12. MOSAIC at the E-ELT: A multi-object spectrograph for astrophysics, IGM and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, F.; Barbuy, B.; Cuby, J. G.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S.; Evans, C. J.; Jagourel, P.; Dalton, G.; Rees, P.; Puech, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Pearson, D.; Disseau, K.

    2014-08-01

    The Universe is comprised of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each populated by hundreds of billions of stars. Astrophysics aims to understand the complexity of this almost incommensurable number of stars, stellar clusters and galaxies, including their spatial distribution, formation, and current interactions with the interstellar and intergalactic media. A considerable fraction of astrophysical discoveries require large statistical samples, which can only be addressed with multi-object spectrographs (MOS). Here we introduce the MOSAIC study of an optical/near-infrared MOS for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which has capabilities specified by science cases ranging from stellar physics and exoplanet studies to galaxy evolution and cosmology. Recent studies of critical technical issues such as sky-background subtraction and multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) have demonstrated that such a MOS is feasible with current technology and techniques. In the 2020s the E-ELT will become the world's largest optical/IR telescope, and we argue that it has to be equipped as soon as possible with a MOS. MOSAIC will provide a vast discovery space, enabled by a multiplex of ˜ 200 and spectral resolving powers of R = 5 000 and 20 000. MOSAIC will also offer the unique capability of 10-to-20 `high-definition' (MOAO) integral-field units, optimised to investigate the physics of the sources of reionisation, providing the most efficient follow-up of observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The combination of these modes will enable the study of the mass-assembly history of galaxies over cosmic time, including high-redshift dwarf galaxies and studies of the distribution of the intergalactic medium. It will also provide spectroscopy of resolved stars in external galaxies at unprecedented distances, from the outskirts of the Local Group for main-sequence stars, to a significant volume of the local Universe, including nearby galaxy clusters, for luminous red supergiants.

  13. Direct in vivo injection of 131I-GMS and its distribution and excretion in rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu; Wan, Yi; Luo, Dong-Hui; Duan, Li-Geng; Li, Lin; Xia, Chuan-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the distribution and metabolism of 131I-gelatin microspheres (131I-GMSs) in rabbits after direct injection into rabbits’ livers. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into seven groups, with four rabbits per group. Each rabbit’s hepatic lobes were directly injected with 41.336 ± 5.106 MBq 131I-GMSs. Each day after 131I-GMSs administration, 4 rabbits were randomly selected, and 250 ?L of serum was collected for ? count. Hepatic and thyroid functions were tested on days 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48 and 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was taken for each group on days 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. A group of rabbits were sacrificed respectively on days 1, 4, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. Their livers were taken out for histological examination. RESULTS: After 131I-GMSs administration, the nuclide was collected in the hepatic area with microspheres. The radiation could be detected on day 48 after 131I-GMSs administration, and radiography could be seen in thyroid areas in SPECT on days 4, 8, 16 and 24. One day after 131I-GMSs administration, the liver function was damaged but recovered 4 d later. Eight days after 131I-GMSs administration, the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxin were reduced, which restored to normal levels on day 16. Histological examination showed that the microspheres were degraded to different degrees at 24, 32 and 48 d after 131I-GMSs administration. The surrounding parts of injection points were in fibrous sheathing. No microspheres were detected in histological examination on day 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. CONCLUSION: Direct in vivo injection of 131I-GMSs is safe in rabbits. It may be a promising method for treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:20440852

  14. Production and characterization of IgM monoclonal antibodies against hyphal antigens of Stachybotrys species.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ajay P; Green, Brett J; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M; Vesper, Stephen J; Beezhold, Donald H; Schmechel, Detlef

    2011-02-01

    Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has been proposed to exacerbate respiratory morbidity. To date, advances in Stachybotrys detection have focused on the identification of unique biomarkers that can be detected in human serum; however, the availability of immunodiagnostic reagents to Stachybotrys species have been limited. In this study, we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a semi-purified cytolytic S. chlorohalonata preparation (cScp) derived from hyphae. BALB/c mice were immunized with cScp and hybridomas were screened against the cScp using an antigen-mediated indirect ELISA. Eight immunoglobulin M MAbs were produced and four were specifically identified in the capture ELISA to react with the cScp. Cross-reactivity of the MAbs was tested against crude hyphal extracts derived from 15 Stachybotrys isolates representing nine Stachybotrys species as well as 39 other environmentally abundant fungi using a capture ELISA. MAb reactivity to spore and hyphal antigens was also tested by a capture ELISA and by fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). ELISA analysis demonstrated that all MAbs strongly reacted with extracts of S. chartarum but not with extracts of 39 other fungi. However, four MAbs showed cross-reactivity to the phylogenetically related genus Memnoniella. fHIA analysis confirmed that greatest MAb reactivity was ultrastructurally localized in hyphae and phialides. The results of this study further demonstrate the feasibility of specific MAb-based immunoassays for the detection of S. chartarum. PMID:21466283

  15. 1) Istituto di Geologia Marina, CNR, 40129 Bologna, Italy. (lucag@igm.bo.cnr.it)

    E-print Network

    Curci, Gabriele

    the Tunguska event. Most assume the explosion in the atmosphere of a small asteroid or comet. However 1999 in the region of Tunguska (Siberia). The objective (Longo et al. this volume) was to gather data that could help under- stand the so-called"Tunguska event", namely, an explosion that on June 30 1908

  16. Evaluación de Anticuerpos Desarrollados Contra la Proteína Recombinante de la Cápside del Virus Tristeza de los Cítricos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant coat protein (rCP) p25 gene of (Citrus tristeza virus = CTV), were developed for isolates MX08 and MX14 from México and B227 from India. The reactivity of rCP antibodies was evaluated using healthy and CTV infected tissue. The combination of rCP ant...

  17. [Detection of the markers of herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus in newborns and infants].

    PubMed

    Medzhidova, M G; Adueva, S M; Fedorova, N E; Klimova, R R; Vorontsova, Iu N; Degtiareva, M V; Degtiarev, D N; Volodin, N N; Aliamovskaia, G A; Keshishchian, E S; Malakhova, M V; Il'ina, E N; Govorun, V M; Zemlianaia, N Iu; Shcherbo, S V; Asadi Mobarkhan, S M; Asadi Mobarkhan, A Kh; Kushch, A A

    2005-01-01

    A total of 111 children suspected for herpesvirus infection were examined. In blood and urine samples the infectious activity of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was detected by the rapid culture method (RCM) and the presence of virus DNA--by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HSV and/or CMV were detected by two laboratory methods in 57 examined children (51%). Of these, in 18 children (16.2%) both HSV and CMV were detected. The coincidence of the results of the detection of HSV and CMV by these two methods was observed in 72.4% and 75.2% of cases respectively. The comparative analysis of the detection of anti-CMV IgG and IgM was made with the use of commercial test systems produced bythe following manufacturers: "Vector-Best" and "Bioservice" (Russia), "HUMAN" and "Boehringer" (Germany). The effective detection of both anti-CMV (IgG and IgM) was ensured by the test systems "Boehringer". The test system "Vector-Best" for anti-CMV IgG proved to be not inferior as regards sensitivity and specificity. The German test systems demonstrated the highest specificity in the detection of low-avid antibodies. The data obtained in this study indicate that the detection rate of HSV and CMV markers in newborns and infants suspected for herpesvirus infection was, on the average, 20 - 40%. Reliable diagnostics in newborns and infants is possible only in the presence of the combination of at least 2 serological tests (the determination of antivirus IgM and IgG avidity) and 2 methods for the detection of direct herpesvirus markers (PCR and RCM). PMID:16279541

  18. How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

  19. YORK APARTMENTS INRES SERVICES NEW USER CHECKLIST

    E-print Network

    User: Microsoft Update Website. Mac user: Apple Software Update RESNET ­ REGISTER YOUR CMPUTER WHEN on to ResNet. Anti-virus Software Ensure your computer has an anti-virus software installed. Ensure. Do not have an anti-virus software? We recommend using Symantec Endpoint Protection that is supported

  20. UNDERGRADUATE RESIDENCE INRES SERVICES NEW USER CHECKLIST

    E-print Network

    : Microsoft Update Website. Mac user: Apple Software Update RESNET ­ REGISTER YOUR CMPUTER WHEN YOU ARRIVENet. Anti-virus Software Ensure your computer has an anti-virus software installed. Ensure the latest anti an anti-virus software? We recommend using Symantec Endpoint Protection that is supported by UIT

  1. 76 FR 47564 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...5340-00-NIB-0079--Notebook Computer Combination Lock. NSN: 5340-00-NIB-0099...7045-00-NIB-0360--Anti-Virus, 2G. NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0361--Anti-Virus, 4G. NSN: 7045-00-NIB-0362--Anti-Virus, 8G. NSN:...

  2. January 8, 2014 ITCS QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE: CAMPUS LIVING NETWORK PREP Page 1 2014 ITCS East Carolina University

    E-print Network

    ) ­ available on campus or off campus Acceptable Windows OS: XP, Vista, Win7 and 8/8.1 1. Click START Carolina University Download Symantec Antivirus, Windows Critical Updates and Cisco NAC Symantec Antivirus (Windows and Mac*) ­ on campus or off campus Other supported antivirus software: McAffe, Sophos, Trend

  3. Elevated levels of IgM and IgA antibodies to Proteus mirabilis and IgM antibodies to Escherichia coli are associated with early rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Newkirk; R. Goldbach-Mansky; B. W. Senior; J. Klippel; H. R. Schumacher Jr; H. S. El-Gabalawy

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Antibodies to Proteus mirabilis were previously detected in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the prevalence of antibodies to P. mirabilis and their associations with RA in early synovitis patients. Methods. Two hundred and forty-six patients with inflammatory arthritis for less than 1 yr were prospectively evaluated for 1 yr. Of these patients, 30% had rheumatoid factor

  4. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE RESTRAINT STRESS ON PIG LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND IGM PRODUCTION IN VITRO AND CORTISOL LEVELS IN VIVO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of acute restraint stress on immune function and plasma cortisol levels. Crossbred pigs were restrained and blood collected initially and at 3 and 6 min of restraint. Plasma was collected for cortisol analysis and lymphocytes were isolated and plated in media conta...

  5. B Cell-dependent T Cell Responses: IgM Antibodies Are Required to Elicit Contact Sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryohei F. Tsuji; Marian Szczepanik; Ivana Kawikova; Vipin Paliwal; Regis A. Campos; Atsuko Itakura; Moe Akahira-Azuma; Nicole Baumgarth; Leonore A. Herzenberg; Philip W. Askenase

    2002-01-01

    Contact sensitivity (CS) is a classic example of in vivo T cell immunity in which skin sensiti- zation with reactive hapten leads to immunized T cells, which are then recruited locally to mediate antigen-specific inflammation after subsequent skin challenge. We have previously shown that T cell recruitment in CS is triggered by local activation of complement, which generates C5a that

  6. IgM Anti-Ganglioside Antibodies Induced by Melanoma Cell Vaccine Correlate with Survival of Melanoma Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takenori Takahashi; Timothy D. Johnson; Yumiko Nishinaka; Donald L. Morton; Reiko F. Irie

    1999-01-01

    Melanoma cells express ganglioside antigens GM3, GD3, GM2, and GD2 on their surface. This study examined whether immunization with a melanoma cell vaccine induced anti-ganglioside antibody responses in melanoma patients and whether these responses were correlated with survival. Sixty-six patients who had received melanoma cell vaccine immunotherapy after surgical removal of regional metastatic melanoma were identified. Cryopreserved serum samples from

  7. Epitope analysis of peanut allergen Ara h1 with oligoclonal IgM antibody from human B-lymphoblastoid cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To analyze epitopes of peanut allergen Ara h1, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human peripheral oligoclonal B-cells were cultured to obtain antibodies to Ara h1. The combined reaction pattern with six oligoclonal antibodies showed there were six antibody binding areas named a to f in Ara h1. We found...

  8. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1?, TNF?, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1?, TNF?, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections. PMID:25450998

  9. EVALUACIÓN DE ANTICUERPOS CONTRA EL VIRUS DE LA DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA DE UN HATO EN PROCESO DE ERRADICACIÓN DE LA ENFERMEDAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and antigen of BVDV were evaluated in serum samples from cattle aged 10 to 23 months (n = 148) from a dairy herd where the disease eradication has been carrying out since 2002. The herd is located in Santa Rita, Arequipa, Perú, and samples were collected twice on a 30-day interval. Antibodies against

  10. Enterprise Information Security Management Framework [EISMF

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Dhirendra, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    There are several technological solutions available in the market to help organizations with information security breach detection and prevention such as intrusion detection and prevention systems, antivirus software, ...

  11. Peripheral neuropathy in IgM monoclonal gammopathy and Wäldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: a frequent complication in elderly males with low MAG-reactive serum monoclonal component.

    PubMed

    Baldini, L; Nobile-Orazio, E; Guffanti, A; Barbieri, S; Carpo, M; Cro, L; Cesana, B; Damilano, I; Maiolo, A T

    1994-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a frequent complication during primary macroglobulinemia (PM), whose immunological genesis has been suggested by various authors. This study involved 65 PM patients (44 men and 21 women aged 35-78), diagnostically divided into MGUS (31 cases), and indolent (IWM, 24 cases) or symptomatic (WM, 10 cases) Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia groups. All patients underwent neurological examination, including electrodiagnostic evaluation and the determination of the serum titre of antimyelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). An evaluation was made of the prevalence of PN and its correlation with a series of hematological variables. The prevalence of PN was 31.6%: of those with PN, 73.1% manifested both clinical and electrophysiological signs of PN, primarily of the demyelinating type. Significant correlations emerged between the presence of PN and sex (M vs. F P = 0.0001), advanced age (P = 0.049), low MC levels (P = 0.025), high anti-MAG titres (P = 0.001) and high Hb levels (P = 0.001). No significant correlation with the diagnostic definition of PM was found, although the majority of cases with (particularly demyelinating) PN were MGUS or IWM. At multivariate analysis, the presence of PN significantly correlated with sex (P = 0.0001), age (P = 0.019), and anti-MAG titre (P = 0.001). Ten of the 26 PN cases showed no MAG reactivity. Significant correlations between PN and low serum MC levels/high MAG reactivity support the hypothesis of the antibody-mediated origin of many PN, and that the presence of PN depends on the characteristics of the proliferating pathological B clone, rather than on the tumor burden of the form of macroglobulinemia. Clinically, our data reconfirm the frequency of PN during PM and indicate simple clinicohematological variables useful for identifying patients at high neuropathic risk. PMID:7504399

  12. Analysis of Antigens of Mycobacterium leprae by Interaction to Sera IgG, IgM, and IgA Response to Improve Diagnosis of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Avnish; Parkash, Om; Girdhar, Bhawneshwar K.

    2014-01-01

    Till 2010, several countries have declared less than one leprosy patient among population of 10,000 and themselves feeling as eliminated from leprosy cases. However, new leprosy cases are still appearing from all these countries. In this situation one has to be confident to diagnose leprosy. This review paper highlighted already explored antigens for diagnosis purposes and finally suggested better combinations of protein antigens of M. leprae versus immunoglobulin as detector antibody to be useful for leprosy diagnosis. PMID:25101267

  13. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN LYMPHOCYTE MEMBRANE MOLECULES I. Interaction between B Lymphocyte Surface IgM and Fc IgG Receptors Requires Ligand Occupancy of Both Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HOWARD B. DIGKLER; Arid MARY T. KUBICEK

    It is well established that an individual lymphocyte can be affected by more than one immunologic stimulus. Thus, the net response of a lymphocyte may be determined by exogenous antigen, by major histocompatibility complex determinants present on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, and by positive and negative regulatory cells, and\\/or their products. Exposure to one or more of these stimuli

  14. Generation and analysis of clonal IgM- and IgG-producing human B cell lines expressing an anti-DNA-associated idiotype.

    PubMed Central

    Manheimer-Lory, A J; Davidson, A; Watkins, D; Hannigan, N R; Diamond, B A

    1991-01-01

    This study describes a methodology for generating stable, cloned, EBV-transformed IgG- and IgM-producing human B cell lines. Using these lines we have characterized immunoglobulin V gene utilization in an anti-DNA-associated idiotypic system. The 31 anti-DNA-associated idiotype is encoded preferentially by the VK1 gene family, and, in all probability, reflects a germ line gene-encoded framework determinant. Analysis of these lines indicates that the DNA-binding antibodies produced by B cell lines from SLE patients may differ from DNA binding myeloma proteins and from natural autoantibodies. Images PMID:1708781

  15. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristo Vojdani

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. METHODS: We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG,

  16. Antibodies of IgG, IgA and IgM isotypes against cyclic citrullinated peptide precede the development of rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Kokkonen; Mohammed Mullazehi; Ewa Berglin; Göran Hallmans; Göran Wadell; Johan Rönnelid; Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We and others have previously shown that antibodies against cyclic citrullinated proteins (anti-CCP) precede the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in a more recent study we reported that individuals who subsequently developed RA had increased concentrations of several cytokines and chemokines years before the onset of symptoms of joint disease. Here we aimed to evaluate the prevalence and

  17. Binding specificity of anti-HNK-1 IgM M-protein in anti-MAG neuropathy: Possible clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Hirano, Makito; Kuwahara, Motoi; Samukawa, Makoto; Takada, Kazuo; Morise, Jyoji; Yabuno, Keiko; Oka, Shogo; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2015-02-01

    Anti-myelin-associated-glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy is an intractable autoimmune polyneuropathy. The antigenic region of MAG is the human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate. We and others previously suggested that the extension of antibody reactivities to HNK-1-bearing proteins other than MAG was associated with treatment resistance, without statistical analyses. In this study, we established an ELISA method with recombinant proteins to test binding specificities of currently available monoclonal antibodies to MAG and another HNK-1-bearing protein, phosphacan. Using this system, we found the distinct binding specificities of anti-MAG antibody in 19 patients with anti-MAG neuropathy. Their clinical relevance was then determined retrospectively with the adjusted 10-points INCAT disability score (0=normal and 10=highly disable). The results showed that strong reactivities of anti-MAG antibodies to phosphacan were significantly associated with treatment resistance or progressive clinical courses, indicating a possible clinical relevance of the binding specificities. PMID:25450311

  18. [Rabies specific IgM- and IgG-antibody response in persons immunized with HDCS vaccine according to the Essen postexposure vaccination schedule (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thraenhart, O; Kuwert, E K

    1979-12-01

    A solid phase enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) was applied for the determination of rabies virus antibodies of the immunoglobulin classes G and M in sera of 10 young adults. Vaccinations were carried out with the Essen post-exposure vaccination schedule, which is recommended by the W.H.O., with the rabies HDCS vaccine with an antigen value of 1.9. From these results the rabies virus IgM/IgG-conversion was derived. Furthermore a comparison was carried out of results obtained with the ELISA, the mouse neutralization test, the complement fixation test and the hemagglutination inhibition test. Rabies virus-IgM-antibodies were detected already three days after the first vaccination. The IgM-antibody concentration increased to a maximum at the 22nd day p.v. In sera of seven of eight vaccinees rabies virus IgM-antibody was still detectable until the 90th day p.v. Rabies virus antibodies of the IgG-class were found in the serum of 1/7 vaccinees at the 7th day p.v. A steep increase of the rabies virus IgG-antibodies was observed from day 10 p.v. to a maximum between the 30th and 40th day p.v.. The titer values varied between 1:10-1:1600. The rabies virus IgM/IgG-conversion was observed after the 10th day p.v.. More than 75% of the total antirabies virus globulin fraction belonged to the IgG-class in sera of 6 of 9 vaccinees between the 22nd and 30th day of p.v.. A preponderance of the rabies virus IgM-antibodies was seen in 3 of 9 vaccinees until the 90th day p.v.. Most sensitive for the early detection of rabies virus antibodies was the IgM-ELISA followed by the IgG-ELISA, mouse-neutralization test, hemagglutination inhibition test and complement fixation test. PMID:44937

  19. Field Evaluation and Impact on Clinical Management of a Rapid Diagnostic Kit That Detects Dengue NS1, IgM and IgG

    PubMed Central

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ngan, Chantha; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Sroin, Kim Kim; Te, Vantha; Y, Bunthin; Try, Patrich Lorn; Buchy, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue diagnosis is complex and until recently only specialized laboratories were able to definitively confirm dengue infection. Rapid tests are now available commercially making biological diagnosis possible in the field. The aim of this study was to evaluate a combined dengue rapid test for the detection of NS1 and IgM/IgG antibodies. The evaluation was made prospectively in the field conditions and included the study of the impact of its use as a point-of-care test for case management as well as retrospectively against a panel of well-characterized samples in a reference laboratory. Methodology/Principal Findings During the prospective study, 157 patients hospitalized for a suspicion of dengue were enrolled. In the hospital laboratories, the overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the NS1/IgM/IgG combination tests were 85.7%, 83.9%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively, whereas they were 94,4%, 90.0%, 97.5% and 77.1% respectively in the national reference laboratory at Institut Pasteur in Cambodia. These results demonstrate that optimal performances require adequate training and quality assurance. The retrospective study showed that the sensitivity of the combined kit did not vary significantly between the serotypes and was not affected by the immune status or by the interval of time between onset of fever and sample collection. The analysis of the medical records indicates that the physicians did not take into consideration the results obtained with the rapid test including for care management and use of antibiotic therapy. Conclusions In the context of our prospective field study, we demonstrated that if the SD Bioline Dengue Duo kit is correctly used, a positive result highly suggests a dengue case but a negative result doesn't rule out a dengue infection. Nevertheless, Cambodian pediatricians in their daily practice relied on their clinical diagnosis and thus the false negative results obtained did not directly impact on the clinical management. PMID:23301110

  20. Stimulation of surface IgM of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induces an unfolded protein response dependent on BTK and SYK

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Andrew J.; Coelho, Vania; Linley, Adam; Sanchez Hidalgo, Marina; Carter, Matthew; Potter, Kathleen N.; Kennedy, Benjamin; Duncombe, Andrew S.; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Forconi, Francesco; Stevenson, Freda K.; Packham, Graham

    2014-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling plays a key role in the behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, cellular consequences of signaling are incompletely defined. Here we explored possible links between BCR signaling and the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress response pathway that can promote survival of normal and malignant cells. Compared with normal B cells, circulating CLL cells expressed increased, but variable, levels of UPR components. Higher expression of CHOP and XBP1 RNAs was associated with more aggressive disease. UPR activation appeared due to prior tissue-based antigenic stimulation because elevated expression of UPR components was detected within lymph node proliferation centers. Basal UPR activation also correlated closely with surface immunoglobulin M (sIgM) signaling capacity in vitro in both IGHV unmutated CLL and within mutated CLL. sIgM signaling increased UPR activation in vitro with responders showing increased expression of CHOP and XBP1 RNAs, and PERK and BIP proteins, but not XBP1 splicing. Inhibitors of BCR-associated kinases effectively prevented sIgM-induced UPR activation. Overall, this study demonstrates that sIgM signaling results in activation of some components the UPR in CLL cells. Modulation of the UPR may contribute to variable clinical behavior, and its inhibition may contribute to clinical responses to BCR-associated kinase inhibitors. PMID:25170122

  1. PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS

    E-print Network

    Prochaska, J. Xavier

    We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with z [subscript em] ? 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z ...

