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1

PRUEBA DE ELISA INDIRECTA PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE ANTICUERPOS IgM PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE LEPTOSPIROSIS HUMANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to have an early diagnosis for diseases with a non-specific clinical presentation, it is necessary to have laboratory confirmation using special tests, so that the diagnosis is more accurate and timely. Objective: A comparative study using microagglutination MAT test and an Indirect ELISA, standardized using an antigen pool from Lepsotspira interrogans, aiming at detecting IgM antibodies, in acute

Manuel Céspedes Z; Martha Glenny A; Vidal Felices A; Lourdes Balda J; Víctor Suárez M

2

Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

Crispen, Patrick Douglas

2000-01-01

3

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

4

Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

Crispen, Patrick Douglas

2000-01-01

5

Avast Free Antivirus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avast Free Antivirus has been around for sometime, and this latest edition has some notable new features. Perhaps the most significant change here is the very helpful user interface, which includes a new tabbed section and a context sensitive help menu. Visitors can also use the real-time shields to protect against spyware and viruses originating from hundreds of sources. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

6

Sophos Anti-Virus for Windows, version 7 user manual  

E-print Network

Sophos Anti-Virus for Windows, version 7 user manual For Windows 2000 and later Document date: August 2008 #12;Contents 1 About Sophos Anti-Virus ........................................................................................................................3 2 Introduction to Sophos Anti-Virus

7

P2PAV: Antivirus through P2P  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antivirus software is one of the most widely installed software for protecting computer from malicious attacks. However, traditional host-based antivirus needs to store all viruses' pattern or sample, which not only needs large local storage, but also fails to detect modern threats in time. The newly come cloud-based antivirus, which needs no extra local storage and compares virus' pattern on

Li Zhang; Zhao Wang; Zhong Chen

2012-01-01

8

Lab Anti-Virus Policy 1.0 Purpose  

E-print Network

Lab Anti-Virus Policy COE­LAV­02 1.0 Purpose To establish requirements which must be met by all computers connected to College of Engineering lab networks to ensure effective virus detection facilities must have a reputable vendor's anti-virus software installed, and scheduled to scan the system

Demirel, Melik C.

9

Page 1 of 4 University of Warwick Antivirus Policy June 2002 University of Warwick Anti-Virus Policy  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 4 University of Warwick Antivirus Policy June 2002 University of Warwick Anti-Virus Policy Scope This document describes the measures taken by the University to counter computer viruses and the responsibilities of individuals, departments and IT Services in protecting the University against viruses

Davies, Christopher

10

AMG Anti-Virus Free Edition 9.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this version of its popular product, AMG Anti-Virus is offering a few new notable highlights. For one, visitors can use the full-featured scheduling utility for automating tasks and checking for new definitions. This version of Anti-Virus also includes new anti-phishing detection techniques and an up-to-date link scanner. Users running Windows 2000 and newer as well as Linux will be able to use this application.

11

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection Recommended processes to prevent virus problems  

E-print Network

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection COE­AVP­01 Recommended processes to prevent virus problems: · Always run either the current University site licensed anti-virus software, which is available from the University download site or through ECS, or other reputable anti-virus software. · Download and run

Demirel, Melik C.

12

GrAVity: A Massively Parallel Antivirus Engine Giorgos Vasiliadis and Sotiris Ioannidis  

E-print Network

GrAVity: A Massively Parallel Antivirus Engine Giorgos Vasiliadis and Sotiris Ioannidis Institute to perform match- ing of suspicious data against those signatures. In this paper, we present GrAVity, a massively parallel antivirus engine. Our engine utilized the compute power of modern graphics processors

Markatos, Evangelos P.

13

[Anti-virus research of triterpenoids in licorice].  

PubMed

Licorice is a leguminous plant of glycyrrhiza. It is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Triterpenoid is one of the mainly active components of licorice. In recent years, the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of many triterpenoids in licorice was confirmed, and these findings have become a hot spot of antiviral immunity. The triterpenoids of licorice has the potential to become a novel broad-spectrum antiviral medicine and will be widely used in the clinical treatment. This review provided a summary of the recent anti-virus research progress on several triterpenoids in licorice, such as glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives. The antiviral roles of triterpenoids in licorice against herpes virus, HIV, hepatitis virus, SARS coronavirus and influenza virus were briefly summarized. PMID:24520776

Pu, Jie-Ying; He, Li; Wu, Si-Yu; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Xi

2013-11-01

14

East Tennessee State University Symantec Campus Agreement Student / Employee Personal Computer Antivirus Request  

E-print Network

East Tennessee State University Symantec Campus Agreement Student / Employee Personal Computer Antivirus Request East Tennessee State University (ETSU) has purchased the Symantec Campus Agreement, which understand that no technical support is provided by East Tennessee State University. _____ I understand

Karsai, Istvan

15

Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

2014-11-01

16

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

17

Live virus-free or die: coupling of antivirus immunity and programmed suicide or dormancy in prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background The virus-host arms race is a major theater for evolutionary innovation. Archaea and bacteria have evolved diverse, elaborate antivirus defense systems that function on two general principles: i) immune systems that discriminate self DNA from nonself DNA and specifically destroy the foreign, in particular viral, genomes, whereas the host genome is protected, or ii) programmed cell suicide or dormancy induced by infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Almost all genomic loci encoding immunity systems such as CRISPR-Cas, restriction-modification and DNA phosphorothioation also encompass suicide genes, in particular those encoding known and predicted toxin nucleases, which do not appear to be directly involved in immunity. In contrast, the immunity systems do not appear to encode antitoxins found in typical toxin-antitoxin systems. This raises the possibility that components of the immunity system themselves act as reversible inhibitors of the associated toxin proteins or domains as has been demonstrated for the Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC that interacts with the PrrI restriction-modification system. We hypothesize that coupling of diverse immunity and suicide/dormancy systems in prokaryotes evolved under selective pressure to provide robustness to the antivirus response. We further propose that the involvement of suicide/dormancy systems in the coupled antivirus response could take two distinct forms: 1) induction of a dormancy-like state in the infected cell to ‘buy time’ for activation of adaptive immunity; 2) suicide or dormancy as the final recourse to prevent viral spread triggered by the failure of immunity. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis entails many experimentally testable predictions. Specifically, we predict that Cas2 protein present in all cas operons is a mRNA-cleaving nuclease (interferase) that might be activated at an early stage of virus infection to enable incorporation of virus-specific spacers into the CRISPR locus or to trigger cell suicide when the immune function of CRISPR-Cas systems fails. Similarly, toxin-like activity is predicted for components of numerous other defense loci. Implications of the hypothesis The hypothesis implies that antivirus response in prokaryotes involves key decision-making steps at which the cell chooses the path to follow by sensing the course of virus infection. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Etienne Joly and Nick Grishin. For complete reviews, go to the Reviewers’ reports section. PMID:23151069

2012-01-01

18

IGM heating in fossil galaxy groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study intergalactic medium (IGM) heating in a sample of five fossil galaxy groups by using their radio properties at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz. The power by radio jets introducing mechanical heating for the sampled objects is not sufficient enough to suppress the cooling flow. Therefore, we discussed shock-, vortex heating, and conduction as alternative heating processes. Further, the 1.4 GHz and 610 MHz radio luminosities of fossil groups are compared to a sample of normal galaxy groups of the same brightest group galaxies (BGGs), stellar mass, and total group stellar mass, quantified using the K-band luminosity. It appears that the fossil BGGs are under luminous at 1.4 GHz and 610 MHz for a given BGG stellar mass and luminosity, in comparison to a general population of the groups. In addition, we explore how the bolometric radio luminosity of fossil sample depends on clusters and groups characteristics. Using the HIghest X-ray FLUx Galaxy Cluster Sample (HIFLUGCS) as a control sample we found that the large-scale behaviours of fossil galaxy groups are consistent with their relaxed and virialized nature.

Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Ponman, T. J.; Jetha, N. N.; Raychaudhury, S.

2014-10-01

19

Mass loss from galaxies: feeding the IGM, recycling in the IGM  

E-print Network

As a result of internal processes or environmental effects like ram-pressure stripping or collisions, galaxies lose a significant part of their stellar and gaseous content. Whereas the impact of such stripping on galaxy evolution has been well studied, much less attention has been given to the fate of the expelled material in the intergalactic or intracluster medium (IGM/ICM). Observational evidence exists showing that a fraction of the injected matter is actually recycled to form a new generation of galaxies, such as the Tidal Dwarf Galaxies discovered near numerous interacting systems. Using a set of multiwavelength data, we are now able to roughly analyze the processes pertaining to their formation: from an instability in the HI clouds, through the formation of molecular gas, and to the onset of star formation.

Pierre-Alain Duc; Jonathan Braine; Ute Lisenfeld; Philippe Amram; Elias Brinks

2001-11-30

20

Successful treatment of IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy with fludarabine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the response of four patients with IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy to a novel therapy—pulsed intravenous fludarabine.?BACKGROUND—The peripheral neuropathy associated with IgM paraproteinaemia usually runs a chronic, slowly progressive course which may eventually cause severe disability. Treatment with conventional immunosuppressive regimens has been unsatisfactory. Fludarabine is a novel purine analogue which has recently been shown to be effective in low grade lymphoid malignancies.?METHODS—Four patients were treated with IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy with intravenous pulses of fludarabine. Two of the four patients had antibodies to MAG and characteristic widely spaced myelin on nerve biopsy and a third had characteristic widely spaced myelin only. The fourth had an endoneurial lymphocytic infiltrate on nerve biopsy and a diagnosis of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia.?RESULTS—In all cases subjective and objective clinical improvement occurred associated with a significant fall in the IgM paraprotein concentration in three cases. Neurophysiological parameters improved in the three patients examined. The treatment was well tolerated. All patients developed mild, reversible lymphopenia and 50% mild generalised myelosuppression, but there were no febrile episodes.?CONCLUSION—Fludarabine should be considered as a possible treatment for patients with IgM MGUS paraproteinaemic neuropathy.?? PMID:10209166

Wilson, H.; Lunn, M.; Schey, S.; Hughes, R

1999-01-01

21

Characterization of IgM of Indian major carps and their cross-reactivity with anti-fish IgM antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian major carps (IMC), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) were immunized with bovine serum albumin and the serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) was purified by affinity chromatography. The heavy and light chain of IgM of all the three species of IMC were about 88 and 26kDa, respectively. Anti-fish IgM antibody against all the three species were

Manas Ranjan Bag; M. Makesh; K. V. Rajendran; S. C. Mukherjee

2009-01-01

22

Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA  

PubMed Central

Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

2011-01-01

23

Thermal diffusion in the IGM of clusters of galaxies  

E-print Network

We revisit the phenomenon of elements diffusion in the intergalactic medium (IGM) in clusters of galaxies. The diffusion is driven by gravity, concentration and temperature gradients. The latter cause thermal diffusion, which has been so far ignored in IGM studies. We consider the full problem based on the Burgers' equations and demonstrate that the temperature gradients present in clusters of galaxies may successfully compete with gravity, evacuating metals from cooler regions. Under the combined action of gravity and temperature gradients, complicated metallicity profiles with several peaks and depressions may be formed. For a typical cool core cluster, the thermal diffusion may significantly reduce and even reverse the gravitational sedimentation of metals, resulting in the depression in their abundance in the core. This may have implications for diagnostics of the low temperature plasma in the centers of clusters of galaxies.

Shtykovskiy, P

2009-01-01

24

IgM, Fc?-receptors and malarial immune evasion  

PubMed Central

"This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may differ from the final version published in The JI (online and in print). AAI (The JI) is not liable for errors or omissions in this author-produced version of the manuscript or in any version derived from it by the U.S. National Institutes of Health or any other third party. The final, citable version of record can be found at www.jimmunol.org." Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an ancestral antibody class found in all jawed vertebrates from sharks to mammals. This ancient ancestry is shared by malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) that infect all classes of terrestrial vertebrates with whom they coevolved. IgM, the least studied, and most enigmatic of the vertebrate immunoglobulins has recently been shown to form an intimate relationship with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Here we discuss how this association might come about, building on the recently determined structure of the human IgM pentamer, and how this interaction could affect parasite survival, particularly in light of the just discovered Fc?-receptor (FcµR) localized to B and T cell surfaces. As this parasite may exploit an interaction with IgM to not only limit immune detection but also manipulate the immune response when detected, a better understanding of this association may prove critical for the development of improved vaccines or vaccination strategies. PMID:20410497

Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Salanti, Ali; Ditlev, Sisse B; Shao, Zhifeng; Ghumra, Ashfaq; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Pleass, Richard J

2010-01-01

25

Characterization of IgM of Indian major carps and their cross-reactivity with anti-fish IgM antibodies.  

PubMed

Indian major carps (IMC), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) were immunized with bovine serum albumin and the serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) was purified by affinity chromatography. The heavy and light chain of IgM of all the three species of IMC were about 88 and 26kDa, respectively. Anti-fish IgM antibody against all the three species were raised in mice and the reaction of anti-fish IgM antibodies with IgM of all the three species of IMC were studied by Western blot. The anti-fish IgM antibodies reacted strongly with the heavy chain of the same species against which it was raised while the reactions with the heavy chain of other species were milder indicating some degree of epitope sharing among the heavy chains of IgM of IMCs. However, there was no cross-reaction with the light chain of any of the IgM. PMID:19063976

Bag, Manas Ranjan; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V; Mukherjee, S C

2009-02-01

26

Antivirus software Spyware protection  

E-print Network

is not available in uT; however, uT provides residents with high-speed Ethernet service and a connection to the high- speed campus data network and the internet. When your computer is equipped with an Ethernet access to ResNet high-speed data communication services (see the ResNet article above). Students living

27

COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF EFFECTS OF THYROXINE, CORTISOL Nutritionnelles, l.N.R.A., Centre de Theix, 63110 Beaumont France Résumé ABSORPTION DES IgGl ET IgM COLOSTRALES conditions. Les résultats suivants ont été obtenus : - la capacité d'absorption des IgGl et des IgM varie

Boyer, Edmond

28

Southern elephant seals: IgM concentration in milk of cows and serum of their pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum and milk Immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentrations in 11 mother-pup pairs were measured in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) throughout lactation during 2 breeding seasons at King George Island. Samples were obtained sequentially throughout the\\u000a suckling period (approximately 23?days). The IgM concentration was measured by single radial immunodiffusion on agarose plates.\\u000a Milk IgM concentrations showed significant differences throughout lactation, with

Maria E. I. Marquez; A. R. Carlini; A. V. Baroni; N. H. Slobodianik; P. A. Ronayne de Ferrer; M. F. Godoy

2000-01-01

29

Radio Galaxies and the Magnetization of the IGM  

E-print Network

Observed radio galaxies had a much higher comoving density during the `quasar era', at z ~ 2-3, but these sources are only detectable for small fractions of their active lifetimes at such high z due to expansion losses and increased inverse Compton losses against the cosmic microwave background. Using recent models for the evolution of the size and luminosity of powerful double radio sources, as well as LCDM simulations of the cosmic web of baryonic material, we argue that during the quasar era a high volume fraction of this web was occupied by the lobes of double radio sources. They could have seeded the IGM with an average magnetic field approaching 10^{-8} G. Further, these advancing overpressured lobes could compress the denser interstellar gas clouds of the galaxies engulfed by them and thus trigger starbursts. This can probably account for much of the intense star-formation activity witnessed beyond z ~ 1.5. Also, the sweeping up of the ISM of the gas-rich galaxies by the rapidly advancing radio lobes may well be responsible for the widespread metal pollution of the IGM and proto-galaxies at high redshifts.

Gopal-Krishna; Paul J. Wiita

2003-01-15

30

Heavy element enrichment in the IGM at high redshift  

E-print Network

We present a detailed analysis of the ionisation state and heavy element abundances in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). The CIV doublet is shown by 30 % of the 182 selected optically thin \\lya clouds in 10 QSO lines of sight. Direct metallicity calculations have been performed on individual systems with detected CIV and SiIV (10% of the sample) varying the UV photoionising source, cloud density and size and silicon relative abundance. The best solutions for carbon content in this subsample (redshift coverage $z=2.6 - 3.8$) span between 1/6 and 1/300 of the solar value with no evidence of redshift evolution in both the metallicity and the ionising source. Global properties of the whole sample indicate that the metallicity in \\lya clouds with CIV and SiIV is not typical of the IGM. The redshift evolution of the UVB is one of the possible sources of the observed SiIV/CIV trend presented by Cowie and collaborators during this meeting. Future detection of heavy elements in lower HI column density ($\\log N_{HI} < 14.5$) \\lya clouds relies on the presence of OVI and NV at $z=1-2.5$.

S. Savaglio

1997-09-16

31

Effect of various absorption enhancers based on tight junctions on the intestinal absorption of forsythoside A in Shuang-Huang-Lian, application to its antivirus activity  

PubMed Central

Background: Forsythoside A (FTA), one of the main active ingredients in Shuang–Huang–Lian (SHL), possesses strong antibacterial, antioxidant and antiviral effects, and its pharmacological effects was higher than that of other ingredients, but the absolute bioavailability orally was approximately 0.72%, which was significantly low, influencing clinical efficacies of its oral preparations seriously. Materials and Methods: In vitro Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics study were simultaneously performed to investigate the effects of absorption enhancers based on tight junctions: sodium caprate and water-soluble chitosan on the intestinal absorption of FTA, and the eventual mucosal epithelial damage resulted from absorption enhancers was evaluated by MTT test and morphology observation, respectively. The pharmacological effects such as antivirus activity improvement by absorption enhancers were verified by MDCK damage inhibition rate after influenza virus propagation. Results: The observations from in vitro Caco-2 cell showed that the absorption of FTA in SHL could be improved by absorption enhancers. Meanwhile, the absorption enhancing effect of water-soluble chitosan may be almost saturable up to 0.0032% (w/v), and sodium caprate at concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL was safe, but water-soluble chitosan at different concentrations was all safe for these cells. In pharmacokinetics study, water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg improved the bioavailability of FTA in SHL to the greatest extent, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with SHL with water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation better significantly than that of control. Conclusion: Water-soluble chitosan at dosage of 50 mg/kg might be safe and effective absorption enhancer for improving the bioavailability of FTA and the antivirus activity in vitro in SHL. PMID:24695554

Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Xuan Xuan; Yin, Ai Ling; Cai, Bao Chang; Wang, Hai Dan; Di, Liuqing; Shan, Jin Jun

2014-01-01

32

The contribution of naturally occurring IgM antibodies, IgM cross-reactivity and complement dependency in murine humoral responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Immunogenicity of 12 capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from Streptococcus pneumoniae did not correlate with pre-existing levels of natural IgM anti-CPS antibodies in mice. Immunization of mice with individual CPS, with the exception of type 14 (the only neutral CPS tested), increased serum IgM that also bound other CPS serotypes independent of structural similarity or commonly known contaminants. Surprisingly only IgM response to type 4 (which has a small immunodominant epitope) was dependent on either complement C3 or complement receptors CD35/CD21. IgG anti-CPS responses were infrequently induced, but critically dependent on complement. Our results have clarified the role of complement in the induction of IgM and IgG anti-CPS antibody responses in mice and have implications for CPS vaccine development. PMID:19660585

Jones, Hannah E; Taylor, Philip R; McGreal, Eamon; Zamze, Susanne; Wong, Simon Y C

2009-09-25

33

Development of a New Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Immunoblot for Detection of CMV-Specific IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a new cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunoblot to detect CMV-specific IgM in human sera. The new test contains four viral proteins (vp150, vp82, vp65, and vp28) purified from viral particles and four recombinant proteins (rp150, rp130, rp52, and rp38) purified from Escherichia coli. These antigens were individually loaded onto nitrocellulose strips, and the strips were then used

T. LAZZAROTTO; A. RIPALTI; G. BERGAMINI; M. C. BATTISTA; P. SPEZZACATENA; F. CAMPANINI; P. PRADELLI; S. VARANI; L. GABRIELLI; G. T. MAINE; M. P. LANDINI

1998-01-01

34

Identification of a novel host-specific IgM protease in Streptococcus suis.  

PubMed

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a highly invasive, extracellular pathogen in pigs with the capacity to cause severe infections in humans. This study was initiated by the finding that IgM degradation products are released after opsonization of S. suis. The objective of this work was to identify the bacterial factor responsible for IgM degradation. The results of this study showed that a member of the IdeS family, designated Ide(Ssuis) (Immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of S. suis), is responsible and sufficient for IgM cleavage. Recombinant Ide(Ssuis) was found to degrade only IgM but neither IgG nor IgA. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that Ide(Ssuis) is host specific, as it exclusively cleaves porcine IgM but not IgM from six other species, including a closely related member of the Suidae family. As demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, Ide(Ssuis) modulates binding of IgM to the bacterial surface. Ide(Ssuis) is the first prokaryotic IgM-specific protease described, indicating that this enzyme is involved in a so-far-unknown mechanism of host-pathogen interaction at an early stage of the host immune response. Furthermore, cleavage of porcine IgM by Ide(Ssuis) is the first identified phenotype reflecting functional adaptation of S. suis to pigs as the main host. PMID:23243300

Seele, Jana; Singpiel, Alena; Spoerry, Christian; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph G

2013-03-01

35

Identification of a Novel Host-Specific IgM Protease in Streptococcus suis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a highly invasive, extracellular pathogen in pigs with the capacity to cause severe infections in humans. This study was initiated by the finding that IgM degradation products are released after opsonization of S. suis. The objective of this work was to identify the bacterial factor responsible for IgM degradation. The results of this study showed that a member of the IdeS family, designated IdeSsuis (Immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of S. suis), is responsible and sufficient for IgM cleavage. Recombinant IdeSsuis was found to degrade only IgM but neither IgG nor IgA. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that IdeSsuis is host specific, as it exclusively cleaves porcine IgM but not IgM from six other species, including a closely related member of the Suidae family. As demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, IdeSsuis modulates binding of IgM to the bacterial surface. IdeSsuis is the first prokaryotic IgM-specific protease described, indicating that this enzyme is involved in a so-far-unknown mechanism of host-pathogen interaction at an early stage of the host immune response. Furthermore, cleavage of porcine IgM by IdeSsuis is the first identified phenotype reflecting functional adaptation of S. suis to pigs as the main host. PMID:23243300

Seele, Jana; Singpiel, Alena; Spoerry, Christian; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

2013-01-01

36

Detection of IgM antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis by enzyme linked fluorescence immunoassay.  

PubMed Central

A simple, sensitive enzyme linked fluorescence immunoassay has been developed to detect IgM antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis. Reticulate bodies and elementary bodies from C trachomatis L2/434 Bu strain were isolated and used as antigens in the assay. Of 113 serum samples obtained from infants with pneumonia, 27 (23.9%) had IgM antibodies to C trachomatis L2 reticulate bodies and nine (8.0%) had IgM antibodies to C trachomatis L2 elementary bodies (titre greater than or equal to 1/500). Specific IgM antibodies were not detected in 20 control serum samples obtained from healthy adults and children. The possible use of enzyme linked fluorescence assay to determine IgM antibodies in the serodiagnosis of C trachomatis infection is discussed. PMID:3894429

Numazaki, K; Chiba, S; Yamanaka, T; Moroboshi, T; Aoki, K; Nakao, T

1985-01-01

37

Potential Impact of Different Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM Assays on an Algorithm Requiring IgM Reactivity as a Criterion for Measuring CMV IgG Avidity  

PubMed Central

The measurement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG avidity is a powerful tool for identifying individuals with recent CMV infection. Because such patients are expected to be positive for CMV IgM, several investigators have suggested that CMV IgG-positive sera first be screened for CMV IgM and then only the IgM-reactive sera be tested for avidity. We investigated the impact of different CMV IgM assays on such a reflexing algorithm using a panel of 369 consecutive IgG-positive serum samples submitted for avidity testing. A bead-based immunofluorescent assay (BIFA) identified 105 IgM-positive serum samples, whereas an IgM-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) identified 48 IgM-positive serum samples; this marked difference led us to evaluate additional CMV IgM assays. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay (ELFA) and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) were used to test all sera with discordant BIFA/EIA results, all sera with concordant positive results, and selected sera with concordant negative results. The findings indicated that the ELFA would identify 74 CMV IgM-positive samples and the CIA would identify 64. Of the 23 low-avidity serum samples, 2 were IgM negative by BIFA, 3 by ELFA and CIA, and 4 by EIA; of the 23 intermediate-avidity serum samples, 6 were IgM negative by BIFA, 10 by ELFA, and 15 by EIA and CIA. In both these avidity groups, BIFA IgM-negative sera were also negative by the other 3 assays. These findings demonstrate that an algorithm requiring CMV IgM reactivity as a criterion for CMV IgG avidity testing does not identify all low-avidity sera and thus misses some cases of acute CMV infection. PMID:24671558

Lapé-Nixon, Mary; Brenner, Andrew; Pitstick, Nancy; Couturier, Marc Roger

2014-01-01

38

B-1 cells in the bone marrow are a significant source of natural IgM  

PubMed Central

Summary Natural IgM antibodies secreted in the absence of antigenic challenge are important contributors to antimicrobial immunity and tissue homeostasis. Early studies had identified bone marrow and, to a lesser extent the spleen, as main tissue sources of this spontaneously secreted IgM. However, the responsible B cell subset has never been identified. Using multicolor flow cytometry, cell sorting and chimeric mice in which B-1 and B-2 cells and their secreted antibodies are distinguished by their Ig-allotype, we unequivocally identify the natural IgM secreting cells in spleen, and for the first time in the bone marrow as IgM+ IgDlo/?CD19hi CD43+ CD5+/? B-1 cells. The newly identified population of bone marrow B-1 cells shows many of the phenotypic characteristics of splenic B-1 cells but is distinct from B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity, which generate at best very small amounts of IgM. Antibody-secreting spleen and bone marrow B-1 cells are distinct also from terminally differentiated plasma cells generated from antigen-induced conventional B cells, as they express high levels of surface IgM and CD19 and lack expression of CD138. Together the study identifies populations of non-terminally differentiated B-1 cells in spleen and bone marrow as the most significant producers of natural IgM. PMID:22009734

Choi, Youn Soo; Dieter, Jacquelyn A.; Rothaeusler, Kristina; Luo, Zheng; Baumgarth, Nicole

2012-01-01

39

The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic  

PubMed Central

The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

Hanala, Sherif

2012-01-01

40

Transcriptional Heterogeneity of IgM+ Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Tissues  

PubMed Central

Two major classes of B lymphocytes have been described to date in rainbow trout: IgM+ and IgT+ cells. IgM+ cells are mainly localized in the spleen, peripheral blood and kidney but are also found in other tissues. However, differences among IgM+ cell populations attending to its location are poorly defined in fish. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the expression of different immune molecules such as chemokine receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and transcription factors on sorted IgM+ lymphocytes from different rainbow trout tissues. IgM+ populations from blood, spleen, kidney, gills, intestine and liver were isolated by cell sorting and the constitutive levels of transcription of these genes evaluated by real-time PCR. To further characterize B cells, we identified an MS4A sequence. In humans, the MS4A family includes several genes with immune functions, such as the B cell marker CD20 or FcR?. Subsequently, we have also evaluated the mRNA levels of this MS4A gene in the different IgM+ populations. The relevant differences in transcriptional patterns observed for each of these IgM+ populations analyzed, point to the presence of functionally different tissue-specific B cell populations in rainbow trout. The data shown provides a pattern of genes transcribed in IgM+ B cells not previously revealed in teleost fish. Furthermore, the constitutive expression of all the TLR genes analyzed in IgM+ cells suggests an important role for these cells in innate immunity. PMID:24324826

Abós, Beatriz; Castro, Rosario; Pignatelli, Jaime; Luque, Alfonso; González, Lucia; Tafalla, Carolina

2013-01-01

41

IgM nephropathy: timely response to a call for action  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the largest antibody molecule and is deposited in the glomeruli in a wide variety of both primary and secondary glomerulopathies. The data on its pathogenic role are conflicting till date. A recent study provides evidence for the involvement of natural antibody IgM in fixing and activating complement and causing glomerular injury, proteinuria, and glomerulosclerosis in an animal model. This finding is important in understanding the pathogenesis of the related disorder of IgM nephropathy. PMID:25340155

Mubarak, Muhammed; Nasri, Hamid

2014-01-01

42

IgM Myeloma or Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia Is the Big Question?  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although critical from therapeutic and prognostic perspectives, differentiating IgM Myeloma (MM) from Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is fraught with failure. WM can usually be distinguished from IgM MM by the lymphoplasmacytic versus pure plasmacytic morphology, absent versus present lytic bone lesions, and immunophenotypic findings. However, all these features have their own limitations; hence, it requires constant vigilance and periodic re-evaluation. Here we describe a case of a 70-year-old woman initially diagnosed as smoldering IgM MM, who eventually turned out to have WM. PMID:25553130

BHATT, Vijaya Raj; MURUKUTLA, Srujitha; NAQI, Muniba; PANT, Shradha; KEDIA, Shiksha; TERJANIAN, Terenig

2014-01-01

43

Human monoclonal IgM antibodies with apoptotic activity isolated from cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Monoclonal antibodies are accepted as ideal adjuvant therapeutic reagents for all kinds of diseases. Polyvalent (cross- linking) and low-mutated IgM antibodies (less immunogenic),are believed to be the most effective weapons,against cancer. The best sources for these types of antibodies are the cancer patients themselves. Using conventional hybridoma technology, not only are fully human monoclonal IgM antibodies isolated, but also

Stephanie Br Andlein; Judith Lorenz; Nele Ruoff; Frank Hensel; Ines Beyer; Justus M Uller; Konrad Neukam; Bertram Illert; Matthias Eck; Hans Konrad M Uller-hermelink; H. Peter Vollmers

44

Probing the Warm Hot IGM with Broad Ly? Absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad Lyman alpha absorbers (BLAs) offer an alternative method to highly-ionized metal lines for tracing the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at T>105 K. Such features are thermally broadened to line widths of greater than 40 km s-1 and are typically weak (N<1014 cm-2). Observing such low-contrast spectral features and clearly identifying lines likely shaped by thermal broadening requires high-quality data and accurate continuum placement. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), high signal-to-noise (S/N) far-UV spectra of faint AGN are now attainable in modest observing times. We present early COS G130M/G160M observations (lambda=1130-1800 A) of the quasars PKS 0405-123 (z=0.57, S/N=30-50) and 1ES 1553+113 (z 0.40, S/N=15-20). Both sight lines are rich in IGM absorption systems and the high S/N allows us to catalog several dozen BLA features. We compare the new COS observations of PKS 0405-123 with archival STIS/E140M observations (S/N=10-15) and find qualitative agreement with roughly half of the published BLA systems. As comparable previous observations of 1ES 1553+113 do not exist, we present several new BLA candidates along this sight line. We measure the BLA detection frequency, determine the coincidence of BLAs with other WHIM tracers such as OVI, and estimate the contribution of BLAs to the total baryon density of the universe. Finally, we outline some of the biases and systematic assumptions inherent in BLA WHIM surveys and discuss how each affects the search for missing baryons.