  2. Servicio de Informtica NOTICIAS Y EVENTOS

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Endpoint Antivirus" y "Panda Antivirus Pro 2014" (Publicada 04/03/2014) La anterior licencia con Kaspersky campaña de actualización en la red wifi de la Universidad. Servicio de Informática #12;El SI participa en las Jornadas Técnicas de RedIRIS 2013 (Publicada 25/10/2013) El Servicio de Informática participa en

  3. Updated April 2014 UTHSC College of Nursing

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    by the University. For more information on antivirus software, go to http://antivirus.uthsc.edu. Apple Reader or Apple Preview These software read PDF files and often comes pre-installed on many machinesUpdated April 2014 UTHSC College of Nursing Computer and Software Requirements Each incoming

  4. Testing and evaluating virus detectors for handheld devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Andre Morales; Peter J. Clarke; Yi Deng; B. M. Golam Kibria

    2006-01-01

    The widespread use of personal digital assistants and smartphones gives securing these devices a high priority. Yet little attention has been placed on protecting handheld devices against viruses. Currently available antivirus software for handhelds is few in number. At this stage, the opportunity exists for the evaluation and improvement of current solutions. By pinpointing weaknesses in the current antivirus software,

  5. An Attack Vector for Deception Through Persuasion Used by Hackers and Crakers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mosin I. Hasan; Nilesh B. Prajapati

    2009-01-01

    We always uses the Anti-virus or Anti- Spyware software to secure our data but still most of our computers are infected by the Malware because we thought computer security as just technical field and anti-virus or firewall only can prevent us. Despite all the technological advancement in security, there is still one attack vector that leaves our network and computer

  6. Metamorphic Detection via Emulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushant Priyadarshi

    2011-01-01

    In parallel with improvements in anti-virus technologies, computer virus writers have developed innovative viruses that are challenging to detect. Metamorphic viruses change their appearance from one generation to another by using various code obfuscation techniques. Today, signature detection is the most common method used in anti-virus products, but well designed metamorphic viruses cannot be detected using signatures. Hence, there is

  7. On the Feasibility of Online Malware Detection with Performance Counters

    E-print Network

    Yang, Junfeng

    , adware and other classes of malware. De- spite the existence of anti-virus software, malware threats persist and are growing as there exist a myriad of ways to subvert anti-virus (AV) software. In fact the potential to advance state-of-the-art online malware detection. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.0

  8. MAXIMIZE YOUR CAMPUS ELECTRONIC

    E-print Network

    accessing your laptop, smartphone or tablet is to require a password. If you lose it, no one else can use it to your computer, smartphone and tablet when they are available. Use antivirus software. Make sure your

  9. NUIT Recommended Practices for Digital Devices Use the checklist below to help you maintain a problem-free computer, tablet, smartphone, or other device.

    E-print Network

    Shahriar, Selim

    a problem-free computer, tablet, smartphone, or other device. Whatever your role, Northwestern is our home, or tablets, including: Operating system Security software (antivirus, anti-spyware, firewall, etc

  10. NUIT Recommended Practices for Digital Devices Use the checklist below to help you maintain a problem-free computer, tablet, smartphone, or other device.

    E-print Network

    Shahriar, Selim

    a problem-free computer, tablet, smartphone, or other device. Whatever your role, Northwestern is our home on computers, smartphones, or tablets, including: Operating system Security software (antivirus, anti

  11. October 29, 2012 Boguslaw P. Nocek | Phone: 630-935-0793 | Email: bnocek@anl.gov 1 of 8

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    meningitidis M1 alanine aminopeptidase by fluorogenic substrate profiling, inhibitory studies and molecular, A.M., Yakunin, A.F. A dual function of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA

  12. Eradicating Computer Viruses on Networks

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jinyu

    2012-01-01

    Spread of computer viruses can be modeled as the SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic propagation. We show that in order to ensure the random immunization or the targeted immunization effectively prevent computer viruses propagation on homogeneous networks, we should install antivirus programs in every computer node and frequently update those programs. This may produce large work and cost to install and update antivirus programs. Then we propose a new policy called "network monitors" to tackle this problem. In this policy, we only install and update antivirus programs for small number of computer nodes, namely the "network monitors". Further, the "network monitors" can monitor their neighboring nodes' behavior. This mechanism incur relative small cost to install and update antivirus programs.We also indicate that the policy of the "network monitors" is efficient to protect the network's safety. Numerical simulations confirm our analysis.

  13. Approved and Issued By: Issue No: 1 Revision No: Date of Issue: 11.1.2010 Page No: 1

    E-print Network

    Sivalingam, Krishna M.

    and Internet 2. High Performance Computing Environment 3. Personal Computer and peripheral Hardware service 4. Data Centre to house High Performance Computers and Network Servers 5. Antivirus and Spam filter 6

  14. Designing security into software

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Chang Tony

    2006-01-01

    When people talk about software security, they usually refer to security applications such as antivirus software, firewalls and intrusion detection systems. There is little emphasis on the security in the software itself. ...

  15. We'd sound like a Smurf if we talked on Venus, researchers

    E-print Network

    Sóbester, András

    ORANGE OFFER WEIGHT WATCHERS #12;RECENTLY PUBLISHED Cleverer than Carol Vorderman at just 4 years old wireless router, McAfee Antivirus and £20 in HMV vouchers Want to lose weight? Sign up online today

  16. Virus Information Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

  17. Directives concerning student use of IT resources 10 September 2007

    E-print Network

    Picasso, Marco

    ) that are connected to the EPFL network (on campus or remotely) must be protected against viruses by up-to-date anti-virus software (anti-virus software is supplied on request by the DIT http://winsec.epfl.ch); the student must Civil Code (Articles 28 to 28f http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/rs/210/index1.html). 3 Penal Code · Users must

  18. Combating computer viruses: IBM's new computer immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Hedberg

    1996-01-01

    At IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center (in Yorktown Heights, New York), the Anti-Virus Science and Technology group is doing groundbreaking work in automatic virus detection and eradication. IBM incorporated some of the group's work in virus detection using machine learning techniques into its AntiVirus product. The group has also developed a prototype computer immune system. Modeled after the human\\/vertebrate

  19. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of a typhoid IgM flow assay for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in Cambodian children using a Bayesian latent class model assuming an imperfect gold standard.

    PubMed

    Moore, Catrin E; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Wijedoru, Lalith P M; Sona, Soeng; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Duy, Pham Thanh; Vinh, Phat Voong; Chheng, Kheng; Kumar, Varun; Emary, Kate; Carter, Michael; White, Lisa; Baker, Stephen; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests are needed for typhoid fever (TF) diagnosis in febrile children in endemic areas. Five hundred children admitted to the hospital in Cambodia between 2009 and 2010 with documented fever (? 38°C) were investigated using blood cultures (BCs), Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi A real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), and a Typhoid immunoglobulin M flow assay (IgMFA). Test performance was determined by conventional methods and Bayesian latent class modeling. There were 32 cases of TF (10 BC- and PCR-positive cases, 14 BC-positive and PCR-negative cases, and 8 BC-negative and PCR-positive cases). IgMFA sensitivity was 59.4% (95% confidence interval = 41-76), and specificity was 97.8% (95% confidence interval = 96-99). The model estimate sensitivity for BC was 81.0% (95% credible interval = 54-99). The model estimate sensitivity for PCR was 37.8% (95% credible interval = 26-55), with a specificity of 98.2% (95% credible interval = 97-99). The model estimate sensitivity for IgMFA (? 2+) was 77.9% (95% credible interval = 58-90), with a specificity of 97.5% (95% credible interval = 95-100). The model estimates of IgMFA sensitivity and specificity were comparable with BCs and better than estimates using conventional analysis. PMID:24218407

  20. IDIOTYPE PROFILE OF AN IMMUNE RESPONSE I. Contrasts in Idiotypic Dominance between Primary and Secondary Responses and between IgM and IgG Plaque-forming Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN D. CONGER; GEORGE K. LEWIS; JOEL W. GOODMAN

    Numerous antigens are now known that can induce antibodies bearing similar or identical variable region determinants (idiotypes) in all individuals of one or more strains of inbred mice (1-3). In many cases, the immune response to such antigens is of a highly restricted character, as judged by isoelectricfocusing (IEF) 1 of induced antibodies or other criteria. A curious feature is

  1. Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) but Not of IgM or IgA Isotypes Can Cure Influenza Virus Pneumonia in SCID Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GIUSEPPE PALLADINO; KRYSTYNA MOZDZANOWSKA; GEORGE WASHKO

    1995-01-01

    The ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to passively cure an influenza virus pneumonia in the absence of endogenous T- and B-cell responses was investigated by treating C.B-17 mice, homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mutation, with individual monoclonal antiviral antibodies 1 day after pulmonary infection with influenza virus PR8 (A\\/PR\\/8\\/34(H1N1)). Less than 10% of untreated SCID mice survived the

  2. Involvement of Blimp-1 and AP-1 Dysregulation in the 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin–mediated Suppression of the IgM Response by B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Dina; Manzan, Maria A.; Yoo, Byung Sun; Crawford, Robert B.; Kaminski, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    B cell differentiation and humoral immune responses are markedly suppressed by the persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The suppression of humoral immune responses by TCDD occurs by direct actions on the B cell and involves activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Transcriptional regulation of paired box gene 5 (Pax5), an important regulator of B cell differentiation, is altered by TCDD in concordance with the suppression of B cell differentiation and humoral immunoglobulin M response. We hypothesized that TCDD treatment leads to dysregulation of Pax5 transcription by interfering with the basic B cell differentiation mechanisms and aimed to determine the effects of TCDD on upstream regulators of Pax5. A critical regulator of B cell differentiation, B lymphocyte–induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) acts as a transcriptional repressor of Pax5. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine B cell lymphoma, CH12.LX, Blimp-1 messenger RNA, and DNA-binding activity within the Pax5 promoter were suppressed by TCDD. Furthermore, LPS activation of CH12.LX cells upregulated DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) at three responsive element–like motifs within the Blimp-1 promoter. TCDD treatment of LPS-activated CH12.LX cells suppressed AP-1 binding to these motifs between 24 and 72 h, in concordance with the suppression of Blimp-1 by TCDD. A more comprehensive analysis at 72 h demonstrated that the suppression of AP-1 binding within the Blimp-1 promoter by TCDD was concentration dependent. In summary, our findings link the TCDD-mediated suppression of Blimp-1 through AP-1 to the dysregulation of Pax5, which ultimately leads to the suppression of B cell differentiation and humoral immune responses. PMID:19237549

  3. A LONGITUDINAL INVESTIGATION OF IgG AND IgM ANTIBODY RESPONSES TO THE MEROZOITE SURFACE PROTEIN1 19-KILODALTON DOMAIN OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUMIN PREGNANT WOMEN AND INFANTS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH FEBRILE ILLNESS, PARASITEMIA, AND ANEMIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ORALEE H. BRANCH; VENKATACHALAM UDHAYAKUMAR; ALLEN W. HIGHTOWER; AGGREY J. OLOO; WILLIAM A. HAWLEY; BERNARD L. NAHLEN; PETER B. BLOLAND; DAVID C. KASLOW; ALTAF A. LAL

    This study was aimed at delineating characteristics of naturally acquired immunity against the merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum,a candidate malaria vaccine antigen. A case\\/control study was performed on 75 case\\/control pairs of infants with febrile illness at the time of the first detected infection indicating a clinical case. The presence and level of antibodies at one month prior

  4. Functional analysis of human memory B-cell subpopulations: IgD +CD27 + B cells are crucial in secondary immune response by producing high affinity IgM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhui Shi; Kazunaga Agematsu; Hans D Ochs; Kazuo Sugane

    2003-01-01

    The number of memory B cells in peripheral blood has been assayed in various diseases by using CD27 as a memory B-cell marker. However, the defining differences of characteristic and function between the two memory B-cell subpopulations separated by immunoglobulin (Ig)D expression remain to be clearly elucidated. We analyzed here IgD+CD27+ B cells (circulating B cells 2, cB2) and IgD?CD27+

  5. Involvement of Blimp-1 and AP-1 dysregulation in the 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated suppression of the IgM response by B cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Dina; Manzan, Maria A; Yoo, Byung Sun; Crawford, Robert B; Kaminski, Norbert

    2009-04-01

    B cell differentiation and humoral immune responses are markedly suppressed by the persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The suppression of humoral immune responses by TCDD occurs by direct actions on the B cell and involves activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Transcriptional regulation of paired box gene 5 (Pax5), an important regulator of B cell differentiation, is altered by TCDD in concordance with the suppression of B cell differentiation and humoral immunoglobulin M response. We hypothesized that TCDD treatment leads to dysregulation of Pax5 transcription by interfering with the basic B cell differentiation mechanisms and aimed to determine the effects of TCDD on upstream regulators of Pax5. A critical regulator of B cell differentiation, B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) acts as a transcriptional repressor of Pax5. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine B cell lymphoma, CH12.LX, Blimp-1 messenger RNA, and DNA-binding activity within the Pax5 promoter were suppressed by TCDD. Furthermore, LPS activation of CH12.LX cells upregulated DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) at three responsive element-like motifs within the Blimp-1 promoter. TCDD treatment of LPS-activated CH12.LX cells suppressed AP-1 binding to these motifs between 24 and 72 h, in concordance with the suppression of Blimp-1 by TCDD. A more comprehensive analysis at 72 h demonstrated that the suppression of AP-1 binding within the Blimp-1 promoter by TCDD was concentration dependent. In summary, our findings link the TCDD-mediated suppression of Blimp-1 through AP-1 to the dysregulation of Pax5, which ultimately leads to the suppression of B cell differentiation and humoral immune responses. PMID:19237549

  6. Bio-Rad Laboratories I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s Diagnostics Group

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    detecting IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, IgG and IgM antibodies to Rubella Virus, IgG and IgM antibodies to Cytomegalovirus, and IgG and IgM antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2. Human serum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x 5 mL Analytes Toxoplasma gondii IgG Toxoplasma gondii IgM Rubella IgG Rubella Ig

  7. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228 PMID:22221904

  8. Recovery of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Immunoglobulin M in Stored Guthrie Card Blood Spots?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hooi-Kuan; Petersen, Eskild; Møller, Lone N.; Phillips, Pamela; Neto, Eurico Camargo; Gilbert, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective testing of neonatal Guthrie card blood spots for specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) can distinguish congenital toxoplasmosis from acquired toxoplasmosis. We determined whether storage temperature reduced IgM detection, using filter paper blood samples “spiked” with anti-Toxoplasma IgM. After 300 days, IgM detection deteriorated with storage at room temperature but not at temperatures of 4°C or lower. PMID:19494076

  9. Bio-Rad Laboratories I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    control with assays detecting IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, IgG and IgM antibodies to Rubella Virus, IgG and IgM antibodies to Cytomegalovirus, and IgG antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x 5 mL Analytes Toxoplasma gondii IgG Toxoplasma gondii IgM Rubella IgG Rubella Ig

  10. Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

  11. Detecting Virus Mutations Via Dynamic Matching Min Feng Rajiv Gupta

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Rajiv

    Detecting Virus Mutations Via Dynamic Matching Min Feng Rajiv Gupta CSE Dept., University, the virus developers are employing obfuscation techniques to create mutating viruses. The current antivirus software can- not handle the obfuscated viruses well since its detection methods that are based upon static

  12. Symantec: Virus Alerts and Hoaxes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website by Symantec (makers of Norton AntiVirus) provides information on the latest virus threats, security advisories, updates for Symantec products and removal tools, as well as some basic information on viruses. The Reference Area includes FAQ, a Glossary, Newsletter, White Papers, a section where you can Submit Virus Samples, postings of Hoaxes, a Security Database, Virus Encyclopedia, and Virus Calendar.

  13. Lock It Up! Computer Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    The data contained on desktop computer systems and networks pose security issues for virtually every district. Sensitive information can be protected by educating users, altering the physical layout, using password protection, designating access levels, backing up data, reformatting floppy disks, using antivirus software, and installing encryption…

  14. IT at Sussex Now you're at Sussex, you

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    , check your email and use the customised set of programs installed on each PC to support your work to the internet You must install antivirus software if you connect your own Windows PC to the campus network! SeeIT at Sussex 2012|2013 #12;Now you're at Sussex, you have access to a wide range of computing

  15. Software Analysis for Security Spiros Mancoridis

    E-print Network

    Mancoridis, Spiros

    vulnerabilities, and integer vulnerabilities to attack computer systems. One approach to software security control, file backups, anti-virus software, biometrics, intrusion detec- tion systems, and honey pots [38 of software systems. A particular emphasis is placed on validating security architectures, verifying

  16. Revised: June 2, 2003 MICL Equipment

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    . Utilities: Acrobat Reader Ghost View McAffee Antivirus Paint Shop Pro Quickdraw 3D Quicktime SSH Winzip #12;Revised: June 2, 2003 MICL Equipment: Workstations(25), file servers(2), scanner, laser printer, color laser printer, D-size large format printer. Equipment Location 14 Win2K Machines Dell P4, 2.3 GHz

  17. IT user guide Using the Kent network

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    and links to free anti-virus software for Windows or Mac: www.kent.ac.uk/itservices/secure Saving. Don't lose your work - have a back up! It's too easy to lose precious work due to computer or software is on your Mac: click on the Apple icon and select About This Mac. The vers

  18. Soil & Crop Sciences Inventory & IP Information Request Form

    E-print Network

    adapter. Take care to read the IP address from the correct adapter. Max OS X: Click on the Apple antivirus software installed and will be kept current according to SAP 24.99.99.M1.23 which states software

  19. WISC Software New Student Checklist

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    WISC Software 2012 New Student Checklist 1. Sign up for text/email emergency messages. safe.uwm.edu; click on "Policies & Procedures" 3. Protect your computer with free campus anti-virus software. security: Bolton 225A TechStore.uwm.edu Stop by to test drive and purchase the most popular Apple, Dell and HP

  20. Open Problems in Computer Virus Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve R. White

    1998-01-01

    Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

  1. !#"%$'&)(!0"% Digital broadcast technology is hot. A casual glance at a newspaper reveals

    E-print Network

    Perrig, Adrian

    reveals it: articles describe the impact of streaming media, questions of intellectual property being. Broadcast enables quick and wide-spread distri- bution of software updates. For example, consider anti-virus software. Viruses utilize the Internet to infect hundreds of thousands of PC's in a few hours

  2. RiskRanker: scalable and accurate zero-day android malware detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grace; Yajin Zhou; Qiang Zhang; Shihong Zou; Xuxian Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Smartphone sales have recently experienced explosive growth. Their popularity also encourages malware authors to penetrate various mobile marketplaces with malicious applications (or apps). These malicious apps hide in the sheer number of other normal apps, which makes their detection challenging. Existing mobile anti-virus software are inadequate in their reactive nature by relying on known malware samples for signature extraction. In

  3. Malware Obfuscation Techniques: A Brief Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilsun You; Kangbin Yim

    2010-01-01

    As the obfuscation is widely used by malware writers to evade antivirus scanners, so it becomes important to analyze how this technique is applied to malwares. This paper explores the malware obfuscation techniques while reviewing the encrypted, oligomorphic, polymorphic and metamorphic malwares which are able to avoid detection. Moreover, we discuss the future trends on the malware obfuscation techniques.

  4. University of Bristol Information Security Policy

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    , smartphones, tablets, USB sticks, external or removable disc drives and flash/memory cards. Scope This policy system and its applications. Devices which are at risk of malware infection must run anti-virus software not undermine the security of the device (e.g. by "jail breaking" or "rooting" a smartphone). Do not leave

  5. Science and Technology Resources on the Internet: Computer Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkus, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues related to computer security, including confidentiality, integrity, and authentication or availability; and presents a selected list of Web sites that cover the basic issues of computer security under subject headings that include ethics, privacy, kids, antivirus, policies, cryptography, operating system security, and biometrics.…

  6. Standard software installations Standard software, as listed below, is installed free of charge on all University of Aberdeen supplied PCs and Windows laptops.

    E-print Network

    Pym, David J.

    Standard software installations Standard software, as listed below, is installed free of charge with Microsoft Windows 7 64-bit Enterprise Edition as standard. Software Name Description 7-Zip Used to open transfer Microsoft Security Centre Endpoint Protection (SCEP) 2012 Anti-virus software for University

  7. An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

    2002-01-01

    With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

  8. How To: Protect against a Zero-Hour Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Rob

    2005-01-01

    In the last year, a series of viruses and worms that caused damage across the Internet in record time has made very clear how vulnerable computer systems are. The MS Blaster, Slammer, Sasser, and Korgo.W worms have shown that signature-based antivirus software and traditional firewalls are not enough to protect networks. Everyone is worried about…

  9. A Comparative Study on Marketing Mix Models for Digital Products

    E-print Network

    Yao, JingTao

    A Comparative Study on Marketing Mix Models for Digital Products KanLiang Wang1 Yuan Wang1 Jing for digital products. It is significant to discuss whether established marketing models can be revised, and then three typical digital products, in- cluding e-books, anti-virus, and online translation services

  10. Peace (of Mind) in Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    There's no silver bullet to information security; universities must continue to keep their antivirus, anti-spyware, firewall, and patch management systems in good working order. These days, the largest target for hackers appears to be university databases. Now, universities are searching for new solutions to safeguard those systems. This article…

  11. Residence Life Office 101 Turner Hall

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    will provide my own Payment Information: Check No._____________ Credit Card (Visa or MasterCard) Complete individual room, you must follow these steps: 1. Submit this form with check or credit card (make checks antivirus. Refunds are not available for any or all past dates for lost connection due to either a port

  12. How Much Security Does Your Library Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to keep library systems healthy and functioning by taking sensible security measures. Examines why hackers would target library systems and how library systems are compromised. Describes tools that can help, including: firewalls; antivirus software; alarms; network analysis tools; and encryption. Identifies several strategies for…

  13. Security Adoption in Heterogeneous Networks: the Influence of Cyber-insurance Market

    E-print Network

    Lui, John C.S.

    Security Adoption in Heterogeneous Networks: the Influence of Cyber-insurance Market Zichao Yang the awareness of these risks and the availability of anti-virus software, investment in security protection of the network. Our second con- tribution is in analyzing a new form of risk management called cyber

  14. Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance

    E-print Network

    Lakhotia, Arun

    interconnected nature of today's computers and the reactive nature of anti-virus (AV) technologies. A virus formal specification [2]. It has previously been argued that computer viruses are artificial life forms. Unlike a biological life form, the organs of a computer virus may not be physically distinguishable from

  15. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  16. The impact of countermeasure propagation on the prevalence of computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-chiou Chen; Kathleen M. Carley

    2004-01-01

    Countermeasures such as software patches or warnings can be effective in helping organizations avert virus infection problems. However, current strategies for disseminating such countermeasures have limited their effectiveness. We propose a new approach, called the countermeasure competing (CMC) strategy, and use computer simulation to formally compare its relative effectiveness with three antivirus strategies currently under consideration. CMC is based on

  17. Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

    1995-01-01

    Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

  18. Multi-Stage Delivery of Malware Marco Ramilli

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Introduction Ever since Cohen's 1984 paper [6] described computer viruses in detail, a battle has raged between virus writers and anti-virus defenders. The simple computer virus has evolved into more complex stealth Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95616-8562, USA bishop

  19. A Distributed Approach to Computer Virus Detection and Neutralization by Autonomous and Heterogeneous Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Okamoto; Yoshiteru Ishida

    1999-01-01

    Recent expansion of the computer network opened a possibility of explosive spread of computer viruses. We propose a distributed approach against computer virus using also the computer network that allows distributed and agent-based approach. Our anti-virus system consists of several heterogeneous agents similarly to the immune system. Among these agents, antibody agents use the information of “self” (files of host

  20. A modified epidemiological model for computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Roberto C. Piqueira; Vanessa O. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Since the computer viruses pose a serious problem to individual and corporative computer systems, a lot of effort has been dedicated to study how to avoid their deleterious actions, trying to create anti-virus programs acting as vaccines in personal computers or in strategic network nodes. Another way to combat viruses propagation is to establish preventive policies based on the whole

  1. The effectiveness of vaccinations on the spread of email-borne computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Data; Hui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, computer viruses have caused tremendous losses to organizations. New viruses continue to cause havoc, in spite of having better antivirus software. It is thus imperative that we understand what factors significantly influence the spread of viruses. In this paper, we model the networks of users as graphs. For simplicity, we assume that every user works only

  2. Computer viruses: a quantitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Coulthard; T. A. Vuori

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides interesting insights for anti-virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e-mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and

  3. The Computer Virus Threat and What You Can Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lateulere, John

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer viruses describes two types of viruses and how they work; suggests ways to prevent or minimize virus risk; and explains how to recognize a virus and limit damage once a virus attacks. A sidebar lists several antivirus software products. (two references) (NRP)

  4. Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Luite Menno Pieter van Zelst About half a year ago, Alban Ponse, my thesis supervisor, suggested that the topic of `computer viruses indus- try and the creators of computer viruses. After all, the anti-virus industry stands to lose a lot

  5. Defense Against the Dark Arts Computer science faculty must attract and retain students by offer-

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Mark W.

    . Our initial vision was to offer a course covering computer viruses--a subject that even a novice. Keywords Anti-virus software, compilers, computer viruses, computer sci- ence education. 1 INTRODUCTION's students consider relevant. Given that computer security breaches, including those committed by viruses

  6. Detection of New Malicious Code Using N-grams Tony Abou-Assaleh, Nick Cercone, Vlado Keselj, and Ray Sweidan

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    . INTRODUCTION Since the appearance of the first computer virus in 1986, a significant number of new viruses has Keselj, and Ray Sweidan Privacy and Security Laboratory, Faculty of Computer Science Dalhousie University is the standard technique in all commercial anti-virus software. This method can detect a virus only after

  7. On the Spread of Viruses on the Internet Noam Berger

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    , and the software removes the virus if the computer is found to be infected. A computer can be infected by the same. In this case, the antivirus software prevents any given computer from being reinfected with the same virusOn the Spread of Viruses on the Internet Noam Berger Christian Borgs Jennifer T. Chayes Amin

  8. In an effort to further protect the IT community, OMC is asking for your help in updating the local PC Symantec Anti Virus (SAV) client which is installed on you computer.

    E-print Network

    Sachs, Frederick

    PC Symantec Anti Virus (SAV) client which is installed on you computer. The manufacturer of the Anti-virus software which protects individual computers, our servers and by extension the network for us all has, but OMC does need your assistance to update every PC. You should do this on each and every computer

  9. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  10. Quantifying the Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Virus Response Mechanisms Elizabeth Van Ruitenbeek,

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    @orange-ftgroup.com Abstract Viruses that infect smartphones are emerging as a new front in the fight against computer viruses the effectiveness of mobile phone virus response mech- anisms. 1. Introduction The enhanced computational measures can leverage existing antivirus efforts against traditional computer viruses

  11. The Queen's College ICT Rules and Regulations for the use of Computing Facilities

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    of facilities 1. Your computer MUST have up-to-date anti-virus software that updates automatically from for University members. http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/viruses/ 2. Your computer MUST be kept up-to-date with operating computer vulnerable to viruses, malware and malicious attacks which could result in your computer being

  12. A Pact with the Devil Mike Bond and George Danezis

    E-print Network

    Danezis, George

    be damned." The Tragicall History of D. Faustus -- Christopher Marlowe Computer viruses and their payloads computer), through user education, to sophisticated anti-virus software, which today include full virtualA Pact with the Devil Mike Bond and George Danezis Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 15

  13. Scob Attack: A Sign of Bad Things to Come?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal Leavitt

    2004-01-01

    A recent Internet attack that exploited a powerful new assault technique has computer security officials worried that it could be a harbinger of worse things to come. The attack was based on a Trojan horse - a nonreplicating program that hides malicious code inside apparently harmless programming, data, or Web pages - dubbed JS.Scob.Trojan by antivirus experts. These servers hosted

  14. JStill: Mostly Static Detection of Obfuscated Malicious JavaScript Code

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Sencun

    JStill: Mostly Static Detection of Obfuscated Malicious JavaScript Code Wei Xu Department University University Park, PA szhu@cse.psu.edu ABSTRACT The dynamic features of the JavaScript language the detection of anti-virus software. To defend against ob- fuscated malicious JavaScript code, in this paper we

  15. The Power of Obfuscation Techniques in Malicious JavaScript Code: A Measurement Study

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Sencun

    The Power of Obfuscation Techniques in Malicious JavaScript Code: A Measurement Study Wei Xu University, University Park Email:{wxx104, fuz104, szhu}@cse.psu.edu Abstract JavaScript based attacks have rely on anti-virus software to protect themselves from malicious JavaScript code, attackers exploit

  16. Collective Defense: Applying the Public-Health Model to the Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Charney

    2012-01-01

    Governments, enterprises, and consumers face myriad technically advanced and persistent computer threats. Commonly available cyberdefenses such as firewalls, antivirus software, and automatic updates for security patches help reduce the risk from threats. However, they're inadequate because many consumers sometimes ignore the guidance provided or engage in other unsafe actions (such as downloading executable programs from unknown sources). Those with infected

  17. An Impact Assessment Model for Distributed Adaptive Security Situation Assessment*

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Teknowledge Corporation Abstract: The goal of any intrusion detection, anti-virus, firewall or other security of a system to complete its mission. A human or robot analyst can use the model to assess the security status of a monitored system and to allocate resources in an optimal way. 1. Introduction* Intrusion detection and other

  18. Framework for Zombie Detection Using Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Salvador; Ant ´ onio Nogueira; U. Franca; R. Valadas

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important threats to personal and corporate Internet security is the proliferation of zombie PCs operating as an organized network. Zombie detection is currently performed at the host level and\\/or network level, but these options have some important drawbacks: antivirus, anti-spyware and personal firewalls are ineffective in the detection of hosts that are compromised via new or

  19. January, 2014 IT Help Desk

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    ://cf.umaryland.edu/software_sales/ Windows 8.1 Professional upgrade (32 or 64 bit) Office 2013 Professional Plus (Windows) Windows 8 Professional upgrade (32 or 64 bit) Office 2010 Professional Plus (Windows) Windows 7 Ultimate upgrade (32 or 64 bit) Office 2011 Standard (MAC) Windows Vista Ultimate upgrade (32 bit) Symantec Anti-Virus (End

  20. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  1. Lesions more than cerebellum in a puerpera of acute cerebellitis: concurrent encephalitis, not a subtype of ADEM

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Qing; Chen, Dan; Zou, Ya-Fen; Huang, Ming; Jia, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a puerpera who has acute-onset ataxia with fever, headache, convulsions, and altered mental status. She had a good response to antivirus treatment and low-dose steroid. Acute cerebellitis was the tentative diagnosis. But concurrent encephalitis was proposed with multiple lesions beyond cerebellum. PMID:25356202

  2. Macroeconomic Analysis of Malware Vaibhav Garg, L. Jean Camp

    E-print Network

    Camp, L. Jean

    is on an explanation of and argument for our method: macroeconomic analysis informed by crime science.1 I. INTRODUCTION Technical efforts, such as, anti-virus, aim to thwart cyber- criminals, through what is effectively an arms of policy and technical solu- tions to crime online, not grounded in deterrence, requires a science

  3. The synthesis of analogs of shuangkangsu, a novel natural cycloperoxide glucoside from Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Bo; Huang, Long-Jiang; Li, Di-Zao; Zhang, Qing-Jian; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Four novel optically pure cycloperoxide glucosides 9a, 9b, 10a, and 10b, analogs of shuangkangsu--a natural product with unusual skeleton and antivirus activity from the buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb, were firstly synthesized by employing peroxidation and glucosidation reactions from phthalaldehyde or 4,5-dichloro phthalaldehyde and glucose. PMID:19219731

  4. Inmunoterapia: Uso del sistema inmunitario para tratar el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de los métodos de inmunoterapia utilizados para tratar el cáncer, tales como el uso de anticuerpos monoclonales, transferencia celular adoptiva, vacunas de tratamiento contra el cáncer y sustancias modificadoras de la respuesta inmunitaria.

  5. An Unusual Case of Bilateral Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Pistolese, C. A.; Di Trapano, R.; Girardi, V.; Costanzo, E.; Di Poce, I.; Simonetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM. PMID:23781373

  6. Mutations affecting the structure and function of immunoglobulin M.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, M J; Heusser, C; Filkin, C; Köhler, G

    1982-01-01

    Using a hybridoma cell line which secretes hapten-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), we have isolated a variety of mutants which produce abnormal immunoglobulin. Immunoglobulin was tested for the size and composition of the component heavy and light chains and for variable and constant region related functional and serological activities. Some mutants secrete IgM which seems to be defective in hapten binding; others make IgM which appears not to activate complement. Many of the mutants secrete monomeric as opposed to pentameric IgM. In some cases, the defect apparently correlates with structural alterations in the mu heavy chain: partial deletion, polypeptide addition, and abnormal glycosylation have been observed. These mutant cell lines provide a means of identifying the structural basis of IgM function and of studying the biochemistry of IgM synthesis and processing. Images PMID:6817080

  7. Arterial Stiffness Increases With Deteriorating Glucose Tolerance Status The Hoorn Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. A. Henry; Piet J. Kostense; Annemieke M. W. Spijkerman; Jacqueline M. Dekker; Giel Nijpels; Robert J. Heine; Otto Kamp; Nico Westerhof; Lex M. Bouter; Coen D. A. Stehouwer

    Background—Type 2 diabetes (DM-2) and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. In nondiabetic individuals, increased arterial stiffness is an important cause of cardiovas- cular disease. Associations between DM-2 and IGM and arterial stiffness have not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results—In a population-based cohort (n747; 278 with normal glucose metabolism, 168 with IGM, and

  8. Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) possess natural antibodies with trypanocidal activity towards Trypanosoma carassii in vitro.

    PubMed

    Katzenback, Barbara A; Plouffe, Debbie A; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2013-05-01

    Natural infection of cyprinids, such as carp, with the extracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma carassii can attain up to 100% prevalence and cause significant host morbidity and mortality, particularly in aquaculture settings. Host recovery from T. carassii infection has been shown to be antibody (Immunoglobulin M; IgM)-mediated, conferring long-term immunity in recovered animals upon challenge. To assess the role of IgM in parasite clearance in the goldfish, IgM was purified by PEG-6000 precipitation from goldfish serum collected at 0 (naïve), 21 (peak parasitaemia) and 42 (recovery phase; immune) days post infection (dpi) and used for in vitro assays. Purified IgM from 0, 21, and 42 dpi serum showed dose- and time-dependent trypanocidal activity in vitro. Incubation of T. carassii with 0 dpi IgM showed the greatest reduction in trypanosome numbers after 24 h, followed by 42 dpi IgM, and finally by 21 dpi IgM. The trypanocidal activity of the PEG-purified IgM was abrogated by pre-absorption with parasites in vitro and was affected by temperature. Furthermore, studies using 0 dpi IgM purified using gel permeation chromatography showed increased trypanocidal activity, with complete elimination of parasites after 12 h when incubated with 200 ?g of 0 dpi IgM, or by 24 h when incubated with 80 ?g or 100 ?g of 0 dpi IgM. Lastly, in vivo passive transfer experiments demonstrated that while immune serum or purified IgM from 42 dpi serum conferred protection against a challenge, neither 0 dpi serum or 0 dpi purified IgM conferred protection against challenge with T. carassii. PMID:23333358

  9. Early Recurrence of Nephrotic Syndrome (Immunoglobulin M Nephropathy) After Renal Transplantation Successfully Treated With Combinations of Plasma Exchanges, Immunoglobulin, and Rituximab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Westphal; S. Hansson; L. Mjörnstedt; J. Mölne; S. Swerkersson; S. Friman

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, which is well known to recur early in a renal graft, there are only few cases described with recurrence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) nephropathy after transplantation. We herein describe a patient with early recurrence of IgM nephropathy. A 15-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome (IgM nephropathy) proceeding to end-stage renal disease was on dialysis before

  10. Distributive immunization of networks against viruses using the `honey-pot' architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Shavitt, Yuval; Shir, Eran; Solomon, Sorin

    2005-12-01

    Although computer viruses cause tremendous economic loss, defence mechanisms fail to adapt to their rapid evolution. Previous immunization strategies have been characterized as being static and centralized, which has made virus containment difficult or even impossible. We suggest, instead, to propagate the immunization agent as an epidemic. The main problem with epidemic vaccine propagation is that it is bound to lag behind the virus. We suggest giving the vaccine an advantage over the virus by allowing it to leapfrog through a separate, overlapping, partially correlated network. This enables the antivirus to contain the epidemic efficiently. We systemize this concept with a `honey-pot' architecture that achieves both early virus discovery and rapid antivirus dissemination. We present analytic, as well as simulation, results for a set of realistic topologies that illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  11. Page 1 of 3 Radiogram No. 3906u Form 24 for 08/23/2010

    E-print Network

    Columbus VCA1 Setup 08:15-08:55 FE-5 Auxiliary Laptop Computer System Anti-Virus Update. Tagup:10-12:30 FE-3 IMS Update 13:00-14:00 . LUNCH 14:00-14:40 CDR Maintenance 14:00-14:15 FE-2 MELFI 3 Dewar 1 Function System Setup 14:20-14:25 FE-6 HRF Urine Sample Insertion Into MELFI 14:25-14:35 FE-6 Cube Video

  12. Anti-malicious Code Technology Based on SSDT Restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHEN Meng

    2009-01-01

    (Abstract)By amending System Service Dispatch Table(SSDT), the malicious code can avoid being cleared by antivirus software or anti-malice software. Aiming at SDDT hook technology, this paper realizes an anti-malicious code technology based on SSDT restoration through system file relocation. It expatiates the method of resetting Ntoskrnl.exe files and the method of shifting comparison of Ntoskrnl.exe files. Experimental results show that

  13. Network Traffic Sensor for Multiprocessor Architectures: Design Improvement Proposals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armando Ferro; Fidel Liberal; Alejandro Muñoz; Cristina Perfecto

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a This document describes several design proposals to enhance net-work sensor performance on multiprocessor architectures. Our\\u000a main contributions are related to the design of an autonomous sensor and to the idea of per-forming some parallelization of\\u000a the analysis. These proposals can be implemented in network sensors such as intrusion detection systems, network antivirus\\u000a appliances, QoS monitors and any other device based

  14. Ad-Aware Free Internet Security 8.3.1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many users may be familiar with the Ad-Aware application, and those who are will be glad to learn that this latest version installs a bit faster and that it now has a built-in scheduler for security scans. The application still features high-level anti-virus protection, a "quick-scan" setting, and a number of additional updates. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

  15. Beyond Firewalls: Professional Certification Ensures Your Staff Will Understand Information Security in Its Proper Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to security, many people do not know what they do not know. Consider for example, an administrator who leaves her password taped under her keyboard, or a teacher who doesn't change his password (ever!) or can't be bothered to log out or lock the computer, all the firewalls and antivirus programs in the world will not protect a…

  16. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

    2001-01-01

    Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

  17. E. coli expressed proteins as diagnostic reagents for typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. S. Suryanarayana; S. Viswanathan; G. Ratish; P. Bist; K. Prabhudas; M. R. Gajendragad; C. Natarajan

    1999-01-01

    Summary.  ?Truncated proteins corresponding to the C-terminal half of VP1 of four vaccine strains and two field variants of foot-and-mouth\\u000a disease virus (FMDV) were expressed in E. coli. The expressed proteins were affinity purified and their type specific reactivity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with\\u000a anti-virus antibodies. Antibodies were raised against the purified proteins in guinea pigs and the type specificity of

  18. Page 1 of 2 Radiogram No. 7851u Form 24 for 12/05/2011

    E-print Network

    behind panel 139. 06:10-06:40 . Post-sleep 06:40-07:30 . BREAKFAST 07:30-08:00 . Work Prep 08 Exercise (CEVIS) 11:05-12:35 CDR Physical Exercise (ARED) 11:15-11:25 FE-1 comm assets switchover to a backup string 11:20-12:00 FE-2 Auxiliary Laptop Anti-Virus Update 11:25-12:55 FE-1 Physical Exercise

  19. Serological cross reactivity to CMV and EBV causes problems in the diagnosis of acute hepatitis E virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hyams, Catherine; Mabayoje, Diana A; Copping, Ruth; Maranao, Desmond; Patel, Mauli; Labbett, Wendy; Haque, Tanzina; Webster, Daniel P

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern as a major cause of enterically-transmitted hepatitis worldwide. The detectable window of viraemia is narrow, and HEV IgM and IgG rise simultaneously in acute infection. Furthermore, previous investigators have shown HEV IgM false positive reactions occur against EBV, CMV and potentially hepatitis A. A retrospective analysis of HEV serology testing was performed at a London tertiary referral hospital over a 3-year period. A thousand four hundred and twenty three serum samples were tested for HEV serology, with 33 samples HEV IgM positive and 28 HEV IgM equivocal. One hundred and eleven samples were HEV IgG positive but IgM negative suggesting past infection. No patients with HEV IgM positivity had false positive reactions against hepatitis A. A high degree of EBV and CMV cross reactivity was noted, with 33.3% and 24.2% of HEV IgM positive samples also testing positive for EBV and CMV IgM, respectively. HEV RNA was detected in four HEV IgM positive samples, indicating true positivity, although three demonstrated cross reactivity against EBV. Only 13.3% of samples with positive HEV IgM were HEV PCR positive, highlighting a low positive predictive value of serology testing. Overall a high level of HEV, EBV and CMV IgM cross reactivity was demonstrated, indicating that serology is unreliable in the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. It is concluded that that the diagnosis of viral hepatitis should be based on clinical features, raised transaminases, serology, and confirmatory PCR testing. PMID:24402843

  20. Interaction of temperature and salinity on the expression of immunity factors in different tissues of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus based on response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhihui; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Lei, Jilin; Li, Weiye; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2015-01-01

    Central Composite Design (CCD) and response surface methodology were used in the experiment to examine the combined effect of temperature (16-28°C) and salinity (18-42) on Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) liver and kidney. The results showed that the coefficients of determination ( R 2 =0.965 2 for liver Hsp70, 0.972 9 for kidney Hsp70, 0.921 for liver IgM and 0.962 1 for kidney IgM) and probability values ( P<0.01) were significant for the regression model. The interactive effect between temperature and salinity on liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70 and liver IgM were not significant ( P>0.05), while the interactive effect between temperature and salinity on kidney IgM was significant ( P<0.01). The model equation could be used in practice for forecasting Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in the liver and kidney of juvenile turbot via applying statistical optimization of the response of interest, at which the maximum liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70, liver IgM and kidney IgM of 1.48, 1.49, 2.48, and 1.38, respectively, were reached. The present model may be valuable in assessing the feasibility of turbot farming at different geographic locations and, furthermore, could be a useful reference for scientists studying the immunity of turbot.