Danforth, Charles; Stocke, J. T.; Shull, J.; Savage, B. D.; Sembach, K. R.

2010-01-01

45

Purification and molecular characterization of IgM in olive barb, Puntius Sarana.  

PubMed

In the present article, immunoglobulin (Ig) of Puntius sarana (a vulnerable medium carp species) was purified by affinity chromatography, characterized, and identified as only IgM type with a native molecular weight of 879 kDa having one heavy (88 kDa) and one light (26 kDa) chain. Further, the developed rabbit antisera against IgM was found to be quite specific to P. sarana IgM and used in ELISA to measure the antibody titer in P. sarana at different time periods, against an antigen (hemocyanin) injection with and without adjuvant. The antibody titer was significantly higher in most of the time periods in both groups, however, the adjuvant-treated group showed higher antibody titer at days 43 and 90, compared to non adjuvant-treated group. Further, the partial IgM sequence was amplified and its expression level was checked during ontogenesis. The IgM transcript was detected from unfertilized egg stage to 4 days post fertilization (dpf) and again reappeared at 21 dpf whereas during infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, significantly marked up-regulation of the gene was observed at 12 hr, 24 hr, and 7 days post-infection time periods indicating the role of IgM during early embryonic time period as well as during bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24654823

Das, Abhilipsa; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Garnayak, Sushil Kumar

2014-01-01

46

Natural IgM Is Produced by CD5- Plasma Cells That Occupy a Distinct Survival Niche in Bone Marrow.  

PubMed

Natural IgM is constitutively present in the serum, where it aids in the early control of viral and bacterial expansions. Natural IgM also plays a significant role in the prevention of autoimmune disease by promoting the clearance of cellular debris. Nevertheless, the origins of natural IgM have not been precisely defined. Previous studies focused on the role of CD5(+) B1 cells in the production of natural IgM, but we show in this article that a discrete population of CD5(-) IgM plasmablasts and plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM) produces the majority of serum IgM in resting mice. These Ab-secreting cells (ASC) originate from peritoneal cavity-resident cells, because transfer of peritoneal cells completely restores serum IgM and the specific compartment of BM ASC in Rag1-deficient mice. We show that BM natural IgM ASC arise from a fetal-lineage progenitor that is neither B1a nor B1b, and that this IgM ASC compartment contains a substantial fraction of long-lived plasma cells that do not occupy the IgG plasma cell survival niche in the BM; instead, they are supported by IL-5. In summary, we identified the primary source of natural IgM and showed that these ASC are maintained long-term in a unique survival niche within the BM. PMID:25429072

Reynolds, Alexander E; Kuraoka, Masayuki; Kelsoe, Garnett

2015-01-01

47

Treatment Failure Related to Intrathecal Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Synthesis, Cerebrospinal Fluid IgM, and Interleukin-10 in Patients with Hemolymphatic-Stage Sleeping Sickness?  

PubMed Central

Human African trypanosomiasis treatment is stage dependent, but the tests used for staging are controversial. Central nervous system involvement and its relationship with suramin treatment failure were assessed in 60 patients with parasitologically confirmed hemolymphatic-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection (white blood cell count of ?5/?l and no trypanosomes in the cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]). The prognostic value of CSF interleukin-10, immunoglobulin M (IgM; as determined by nephelometry and the point-of-care LATEX/IgM test), total protein, and trypanosome-specific antibody was assessed. The IgM and interleukin-10 levels in serum were measured; and the presence of neurological signs, intrathecal IgM synthesis, and blood-CSF barrier dysfunction was determined. After suramin treatment, 14 of 60 patients had relapses (23%). Relapses were significantly correlated with intrathecal IgM synthesis (odds ratio [OR], 46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8 to 260), a CSF IgM concentration of ?1.9 mg/liter (OR, 11.7; 95% CI, 2.7 to 50), a CSF end titer by the LATEX/IgM assay of ?2 (OR, 10.4; 95% CI, 2.5 to 44), and a CSF interleukin-10 concentration of >10 pg/ml (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.3 to 20). The sensitivities of these markers for treatment failure ranged from 43 to 79%, and the specificities ranged from 74 to 93%. The results show that T. brucei gambiense-infected patients who have signs of neuroinflammation in CSF and who are treated with drugs recommended for use at the hemolymphatic stage are at risk of treatment failure. This highlights the need for the development and the evaluation of accurate point-of-care tests for the staging of human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:17428948

Lejon, Veerle; Robays, Jo; N'Siesi, François Xavier; Mumba, Dieudonné; Hoogstoel, Annemie; Bisser, Sylvie; Reiber, Hansotto; Boelaert, Marleen; Büscher, Philippe

2007-01-01

48

Circulating microparticles carry oxidation-specific epitopes and are recognized by natural IgM antibodies.  

PubMed

Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) present on apoptotic cells and oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) represent danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by different arcs of innate immunity, including natural IgM antibodies. Here, we investigated whether circulating microparticles (MPs), which are small membrane vesicles released by apoptotic or activated cells, are physiological carriers of OSEs. OSEs on circulating MPs isolated from healthy donors and patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STE-MI) were characterized by flow cytometry using a panel of OSE-specific monoclonal antibodies. We found that a subset of MPs carry OSEs on their surface, predominantly malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes. Consistent with this, a majority of IgM antibodies bound on the surface of circulating MPs were found to have specificity for MDA-modified LDL. Moreover, we show that MPs can stimulate THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) and human primary monocytes to produce interleukin 8, which can be inhibited by a monoclonal IgM with specificity for MDA epitopes. Finally, we show that MDA(+) MPs are elevated at the culprit lesion site of patients with STE-MI. Our results identify a subset of OSE(+) MPs that are bound by OxLDL-specific IgM. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which anti-OxLDL IgM antibodies could mediate protective functions in CVD. PMID:25525116

Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Perkmann, Thomas; Afonyushkin, Taras; Mangold, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas A; Papac-Milicevic, Nikolina; Millischer, Vincent; Bartel, Caroline; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Boulanger, Chantal M; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Fischer, Michael B; Witztum, Joseph L; Lang, Irene M; Binder, Christoph J

2015-02-01

49

Influenza virus-specific neutralizing IgM antibodies persist for a lifetime.  

PubMed

Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50 × 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM(+)) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG(+) plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

2014-11-01

50

Serum IgM concentrations in normal, fit horses and horses with lymphoma or other medical conditions.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to (1) prospectively establish serum IgM and IgG concentrations in normal, fit, adult horses over time and (2) determine the accuracy of serum IgM concentrations for diagnosing lymphoma. Serial IgM and IgG concentrations were measured with a radial immunodiffusion assay in 25 regularly exercised horses at 6-week intervals. Horses had serum IgM concentrations ranging from 50 to 242 mg/dL over 5 months, with 20% of horses having IgM < or = 60 mg/dL. The normal range for IgM in fit horses should be considered 103 +/- 40 mg/dL and a cut-point for an IgM deficiency, < or = 23 mg/dL. IgG concentrations ranged from 1,372 to 3,032 mg/dL. Retrospectively, medical records of adult horses (n = 103) admitted to the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for which serum IgM was measured were examined. Horses were categorized as "lymphoma negative" (n = 34) or "lymphoma positive" (n = 18). The sensitivity and specificity of a serum IgM concentration (< or = 60 mg/dL) for detecting equine lymphoma was 50 and 35%, respectively. At the new cut-point (< or = 23 mg/dL), the sensitivity was low at 28% and the specificity improved to 88%. The negative predictive values at various population prevalences indicate that a horse with a high serum IgM (> 23 mg/dL) is unlikely to have lymphoma, whereas the positive predictive value (70%) does not allow for reliable determination of lymphoma in a horse with serum IgM < or = 23 mg/dL. Therefore, serum IgM concentrations should not be used as a screening test for equine lymphoma. PMID:12774976

Perkins, G A; Nydam, D V; Flaminio, M J B F; Ainsworth, D M

2003-01-01

51

The effect of cortisol administration on blood plasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentrations in masu salmon ( Oncorhynchus masou )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is known as a main factor in the humoral immune system of teleosts. In the present study, the effect\\u000a of cortisol on plasma IgM concentrations was investigated using a specific antibody to IgM in masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou). Cortisol was orally administered each day for 2 weeks at a dose of 1 mg g?1 in the diet,

Masaki Nagael; Hirotoshi Fuda; Kazuhiro Ura; Hiroshi Kawamura; Shinji Adachi; Akihiko Hara; Kohei Yamauchil

1994-01-01

52

A new antibody in rheumatoid arthritis targeting glycated IgG: IgM anti- IgG-AGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Hyperglycaemia and\\/or oxidative stress can cause IgG to be modified by advanced glycation end products (AGE). Three patients with aggressive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and vasculitis are described who have high titres of IgM antibodies against AGE-modified IgG (IgM anti-IgG-AGE ). Diabetics and randomly selected patients with rheumatic diseases, including 50 additional RA patients, were tested for IgM and IgA

S. LIGIER; P. R. FORTIN; M. M. NEWKIRK

1998-01-01

53

Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric\\/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that,

Lynn L Rumfelt; Rebecca L Lohr; Helen Dooley; Martin F Flajnik

2004-01-01

54

The purification and characterisation of cervine IgM and IgG.  

PubMed

A procedure is described for the isolation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) from hyperimmune cervine serum. Hybrids of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis) were immunised with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). An immunoglobulin-containing fraction was precipitated from the hyperimmune serum using ammonium sulphate. The antigen-specific immunoglobulins were purified by KLH-conjugated sepharose affinity chromatography and further separated into IgM and IgG by gel-filtration chromatography. Purified immunoglobulin was analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weights and isoelectric points of the composite chains of cervine IgG and IgM are presented. PMID:2075697

Hibma, M H; Griffin, J F

1990-12-01

55

Reversal of IgM deficiency following a gluten-free diet in seronegative celiac disease.  

PubMed

Selective IgM deficiency (sIGMD) is very rare; it may be associated with celiac disease (CD). We present the case of an 18-year-old man with sIGMD masking seronegative CD. Symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Laboratory tests showed reduced IgM, DQ2-HLA and negative anti-transglutaminase. Villous atrophy and diffuse immature lymphocytes were observed at histology. Tissue transglutaminase mRNA mucosal levels showed a 6-fold increase. The patient was treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and six months later the symptoms had disappeared, the villous architecture was restored and mucosal tissue transglutaminase mRNA was comparable to that of healthy subjects. After 1 year of GFD, a complete restoration of normal IgM values was observed and duodenal biopsy showed a reduction of immature lymphocytes and normal appearance of mature immune cells. PMID:25516687

Montenegro, Lucia; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giorgio, Floriana; Covelli, Claudia; Fiore, Maria Grazia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Iannone, Andrea; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo; Principi, Mariabeatrice

2014-12-14

56

Reversal of IgM deficiency following a gluten-free diet in seronegative celiac disease  

PubMed Central

Selective IgM deficiency (sIGMD) is very rare; it may be associated with celiac disease (CD). We present the case of an 18-year-old man with sIGMD masking seronegative CD. Symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Laboratory tests showed reduced IgM, DQ2-HLA and negative anti-transglutaminase. Villous atrophy and diffuse immature lymphocytes were observed at histology. Tissue transglutaminase mRNA mucosal levels showed a 6-fold increase. The patient was treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and six months later the symptoms had disappeared, the villous architecture was restored and mucosal tissue transglutaminase mRNA was comparable to that of healthy subjects. After 1 year of GFD, a complete restoration of normal IgM values was observed and duodenal biopsy showed a reduction of immature lymphocytes and normal appearance of mature immune cells. PMID:25516687

Montenegro, Lucia; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giorgio, Floriana; Covelli, Claudia; Fiore, Maria Grazia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Iannone, Andrea; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo; Principi, Mariabeatrice

2014-01-01

57

Importance of specific IgM antibodies in 116 patients with various stages of syphilis.  

PubMed Central

We tested 222 serum samples obtained from 51 patients presenting with syphilis, before and after treatment; 117 from 65 patients with a history of syphilis (114) or yaws (3); 77 from 71 patients with no evidence of syphilis; and 1117 serologically negative serum samples. Our tests included the IgM fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed (IgM-FTA-ABS) and solid phase haemadsorption assay (SPHA) techniques. According to the stage of development of syphilis, IgM antibodies were found in 83-100% of the serum samples. This permitted a precise diagnosis to be made and cure assessed. As IgM antibodies were absent in serum from patients with healed syphilis, resolved syphilis could be distinguished from developing syphilis. The sensitivity (92%) of the IgM-FTA-ABS test was comparable with that of the SPHA (96%), but the SPHA was more specific (97.4%) than the IgM-FTA-ABS test (89.61%). PMID:3884486

Merlin, S; Andre, J; Alacoque, B; Paris-Hamelin, A

1985-01-01

58

Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the Hepatitis delta virus  

SciTech Connect

The IgM class antibody to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was determined in different clinical categories of hepatitis B surface antigen carriers infected by the HDV (positive in the test for total antibody to HDV). The IgM antibody was found at high titers in each 70 patients with inflammatory liver disease and at a low titer in one six patients with inactive cirrhosis; it was not found in eight carriers with normal liver histology. Testing for Igm antibody to HDV distinguishes hepatitis B surface antigen carriers who have underlying inflammatory HDV liver disease from those with past HDV infection and provides prognostic information on the course of chronic HDV hepatitis.

Farci, P.; Gerin, J.L.; Aragona, M.; Lindsey, I.; Crivelli, O.; Balestrieri, A.; Smedile, A.; Thomas, H.C.; Rizzetto, M.

1986-03-21

59

Antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 2 pathway suppresses IL-6-induced immunoglobulin IgM secretion  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed predominantly in the immune system, particularly in plasma cells, raising the possibility that targeting the CB2 pathway could yield an immunomodulatory effect. Although the role of CB2 in mediating immunoglobulin class switching has been reported, the effects of targeting the CB2 pathway on immunoglobulin secretion per se remain unclear. Methods Human B cell line SKW 6.4, which is capable of differentiating into IgM-secreting cells once treated with human IL-6, was employed as the cell model. SKW 6.4 cells were incubated for 4 days with CB2 ligands plus IL-6 (100 U/ml). The amount of secreted IgM was determined by an ELISA. Cell proliferation was determined by the 3H-Thymidine incorporation assay. Signal molecules involved in the modulation of IgM secretion were examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses or by using their specific inhibitors. Results We demonstrated that CB2 inverse agonists SR144528 and AM630, but not CB2 agonist HU308 or CB1 antagonist SR141716, effectively inhibited IL-6-induced secretion of soluble IgM without affecting cell proliferation as measured by thymidine uptake. SR144528 alone had no effects on the basal levels of IgM in the resting cells. These effects were receptor mediated, as pretreatment with CB2 agonist abrogated SR144528-mediated inhibition of IL-6 stimulated IgM secretion. Transcription factors relevant to B cell differentiation, Bcl-6 and PAX5, as well as the protein kinase STAT3 pathway were involved in the inhibition of IL-6-induced IgM by SR144528. Conclusions These results uncover a novel function of CB2 antagonists and suggest that CB2 ligands may be potential modulators of immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:24913620

2014-01-01

60

Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring a prediversified immunoglobulin repertoire  

E-print Network

Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring cell subsets, that blood IgM IgD CD27 cells correspond to circulating splenic marginal zone B cells and Cell Biology10 University of Marburg, DE G n tique Humaine des Maladies Infectieuses11 é é INSERM : U

Boyer, Edmond

61

Immunobiology Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring  

E-print Network

1 Immunobiology Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells expression profiling of the different blood and splenic B cell subsets, that blood IgM+ IgD+ CD27+ cells cells in human Sandra Weller1 , Moritz C. Braun1 , Bruce K. Tan2 , Andreas Rosenwald2 , Corinne Cordier3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Recognition of Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipain Epitopes by Natural IgM Binding to Malondialdehyde Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein  

PubMed Central

Objective Increased risk for atherosclerosis is associated with infectious diseases including periodontitis. Natural IgM antibodies recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns on bacteria, and oxidized lipid and protein epitopes on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apoptotic cells. We aimed to identify epitopes on periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis recognized by natural IgM binding to malondialdehyde (MDA) modified LDL. Methods and Results Mouse monoclonal IgM (MDmAb) specific for MDA-LDL recognized epitopes on P. gingivalis on flow cytometry and chemiluminescence immunoassays. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with P. gingivalis induced IgM, but not IgG, immune response to MDA-LDL and apoptotic cells. Immunization of LDLR?/? mice with P. gingivalis induced IgM, but not IgG, immune response to MDA-LDL and diminished aortic lipid deposition. On Western blot MDmAb bound to P. gingivalis fragments identified as arginine-specific gingipain (Rgp) by mass spectrometry. Recombinant domains of Rgp produced in E. coli were devoid of phosphocholine epitopes but contained epitopes recognized by MDmAb and human serum IgM. Serum IgM levels to P. gingivalis were associated with anti-MDA-LDL levels in humans. Conclusion Gingipain of P. gingivalis is recognized by natural IgM and shares molecular identity with epitopes on MDA-LDL. These findings suggest a role for natural antibodies in the pathogenesis of two related inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis and periodontitis. PMID:22496875

Turunen, S. Pauliina; Kummu, Outi; Harila, Kirsi; Veneskoski, Marja; Soliymani, Rabah; Baumann, Marc; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Hörkkö, Sohvi

2012-01-01

63

Baryonic Content in the Warm-Hot IGM at Low Redshift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baryons are 4.5% of the universe's mass/energy density; only 10% of these are in stars, galaxies, and clusters. At low-redshift 90% of baryons are in the IGM, 30% in Ly-alpha forest, but most are in hot gas (10(exp 5-7) K) produced by shocks during structure formation. O VI 1032-38 A are the best tracers of this gas. The distribution of O VI absorbers observed by FUSE rises as N(sup -2+/-0.2, down to 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Integrated to logN=13, 7% of baryons reside in the O VI-bearing IGM at 10% solar metallicity, T approx. 10(exp 5.5) K. At redshift z<0.1 metals have been transported less than 800/h kpc from L* galaxies and 200/h kpc from 0.1 L* galaxies. The steepness of dN/dz means that low-N absorbers contribute an equal mass of hot IGM as higher N gas. The total mass of O VI-bearing gas in the IGM depends on determining the turnover in dN/dz at low N(O VI). Future observations by FUSE are needed to reach lower N and to reduce the uncertainty in the dN/dz power law.

Sonneborn, George; Shull, M.; Danforth, C.; Moos, W.

2007-01-01

64

EUV and FUV Absorption by the Highly Ionized IGM: Physical Conditions and Baryonic Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent FUSE snapshot observation reveals that HE,0153--4520 z_ QSO 0.451) is the third brightest moderate redshift (z > 0.4) QSO at FUV wavelengths. The line of sight to HE,0153--4520 provides an outstanding opportunity to obtain information on EUV absorption lines formed in the highly ionized IGM. Our proposed 250 ksec integration will build on our recent successful detection of Ne VIII absorption in a multi-phase system at z 0.20701 toward HE,0226--4110 (z_ QSO 0.497). The observations of HE,0153--4520 will allow access to EUV lines of O II, O III, O IV, N IV, and Ne VIII in addition to FUV lines of H I, C II, C III, N II, N III, O I, and O VI. Access to a range of ion states is crucial for determining the origin(s) of the ionization and the baryonic content of the highly ionized IGM. Studies of the physical conditions and ionization of IGM absorption-line systems are an essential step for observational cosmology to make progress in understanding whether the highly ionized IGM is a major reservoir of baryons in the low redshift universe. There are only a few QSOs with z > 0.4 for which a study as detailed as the one proposed here can be conducted.

Savage, B.

65

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Cross-reactivities between human IgMs and the  

E-print Network

and an immunogen in vaccine candidates. Keywords: Cross-reactivity, Dengue Virus, Discrimination, Flavivirus, HumanRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Cross-reactivities between human IgMs and the four serotypes of dengue,2 , Philippe Dussart3 , Laetitia Bremand3 and Hugues Bedouelle1,2* Abstract Background: Dengue fever

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Determination of anti-HBsAg IgM monoclonal antibodies in cell culture media by perfusion immunoassay.  

PubMed

A rapid, specific, perfusion immunoassay for active anti-HBsAg monoclonal IgM is described. The immunoassay requires less than 3.5 min per sample. The precision was found to be 3.6% at an IgM concentration of 17 microg/ml. A detection limit of 1 microg/ml IgM in culture media was determined. Assay results were found to correlate very well with standard size exclusion chromatography and radial immunodiffusion techniques. This perfusion immunoassay was demonstrated to be useful for determining anti-HBsAg IgM in complex matrices such as cell culture media. The utility of the immunoassay for monitoring production of anti-HBsAg IgM in a perfusion bioreactor is demonstrated. PMID:9005942

Brackett, J M; Cousineau, K L; Wang, H; Annapragada, A V; Cabal, O D; Gall, G S; Peterson, B; Robey, W G

1997-01-15

67

Placebo-controlled trial of rituximab in IgM anti-myelin–associated glycoprotein neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether rituximab 375 mg/m2 was efficacious in patients with immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-myelin–associated glycoprotein antibody demyelinating neuropathy (IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy). Methods: Fifty-four patients with IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The inclusion criteria were inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) sensory score (ISS) ?4 and visual analog pain scale >4 or ataxia score ?2. The primary outcome was mean change in ISS at 12 months. Results: Twenty-six patients were randomized to a group receiving 4 weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2 rituximab, and 28 patients to placebo. Intention-to-treat analysis, with imputation of missing ISS values by the last observation carried forward method, showed a lack of mean change in ISS at 12 months, 1.0 ± 2.7 in the rituximab group, and 1.0 ± 2.8 in the placebo group. However, changes were observed, in per protocol analysis at 12 months, for the number of patients with an improvement of at least 2 points in the INCAT disability scale (p = 0.027), the self-evaluation scale (p = 0.016), and 2 subscores of the Short Form–36 questionnaire. Conclusions: Although primary outcome measures provide no evidence to support the use of rituximab in IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy, there were improvements in several secondary outcomes in per protocol analysis. Level of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that rituximab is ineffective in improving ISS in patients with IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy. PMID:23667063

Viala, Karine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Créange, Alain; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Pouget, Jean; Clavelou, Pierre; Vial, Christophe; Steck, Andreas; Musset, Lucile; Marin, Benoit

2013-01-01

68

Inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity through an innate mechanism involving naturally occurring IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies.  

PubMed

In prior studies, we show that naturally occurring IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALA) bind to CD3, CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 receptors. These observations prompted us to determine whether IgM-ALA have a role in inhibiting HIV-1 infectivity by inhibiting viral entry into cells. We show that purified IgM, but not IgG, from individual sera of both normal and HIV-1 infected individuals is highly inhibitory (>95%) to HIV-1 viral infectivity both in vitro using PHA plus IL-2 activated PBL and in vivo using the human PBL-SCID mouse. Inhibition was observed with physiological doses of purified serum IgM and even after IgM was added 3 days postinfection in the in vitro assays. Absorbing purified serum IgM either with leukocytes or immobilized recombinant CD4 significantly decreased (>80%) the inhibitory effect on HIV-1 infectivity. IgM inhibited by >90% syncytia formation with the X4-IIIB infected SupT-1 cells indicating therefore that IgM inhibits viral attachment to core-receptors. IgM mediated anti-HIV-1 activity was highly specific as only certain IgM-ALA, obtained from human B cell clones inhibited HIV-1. IgM from certain HIV-1 infected individuals were not inhibitory to some R5-HIV-1 viral strains indicating that certain HIV-IgM may lack Abs reactive to strain specific coreceptor epitopes. These data indicate that an innate immune mechanism which is present from birth i.e., IgM-ALA, has a role in inhibiting HIV-1 viral entry into cells. Validation of this data with other in vivo models will be needed to determine whether in vivo administration or enhancement of IgM-ALA, e.g., through a vaccine, could prolong the asymptomatic state in HIV-1 infected individuals. PMID:18209074

Lobo, Peter I; Schlegel, Kailo H; Yuan, Wen; Townsend, Gregory C; White, Jennifer A

2008-02-01

69

Prevalence, specificity and functionality of anti-ganglioside antibodies in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.  

PubMed

IgM antibodies against gangliosides and their complexes were studied in sera from 54 patients with polyneuropathy and IgM monoclonal gammopathy (IgM-PNP) without anti-MAG antibodies. Anti-ganglioside antibodies were found in 19 (35%) patients. Five (9%) patients had antibodies against ganglioside complexes. IgM antibodies against gangliosides activated complement in vitro. Light chain usage was restricted to kappa or lambda in most, but not all patients. In conclusion, anti-ganglioside antibodies in IgM-PNP are common, display pathogenic properties and do not always arise from a monoclonal B cell proliferation. PMID:24529728

Stork, Abraham C J; Jacobs, Bart C; Tio-Gillen, Anne P; Eurelings, Marijke; Jansen, Marc D; van den Berg, Leonard H; Notermans, Nicolette C; van der Pol, W-Ludo

2014-03-15

70

Acute inflammatory neuropathy with monoclonal anti-GM2 IgM antibodies, IgM-? paraprotein and additional autoimmune processes in association with a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Lymphoproliferative disorders are often associated with autoimmune processes preceding or following the occurrence of a lymphoma. Here, we describe a patient with a history of recurrent diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who suffered from an acute inflammatory neuropathy with specific monoclonal anti-GM2 IgM antibodies and associated IgM-? paraprotein. It was possible in this case to prove that both, anti-GM2 IgM antibodies and IgM-? paraprotein, share the same binding characteristic. In addition, the patient possibly suffered from an immune thrombocytopenia and an early-stage bullous pemphigoid with anti-BP-230 IgG antibodies. Intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis alleviated the acute neuropathy and thrombocytopenia, while the bullous pemphigoid has been aggravated. In summary, the simultaneous occurrence of multiple autoimmune processes was a sign of a dysfunctional immune system preceding the relapse of a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23341581

Milnik, Annette; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Conrad, Karsten; Bartels, Claudius

2013-01-01

71

Effects of steroid hormones on immunoglobulin M (IgM) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunosuppressive effects of steroid hormones were evaluated as the response against implanted steroid hormones, cortisol (F), testosterone (T), estradiol-17ß (E2), and 11- ketotestosterone (11-KT), in juvenile rainbow trout. In long term experiments (5 weeks), fish were given a single intraperitoneal implant of F or T. A clear suppressive effect of plasma IgM levels with F and T was not

Y. Y. Hou; Y. Suzuki; K. Aida

1999-01-01

72

Comparative Analysis of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Virus-Like Particles or Virus-Infected Mouse Brain Antigens To Detect IgM Antibody in Sera from Patients with Evident Flaviviral Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) serves as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute flaviviral infections, since IgM antibody titers are detectable early, peak at about 2 weeks postinfection, and subsequently decline to lower levels over the next few months. Traditionally, virus-infected tissue culture or suckling mouse brain (SMB) has been the source

Derek A. Holmes; David E. Purdy; Day-Yu Chao; Amanda J. Noga; Gwong-Jen J. Chang

73

A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons  

PubMed Central

Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks. PMID:23881231

Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

2013-01-01

74

A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

2013-07-01

75

IGM Constraints from the SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 Ly? Forest Transmission Probability Distribution Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ly? forest transmission probability distribution function (PDF) is an established probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM) astrophysics, especially the temperature-density relationship of the IGM. We measure the transmission PDF from 3393 Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) quasars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9, and compare with mock spectra that include careful modeling of the noise, continuum, and astrophysical uncertainties. The BOSS transmission PDFs, measured at langzrang = [2.3, 2.6, 3.0], are compared with PDFs created from mock spectra drawn from a suite of hydrodynamical simulations that sample the IGM temperature-density relationship, ?, and temperature at mean density, T 0, where T(?) = T 0?? – 1. We find that a significant population of partial Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with a column-density distribution slope of ?pLLS ~ – 2 are required to explain the data at the low-transmission end of transmission PDF, while uncertainties in the mean Ly? forest transmission affect the high-transmission end. After modeling the LLSs and marginalizing over mean transmission uncertainties, we find that ? = 1.6 best describes the data over our entire redshift range, although constraints on T 0 are affected by systematic uncertainties. Within our model framework, isothermal or inverted temperature-density relationships (? <= 1) are disfavored at a significance of over 4?, although this could be somewhat weakened by cosmological and astrophysical uncertainties that we did not model.

Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Spergel, David N.; Weinberg, David H.; Hogg, David W.; Viel, Matteo; Bolton, James S.; Bailey, Stephen; Pieri, Matthew M.; Carithers, William; Schlegel, David J.; Lundgren, Britt; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Suzuki, Nao; Schneider, Donald P.; Yèche, Christophe

2015-02-01

76

Anti-annexin V IgM and IgG autoantibodies and the risk of idiopathic recurrent spontaneous miscarriage.  

PubMed

Anti-annexin V antibodies have been identified as risk factors for recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM) in some, but not all previous studies. We investigated the association between anti-annexin IgM and IgG in RSM cases and control women. Blood samples from 244 women with idiopathic RSM, and 283 multi-parous control women were tested for anti-annexin V antibodies by ELISA. A significant elevation in anti-annexin V IgM and IgG was seen in the RSM cases. An increased prevalence of elevated anti-annexin V IgM and to a lesser extent anti-annexin V IgG was seen in RSM patients. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the area under the curve for anti-annexin V IgM was 0.916, and for anti-annexin V IgG was 0.725. A systematic shift in anti-annexin V IgM and IgG distributions toward higher values occurred in RSM women, which was confirmed by percentile analysis. For each of the anti-annexin V isotypes, the adjusted odds ratio increased as the percentile value increased; the strongest risk was for anti-annexin V IgM, in which the 99th percentile (P99) was associated with a 165-fold higher risk than P50, and for anti-annexin V IgG where P99 was associated with a 38-fold higher risk than P50. In addition, a higher prevalence of elevated anti-annexin V IgM and anti-annexin V IgG was seen in RSM cases than in control women. We conclude that anti-annexin V IgM and IgG antibody positivity are independent risk factors for RSM. PMID:21466898

Sater, Mai S; Finan, Ramzi R; Mustafa, Fekria E; Al-Khateeb, Ghada M; Almawi, Wassim Y

2011-04-01

77

Cloning, expression and evaluation of diagnostic potential of recombinant capsid protein based IgM ELISA for chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

The resurgence of chikungunya virus in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic with unusual clinical severity after a gap of 32 years is a point of major public health concern. Definitive diagnosis is critical in differentiating the disease, especially in dengue endemic areas. The immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used for diagnosis of chikungunya infection. However IgM ELISA based on whole virus antigen is associated with biohazard risk. The present study describes the development and evaluation of recombinant capsid protein based indirect IgM antibody capture micro plate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid and accurate diagnosis of chikungunya infection. The gene coding for capsid protein was cloned in frame with GST tag in pET41a+ vector and expressed in E. coli followed by purification with affinity chromatography. The comparative evaluation of in-house chikungunya IgM ELISA vis-a-vis commercially available SD ELISA kit with 90 chikungunya suspected acute phase human patient serum samples revealed 97% accordance. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the reported capsid protein based IgM ELISA was 100% and 95% respectively with 96% PPV and 100% NPV. These findings clearly demonstrated the usefulness of the recombinant capsid protein based CHIKV IgM ELISA for reliable clinical diagnosis of CHIKV infection in human patient. PMID:24681089

Priya, Raj; Khan, Mohsin; Rao, M Kameswara; Parida, Manmohan

2014-07-01

78

Sialylation of N-Linked Glycans Influences the Immunomodulatory Effects of IgM on T Cells.  

PubMed

Human serum IgM Abs are composed of heavily glycosylated polymers with five glycosylation sites on the ? (heavy) chain and one glycosylation site on the J chain. In contrast to IgG glycans, which are vital for a number of biological functions, virtually nothing is known about structure-function relationships of IgM glycans. Natural IgM is the earliest Ig produced and recognizes multiple Ags with low affinity, whereas immune IgM is induced by Ag exposure and is characterized by a higher Ag specificity. Natural anti-lymphocyte IgM is present in the serum of healthy individuals and increases in inflammatory conditions. It is able to inhibit T cell activation, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. In this study, to our knowledge, we show for the first time that sialylated N-linked glycans induce the internalization of IgM by T cells, which in turn causes severe inhibition of T cell responses. The absence of sialic acid residues abolishes these inhibitory activities, showing a key role of sialylated N-glycans in inducing the IgM-mediated immune suppression. PMID:25422509

Colucci, Manuela; Stöckmann, Henning; Butera, Alessia; Masotti, Andrea; Baldassarre, Antonella; Giorda, Ezio; Petrini, Stefania; Rudd, Pauline M; Sitia, Roberto; Emma, Francesco; Vivarelli, Marina

2015-01-01

79

High level expression of recombinant mumps nucleoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its evaluation in mumps IgM serology.  

PubMed

To develop improved reagents for mumps serology a high-level yeast expression system was employed to produce recombinant mumps nucleoprotein (rNP). The rNP was purified by CsCl gradient centrifugation and yielded approximately 15 mg/l of yeast culture. Electron microscopy of the rNP revealed characteristic herring-bone structures. The electrophoretic mobility of rNP in yeast cells was similar to native NP in SDS-PAGE. Monoclonal antibodies to rNP reacted with native mumps virus nucleoprotein by immunofluorescence assay. A monoclonal antibody to native mumps virus NP reacted with rNP by Western blot assay. The rNP was investigated as antigen in an IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using a horseradish peroxidase conjugate of monoclonal antibody to the rNP. Eighteen sera previously found to be positive by IgM capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA) and 30 sera that were mumps IgM negative by MACRIA were tested by mumps IgM capture EIA. The results for the two test were concordant. In addition, 26 rheumatoid factor positive sera and 35 sera that were IgM positive for measles, rubella or parvovirus B19 were tested. Fifty-nine sera were negative by mumps IgM capture EIA but two sera collected from two infants 3 and 6 weeks after mumps, measles and rubella vaccination were positive. Mumps MACRIA confirmed these results. Compared to MACRIA the overall sensitivity was 100% (20/20) and specificity was 96.8% (30/31). The yeast expressed rNP was highly immunogenic and suitable for use in IgM capture EIA for the diagnosis of mumps. PMID:11748668

Samuel, Dhanraj; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Jin, Li; Beard, Stuart; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Gedvilaite, Alma; Cohen, Bernard

2002-01-01

80

How to Search for Islands of Neutral Hydrogen in the z ~ 5.5 IGM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest may allow reionization to complete as late as z ~ 5.5, provided the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is sufficiently inhomogeneous at these redshifts. In this case, significantly neutral islands may remain among highly ionized gas with the ionized regions allowing some transmission through the Ly? forest. This possibility has the important virtue that it is eminently testable with existing Ly? forest data. In particular, we describe three observable signatures of significantly neutral gas in the z ~ 5.5 IGM. We use mock quasar spectra produced from numerical simulations of reionization to develop these tests. First, we quantify how the abundance and length of absorbed regions in the forest increase with the volume-averaged neutral fraction in our reionization model. Second, we consider stacking the transmission profile around highly absorbed regions in the forest. If and only if there is significantly neutral gas in the IGM, absorption in the damping wing of the Ly? line will cause the transmission to recover slowly as one moves from absorbed to transmitted portions of the spectrum. Third, the deuterium Ly? line should imprint a small but distinctive absorption feature slightly blueward of absorbed neutral regions in the Ly? forest. We show that these tests can be carried out with existing Keck HIRES spectra at z ~ 5.5, with the damping wing being observable for < xH \\scriptsize{I}> ? 0.05 and the deuterium feature observable with additional high-resolution spectra for < xH \\scriptsize{I}> ? 0.2.

Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam

2015-02-01

81

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).  

PubMed

Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM? B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring. PMID:22771742

Purcell, Maureen K; Bromage, Erin S; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D; Badil, Samantha M; Woodson, James C; Hershberger, Paul K

2012-09-01

82

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM+ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

Purcell, Maureen K.; Bromage, Erin S.; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D.; Badil, Samantha M.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.

2012-01-01

83

Circulating microparticles carry oxidation-specific epitopes and are recognized by natural IgM antibodies1[S  

PubMed Central

Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) present on apoptotic cells and oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) represent danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by different arcs of innate immunity, including natural IgM antibodies. Here, we investigated whether circulating microparticles (MPs), which are small membrane vesicles released by apoptotic or activated cells, are physiological carriers of OSEs. OSEs on circulating MPs isolated from healthy donors and patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STE-MI) were characterized by flow cytometry using a panel of OSE-specific monoclonal antibodies. We found that a subset of MPs carry OSEs on their surface, predominantly malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes. Consistent with this, a majority of IgM antibodies bound on the surface of circulating MPs were found to have specificity for MDA-modified LDL. Moreover, we show that MPs can stimulate THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) and human primary monocytes to produce interleukin 8, which can be inhibited by a monoclonal IgM with specificity for MDA epitopes. Finally, we show that MDA+ MPs are elevated at the culprit lesion site of patients with STE-MI. Our results identify a subset of OSE+ MPs that are bound by OxLDL-specific IgM. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which anti-OxLDL IgM antibodies could mediate protective functions in CVD. PMID:25525116

Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Perkmann, Thomas; Afonyushkin, Taras; Mangold, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas A.; Papac-Milicevic, Nikolina; Millischer, Vincent; Bartel, Caroline; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Fischer, Michael B.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Lang, Irene M.; Binder, Christoph J.

2015-01-01

84

IgM and IgG Antibodies to Phenolic Glycolipid I from Mycobacterium leprae in Leprosy: Insight into Patient Monitoring, Erythema Nodosum Leprosum, and Bacillary Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum IgM and IgG antibodies against Mycobacterium leprae-derived phenolic glycolipid I (PG) were determined in leprosy patients, contacts, and controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-PG IgM levels increased from the tuberculoid (TT) to the lepromatous (LL) pole of the disease spectrum. There was a positive linear correlation between anti-PG IgM and bacillary index (BI). patients with erythema nodosum leprosum

William R. Levis; Harry C. Meeker; Georgia Schuller-Levis; Eugene Sersen; Beatrix Schwerer

1986-01-01

85

The insertion Green Monster (iGM) method for expression of multiple exogenous genes in yeast.  

PubMed

Being a simple eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides numerous advantages for expression and functional characterization of proteins from higher eukaryotes, including humans. However, studies of complex exogenous pathways using yeast as a host have been hampered by the lack of tools to engineer strains expressing a large number of genetic components. In addition to inserting multiple genes, it is often desirable to knock out or replace multiple endogenous genes that might interfere with the processes studied. Here, we describe the "insertion Green Monster" (iGM) set of expression vectors that enable precise insertion of many heterologous genes into the yeast genome in a rapid and reproducible manner and permit simultaneous replacement of selected yeast genes. As a proof of principle, we have used the iGM method to replace components of the yeast pathway for methionine sulfoxide reduction with genes encoding the human selenoprotein biosynthesis machinery and generated a single yeast strain carrying 11 exogenous components of the selenoprotein biosynthetic pathway in precisely engineered loci. PMID:24776987

Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M; Suzuki, Yo; Hanly, Timothy J; Murao, Ayako; Roth, Frederick P; Gladyshev, Vadim N

2014-07-01

86

Natural IgM Prevents Autoimmunity by Enforcing B Cell Central Tolerance Induction.  

PubMed

It is unclear why selective deficiency in secreted (s)IgM causes Ab-mediated autoimmunity. We demonstrate that sIgM is required for normal B cell development and selection. The CD5(+) B cells that were previously shown to accumulate in body cavities of sIgM(-/-) mice are not B-1a cells, but CD19(int), CD43(-), short-lived, BCR signaling-unresponsive anergic B-2 cells. Body cavity B-1 cells were >10-fold reduced, including VH11(+) and phosphotidylcholine-specific B-1a cells, whereas splenic B-1 cells were unaffected and marginal zone B cells increased. Follicular B cells had higher turnover rates, survived poorly after adoptive transfer, and were unresponsiveness to BCR stimulation in vitro. sIgM bound to B cell precursors and provided a positive signal to overcome a block at the pro/pre-B stage and during IgVH repertoire selection. Polyclonal IgM rescued B cell development and returned autoantibody levels to near normal. Thus, natural IgM deficiency causes primary autoimmune disease by altering B cell development, selection, and central tolerance induction. PMID:25595791

Nguyen, Trang T T; Elsner, Rebecca A; Baumgarth, Nicole

2015-02-15

87

Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.  

PubMed

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition. PMID:24568663

Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

2015-01-01

88

Gravity changes during animal development affect IgM heavy-chain transcription and probably lymphopoiesis.  

PubMed

Our previous research demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect antibody production in response to an antigenic stimulation in adult amphibians. Here, we investigated whether antibody synthesis is affected when animal development occurs onboard a space station. To answer this question, embryos of the Iberian ribbed newt, Pleurodeles waltl, were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) before the initiation of immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression. Thus, antibody synthesis began in space. On landing, we determined the effects of spaceflight on P. waltl development and IgM heavy-chain transcription. Results were compared with those obtained using embryos that developed on Earth. We find that IgM heavy-chain transcription is doubled at landing and that spaceflight does not affect P. waltl development and does not induce inflammation. We also recreated the environmental modifications encountered by the embryos during their development onboard the ISS. This strategy allowed us to demonstrate that gravity change is the factor responsible for antibody heavy-chain transcription modifications that are associated with NF-?B mRNA level variations. Taken together, and given that the larvae were not immunized, these data suggest a modification of lymphopoiesis when gravity changes occur during ontogeny. PMID:22993194

Huin-Schohn, Cécile; Guéguinou, Nathan; Schenten, Véronique; Bascove, Matthieu; Koch, Guillemette Gauquelin; Baatout, Sarah; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

2013-01-01

89

Comparative evaluation of tests for detection of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate enzyme immunoassays (EIA) (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) and chemiluminiscent immunoassays (CLIA) (Diasorin, Saluggia, Italy) in their application to detect B19V-IgM and -IgG. For this purpose, one hundred and ninety samples were studied. Of them, 101 came from recent infection cases (B19V-specific IgM (86) and/or PCR (87), 42 from past infections, 18 from non-infected, and 29 from other viral recent infections (Epstein-Barr virus, measles, and rubella). Samples were characterized by capture (for IgM), or indirect (for IgG) EIA (Biotrin, Dublin, Ireland); indeterminate samples were classified by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) (Biotrin). All the samples were used for testing IgM assays, and all but the cases from other viral infections were used for IgG tests. For IgM, CLIA, and EIA identified 76 and 62 of 86 IgM positives, respectively (sensitivity 88.4% and 72.1%). Considering B19V IgM negative samples, negative result was obtained in 95 and 92 of 104, being the specificity values of CLIA and EIA 91.3% and 88.5%, respectively. For IgG, CLIA and EIA identified correctly 114 and 115 of the 122 positive samples (sensitivity 93.4% and 94.3%, respectively), and 39 and 36 of 39 negative samples (specificity 100% and 92.3%). As conclusion, CLIA methods can be used in clinical laboratories as adequate alternatives to the well-established Biotrin EIAs. PMID:23763266

de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora; Echevarría, Juan Emilio; Del Mar Mosquera, María; Fuertes, Antonio

2014-03-01

90

IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens.  

PubMed

IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and lead to heightened susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Individuals with these primary immunodeficiencies have fewer immunoglobulin M (IgM)(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, a population that resembles murine splenic marginal zone B cells that mount T-independent antibody responses against bacterial antigens. However, the significance of this B-cell subset in humans is poorly understood. Using both a 610 carbohydrate array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies have reduced serum IgM, but not IgG antibody, recognizing T-independent bacterial antigens. Moreover, the quantity of specific IgM correlated with IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell frequencies. As with mouse marginal zone B cells, human IgM(+)CD27(+) B cells activated by TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced phosphorylcholine-specific IgM. Further linking splenic IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells with production of T-independent IgM, serum from splenectomized subjects, who also have few IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, had reduced antibacterial IgM. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impaired TLR-induced proliferation of this B-cell subset, suggesting a means by which loss of this activation pathway leads to reduced cell numbers. Thus, by bolstering the IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell subset, IRAK-4 and MyD88 promote optimal T-independent IgM antibody responses against bacteria in humans. PMID:25320238

Maglione, Paul J; Simchoni, Noa; Black, Samuel; Radigan, Lin; Overbey, Jessica R; Bagiella, Emilia; Bussel, James B; Bossuyt, Xavier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meyts, Isabelle; Cerutti, Andrea; Picard, Capucine; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2014-12-01

91

The Majority of Human Memory B Cells Recognizing RhD and Tetanus Resides in IgM+ B Cells  

PubMed Central

B cell memory to T cell–dependent (TD) Ags are considered to largely reside in class-switched CD27+ cells. However, we previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D+ erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. We therefore analyzed in this study the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid–specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. Most Ag-specific B cells for both TD Ags were found to reside in the IgM-expressing B cells, including CD27? B cells, in both hyperimmunized donors and nonhyperimmunized volunteers. Only shortly after immunization a sharp increase in Ag-specific CD27+IgG+ B cells was observed. Next, B cells were enriched with D+ erythrocyte ghosts and sorted as single cells. Sequencing of IGHV, IGLV, IGKV, and BCL6 genes from these D-specific B cell clones demonstrated that both CD27?IgM+ and CD27+IgM+ B cells harbored somatic mutations, documenting their Ag-selected nature. Furthermore, sequencing revealed a clonal relationship between the CD27?IgM+, CD27+IgM+, and CD27+IgG+ B cell subsets. These data strongly support the recently described multiple layers of memory B cells to TD Ags in mice, where IgM+ B cells represent a memory reservoir which can re-enter the germinal center and ensure replenishment of class-switched memory CD27+ B cells from Ag-experienced precursors. PMID:24965774

Della Valle, Luciana; Dohmen, Serge E.; Verhagen, Onno J. H. M.; Berkowska, Magdalena A.; Vidarsson, Gestur

2014-01-01

92

Teleost Fish Mount Complex Clonal IgM and IgT Responses in Spleen upon Systemic Viral Infection  

PubMed Central

Upon infection, B-lymphocytes expressing antibodies specific for the intruding pathogen develop clonal responses triggered by pathogen recognition via the B-cell receptor. The constant region of antibodies produced by such responding clones dictates their functional properties. In teleost fish, the clonal structure of B-cell responses and the respective contribution of the three isotypes IgM, IgD and IgT remain unknown. The expression of IgM and IgT are mutually exclusive, leading to the existence of two B-cell subsets expressing either both IgM and IgD or only IgT. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the variable heavy chain (VH) domain repertoires of the IgM, IgD and IgT in spleen of homozygous isogenic rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) before, and after challenge with a rhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV), using CDR3-length spectratyping and pyrosequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts. In healthy fish, we observed distinct repertoires for IgM, IgD and IgT, respectively, with a few amplified ? and ? junctions, suggesting the presence of IgM- and IgT-secreting cells in the spleen. In infected animals, we detected complex and highly diverse IgM responses involving all VH subgroups, and dominated by a few large public and private clones. A lower number of robust clonal responses involving only a few VH were detected for the mucosal IgT, indicating that both IgM+ and IgT+ spleen B cells responded to systemic infection but at different degrees. In contrast, the IgD response to the infection was faint. Although fish IgD and IgT present different structural features and evolutionary origin compared to mammalian IgD and IgA, respectively, their implication in the B-cell response evokes these mouse and human counterparts. Thus, it appears that the general properties of antibody responses were already in place in common ancestors of fish and mammals, and were globally conserved during evolution with possible functional convergences. PMID:23326228

Castro, Rosario; Jouneau, Luc; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Bouchez, Olivier; Giudicelli, Véronique; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Quillet, Edwige; Benmansour, Abdenour; Cazals, Frédéric; Six, Adrien; Fillatreau, Simon; Sunyer, Oriol; Boudinot, Pierre

2013-01-01

93

IgM peak independently predicts treatment-free survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and correlates with accumulation of adverse oncogenetic events.  

PubMed

We examined the significance of IgM peaks in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including its association with newly reported MYD88, BIRC3, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations. A total of 27, 25, 41 and 57 patients with monoclonal IgM or IgG peaks (IgM and IgG groups), hypogammaglobulinemia (Hypo-? group) and normal immunoglobulin serum levels (normal-? group) were, respectively, included. IgM peaks were mainly associated with Binet stage C and the del(17p). Biased usage of IGHV3-48 was shared by both IgM and IgG groups. IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-39 gene rearrangements were specific for IgM and IgG peaks, respectively. SF3B1, NOTCH1, MYD88 and BIRC3 mutation frequencies were 12%, 4%, 2% and 2%, respectively, being over-represented in IgM, IgG and Hypo-? groups for SF3B1, and being equal between normal-? and IgM groups for MYD88. Overall, 76%, 87%, 49% and 42% of cases from IgM, IgG, Hypo-? and normal-? groups had at least one intermediate or poor prognosis genetic marker, respectively. By multivariate analysis, IgM peaks were associated with shorter treatment-free survival independently from any other univariate poor prognosis biological parameters, including IgG peaks, Hypo-?, IGHV status, SF3B1 mutations, cytogenetics and lymphocytosis. Therefore, as with IgG peaks, IgM peaks aggravated the natural course of CLL, with increased accumulation of adverse genetic events.Leukemia advance online publication, 18 July 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.198. PMID:24943833

Rizzo, D; Chauzeix, J; Trimoreau, F; Woillard, J B; Genevieve, F; Bouvier, A; Labrousse, J; Poli, C; Guerin, E; Dmytruk, N; Remenieras, L; Feuillard, J; Gachard, N

2014-06-19

94

Effect of Positive Lcm-Igm on Graft Survival in Living Donor Renal Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Objective Renal transplantation is an outstanding therapy for end-stage renal failure and has been shown to increase life expectancy and quality of life, while reducing medical expenditure. The presence of IgM antibodies in recipient serum is not a contraindication for renal transplantation. However, the presence of this antibody may have significant clinical implications. IgM autoantibodies have been blamed for a group of accelerated or hyperacute cases of graft rejection. In this study, graft and patient survival outcomes after renal transplantation in LCM IgM-positive recipients have been assessed. Materials and Methods Data from 32 LCM IgM-positive kidney recipients who underwent renal transplantation at the Akdeniz University Transplantation Center between January 2006 and August 2008 were assessed. Results The mean age was 34 ± 13.5 (9–66). Twenty patients were male, and twelve were female. The mean length of therapy with dialysis was 22.94 ± 30.06 months (0–120). The duration of cold ischemia was 28.63 ± 5.85 minutes (21–42) Conclusion Throughout the follow up period, the mean creatinine level was 1.3 mg/dL (0.69–4.5). Graft loss occurred in only one patient and was due to hemophagocytic syndrome and acute rejection. During follow up, creatinine elevation was seen in 12 patients (4%) in the early postoperative period. These patients were thought to have transplant rejection, and therapy for rejection was given. The therapy was successful. Graft survival was calculated to be 96 ± 3.5%, and none of the patients were lost.

Ay, Nurettin; Dinc, Bulent; Dinckan, Ayhan; Gurkan, Alihan; Akgul, Nedim; Suleymanlar, Gultekin

2009-01-01

95

Production of IgM specific recombinant dengue multiepitope protein for early diagnosis of dengue infection.  

PubMed

Dengue virus infections have recently undergone dramatic expansion in range, affecting several tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Early detection of dengue infection based on the identification of antibodies has emerged as a practical and reliable means of diagnosis of dengue fever. The recombinant dengue multiepitope (rDME-M) protein specific to IgM in E. coli was produced in a 5-L fermentor for use in diagnostic purpose. After fermentation, dry cell weight was approximately 11.8 g/L of the culture. The rDME-M protein was purified under denaturing conditions using single-step nickel nitrilotriacetate (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. The final yield of purified rDME-M protein from this method was approximately 68.5 mg/L of the culture. The purity of rDME-M protein was checked by SDS-PAGE analysis, and the reactivity of this protein was further checked by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purified protein was used as an antigen in the development of an in-house dipstick ELISA and evaluated with a panel of 80 patient sera, characterized using commercially available tests for detection of dengue antibody. The results were in excellent agreement with those of IgM capture ELISA (Pan-Bio) and rapid immunochromatography (IC) test (Pan-Bio). These results show that the in-house dipstick ELISA using rDME-M protein can be used as a promising kit because of its comparable sensitivity, specificity, field applicability, and low cost. PMID:17256968

Tripathi, Nagesh K; Shrivastva, Ambuj; Pattnaik, Priyabrata; Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban K; Gupta, Nimesh; Jana, Asha M; Rao, P V Lakshmana

2007-01-01

96

THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE RESTRAINT STRESS ON LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND IGM PRODUCTION AND CORTISOL LEVELS IN THE PIG  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the effect of acute restraint stress on lymphocyte IgM production and proliferation in vitro and plasma cortisol levels in vivo. Crossbred pigs (n=11; 35 days of age) were restrained and blood collected via jugular venipuncture initially (t = 1:34±0:09 min), and at 3 and 6 mi...

97

The receptor for transepithelial transport of IgA and IgM contains multiple immunoglobulin-like domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned and sequenced cDNA for the receptor that mediates the endocytosis and transcellular transport of IgA and IgM across many glandular epithelia into external secretions. This receptor contains five extracellular domains which are strikingly homologous to each other and to immunoglobulin variable regions.

Keith E. Mostov; Martin Friedlander; Günter Blobel

1984-01-01

98

IgM rheumatoid factor autoantibody and immunoglobulin-producing precursor cells in the bone marrow of humans.  

PubMed

The natures of the IgM rheumatoid factor (RF)-, IgM-, and IgG-secreting cells in the human bone marrow as compared to the peripheral blood, have been investigated by (1) response to the polyclonal B-cell activator, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), (2) sensitivity to the S-phase specific antimetabolite hydroxyurea, (3) presence of the BA-1 and Ia antigens on the cell surface, and (4) cell size, as determined by counter flow elutriation. The EBV-inducible bone marrow IgM-RF precursors derived from medium to large B cells that were inhibited by hydroxyurea pretreatment. The marrow total IgM response derived from small to medium size cells, and was only partially inhibited by hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea had no effect on IgM-RF or IgM synthesis by peripheral blood cells. These results indicate that the marrow EBV-induced IgM-RF response is not representative of the response by peripheral blood cells, moreover; the marrow RF secreting response arises from a dividing cell pool that may represent newly generated autoreactive B cells. PMID:2992814

Fong, S; Gilbertson, T A; Hueniken, R J; Singhal, S K; Vaughan, J H; Carson, D A

1985-10-01

99

Serologic cross-reactivity of human IgM and IgG antibodies to five species of Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Five species of Ebola virus (EBOV) have been identified, with nucleotide differences of 30-45% between species. Four of these species have been shown to cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in humans and a fifth species (Reston ebolavirus) is capable of causing a similar disease in non-human primates. While examining potential serologic cross-reactivity between EBOV species is important for diagnostic assays as well as putative vaccines, the nature of cross-reactive antibodies following EBOV infection has not been thoroughly characterized. In order to examine cross-reactivity of human serologic responses to EBOV, we developed antigen preparations for all five EBOV species, and compared serologic responses by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in groups of convalescent diagnostic sera from outbreaks in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (n=24), Gulu, Uganda (n=20), Bundibugyo, Uganda (n=33), and the Philippines (n=18), which represent outbreaks due to four different EBOV species. For groups of samples from Kikwit, Gulu, and Bundibugyo, some limited IgM cross-reactivity was noted between heterologous sera-antigen pairs, however, IgM responses were largely stronger against autologous antigen. In some instances IgG responses were higher to autologous antigen than heterologous antigen, however, in contrast to IgM responses, we observed strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses to heterologous antigens among all sets of samples. Finally, we examined autologous IgM and IgG antibody levels, relative to time following EHF onset, and observed early peaking and declining IgM antibody levels (by 80 days) and early development and persistence of IgG antibodies among all samples, implying a consistent pattern of antibody kinetics, regardless of EBOV species. Our findings demonstrate limited cross-reactivity of IgM antibodies to EBOV, however, the stronger tendency for cross-reactive IgG antibody responses can largely circumvent limitations in the utility of heterologous antigen for diagnostic assays and may assist in the development of antibody-mediated vaccines to EBOV. PMID:21666792

Macneil, Adam; Reed, Zachary; Rollin, Pierre E

2011-06-01

100

Investigating the function of Fc -specific binding of IgM to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein?1 mediating erythrocyte rosetting.  