  1. The Hot Inter-Galactic Medium and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Michael Fisher

    2007-05-01

    The physical characteristics of the Lyman-alpha forest cloud systems are combined with observations on the baryonic mass density of the Universe and constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis to set boundary conditions on the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) at the epoch of z=2.5. The Universe is considered a closed system and allowed to expand adiabatically from the epoch when QSOs first ionized the IGM (5 <= z_on <= 20). The average kinetic energy of a gas is calculated in the region where the gas transitions from relativistic to non-relativistic behavior. All of the above measurements are then used to determine the thermal history of the IGM in the redshift range 2.5 <= z <= z_on. The hot IGM is assumed to inverse Compton scatter photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMBR) and consequently distort the CMBR as seen at the present epoch. The temperature of the IGM at z=2.5 and the epoch z_on are adjusted, within the constraints defined above, to give the best overall agreement with published data on the temperature of the IGM. We find that the model of the IGM proposed here does not grossly distort the CMBR, and in fact agrees quite closely with the preliminary results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. However, our model of the IGM cannot explain the observed cosmic x ray background. This paper was originally written in 1990. It was never submitted for publication.

  2. NEUROMUSCULAR CLINICAL LABORATORY: Antibody Testing Neuromuscular Disease Center

    E-print Network

    Baloh, Bob

    ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ================================================================== ANTIBODY TESTS & INTERPRETATIONS REQUESTED Syndrome Panels Antibody Panels: Individual [ ] Motor Neuropathy-Kleffner variant (IgM & IgG) Other: [ ] _________________________ [ ] Sensory (± Motor) Neuropathy: IgG vs: Sulfatide & GM1 IgM vs: MAG, GD1b, TS-HDS, Sulfatide, HH3 [ ] Peripheral Neuropathy: Sensory Neuropathy + GM

  3. Radiative Transfer in a Clumpy Universe. III. The Nature of Cosmological Ionizing Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piero Madau; Francesco Haardt; Martin J. Rees

    1999-01-01

    The history of the transition from a neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) to one that is almost fully ionized can reveal the character of cosmological ionizing sources. We study the evolution of the volume filling factors of H II and He III regions in a clumpy IGM and discuss the implications for rival reionization scenarios of the rapid decline observed at

  4. Effectiveness of Individually Guided Motivation: A Summary of the Empirical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghatala, Elizabeth Schwenn, Ed.

    Individually Guided Motivation (IGM) is designed to attain certain motivational objectives set by the school by accommodating instruction to individual differences in skill and motivational level and rate and style of learning. The development of IGM was undertaken to meet these specific educational needs: (1) to assure a high level of motivation…

  5. Detection of two distinct malignant B cell clones in a single patient using anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Giardina, S L; Schroff, R W; Woodhouse, C S; Golde, D W; Oldham, R K; Cleary, M L; Sklar, J; Pritikin, N; Foon, K A

    1985-11-01

    Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement analysis and somatic cell hybridization techniques were used to examine the malignant cell population in an unusual patient with hairy cell leukemia and macroglobulinemia (N Engl J Med 296:92, 1977). Although previous investigations suggested that the IgM macroglobulin was secreted by the circulating leukemia cells, anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies raised to the IgM macroglobulin failed to react with the malignant cells in the circulation and bone marrow. In contrast, approximately 50% of the mononuclear cells from an enlarged inguinal lymph node reacted strongly with the anti-idiotype antibodies. Subsequent reanalysis of all cell populations demonstrated that whereas the circulating and bone marrow cells were IgM kappa-bearing, the macroglobulin was IgM gamma-bearing and the lymph node cells were evenly divided among IgM kappa-bearing and IgM gamma-bearing. Immunofluorescence flow cytometry indicated that those lymph node cells that reacted strictly with the anti-idiotype antibody were IgM gamma-bearing, demonstrating that they were the source of macroglobulin. An analysis of immunoglobulin gene DNA confirmed the coexistence of two distinct malignant B cell populations in the lymph node and indicated that the IgM kappa-bearing lymph node cells were identical to the circulating and bone marrow leukemic cells. PMID:3931723

  6. Identification and characterization of two distinct bursal B-cell subpopulations following infectious bursal disease virus infection of White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus which primarily infects IgM, B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius. Flow cytometric analysis was used to phenotype B-cell populations in the bursa and spleen following IBDV infection. In the bursa, two IgM B-cell subpopulations, desig...

  7. Intra-Golgi formation of IgM-glycosaminoglycan complexes promotes Ig deposition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salar N; Cox, John V; Nishimoto, Satoru K; Chen, Ching; Fritzler, Marvin J; Hendershot, Linda M; Weigert, Martin; Radic, Marko

    2011-09-15

    Immune complexes arise from interactions between secreted Ab and Ags in the surrounding milieu. However, it is not known whether intracellular Ag-Ab interactions also contribute to the formation of extracellular immune complexes. In this study, we report that certain murine B cell hybridomas accumulate intracellular IgM and release large, spherical IgM complexes. The complexes (termed "spherons") reach 2 ?m in diameter, detach from the cell surface, and settle out of solution. The spherons contain IgM multimers that incorporate the J chain and resist degradation by endoglycosidase H, arguing for IgM passage through the Golgi. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of proteoglycan synthesis, or incubation of spherons with chondroitinase ABC, degrades spherons, indicating that spheron formation and growth depend on interactions between IgM and glycosaminoglycans. This inference is supported by direct binding of IgM to heparin and hyaluronic acid. We conclude that, as a consequence of IgM binding to glycosaminoglycans, multivalent IgM-glycan complexes form in transit of IgM to the cell surface. Intra-Golgi formation of immune complexes could represent a new pathogenic mechanism for immune complex deposition disorders. PMID:21841132

  8. Increased Immune Complexes of Hypocretin Autoantibodies in Narcolepsy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    levels of anti-idiotypic IgM autoantibodies reacting with hypocretin-1 IgG autoantibodies affinity and with anti-idiotypic IgM autoantibodies. Conclusion: Central hypersomnias and particularly narcolepsy complexes most likely with anti-idiotypic autoantibodies suggesting their relevance to the mechanism

  9. Persistence of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies after postnatal rubella infection determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, O H

    1978-01-01

    The appearance and persistence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in postnatal rubella infections were studied by employing a solid-phase radioimmunoassay test. Altogether, 222 serial serum specimens from 51 patients with acute rubella infection were tested. Both IgG and IgM antibodies developed rapidly and appeared in all patients within 4 days after the onset of rash. In some patients, the IgM antibodies clearly preceded the IgG antibodies; however, the reverse situation was also noticed in a few cases. The IgG antibodies showed only minor changes after 8 to 10 days from the onset of rash. The IgM titers also reached a maximum level at approximately 8 to 10 days after the onset of rash, after which time a rapid decrease was normally seen. The mean half-life of IgM antibodies after 15 days from the onset of rash was 4.5 days, giving for IgM antibodies persistence times from 43 to approximately 80 days. Two patients with a prolonged IgM antibody response were detected. One of these patients had bilateral arthritis of the knee as a complication, whereas in the other patient no complication caused by rubella virus was detected. The IgM antibody response and its value in diagnosis are discussed. PMID:624770

  10. RECURSOS CARTOGRFICOS EN INTERNET

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    , Atlas de Habitats de España, Inventario Forestal Nacional , IEZH, Mapa Forestal de España 1 INTERNET #12;1. COLECCIONES DIGITALIZADAS 1.1 IGME (Instituto Geológico y Minero de España): www.igme.es 1.2 IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional): www.ign.es Centro de descargas 1.3 MARM (Ministerio de Medio

  11. Metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Nickolay Y. Gnedin

    1997-09-23

    I demonstrate by means of high resolution cosmological simulations, which include modelling of a two-phase interstellar medium, that the dominant mechanism for transporting heavy elements from the proto-galaxies into the IGM is the merger mechanism as discovered by Gnedin & Ostriker. Direct ejection of the interstellar gas by supernovae plays only a minor role in transporting metals into the IGM: for a realistic cosmological scenario only a small fraction of all metals in the IGM is delivered by the supernova-driven winds, while most of all metals in the IGM are transported by the merger mechanism. As the result, the metallicity distribution in the IGM is highly inhomogeneous, in agreement with studies of the QSO metal absorption systems, and the predicted metallicity distribution of Lyman-alpha absorbers as a function of their column density is in excellent agreement with the observational data.

  12. Effects of a hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gregory B.; Wright, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    One effect a hot intergalactic medium (IGM) would have would be to produce an isotropic X-ray background through thermal bremsstrahlung. Such a background was modeled including both relativistic electron-ion and electron-electron emission; the observed X-ray measurements could be fit with a current temperature of 10.2 keV and Omega (IGM) of 0.27, assuming that the IGM was instantaneously heated at a redshift of 5 and cools by relativistic adiabatic expansion and Compton cooling. Such a hot IGM would also distort the cosmic microwave background spectrum by inverse Compton scattering off relativistic electrons. This distortion was modeled using the relativistic treatment. When including the recent data of Matsumoto et al., an undistorted radiation temperature of 2.86 K and an Omega (IGM) of 0.41 was found.

  13. Determinantes de las respuestas a vacunas orales en países en vías de desarrollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Sack; Firdausi Qadri; Ann-Mari Svennerholm

    2008-01-01

    ExtractoLas vacunas orales que se han diseñado para uso global no inducen necesariamente las mismas respuestas inmunitarias en todos los niños de todo el mundo. De hecho, varias vacunas inducen a menudo respuestas medias de anticuerpos menos frecuentes y menores en niños en países en vías de desarrollo, lo que permite suponer que las vacunas pueden producir un efecto menos

  14. Oferta Tecnolgica CARTERA DE PATENTES

    E-print Network

    BIOMATERIALES 13 Anticuerpos y antígenos inmovilizados sobre partículas magnéticas de Nanopartículas magnéticas para su uso en una composición farmacéutica Procedimiento de cristalización a partir de preparación y usos Material microporoso organoinorgánico como adsorbente para

  15. Tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo renal. Reporte de un caso Primitive neuroectodermal kidney tumor. Case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Corrales Santa; Jorge Enrique; Pinilla Pico; Miguel Ignacio; Roldán Pérez; Jorge Iván; Gutiérrez Montoya

    SUMMARY RESUMEN Antecedentes: El tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo (TNEP) es un tumor de células redondas que se presenta prin- cipalmente en tejidos blandos; excepcionalmente se encuentra en tracto intestinal, pelvis, retroperitoneo y riñón. Métodos: El espécimen quirúrgico renal, fue fijado en formol al 10%, e incluido en parafina. El estudio de inmunohistoquímica com- prendió los siguientes anticuerpos: enolasa neuronal específi- ca,

  16. Simulating intergalactic quasar scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallottini, A.; Ferrara, A.; Evoli, C.

    2013-10-01

    Intergalactic scintillation of distant quasars is sensitive to free electrons and therefore complements Ly? absorption-line experiments probing the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM). We present a new scheme to compute IGM refractive scintillation effects on distant sources in combination with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations. First, we validate our model by reproducing the well-known interstellar scintillation (ISS) of Galactic sources. The simulated cosmic density field is then used to infer the statistical properties of intergalactic scintillation. Contrary to previous claims, we find that the scattering measure of the simulated IGM at z < 2 is = 3.879, i.e. almost 40 times larger than that for the usually assumed smooth IGM. This yields an average modulation index ranging from 0.01 (?s = 5 GHz) up to 0.2 (?s = 50 GHz); above ?s ? 30 GHz the IGM contribution dominates over ISS modulation. We compare our model with data from a 0.3 ? z ? 2 quasar sample observed at ?obs = 8.4 GHz. For this high-frequency (10.92 ? ?s ? 25.2), high-galactic-latitude sample ISS is negligible, and IGM scintillation can reproduce the observed modulation with a 4 per cent accuracy, without invoking intrinsic source variability. We conclude by discussing the possibility of using IGM scintillation as a tool to pinpoint the presence of intervening high-z groups/clusters along the line of sight, thus making it a probe suitably complementing Sunyaev-Zel'dovich data recently obtained by Planck.

  17. A study of HPV 1, 2 and 4 antibody prevalence in patients presenting for treatment with cutaneous warts to general practitioners in N. Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, K.; Shirodaria, P. V.; Pfister, H.; Pollock, B.; Fuchs, P.; Merrett, J. D.; Irwin, W. G.; Simpson, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-six patients attending their general practitioner with cutaneous warts at five health centres in Northern Ireland were screened for human papilloma virus (HPV) types 1 and 2 IgM antibody using an indirect immunofluorescence test. Eight-eight (23.4%) patients were positive for HPV type 1 IgM and 156 (41.5%) for HPV type 2 IgM. HPV 1 IgM antibody was significantly more likely to be associated with plantar warts than warts elsewhere (P less than 0.0001). HPV 2 IgM was present in 45 (34.1%) patients with plantar warts and 99 (45.6%) patients with warts at other sites (P = 0.1). Evidence of multiple infection by HPV types 1 and 2 was demonstrated by the finding of HPV 1 and 2 IgM antibodies in the sera of 16 (4.3%). HPV 4 was found in only 1 out of 30 biopsies and HPV 4 IgM was undetectable in 50 randomly chosen sera. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2850937

  18. Elimination of nonspecific cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M activities in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using anti-human immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed Central

    Joassin, L; Reginster, M

    1986-01-01

    Direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods offer several advantages in assessing past or recent exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, but there persist many pitfalls in the use of these methods for determining specific immunoglobulin M (IgM). The efficiency of absorption of sera by IgG-coated latex beads, aggregated human IgG, or Staphylococcus aureus, i.e., for removing nonspecific CMV IgM activities, was evaluated in comparison with the effect of an anti-human IgG hyperimmune serum. Large routine series comprising serum samples from patients of various clinical groups and healthy individuals were examined. The CMV IgM-positive samples were at first treated with latex or aggregated IgG, but these absorptions left too many CMV IgM-positive individuals. S. aureus increased the nonspecific activity of some sera and, in other cases, removed or impaired specific IgM activities. The anti-IgG treatment caused the disappearance of nonspecific CMV IgM activities that had resisted the other treatments, whereas specific activities remained intact. Utilizing this method, only 1.03% of the routine series patients remained CMV IgM positive by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a figure in good agreement with a mean probability of CMV antibody acquisition of 0.33% for the population living in Belgium. On the other hand, in a series of patients who were investigated for serological response to several viruses, eight individuals displayed multiple IgM activities after anti-IgG treatment. In these cases, most IgM activities were found in patients who had IgG toward the related antigen for a long time before transient IgM was detected. This result implies that to assess a diagnosis of primary infection, it is necessary to examine serial specimens for IgG acquisition accompanying specific IgM. PMID:3007570

  19. Production of Antibodies Specific for Fc, Fab?, and Streptokinase-Streptodornase In Vitro by Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Normal Donors

    PubMed Central

    Birdsall, Holly H.; Rossen, Roger D.

    1982-01-01

    To study antibody (Ab) biosynthesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the immunoglobulin (Ig)M anti-Fc, anti-Fab?, and antistreptokinase-streptodornase (SKSD) produced by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were measured at intervals from 1 to 19 d in culture. PBL from 17 seropositive patients with active RA and 30 age-matched controls were evaluated. Within the first 24 h, PBL from six of eight patients released >30 ng IgM anti-Fc, even in the absence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM). This early release of Ab was blocked by cycloheximide. With or without PWM, PBL from normal donors did not release IgM anti-Fc until after 3-5 d in vitro. By day 9, unstimulated PBL from seven patients made > 100 ng IgM anti-Fc. Un-stimulated PBL from normals never made >95 ng of this Ab. When PWM was added, PBL from normal donors released as much IgM anti-Fc as was found in RA donor cultures. Paradoxically, addition of PWM to PBL of RA patients suppressed release of IgM anti-Fc in 4 of 17 cases to levels significantly below those found in unstimulated cultures of the same cells. Without PWM, PBL from RA donors frequently failed to make IgM anti-SKSD (P < 0.05 compared with normal donors' cells). With PWM, the quantities of IgM anti-SKSD released were comparable. Fluctuations in IgM anti-Fab? levels during the life-time of these cultures were sufficient to suggest that these Ab may be taken up in immune complexes. This hypothesis was verified by acidifying (pH 3.1) culture supernatants to which 125I-Fab? had been added previously. The samples were then neutralized (pH 7.6) and 12% polyethylene glycol was added to separate free from antibody-bound 125I-Fab?. This procedure increased the quantity of 125I-Fab? precipitated by > 10-fold in some cases. These studies suggest that there are a variety of abnormalities in Ab biosynthesis in RA. These include spontaneous synthesis of comparatively large quantities of IgM anti-Fc, relatively suppressed release of IgM anti-SKSD, and a paradoxical reduction, in some cases, in the biosynthesis of IgM anti-Fc after addition of PWM. PMID:6976356

  20. Bio-Rad Laboratories I N F E C T I O U S D I S E A S E C O N T R O L S LiquichekTM

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    Controls #12;I N F E C T I O U S D I S E A S E C O N T R O L S Toxoplasma gondii IgG Rubella Virus IgG Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) IgG Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG Epstein) IgG Syphilis RPR Toxoplasma gondii IgM Rubella Virus IgM Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM Herpes Simplex

  1. Defense Islands in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes and Prediction of Novel Defense Systems ?†‡

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic “sinks” that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands. PMID:21908672

  2. McAfee's Virus Information Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

  3. Jumbo!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jumbo: the "official" shareware site of the Web. This searchable archive contains over 24,000 shareware and freeware programs. Categories include: business, home and personal, programming, utilities, and words and graphics. Within each category, programs are cataloged by operating system. The entire archive is a searchable by program category and operating system. There is a short annotation with the programs to help determine whether to download them or not. Size of program is given. A "starter kit" of a decompression and anti-virus program is also provided for each operating system. This is an excellent specialty site.

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  5. System Toolbox

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

  6. Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hossein; Antonijevic, Branko; Walcott, Terry

    The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously. In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools are marketed as perfect solutions to the ever culminating problems such as loss of data and privacy in networked and world wide intercommunications. We provide a forum for addressing these perceived problems in this paper.

  7. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation for a Delayed SLBRS Computer Virus Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    By incorporating the time delay due to the period that computers use antivirus software to clean the virus into the SLBRS model a delayed SLBRS computer virus model is proposed in this paper. The dynamical behaviors which include local stability and Hopf bifurcation are investigated by regarding the delay as bifurcating parameter. Specially, direction and stability of the Hopf bifurcation are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theory. Finally, an illustrative example is also presented to testify our analytical results. PMID:25202722

  8. Northern Light Special Edition: Computer Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The latest special edition from Northern Light brings together a handy collection of resources on computer viruses, primarily news items and links to related sites. These are grouped in six sections, including current news, US government resources, online reference, anti-virus solutions, and virus writers & hackers. Each section begins with a link to related search returns from Northern Light. While this page is certainly not the end-all resource for virus information, it is a perfectly fine place to begin your search.