PubMed

Acquired protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria takes years to develop, probably reflecting the ability of the parasites to evade immunity. A recent example of this is the binding of the Fc region of IgM to VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1. This interferes with specific IgG recognition and phagocytosis of opsonized infected erythrocytes (IEs) without compromising the placental IE adhesion mediated by this PfEMP1 type. IgM also binds via Fc to several other PfEMP1 proteins, where it has been proposed to facilitate rosetting (binding of uninfected erythrocytes to a central IE). To further dissect the functional role of Fc -mediated IgM binding to PfEMP1, we studied the PfEMP1 protein HB3VAR06, which mediates rosetting and binds IgM. Binding of IgM to this PfEMP1 involved the Fc domains C?3-C?4 in IgM and the penultimate DBL domain (DBL?2) at the C-terminus of HB3VAR06. However, IgM binding did not inhibit specific IgG labelling of HB3VAR06 or shield IgG-opsonized IEs from phagocytosis. Instead, IgM was required for rosetting, and each pentameric IgM molecule could bind two HB3VAR06 molecules. Together, our data indicate that the primary function of Fc -mediated IgM binding in rosetting is not to shield IE from specific IgG recognition and phagocytosis as in VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1. Rather, the function appears to be strengthening of IE-erythrocyte interactions. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence on the molecular details and functional significance of rosetting, a long-recognized marker of parasites that cause severe P.?falciparum malaria. PMID:25482886

Stevenson, Liz; Huda, Pie; Jeppesen, Anine; Laursen, Erik; Rowe, J Alexandra; Craig, Alister; Streicher, Werner; Barfod, Lea; Hviid, Lars

2014-12-01

101

High Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM in Acute Q Fever by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)  

PubMed Central

Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare. We conducted a retrospective serological study of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a method widely used in clinical practice, in 102 cases of acute Q fever, 39 cases of scrub typhus, and 14 cases of murine typhus. The seropositive (57.8%, 7.7%, and 0%, p<0.001) and seroconversion rates (50.6%, 8.8%, and 0%, p<0.001) of M. pneumoniae IgM, but not M. pneumoniae IgG and C. pneumoniae IgG/IgM, in acute Q fever were significantly higher than in scrub typhus and murine typhus. Another ELISA kit also revealed a high seropositivity (49.5%) and seroconversion rate (33.3%) of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever. The temporal and age distributions of patients with positive M. pneumoniae IgM were not typical of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Comparing acute Q fever patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM (59 cases) with those who were negative (43 cases), the demographic characteristics and underlying diseases were not different. In addition, the clinical manifestations associated with atypical pneumonia, including headache (71.2% vs. 81.4%, p=0.255), sore throat (8.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.351), cough (35.6% vs. 23.3%, p=0.199), and chest x-ray suggesting pneumonia (19.3% vs. 9.5%, p=0.258), were unchanged between the two groups. Clinicians should be aware of the high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever, particularly with ELISA kits, which can lead to misdiagnosis, overestimations of the prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and underestimations of the true prevalence of Q fever pneumonia. PMID:24147043

Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Wei-Fang; Kuo, Li-Li; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu

2013-01-01

102

Evaluation of three methods to measure anti-Brucella IgM antibodies and interference of IgA in the interpretation of mercaptan-based tests.  

PubMed

The results of a dipstick assay for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) to Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) correlated with those of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgM and of the serum agglutination test (SAT) performed with and without dithiothreitol. Two sera which were dithiothreitol-sensitive and were dipstick negative were shown to contain specific IgA. The dipstick assay is recommended as a simple method for detecting specific IgM antibodies in acute-phase brucellosis patients. PMID:11478668

Marrodan, T; Nenova-Poliakova, R; Rubio, M; Ariza, J; Clavijo, E; Smits, H L; Diaz, R

2001-08-01

103

Lower and Upper Bounds on CSL Parameters from Latent Image Formation and IGM Heating  

E-print Network

We study lower and upper bounds on the parameters for stochastic state vector reduction, focusing on the mass-proportional continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model. We show that the assumption that the state vector is reduced whan a latent image is formed, in photography or etched track detection, requires a CSL rate parameter $\\lambda$ that is larger than conventionally assumed by a factor of roughly $2 \\times 10^{9\\pm 2}$, for a correlation length $r_C$ of $10^{-5}{\\rm cm}$. We reanalyze existing upper bounds on the reduction rate and conclude that all are compatible with such an increase in $\\lambda$. The best bounds that we have obtained come from a consideration of heating of the intergalactic medium (IGM), which shows that $\\lambda$ can be at most $\\sim 10^{8\\pm 1}$ times as large as the standard CSL value, again for $r_C=10^{-5} {\\rm cm}$. (For both the lower and upper bounds, quoted errors are not purely statistical errors, but rather are estimates reflecting modeling uncertainties.) We discuss modifications in our analysis corresponding to a larger value of $r_C$. With a substantially enlarged rate parameter, CSL effects may be within range of experimental detection (or refutation) with current technologies. ADDED NOTE: A careful calculation of radiation from atomic systems in the CSL model (Adler and Ramazanoglu, arXiv:0707.3134) has reinstated the bound obtained by Fu as the best upper bound on lambda, with significant implications for CSL model phenomenology.

Stephen L. Adler

2006-05-07

104

The IgM and IgG antibody responses in iron-deficient and iron-loaded mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The humoral immune response was evaluated in male CD-1 mice fed the iron deficient (7 ppm Fe), iron sufficient (120 ppm Fe),\\u000a and high-iron diets (3000 or 5000 ppm Fe) for 54 d. The IgM and IgG antibody responses against sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) determined\\u000a by hemolytic plaque assay were suppressed by 65.4 and 51.2%, respectively, in the iron deficient mice.

Felix Olima Omara; Barry Raymond Blakley

1994-01-01

105

Comparative study of immunochromatographic assay (IgM) and widal test for early diagnosis of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is a severe systemic infection endemic in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Present study evaluated immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Widal test in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever cases. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July, 2010 and June, 2011, including 200 individuals of different age and sex. Of them, 150 were clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever and 50 age-sex matched controls. Among 150 blood samples from the suspected cases 106(70.7%) were positive for IgM of Salmonella typhi by ICT and 67(44.7%) were positive by Widal test. Whereas, among the 50 controls 4(8%) were positive by ICT and 6(12%) were positive by Widal test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the ICT was found as 83.3%, 92.00%, 91.9% and 83.6% respectively. On the other hand corresponding values for Widal test were of 44.4%, 88%, 80% and 59.5% respectively. Thus, The ICT (IgM) is better alternative to Widal test for early and accurate diagnosis of typhoid fever. The ICT (IgM) is rapid, easy to perform, applicable for field use and highly sensitive and specific for detection of antibodies in patients with typhoid fever. PMID:23134904

Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Alam, M A; Paul, S K; Kabir, M R; Hoque, S M; Yesmin, T; Habiba, U; Sarkar, S R; Maruf, M A; Halim, P I; Hoque, M R

2012-10-01

106

The phase-diagram of the IGM and the entropy floor of groups and clusters are clusters born warm?  

E-print Network

We show that two problems of observational cosmology, the facts i) that 60% of the baryonic content of the universe is not observed at z~0 and ii) that the properties of small clusters do not agree with simple expectations, are closely related. The shock-heating associated with the formation of large-scale structures heats the IGM and leads to a ``warm IGM'' component for the gas, located close to (or within) filaments and non-linear structures. The entropy of this gas, which builds groups and clusters of galaxies, provides an entropy floor which explains the observed properties of these objects. We recover both the entropy floor and the LX-T relation of clusters. Galaxies are formed from cold gas prior to cluster formation. Such a time-ordering is required in order to account for the observed enrichment of the ICM within clusters. We provide a simple and consistent picture both of the IGM and the formation of groups without the need to invoke any additional preheating from supernovae or quasars (which has ot...

Valageas, P; Silk, J

2003-01-01

107

Fast dipstick dye immunoassay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies of human toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

A dipstick dye immunoassay (DDIA) was developed to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM antibodies of toxoplasmosis infection in humans. The assays employ a blue colloidal dye particles (D-1) conjugated to sheep anti-human IgG and rabbit anti-human IgM as the visualizing agents and a soluble antigen of tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii strain RH (TSA) as the detective antigen. The mixture of dye-labeled anti-human antibody-special human antibody was captured by TSA onto a nitrocellulose membrane dipstick by means of immunochromatography. The assays are rapid (the whole test can be completed within 15 min), simple, and cheap, and they don't require any equipment. They are sensitive and specific for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG or IgM antibodies and generally agree closely with the results from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The assays are especially suitable for field applications. PMID:15643007

Jin, Si; Chang, Zhu Yin; Ming, Xu; Min, Cao Li; Wei, He; Sheng, Liang You; Hong, Guan Xiao

2005-01-01

108

Solitary IgM phase II response has a limited predictive value in the diagnosis of acute Q fever.  

PubMed

We investigated the positive predictive value (PPV) of a solitary positive immunoglobulin M (IgM) phase II response for the serodiagnosis of acute Q fever detected with either an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initial and follow-up sera from patients suspected of acute Q fever were included if initially only IgM phase II tested positive with IFA in 2008 (n=92), or ELISA in 2009 (n=85). A seroconversion for Q fever was defined as an initial sample being IgG phase II negative but positive in the follow-up sample. The PPV of an initial isolated IgM phase II result detected by IFA or ELISA was 65% and 51%, respectively, and therefore appeared not to adequately predict acute Q fever. For this reason it cannot be used as a diagnostic criterion nor should it be included in public health notification without confirmation with other markers or a follow-up serum sample. PMID:22340504

Raven, C F H; Hautvast, J L A; Herremans, T; Leenders, A C A P; Schneeberger, P M

2012-11-01

109

The Evolution of Multiple Isotypic IgM Heavy Chain Genes in Victor Lee,* Jing Li Huang,* Ming Fai Lui,* Karolina Malecek,* Yuko Ohta,  

E-print Network

>120 kb apart. Without combinatorial events, the shark IgM H chain repertoire is based on junctional recombined (VDJ) in the germline (2, 6, 7). Because cartilaginous fishes rep- resent the earliest vertebrates

Mooers, Arne

110

Human monoclonal IgM with autoantibody activity against two gangliosides (GM1 and GD1b) in a patient with motor neuron syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Small amounts of oligoclonal immunoglobulins were detected by Western blotting in the serum from a patient with motor neuron syndrome. The prominent one, a monoclonal IgM lambda, reacted strongly with the gangliosides GM1 and GD1b and more weakly with asialo GM1, as shown by immunoenzymatic staining of thin-layer chromatograms of gangliosides, ELISA on purified glycolipid coats and immunoadsorption with purified GM1. Affinity-chromatography with purified GM1 resulted in the purification of monoclonal IgM lambda. This purified IgM and its Fab fragments showed the same pattern of reactivity with gangliosides as that observed with whole serum. Such monoclonal IgM could be responsible for motor neuron diseases in some patients with overt or barely detectable monoclonal gammopathies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2357844

Jauberteau, M O; Gualde, N; Preud'Homme, J L; Rigaud, M; Gil, R; Vallat, J M; Baumann, N

1990-01-01

111

Fetal lambs are depleted of IgM+ cells following a single injection of an anti-IgM antibody early in gestation.  

PubMed Central

B-cell depleted fetal sheep were created following a single injection of an anti-IgM monoclonal antibody early in gestation. Six sheep fetuses were given a single intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal antibody directed against IgM at 63 days of gestation (gestation in sheep = 150 days). The fetuses were killed at 138-142 days of gestation and lymphoid tissues were collected for subsequent light microscopy and immunohistochemical examination. The ileal and jejunal Peyer's patch (PP) follicles in four of the six injected fetuses were markedly reduced in size. Cells in the rudimentary follicles of the ileal PP of these animals showed no reactivity for IgM and most were negative for CD45. The dome regions contained many T cells, which were predominantly CD8+ cells and included gamma delta T cells. The interfollicular areas of the PP of the markedly affected fetuses contained large populations of T cells. The spleen and lymph nodes were also markedly depleted of IgM+ cells and these tissues contained only a small, scattered population of weakly IgM+ cells. Follicular accumulations of IgM+ cells were absent. Large populations of T cells were present in the white pulp of the spleen and cortex of the lymph nodes. The liver did not contain IgM+ cells and the medulla of the thymus was depleted of IgM+ cells. The results of this study suggest that a surface IgM+ B-cell population is present in the sheep fetus at 63 days of gestation, which is essential for the colonization of the ileal PP and subsequent B-cell development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8707346

Press, C M; Reynolds, J D; McClure, S J; Simpson-Morgan, M W; Landsverk, T

1996-01-01

112

Diagnostic value of detecting specific IgA and IgM with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in congenital Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

The present study compares the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease with a DOT assay using recombinant antigens with immunofluorescence antibody testing (IFAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The studies were performed using cord blood and sera of 12 infected newborns (group I) and 12 uninfected ones born to Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers (group II). Conventional IFAT and ELISA showed positive results for IgG at high titers, in infants and mothers of both groups; IgA antibodies were detected by ELISA in four of the infected infants and IgM was detected in two of them. All sera of the uninfected infants were negative for IgA and IgM in the ELISA. Application of a DOT assay using eight recombinant T. cruzi antigens allowed detection of specific IgA in the cord blood of six of the infected cases and IgM in eight of them. Repetition of these serologic tests in samples obtained during a monthly follow-up gave positive results for IgA in two of the initially negative infants of group I and for IgM in four of them. This means that diagnosis of congenital T. cruzi infection was confirmed, through demonstration of specific IgM, in all infected infants, and of IgA in eight of them. The importance of late detection of IgM in siblings born of infected mothers is discussed. The detection of IgM and IgA in sera obtained after birth is believed to be due to a congenital transmission of the parasite that occurred late in pregnancy. No IgA or IgM antibodies could be detected by the DOT assay in the sera of the negative controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7611556

Lorca, M; Veloso, C; Munoz, P; Bahamonde, M I; Garcia, A

1995-06-01

113

Detection of MYD88 L265P in peripheral blood of patients with Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia and IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.  

PubMed

MYD88 L265P is highly prevalent in Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (WM) and IgM monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). We investigated whether MYD88 L265P could be identified by peripheral blood (PB) allele-specific PCR. MYD88 L265P was detected in untreated WM (114/118; 96.6%); previously treated WM (63/102; 61.8%); and IgM MGUS (5/12; 41.7%) but in none of 3 hyper-IgM or 40 healthy individuals. Median PB MYD88 L265P ?Ct was 3.77, 7.24, 10.89, 12.33 and 14.07 for untreated WM, previously treated WM, IgM MGUS, hyper-IgM and healthy individuals, respectively (P<0.0001). For the 232 IgM MGUS and WM patients, PB MYD88 L265P ?Ct moderately correlated to bone marrow (BM) disease (r=-0.3553; P<0.0001), serum IgM (r=-0.3262; P<0.0001) and hemoglobin (r=0.3005; P<0.0001) levels. PB MYD88 L265P ?Ct and serum IgM correlated similarly with BM disease burden. For positive patients, PB MYD88 L265P ?Ct was <6.5 in 100/114 (88%) untreated WM, and >6.5 in 4/5 (80%) IgM MGUS patients (P=0.0034). Attainment of a negative PB MYD88 L265P mutation status was associated with lower BM disease (P=0.001), serum IgM (P=0.019) and higher hemoglobin (P=0.004) levels in treated patients. These studies show the feasibility for detecting MYD88 L265P by PB examination, and the potential for PB MYD88 L265P ?Ct use in the diagnosis and management of WM patients. PMID:24509637

Xu, L; Hunter, Z R; Yang, G; Cao, Y; Liu, X; Manning, R; Tripsas, C; Chen, J; Patterson, C J; Kluk, M; Kanan, S; Castillo, J; Lindeman, N; Treon, S P

2014-08-01

114

Comparison of mono Q, superose-6, and ABx fast protein liquid chromatography for the purification of IgM monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Nine immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) produced in ascites fluids or in cell culture supernatants, have been purified on a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system using anion-exchange, size-exclusion, or mixed-mode chromatography matrices. The use of a mixed-mode ABx column provided an IgM that had a purity of greater than 99% after a single purification step. Anion-exchange chromatography using a Mono Q column, provided a partial purification of the IgM which could subsequently be purified to a product of ca. 90% purity (determined from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) by size-exclusion chromatography on a Superose-6 column. Alternatively, the ascites containing the IgM was ammonium sulfate precipitated and chromatographed on the Superose-6 column under normal- as well as high-ionic strength conditions, which also yielded a product of ca. 90% purity. The purification of IgM from concentrated cell culture supernatants was evaluated using the Superose-6 or the ABx column. IgM purified from this source was greater than 99% pure when chromatographed on the mixed-mode column and ca. 60% pure on the size-exclusion column. MAbs from each of the procedures retained their immunoreactivity, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence staining of fixed cell preparations. A comparison of these methods revealed that mixed mode chromatography was simple, efficient, and yielded a product of high purity. The optimization of these methods facilitates the large-scale purification of mouse IgM MAbs and provides practical procedures for generating IgMs for use as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents. PMID:3204130

Chen, F M; Naeve, G S; Epstein, A L

1988-07-01

115

Evaluation of Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA in Mothers with Spontaneous Abortion in Zanjan, Northwest Iran  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the major agents of infectious abortions and due to its worldwide distribution can threat healthy pregnant women who had no previous exposure to this parasite. The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of T. gondii to spontaneous abortions in Zanjan, Northwest of Iran, using ELISA method. Blood Samples were collected from 264 mothers referred to the provincial hospitals of Zanjan due to spontaneous abortion. The sera were isolated and subjected to evaluate the anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. The results showed IgG positive (IgG+) in 99 cases (37.5%). A total of 68 women (25.8%) showed seroconversion with IgM or IgA or both IgM and IgA. They included: IgM+ in 21 (8.0%), IgA+ in 23 (8.7%) and both IgM+ and IgA+ in 24 (9.1%) subjects. In 23 cases, positive titers of IgM and IgG were accompanied. In general, the analysis of anti-Toxoplasma antibody patterns, showed that about 17% of the spontaneous abortions were associated with serological patterns of acute infection. According to these findings, a considerable proportion of spontaneous abortions can be attributed to T. gondii in the study area. PMID:23230339

Amin, Abbas; Mazloomzadeh, S.; Haniloo, A.; Mohammadian, F.

2012-01-01

116

Serum IgM Antibodies Contribute to High Levels of Opsonophagocytic Activities in Toddlers Immunized with a Single Dose of the 9-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

In immunogenicity trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), only IgG antibody concentrations to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPSs) are usually determined, along with the opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antipneumococcal antibodies. We aimed to determine the role of both IgG and IgM in OPA in toddlers receiving one dose of 9-valent PCV (PCV9). The IgG and IgM antibody concentrations to PPSs of serotypes 6A, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay in sera from toddlers (ages 18 to 35 months) 1 month after a single PCV9 dose. The OPA for the same serotypes was measured by multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Further, IgG and IgM concentrations and MOPA were measured to PPS of serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F in sera collected 12 months after vaccination. The detected MOPA titers were high in comparison to the IgG concentrations 1 month after immunization. The IgM concentrations were higher than IgG concentrations for serotypes 6A and 14 (P < 0.001) and as high as IgG for serotypes 9V, 19F, and 23F. Correlation of the IgM antibody concentrations with MOPA (r = 0.35 to 0.65) was stronger compared to that of the IgG antibodies (r = 0.07 to 0.41). The depletion of IgG antibodies in three sets of pooled sera only slightly decreased the OPA activity against serotype 14. At 12 months after immunization, 50 to 100% of serum samples still showed detectable MOPA activity against serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F. Our results suggest that IgM contributes to OPA 1 month after a single PCV9 vaccination in toddlers and that functionally active IgM and IgG antibodies persist for at least a year. PMID:22875604

Nurkka, Anu; Ekström, Nina; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Käyhty, Helena; Dagan, Ron

2012-01-01

117

Serum carbohydrate-binding IgM are present in Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) but not in North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).  

PubMed

Pangasianodon hypophthalmus serum was fractionated by affinity chromatography on 12 different Sepharose-carbohydrate columns and proteins eluted by the corresponding sugar. Binding to the affinity matrices is dependent on Ca(2+) ions. Upon gel filtration using Superose-12, essentially one fraction was obtained, eluting as a protein with a molecular mass of about 900 kDa. SDS-PAGE in reducing conditions revealed the presence of large (72 kDa) subunits (H-chains) and one up to three small (24, 26 and/or 28-29 kDa) subunits (L-chains). The isolated proteins were shown to be IgM since they bind monoclonal anti-P. hypophthalmus IgM antibodies. Rabbit polyclonal anti-galactose-binding IgM only cross-react with some sugar-binding IgM. The H-chains of the anti-carbohydrate IgM are glycosylated. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the IgMs have an "all-?" type of structure, and that Ca(2+) ions, though essential for carbohydrate-binding activity, are not required for the structural integrity of the molecules. In non-reducing SDS-PAGE, only monomers and halfmers were obtained, showing that there are no disulfide bonds linking the monomers, and that a disulfide bond connecting both H-chains within one monomer is only present in 45% of the molecules. Both the monomers and the halfmers display molecular mass heterogeneity which is indicative for redox forms at the level of the intradomain disulfide bonds. The native carbohydrate-binding IgMs agglutinate erythrocytes from different animals, as well as fish pathogenic bacteria. Similar proteins could not be isolated from another catfish, Clarias gariepinus. PMID:21911003

Giang, Duong Thi Huong; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Beeckmans, Sonia

2012-02-01

118

Serum IgM antibodies contribute to high levels of opsonophagocytic activities in toddlers immunized with a single dose of the 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed

In immunogenicity trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), only IgG antibody concentrations to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPSs) are usually determined, along with the opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antipneumococcal antibodies. We aimed to determine the role of both IgG and IgM in OPA in toddlers receiving one dose of 9-valent PCV (PCV9). The IgG and IgM antibody concentrations to PPSs of serotypes 6A, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay in sera from toddlers (ages 18 to 35 months) 1 month after a single PCV9 dose. The OPA for the same serotypes was measured by multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Further, IgG and IgM concentrations and MOPA were measured to PPS of serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F in sera collected 12 months after vaccination. The detected MOPA titers were high in comparison to the IgG concentrations 1 month after immunization. The IgM concentrations were higher than IgG concentrations for serotypes 6A and 14 (P < 0.001) and as high as IgG for serotypes 9V, 19F, and 23F. Correlation of the IgM antibody concentrations with MOPA (r = 0.35 to 0.65) was stronger compared to that of the IgG antibodies (r = 0.07 to 0.41). The depletion of IgG antibodies in three sets of pooled sera only slightly decreased the OPA activity against serotype 14. At 12 months after immunization, 50 to 100% of serum samples still showed detectable MOPA activity against serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F. Our results suggest that IgM contributes to OPA 1 month after a single PCV9 vaccination in toddlers and that functionally active IgM and IgG antibodies persist for at least a year. PMID:22875604

Simell, Birgit; Nurkka, Anu; Ekström, Nina; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Käyhty, Helena; Dagan, Ron

2012-10-01

119

Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG to Arboviral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression “Logitboost” as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests. PMID:24086608

Basile, Alison J.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Panella, Amanda J.; Laven, Janeen; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

2013-01-01

120

Generation and Characterization of Antibodies against Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA.  

PubMed

Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

Humphreys, Alan F; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C; Mikulski, Rose L; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G; Ling, Paul D

2015-01-01

121

Comparison of a dipstick dot-ELISA with commercial assays for anti-dengue virus IgM antibodies.  

PubMed

Dengue virus infections have undergone dramatic expansion in range, affecting several tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Dengue virus causes life-threatening complications characterized by dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. No standard validated test systems are available for serological diagnosis of dengue virus infection. This creates problems in the diagnosis and proper management of patients. Evaluation of a Defense Research and Development Establishment (DRDE) dengue virus dipstick dot-ELISA test, developed in house, vis-à-vis commercially available immunodiagnostic kits was carried out for detection of IgM antibodies. The DRDE dengue dipstick dot-ELISA was performed on the basis of the dot-ELISA principle. Commercial tests, namely, the Panbio Dengue IgM Capture ELISA system (Panbio, Sinnamon Park, Australia) and Pathozyme Dengue M (Omega Diagnostics, Alva, UK), were performed according to the manufacturers' protocols. Ninety-one serum samples collected from the states of Kerala and Delhi, India during August and November of 2004 were used in the present study. The overall agreement among all three tests was found to be only 72.16% for IgM antibodies. Correlations between the DRDE dipstick dot-ELISA and the Panbio kit, between the DRDE dipstick dot-ELISA and the Pathozyme Dengue M kit, and between the Panbio kit and the Pathozyme Dengue M kit were found to be 96, 93, and 94%, respectively. Although the Panbio kit is widely used in various laboratories in India, the DRDE dipstick dot-ELISA promises to be a useful kit because of its field applicability and comparable sensitivity. PMID:17201658

Abhyankar, A V; Dash, P K; Saxena, P; Bhargava, R; Parida, M M; Jana, A M; Sahni, A K; Rao, P V L

2006-01-01

122

Generation and Characterization of Antibodies against Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA  

PubMed Central

Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

Humphreys, Alan F.; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M.; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C.; Mikulski, Rose L.; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G.; Ling, Paul D.

2015-01-01

123

Evidence of fibrinogen as a target of citrullination in IgM rheumatoid factor-positive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have noted the significance of measuring anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as an important indicator for destructive disease, as is the case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While the role of anti-CCP antibodies in RA and JIA has become better understood, the identity of the target proteins of this modification has remained elusive. In this study, we evaluated serum from patients with various subtypes of JIA to investigate the presence of anti-deiminated (citrullinated) fibrinogen and anti-citrullinated ?-enolase antibodies, and their association with RF and anti-CCP antibody isotypes. Methods Sera were obtained from 96 JIA patients, 19 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and 10 healthy children. All sera were measured for antibodies against citrullinated and native fibrinogen and ?-enolase by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, all sera were assayed for anti-CCP antibody isotypes and rheumatoid factor (RF) isotypes by ELISA. The relationship between anti-citrullinated fibrinogen and anti-?-enolase antibodies and disease activity and joint damage were also investigated. All results were correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify which variables were associated with joint erosions and diagnosis of JIA. Results Thirty-one JIA patients (32%) demonstrated reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen and 9 (9%) to citrullinated ?-enolase. Reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen and ?-enolase was predominantly found in IgM RF-positive polyarthritis patients. Fourteen JIA patients reacted with native ?-enolase and a higher percentage of SLE patients reacted with citrullinated ?-enolase when compared to JIA patients. Anti-citrullinated fibrinogen antibodies correlated with the presence of IgG anti-CCP antibodies and IgA and IgM RF. The presence of anti-citrullinated ?-enolase antibodies correlated with IgA anti-CCP antibodies. IgG anti-CCP antibodies were significantly associated with joint damage and anti-citrullinated fibrinogen antibodies were strongly associated with JIA when compared to control groups. Anti-citrullinated fibrinogen antibodies demonstrated high sensitivity (81%) for IgM RF-positive polyarticular JIA. IgG anti-CCP antibodies had the highest specificity (95%) for JIA, with anti-citrullinated fibrinogen antibodies, IgA anti-CCP antibodies and IgA RF all following at 84%. Conclusions JIA patient sera exhibited strong reactivity to anti-citrullinated fibrinogen antibodies and demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for JIA, primarily in IgM RF-positive polyarthritis patients. Fibrinogen is one of several protein targets for citrullination in JIA. PMID:21439056

2011-01-01

124

A randomised clinical trial comparing interferon-? and intravenous immunoglobulin in polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—The polyneuropathy associated with a monoclonal IgM directed to the myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a specific entity with a putative causal link between the IgM and the neuropathy. The small benefit offered by alkylating agents or plasma exchanges in these patients justifies the search for alternative treatments.?METHODS—A 12 month multicentre, prospective, randomised, open clinical trial was carried out comparing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg; 2g/kg and then 1 g/kg every three weeks) and recombinant interferon-? (IFN-?; 3 MU/m2 subcutaneously three times weekly). The main end point was a clinical neuropathy disability score (CNDS) after six months of treatment. Twenty patients were enrolled; 10 were assigned to IVIg and 10 to IFN-?. ?RESULTS—At six months, one out of 10 patients treated with IVIg had a CNDS improvement of more than 20% whereas eight out of 10 patients treated with IFN-? had such an improvement (P=0.005). The mean CNDS worsened by 2.3 (SD 7.6) (8%) in the IVIg group whereas it improved by 7.5 (SD 11.1) (31%) in the IFN-? group (P=0.02). This improvement persisted after 12 months and was mainly related to an improvement of the sensory component (P=0.02) whereas the motor component was unchanged (P=0.39). Electrophysiological data did not show improvement of motor nerve conduction velocities whereas sensory nerve conduction velocities improved in the upper limbs. A decrease in the level of the monoclonal IgM was seen in two patients treated with IFN-?. At the end of the treatment, antibody activity to MAG was still detected in the serum of all patients.?CONCLUSION—IVIg, as used in this study, did not improve patients with polyneuropathy and monoclonal IgM. By contrast, although its mechanism of action remains to be fully elucided, IFN-? was effective in eight out of 10 patients at six months.?? PMID:9221964

Mariette, X.; Chastang, C.; Louboutin, J.; Leger, J.; Clavelou, P.; Brouet, J.

1997-01-01

125

[Rubella virus IgG and IgM antibody levels in 17-20 year old female students using ELISA and fluorescent antibody tests].  

PubMed

In this study Rubella virus antibody levels were investigated by using ELISA and IFAT in 94 sera obtained from girl students in Gülhane Military Medical Academy nursing college. We have propagated Rubella virus in BHK-21 cell line for production Rubella virus antigen in order to use IFAT. 81 sera IgG (86.2%) and 29 sera IgM (30.9%) were found positive in ELISA. However 76 sera (80.9%) IgG and 27 sera (28.7%) were positive in IFAT. On the other hand we have obtained suspected results in 8 sera (8.5%) with 1/10 dilution in IgG ELISA and in 3 sera (3.2%) with the same dilution in IgM ELISA. One of 29 sera which are ELISA IgM positive have established 80 IU/ml RF. We can say that ELISA is more reliable sensitive and practical than IFAT. It may be considered 29 student who have Rubella IgM antibody may be infected or reinfected by Rubella virus with in the last six months. On the other hand they may also infected with Parvovirus or some other viruses. We believe that the causes of false positive Rubella IgM antibody results should be investigated well enough. PMID:3078789

Kocabeyo?lu, O; Gün, H; Yilmaz, E; Güngör, S; Emekda?, G; Yücel, N

1988-01-01

126

Human Immunoglobulin (Ig)M 1 IgD 1 Peripheral Blood B Cells Expressing the CD27 Cell Surface Antigen Carry Somatically Mutated Variable Region Genes: CD27 as a General Marker for Somatically Mutated (Memory) B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Immunoglobulin (Ig)M 1 IgD 1 B cells are generally assumed to represent antigen-inexperi- enced, naive B cells expressing variable (V) region genes without somatic mutations. We report here that human IgM 1 IgD 1 peripheral blood (PB) B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry mutated V genes, in contrast to CD27-negative IgM 1 IgD 1 B cells.

Ulf Klein; Klaus Rajewsky; Ralf Küppers

127

Mutations in PIK3CD can cause hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM) associated with increased cancer susceptibility.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant gain of function mutations in the gene encoding PI3K p110? were recently associated with a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, CD4 lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. A subset of affected patients also had elevated serum IgM. Here we describe three patients in two families who were diagnosed with HIGM at a young age and were recently found to carry heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD. These patients had an abnormal circulating B cell distribution featuring a preponderance of early transitional (T1) B cells and plasmablasts. When stimulated in vitro, PIK3CD mutated B cells were able to secrete class-switched immunoglobulins. This finding implies that the patients' elevated serum IgM levels were unlikely a product of an intrinsic B cell functional inability to class switch. All three patients developed malignant lymphoproliferative syndromes that were not associated with EBV. Thus, we identified a novel subset of patients with PIK3CD mutations associated with HIGM, despite indications of preserved in vitro B cell class switch recombination, as well as susceptibility to non-EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:24610295

Crank, M C; Grossman, J K; Moir, S; Pittaluga, S; Buckner, C M; Kardava, L; Agharahimi, A; Meuwissen, H; Stoddard, J; Niemela, J; Kuehn, H; Rosenzweig, S D

2014-04-01

128

Evaluation of commercially available diagnostic tests for the detection of dengue virus NS1 antigen and anti-dengue virus IgM antibody.  

PubMed

Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%. PMID:25330157

Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W; Margolis, Harold S

2014-10-01

129

Evaluation of Commercially Available Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen and Anti-Dengue Virus IgM Antibody  

PubMed Central

Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60–75% and specificity 71–80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38–71% and specificity 76–80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30–96%, with a specificity of 86–92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96–98% and specificity 78–91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88–94%. PMID:25330157

Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Yoksan, Sutee; Buchy, Philippe; Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Enria, Delia A.; Vazquez, Susana; Cartozian, Elizabeth; Pelegrino, Jose L.; Artsob, Harvey; Guzman, Maria G.; Olliaro, Piero; Zwang, Julien; Guillerm, Martine; Kliks, Susie; Halstead, Scott; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Margolis, Harold S.

2014-01-01

130

Simultaneous Detection of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM Antibodies against Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Is Highly Specific for Diagnosis of Acute HEV Infection  

PubMed Central

Serum samples collected from 68 patients (age, mean ± the standard deviation [SD], 56.3 ± 12.8 years) at admission who were subsequently molecularly diagnosed as having hepatitis E and from 2,781 individuals who were assumed not to have been recently infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV; negative controls; 52.9 ± 18.9 years), were tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA classes of antibodies to HEV (anti-HEV) by in-house solid-phase enzyme immunoassay with recombinant open reading frame 2 protein expressed in the pupae of silkworm as the antigen probe. The 68 patients with hepatitis E had both anti-HEV IgM and anti-HEV IgA. Among the 2,781 controls, 16 (0.6%) had anti-HEV IgM alone and 4 (0.1%) had anti-HEV IgA alone: these IgA/IgM anti-HEV-positive individuals were not only negative for HEV RNA but lack IgG anti-HEV antibody as well (at least in most of the cases). Periodic serum samples obtained from 15 patients with hepatitis E were tested for HEV RNA, anti-HEV IgM, and anti-HEV IgA. Although HEV RNA was detectable in the serum until 7 to 40 (21.4 ± 9.7) days after disease onset, both IgM and IgA anti-HEV antibodies were detectable until 37, 55, or 62 days after disease onset in three patients and up through the end of the observation period (50 to 144 days) in 12 patients. These results indicate that detection of anti-HEV IgA alone or along with anti-HEV IgM is useful for serological diagnosis of hepatitis E with increased specificity and longer duration of positivity than that by RNA detection. PMID:15634950

Takahashi, Masaharu; Kusakai, Shigeyuki; Mizuo, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Fujimura, Kuniko; Masuko, Kazuo; Sugai, Yoshiki; Aikawa, Tatsuya; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

2005-01-01

131

Comparative evaluation of selected diagnostic assays for the detection of IgG and IgM antibody to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thailand.  

PubMed

We compared the performance of 2 commercially available dipstick assays, 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay for the diagnosis of scrub typhus, using the indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) test as the reference standard. The dipstick assays were the Integrated Diagnostics (Baltimore, MD) Dip-S-Ticks Scrub Recombinant (r56) dipstick test (INDX assay) and the PanBio (Brisbane, Australia) Scrub Typhus IgM and IgG Rapid Immunochromatographic test (PanBio assay). One of the ELISAs used pooled cell lysates of Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strain Orientia tsutsugamushi as antigen (pooled-antigen ELISA), and the other used a recombinant r56 protein as the antigen (recombinant ELISA). With a panel of 123 positive and 227 negative sera, sensitivity and specificity of the assays were as follows: INDX assay, IgG, 60% and 95%, IgM, 60% and 97%; PanBio assay, IgG, 94% and 96%, IgM, 83% and 93%; IFA (1:400 cutoff), IgG, 91% and 96%, IgM, 85% and 98%; pooled-antigen ELISA, IgG (1:1600 cutoff), 97% and 89%, IgM (1:400 cutoff), 94% and 91%; recombinant ELISA, IgG (1:1600 cutoff), 97% and 92%, IgM (1:400 cutoff), 93% and 94%. Because of its excellent performance and use of a standardized, commercially available antigen, the recombinant ELISA is suitable for use in a diagnostic laboratory, where it may be able to replace the IFA and IIP assays. In contrast, the PanBio dipstick assay was easy to perform and did not require sophisticated equipment, making it suitable for use in rural areas where more sophisticated diagnostic tests such as the ELISA and IFA may not be available. PMID:12479551

Coleman, Russell E; Sangkasuwan, Vichai; Suwanabun, Nantavadee; Eamsila, Chirapa; Mungviriya, Siriporn; Devine, Peter; Richards, Allen L; Rowland, Denise; Ching, Wei-Mei; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai

2002-11-01

132

IgM expression on paraffin sections distinguishes primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma.  

PubMed

In the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 classification 2 main types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCLs) are distinguished: primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) and primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCBCL-LT). PCFCL has a 5-year overall survival rate of 95%, and PCBCL-LT of approximately 50%. Expression profiling studies have shown higher RNA expression of the IgM heavy chain in PCBCL-LT compared with PCFCL. To find out whether this difference could also be demonstrated at the protein level, we performed immunohistochemical staining for B-cell receptor heavy and light chains on skin biopsies from 53 patients with PCFCL and 40 patients with PCBCL-LT. All 40 cases of PCBCL-LT consistently showed cytoplasmic staining for IgM, in 18 of them with coexpression of IgD. In contrast, only 5 of the PCFCL cases showed cytoplasmic staining for IgM and/or IgD, including all 3 PCFCLs presenting on the leg. Hence, staining for IgM on paraffin-embedded sections seems to be an additional tool for differentiating between the 2 entities in clinical pathology practice. Analogous to other nodal and extranodal large B-cell lymphomas, expression of IgM in PCLBCL seems to be related to an activated B cell-like phenotype. Finally, the expression of IgM (and IgD) in this type of lymphoma might imply defective class switch recombination. PMID:20551823

Koens, Lianne; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Jansen, Patty M

2010-07-01

133

Clinicopathologic Characterization of Diffuse-Large-B-Cell Lymphoma with an Associated Serum Monoclonal IgM Component  

PubMed Central

Recently, diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with serum IgM monoclonal component (MC) has been shown to be a very poor prognostic subset although, detailed pathological and molecular data are still lacking. In the present study, the clinicopathological features and survival of IgM-secreting DLBCL were analyzed and compared to non-secreting cases in a series of 151 conventional DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. IgM MC was detected in 19 (12.5%) out of 151 patients at disease onset. In 17 of these cases secretion was likely due to the neoplastic clone, as suggested by the expression of heavy chain IgM protein in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. In IgM-secreting cases immunoblastic features (p<.0001), non-GCB-type (p?=?.002) stage III-IV(p?=?.003), ?2 extra nodal sites (p<.0001), bone-marrow (p?=?.002), central-nervous-system (CNS) involvement at disease onset or relapse (p<.0001), IPI-score 3–5 (p?=?.009) and failure to achieve complete remission (p?=?.005), were significantly more frequent. FISH analyses for BCL2, BCL6 and MYC gene rearrangements detected only two cases harboring BCL2 gene translocation and in one case a concomitant BCL6 gene translocation was also observed. None of the IgM-secreting DLBCL was found to have L265P mutation of MYD88 gene. Thirty-six month event-free (11.8% vs 66.4% p<.0001), progression-free (23.5% vs 75.7%, p<.0001) and overall (47.1% vs 74.8%, p<.0001) survivals were significantly worse in the IgM-secreting group. In multivariate analysis IgM-secreting (p?=?.005, expB?=?0.339, CI?=?0.160-0.716) and IPI-score 3–5 (p?=?.010, expB?=?0.274, CI?=?0.102–0.737) were the only significant factors for progression-free-survival. Notably, four relapsed patients, who were treated with salvage immmunochemotherapy combined with bortezomib or lenalidomide, achieved lasting remission. Our data suggests that IgM-secreting cases are a distinct subset of DLBCL, originating from activated-B-cells with terminally differentiated features, prevalent extra nodal dissemination and at high risk of CNS involvement. PMID:24705344

Scarpino, Stefania; Salerno, Gerardo; Tatarelli, Caterina; Talerico, Caterina; Lombardi, Mariangela; Monarca, Bruno; Amadori, Sergio; Ruco, Luigi

2014-01-01

134

Electron microscopic evidence for reactions of axial filaments of Leptospira with IgM and IgG antibodies*  

PubMed Central

Serological identifications of structural components of leptospires have not previously been reported although morphological and antigenic studies have been carried out extensively. The antigenic activity of isolated axial filaments was characterized by direct electron-microscopic visualization of immune precipitates with fractionated antisera. The precipitates were composed of axial filament with IgM or IgG antibodies attached. The axial filament is the first structural component of leptospires to be identified serologically. Knowledge of the pattern of cross-reactivity of this axial filament antigen among various serotypes may be of value in helping to establish a new system of classification based on specific antigens rather than the current system using reciprocal agglutinin-absorption tests, which measures the resultant of many antigens. ImagesFIG. 14FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 15FIG. 16FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 13FIG. 1FIG. 9FIG. 4 PMID:5313069

Chang, Annabella; Faine, S.

1970-01-01

135

eVALUACIÓN De DoS eNSAYoS De eLISA IgM eN LA INVeSTIgACIÓN De UN BRoTe De LePToSPIRoSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Was assessed two rapid tests for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis, the ELISA IgM pool (Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima), compared with a commercial ELISA IgM (PANBIO) against the gold standard microagglutination test (MAT). We examined 24 patients admitted to a hospital for investigation of a leptospirosis outbreak. It took two samples of serum, the first when they were hospitalized and

Manuel Céspedes; Lourdes Balda; Martha Glenny

136

Search for QSOS Suitable for Subsequent Observation of he II 304 Absorption Arising in the IGM, Ly-Alpha and ... PART3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THIS IS PART Three OF PROPOSAL 3801. IT CONTAINS 40 TARGETS OF HIGH PRIORITY. EXCEPT FOR TARGETS, THIS PROPOSAL IS IDENTICAL TO 3801. Targets are in order of decreasing priority. Priority matters a lot. Best targets are listed first. Ultraviolet images will be obtained in snapshot mode of the 500 known high-redshift (z > 2.8) QSOs in order to identify the few (about 20) targets which have sufficient ultraviolet flux for subsequent FOC/FOS or GHRS observations of He II 304. The detection of absorption by the Helium II Lyman-alpha line at 304 A, one of the most exciting prospects of the HST, will provide the first direct detection of the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM). The absence of Gunn-Peterson H I 1215 absorption shows that the IGM is hot and/or of very low density, thus He I 584 is not expected to be observable. He II 304--the most promising line--should be observable from three sources: the diffuse IGM, the discrete Ly-alpha clouds, and the much rarer metal line absorption systems. The Gunn-Peterson continuum optical depth is not well constrained by models (range 0.3-3000). The mere detection of only one QSO below 304 A would rule out many models, limiting the IGM density, temperature, and ionization mechanisms. Similarly the total absence of flux from several targets would rule out other models.

Tytler, David

1991-07-01

137

Search for QSOS Suitable for Subsequent Observation of he II 304 Absorption Arising in the IGM, Ly-Alpha and ... PART2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THIS IS PART TWO OF PROPOSAL 3801, CONTAINING 55 TARGETS OF PRIORITY 7,8 AND 9. EXCEPT FOR TARGETS, THIS PROPOSAL IS IDENTICAL TO 3801, WHICH HAS 87 TARGETS OF PRIORITY 3,4,5 AND 6. Ultraviolet images will be obtained in snapshot mode of the 500 known high-redshift (z > 2.8) QSOs in order to identify the few (about 20) targets which have sufficient ultraviolet flux for subsequent FOC/FOS or GHRS observations of He II 304. The detection of absorption by the Helium II Lyman-alpha line at 304 A, one of the most exciting prospects of the HST, will provide the first direct detection of the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM). The absence of Gunn-Peterson H I 1215 absorption shows that the IGM is hot and/or of very low density, thus He I 584 is not expected to be observable. He II 304--the most promising line--should be observable from three sources: the diffuse IGM, the discrete Ly-alpha clouds, and the much rarer metal line absorption systems. The Gunn-Peterson continuum optical depth is not well constrained by models (range 0.3-3000). The mere detection of only one QSO below 304 A would rule out many models, limiting the IGM density, temperature, and ionization mechanisms. Similarly the total absence of flux from several targets would rule out other models.

Tytler, David

1991-07-01

138

Immune Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome Patients Revealed by High Levels of Serum Anti-N(Glc) IgM Antibody Fraction  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

Papini, Anna Maria; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

2014-01-01

139

Serum levels of IgM, IgD, IgA and IgG before and during rejection of renal allotransplants.  

PubMed

In recipients of renal allotransplants the relationship of IgM, IgA and IgG serum levels to 26 rejections was investigated, as well as the relationship of IgD and 22 rejection. For IgM and IgG a significant decline was found in the whole group (p less than 0.05) and in the sub-group of rejections after a period longer than one month following transplantation (p less than 0.05 in IgM and p less than 0.02 in IgD). As compared with values before rejection, a decline of IgM occurred in 11 rejections which amounted to more than 20% and a decline of IgD in 10 rejections by more than 50%. Changes of the serum levels of IgA and IgG were not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). In recipients of renal allotransplants serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels of the main classes were investigated for two reasons: (1) as part of a check-up of the condition of the graft and screening of rejection and (2) to detect possible deficiencies of humoral immunity with increased liability to infections. As regards monitoring of the risk of the rejection crisis, hitherto assembled experience did not provide an unequivocal answer in which class of Ig the greatest change may be expected, whether a rise or fall, and it is not even clear whether investigations of serum Ig levels will be a positive contribution. There is only agreement on the point that IgA levels are not related to rejection; according to some authors this applies also to IgM and IgG (8, 11). Other authors (1, 15, 17) appreciate in conjunction with rejections the importance of high IgM and IgG levels, while other workers observed a significant decline of IgM (13, 16, 19). IgD levels were investigated in our previous work on the relationship of renal functions and serum Ig levels in recipients of renal allotransplants (7); we found no reports on the relationship between IgD and rejection. PMID:394945

Hrncír, Z; Erben, J; Tichý, M

1979-01-01

140

Evaluation of fully automated assays for the detection of Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies by the Elecsys(®) immunoassay system.  

PubMed

Screening for acute rubella infection in pregnancy is an important element of antenatal care. This study compared the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of two new, fully automated Elecsys(®) Rubella IgM and IgG immunoassays designed for the Elecsys 2010, Modular Analytics E170, COBAS e-411 and COBAS e-601 and e602 analytical platforms, with current assays using serum from patients with primary rubella infections, vaccinated patients, patients with potentially cross-reacting infections and on routine samples in clinical laboratories in France, Germany and Italy. Both assays showed good within-run and within-laboratory precision. A sensitivity of 79.8-96.0% was demonstrated for Elecsys IgM in primary, early acute infection, consistent with existing assays. In samples obtained from routine antenatal screening, the Elecsys Rubella IgM assay revealed high specificity (98.7-99.0%). A significantly (p<0.0001) lower reactivity was demonstrated in samples from previously infected patients where acute rubella infection was excluded, and the incidence of false positives in patients with potentially cross-reacting infections was lower with Elecsys Rubella IgM compared with other. The Elecsys Rubella IgG assay exhibited a relative sensitivity of 99.9-100.0% and specificity of 97.4-100.0% in samples from routine antenatal screening. The Elecsys Rubella IgM and IgG assays allow convenient, rapid and reliable determination of anti-rubella antibodies. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility were comparable with existing assay systems. Assay results were available in approximately half the time required for currently employed methods and the assays are compatible with widely used analytical platforms. PMID:24487099

van Helden, Josef; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Vleminckx, Renaud; Masset, Frédéric; Revello, Maria-Grazia

2014-04-01

141

Evasion of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria by IgM masking of protective IgG epitopes in infected erythrocyte surface-exposed PfEMP1  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Its virulence is related to the parasite's ability to evade host immunity through clonal antigenic variation and tissue-specific adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs). The P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family is central to both. Here, we present evidence of a P. falciparum evasion mechanism not previously documented: the masking of PfEMP1-specific IgG epitopes by nonspecific IgM. Nonspecific IgM binding to erythrocytes infected by parasites expressing the PfEMP1 protein VAR2CSA (involved in placental malaria pathogenesis and protective immunity) blocked subsequent specific binding of human monoclonal IgG to the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains DBL3X and DBL5? of this PfEMP1 variant. Strikingly, a VAR2CSA-specific monoclonal antibody that binds outside these domains and can inhibit IE adhesion to the specific VAR2CSA receptor chondroitin sulfate A was unaffected. Nonspecific IgM binding protected the parasites from Fc?R-dependent phagocytosis of VAR2CSA+ IEs, but it did not affect IE adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A or lead to C1q deposition on IEs. Taken together, our results indicate that the VAR2CSA affinity for nonspecific IgM has evolved to allow placenta-sequestering P. falciparum to evade acquired protective immunity without compromising VAR2CSA function or increasing IE susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis. Furthermore, functionally important PfEMP1 epitopes not prone to IgM masking are likely to be particularly important targets of acquired protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria. PMID:21746929

Barfod, Lea; Dalgaard, Michael B.; Pleman, Suzan T.; Ofori, Michael F.; Pleass, Richard J.; Hviid, Lars

2011-01-01

142

Evasion of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria by IgM masking of protective IgG epitopes in infected erythrocyte surface-exposed PfEMP1.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Its virulence is related to the parasite's ability to evade host immunity through clonal antigenic variation and tissue-specific adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs). The P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family is central to both. Here, we present evidence of a P. falciparum evasion mechanism not previously documented: the masking of PfEMP1-specific IgG epitopes by nonspecific IgM. Nonspecific IgM binding to erythrocytes infected by parasites expressing the PfEMP1 protein VAR2CSA (involved in placental malaria pathogenesis and protective immunity) blocked subsequent specific binding of human monoclonal IgG to the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains DBL3X and DBL5? of this PfEMP1 variant. Strikingly, a VAR2CSA-specific monoclonal antibody that binds outside these domains and can inhibit IE adhesion to the specific VAR2CSA receptor chondroitin sulfate A was unaffected. Nonspecific IgM binding protected the parasites from Fc?R-dependent phagocytosis of VAR2CSA(+) IEs, but it did not affect IE adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A or lead to C1q deposition on IEs. Taken together, our results indicate that the VAR2CSA affinity for nonspecific IgM has evolved to allow placenta-sequestering P. falciparum to evade acquired protective immunity without compromising VAR2CSA function or increasing IE susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis. Furthermore, functionally important PfEMP1 epitopes not prone to IgM masking are likely to be particularly important targets of acquired protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria. PMID:21746929

Barfod, Lea; Dalgaard, Michael B; Pleman, Suzan T; Ofori, Michael F; Pleass, Richard J; Hviid, Lars

2011-07-26

143

Anti-alpha-galactosyl immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM in human secretions.  

PubMed Central

Anti-alpha-galactosyl (anti-Gal) is a natural human serum antibody that binds to the carbohydrate Gal alpha 1,3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc-R (alpha-galactosyl epitope) and is synthesized by 1% of circulating B lymphocytes in response to immune stimulation by enteric bacteria. We were able to purify secretory anti-Gal from human colostrum and bile by affinity chromatography on silica-linked Gal alpha 1,3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc. We found similar secretory anti-Gal antibodies in human milk, saliva, and vaginal washings. Secretory anti-Gal from milk and saliva was exclusively immunoglobulin A (IgA); that from colostrum and bile also contained IgG and IgM isotypes. Serum was also found to contain anti-Gal IgM and IgA in addition to the previously reported IgG. Anti-Gal IgA purified from colostrum and bile had both IgA1 and IgA2. Secretory anti-Gal from saliva, milk, colostrum, and bile agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes (RRBC) and bound to bovine thyroglobulin, both of which have abundant alpha-galactosyl epitopes. The RRBC-hemagglutinating capacity of human saliva, milk, bile, and serum was specifically adsorbed by immobilized Gal alpha 1,3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc but not by Gal alpha 1,4Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc, Gal beta 1,3GalNAc, Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc, Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc alpha 1,2Man, or Fuc alpha 1,2Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc. No RRBC-hemagglutinating activity could be detected in rat milk, rat bile, cow milk, or rabbit bile, suggesting a restricted species distribution for secretory anti-Gal similar to that found for serum anti-Gal. Colostral anti-GaI IgA bound strongly to a sample of gram-negative bacteria isolated from the throats and stools of well children as well as to an Escherichia coli K-1 blood isolate. Colostral anti-GaI IgA inhibited the binding of a Neisseria meningitidis strain to human buccal epithelial cells, suggesting that this antibody may play a protective role at the mucosal surface. PMID:7697518

Hamadeh, R M; Galili, U; Zhou, P; Griffiss, J M

1995-01-01

144

A novel immunosensor for detecting toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM based on goldmag nanoparticles and graphene sheets.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical immunosensor for detecting toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM (Tg-IgM) was constructed based on goldmag (Au-Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS). Thionine (Thi), as a mediator, was first electropolymerized on a nafion-GS (Nf-GS) modified electrode. Subsequently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were attached onto the poly-thionine film through ?-stacking interactions, and then were used to immobilize toxoplasma gondii antigen (Tg-Ag) for immunosensor fabrication. A sandwich-type immunoassay for Tg-IgM was performed using Au-Fe(3)O(4) labeled anti-IgM-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as trace label. Electrochemical detection was carried out in the presence of H(2)O(2) as HRP substrate. Using Au-Fe(3)O(4) provided a simple, non-chemical damaging method for regeneration, and enhanced the HRP reduction ability toward H(2)O(2). The AuNPs/Thi/Nf-GS nanocomposite also had good conductivity and biocompatibility, which effectively improved the immunosensor sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor can detect Tg-IgM in two linear ranges from 0.0375 to 1.2 AU mL(-1) and from 2.0 to 18 AU mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.016 AU mL(-1) (S/N=3). The immunosensor exhibited good reproducibility, stability, and selectivity as well. PMID:23010058

Jiang, Shuting; Hua, Erhui; Liang, Mo; Liu, Bei; Xie, Guoming

2013-01-01

145

The post-mortem diagnosis of influenzal infection by fluorescent IgG, IgA and IgM antibody studies on necropsy blood  

PubMed Central

Necropsy blood from cases diagnosed as dying from influenza A was examined for specific antibody in the IgG, IgA and IgM fractions and a specific diagnosis of recent infection was made if either IgM or IgA antibody and low titres of IgG antibody were found. By these criteria a diagnostic rate of 77% was found in those cases from whom no virus was isolated. The use of infected cell monolayers grown on polytetrafluoroethylene-coated slides gave a simple method of carrying out these antibody assays, and the use of necropsy blood did not require any special methods of transport of specimens to the virus laboratory. PMID:4571609

De Silva, L. M.; Khan, M. S.; Kampfner, G.; Tobin, J. O'H.; Gillett, R.; Morris, C. A.

1973-01-01

146

Development and preliminary evaluation of an IgM dot-immunobinding assay (IgM-DIA) for rapid serodiagnosis of scrub typhus infection.  

PubMed

An IgM dot-immunobinding assay (IgM-DIA) was developed for the diagnosis of scrub typhus infection. The whole cell antigens of Karp, Kato and Gilliam strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were immobilized onto nitrocellulose paper and reacted with patients sera. The presence of IgM R. tsutsugamushi specific antibody in the patient sera could be detected by the observation of a visible brown dot on the nitrocellulose paper. The IgM-DIA has a sensitivity of 90.4% and specificity of 81.4% as compared to the indirect immunoperoxidase test. The IgM-DIA is rapid, simple, cost-effective, does not require microscope or incubator. It is recommended as a rapid screening test for the diagnosis of scrub typhus infection in the field or rural area within the hyperendemic region. PMID:8629074

Koay, A S; Tay, S T; Cheong, Y M; Yasin, R M

1995-06-01

147

A dot enzyme immunoassay for detection of IgM antibodies against phenolic glycolipid-I in sera from leprosy patients.  

PubMed

A visual dipstick dot enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for diagnosis of leprosy is described. The assay is based on detection of IgM antibodies against phenolic glycolipid (PGL-I) in sera from leprosy patients. The antigen (PGL-I or synthetic disaccharide of PGL-I) was dotted on a nitrocellulose pad stuck on a plastic strip (dipstick). Sera were used at a dilution of 1:200. Peroxidase coupled mouse anti-human IgM monoclonal antibodies were used as the conjugate. A positive test gave a blue dot against a white background. The test was highly specific for leprosy, and was quite sensitive for detection of bacilliferous (BL/LL) leprosy. The antigen dotted and preblocked dipsticks stored at room temperature upto 4 months of observation period, were unable in the assay. PMID:3543160

Kumar, S; Moudgil, K D; Band, A H; Naraynan, P R; Gupta, S K; Sharma, A K; Talwar, G P

1986-01-01

148

The expression of IgM is helpful in the differentiation of primary cutaneous diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicle center lymphoma.  