  9. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of hydrophilic undecylenic acid sugar esters and their biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Raku, Takao; Kitagawa, Masaru; Shimakawa, Hiromi; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    To enhance water solubility of 10-undecylenic acid, which has anti-fungus, anti-bacterial and anti-virus activity, D-glucose, trehalose and sucrose were regioselectively esterified with vinyl 10-undecylenic acid ester in dimethyl formamide by a commercial protease, Bioprase conc., from Bacillus subtilis. 6-O-(10-Undecylenoyl) D-glucose, 6-O-(10-undecylenoyl) trehalose and 1'-O-(10-undecylenoyl) sucrose were obtained. The influence of structural variation by changing the sugar moiety was analyzed the surface tension and biodegradability. PMID:12882293

  11. TU Wien Studentensoftware Gebhr (Euro)

    E-print Network

    Szmolyan, Peter

    .00 Windows 8.1 x64 Pro 8.00 10.00 Programmierung, Utilities Avira Antivirus Suite V14 0.90 - MS Visual Studio5 2.70 1.00 PC Systemsoftware Ubuntu 9.04 i386 - 0.50 Ubuntu 9.10 amd64 - 0.50 Windows Me - 0.50 Windows 2000 Pro SP4 - 0.50 Windows XP Pro SP3 - 1.00 Windows Vista Busi SP1 4.00 - Windows Vista x64 Busi

  12. Fresh Download 7.10

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the digital age of people downloading everything possible -- whether it be a program, music, or movies. It is a constant frustration to wait and wait for something to download and then get broken off from the website when 90% complete. Well, Fresh Download can help. Included in its large list of features is the ability to open more than one connection to the download site, maximizing your download, and the ability to resume a download where you left off should you get disconnected. This tool can also be integrated with your favorite web browser and antivirus program offering seamless protected integration into your existing environment.

  13. MFR PAPER 1287 Cellular Immunity in Fish as Measured

    E-print Network

    , JOHN C. LEE, E. CHURCHILL McKINNEY, and DIANA M. LOPEZ ABSTRACT-Fish are capable of responding to be capable of regulating immune re- sponse. These include the IgM natural antibodies (some of which have

  14. AMA Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) IgM level Bilirubin Albumin Prothrombin time (PT) ... a liver panel (elevated liver enzymes), especially alkaline phosphatase (ALP) . An AMA or AMA-M2 test may ...

  15. Taxing the Rich: Recombinations and Bubble Growth During Reionization

    E-print Network

    Furlanetto, S R; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present an analytic model for the evolving topology of reionization that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers. As a result, reionization resembles "punctuated equilibrium," with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles stop growing when recombinations balan...

  16. Lymphocyte Surface Markers and Serum Immunoglobulins in Persons with Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Hann, Hie-Won L.

    1979-01-01

    Distributions of the serum immunoglobulins (IgM), of T and B lymphocytes, and subpopulations of B lymphocytes were studied in children and institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome and appropriate mentally retarded controls. (Author)

  17. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C virus (HCV), a spherical, enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus, approximately 50 nm in diameter. TRANSMISSION Transmission ... and nucleic acid amplification testing to detect HCV RNA in blood (viremia). Assays for IgM, to detect ...

  18. Lyman-alpha scattering in the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionisation 

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Jonathan

    2012-06-22

    We examine resonant scattering of Ly? (Lyman-alpha) photons in the neutral hydrogen Intergalactic Medium (IGM) at high redshift. Ly? scattering plays a key role in the 21cm emission/absorption against the Cosmic Microwave Background via...

  19. The ultimate fate of cosmic rays from galaxies and their role in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Brian C.

    2015-03-01

    The majority of cosmic rays (CRs) generated by star-forming galaxies escape them and enter the intergalactic medium (IGM). Galactic wind termination shocks might also accelerate CRs. I show that the mean pressure of these CRs can reach to within an order of magnitude of the mean Lyman ? forest thermal pressure. At z ? 1, their pressure may have even been dominant. I also demonstrate that, whichever IGM phase the CRs reside in, they contribute significantly to its pressure if its temperature is ˜104 K, as long as pionic and Coulomb losses are negligible. Where CRs end up depends on the structure and strength of intergalactic magnetic fields. I argue that CRs end up at least 30 kpc from their progenitor galaxies. CRs may self-confine in the IGM to the sound speed, generating ? 10- 13 G magnetic fields. These considerations imply the existence and importance of a non-thermal IGM.

  20. Pleural innate response activator B cells protect against pneumonia via a GM-CSF-IgM axis

    PubMed Central

    Chousterman, Benjamin G.; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Robbins, Clinton S.; Theurl, Igor; Gerhardt, Louisa M.S.; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Quach, Tam D.; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, John W.; Rothstein, Thomas L.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia is a major cause of mortality worldwide and a serious problem in critical care medicine, but the immunophysiological processes that confer either protection or morbidity are not completely understood. We show that in response to lung infection, B1a B cells migrate from the pleural space to the lung parenchyma to secrete polyreactive emergency immunoglobulin M (IgM). The process requires innate response activator (IRA) B cells, a transitional B1a-derived inflammatory subset which controls IgM production via autocrine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling. The strategic location of these cells, coupled with the capacity to produce GM-CSF–dependent IgM, ensures effective early frontline defense against bacteria invading the lungs. The study describes a previously unrecognized GM-CSF-IgM axis and positions IRA B cells as orchestrators of protective IgM immunity. PMID:24821911

  1. XBP-1 regulates signal transduction, transcription factors and bone marrow colonization in B cells

    E-print Network

    Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew

    XBP-1, a transcription factor that drives the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated in B cells when they differentiate to plasma cells. Here, we show that in the B cells, whose capacity to secrete IgM has been ...

  2. Two new proteins preferentially associated with membrane immunoglobulin D.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K M; Adachi, T; Nielsen, P J; Terashima, M; Lamers, M C; Köhler, G; Reth, M

    1994-01-01

    The IgM and IgD classes of antigen receptor can perform different functions on B cells. However, so far no class-specific components communicating with the cytoplasm have been found in the two antigen receptors. We have employed a new biotinylation protocol to search for intracellular membrane Ig-associated proteins. Here we describe two proteins of 29 and 31 kDa that are associated with membrane IgD and to some extent with membrane IgM. The membrane IgM molecule is associated specifically with three proteins of 32, 37 and 41 kDa. The purification and sequencing of the two mIgD-associated proteins revealed that they are novel proteins which are related to each other. These proteins may be the missing link between the antigen receptor and the cytoskeleton and may contribute to functional differences between membrane IgM and membrane IgD. Images PMID:8070407

  3. Immune response to phi X 174 in man. 5. Primary and secondary antibody production in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, H C; Holden, R; Jones, J V; Peacock, D B

    1976-01-01

    In primary biliary cirrhosis, the primary immune response to the bacteriophage phi X 174 is normal but the secondary response is significantly reduced. The reduction is primarily of IgG antibody, while IgM is proportionately less affected. These changes may be the result of a reduction in helper T lymphocyte function and may contribute to the increase in the ratio of serum concentration of IgM to IgG. PMID:793957

  4. Keeping the Universe ionised: Photo-heating and the clumping factor of the high-redshift intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Andreas H. Pawlik; Joop Schaye; Eveline van Scherpenzeel

    2009-01-10

    The critical star formation rate density required to keep the intergalactic hydrogen ionised depends crucially on the average rate of recombinations in the intergalactic medium (IGM). This rate is proportional to the clumping factor C = / avg(rho_b)^2, where rho_b and avg(rho_b) are the local and cosmic mean baryon density, respectively, and the brackets indicate spatial averaging over the recombining gas in the IGM. We perform a suite of cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that include radiative cooling to calculate the volume-weighted clumping factor of the IGM at redshifts z >= 6. We focus on the effect of photo-ionisation heating by a uniform ultra-violet background and find that photo-heating strongly reduces the clumping factor because the increased pressure support smoothes out small-scale density fluctuations. Photo-ionisation heating is often said to provide a negative feedback on the reionisation of the IGM because it suppresses the cosmic star formation rate by boiling the gas out of low-mass halos. However, because of the reduction of the clumping factor it also makes it easier to keep the IGM ionised. Photo-heating therefore also provides a positive feedback which, while known to exist, has received much less attention. We demonstrate that this positive feedback is in fact very strong. Using conservative assumptions, we find that if the IGM was reheated at z >~ 9, the observed population of star-forming galaxies at z = 6 may be sufficient to keep the IGM ionised, provided that the fraction of ionising photons that escape the star-forming regions to ionise the IGM is larger than 0.2.

  5. Dissecting the heterogeneity of rheumatoid arthritis through linkage analysis of quantitative traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsey A. Criswell; Wei V. Chen; Damini Jawaheer; Raymond F. Lum; Mark H. Wener; Xiangjun Gu; Peter K. Gregersen; Christopher I. Amos

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To dissect the heterogeneity of rheuma- toid arthritis (RA) through linkage analysis of quanti- tative traits, specifically, IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM- RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) autoantibody titers. Methods. Subjects, 1,002 RA patients from 491 multiplex families recruited by the North American RA Consortium, were typed for 379 microsatellite markers. Anti-CCP titers were determined based on a second-

  6. DNA-Mediated Immunization to the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Mice: Aspects of the Humoral Response Mimic Hepatitis B Viral Infection in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Louise Michel; Heather L. Davis; Martin Schleef; Maryline Mancini; Pierre Tiollais; Robert G. Whalen

    1995-01-01

    Intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA expression vectors encoding the three envelope proteins of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) induced humoral responses in C57BL\\/6 mice specific to several antigenic determinants of the viral envelope. The first antibodies appeared within 1-2 weeks after injection of DNA and included antibodies of the IgM isotype. Over the next few weeks, an IgM to IgG

  7. Comparison of the effect of surgical and medical therapy for the treatment of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Marzieh; Salehi, Hassan; Moafi, Mohammad; Taleban, Roya; Tabatabaei, Seyed Abass; Salehi, Maryam; Salehi, Mohammad-Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is defined as a rare, inflammatory, chronic and benign disease mimicking malignant hyperplasia of mammary glands. There is no definitive therapeutic strategy for IGM; nevertheless, some approaches can be exploited as beneficial strategies. In this study, the surgery strategy was compared with coincident treatment with azithromycin and corticosteroid in IGM patients. Materials and Methods: This study was implemented as clinical trial during 2011-2013 in Isfahan, Iran. The target population comprised women whose IGM was substantiated. The medical group consisted of 20 patients, which were compared with a historical control group treated through surgical approach. Surgical group comprised 39 patients. Partial mastectomy was implemented in the surgical group whereas treatment protocol comprising azithromycin and prednisolone administered in medical group. Recurrence of mass was followed for 12 months. Fischer exact test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney and regression tests were applied for statistical analysis. This study was registered in Iranian Registry of clinical trial (IRCT number: IRCT 2013123015999N1). Results: No significant differences were recognized in side of lesions, lymphadenopathy, fever and pain; however, number of abscesses, number of lesions and size of lesions were significantly higher in the surgical group (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, probability of relapse correlated with the number of lesions, (odds ratio = 24.67 confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-269.3), whereas methods of IGM treatment did not contribute to the likelihood of relapse (odds ratio = 12.5 CI = 0.52-299). Conclusion: This clinical trial demonstrated that pharmaceutical treatment has appropriate efficacy, in treatment and prevention of IGM relapse. Moreover, this study presented hazf gardad number of the lesions as the most appropriate criteria for IGM prognosis, thus the probability of relapse decreases whether earlier IGM recognizing could be implemented. PMID:25002895

  8. The Effects of Photoionization on Galaxy Formation - I: Model and Results at z=0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Benson; C. G. Lacey; C. M. Baugh; S. Cole; C. S. Frenk

    2001-01-01

    We develop a coupled model for the evolution of the global properties of the\\u000aintergalactic medium (IGM) and the formation of galaxies, in the presence of a\\u000aphotoionizing background due to stars and quasars. We use this model to predict\\u000athe thermodynamic history of the IGM when photoionized by galaxies forming in a\\u000acold dark matter (CDM) universe. The evolution

  9. A B cell-deficient mouse by targeted disruption of the membrane exon of the immunoglobulin mu chain gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Kitamura; Jürgen Roes; Ralf Kühn; Klaus Rajewsky

    1991-01-01

    OF the various classes of antibodies that B lymphocytes can produce, class M (IgM) is the first to be expressed on the membrane of the developing cells. Pre-B cells, the precursors of B-lymphocytes, produce the heavy chain of IgM (mu chain), but not light chains1. Recent data suggest that pre-B cells express mu chains on the membrane together with the

  10. TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi, E-mail: J.Macquart@curtin.edu.au [ICRAR/Curtin University, Curtin Institute of Radio Astronomy, Perth WA 6845 (Australia)

    2013-10-20

    The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ?1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10{sup –6} kpc m{sup –20/3} would be expected at z ? 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –3} if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –17/5} if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling ?{sub IGM} ? z {sup 2} for z ?< 1 and (1 + z){sup 0.2–0.5} for z ?> 1.

  11. IgM-mediated signaling is required for the development of a normal B cell memory response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linjie Guo; Xuejun Zhang; Biao Zheng; Shuhua Han

    2008-01-01

    Mature B cells co-express both IgM and IgD types of antigen receptors before activation. Our earlier work has shown that the co-expression of IgD and IgM plays an important role in regulating the composition of antibody repertoire during a primary immune response. However, the roles of these two B cell receptors in the development of B cell memory responses remain

  12. Characterization of antibodies against ferret immunoglobulins, cytokines and CD markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyril Jean-Marie Martel; Bent Aasted

    2009-01-01

    Ferret IgG and IgM were purified from normal serum, while ferret IgA was purified from bile. The estimated molecular weights of the immunoglobulin gamma, alpha and mu heavy chains were found to be 54kDa, 69kDa and 83kDa, respectively. For immunological (ELISA) quantification of ferret immunoglobulins, we identified and characterized polyclonal antibodies towards ferret IgG, IgM and IgA. We also identified

  13. Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilation, but impaired glucose metabolism is not

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. A Henry; Isabel Ferreira; Piet J Kostense; Jacqueline M Dekker; Giel Nijpels; Robert J Heine; Otto Kamp; Lex M Bouter; Coen D. A Stehouwer

    2004-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (DM2) and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. Impaired endothelial synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is an important feature of atherothrombosis and can be estimated from endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD). It is controversial whether or not FMD is impaired in DM2 and IGM. We investigated this issue in a population-based

  14. X-Linked Hyper-Immunoglobulin M Syndrome: Molecular Genetic Study and Long-Time Follow-Up of Three Generations of a Chinese Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Chieh Lin; Shyh-Dar Shyur; Wen-I Lee; Yi-Chun Ma; Li-Hsin Huang

    2006-01-01

    Background: X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M (IgM) syndrome (XHIGM) is a rare immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations of the CD40 ligand gene. Patients are subject to recurrent infections and have normal or elevated levels of IgM but markedly decreased serum IgG. Objective: We describe molecular genetic studies and clinical manifestations in three generations of one family, as well as results of long-term

  15. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with dysglobulinemia: a peripheral nerve biopsy study in 18 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Vital; Alain Lagueny; Jean Julien; Xavier Ferrer; Michel Barat; Eve Hermosilla; Marie Rouanet-Larrivière; Patrick Henry; Alain Bredin; Pierre Louiset; Thierry Herbelleau; Claude Boisseau; Bernard Guiraud-Chaumeil; Andreas Steck; Claude Vital

    2000-01-01

    The possible occurrence of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in association with an identified dysglobulinemic\\u000a status is recognized and a causal relationship between the two has been suggested. We had the opportunity to study 18 patients\\u000a presenting with CIDP and dysglobulinemia. This was an IgG monoclonal gammopathy (IgG MG) in 8 cases, an IgM monoclonal gammopathy\\u000a (IgM MG) in 8,

  16. Shark immunity bites back: affinity maturation and memory response in the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

    2005-03-01

    The cartilaginous fish are the oldest phylogenetic group in which all of the molecular components of the adaptive immune system have been found. Although early studies clearly showed that sharks could produce an IgM-based response following immunization, evidence for memory, affinity maturation and roles for the other isotypes (notably IgNAR) in this group remained inconclusive. The data presented here illustrate that the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) is able to produce not only an IgM response, but we also show for the first time a highly antigen-specific IgNAR response. Additionally, under appropriate conditions, a memory response for both isotypes can be elicited. Analysis of the response shows differential expression of pentameric and monomeric IgM. Pentameric IgM provides the 'first line of defense' through high-avidity, low-affinity interaction with antigen. In contrast, monomeric IgM and IgNAR seem responsible for the specific, antigen-driven response. We propose the presence of distinct lineages of B cells in sharks. As there is no conventional isotype switching, each lineage seems pre-determined to express a single isotype (IgM versus IgNAR). However, our data suggest that there may also be specific lineages for the different forms (pentameric versus monomeric) of the IgM isotype. PMID:15688348

  17. Hemadsorption immunosorbent technique for determination of rubella immunoglobulin M antibody.

    PubMed Central

    van der Logt, J T; van Loon, A M; van der Veen, J

    1981-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive hemadsorption immunosorbent technique for measuring rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody is described. IgM from human sera was absorbed into anti-human IgM-coated wells in plates and rubella-specific IgM was detected by adding rubella virus hemagglutinin and a small quantity of sheep erythrocytes. Centrifugation of the plates facilitated reading of the test. Specific IgM-positive sera showed hemadsorption, whereas negative sera showed hemagglutination. Rheumatoid factor and rubella-specific IgG antibody did not interfere with the results. The test was clearly more sensitive than the solid-phase immunosorbent technique for detection of rubella IgM antibody by hemagglutination inhibition and at least as sensitive as the hemagglutination inhibition test on IgM fractions from a sucrose density gradient and the indirect immunofluorescence test for IgM antibody with absorbed serum. All of 40 sera from 17 rubella patients taken 4 to 49 days after the onset of rash were positive in the new test, with antibody titers ranging from 2,560 to 81,920 between 4 and 28 days. The test is reliable, practical, and suitable for general diagnostic use. Images PMID:7016893

  18. PAPER-64 Constraints On Reionization II: The Temperature Of The z=8.4 Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Pober, Jonathan C; Parsons, Aaron R; McQuinn, Matthew; Aguirre, James E; Bernardi, Gianni; Bradley, Richard F; Carilli, Chris L; Cheng, Carina; DeBoer, David R; Dexter, Matthew R; Furlanetto, Steven R; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Jacobs, Daniel C; Klima, Patricia J; Kohn, Saul A; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David H E; Maree, Matthys; Mesinger, Andrei; Moore, David F; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Stefan, Irina I; Walbrugh, William P; Walker, Andre; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2015-01-01

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z=8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints are derived using a semi-analytic method to explore the new measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), which were presented in a companion paper, Ali et al. (2015). Twenty-one cm power spectra with amplitudes of hundreds of mK^2 can be generically produced if the kinetic temperature of the IGM is significantly below the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB); as such, the new results from PAPER place lower limits on the IGM temperature at z=8.4. Allowing for the unknown ionization state of the IGM, our measurements find the IGM temperature to be above ~5 K for neutral fractions between 10% and 85%, above ~7 K for neutral fractions between 15% and 80%, or above ~10 K for neutral fractions betw...