PubMed

Diffuse large B-cell infiltration of the skin includes mainly primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) with diffuse architecture and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PCDLBCL), leg type. Differentiation of these lymphomas on morphology may be troublesome. Immunohistochemistry panel, including CD20, CD79a, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM-1, FOX-P1 is mandatory. However, in minority of cases, these markers would not suffice. In order to search the value of another marker, IgM, 30 cases of PCFCL and 10 cases of PCDLBCL, leg type were included in the study. As suggested in a recent literature, our study denoted that expression of IgM was useful as an additional tool for differentiation. PMID:21700336

Demirkesen, Cuyan; Tüzüner, Nükhet; Esen, Tu?çe; Lebe, Banu; Ozkal, Sermin

2011-09-01

149

A test strip IgM dot-ELISA assay using leptospiral antigen of endemic strains for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis.  

PubMed

A test strip IgM dot-ELISA assay for the detection of leptospire-specific IgM antibodies in human sera was developed. Antigen dotted on a nitrocellulose paper strip was the pool sonicated antigen prepared from three predominant reactive Leptospira serovars currently in endemic area, i.e., Bratislava, Sejroe and Pyrogenes. The ability of the test to diagnose acute leptospiral infection was assessed by testing 343 single serum samples from 96 laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis case patients with positive result in the standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 55 serum samples from patients with various diseases other than leptospirosis, and 192 serum samples from healthy individuals. Using the results of the MAT as a gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the test strip IgM dot-ELISA assay were 98.96 and 93.93 per cent, respectively. The assay offered relatively high negative predictive values (99.57%) thus making the assay ideally suited for rapid screening. The stability of the test strip was assessed with a panel of five positive and five negative control sera after storage at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C at different times. The results showed a good performance of the test strip at both storage temperatures for up to one year. In conclusion, the test strip IgM dot-ELISA assay was sufficiently sensitive for use as a screening test for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis. The assay was simple, inexpensive, and easy to perform for both a single test format and a large number of specimens. However, further studies are still needed to improve the stability of the test strip and assay reagents at ambient temperature, and to make the assay more rapidly and more user friendly. PMID:15962650

Tansuphasiri, Unchalee; Deepradit, Sukanya; Phulsuksombati, Duangporn; Tangkanakul, Waraluk

2005-03-01

150

Natural IgM and IgG Autoantibodies to Epidermal Keratins in Normal Human Sera. I: ELISA-Titration, Immunofluorescence Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of autoantibodies (autoAB) to keratins and to epidermis by a double approach associating a specific immunoenzymatic technique and immunofluorescence. The existence of natural autoAB to keratins in all normal human sera was asserted and the heterogeneity of natural autoAB to the epidermis explored. By a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we detected natural IgM and IgG

Guy Serre; Christian Vincent; Roland Viraben; Jean-Pierre Soleilhavoup

1987-01-01

151

IgM-class rheumatoid factor interference in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay of rubella-specific IgM antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interference of IgM-class rheumatoid factor (RF) in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) of rubella virus IgM antibodies was studied. Acute rubella infections did not significantly activate RF. False-positive rubella antibody results were obtained, however, when patients with raised RF levels were tested. If a low rubella IgG antibody titre was present, a high level of RF was required to cause

O H Meurman; B R Ziola

1978-01-01

152

Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Rubella is a contagious viral infection that in pregnant women leads to the infection of a developing fetus, causing fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Objective Pregnant women are not routinely screened for rubella in Nigeria. Epidemiological data on rubella is therefore necessary to create awareness and sensitize health care administrators and providers. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital between June and August 2012 to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to rubella virus in pregnant women using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Seroprevalence was compared among 160 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and 20 nonpregnant women of childbearing age studying at Ahmadu Bello University. Prior to sample collection, questionnaires were administered to the women to obtain data on sociodemographics, awareness and knowledge of rubella, possible risk factors, and clinical symptoms associated with the viral infection. Results Of the 160 pregnant women, 149 (93.1%) and 62 (38.8%) were positive for anti-rubella IgM and IgG antibodies, respectively. Similarly, of the 20 nonpregnant women, 18 (90%) and eight (40%) were positive for rubella IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. None of the possible risk factors studied were significantly associated with infection. Age and other sociodemographic factors were of little significance, and awareness of rubella was low. Conclusion The prevalence of rubella was high in both pregnant (93.1%) and nonpregnant women (90%), suggesting sustained transmission, which further suggests endemicity. The presence of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies in pregnant women predisposes babies to congenital rubella syndrome and emphasizes the need for the initiation of a national rubella vaccination program in Nigeria. PMID:25610003

Olajide, Okikiola M; Aminu, Maryam; Randawa, Abdullahi J; Adejo, Daniel S

2015-01-01

153

Evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies against yellow fever virus.  

PubMed

The first commercial indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Euroimmun Biochip technology was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against yellow fever virus (YFV) and was compared with the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which is currently the gold standard test for YFV. An overall correlation between the tests of 98.7% was established based on the analysis of 150 sera from individuals after vaccination with the 17D yellow fever vaccine. The sensitivity and specificity, calculated using the 150 sera from vaccinees and 150 sera from healthy blood donors, were 95% and 95%, respectively, for the IgG IFA and 94% and 97% for the IgM IFA. Antibody titers found in the PRNT correlated poorly with the IgM and IgG titers detected by IFA. The analysis of preexisting heterologous flaviviral immunity revealed the presence of antibodies reactive with YFV, tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and dengue virus serotypes 1 to 4 in 20 out of the 150 vaccinees. The indirect IFA showed that nine of these individuals with previous flaviviral exposure who received 17D vaccine failed to produce detectable IgM antibodies. Despite this preexisting immunity, all vaccinees developed protective immunity as detected by PRNT and anti-YFV IgG antibodies as detected by IFA. The high specificity and sensitivity of the IFA make it a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of yellow fever during outbreaks, for epidemiological studies, and for serosurveillance after vaccination. PMID:18045884

Niedrig, Matthias; Kürsteiner, Oliver; Herzog, Christian; Sonnenberg, Karen

2008-02-01

154

A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the performance of a newly developed point-of-care test (POCT) for the detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies in serum and oral fluid specimens and to assess if measles virus nucleic acid could be recovered from used POCT strips. Methods The POCT was used to test 170 serum specimens collected through measles surveillance or vaccination programmes in Ethiopia, Malaysia and the Russian Federation: 69 were positive for measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, 74 were positive for rubella IgM antibodies and 7 were positive for both. Also tested were 282 oral fluid specimens from the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) surveillance programme of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Microimmune measles IgM capture enzyme immunoassay was the gold standard for comparison. A panel of 24 oral fluids was used to investigate if measles virus haemagglutinin (H) and nucleocapsid (N) genes could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction directly from used POCT strips. Findings With serum POCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90.8% (69/76) and 93.6% (88/94), respectively; with oral fluids, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (63/70) and 96.2% (200/208), respectively. Both H and N genes were reliably detected in POCT strips and the N genes could be sequenced for genotyping. Measles virus genes could be recovered from POCT strips after storage for 5 weeks at 20–25 °C. Conclusion The POCT has the sensitivity and specificity required of a field-based test for measles diagnosis. However, its role in global measles control programmes requires further evaluation. PMID:21897488

Slibinskas, Rimantas; Chua, Kaw Bing; Nigatu, Wondatir; Brown, Kevin E; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Samuel, Dhanraj; Brown, David

2011-01-01

155

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with positive serum antithyroid antibodies, IgM antibodies against mycoplasma pneumoniae and human herpesvirus 7 PCR in the CSF.  

PubMed

We report the case of a boy with an encephalopathy associated with extrapyramidal and psychiatric symptoms and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies. He had positive serum antithyroid antibodies, IgM antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae and human herpesvirus 7 polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. He was successfully treated with rituximab, after steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange. The pathophysiology of this disorder may be post-infectious and autoimmune. PMID:25222311

Venâncio, Paulo; Brito, Maria João; Pereira, Gabriela; Vieira, José Pedro

2014-08-01

156

Detection of IgM antibrucella antibody in the absence of IgGs: a challenge for the clinical interpretation of brucella serology.  

PubMed

The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies antibrucella has become widespread in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. IgM anti-Brucella antibodies are indicative of acute infection. Between 2009-2013, 5307 patients were evaluated for serologic diagnosis at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Albacete General Hospital. A ELISA IgM-positive, IgG-negative anti-Brucella antibody serology pattern was detected in 17 of those patients. Epidemiology data, symptoms, laboratory data, treatment and outcome from these patients were reviewed. Sixteen patients presented with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or fever and 1 was asymptomatic. Five patients received treatment with doxycycline combined with rifampin, gentamycin or streptomycin during 6-12 weeks, with no improvement. None of the 17 patients were finally diagnosed with brucellosis. Our results indicate that anti-Brucella IgM positive serology, per se, is not enough to diagnose acute brucellosis and other methods should be used for confirmation. Brucella serology data should be interpreted taking into account the patient's clinical history and epidemiological context. PMID:25474572

Solís García Del Pozo, Julián; Lorente Ortuño, Santiago; Navarro, Elena; Solera, Javier

2014-12-01

157

Detection of IgM and IgG against hepatitis E virus in serum and meat juice samples from pigs at slaughter in Bavaria, Germany.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen with domestic and wild pigs (and likely other species such as deer or rabbits) recognized as reservoir. Pathogenesis in pigs usually leads to an asymptomatic course of disease. Since there is no enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the detection of anti-HEV antibodies in pigs commercially available, the objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence in fattening pigs at slaughter and at herd level using a newly developed ELISA based on genotype (GT) 1 and GT 3 in Bavaria, Germany. Based on 516 serum and 198 meat juice samples collected from different herds at four different Bavarian slaughterhouses, the overall seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in serum and meat juice samples was 68.6% and 67.6%, respectively. Analyzing the serum for the presence of anti-HEV IgM, 36/516 (7%) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. At herd level, most of the herds were seropositive for anti-HEV antibodies. The present study shows that HEV is widespread among the Bavarian pig population and that some pigs might test positive for anti-HEV IgM even at the age of slaughter. Also, meat juice serves as an equivalent matrix to serum to test for anti-HEV antibodies in pigs. PMID:22690762

Wacheck, Silke; Werres, Carolin; Mohn, Ulrich; Dorn, Silvia; Soutschek, Erwin; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Märtlbauer, Erwin

2012-07-01

158

Characterization and removal of aggregates formed by nonspecific interaction of IgM monoclonal antibodies with chromatin catabolites during cell culture production.  

PubMed

We observed that IgM monoclonal antibodies and aggregates in mammalian cell culture supernatants were associated nonspecifically with nucleosomes, DNA, and histone proteins derived from nuclei of host cells that died during antibody production. A series of multimodal sample treatments were evaluated for their ability to selectively remove these contaminants without significant antibody loss. The first consisted of adding 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl urea (allantoin) and the DNA intercalating agent 7-ethoxyacridine-3,9-diamine (ethacridine), then flowing the supernatant through a column of mixed porous particles bearing metal affinity, anion exchange, and cation exchange functionalities. A one-step variant of the method was to mix chromatography particles with the allantoin-ethacridine-treated supernatant. An alternative one-step treatment consisted of passing untreated cell supernatant through a chelating monolith in tandem with an anion exchange monolith. All methods eliminated high molecular weight aggregates, and reduced smaller aggregates to 2-4%. They also achieved 98% DNA reduction, 99% reduction of nucleosomes and histones, 30-70% reduction of general host proteins, and 98% IgM recovery. Size exclusion chromatography analysis indicated that IgG monoclonal antibodies benefit similarly from treatment. Subsequent IgM purification reduced DNA levels beneath the level of detectability by fluorescent dye intercalation, histones to less than 10 parts per million by ELISA, and aggregates to less than 0.05% by size exclusion chromatography. The results point to chromatin catabolites as promoters of antibody aggregate formation. PMID:23598159

Gan, Hui Theng; Lee, Jeremy; Latiff, Sarah Maria Abdul; Chuah, Cindy; Toh, Phyllicia; Lee, Wan Yee; Gagnon, Pete

2013-05-24

159

IL-21 in the bone marrow microenvironment contributes to IgM secretion and proliferation of malignant cells in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.  

PubMed

Cytokines within the tumor microenvironment play an important role in supporting the growth and survival of B-cell malignancies. One such cytokine, IL-21, promotes the growth of myeloma and Hodgkin lymphoma cells while inducing apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, the biologic significance of IL-21 has not been examined in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), a B-cell lymphoma characterized by elevated serum IgM and a lymphoplasmacytic bone marrow infiltrate. We report here on the presence of IL-21 in the bone marrow of patients with WM and have identified activated T cells as the source of this cytokine. We readily detected the IL-21 receptor on malignant WM B cells and show that IL-21 significantly increases both IgM secretion and cellular proliferation of these cells with no effect on viability. IL-21 rapidly induces phosphorylation of STAT3 in WM cells, and treatment of the WM cell line MWCL-1 with a STAT3 inhibitor abolished the IL-21-mediated increases in cellular proliferation and IgM secretion. IL-21 also increased the expression of known STAT3 targets involved in B-cell differentiation, including BLIMP-1, XBP-1, IL-6, and IL-10. Overall, our data indicate that IL-21 in the bone marrow microenvironment significantly affects the biology of WM tumor cells through a STAT3-dependent mechanism. PMID:22976953

Hodge, Lucy S; Ziesmer, Steve C; Yang, Zhi Zhang; Secreto, Frank J; Gertz, Morie A; Novak, Anne J; Ansell, Stephen M

2012-11-01

160

Detection of IgM Antibrucella Antibody in the Absence of IgGs: A Challenge for the Clinical Interpretation of Brucella Serology  

PubMed Central

The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies antibrucella has become widespread in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. IgM anti-Brucella antibodies are indicative of acute infection. Between 2009–2013, 5307 patients were evaluated for serologic diagnosis at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Albacete General Hospital. A ELISA IgM-positive, IgG-negative anti-Brucella antibody serology pattern was detected in 17 of those patients. Epidemiology data, symptoms, laboratory data, treatment and outcome from these patients were reviewed. Sixteen patients presented with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or fever and 1 was asymptomatic. Five patients received treatment with doxycycline combined with rifampin, gentamycin or streptomycin during 6–12 weeks, with no improvement. None of the 17 patients were finally diagnosed with brucellosis. Our results indicate that anti-Brucella IgM positive serology, per se, is not enough to diagnose acute brucellosis and other methods should be used for confirmation. Brucella serology data should be interpreted taking into account the patient's clinical history and epidemiological context. PMID:25474572

Solís García del Pozo, Julián; Lorente Ortuño, Santiago; Navarro, Elena; Solera, Javier

2014-01-01

161

Biotin-avidin amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of canine serum IgA, IgG and IgM.  

PubMed

An amplified capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed by the use of the biotin-avidin detection system, for the measurement of canine plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G and M. Test responses of dilutions of both the Ig standards and test plasma samples were consistently linear (r > 0.987) for the three Ig classes. The within-assay variation was 3.53 per cent for IgG, 5.84 per cent for IgM and 6.34 per cent for IgA. The analytical recoveries were 95 per cent for IgA, 97 per cent for IgG and 98 per cent for IgM. The lower detection limits of the assay were 38.4 ng ml-1 for IgG, 20.3 ng ml-1 for IgM and 41.2 ng ml-1 for IgA. The results indicate that this ELISA has a much higher sensitivity than the single radial immunodiffusion assay or the non-amplified ELISA for measurements of canine Igs, but has a comparable specificity and precision. PMID:8685529

Ginel, P J; Margarito, J M; Molleda, J M; López, R; Novales, M; Bernadina, W E

1996-03-01

162

Idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis is associated with altered patterns of self-reactive IgM and IgG antibody repertoires.  

PubMed

Idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is an immune complex nephropathy characterized by the subepithelial deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. The pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown, but recent evidence suggests that human MGN may involve an autoimmune component. In the present study, we have analyzed the IgM and IgG antibody repertoires of patients with MGN towards self- and nonself-antigens using a technique of quantitative immunoblotting on a panel of whole human tissue or solubilized bacterial cell extracts as sources of antigens. Data were compared by means of multiparametric statistical analysis. We demonstrate that the antibody repertoires of self-reactive IgM and IgG in plasma of patients with MGN exhibit significantly altered patterns of reactivity, as compared with those of healthy controls. In contrast, multiparametric statistical analysis does not discriminate the reactivity patterns of IgM and IgG in plasma of patients and healthy controls towards nonself antigens. These observations indicate that a failure in the regulation of physiological self-reactivity is associated with immune complex nephropathy in MGN. PMID:11696207

Stahl, D; Venetz, J P; Lacroix-Desmazes, S; Rondeau, E; Bonnin, E; Kazatchkine, M D; Ronco, P; Kaveri, S V

2001-11-01

163

Circulating Natural IgM Antibodies Against Angiogenin in the Peripheral Blood Sera of Patients with Osteosarcoma as Candidate Biomarkers and Reporters of Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumor immunology research has led to the identification of a number of tumor-associated self antigens, suggesting that most tumors trigger an immunogenic response, as is the case in osteosarcoma, where the detection of natural serum IgM antibodies might achieve the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Natural IgM antibodies to tumor-associated proteins may expand the number of available tumor biomarkers for osteosarcoma and may be used together in a serum profile to enhance test sensitivity and specificity. Natural IgM antibodies can be consistently detected in the peripheral blood sera months to years before the tumor is diagnosed clinically. The study of the level of a potential biomarker many months (or years) prior to diagnosis is fundamentally important. Integrated circulating and imaging markers in clinical practice treating osteosarcoma have potential applications for controlling tumor angiogenesis. Objectives: To study the expression of natural IgM antibodies to the tumor antigens of angiogenesis in the peripheral blood sera of osteosarcoma patients and healthy individuals, and to develop serum-based predictive biomarkers. Methods: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 117 osteosarcoma patients and 117 patients with other tumors. All diagnosis was histologically confirmed. Staging of patients was performed according to the Enneking Surgical Staging System. The control group consisted of 117 age- and sex- matched healthy individuals. In this study, novel immunoconjugates were designed, synthesized and then used to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect angiogenin (ANG)–IgM directly in the peripheral blood sera of humans. Results: Serum ANG–IgM levels are significantly higher in osteosarcoma patients than in healthy individuals (P < 0.005). Serum ANG–IgM levels varied widely, but were highly dependent on the concentration of IgM (r = 0.85; P < 0.0005). We found ANG–IgM in the sera of 85% of newly diagnosed osteosarcoma patients and ANG–IgM levels were significantly higher in osteosarcoma patients compared to any other tumors (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results demonstrated that the combined biomarker ANG–IgM has greater sensitivity and specificity in early diagnosis of osteosarcoma patients than the traditional biomarkers (ANG and vascular endothelial growth factor). Circulating ANG–IgM immune complexes can potentially serve as a biomarker for increased risk of osteosarcoma, because relatively high serum levels were also detected in otherwise healthy individuals with a first degree family history of osteosarcoma and in patients with a diagnosis of benign conditions. Immunological aspects of angiogenesis for managing osteosarcoma will have a practical value in early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring response to antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:24179386

Savitskaya, Yulia A.; Rico, Genaro; Linares, Luis; González, Roberto; Téllez, René; Estrada, Eréndira; Marín, Norma; Martínez, Elisa; Alfaro, Alfonso; Ibarra, Clemente

2010-01-01

164

Serological Profile of HSV-2 in STD Patients: Evaluation of Diagnostic Utility of HSV-2 IgM and IgG Detection  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives:The present study was undertaken to determine Herpes Simplex Virus-2 seroprevalence in sexually active adults aged 20-49 and to investigate the correlation with sociodemographic characteristics and to find its association with other sexually transmitted diseases especially HIV and also to assess the proportion of primary and reactivated HSV-2 cases. Materials and Methods:This prospective study was carried out for a period of six months in a tertiary care hospital. Serum samples were taken from 91 patients attending the out Patient clinic of the Department of Venereology. The serological testing for HSV-2 was performed on all the specimens by using Euroimmun anti-HSV2 (gG2) IgM ELISA and IgG ELISA. Results: Out of the 91 STD patients in the study group, 18 males (34.62%) and 14 females (36.84%) tested positive for HSV-2 antibodies. Seropositivity rate is 35.16%. More number of HSV-2 positive cases were seen among males, older age, rural residence, low socioeconomic status, single marital status, irregular condom usage during the sexual intercourses with new partners and with higher number of sexual partners during lifetime. HSV-2 IgM alone was positive in three cases, HSV-2 IgG alone was positive in 26 cases and three had a positive HSV-2 IgM and IgG result. Addition of IgM testing increased rate of detecting seroconversion, 31.87%, when only IgG ELISA was used, to 35.16 % patients when IgM test was added. In the study group four cases tested positive for VDRL, and one of them was a known positive case. Among the 55 HIV positive cases in the study group, HSV 2 was positive in 17 cases and among the 36 HIV negative cases HSV 2 was positive in 15 cases. (30.91% and 47.22%).Though the number of HIV cases were high, HSV 2 positivity among them was statistically not significant. Conclusion:The purpose of screening for HSV-2 is not only to identify seropositivity, but to help seropositive people identify symptoms and protect themselves from acquiring HIV and to protect their partners and seronegative people from acquiring HSV-2 and/or HIV. PMID:25653947

Rashetha; Sucilathangam, G.; Cinthujah, B.; Revathy, C.

2014-01-01

165

CD5-positive B-cell malignancies frequently express cross-reactive idiotypes associated with IgM autoantibodies.  

PubMed Central

Using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for cross-reactive idiotypes (CRIs) associated with human monoclonal IgM autoantibodies, we examined 57 biopsy specimens that previously had been noted to have immunohistologic features of CD5-positive B-cell small lymphocytic (SL) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Twenty-five lymphoma specimens were noted to be from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Eight of thirty-four (24%) immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light-chain expressing lymphomas reacted with 17.109, a MAb specific for a major CRI encoded by a conserved Ig kappa variable region gene (Vk gene) of the VkIIIb sub-subgroup. All 17.109-reactive tissues and two 17.109-negative specimens were recognized by another MAb specific for VkIIIb framework determinant(s). Seven of all fifty-six (13%) Ig-expressing tumors bound G6, a MAb specific for an autoantibody heavy-chain-associated CRI that is encoded by a conserved antibody heavy chain variable region gene(s) (VHgene) of the VH1 subgroup. All seven G6-positive lymphomas and two G6-negative tumors reacted with Cc1, another MAb specific for a rheumatoid factor heavy-chain-associated CRI. A third autoantibody-heavy-chain-associated CRI, termed Lc1, was expressed by seven (13%) other lymphomas. Finally, a fourth MAb specific for RF heavy-chain-associated CRI, named B6, detected two additional tumors. The expression frequencies of autoantibody-associated CRIs among SL NHL patients without peripheral lymphocytosis did not differ from those noted among patients with CLL but were significantly higher than those observed among patients with NHL of follicular center-cell origin. These data imply that the malignant B cells of patients with either CD5-positive B-cell SL NHL or CLL express a restricted set of Ig V genes that have not substantially diversified from the germline DNA. Images Figure 1 PMID:1691593

Kipps, T. J.; Robbins, B. A.; Tefferi, A.; Meisenholder, G.; Banks, P. M.; Carson, D. A.

1990-01-01

166

Functional capacities of human IgM memory B cells in early inflammatory responses and secondary germinal center reactions.  

PubMed

The generation and functions of human peripheral blood (PB) IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes with somatically mutated IgV genes are controversially discussed. We determined their differential gene expression to naive B cells and to IgM-only and IgG(+) memory B cells. This analysis revealed a high similarity of IgM(+)(IgD(+))CD27(+) and IgG(+) memory B cells but also pointed at distinct functional capacities of both subsets. In vitro analyses revealed a tendency of activated IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells to migrate to B-cell follicles and undergo germinal center (GC) B-cell differentiation, whereas activated IgG(+) memory B cells preferentially showed a plasma cell (PC) fate. This observation was supported by reverse regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 and PR domain containing 1 and differential BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 expression. Moreover, IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes preferentially responded to neutrophil-derived cytokines. Costimulation with catecholamines, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8), and IFN-? caused differentiation of IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells into PCs, induced class switching to IgG2, and was reproducible in cocultures with neutrophils. In conclusion, this study substantiates memory B-cell characteristics of human IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells in that they share typical memory B-cell transcription patterns with IgG(+) post-GC B cells and show a faster and more vigorous restimulation potential, a hallmark of immune memory. Moreover, this work reveals a functional plasticity of human IgM memory B cells by showing their propensity to undergo secondary GC reactions upon reactivation, but also by their special role in early inflammation via interaction with immunomodulatory neutrophils. PMID:25624468

Seifert, Marc; Przekopowitz, Martina; Taudien, Sarah; Lollies, Anna; Ronge, Viola; Drees, Britta; Lindemann, Monika; Hillen, Uwe; Engler, Harald; Singer, Bernhard B; Küppers, Ralf

2015-02-10

167

Detection of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in renal transplant recipients using ELFA, ELISA and ISAGA methods: comparison of pre- and post-transplantation status  

PubMed Central

In the transplant recipient patients receive immunosuppressive therapy, the possibility of reactivation of the old infection or acquisition of infection from a donor’s tissue increases. In this study, IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins seroconversion in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have been evaluated before and after transplantation. This is a prospective cohort study on a total of 102 RTRs. Two serum samples were obtained from each patient. The first was taken before administration of any immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids and the second was taken 3 months after transplantation. The IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were assayed by enzyme-linked flourescence assay (ELFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. IgM/immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) method has also been used. All RTRs were tested for toxoplasmosis before and after transplantation. ELFA identified 65 (63.7%) pre-transplantation samples as IgG+ and did not detect any positive IgM samples. However, IgM was detected in three (2.9%) post-transplantation samples by this method. Forty-nine (48%) pre-transplantation samples were reported IgG+ by ELISA and no IgM positive sample was identified by this method. ELISA has detected two (1.9%) IgM-positive reactions in post-transplantation samples. By IgM/ISAGA method, we have detected no IgM positive reactions in pre-transplantation samples, whereas 3 months later (second sampling) IgM antibody was detected in 3 (2.9%) cases. Secondary toxoplasmosis infection was observed in 30 cases per 1000 RTRs, which indicates that screening for toxoplasmosis infection should be performed in developed countries for these patients. On the other hand, as the risk of re-active toxoplasmosis infection exists in developing nations, they should consider the necessary preventive measures to control this condition. PMID:21929878

GHARAVI, M J; JALALI, S; KHADEMVATAN, S; HEYDARI, S

2011-01-01

168

Single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei and inulin on growth, non-specific immunity and IgM expression in leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei with inulin suitable for immunological in vivo studies in farmed fish. By in vitro assays, L. sakei strain 5-4 showed antibacterial activities against all assayed fish pathogens (except the Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM-1793). L. sakei was able to survive at high fish bile concentrations. Fermentation of the agave inulin resulted in a large increase in number of lactobacilli. For the in vivo study, fish were fed for 8 weeks four practical diets: control diet (control), L. sakei 5-4 (10(7) CFU/g), inulin (1% or 10 g/kg) and L. sakei + inulin (10(7) CFU/g + 10 g/kg). The weight gain showed clearly the synergistic effect of L. sakei 5-4 and inulin at 6 and 8 weeks of treatments. Leopard grouper fed with L. sakei alone or combined with inulin have significantly increased the assayed physiological and humoral immune parameters. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin M (IgM) were found to be higher expressed in intestine, head kidney, mucus, gill, spleen and skin. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IgM in head kidney and anterior intestine were measured by real-time PCR. L. sakei 5-4 and L. sakei + inulin supplemented diet up-regulated the expression of IgM at week 4 and 8 in intestine and head kidney, respectively. These results support the idea that the L. sakei 5-4 alone or combined with agave inulin improved growth performance and stimulates the immune system of leopard grouper. PMID:24464476

Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Gracia-Lopez, Vicente; Macias, Ma Esther; Roa, Marcos Cadena; Esteban, María Ángeles

2014-08-01

169

Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

Vojdani, Aristo

2009-01-01

170

Two Distinct Subtypes of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute Liver Failure Are Separable By Quantitative Serum IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA Levels  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus-related acute liver failure (HBV-ALF) may occur following acute HBV infection (AHBV-ALF) or during an exacerbation of chronic HBV infection (CHBV-ALF). Clinical differentiation of the two is often difficult if a prior history of hepatitis B is not available. Quantitative measurements of anti-hepatitis B core immunoglobulin M (IgM anti-HBc) titers and of HBV viral loads (VLs) might allow separation of acute from chronic HBV-ALF. Methods Of 1602 patients with ALF, 60 met clinical criteria for AHBV-ALF and 27 for CHBV-ALF. Sera were available on 47 and 23 patients, respectively. A quantitative immunoassay was used to determine IgM anti-HBc levels, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) to determine HBV VLs. Results AHBV-ALFs had much higher IgM anti-HBc titers than CHBV-ALFs, (signal to noise (S/N) ratio median 88.5, range 0–1,120, vs. 1.3, 0–750, p<0.001); a cut point for S/N ratio of 5.0 correctly identified 44/46 (96%) AHBV-ALFs and 16/23 (70%) CHBV-ALFs; the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.86, p<0.001. AHBV-ALF median admission VL was 3.9 (0–8.1) log10 IU/mL, vs. 5.2 (2.0–8.7) log10 IU/mL for CHBV-ALF, p<0.025. Twenty percent (12/60) of the AHBV-ALF group had no hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) detectable on admission to study, while no CHBV-ALF patients experienced HBsAg clearance. Rates of transplant-free survival were 33% (20/60) for AHBV-ALF vs. 11% (3/27) for CHBV-ALF, p=0.030. Conclusions AHBV-ALF and CHBV-ALF differ markedly in IgM anti-HBc titers, in HBV VLs and in prognosis, suggesting that the two forms are indeed different entities that might each have a unique pathogenesis. PMID:21987355

Dao, Doan Y; Hynan, Linda S.; Yuan, He-Jun; Sanders, Corron; Balko, Jody; Attar, Nahid; Lok, Anna S.F.; Word, R. Ann; Lee, William M.

2011-01-01

171

IgM and IgA antibodies generated against hepatitis C virus core antigen in patients with acute and chronic HCV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody subclasses directed against the core protein (HCc) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were measured in 27 patients with acute non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis, and 99 patients with chronic HCV-associated liver disease. IgM, IgA, and IgG anti-HCc responses were observed in 11 (40.7%), 7 (25.9%), and 18 (67%) patients with acute NANB hepatitis, respectively. Twenty-four (24.2%) and 40 (40.4%) patients

Shinjiro Sato; Shigetoshi Fujiyama; Motohiko Tanaka; Masafumi Goto; Yuko Taura; Shin-Ichi Kawano; Tatsuo Sato; Hiroyuki Yasuo

1994-01-01

172

Cold agglutinin Vo. An IgM lambda monoclonal human antibody recognizing a sialic acid determined antigen fully expressed on newborn erythrocytes.  

PubMed

An IgM lambda cold agglutinin reacted preferentially with newborn (i cord) and i adult erythrocytes. The whole serum of patient Vo and the antibody isolated by warm elution reacted moderately with native and neuraminidase-treated red cells but strongly with papainized red cells. Papainization of erythrocytes enhanced markedly the susceptibility of the corresponding antigen not only to antibody binding but also to the action of neuraminidase, indicating that sialic acid is the immunodominant component of the cryptic antigen. The cold agglutinin Vo is the first example of a human monoclonal antibody recognizing a sialic acid-dependent, developmentally regulated antigen fully expressed on newborn erythrocytes. PMID:6205512

Roelcke, D; Kreft, H; Pfister, A M

1984-01-01

173

Evaluation of the Roche Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of gestational Toxoplasma infection.  

PubMed

Unidentified gestational infection with Toxoplasma gondii may lead to fetal infection with severe complications later in childhood. Because diagnosis of maternal infection solely depends on serology, routine tests with high sensitivity and specificity are required. In this study, the new Roche Elecsys Toxo IgG and IgM immunoassay was compared with Sabin-Feldman dye test and immunosorbent agglutination assay-IgM as reference test. Serum samples were analyzed from 927 pregnant women, including 100 negative, 706 chronic, and 121 acute infections. The combination of both Elecsys IgG and IgM assays demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of 97.1% and 100.0%, respectively, and a positive and negative predictive value of 100.0% and 81.3%, respectively. The Elecsys assay is a useful tool as a first-line screening method to detect gestational infections. However, if gestational infection is assumed, confirmatory testing by a reference laboratory might be necessary to discriminate between pre- and postconceptional infection to start antiparasitic treatment to avoid mother-to-fetus transmission and severe sequelae. PMID:20884150

Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Hayde, Michael; Unterasinger, Lukas; Pollak, Arnold; Herkner, Kurt R; Kasper, David C

2010-12-01

174

Kinetics of dengue non-structural protein 1 antigen and IgM and IgA antibodies in capillary blood samples from confirmed dengue patients.  

PubMed

Large-scale epidemiological surveillance of dengue in the field and dengue patient management require simple methods for sample collection, storage, and transportation as well as effective diagnostic tools. We evaluated the kinetics of three biological markers of dengue infection-non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgA-in sequential capillary blood samples collected from fingertips of confirmed dengue patients. The overall sensitivities and specificities of the tests were 96% and 100%, respectively, for NS1, 58.1% and 100%, respectively, for IgM, and 33% and 100%, respectively, for IgA. During the acute phase of the disease, NS1 was the best marker of dengue infection, with a sensitivity of 98.7%, whereas from day 5, all three markers exhibited relevant levels of sensitivity. This first descriptive study of the kinetics of biological markers of dengue in capillary blood samples confirms the usefulness of this biological compartment for dengue diagnosis and argues for its exploitation in community-level and remote settings. PMID:24470561

Matheus, Séverine; Pham, Thai Binh; Labeau, Bhetty; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Lacoste, Vincent; Deparis, Xavier; Marechal, Vincent

2014-03-01

175

Reticulocyte-secreted exosomes bind natural IgM antibodies: involvement of a ROS-activatable endosomal phospholipase iPLA2.  

PubMed

Reticulocytes release small membrane vesicles termed exosomes during their maturation into erythrocytes. It has been suggested that reticulocytes remodel the plasma membrane of the immature red cell during erythropoiesis by specifically eliminating various proteins. We report here that exosome release is associated with a physiologic cascade induced by the expression of a 15-lipoxygenase at the reticulocyte stage. We found that the phospholipase iPLA2 specifically associated with the endosomal and exosomal membranes could be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROSs) produced during mitochondria degeneration induced by 15-lipoxygenase. Since iPLA2 has recently been demonstrated to participate in the clearance of apoptotic cells, we investigated its role in vesicle removal. We found that exosomes isolated directly from the blood of an anemic rat or released during in vitro maturation of rat reticulocytes bind IgM antibodies on their surface, in contrast to immature and mature red cells. These natural IgM antibodies recognize lysophosphatidylcholine and are able to specifically bind to apoptotic cells. Finally, evidence of C3 deposition on the exosome surface leads us to hypothesize that this cascade may favor the clearance of exosomes by cells once released into the bloodstream, via a mechanism similar to that involved in the elimination of apoptotic cells. PMID:17666570

Blanc, Lionel; Barres, Céline; Bette-Bobillo, Pascale; Vidal, Michel

2007-11-01

176

Detection of LipL32-specific IgM by ELISA in sera of patients with a clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis  

PubMed Central

Successful treatment of leptospirosis is heavily dependent on early diagnosis and prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy. An ELISA test to detect specific IgM antibodies against LipL32 for early diagnosis of leptospirosis is described and evaluated here. One thousand one hundred and eighty sera from clinically suspected leptospirosis cases were enrolled together with 109 healthy volunteers selected from an endemic area between October 2007 and January 2010. Patients were categorized based on their clinical signs and symptoms. Sera were screened for leptospiral antibodies by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using a panel of locally circulating serovars followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant LipL32 from Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain N2. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test were determined to establish its diagnostic efficiency. The cut-off value was determined to be 0.205. Overall sensitivity and specificity compared to the MAT were found to be 96.4 and 90.4%, respectively. The LipL32-specific IgM ELISA had good sensitivity and acceptable specificity and may be a candidate for the early serodiagnosis of human leptospirosis. PMID:23683367

Vedhagiri, Kumaresan; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Vijayachari, Paluru; Narayanan, Ramasamy; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

2013-01-01

177

Probing the IGM/Galaxy Connection. IV. The LCO/WFCCD Galaxy Survey of 20 Fields Surrounding UV-bright Quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with z em ? 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM). The survey is magnitude limited (R ? 19.5 mag) and highly complete out to 10' from the quasar in each field. It was designed to detect dwarf galaxies (L ? 0.1L*) at an impact parameter ? ? 1 Mpc (z = 0.1) from a quasar. The complete sample (all 20 fields) includes R-band photometry for 84,718 sources and confirmed redshifts for 2800 sources. This includes 1198 galaxies with 0.005 < z < (z em - 0.01) at a median redshift of 0.18, which may associated with IGM absorption lines. All of the imaging was acquired with cameras on the Swope 40'' telescope and the spectra were obtained via slit mask observations using the WFCCD spectrograph on the Dupont 100'' telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction, imaging analysis, photometry, and spectral analysis of the survey. We tabulate the principal measurements for all sources in each field and provide the spectroscopic data set online.

Prochaska, J. Xavier; Weiner, B.; Chen, H.-W.; Cooksey, K. L.; Mulchaey, J. S.

2011-04-01

178

PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with z{sub em} {approx} 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM). The survey is magnitude limited (R {approx} 19.5 mag) and highly complete out to 10' from the quasar in each field. It was designed to detect dwarf galaxies (L {approx} 0.1L*) at an impact parameter {rho} {approx} 1 Mpc (z = 0.1) from a quasar. The complete sample (all 20 fields) includes R-band photometry for 84,718 sources and confirmed redshifts for 2800 sources. This includes 1198 galaxies with 0.005 < z < (z{sub em} - 0.01) at a median redshift of 0.18, which may associated with IGM absorption lines. All of the imaging was acquired with cameras on the Swope 40'' telescope and the spectra were obtained via slit mask observations using the WFCCD spectrograph on the Dupont 100'' telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction, imaging analysis, photometry, and spectral analysis of the survey. We tabulate the principal measurements for all sources in each field and provide the spectroscopic data set online.

Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Weiner, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chen, H.-W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cooksey, K. L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-611, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Mulchaey, J. S., E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org, E-mail: bjw@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: hchen@oddjob.uchicago.edu, E-mail: kcooksey@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 213 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2011-04-01

179

Shielding of a lipooligosaccharide IgM epitope allows evasion of neutrophil-mediated killing of an invasive strain of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a frequent cause of noninvasive mucosal inflammatory diseases but may also cause invasive diseases, such as sepsis and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is characterized by recruitment of neutrophilic granulocytes. Despite the presence of a large number of neutrophils, infections with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are often not cleared effectively by the antimicrobial activity of these immune cells. Herein, we examined how nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae evades neutrophil-mediated killing. Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) was used on an isolate resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing to identify genes required for its survival in the presence of human neutrophils and serum, which provided a source of complement and antibodies. Results show that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae prevents complement-dependent neutrophil-mediated killing by expression of surface galactose-containing oligosaccharide structures. These outer-core structures block recognition of an inner-core lipooligosaccharide epitope containing glucose attached to heptose HepIII-?1,2-Glc by replacement with galactose attached to HepIII or through shielding HepIII-?1,2-Glc by phase-variable attachment of oligosaccharide chain extensions. When the HepIII-?1,2-Glc-containing epitope is expressed and exposed, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is opsonized by naturally acquired IgM generally present in human serum and subsequently phagocytosed and killed by human neutrophils. Clinical nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates containing galactose attached to HepIII that are not recognized by this IgM are more often found to cause invasive infections. Importance: Neutrophils are white blood cells that specialize in killing pathogens and are recruited to sites of inflammation. However, despite the presence of large numbers of neutrophils in the middle ear cavity and lungs of patients with otitis media or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respectively, the bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is often not effectively cleared from these locations by these immune cells. In order to understand how nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is able to cause inflammatory diseases in the presence of neutrophils, we determined the mechanism that underlies resistance to neutrophil-mediated killing. We have shown that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae prevents binding of antibodies of the IgM subtype through changes in their surface lipooligosaccharide structure, thereby preventing complement activation and clearance by human neutrophils. PMID:25053788

Langereis, Jeroen D; Weiser, Jeffrey N

2014-01-01

180

Study of FTA-CFS test using monospecific anti-immunoglobulin conjugates IgG, IgM, and IgA *  

PubMed Central

The fluorescent treponemal antibody test for cerebrospinal fluid (FTA-CSF) using monospecific conjugates anti-IgG, IgM, and IgA was used to determine the presence of anti-treponemal antibodies in the spinal fluid of 335 patients with primary, secondary, and latent syphilis and symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis and of patients with certain neurological disorders. Of these, 230 (68·65%) patients had non-reactive results to this test. Of the remaining 105 patients, 78, 63, and 10 had reactive results with anti-IgG, IgM, and IgA conjugates respectively. Of the 129 cases of known syphilis, 11 were diagnosed as primary, 32 as secondary, and 50 as latent, and 36 patients had neurosyphilis. None of the specimens from the patients with primary syphilis gave reactive results to the test. Specimens from 21 (65·62%) of the 32 patients with secondary syphilis, 30 (60%) of the 50 patients with latent syphilis, and all (97·22%), except one, of the 36 patients with neurosyphilis gave reactive results to one at least of the IgG, IgM, or IgA FTA-CSF tests. Among the specimens from patients with secondary syphilis twice as many gave reactive results with anti-IgG conjugate than with anti-IgM conjugate. However, with specimens from patients with latent syphilis and neurosyphilis this ratio was diminished to 1·5:1. The Kolmer complement-fixation test, although superior in sensitivity and specificity to the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, in patients with secondary and latent syphilis and neurosyphilis, was greatly inferior to the FTA-CSF test. Data indicate that anti-treponemal antibodies can be detected in the spinal fluid even in patients with no neurological symptoms in cases of secondary syphilis and that the FTA-CSF test can be a valuable tool in the early detection of an immunological response to treponemal infection in the spinal fluid. PMID:361168

Leclerc, G.; Giroux, M.; Birry, A.; Kasatiya, S.

1978-01-01

181

Binding of the O-antigen of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and 26 related synthetic fragments to a monoclonal IgM antibody.  

PubMed

Shigella dysenteriae type 1 possesses an O-antigen whose repeating unit is -->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Galp -(1-->3)-alpha-D- GlcpNAc-(1-->, where Rhap is rhamnopyranosyl, Galp is galactopyranosyl, and Glcp is glucopyranosyl. Using ligand-induced protein fluorescence change, we have measured the affinities of a monoclonal murine IgM for 26 fragments of, or related to, the structure of the O-polysaccharide and of the IgM Fab for the intact O-specific bacterial polysaccharide. Synthetic saccharides used were methyl glycosides to ensure an anomerically defined pyranosyl ring conformation. The galactosyl residue is the only monosaccharide of the antigenic epitope that shows quantifiable binding: approximately 3.0 kcal/mol of binding free energy, depending on the structure and conformation of the fragment it is a part of. Addition of an alpha-(1-->2)-linked rhamnosyl residue increases the free energy of binding significantly. We propose this rhamnopyranosyl-alpha-(1-->2)-galactopyranosyl disaccharide to be the basic determinant of the Shigella O-polysaccharide. Further extension (by linkages as in the natural antigen) of this oligosaccharidic ligand toward the upstream end (in an oligo- (or poly-)saccharide, such as A-->B-->C-->D-->E-->m, where A, B, C, D, and E are sugars and m is any moiety, such as methyl, we define A as the glycosyl- or upstream terminus, and E as the glycoside- or downstream terminus) by rhamnosyl and N-acetylglucosaminyl moieties improves the binding only minimally. The antibody is quite specific for the rhamnosyl-alpha-(1-->2)-galactosyl sequence but less so for the nature of the attachment to the galactosyl residue on the downstream side. Measurements using IgM Fab and the intact O-specific polysaccharide show that the antibody can bind internal segments on the antigen chain. The free energy of binding of this antibody for the disaccharide determinant varies from -delta G of 4.7 to 5.1 kcal/mol, depending on its flanking residues. PMID:7503987

Pavliak, V; Nashed, E M; Pozsgay, V; Kovác, P; Karpas, A; Chu, C; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Glaudemans, C P

1993-12-01

182

Molecular cloning of a new immunomodulatory protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which induces B cell IgM secretion through a T-independent mechanism.  

PubMed

An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF) was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity. PMID:21698210

Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Tsai-Jen; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chang, Wen-Ying; Sheu, Fuu

2011-01-01

183

Molecular Cloning of a New Immunomodulatory Protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which Induces B Cell IgM Secretion through a T-Independent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF) was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity. PMID:21698210

Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Tsai-Jen; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chang, Wen-Ying; Sheu, Fuu

2011-01-01

184

Shielding of a Lipooligosaccharide IgM Epitope Allows Evasion of Neutrophil-Mediated Killing of an Invasive Strain of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a frequent cause of noninvasive mucosal inflammatory diseases but may also cause invasive diseases, such as sepsis and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is characterized by recruitment of neutrophilic granulocytes. Despite the presence of a large number of neutrophils, infections with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are often not cleared effectively by the antimicrobial activity of these immune cells. Herein, we examined how nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae evades neutrophil-mediated killing. Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) was used on an isolate resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing to identify genes required for its survival in the presence of human neutrophils and serum, which provided a source of complement and antibodies. Results show that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae prevents complement-dependent neutrophil-mediated killing by expression of surface galactose-containing oligosaccharide structures. These outer-core structures block recognition of an inner-core lipooligosaccharide epitope containing glucose attached to heptose HepIII-?1,2-Glc by replacement with galactose attached to HepIII or through shielding HepIII-?1,2-Glc by phase-variable attachment of oligosaccharide chain extensions. When the HepIII-?1,2-Glc-containing epitope is expressed and exposed, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is opsonized by naturally acquired IgM generally present in human serum and subsequently phagocytosed and killed by human neutrophils. Clinical nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates containing galactose attached to HepIII that are not recognized by this IgM are more often found to cause invasive infections. PMID:25053788

Weiser, Jeffrey N.

2014-01-01

185

Correlation of plasma viral loads and presence of Chikungunya IgM antibodies with cytokine/chemokine levels during acute Chikungunya virus infection.  

PubMed

Chikungunya (CHIKV) is an emerging arboviral infection of public health concern in India contributing to widespread morbidity. The precise molecular events occurring early in the infection have not been well understood. Cytokines/chemokines are suspected to play a key role in its pathogenesis. Very few studies have correlated the plasma levels of cytokines/chemokines with diagnostic markers such as viral loads and presence of CHIKV IgM antibodies. Understanding these dynamics in the early phase of CHIKV infection is likely to provide an insight into the evolution of the immune response, identify biomarkers for assessing severity, and for development of newer therapeutic strategies. This study was therefore undertaken to estimate the levels of various cytokines/chemokines in plasma samples of patients infected with CHIKV and correlate to viral load and CHIKV IgM antibodies. Cytokine/chemokine levels and viral loads in plasma were measured using cytometric bead array and TaqMan real time PCR assay, respectively. The findings revealed that acute phase of CHIKV infection is characterized by predominant inflammatory responses mediated by IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIG (P?

Reddy, Vijayalakshmi; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Desai, Anita; Ravi, Vasanthapuram

2014-08-01

186

Simple dipstick assay for the detection of Salmonella typhi-specific IgM antibodies and the evolution of the immune response in patients with typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Application of a dipstick assay for the detection of Salmonella typhi-specific IgM antibodies on samples collected from S. typhi or S. paratyphi culture-positive patients at the day of admission to the hospital revealed the presence of specific IgM antibodies in 43.5%, 92.9%, and 100% for samples collected 4-6 days, 6-9 days, and > 9 days after the onset of fever, respectively. The mean sensitivity for samples collected an average of 6.6 days after the onset of fever was 65.3%. Culture was positive in 65.9% of the cases with a final clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever. Testing of paired serum samples from culture negative patients with a final clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever resulted in staining of the dipstick in 4.3% of the samples collected at the day of admission to the hospital and in 76.6% of the samples collected one week later, thereby provided strong supporting evidence of typhoid fever by demonstrating seroconversion in a large proportion of the patients. The dipstick assay may thus also be useful for the serodiagnosis of culture-negative patients with clinical signs and symptoms consistent with typhoid fever. The advantages of the dipstick assay are that the result can be obtained on the same day allowing a prompt treatment, that only a small volume of serum is needed, and that no special laboratory equipment is needed to perform the assay. The stability of the reagents of the dipstick and the simplicity of the assay allows its use in places that lack laboratory facilities. PMID:12164298

Hatta, Mochammad; Goris, Marga G A; Heerkens, Evy; Gooskens, Jairo; Smits, Henk L

2002-04-01

187

Natural IgM mediates complement-dependent uptake of Francisella tularensis by human neutrophils via complement receptors 1 and 3 in nonimmune serum.  

PubMed

A fundamental step in the life cycle of Francisella tularensis is bacterial entry into host cells. F. tularensis activates complement, and recent data suggest that the classical pathway is required for complement factor C3 deposition on the bacterial surface. Nevertheless, C3 deposition is inefficient and neither the specific serum components necessary for classical pathway activation by F. tularensis in nonimmune human serum nor the receptors that mediate infection of neutrophils have been defined. In this study, human neutrophil uptake of GFP-expressing F. tularensis strains live vaccine strain and Schu S4 was quantified with high efficiency by flow cytometry. Using depleted sera and purified complement components, we demonstrated first that C1q and C3 were essential for F. tularensis phagocytosis, whereas C5 was not. Second, we used purification and immunodepletion approaches to identify a critical role for natural IgM in this process, and then used a wbtA2 mutant to identify LPS O-Ag and capsule as prominent targets of these Abs on the bacterial surface. Finally, we demonstrate using receptor-blocking Abs that CR1 (CD35) and CR3 (CD11b/CD18) acted in concert for phagocytosis of opsonized F. tularensis by human neutrophils, whereas CR3 and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) mediated infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages. Altogether, our data provide fundamental insight into mechanisms of F. tularensis phagocytosis and support a model whereby natural IgM binds to surface capsular and O-Ag polysaccharides of F. tularensis and initiates the classical complement cascade via C1q to promote C3 opsonization of the bacterium and phagocytosis via CR3 and either CR1 or CR4 in a phagocyte-specific manner. PMID:22888138

Schwartz, Justin T; Barker, Jason H; Long, Matthew E; Kaufman, Justin; McCracken, Jenna; Allen, Lee-Ann H

2012-09-15

188

Human plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM antibodies associate with secretory component to yield biologically active secretory-like antibodies.  

PubMed

Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M; Zuercher, Adrian W; Corthésy, Blaise

2013-02-01

189

Human Plasma-derived Polymeric IgA and IgM Antibodies Associate with Secretory Component to Yield Biologically Active Secretory-like Antibodies*  

PubMed Central

Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M.; Zuercher, Adrian W.; Corthésy, Blaise

2013-01-01

190

Anti-Virus Policy 1.0 Purpose  

E-print Network

connected to the College of Chemistry's networks to ensure effective virus detection and prevention. 2 into College of Chemistry 's networks (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses, e-mail bombs, etc.) are prohibited

Iglesia, Enrique

191

Avira AntiVir Personal-Free Antivirus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are quite pesky, and the free version of Avira AntiVir Personal can help those bedeviled by such afflictions. This application will help users locate and remove Trojans, worms, and backdoor programs. Users can customize their scans and they can elect to fully scan all hard drives. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP, and Vista.

2008-01-01

192

CNS-P-I-ANTIVIRUS-A.doc 1/6 Printed on: 23/05/2008 Anti-Virus Policy  

E-print Network

effective virus detection and prevention. Source: Computing and Networking Services (CNS). Approved by.g. viruses, worms, Trojan horses, e-mail bombs, etc.) is strictly prohibited. 4. If an employee receives what

Shihadeh, Alan

193

Analysis of Tn antigenicity with a panel of new IgM and IgG1 monoclonal antibodies raised against leukemic cells  

PubMed Central

CD175 or Tn antigen is a carbohydrate moiety of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)?1-O- linked to the residue of amino acid serine or threonine in a polypeptide chain. Despite the chemical simplicity of the Tn antigen, its antigenic structure is considered to be complex and the clear determinants of Tn antigenicity remain poorly understood. As a consequence, a broad variety of anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated. To further investigate the nature and complexity of the Tn antigen, we generated seven different anti-Tn mAbs of IgM and IgG classes raised against human Jurkat T cells, which are Tn-positive due to the low activity of T-synthase and mutation in specific chaperone Cosmc. The binding analysis of anti-Tn mAbs with the array of synthetic saccharides, glycopeptides and O-glycoproteins revealed unexpected differences in specificities of anti-Tn mAbs. IgM mAbs bound the terminal GalNAc residue of the Tn antigen irrespective of the peptide context or with low selectivity to the glycoproteins. In contrast, IgG mAbs recognized the Tn antigen in the context of a specific peptide motif. Particularly, JA3 mAb reacted to the GSPP or GSPAPP, and JA5 mAb recognized specifically the GSP motif (glycosylation sites are underlined). The major O-glycan carrier proteins CD43 and CD162 and isoforms of CD45 expressed on Jurkat cells were precipitated by anti-Tn mAbs with different affinities. In summary, our data suggest that Tn antigen–Ab binding capacity is determined by the peptide context of the Tn antigen, antigenic specificity of the Ab and class of the immunoglobulin. The newly generated anti-Tn IgG mAbs with the strong specificity to glycoprotein CD43 can be particularly interesting for the application in leukemia diagnostics and therapy. PMID:22143985

Blixt, Ola; Lavrova, Olga I; Mazurov, Dmitriy V; Cló, Emiliano; Kra?un, Stjepan K; Bovin, Nicolai V; Filatov, Alexander V

2012-01-01

194

Dengue virus infection induces broadly cross-reactive human IgM antibodies that recognize intact virions in humanized BLT-NSG mice.  

PubMed

The development of small animal models that elicit human immune responses to dengue virus (DENV) is important since prior immunity is a major risk factor for developing severe dengue disease. This study evaluated anti-DENV human antibody (hAb) responses generated from immortalized B cells after DENV-2 infection in NOD-scid IL2r?(null) mice that were co-transplanted with human fetal thymus and liver tissues (BLT-NSG mice). DENV-specific human antibodies predominantly of the IgM isotype were isolated during acute infection and in convalescence. We found that while a few hAbs recognized the envelope protein produced as a soluble recombinant, a number of hAbs only recognized epitopes on intact virions. The majority of the hAbs isolated during acute infection and in immune mice were serotype-cross-reactive and poorly neutralizing. Viral titers in immune BLT-NSG mice were significantly decreased after challenge with a clinical strain of dengue. DENV-specific hAbs generated in BLT-NSG mice share some of the characteristics of Abs isolated in humans with natural infection. Humanized BLT-NSG mice provide an attractive preclinical platform to assess the immunogenicity of candidate dengue vaccines. PMID:25125497

Jaiswal, Smita; Smith, Kenneth; Ramirez, Alejandro; Woda, Marcia; Pazoles, Pamela; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A; Mathew, Anuja

2015-01-01

195

FCRLA is a resident endoplasmic reticulum protein that associates with intracellular Igs, IgM, IgG and IgA  

PubMed Central

Fc receptor-like A (FCRLA) is an unusual member of the extended Fc receptor family. FCRLA has homology to receptors for the Fc portion of Ig (FCR) and to other FCRL proteins. However, unlike these other family representatives, which are typically transmembrane receptors with extracellular ligand-binding domains, FCRLA has no predicted transmembrane domain or N-linked glycosylation sites and is an intracellular protein. We show by confocal microscopy and biochemical assays that FCRLA is a soluble resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein, but it does not possess the amino acid sequence KDEL as an ER retention motif in its C-terminus. Using a series of deletion mutants, we found that its ER retention is most likely mediated by the amino terminal partial Ig-like domain. We have identified ER-localized Ig as the FCRLA ligand. FCRLA is unique among the large family of Fc receptors, in that it is capable of associating with multiple Ig isotypes, IgM, IgG and IgA. Among hemopoietic cells, FCRLA expression is restricted to the B lineage and is most abundant in germinal center B lymphocytes. The studies reported here demonstrate that FCRLA is more broadly expressed among human B lineage cells than originally reported; it is found at significant levels in resting blood B cells and at varying levels in all B-cell subsets in tonsil. PMID:21149418

Santiago, Teresa; Kulemzin, Sergei V.; Reshetnikova, Evdokia S.; Chikaev, Nikolai A.; Volkova, Olga Y.; Mechetina, Ludmila V.; Zhao, Meina; Davis, Randall S.; Taranin, Alexander V.; Najakshin, Alexander M.; Hendershot, Linda M.

2011-01-01

196

Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT  

E-print Network

A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy

2007-10-24

197

Axonal loss influences the response to rituximab treatment in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibody.  

PubMed

Polyneuropathy associated with anti-Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG) antibody is a well-defined immune-mediated disease that develops in individuals with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. Factors related to response to rituximab treatment in anti-MAG neuropathy have not been clarified so far. We prospectively evaluated the clinical status, immunological changes, and electrophysiological parameters before and 12months after rituximab treatment in 7 patients with anti-MAG neuropathy. Pathological indices of sural nerve biopsy specimens before rituximab treatment were investigated. Overall, 4 patients improved by more than 5% either clinical scale, expressed according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score or sensory sum score (SSS) 12months after rituximab treatment. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores improved in 2 patients. With respect to the relationship between the response to rituximab treatment and the clinicopathological findings, short disease duration and preservation of nerve fiber density were significantly related. The immunohistochemical assessment suggested that low-intensity binding of anti-IgM antibody to the myelin sheath may contribute to the degree of response to rituximab treatment. The degree of axonal loss and the deposition of pathogenic autoantibodies in myelinated fibers may determine the therapeutic response to rituximab treatment in anti-MAG neuropathy. PMID:25467141

Kawagashira, Yuichi; Koike, Haruki; Ohyama, Ken; Hashimoto, Rina; Iijima, Masahiro; Adachi, Hiroaki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Chapman, Miles; Lunn, Michael; Sobue, Gen

2015-01-15

198

IgM, IgG, and IgA response to enterobacteria in patients with ankylosing spondylitis in southern India.  