  19. Human African trypanosomiasis: quantitative and qualitative assessment of intrathecal immune response.

    PubMed

    Lejon, V; Sindic, C J M; Van Antwerpen, M-P; Doua, F; Djé, N; Solano, P; Jamonneau, V; Wouters, I; Büscher, P

    2003-11-01

    Quantitative and qualitative techniques for assessment of the intrathecal humoral immune response in human African trypanosomiasis were compared, and their diagnostic potential for detection of the meningo-encephalitic stage of the disease was evaluated. Total and trypanosome specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM intrathecal synthesis were studied in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples of 38 trypanosomiasis patients and in three controls using Reiber's formulae. The presence of CSF-specific oligoclonal IgG and of trypanosome-specific antibodies was determined using iso-electric focusing followed by immunoblotting and antigen-driven immunoblots. The intrathecal IgG fraction (16% positive) and oligoclonal IgG detection (24% positive) were insensitive for detection of an intrathecal humoral immune response. Trypanosome-specific IgG synthesis, reflected by the IgG antibody index (AI) (26% positive), was confirmed by the presence of oligoclonal specific IgG (47% positive), but the latter was more sensitive. Although the detection technique failed for oligoclonal IgM, the intrathecal IgM fraction (42% positive) and the IgM AI (32% positive) indicated that the meningo-encephalitic stage of the disease is characterized by a dominant intrathecal IgM response, which was higher than the IgG response. The highest combination of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the meningo-encephalitic stage of trypanosomiasis was observed for quantitative IgM determinations. PMID:14641518

  20. A Study on the Glycan Specificity of Natural Antibody Repertoires in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Ping; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice and rats are widely used in preclinical investigations evaluating the effectiveness of glycan-based biomecines, however, the glycan specificity repertoires of serum Abs in rodents have not been fully characterized. In the present study, serum antibodies in naïve mice and rats of different inbred strains were analyzed for specificity against 4 representative carbohydrate structures including PGA (1,4-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acids), ?-glucan, mannan and ?-glucan (dextran). Mannan was not recognized by serum Abs from any of the mouse and rat strains. Serum IgM in naïve F344, BN and Lewis rats recognized PGA and ?-glucan and, less strongly, dextran. High titer circulating IgM against PGA were found in mice of BALB/c, C57BL/6, C3H/NeH and BXSB strains. C3H/NeH was the only strain which also produced low titer IgM against ?-glucan and dextran. Age-related production of high titer IgM, IgA and IgG Abs against ?-glucan was observed in BXSB mice. Intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with ?-glucan elicited strong IgM responses, while immunization with PGA also led to an increase of anti-PGA IgM Ab titers. These results provide useful information on the characteristics of glycan-specific natural antibody repertoires in rodents. PMID:20003821

  1. Diagnostic implications of kinetics of immunoglobulin M and A antibody responses to Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Gorgievski-Hrisoho, M; Germann, D; Matter, L

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA assays that could improve the predictive value for recently acquired toxoplasma infection for patients with positive screening test results. Follow-up sera were collected from 82 patients whose initial serum specimen had a reactive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM result. According to the evolution of the immune response, patients were divided retrospectively into two groups: one in which a recent infection was unlikely and the other one with an evolving immune response suggestive of recent toxoplasma infection. All IgM and one of three IgA assays used in the study are suitable for screening pregnant patients, with a negative predictive value of 100%. The predictive value of positive results is much lower because of the low prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the long persistence of IgM after acute infection. In the present study, all except one IgM enzyme immunoassay remained positive well beyond 6 months after the initial sample was tested. The IgM immunofluorescence test had the shortest persistence of positivity in most cases. IgA tests were either too insensitive or remained reactive too long to be useful for screening pregnant patients. Interpreting enzyme immunoassays with modified cutoff values and the combination of two tests could improve the predictive value of positive results to about 80% in terms of recent infection. PMID:8735107

  2. Conjunctival flap covering combined with antiviral and steroid therapy for severe herpes simplex virus necrotizing stromal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hua; Jia, Yanni; Li, Suxia; Wang, Ting; Tan, Yaohong; Shi, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) necrotizing stromal keratitis is a common type of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). Antiviral medication alone cannot control the disease, and corticosteroid eye drops may aggravate the ulcer and result in corneal perforation. Amniotic membrane transplantation effectively treats superficial corneal ulcer resulting from necrotizing stromal HSK. However, the efficacy of this approach seems to be limited for more serious cases. This study presented the clinical treatment of severe HSV necrotizing stromal keratitis (ulcer depth greater than half of the corneal stroma) by conjunctival flap covering surgery in 25 patients (25 eyes) combined with antivirus and corticosteroid treatment at Shandong Eye Hospital from January 2007 to December 2013. Clinical results showed that the mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from preoperative 20/333 to postoperative 20/40 (P < 0.05). All patients recovered ocular surface stabilization. There was recurrence in two eyes, which was cured with antiviral medication. Conjunctival flap covering combined with antivirus and corticosteroid treatment is effective in treating severe HSV necrotizing stromal keratitis. PMID:25785282

  3. Conjunctival Flap Covering Combined with Antiviral and Steroid Therapy for Severe Herpes Simplex Virus Necrotizing Stromal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanni; Li, Suxia; Wang, Ting; Tan, Yaohong; Shi, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) necrotizing stromal keratitis is a common type of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). Antiviral medication alone cannot control the disease, and corticosteroid eye drops may aggravate the ulcer and result in corneal perforation. Amniotic membrane transplantation effectively treats superficial corneal ulcer resulting from necrotizing stromal HSK. However, the efficacy of this approach seems to be limited for more serious cases. This study presented the clinical treatment of severe HSV necrotizing stromal keratitis (ulcer depth greater than half of the corneal stroma) by conjunctival flap covering surgery in 25 patients (25 eyes) combined with antivirus and corticosteroid treatment at Shandong Eye Hospital from January 2007 to December 2013. Clinical results showed that the mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from preoperative 20/333 to postoperative 20/40 (P < 0.05). All patients recovered ocular surface stabilization. There was recurrence in two eyes, which was cured with antiviral medication. Conjunctival flap covering combined with antivirus and corticosteroid treatment is effective in treating severe HSV necrotizing stromal keratitis. PMID:25785282

  4. ANISOTROPIC ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTFLOWS AND ENRICHMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. II. METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Barai, Paramita [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Martel, Hugo; Germain, Joel [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada)

    2011-01-20

    We investigate the large-scale influence of outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in enriching the intergalactic medium (IGM) with metals in a cosmological context. We combine cosmological simulations of large-scale structure formation with a detailed model of metal enrichment, in which outflows expand anisotropically along the direction of least resistance, distributing metals into the IGM. The metals carried by the outflows are generated by two separate stellar populations: stars located near the central AGN, and stars located in the greater galaxy. Using this algorithm, we performed a series of five simulations of the propagation of AGN-driven outflows in a cosmological volume of size (128 h{sup -1} Mpc){sup 3} in a {Lambda}CDM universe, and analyze the resulting metal enrichment of the IGM. We found that the metallicity induced in the IGM is greatly dominated by AGNs having bolometric luminosity L>10{sup 9} L{sub sun}, sources with 10{sup 8} < L/L{sub sun} < 10{sup 9} having a negligible contribution. Our simulations produced an average IGM metallicity of [O/H] = -5 at z = 5.5, which then rises gradually, and remains relatively flat at a value [O/H] = -2.8 between z = 2 and z = 0. The ejection of metals from AGN host galaxies by AGN-driven outflows is found to enrich the IGM to >10%-20% of the observed values, the number dependent on redshift. The enriched IGM volume fractions are small at z>3, then rise rapidly to the following values at z = 0: 6%-10% of the volume enriched to [O/H]> - 2.5, 14%-24% volume to [O/H]> - 3, and 34%-45% volume to [O/H]> - 4. At z {>=} 2, there is a gradient of the induced enrichment, the metallicity decreasing with increasing IGM density, enriching the underdense IGM to higher metallicities, a trend more prominent with increasing anisotropy of the outflows. This can explain observations of the metal-enriched low-density IGM at z {approx} 3-4.

  5. Fármacos dirigidos activos contra el cáncer de seno HER-2 positivo: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    ALTTO fue un estudio clínico diseñado para determinar si la combinación del anticuerpo monoclonal trastuzumab (Herceptina) y el fármaco lapatinib (Tykerb) era más eficaz para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno HER2/ErbB2 positivo al combinarse con quimioterapia que el tratamiento con uno solo de los fármacos. Los resultados del estudio no indicaron que existan ventajas al combinar trastuzumab y lapatinib frente al tratamiento solo con trastuzumab.

  6. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-01-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2) cannot account for the baryon content of the universe at z approximately 3 observed in quasar absorption line gas unless Omega (sub B) significantly exceeds the maximum value allowed by big bang nucleocynthesis. (5) For a CDM model with bias parameter within the allowed range of (lower) values, the lower limit to Omega(sub B) imposed by big bang nucleosynthesis (Omega(sub B) h(sup 2) greater than or equal to 0.01) combines with our results to yield the minimum IGM density for the CDM fodel. For CDM with b = 1 (Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization), we find Omega(sub IGM)(sup min) (z approximately 4) approx. equal 0.02-0.03, and Omega(sub IGM)(sup min)(z approximately 0) approx. equal 0.005-0.03, depending upon the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (6) In general, we find that self-consistent reionization of the IGM by the collapsed baryon fraction has a strong effect on the rate of collapse. (7) As a further example, we show that the feedback effect on the IGM of energy release by the collapsed baryon fraction may explain the slow evolution of the observed comoving QSO number density between z = 5 and z = 2, followed by the sharp decline after z = 2.

  7. Deficient Serum Bactericidal Activity Against Escherichia Coli in Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fierer, Joshua; Finley, Fred

    1979-01-01

    The serum bactericidal activity (SBA) of cirrhotic patients was compared with that of normal individuals using the release of 51Cr from radiolabeled Escherichia coli as the assay method. 80% (22/27) of patients were found to have deficient SBA against at least one of three smooth, serum-sensitive test strains of E. coli. Cirrhotic patients were found to have normal levels of serum lysozyme. Although some patients were mildly hypocomplementemic, this abnormality did not correlate with the presence of a bactericidal defect. Bactericidal antibody in normal and cirrhotics' sera was limited to the immunoglobulin (Ig)M class. Purified IgM from patients with deficient SBA against E. coli 0111 had lower concentrations of bactericidal antibody for that E. coli than did IgM from normal sera; the calculated bactericidal activity of total serum IgM was also lower. The bactericidal defect in cirrhotic serum could be completely corrected by either human antiserum to the homologous strain of E. coli or by purified, normal human IgM. However, because higher concentrations of IgM were required to restore normal SBA to a cirrhotic's serum than to agammaglobulinemic serum, there may be an inhibitor of bactericidal antibody in addition to a deficiency of bactericidal IgM antibody to E. coli in the serum of patients with cirrhosis. The bactericidal activity of the alternative complement pathway was also assessed. Sera from cirrhotic patients had no deficit in SBA attributable to the alternative complement pathway. In fact, in some, the activity of the alternative complement pathway was supernormal, compensating in part for the deficit in IgM-mediated SBA. PMID:376551

  8. Prospective evaluation of commercial antibody-based rapid tests in combination with a loop-mediated isothermal amplification PCR assay for detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi during the acute phase of scrub typhus infection.

    PubMed

    Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Teeratakul, Achara; Kantipong, Pacharee; Day, Nicholas P J

    2012-03-01

    Samples from 160 prospectively recruited febrile patients with typhus-like illness in an area of Thailand (Chiang Rai, northern Thailand) where scrub typhus is endemic were used to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of four rapid immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi IgM and total antibodies during acute scrub typhus infection. Of the 160 cases, 54 (34%) had been confirmed to have scrub typhus using the reference scrub typhus infection criteria (STIC), i.e., positive cell culture isolation, an admission IgM antibody titer of ?1:12,800, a 4-fold rising IgM antibody titer, and/or positivity for ?2 out of 3 PCR gene targets). The ICTs gave the following sensitivities and specificities: the Panbio IgM ICT, 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 60) and 95% (95% CI, 89 to 98), respectively; the Standard Diagnostics IgM ICT, 68% (95% CI, 60 to 75) and 73% (95% CI, 68 to 78), respectively; the AccessBio IgM ICT, 56% (95% CI, 48 to 63) and 90% (95% CI, 87 to 94), respectively; and the AccessBio total antibody ABt ICT, 61% (95% CI, 53 to 68) and 68% (95% CI, 63 to 73), respectively. An isothermal loop amplification (LAMP) PCR assay for scrub typhus demonstrated a sensitivity of 52% (95% CI, 38 to 66) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI, 88 to 98). This study has revealed the diagnostic limitations of antibody-based assays in an acute care setting. However, the combination of ICTs with LAMP usually increased sensitivity with a minimal reduction in specificity. The best combination, the Panbio IgM ICT and LAMP, resulted in a sensitivity of 67% (95% CI, 53 to 79) and a specificity of 91% (95% CI, 83 to 95). The combination of antibody-based assays with DNA- or antigen-based tests shows promise for improved diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:22219313

  9. Can the intergalactic medium cause a rapid drop in Ly? emission at z > 6?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, Andrei; Aykutalp, Aycin; Vanzella, Eros; Pentericci, Laura; Ferrara, Andrea; Dijkstra, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The large cross-section of the Ly? line makes it a sensitive probe of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we present the most complete study to date of the IGM Ly? opacity, and its application to the redshift evolution of the `Ly? fraction', i.e. the fraction of colour-selected galaxies with a detectable Ly? emission line. We use a tiered approach, which combines large-scale seminumeric simulations of reionization with moderate-scale hydrodynamic simulations of the ionized IGM. This allows us to simultaneously account for evolution in both: (i) the opacity from an incomplete (patchy) reionization, parametrized by the filling factor of ionized regions, QH II; and (ii) the opacity from self-shielded systems in the ionized IGM, parametrized by the average photoionization rate inside H II regions, H II. In contrast to recent empirical models, attenuation from patchy reionization has a unimodal distribution along different sightlines, while attenuation from self-shielded systems is more bimodal. We quantify the average IGM transmission in our (QH II, H II) parameter space, which can easily be used to interpret new data sets. Our new, improved models highly disfavour an evolution in H II as the sole driver of a large change in IGM opacity. Using current observations, we predict that the Ly? fraction cannot drop by more than a factor of ?2 with IGM attenuation alone, even for H II filling factors as low as QH II ? 0.1. Larger changes in the Ly? fraction could result from a co-evolution with galaxy properties. Marginalizing over H II, we find that current observations constrain QH II(z ? 7) ? 0.6, at a 68 per cent confidence level (CL). However, all of our parameter space is consistent with observations at 95 per cent CL, highlighting the need for larger observational samples at z ? 6.

  10. Studying reionization with the next generation of Ly? emitter surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, H.; Hayes, M.; Iliev, I. T.; Laursen, P.; Mellema, G.; Zackrisson, E.

    2014-11-01

    We study the prospects for constraining the ionized fraction of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z > 6 with the next generation of large Ly? emitter surveys. We make predictions for the upcoming Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Ly? survey and a hypothetical spectroscopic survey performed with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Considering various scenarios where the observed evolution of the Ly? luminosity function of Ly? emitters at z > 6 is explained partly by an increasingly neutral IGM and partly by intrinsic galaxy evolution, we show how clustering measurements will be able to distinguish between these scenarios. We find that the HSC survey should be able to detect the additional clustering induced by a neutral IGM if the global IGM neutral fraction is greater than ˜20 per cent at z = 6.5. If measurements of the Ly? equivalent widths (EWs) are also available, neutral fractions as small as 10 per cent may be detectable by looking for correlation between the EW and the local number density of objects. In this case, if it should turn out that the IGM is significantly neutral at z = 6.5 and the intrinsic EW distribution is relatively narrow, the observed EWs can also be used to construct a map of the locations and approximate sizes of the largest ionized regions. For the JWST survey, the results appear a bit less optimistic. Since such surveys probe a large range of redshifts, the effects of the IGM will be mixed up with any intrinsic galaxy evolution that is present, making it difficult to disentangle the effects. However, we show that a survey with the JWST will have a possibility of observing a large group of galaxies at z ˜ 7, which would be a strong indication of a partially neutral IGM.

  11. Diagnostic Potential and Antigenic Properties of Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Subviral Particles Expressed in Mammalian Cells from Semliki Forest Virus Replicons

    PubMed Central

    Kuivanen, Suvi; Matveev, Andrey; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Jääskeläinen-Hakala, Anu; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    The precursor membrane envelope (prME) proteins of all three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) subtypes were produced based on expression from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicons transcribed from recombinant plasmids. Vero E6 cells transfected by these plasmids showed specific reactivities in immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays by monoclonal antibodies against European and Far-Eastern subtype strains of TBEV, indicating proper folding of the expressed glycoproteins. The prME glycoproteins were secreted into the cell culture supernatant, forming TBEV subviral particles of 20 to 30 nm in diameter. IgM ?-capture and IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were developed based on prME Karelia-94 (Siberian subtype) particles. Altogether, 140 human serum samples were tested using these assays, and the results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgM EIA, an in-house ?-capture IgM assay based on baculovirus-expressed antigen, a commercial IgG EIA, and a hemagglutination inhibition test. Compared to reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the sensitivities of the generated ?-capture IgM SFV-prME and IgG MAb-capture SFV-prME EIAs were 97.4 to 100% and 98.7%, respectively, and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. IgM and IgG immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) were created based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the recombinant plasmid carrying the TBEV Karelia-94 prME glycoproteins. The IgM IFA was 100% concordant with the ?-capture IgM bac-prME ELISA. The IgG IFA sensitivity and specificity were 98.7% and 100%, respectively, compared to those of the commercial ELISA. In conclusion, the tests developed based on SFV replicon-driven expression of TBEV glycoproteins provide safe and robust alternatives for conducting TBEV serology. PMID:24371235

  12. Surveillance of measles in the Sudan using filter paper blood samples.

    PubMed

    El Mubarak, H S; Yüksel, S; Mustafa, O M; Ibrahim, S A; Osterhaus, A D M E; de Swart, R L

    2004-08-01

    Dried blood spots collected on filter paper are considered potential clinical specimens for measles surveillance because of their ease of collection, storage, and transport. The usefulness of these samples for surveillance of measles was evaluated in a field setting. Blood spots were collected by finger-prick from 316 clinically diagnosed measles patients in suburban Khartoum, mostly within a week after onset of the rash. Samples were collected between October, 2000 and April, 2003, and stored at 4 degrees C. Measles virus-specific IgM antibodies were detected in 200 (63%) of the samples using an "in-house" IgM capture ELISA. For 201 samples reconstitution and IgM measurement was repeated 1 year after initial testing with essentially the same results, showing the stability of IgM in the filter paper under these conditions. In a limited number of samples (n = 38) measles virus-specific IgM was also tested with a commercial indirect IgM ELISA. Although the results of the two assays correlated well, the "in-house" IgM capture ELISA proved slightly more sensitive. Measles virus-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplicons were obtained from 16 of 57 (28%) samples tested. Sequencing of the 3' 456 nucleotides of the nucleoprotein gene showed the continued endemic circulation of genotype B3 viruses identified previously in this region. Although problems related to limited sample quantities were encountered, the present study confirms the usefulness of dried blood spots for measles surveillance. The results also demonstrate that measles continues to be endemic in the Sudan. PMID:15221910

  13. Comparison of a new prototype immunochromatographic assay and a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of serum antibodies against Toscana virus.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Raymond; Gori Savellini, Gianni; Chen, Hongjing; Stevens, Yvonne; Moon, Jennifer; Morkowski, Stan; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Valentini, Melissa; Cusi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus, transmitted to humans by Phlebotomus spp. Sandflies, which causes neurological diseases such as aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. The commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used widely to detect anti-TOSV IgG and IgM antibodies and to allow for rapid diagnosis of infection (Diesse Diagnostica Senese, Siena, Italy). Recently, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was developed for human anti-TOSV IgG or IgM detection by InBios International (Seattle, WA, USA). A comparison of the two diagnostic assays was performed on one hundred serum samples collected from patients hospitalized with suspected TOSV meningitis. Both assays were in excellent agreement, for both IgG and IgM detection. For IgM, 64/65 ELISA positive samples were positive by ICA. One serum, positive for specific IgM by ELISA but negative by ICA, was confirmed by direct diagnosis, with TOSV RNA detection in the patient's cerebrospinal fluid by PCR. For IgG, 64 samples were positive by ICA out of 71 ELISA positive samples. The discordant sera were positive by immunofluorescence and neutralization tests. Three out of these seven samples were also positive by IgM ICA. The sensitivity of these new assays compared to ELISA, which is used routinely, was 98.5% for IgM and 90.1% for IgG, while specificity was 100% in both cases. This data shows that ICA could be a reliable alternative test for serological diagnosis of TOSV infection in humans. PMID:23022418

  14. Evolution of the serologic response to Borrelia burgdorferi in treated patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, M E; Nowakowski, J; Bittker, S; Cooper, D; Nadelman, R B; Wormser, G P

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the appearance and evolution of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in 46 patients with culture-proven erythema migrans (EM). All patients received antimicrobial treatment and were prospectively evaluated for up to 1 year. A total of 257 serially collected serum samples were tested by commercial IgG-IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and separate IgM and IgG immunoblots (IBs). At the baseline, 33% of the patients had a positive ELISA result and 43% of the patients had a positive IgM IB result by using the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors for the interpretation of IB results. Positive serology at the baseline and the rate of seroconversion correlated directly with disease duration and/or evidence of dissemination prior to treatment. At days 8 to 14 after the baseline, 91% of patients had a positive ELISA result and/or IgM IB result. Peak IgM antibody levels were seen at this time in patients with localized or disseminated disease. The most frequent IgM bands at the baseline and the peak were of 24 kDa (OspC), 41 kDa, and 37 kDa. Although 89% of the patients developed IgG antibodies as determined at a follow-up examination, only 22% were positive by the IgG IB criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors. The persistence of antibodies was directly related to disease duration and/or dissemination prior to treatment. Since IgM antibodies to the 24- and 41-kDa antigens remained detectable for long periods, 38% of IgM IBs were still positive at 1 year postbaseline. IgM to antigens of 39, 58, 60, 66, or 93 kDa, conversely, were most often seen in sera obtained within 1 month postbaseline. Their presence may be of assistance in confirming a recent infection with B. burgdorferi in individuals living in areas where Lyme disease is endemic. PMID:8748261

  15. Serological response patterns of melanoma patients immunized with a GM2 ganglioside conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K; Livingston, P O; Fortunato, S R; Stockert, E; Helling, F; Ritter, G; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1995-03-28

    Gangliosides, such as GM2, GD2, GD3, and 9-O-acetyl GD3, are receiving attention as targets for antibody-based and vaccine-based therapies of melanoma. GM2 appears to be a particularly immunogenic ganglioside in humans, as indicated by the presence of naturally occurring IgM anti-GM2 antibodies in approximately 5% of humans and the fact that immunization with irradiated GM2-expressing melanoma cells or purified GM2 adherent to bacillus Calmette-Guérin elicits GM2 antibodies of low to moderate titers in a high proportion of vaccinated patients. To develop vaccines that consistently induce high titers of IgM as well as IgG anti-GM2 antibodies, vaccines containing GM2 conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin as the carrier protein and QS-21 as the adjuvant have been constructed. The serological response of vaccinated patients was monitored by ELISA using purified GM2 ganglioside for IgM and IgG anti-GM2 antibodies and for GM2 cell surface-reactive antibodies by immune adherence assays and cytotoxic tests (IgM antibodies) and mixed hemadsorption assays (IgG antibodies). The majority of vaccinated patients developed IgM and IgG antibodies detectable by ELISA. In most cases, the results of IgM ELISA correlated with assays for cell surface-reactive IgM antibodies. This was not true for IgG anti-GM2 antibodies, where strong discrepancies were seen between high titers in ELISA and little or no reactivity in mixed hemadsorption tests for cell surface-reactive antibodies. These IgG antibodies (and the less frequent IgM antibodies that show similar discrepancies) may be directed against GM2 determinants that are buried, hidden, or not present on GM2-expressing target cells. With regard to a major objective of ganglioside vaccines--i.e., generation of cytotoxic antibodies--the GM2-keyhole limpet hemocyanin/QS-21 vaccine is clearly superior to the previously tested GM2/bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. However, variability in patient response and lack of persistence of high-titered IgM cytotoxic antibodies in many patients are problems that remain to be solved. PMID:7708728

  16. Expressed IgH ? and ? transcripts share diversity segment in ranched Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Mashoof, Sara; Pohlenz, Camilo; Chen, Patricia L; Deiss, Thaddeus C; Gatlin, Delbert; Buentello, Alejandro; Criscitiello, Michael F

    2014-03-01

    It is now appreciated that in addition to the immunoglobulin (Ig)M and D isotypes fish also make the mucosal IgT. In this study we sequenced the full length of Ig ? as well as ? in the commercially important Thunnus orientalis (Pacific bluefin tuna), the first molecular analysis of these two Ig isotypes in a member of the order Perciformes. Tuna IgM and IgT are each composed of four constant (CH) domains. We cloned and sequenced 48 different variable (VH) domain gene rearrangements of tuna immunoglobulins and grouped the VH gene sequences to four VH gene segment families based on 70% nucleotide identity. Three VH gene families were used by both IgM and IgT but one group was only found to be used by IgM. Most interestingly, both ? and ? clones appear to use the same diversity (DH) segment, unlike what has been described in other species, although they have dedicated IgT and IgM joining (JH) gene segments. We complemented this repertoire study with phylogenetic and tissue expression analysis. In addition to supporting the development of humoral vaccines in this important aquaculture species, these data suggest that the DH-JH recombination rather than the VH-DH recombination may be instructive for IgT versus IgM/D bearing lymphocyte lineages in some fish. PMID:24231183

  17. Noncoordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp-1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Castro, Caitlin D; Ohta, Yuko; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

    2013-11-01

    B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as those encoding J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete "natural" IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp-1. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp-1(-) antibody-secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages. Sharks naturally produce large amounts of both pentameric (classically "19S") and monomeric (classically "7S") IgM, the latter an indicator of adaptive immunity. Consistent with the mammalian paradigm, shark Blimp-1 is expressed in splenic 7S IgM-secreting cells, though rarely detected in the J-chain(+) cells producing 19S IgM. Although IgM transcript levels are lower in J-chain(+) cells, these cells nevertheless secrete 19S IgM in the absence of Blimp-1, as demonstrated by ELISPOT and metabolic labeling. Additionally, cells in the shark BM equivalent (epigonal) are Blimp-1(-). Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal are maintained for long periods without Blimp-1, but like in mammals, Blimp-1 is required for terminating the B-cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen. PMID:23897025

  18. On the enrichment of the intergalactic medium by galactic winds

    E-print Network

    Biman Nath; Neil Trentham

    1997-07-16

    Observations of metal lines in $\\lyal$ absorption systems of small H~I column density and their ubiquitous nature suggest that the intergalactic medium (IGM) was enriched to about $Z \\sim 0.01 \\> Z_{\\odot}$ by a redshift $z \\sim 3$. We investigate the role of winds from small star-forming galaxies at high $z$ in enriching the IGM. The existence of large numbers of small galaxies at high $z$ follows naturally from hierarchical clustering theories (e.g. CDM). For analytical simplicity we assume that the galactic winds escape the galaxies at a single characteristic redshift $z_{in}$, and we model the galactic winds as spherical shock waves propagating through the IGM. We then calculate the probability distribution of the metallicity of the IGM, as a function of time (for different values of $z_{in}$), adopting plausible galaxy mass functions (from Press-Schechter formalism), cooling physics, star-formation efficiencies, gas ejection dynamics, and nucleosynthesis yields. We compare this expected distribution with the observed distribution of metallicities in the Ly$\\alpha$ forest at $z=3$, the metal poor stars in the halo of our Galaxy, and with other observational constraints on such a scenario. We find that galactic winds at high $z$ could have enriched the IGM to a mean metallicity of $Z \\sim 0.01 Z_{\\odot}$ at $z \\sim 3$, with a standard deviation of the same order, if $z_{in} \\la 5$, and that this satisfies all the observational constraints.

  19. Cosmological Halos: A Search for the Ionized Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Robert M. Geller; Robert J. Sault; Robert Antonucci; Neil E. B. Killeen; Ron Ekers; Ketan Desai

    1998-10-01

    Standard big bang nucleosynthesis predicts the average baryon density of the Universe to be a few percent of the critical density. Only about one tenth of the predicted baryons have been seen. A plausible respository for the missing baryons is in a diffuse ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). In an attempt to measure the IGM we searched for Thomson-scattered halos around strong high redshift radio sources. Observations of the radio source 1935-692 were made with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We assumed a uniform IGM, and isotropic steady emission of 1935-692 for a duration between 10^7 - 10^8 years. A model of the expected halo visibility function was used in \\chi^2 fits to place upper limits on \\Omega_{IGM}. The upper limits varied depending on the methods used to characterize systematic errors in the data. The results are 2/sigma limits of \\Omega_{IGM} < 0.65. While not yet at the sensitivity level to test primordial nucleosynthesis, improvements on the technique will probably allow this in future studies.

  20. Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

  1. Change of antibody levels to ferritin in the sera of foals after birth: possible passive transfer of maternal anti-ferritin autoantibody via colostrum and age-related anti-ferritin autoantibody production.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masami; Kondo, Takashi; Nambo, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Antibody (immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM or IgA) levels relative to ferritin in six foal sera (three male and three female) after birth (day 0 and 2, 6, 10, 20, 28, 36, 40, 52 and 56 weeks of age) were semi-quantitatively measured with normalization with antibody activity to ferritin in one adult horse serum. After addition of horse spleen ferritin to the serum sample, the complex formed between antibodies to ferritin in the serum and ferritin was co-immunoprecipitated using antibody to horse spleen ferritin. Antibody classes of the co-immnoprecipitate were detected with antibodies specific for horse IgG, IgM or IgA heavy chain. Six adult horse serum samples were found to have ferritin-binding activities in all immunoglobulin classes examined. Although ferritin antibody activities (IgG, IgM and IgA) were scant in the foal sera before sucking colostrum (day 0), their activities increased at 2 weeks of age. IgG antibodies showed a biphasic response and IgM antibody activity increased up to 40 weeks of age. Antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) activities to ferritin in three colostrum samples were significantly higher than in adult horse serum samples. These results demonstrate that antibody to ferritin in foal serum is derived from colostrum after birth and is produced thereafter. PMID:23607654

  2. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  3. Inter-Specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Forsman, Z.H.; Szabo, Z.; Lewis, T.D.; Aeby, G.S.; Toonen, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  4. Deep Chandra Observations of HCG 16. II. The Development of the Intra-group Medium in a Spiral-rich Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.; Giacintucci, S.; Zezas, A.; Ponman, T. J.; Mamon, G. A.; Nulsen, P.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-10-01

    We use a combination of deep Chandra X-ray observations and radio continuum imaging to investigate the origin and current state of the intra-group medium (IGM) in the spiral-rich compact group HCG 16. We confirm the presence of a faint (L X, bolo = 1.87^{+1.03}_{-0.66}\\times1041 erg s-1), low-temperature (0.30^{+0.07}_{-0.05} keV) IGM extending throughout the ACIS-S3 field of view, with a ridge linking the four original group members and extending to the southeast, as suggested by previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. This ridge contains 6.6^{+3.9}_{-3.3}\\times 109 M ? of hot gas and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale {H}\\,\\scriptsize {I} tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We present evidence that the group is not yet virialized, and show that gas has probably been transported from the starburst winds of NGC 838 and NGC 839 into the surrounding IGM. Considering the possible origin of the IGM, we argue that material ejected by galactic winds may have played a significant role, contributing 20%-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  5. Specificity of immunoglobulin heavy chain switch correlates with activity of germline heavy chain genes prior to switching.

    PubMed Central

    Stavnezer-Nordgren, J; Sirlin, S

    1986-01-01

    IgM+ cells cultured from the I.29 B cell lymphoma can be induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or, to a greater extent, with LPS plus anti-idiotype antibody to switch to IgG2a, IgE or IgA expression. The isotype switch is accompanied by rearrangement of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) chain genes. Here we demonstrate that the commitment of the I.29 IgM+ cells to switch to IgA appears to be manifested by hypomethylation of the alpha constant region genes in IgM+ cells, and by the presence of small amounts of RNAs transcribed from non-rearranged alpha gene(s) in IgM+ cells. The commitment to switch to IgE or IgG2a is also in accord with the presence of small amounts of RNA transcripts from the non-rearranged epsilon and gamma 2a genes, although the hypomethylation of the epsilon and gamma 2a genes is not as dramatic as that of the alpha genes. These results suggest that I.29 cells switch specifically to IgA, IgE or IgG2a due to the activation of the corresponding H chain constant region genes in IgM+ cells prior to the actual switch recombination event. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3007121

  6. Inter-Specific Coral Chimerism: Genetically Distinct Multicellular Structures Associated with Tissue Loss in Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabó, Zoltán; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss. PMID:21829541

  7. The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1991-01-01

    The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

  8. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO)

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout the rest of this report. The features are extracted using an instrumented PDF viewer, and are the inputs to a prediction model that scores the likelihood of a PDF file containing malware. The prediction model is constructed from a sample of labeled data by a machine learning algorithm (specifically, decision tree ensemble learning). Preliminary experiments show that the model is able to detect half of the PDF malware in the corpus with zero false alarms. We conclude the report with suggestions for extending this work to detect a greater variety of PDF malware.

  9. Building the Hot Intra-Group Medium in Spiral-Rich Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Ewan

    2014-11-01

    Galaxy groups provide a natural laboratory for investigating the formation of the hot intergalactic medium (IGM). While galaxy clusters gain most of their hot gas through accretion and gravitational shocks, in groups the processes of galaxy evolution (stripping, collisions, star formation) play an important role in the initial build up of the hot halo. We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of groups still in the process of forming their IGM, including the well known compact groups HCG 16 and Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92). We show that starburst winds and shock-heating of stripped HI provide important contributions of gas and metals to the IGM, and discuss the impact of gas stripping, enhanced star formation and nuclear activity in the group member galaxies.

  10. Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma and Concurrent Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis With IgMKappa Deposits in a HCV-Seropositive Patient.

    PubMed

    Chelioti, Eleni; Efthimiou, Evdokia; Sotiraki, Maria; Papalexandrou, Alexia; Tsilivigkou, Maria

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) with IgM? light chain deposits in a patient with chronic hepatitis C infection and simultaneous onset of monoclonal IgM? gammopathy with concurrent small B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly and a uremic state that necessitated dialysis without any clinical signs of systemic disease apart from the chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. The diagnostic approach led to a renal biopsy that revealed MPGN with dominant IgM? deposits and interstitium infiltration by the lymphoid cells. The bone marrow biopsy findings were consistent with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, a rare lymphoproliferative disorder with a rare association with MPGN. Our case indicates high diagnostic value of renal biopsy for rare lymphoplasmacytic neoplasms with renal dysfunction as their predominant clinical manifestation. PMID:25695019

  11. CELL SURFACE IMMUNOGLOBULIN

    PubMed Central

    Vitetta, Ellen S.; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1972-01-01

    Turnover and release of cell surface Ig and secretion of total intracellular Ig has been studied in small lymphocytes from normal mouse spleen. The major findings to emerge are: (a) small lymphocytes secrete 8S IgM and IgG. A small portion of the 8S IgM, but virtually none of the IgG appears to have a cell surface phase. (b) Cell surface IgM is actively turned over with a half-life of 6–8 hr, and turnover can be accounted for by release into the incubation medium. Release is temperature dependent. (c) Released cell surface Ig is noncovalently bound to a fragment of plasma membrane. (d) H-2 antigens are not released during short-term incubation. Based on the above findings, we propose a model for the transport and release of both cell surface and conventionally secreted Ig. PMID:5056670

  12. [Antibodies against Borrelia garinii in diagnosis of Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Flisiak, R; Prokopowicz, D

    2000-01-01

    Prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia garinii (Bg) was analysed in sera of 42 patients with Lyme borreliosis confirmed through demonstration of antibodies against antigen 41 kDa of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss). IgM or IgG antibodies against Bg were found in sera of 88% patients. Agreement of the results between Bg and Bbss tests related to IgM antibodies reached 84% and to IgG antibodies 76%. Comparison of individual results revealed significant positive correlation of optical densities in respect to both IgM and IgG antibodies. These results indicate possible use of detection of anti-Borrelia garinii antibodies in diagnostics of Lyme borreliosis in Poland. PMID:10909283

  13. GeV excess electrons upscattering the CMB: a possible resolution to the "Photon Underproduction Crisis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daylan, Tansu; Portillo, Stephen K. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently a gamma-ray excess has been identified in the inner Milky Way, which may be associated with the final state photon shower following DM annihilation to standard model final states. In this scenario ~ GeV electrons are also produced and, given their long energy loss timescale (~ Gyr), they can diffuse and escape the galaxy before losing too much energy. If such an electron population exists in the IGM, one observable consequence would be inverse Compton scattering on the CMB, which would produce UV photons that can efficiently ionize the IGM. This may be a possible resolution to the "Photon Underproduction Crisis", recently pointed out by Kollmeier et al. (2014). Regardless of the relevance to this crisis, the existence of a ~ GeV electron population in the IGM can put constraints on DM annihilation parameters considering the known X-ray backgrounds.

  14. Borreliosis in equids in northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Shaw, E; Post, J E; Palka, F C

    1988-03-01

    During 1982 and 1985, blood samples from 705 equids were examined for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. By indirect immunofluorescence staining, IgM and total immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG) antibodies were detected in 37 (5.3%) and 90 (12.8%) serum specimens, respectively. The geometric mean titer for IgM antibody (140.4) was highest during July, whereas total immunoglobulin ranged from 94.1 in October to 338 in May. Eighty-six equids with total immunoglobulin to B burgdorferi lived in areas of Connecticut where the primary tick vector, Ixodes dammini, was present. Of the 86 equids, 9 from Lyme, Connecticut and Westchester County, New York had antibodies to B burgdorferi and developed limb or joint disorders that resulted in single or recurrent episodes of lameness. PMID:3282461

  15. Prednimustin treatment in primary biliary cirrhosis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Danielsson, A; Olsson, R; Prytz, H; Eriksson, S

    1992-02-01

    We observed a decrease in serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatases (ALP) and IgM in five patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) treated with Prednimustin (Sterecyt) for 6 months. In contrast to pretreatment findings, C3 activation was undetectable during treatment in three patients where normalization of serum IgM was achieved. After discontinuation of Prednimustin, bilirubin and ALP levels rapidly returned to pretreatment values, although IgM remained normal for up to 6 months in some patients. We conclude that Prednimustin might be of value in patients with symptomatic PBC where liver transplantation is not an option, and that it should be evaluated in a controlled study. However, the rapid reactivation of the disease after conclusion of treatment must be considered. PMID:1541936

  16. Cryoglobulinemia in acute type-A hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Shalit, M; Wollner, S; Levo, Y

    1982-01-01

    Serum cryoglobulins were detected in 18 of 19 patients with type-A, and six of eight with type-B hepatitis. The predominant immunoglobulin in the cryoprecipitates was polyclonal IgM. Patients with type-A hepatitis had a significantly higher mean serum level of cryoglobulins when compared to those with type-B (106.9 vs. 20.5 micrograms/ml). IgM anti-hepatitis-A virus activity was detected in all cryoprecipitates obtained from hepatitis-A patients. Cryoglobulinemia in these patients was transient, associated with disease activity and accompanied by a marked increase in serum level of IgM. These findings are compatible with a recent hypothesis, which predicts the appearance of cryoglobulins under circumstances of enhanced stimulation of B cells in the presence of defective clearance of desialylated glycoproteins by their specific liver receptors. PMID:7083634

  17. Further evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for melioidosis in an area of endemicity.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Mathew; Freeman, Kevin; Lum, Gary; Cheng, Allen C; Jacups, Susan P; Currie, Bart J

    2004-05-01

    Immunochromatographic test (ICT) kits for the rapid detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were compared to the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) assay. In 138 culture-confirmed melioidosis cases, sensitivities were 80, 77, and 88% for IHA, ICT IgG, and ICT IgM, respectively. In a prospective study of 160 consecutive sera samples sent for melioidosis serology, respective specificities were 91, 90, and 69, positive predictive values were 41, 32, and 18, and negative predictive values were 99, 98, and 100%. ICT IgM kits are unreliable for diagnosis of melioidosis, but ICT IgG kits may be useful for diagnosing travelers presenting with possible melioidosis who return from regions where melioidosis is endemic. PMID:15131200

  18. Fc receptors of rat peritoneal macrophages: immunoglobulin class specificity and sensitivity to drugs affecting the microfilament or microtubule system.

    PubMed Central

    Medgyesi, G A; Fóris, G; Dezsö, B; Gergely, J; Bazin, H

    1980-01-01

    Macrophage-cytophilic antibody activity of various immunoglobulin classes and subclasses was tested in two different rosetting systems. Cytophilic antibody activity of IgM, IgG2a and IgG1 was verified in the SRBC system, while IgM, IgG2a and IgG2c were found to be active in the trypanosome system. Sensitivity to cytochalasin B treatment of SRBC rosette formation was dependent on the class of antibody and decreased in the following order: IgM > IgG1 > IgG2a. Trypanosome rosette formation was prevented by the same drug regardless the type of antibody. Vinblastin caused an enhancement of rosette formation in the SRBC system in low concentration, except when the antibody belonged to subclass IgG1. The enhancing effect was less pronounced in the trypanosome system. Images Figure 1 PMID:7191828

  19. Fc receptors of rat peritoneal macrophages: immunoglobulin class specificity and sensitivity to drugs affecting the microfilament or microtubule system.

    PubMed

    Medgyesi, G A; Fóris, G; Dezsö, B; Gergely, J; Bazin, H

    1980-07-01

    Macrophage-cytophilic antibody activity of various immunoglobulin classes and subclasses was tested in two different rosetting systems. Cytophilic antibody activity of IgM, IgG2a and IgG1 was verified in the SRBC system, while IgM, IgG2a and IgG2c were found to be active in the trypanosome system. Sensitivity to cytochalasin B treatment of SRBC rosette formation was dependent on the class of antibody and decreased in the following order: IgM > IgG1 > IgG2a. Trypanosome rosette formation was prevented by the same drug regardless the type of antibody. Vinblastin caused an enhancement of rosette formation in the SRBC system in low concentration, except when the antibody belonged to subclass IgG1. The enhancing effect was less pronounced in the trypanosome system. PMID:7191828

  20. Comparison of Effects of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Humoral Immune System Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Aral, Murat; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin; Celik, Mustafa; Ciragil, P?nar; Gul, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to assess the impacts of “Maras powder” and cigarette smoking on the parameters of the humoral immune system. Material and Methods. One hundred seventy seven subjects were included in the study. The IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C4 levels were detected via nephelometric method. Results. In 1.4% of the control group IgM levels were below normal where it was 10.8% and 18.6% in Maras powder group and in cigarette smoking group respectively. The IgM levels of both groups were significantly lower compared to the control group (P < .05). Nonetheless, the IgE levels of Maras powder group and smoking group were found to be remarkably higher compared to the control group (P < .01). Conclusion. Effects of Maras powder on humoral immune response were found to be similar to that of smoking. PMID:16951495

  1. An Improved Treatment of Cosmological Intergalactic Medium Evolution

    E-print Network

    Manrique, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of galaxy formation and reionization, two central issues of modern cosmology, relies on the accurate follow-up of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Unfortunately, owing to the complex nature of this medium, the differential equations governing its ionization state and temperature are only approximate. In this paper, we improve these master equations. We derive new expression for the distinct composite inhomogeneous IGM phases, including all relevant ionizing/recombining and cooling/heating mechanisms, taking into account inflows/outflows into/from halos, and using more accurate recombination coefficients. Furthermore, to better compute the source functions in the equations we provide an analytic procedure for calculating the halo mass function in ionized environments, accounting for the bias due to the ionization state of their environment. Such an improved treatment of IGM evolution is part of a complete realistic model of galaxy formation presented elsewhere.

  2. Different B cell populations mediate early and late memory during an endogenous immune response.

    PubMed

    Pape, Kathryn A; Taylor, Justin J; Maul, Robert W; Gearhart, Patricia J; Jenkins, Marc K

    2011-03-01

    Memory B cells formed in response to microbial antigens provide immunity to later infections; however, the inability to detect rare endogenous antigen-specific cells limits current understanding of this process. Using an antigen-based technique to enrich these cells, we found that immunization with a model protein generated B memory cells that expressed isotype-switched immunoglobulins (swIg) or retained IgM. The more numerous IgM(+) cells were longer lived than the swIg(+) cells. However, swIg(+) memory cells dominated the secondary response because of the capacity to become activated in the presence of neutralizing serum immunoglobulin. Thus, we propose that memory relies on swIg(+) cells until they disappear and serum immunoglobulin falls to a low level, in which case memory resides with durable IgM(+) reserves. PMID:21310965

  3. Different B cell populations mediate early and late memory during an endogenous immune response

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Kathryn A.; Taylor, Justin J.; Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Marc K.

    2014-01-01

    Memory B cells formed in response to microbial antigens provide immunity to later infections; however, the inability to detect rare endogenous antigen-specific cells limits current understanding of this process. Using an antigen-based technique to enrich these cells, we found that immunization with a model protein generated B memory cells that expressed isotype-switched immunoglobulins (swIg) or retained IgM. The more numerous IgM+ cells were longer lived than the swIg+ cells. However, swIg+ memory cells dominated the secondary response due to the capacity to become activated in the presence of neutralizing serum Ig. Thus, we propose that memory relies on swIg+ cells until they disappear and serum Ig falls to a low level, in which case memory resides with durable IgM+ reserves. PMID:21310965

  4. Clinical evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the diagnosis of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sang, C T; Hoon, L S; Cuzzubbo, A; Devine, P

    1998-05-01

    A rapid immunochromatographic test was compared to the hemagglutination inhibition assay for separate determinations of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels in paired serum specimens from 92 patients (34 with primary dengue virus infection, 35 with secondary dengue virus infection, and 23 without dengue virus infection). The rapid test showed 99% sensitivity in the diagnosis of dengue virus infection. The majority (30 of 34 [88%]) of patients with primary infection showed positive IgM but negative IgG, while 34 of 35 (97%) patients with secondary infection showed positive IgG with or without IgM. Specificity in nonflavivirus infections was 96% (1 of 23 positive). The rapid test should be a useful aid in rapid diagnosis of dengue virus infection. PMID:9606000

  5. Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma and Concurrent Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis With IgMKappa Deposits in a HCV-Seropositive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chelioti, Eleni; Efthimiou, Evdokia; Sotiraki, Maria; Papalexandrou, Alexia; Tsilivigkou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) with IgM? light chain deposits in a patient with chronic hepatitis C infection and simultaneous onset of monoclonal IgM? gammopathy with concurrent small B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly and a uremic state that necessitated dialysis without any clinical signs of systemic disease apart from the chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. The diagnostic approach led to a renal biopsy that revealed MPGN with dominant IgM? deposits and interstitium infiltration by the lymphoid cells. The bone marrow biopsy findings were consistent with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, a rare lymphoproliferative disorder with a rare association with MPGN. Our case indicates high diagnostic value of renal biopsy for rare lymphoplasmacytic neoplasms with renal dysfunction as their predominant clinical manifestation. PMID:25695019

  6. TeV blazar heating in a inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberts, Astrid; Chang, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) contains 90 % of the baryons of the Universe and is the reservoir for structure formation. Acting as a calorimeter, its thermal evolution traces the conditions for structure formation and evolution. It was recently shown that TeV blazars heat up the IGM as the gamma-rays they produce turn into pairs which lose their kinetic energy to the surrounding medium through plasma instabilities. Assuming uniform heating, the heating increases the temperature of the IGM and produces an inverted temperature-density relation in underdense regions. We recently extended this work to take into account heating fluctuations due to clustering and find that the resulting temperature-density relation presents a wide scatter. We model the resulting Lyman alpha forest and compare with recent observations.

  7. Immunoglobulins and the X-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, K.; Markham, R. L.; Maxwell, P. M.; Monk-Jones, M. E.

    1969-01-01

    Serum levels of immunoglobulins (Ig) G, M, and A were determined in 28 women with an additional X-chromosome (XXX), and in equal numbers of age-matched normal women and men. Mean IgM levels were found to be highest in the XXX group, intermediate in normal women, and lowest in men; these differences were statistically significant. Mean IgM values obtained from seven XXY and three XXXY cases were almost identical with those of normal women and XXX women respectively. No such sex linkage was observed for IgA and IgG levels. These results support the suggestion that the serum level of IgM is related to the number of X chromosomes present. PMID:4185886

  8. SUPPRESSION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SYNTHESIS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Alexander R.; Asofsky, Richard; Hylton, Martha B.; Cooper, Max D.

    1972-01-01

    Germfree BALB/c mice have been treated from birth with intraperitoneal injections of purified goat antibodies to mouse IgM. The treated mice, and controls which had received an equivalent amount of goat ?-globulin, were sacrificed at 8 or 13 wk of age. Compared to controls, mice given anti-µ (a) had very few germinal centers in spleen and lymph node, (b) had decreased numbers of mature plasma cells synthesizing IgM and IgG1 in spleen, and virtual absence of IgA-synthesizing plasma cells in the gut, (c) had greatly diminished numbers of B lymphocytes bearing membrane-bound immunoglobulins of the IgM, IgG1, IgG2, and IgA classes in spleen, (d) had reduced synthesis of IgM, IgG2, and IgA by in vitro spleen cultures, and (e) had significant decreases in serum levels of IgM, IgG1, IgG2, and IgA. The treated animals failed to make antibodies to ferritin after hyperimmunization, and lacked natural antibodies to sheep erythrocytes. These results indicate that cells ultimately committed to synthesis of IgG1, IgG2, and IgA immunoglobulins are derived from cells which have expressed IgM determinants at an earlier stage of differentiation. They are consistent with a proposed two-stage model for plasma cell differentiation. The first stage is antigen independent, involves sequential activation of Cµ, C?, and C? genes by progeny of a single stem cell, and results in the formation of B lymphocytes bearing membrane-bound recognition antibodies of each class. The second, antigen-dependent, stage results in formation of mature plasmacytes and memory cells. PMID:4551216

  9. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in patients suspected to have active toxoplasmosis: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Jafarnezghad, Gholam-Abbas; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distribution of anti-toxoplasma-specific IgM and IgG tantibodies in patients suspected to have toxoplasmosis and investigate for any association between IgM and IgG antibodies and some toxoplasmosis risk factors as well. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, 70 patients suspected to had active toxoplasmosis and 30 control volunteers, who gave informed consent, entered the study. In each group, patient age, sex, signs of appearance, education level, residency status (urban / rural), occupation, frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, abortion history, and some risk factors (Direct cat exposure, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption) were recorded. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (EUROIMMUN®, United Kingdom) were used for the evaluation of anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies according to the manufacturer's instructions. All analyses were done using SPSS-20. Results: The frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies like: Direct cat exposures, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). The history of previous abortions in women in the toxoplasmosis-suspected group was significantly higher than that in the controls (31.4% versus 6.7%; P = 0.009). Conclusion: The frequency of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in toxoplasmosis suspected in the toxoplasmosis and control groups was not statistically significant. PMID:25538922

  10. Comparison of the Vidas System and Two Recent Fully Automated Assays for Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Dard, Céline; Fricker Hidalgo, Hélène; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Serological testing to detect toxoplasmosis is of major importance to avoid the possible effects of the disease in newborns. This study assessed anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM with the Vidas (bioMérieux), Architect (Abbott), and Liaison (DiaSorin) systems in 631 sera from pregnant women and newborns as well as anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity with these three systems on 54 sera from pregnant women with positive IgG and IgM. The IgG and IgM results were in agreement in, respectively, 95.2% and 98.3% (Vidas versus Architect) and 96.9% and 95.3% (Vidas versus Liaison) of the samples. Specificities were excellent for all the assays, while Vidas sensitivities ranged (depending on the classification of gray zone results) from 93.8 to 98.4% for IgG (Architect, 84.4 to 93.8%; Liaison, 93.8%) and from 81.8 to 90.9% for IgM (Architect, 63.6%; Liaison, 81.8 to 90.9%). In seroconversion sequences, IgMs were generally detected simultaneously by the three assays, while Architect was the earliest assay to detect IgG. In noninfected children, maternally transmitted IgGs were detected for a longer time with Architect than with the other systems. IgMs were positive in only one infected child with the Vidas and Liaison systems. Significantly more sera were classified in the high-avidity category with Vidas than with Architect. This evaluation shows similar performances for Vidas and more recent systems. The Vidas system adequately detects toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and newborns. This system fits the needs of laboratories working on small routine series for first-line testing as well as expert laboratories, due to a high specificity and a powerful avidity test. PMID:23740928

  11. Increased antifungal antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, M; Paulovicova, E; Paulovicova, L; Majer, I; Tedlova, E; Novosadova, H; Tibenska, E; Tedla, M; Bucova, M

    2015-04-01

    The recent studies suggest a role of fungi in development of sarcoidosis. Moreover, the immune response in sarcoidosis and fungal infection shows a striking similarity. We formulated a hypothesis of the possible increase in antifungal antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum in pulmonary sarcoidosis. BALF and serum levels of IgG-, IgM- and IgA-specific antibodies against the cell wall ?-D-glucan and mannan of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested in 47 patients (29 pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and 18 patients with other interstitial lung diseases (ILD - control group)) and 170 healthy controls. Our results proved: (1) an increase in IgG-, IgM- and IgA-specific antifungal antibodies in BALF in pulmonary sarcoidosis compared with the control group (C. albicans: IgG: P = 0.0329, IgM: P = 0.0076, IgA: P = 0.0156; S. cerevisiae: IgG: P = 0.0062, IgM: P = 0.0367, IgA: P = 0.0095) and (2) elevated levels of serum antifungal antibodies in pulmonary sarcoidosis compared with healthy controls (C. albicans: IgG: P = 0.0329, IgM: P = 0.0076, IgA: P = 0.0156; S. cerevisiae: IgG: P > 0.05, IgM: P < 0.05, IgA: P < 0.001). The study showed increased serum and BALF levels of antifungal antibodies in pulmonary sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that fungal infection is one of the possible aetiologic agents of sarcoidosis is interesting and deserves further attention. PMID:25641379

  12. Glucose impairs B-1 cell function in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jennbacken, K; Ståhlman, S; Grahnemo, L; Wiklund, O; Fogelstrand, L

    2013-01-01

    B-1 lymphocytes produce natural immunoglobulin (Ig)M, among which a large proportion is directed against apoptotic cells and altered self-antigens, such as modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Thereby, natural IgM maintains homeostasis in the body and is also protective against atherosclerosis. Diabetic patients have an increased risk of developing certain infections as well as atherosclerosis compared with healthy subjects, but the underlying reason is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether diabetes and insulin resistance affects B-1 lymphocytes and their production of natural IgM. We found that diabetic db/db mice had lower levels of peritoneal B-1a cells in the steady state-condition compared to controls. Also, activation of B-1 cells with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 agonist Kdo2-Lipid A or immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae led to a blunted IgM response in the diabetic db/db mice. In-vitro experiments with isolated B-1 cells showed that high concentrations of glucose, but not insulin or leptin, caused a reduced secretion of total IgM and copper-oxidized (CuOx)-LDL- and malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL-specific IgM from B-1 cells in addition to a decreased differentiation into antibody-producing cells, proliferation arrest and increased apoptosis. These results suggest that metabolic regulation of B-1 cells is of importance for the understanding of the role of this cell type in life-style-related conditions. PMID:23731267

  13. Taxing the Rich: Recombinations and Bubble Growth During Reionization

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Furlanetto; S. Peng Oh

    2005-08-16

    Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present an analytic model for the evolving topology of reionization that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers. As a result, reionization resembles "punctuated equilibrium," with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles stop growing when recombinations balance ionizations. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, it may be much smaller if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the universe has for all intents and purposes entered the "post-overlap" stage, so the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z>6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the "bubble-dominated" topology characteristic of reionization and the "web-dominated" topology characteristic of the later universe. [Abridged

  14. Circulating Autoantibodies against the Apolipoprotein B-100 Peptides p45 and p210 in Relation to the Occurrence of Carotid Plaques in 64-Year-Old Women

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Björn; Prahl Gullberg, Ulrica; Alm, Ragnar; Nilsson, Jan; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Immune responses against oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) play a key role in atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated inverse associations between autoantibodies to epitopes in oxidized LDL and cardiovascular disease. In this study we investigated the associations between autoantibodies against the apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) peptides p45 and p210 and occurrence of carotid plaques. Design The study cohort consisted of a population-based sample of 64-year-old women with varying degrees of glucose tolerance (n=594). To identify and record the occurrence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques ultrasonography was used. Measurements of plasma IgM and IgG autoantibodies against the native and malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified apoB-100 peptides p45 and p210 were performed by ELISA. Results Women with carotid plaques were found to have lower levels of IgM MDA-p210 autoantibodies compared to plaque-free women. The number of carotid plaques in each subject and the total carotid plaque area correlated inversely with IgM MDA-p210 levels (r=-0.11, P=0.009 and r=-0.11, P=0.013, respectively). Furthermore, levels of IgM MDA-p210 above the lowest tertile were associated with an odds ratio of 0.55 (95% CI 0.38-0.79, P=0.001) for occurrence of carotid plaques, independently of other risk markers and statin treatment. Associations between apo-B100 peptide autoantibodies and cardiovascular risk factors were generally weak but subjects with impaired glucose tolerance had higher levels of IgM against MDA-p210. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that high levels of IgM against MDA-p210 are associated with less severe carotid disease in women. These findings provide additional support for a role of immune responses against oxidized LDL in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25768285

  15. Efficient Immunoglobulin Gene Disruption and Targeted Replacement in Rabbit Using Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Offner, Sonja; Ros, Francesca; Lifke, Valeria; Zeitler, Bryan; Rottmann, Oswald; Vincent, Anna; Zhang, Lei; Jenkins, Shirin; Niersbach, Helmut; Kind, Alexander J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Schnieke, Angelika E.; Platzer, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research, yet techniques for their precise genetic modification are lacking. We demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) introduced into fertilized oocytes can inactivate a chosen gene by mutagenesis and also mediate precise homologous recombination with a DNA gene-targeting vector to achieve the first gene knockout and targeted sequence replacement in rabbits. Two ZFN pairs were designed that target the rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM) locus within exons 1 and 2. ZFN mRNAs were microinjected into pronuclear stage fertilized oocytes. Founder animals carrying distinct mutated IgM alleles were identified and bred to produce offspring. Functional knockout of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus was confirmed by serum IgM and IgG deficiency and lack of IgM+ and IgG+ B lymphocytes. We then tested whether ZFN expression would enable efficient targeted sequence replacement in rabbit oocytes. ZFN mRNA was co-injected with a linear DNA vector designed to replace exon 1 of the IgM locus with ?1.9 kb of novel sequence. Double strand break induced targeted replacement occurred in up to 17% of embryos and in 18% of fetuses analyzed. Two major goals have been achieved. First, inactivation of the endogenous IgM locus, which is an essential step for the production of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Second, establishing efficient targeted gene manipulation and homologous recombination in a refractory animal species. ZFN mediated genetic engineering in the rabbit and other mammals opens new avenues of experimentation in immunology and many other research fields. PMID:21695153

  16. Child Mortality Estimation 2013: An Overview of Updates in Estimation Methods by the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Leontine; New, Jin Rou; Pedersen, Jon; You, Danzhen

    2014-01-01

    Background In September 2013, the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) published an update of the estimates of the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) and under-five deaths for all countries. Compared to the UN IGME estimates published in 2012, updated data inputs and a new method for estimating the U5MR were used. Methods We summarize the new U5MR estimation method, which is a Bayesian B-spline Bias-reduction model, and highlight differences with the previously used method. Differences in UN IGME U5MR estimates as published in 2012 and those published in 2013 are presented and decomposed into differences due to the updated database and differences due to the new estimation method to explain and motivate changes in estimates. Findings Compared to the previously used method, the new UN IGME estimation method is based on a different trend fitting method that can track (recent) changes in U5MR more closely. The new method provides U5MR estimates that account for data quality issues. Resulting differences in U5MR point estimates between the UN IGME 2012 and 2013 publications are small for the majority of countries but greater than 10 deaths per 1,000 live births for 33 countries in 2011 and 19 countries in 1990. These differences can be explained by the updated database used, the curve fitting method as well as accounting for data quality issues. Changes in the number of deaths were less than 10% on the global level and for the majority of MDG regions. Conclusions The 2013 UN IGME estimates provide the most recent assessment of levels and trends in U5MR based on all available data and an improved estimation method that allows for closer-to-real-time monitoring of changes in the U5MR and takes account of data quality issues. PMID:25013954

  17. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  18. Comparison of the Sensitivity of Laboratory Diagnostic Methods from a Well-Characterized Outbreak of Mumps in New York City in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jennifer B.; Doll, Margaret K.; McNall, Rebecca J.; McGrew, Marcia; Williams, Nobia; Lopareva, Elena N.; Barskey, Albert E.; Punsalang, Amado; Rota, Paul A.; Oleszko, William R.; Hickman, Carole J.; Zimmerman, Christopher M.; Bellini, William J.

    2013-01-01

    A mumps outbreak in upstate New York in 2009 at a summer camp for Orthodox Jewish boys spread into Orthodox Jewish communities in the Northeast, including New York City. The availability of epidemiologic information, including vaccination records and parotitis onset dates, allowed an enhanced analysis of laboratory methods for mumps testing. Serum and buccal swab samples were collected from 296 confirmed cases with onsets from September through December 2009. All samples were tested using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) capture IgM enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) that targets the short hydrophobic gene. A subset of the samples (n = 205) was used to evaluate 3 commercial mumps IgM assays and to assess the sensitivity of using an alternative target gene (nucleoprotein) in the rRT-PCR protocol. Among 115 cases of mumps with 2 documented doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, the CDC capture IgM EIA detected IgM in 51% of serum samples compared to 9% to 24% using three commercial IgM assays. The rRT-PCR that targeted the nucleoprotein gene increased RNA detection by 14% compared to that obtained with the original protocol. The ability to detect IgM improved when serum was collected 3 days or more after symptom onset, whereas sensitivity of RNA detection by rRT-PCR declined when buccal swabs were collected later than 2 days after onset. Selection of testing methods and timing of sample collection are important factors in the ability to confirm infection among vaccinated persons. These results reinforce the need to use virus detection assays in addition to serologic tests. PMID:23324519

  19. Is there a Correlation between Anti-Pig Antibody Levels in Humans and Geographic Location During Childhood?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Goutham; Satyananda, Vikas; Fang, Jason; Zhou, Hou; Fujita, Minoru; Ekser, Burcin; Long, Cassandra; Dons, Eefje; Sun, Qing; Ayares, David; Hara, Hidetaka; Cooper, David KC

    2013-01-01

    Background An initial observation suggested high levels of anti-pig antibodies in healthy humans who had spent their childhood in the Middle-East. We tested larger cohorts to determine whether anti-pig antibody levels correlated with the geographic location in which the subject spent his/her childhood, as this might have implications for clinical trials of xenotransplantation. Methods Anti-pig IgM and IgG levels (by flow cytometry using PBMC from wild-type [WT] and ?1, 3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO] pigs), and anti-Gal IgM and IgG levels (by ELISA) were measured in 75 volunteers. Comparisons of antibody levels were also made on the basis of subject age, gender, ABO blood group, diet, and history of vaccination. Results Antibody binding to GTKO pig cells was less than to WT cells. There was a reduction in anti-pig IgM and anti-Gal IgM, but a slight increase in anti-non Gal IgG, with age. Women had higher levels of anti-Gal IgM than men. Blood group A subjects had higher levels of anti-pig IgM and IgG than those of group AB. Diet had no influence on antibody levels. Typhoid or MMR vaccination was associated with lower anti-nonGal IgG or anti-Gal IgG, respectively, whereas influenza vaccination was associated with higher anti-nonGal IgG. There were some significant variations in antibody levels associated with location during childhood, with subjects from the middle-east demonstrating higher anti-nonGal IgG and anti-Gal IgG. Conclusion Clinical trials of xenotransplantation may be influenced by various factors, including the geographic location of the recipient during childhood, possibly associated with exposure to different microorganisms. PMID:23887601

  20. The Lyman ? forest as a cosmic thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irši?, Vid; Viel, Matteo

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high resolution hydrodynamic simulations in terms of Lyman ? and Lyman ? one dimensional flux power spectra P?? and P??). In particular, we focus on the behaviour that the flux auto-power spectra and cross-power spectra P??) display when the intergalactic medium (IGM) thermal history is changed in a range of values that bracket a reference model, while cosmological parameters are kept fixed to best fit the cosmic microwave background data. We present empirical fits that describe at the sub-percent level the dependence of the power spectra on the thermal parameters. At the largest scales, the power spectra show a constant bias between each other that is set by the parameters describing the IGM thermal state. The cross-power spectrum has an oscillatory pattern and crosses zero at a scale which depends on T0, the IGM temperature at the mean density, for reasonable values of the power-law index ? of the IGM temperature-density relation T=T0(1+?)?-1). By performing a Fisher matrix analysis, we find that the power spectrum P?? is more sensitive to the thermal history than P?? alone, due to the fact that it probes denser regions than Lyman ?. When we combine the power and cross spectra the constraints on ? can be improved by a factor ~ 4, while the constraints on T0 improve by a factor of ~ 2. We address the role of signal-to-noise and resolution by mocking realistic observations and we conclude that the framework presented in this work can significantly improve the knowledge of the IGM thermal state, which will in turn guarantee better constraints on IGM-derived cosmological parameters.