PubMed

IgM, IgA, and IgG response to three different antigenic preparations-lipopolysaccharide (LPS), culture supernatant proteins, and outer membrane protein (OMP) of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi-were measured in the sera of 20 patients with primary ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 10 with enterogenic reactive arthritis (ReA) (disease controls), and 15 voluntary blood donors (healthy controls) by ELISA using biotinylated anti-human immunoglobulins M, G, and A. Serum immunoglobulin levels were measured by immunoturbidimetric assay in 20 AS patients, 20 patients with enterogenic reactive arthritis (ReA), 20 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 20 voluntary blood donors. Student's t-test was applied for comparison. Compared to healthy controls, AS patients showed significantly elevated IgG response against culture supernatant proteins of all the three organisms (P <0.05), LPS of E. coli (P < 0.05) and Klebsiella (P < 0.005), as well as OMP only of Klebsiella pneumoniae. This was reflected as significantly elevated IgG level in AS compared to controls (P < 0.05 vs. ReA and 0.005 vs. UC and healthy controls). This suggests the involvement of outer membrane proteins of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the pathogenic mechanism of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:12021151

Madhavan, Radha; Porkodi, R; Rajendran, C Panchapakesa; Chandrasekaran, A N; Umadevi, K R; Alamelu, Raja

2002-04-01

199

Purification, characterization of O-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates- specific IgM, and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis and follow-up of Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface expression of 9-O-acetylated sialic acid (9-OAcSA) is elevated on hematopoietic cells and erythrocytes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. In this study, we show that VL patients contain elevated levels of IgM antibodies directed against 9- O- acetylated sialoglycoconjugates (9-OAcSG). These antibodies were affinity purified with bovine submaxillary protein as the affinity matrix containing the terminal epitope, 9-OAcSA2-6GalNAc. They

Sumi Bandyopadhyaya; Mitali Chatterjee; Santanu Pal; Ross F. Waller; Shyam Sundar; Malcolm J. McConville; Chitra Mandala

200

Response of sensitive and resistant IgM immunocytomas to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) does not correlate with the platination level or with the formation or removal of DNA adducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IgM immunocytoma cell line sensitive to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) and a subline with acquired resistance were grown in LOU\\/M rats. In a previous study\\u000a with such rats that had been treated with a high dose of CDDP (10?mg\\/kg) the tumors did not show differences in cellular platinum\\u000a content or DNA-adduct levels, either immediately after treatment or 24?h later. Recently, this

Cornelis P. J. Vendrik; Anne Marie J. Fichtinger-Schepman; Wilhelmina C. M. van Dijk-Knijnenburg; W. H. de Jong; Anke C. E. van der Minnen; Gerard de Groot; Geert Frits Berends; P. A. Steerenberg

1997-01-01

201

Clinical virology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF): virus, virus antigen, and IgG and IgM antibody findings among EHF patients in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995.  

PubMed

Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) patients treated at Kikwit General Hospital during the 1995 outbreak were tested for viral antigen, IgG and IgM antibody, and infectious virus. Viral antigen could be detected in virtually all patients during the acute phase of illness, while antibody was not always detectable before death. Virus was also isolated from patients during the course of their febrile illness, but attempts to quantify virus in Vero E6 cells by standard plaque assay were often unsuccessful. IgG and IgM antibody appeared at approximately the same time after disease onset (8-10 days), but IgM persisted for a much shorter period among the surviving convalescent patients. IgG antibody was detectable in surviving patients through about 2 years after onset, the latest time that samples were obtained. Detection of Ebola virus antigens or virus isolation appears to be the most reliable means of diagnosis for patients with suspected acute EHF, since patients with this often-fatal disease (80% mortality) may not develop detectable antibodies before death. PMID:9988182

Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E; Williams, A J; Bressler, D S; Martin, M L; Swanepoel, R; Burt, F J; Leman, P A; Khan, A S; Rowe, A K; Mukunu, R; Sanchez, A; Peters, C J

1999-02-01

202

Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + ?-Photons) Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body ?-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body ?-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3?Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + ?-photons) radiations at 0.38?Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

2013-01-01

203

Diagnosis of Kyasanur forest disease by nested RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and IgM capture ELISA.  

PubMed

Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by infection by a Flavivirus, a member of the family Flaviviridae. KFD is a public health concern in the Karnataka State in southern India. Available conventional diagnostic tests such as virus isolation and serological tests, such as haemagglutination inhibition and complement fixation tests are time consuming. This study reports the development of a nested RT-PCR [nRT-PCR] and a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR and IgM antibodies capture ELISA [MAC-ELISA] for rapid and accurate diagnosis of suspected KFD cases. The nRT-PCR and the TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR assays were developed using gene sequences of the NS-5/non-coding region. Both the assays detected KFD viral RNA in acute phase human serum samples and can provide early diagnosis of infection. Real-time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than nRT-PCR, which could detect 38 copies of KFDV RNA. MAC-ELISA was developed for the detection of recent infections. Although real-time RT-PCR and nRT-PCR require expensive reagents, expensive equipment and trained personnel, the developed MAC-ELISA can be used easily in the affected areas. These tests add to the existing diagnosis arsenal against haemorrhagic viruses that are prevalent in India. These assays will also help to extend our knowledge of the pathology of KFD virus and its associated clinical features, by measuring the viral titre during infection and at the time of seroconversion. Information, which is not available currently because of the lack of appropriate diagnostic methods. In addition, early laboratory diagnosis of KFDV infection will help in the application of appropriate control measures and management of KFD cases. PMID:22874757

Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Mehla, Rajeev; Barde, Pradip V; Yergolkar, Prasanna N; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Thakare, Jyotsna P; Mishra, Akhilesh C

2012-12-01

204

Increased chronic lymphocytic leukemia proliferation upon IgM stimulation is sustained by the upregulation of miR-132 and miR-212.  

PubMed

To assess the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in B-cell receptor (BCR) stimulation, we first evaluated miRNA profiling following IgM cross-linking in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and in normal B lymphocytes. Second, we combined miRNA and gene expression data to identify putative miRNA functional networks. miRNA profiling showed distinctive patterns of regulation after stimulation in leukemic versus normal B lymphocytes and identified a differential responsiveness to BCR engagement in CLL subgroups according to the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region mutational status and clinical outcome. The most significantly modulated miRNAs in stimulated CLL are miR-132 and miR-212. Notably, these miRNAs appeared regulated in progressive but not in stable CLL. Accordingly, gene profiling showed a significant transcriptional response to stimulation exclusively in progressive CLL. Based on these findings, we combined miRNA and gene expression data to investigate miR-132 and miR-212 candidate interactions in this CLL subgroup. Correlation analysis pointed to a link between these miRNAs and RB/E2F and TP53 cascades with proproliferative effects, as corroborated by functional analyses. Finally, basal levels of miR-132 and miR-212 were measured in an independent cohort of 20 unstimulated CLL cases and both showed lower expression in progressive compared to stable patients, suggesting an association between the expression of these molecules and disease prognosis. Overall, our results support a model involving miR-132 and miR-212 upregulation in sustaining disease progression in CLL. These miRNAs may therefore provide new valuable strategies for therapeutic intervention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25645730

Tavolaro, Simona; Colombo, Teresa; Chiaretti, Sabina; Peragine, Nadia; Fulci, Valerio; Ricciardi, Maria R; Messina, Monica; Bonina, Silvia; Brugnoletti, Fulvia; Marinelli, Marilisa; Di Maio, Valeria; Mauro, Francesca R; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Macino, Giuseppe; Foà, Robin; Guarini, Anna

2015-04-01

205

The Anti-Cancer IgM Monoclonal Antibody PAT-SM6 Binds with High Avidity to the Unfolded Protein Response Regulator GRP78  

PubMed Central

The monoclonal IgM antibody PAT-SM6 derived from human tumours induces apoptosis in tumour cells and is considered a potential anti-cancer agent. A primary target for PAT-SM6 is the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78, over-expressed externally on the cell surface of tumour cells. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of human GRP78 showed a two-domain dumbbell-shaped monomer, while SAXS analysis of PAT-SM6 revealed a saucer-shaped structure accommodating five-fold symmetry, consistent with previous studies of related proteins. Sedimentation velocity analysis of GRP78 and PAT-SM6 mixtures indicated weak complex formation characterized by dissociation constants in the high micromolar concentration range. In contrast, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs) showed strong and specific interactions between PAT-SM6 and immobilized GRP78. The apparent binding constant estimated from a PAT-SM6 saturation curve correlated strongly with the concentration of GRP78 used to coat the microtiter tray. Experiments using polyclonal antiGRP78 IgG antibodies or a monoclonal IgG derivative of PAT-SM6 did not show a similar dependence. Competition experiments with soluble GRP78 indicated more effective inhibition of PAT-SM6 binding at low GRP78 coating concentrations. These observations suggest an avidity-based binding mechanism that depends on the multi-point attachment of PAT-SM6 to GRP78 clustered on the surface of the tray. Analysis of ELISA data at high GRP78 coating concentrations yielded an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 4 nM. We propose that the biological action of PAT-SM6 in tumour cell apoptosis may depend on the multivalent nature of PAT-SM6 and the high avidity of its interaction with multiple GRP78 molecules clustered on the tumour cell surface. PMID:23028685

Rosenes, Zachary; Mulhern, Terrence D.; Hatters, Danny M.; Ilag, Leodevico L.; Power, Barbara E.; Hosking, Chris; Hensel, Frank; Howlett, Geoffrey J.; Mok, Yee-Foong

2012-01-01

206

The Antibody Germline/Maturation Hypothesis, Elicitation of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Against HIV-1 and Cord Blood IgM Repertoires.  

PubMed

We have previously observed that all known potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 are highly divergent from their putative germline predecessors in contrast to bnAbs against viruses causing acute infections such as henipaviruses and SARS CoV, which are much less divergent from their germline counterparts. Consequently, we have hypothesized that germline antibodies may not bind to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) because they are so different compared to the highly somatically mutated HIV-1-specific bnAbs. We have further hypothesized that the immunogenicity of highly conserved epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) may be reduced or eliminated by their very weak or absent interactions with germline antibodies and immune responses leading to the elicitation of bnAbs may not be initiated and/or sustained. Even if such responses are initiated, the maturation pathways are so extraordinarily complex that prolonged periods of time may be required for elicitation of bnAbs with defined unique sequences. We provided the initial evidence supporting this antibody germline/maturation hypothesis, which prompted a number of studies to design vaccine immunogens that could bind putative germline predecessors of known bnAbs and to explore complex B cell lineages. However, guiding the immune system through the exceptionally complex antibody maturation pathways to elicit known bnAbs remains a major challenge. Here, we discuss studies exploring the antibody germline/maturation hypothesis as related to elicitation of bnAbs against HIV-1 and present our recent data demonstrating the existence of germline-like precursors of VRC01 antibodies in a human cord blood IgM library. PMID:25221552

Prabakaran, Ponraj; Chen, Weizao; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

2014-01-01

207

Glycosphingolipid antigens in cultured bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells: sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside as a target of monoclonal IgM in demyelinative neuropathy [corrected] [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1994 Oct;127(1):265  

PubMed Central

Since a number of anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) antibody activities have been demonstrated in patients with various neurological disorders, the presence of common antigens between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and the nervous tissues presents a potential mechanism for the penetration of macromolecules from the circulation to the nervous system parenchyma. We first investigated GSL composition of cultured bovine BMECs. Bovine BMECs express GM3(NeuAc) and GM3(NeuGc) as the major gangliosides, and GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, as well as sialyl paragloboside and sialyl lactosaminylparagloboside as the minor species. Sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside was also found to be a component of the BMEC acidic GSL fraction, but its concentration was lower in older cultures. On the other hand, the amounts of neutral GSLs were extremely low, consisting primarily of glucosylceramide. In addition, we analyzed the effect of anti-SGPG IgM antibody obtained from a patient of demyelinative polyneuropathy with macroglobulinemia against cultured BMECs. Permeability studies utilizing cocultured BMEC monolayers and rat astrocytes revealed that the antibody facilitated the leakage of [carboxy-14C]-inulin and 125I-labeled human IgM through BMEC monolayers. A direct cytotoxicity of this antibody against BMECs was also shown by a leakage study using [51Cr]-incorporated BMECs. This cytotoxicity depended on the concentration of the IgM antibody, and was almost completely blocked by preincubation with the pure antigen, sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside. Our present study strongly supports the concept that immunological insults against BMECs induce the destruction or malfunction of the blood-nerve barrier, resulting in the penetration of the immunoglobulin molecule to attach peripheral nerve parenchyma. PMID:8027181

1994-01-01

208

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Antibodies against Canine Distemper Virus by a New Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) infection causes a frequently fatal systemic disease in a broad range of carnivore species, including domestic dogs. In CDV infection, classical serology provides data of diagnostic and prognostic values (kinetics of seroconversion) and is also used to predict the optimal vaccination age of pups. Routine CDV serology is still based on time- and cost-intensive virus neutralization assays (V-NA). Here, we describe a new capture-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses recombinant baculovirus-expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein of a recent CDV wild-type isolate (2544/Han95) for the detection of CDV-specific antibodies in canine sera. Recombinant antigen was produced with high efficacy in Heliothis virescens larvae. The capture-sandwich ELISA enabled a clear-cut qualitative evaluation of the CDV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM serostatuses of 196 and 35 dog sera, respectively. Inter-rater agreement analysis (? = 0.988) indicated that the ELISA can be used unrestrictedly as a substitute for the V-NA for the qualitative determination of CDV-specific IgG serostatus. In an attempt to semiquantify N-specific antibodies, a one-step-dilution (alpha method) IgG-specific ELISA was implemented. Alpha values of ?50% showed very good inter-rater agreement (? = 0.968) with V-NA titers of ?1/100 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) as measured against the central European CDV wild-type isolate 2544/Han95 in canine sera originating from northern Germany. An ND50 titer of 1/100 is considered a threshold, and titers of ?1/100 indicate a resilient, protective immunity. CDV N-specific antibodies of the IgM class were detected by the newly developed ELISA in 9 of 15 sera obtained from dogs with symptoms of acute distemper. In leucocytes of 5 of the 15 dogs (all of which were also IgM positive) CDV RNA was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The recombinant capture-sandwich ELISA detecting N-specific antibodies of the IgG class provided superior sensitivity and specificity and thus represents a rapid and cost-effective alternative to classical CDV V-NA. By detection of specific IgM antibodies, the ELISA will be complementary to RT-PCR and V-NA in the diagnosis of acute distemper infections. PMID:10074525

von Messling, Veronika; Harder, Timm C.; Moennig, Volker; Rautenberg, Peter; Nolte, Ingo; Haas, Ludwig

1999-01-01

209

Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

2008-01-01

210

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with serum anti-thyroid antibodies and IgM antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen: a case report and one year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an increasingly common autoimmune disorder mediated by antibodies to certain subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Recent literatures have described anti-thyroid and infectious serology in this encephalitis but without follow-up. Case presentation A 17-year-old Chinese female patient presented with psychiatric symptoms, memory deficits, behavioral problems and seizures. She then progressed through unresponsiveness, dyskinesias, autonomic instability and central hypoventilation during treatment. Her conventional blood work on admission showed high titers of IgG antibodies to thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase and IgM antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen. An immature ovarian teratoma was found and removal of the tumor resulted in a full recovery. The final diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis was made by the identification of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in her cerebral spinal fluid. Pathology studies of the teratoma revealed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 positive ectopic immature nervous tissue and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. She was discharged with symptoms free, but titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies remained elevated. One year after discharge, her serum remained positive for anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies, but negative for anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and IgM against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen. Conclusions Persistent high titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies from admission to discharge and until one year later in this patient may suggest a propensity to autoimmunity in anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and support the idea that neuronal and thyroid autoimmunities represent a pathogenic spectrum. Enduring anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies from admission to one year follow-up but seroreversion of Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen IgM may raise the important issue of elucidating the triggers and boosters of anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. PMID:22126669

2011-01-01

211

Comparison of the Specificities of IgG, IgG-Subclass, IgA and IgM Reactivities in African and European HIV-Infected Individuals with an HIV-1 Clade C Proteome-Based Array  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

2015-01-01

212

F(ab')2 fragment of a gp41 NHR-trimer-induced IgM monoclonal antibody neutralizes HIV-1 infection and blocks viral fusion by targeting the conserved gp41 pocket.  

PubMed

Using a recombinant protein N46FdFc that mimics the HIV-1 gp41 N-helix trimer to immunize mice, we identified the first IgM monoclonal antibody 18D3 that specifically bound to the conserved gp41 pocket. Its F(ab')2 fragment potently inhibited HIV-1 Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and neutralized infection by laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates with different subtypes and tropism, including the T20-resistant variants. This F(ab')2 fragment can be used to develop a bispecific broad neutralizing monoclonal antibody or HIV-1 inactivator as a novel immunotherapeutic for treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24141089

Lu, Lu; Wei, Meili; Chen, Yanxia; Xiong, Weiliang; Yu, Fei; Qi, Zhi; Jiang, Shibo; Pan, Chungen

2013-11-01

213

Enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay (ELIFA) for the detection of IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay (ELIFA) permits detection of serological precipitating systems preformed by immunoelectro-diffusion on cellulose acetate strips and simultaneous characterization of immunoglobulins G, M, A and E specific for antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus. We selected 36 sera from 9 patients who were followed up regularly and who suffered from aspergilloma (5 cases), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (2 cases), Aspergillus bronchitis and invasive aspergillosis (one case each). All of them possessed an IgG-reactive band with chymotrypsin activity. Four different IgE bands were found by ELIFA; one of them was common to all the patients who had anti-A. fumigatus IgE (7 cases out of 9). The IgA and IgM antibodies found in 7 cases out of 9 were both recognized by the same antigenic component but these fractions were distinct from those reacting with the IgE. PMID:3110398

Pinon, J M; Thoannes, H; Poirriez, J; Boulant, J; Lepan, H

1987-04-01

214

Expression pattern of the most J[sub H]-proximal human V[sub H] gene segment (V[sub H]6) in the B cell and antibody repertoire suggests a role of V[sub H]6-encoded IgM antibodies in early ontogeny  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a mAb (JE-6) that recognizes an Id encoded by the most J[sub H]-proximal human V[sub H] gene segment (V[sub H]6) in or near germ-line configuration. This mAb was used to determine the frequency of Id JE6[sup +] B cells in large collections of monoclonal EBV-transformed and short term B cell lines derived from fetal, neonatal, and adult lymphoid tissues. Moreover, they investigated the presence of Id JE-6[sup +] lg in sera from neonates and adults and determined the (auto)antigen binding properties of V[sub H]6-encoded IgM mAb. They detected a fivefold overrepresentation of V[sub H]6-expression IgM producing B cells in fetal tissues, cord blood, and adult bone marrow relative to adult blood. In cord blood, but not in adult blood sera, germ-line V[sub H]6-encoded IgM molecules were readily detectable. IgM secreted by V[sub H]6-expressing B cell clones displayed highly conserved and virtually identical autoantigen binding properties, independent of the length and composition of the IgH chain CDR3 region and L chain isotype. Collectively, these results suggest that the V[sub H]6 gene and the antibodies it encodes play an important role in early human ontogeny. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Van Es, J.H.; Tol, M.J.D. van; Gmelig Meyling, F.H.J.; Logtenberg, T. (University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Raaphorst, F.M. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

215

Myricetin inhibits the induction of anti-Fas IgM-, tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and interleukin-1beta-mediated apoptosis by Fas pathway inhibition in human osteoblastic cell line MG-63.  

PubMed

The survival of osteoblast cells is one of the determinants of the development of osteoporosis in patients with inflamed synovium, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin ELISA assay, I have shown that myricetin exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in the human osteoblast-like cell line MG-63. In addition, I also assessed whether myricetin affects inflammatory cytokines-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. TNF-alpha or IL-1beta enhances apoptotic DNA fragmentation in anti-Fas IgM-treated MG-63 cells by increasing Fas receptor expression. However, TNF-alpha or IL-1beta treatment alone does not induce apoptosis. Treatment of MG-63 cells with myricetin not only inhibited anti-Fas IgM-induced apoptosis, but also blocked the synergetic effect of anti-Fas IgM with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta on cell death. The apoptotic inhibition of myricetin is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta-mediated Fas expression and enhancement of FLIP expression, resulting in a decrease of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate a potential use of myricetin in preventing osteoporosis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. PMID:15982670

Kuo, Po-Lin

2005-10-21

216

Fraxetin inhibits the induction of anti-Fas IgM, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta-mediated apoptosis by Fas pathway inhibition in human osteoblastic cell line MG-63.  

PubMed

The survival of osteoblast cells is one of the determinants of the development of osteoporosis in patients with inflamed synovium, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin ELISA assay, we have shown that fraxetin exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in the human osteoblast-like cell line MG-63. In addition, we also assessed whether fraxetin affects inflammatory cytokine-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. TNF-alpha or IL-1beta enhance apoptotic DNA fragmentation in anti-Fas IgM-treated MG-63 cells by increasing Fas receptor expression. However, TNF-alpha or IL-1beta treatment alone does not induce apoptosis. Treatment of MG-63 cells with fraxetin not only inhibited anti-Fas IgM-induced apoptosis, but also blocked the synergetic effect of anti-Fas IgM with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta on cell death. The apoptotic inhibition of fraxetin is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta-mediated Fas expression and enhancement of FLIP expression, resulting in a decrease of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate a potential use of fraxetin in preventing osteoporosis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine-mediated apoptosis in osteoblast cells. PMID:16714221

Kuo, Po-Lin; Huang, Yu-Ting; Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chang, Jiunn-Kae

2006-07-01

217

[How to handle unexpected biological abnormalities observed in the pre-donation workup for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: an SFGM-TC report on pre-transplant cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, or syphilis IgM positive serology test].  

PubMed

In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the third annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in October 2012 in Lille. Here we report our results and recommendations regarding the management of pre-transplant donor's cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, or syphilis IgM positive serology test. PMID:24011960

Duléry, R; Giraud, C; Beaumont, J-L; Bilger, K; Borel, C; Dhedin, N; Thiebaut, A; Willems, E; Alain, S; Alfandari, S; Dewilde, A; Jouet, J-P; Milpied, N; Yakoub-Agha, I

2013-08-01

218

Probing the hot IGM with AXAF  

E-print Network

The transmission grating spectrometers on AXAF have sufficient sensitivity and energy resolution to detect resonance X-ray absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars. Such lines would be produced in an ionized, and somewhat chemically enriched component of the inter-galactic medium. The bulk of the baryonic content of the universe at redshifts <=2-3 could be in this form and would thus be revealed by AXAF.

Claude R. Canizares; Taotao Fang

1998-05-05

219

Cyber Security Challenges: Designing Efficient Intrusion Detection Systems and Antivirus Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Introduction to Intrusion Detection SystemsIntrusion detection an important component of information security technology helps indiscovering, determining, and identifying unauthorized use, duplication, alteration, anddestruction of information and information systems. Intrusion detection relies on the assumptionthat information and information systems under attack exhibit several distinguishable behavioralpatterns or characteristics to that of the normal ones. Though intrusion detection...

Srinivas Mukkamala; Andrew Sung; Ajith Abraham

220

Increased serum IgA and IgM against LPS of enterobacteria in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): indication for the involvement of gram-negative enterobacteria in the etiology of CFS and for the presence of an increased gut-intestinal permeability.  

PubMed

There is now evidence that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is accompanied by immune disorders and by increased oxidative stress. The present study has been designed in order to examine the serum concentrations of IgA and IgM to LPS of gram-negative enterobacteria, i.e. Hafnia alvei; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas putida, Citrobacter koseri, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in CFS patients, patients with partial CFS and normal controls. We found that the prevalences and median values for serum IgA against the LPS of enterobacteria are significantly greater in patients with CFS than in normal volunteers and patients with partial CFS. Serum IgA levels were significantly correlated to the severity of illness, as measured by the FibroFatigue scale and to symptoms, such as irritable bowel, muscular tension, fatigue, concentration difficulties, and failing memory. The results show that enterobacteria are involved in the etiology of CFS and that an increased gut-intestinal permeability has caused an immune response to the LPS of gram-negative enterobacteria. It is suggested that all patients with CFS should be checked by means of the IgA panel used in the present study and accordingly should be treated for increased gut permeability. PMID:17007934

Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivana; Leunis, Jean-Claude

2007-04-01

221

I use OIT's free anti-virus software to scan my computer at least once every month.  

E-print Network

the hard drive clean before getting rid of my computer. I never leave my laptop and cell phone unattended. Iownandusealaptopsecuritycable. I have registered my laptop and cell phone with the UMass Amherst Police Department (UMPD). I. I choose the UMASS-SECURE1X network when using wireless on campus. I keep track of sensitive data

Schweik, Charles M.

222

Securing PCs and Data in Libraries and Schools: A Handbook with Menuing, Anti-Virus, and Other Protective Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to help readers identify and eliminate security risks, with sound recommendations and library-tested security software. Chapter 1 "Managing Your Facilities and Assessing Your Risks" addresses fundamental management responsibilities including planning for a secure system, organizing computer-related information, assessing…

Benson, Allen C.

223

Generating Synthetic Spectra for Observing the Simulated CGM and IGM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamical simulations can provide great insight into the behavior of many astrophysical problems. However, it can be difficult to extract the relevant quantities from these simulations for comparison against observational datasets. I will demonstrate methods for generating synthetic observations from hydrodynamical simulations using the open-source yt analysis code. Specifically, I will focus on creating realistic simulated spectra, which mimic quasar absorption line studies of the circumgalactic medium and the intergalactic medium as observed by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard HST. By producing simulated observations like those obtained with real telescopes, we can best compare theoretical models against their observational counterparts.

Hummels, Cameron B.; Egan, Hilary; Peeples, Molly S.; Silvia, Devin W.; Smith, Britton D.; Turk, Matthew

2015-01-01

224

Evaluation of exposure index (IgM) in orthopaedic radiography.  

PubMed

The exposure index (lgM) obtained from a radiographic image may be a useful feedback indicator to the radiographer about the appropriate exposure level in routine clinical practice. This study aims to evaluate lgM in orthopaedic radiography performed in the standard clinical environment. We analysed the lgM of 267 exposures performed with an AGFA CR system. The mean value of lgM in our sample is 2.14. A significant difference (P = 0.000 < or =0.05) from 1.96 lgM reference is shown. Data show that 72% of exposures are above the 1.96 lgM and 42% are above the limit of 2.26. Median values of lgM are above 1.96 and below 2.26 for Speed class (SC) 200 (2.16) and SC400 (2.13). The interquartile range is lower in SC400 than in SC200. Data seem to indicate that lgM values are above the manufacturer's reference of 1.96. Departmental exposure charts should be optimised to reduce the dose given to patients. PMID:18430719

Lança, L; Silva, A

2008-01-01

225

Constraining the Thermal State of the IGM at z~20  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great challenges of observational cosmology is to trace the thermal history of the Universe during the Dark Age, before the first stars, and immediately following. Theory suggests that the 21 cm transition of Hydrogen can serve as a unique thermometer for the intergalactic medium during this era, and thermal evolution is believed to have depended on a relatively small set of fundamental processes. Detection of the 21cm transition at redshift ~20 should enable strong tests of cosmological models. The ground-based Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Age (LEDA) is working to establish direct constraint on the thermal history through detection of sky-averaged spectral-line absorption of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the 21cm transition. I will present the latest results from LEDA obtained using stations of the Long Wavelength Array facility and outline technical milestones such as construction of one of the largest radio astronomical correlators in the world and instantaneous confusion-limited images of the full sky (2pi steradian) below 80 MHz.

Greenhill, Lincoln J.; LEDA Collaboration

2015-01-01

226

VLT LBG Redshift Survey II: Interactions between galaxies and the IGM at z ~3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured redshifts for 243 z ~3 quasars in nine VLT VIMOS LBG\\u000aredshift survey areas, each of which is centred on a known bright quasar. Using\\u000aspectra of these quasars, we measure the cross-correlation between neutral\\u000ahydrogen gas causing the Lya forest and 1020 Lyman-break galaxies at z ~3. We\\u000afind an increase in neutral hydrogen absorption within

N. H. M. Crighton; R. Bielby; T. Shanks; L. Infante; C. G. Bornancini; N. Bouche; D. G. Lambas; J. D. Lowenthal; D. Minniti; S. L. Morris; N. Padilla; C. Peroux; P. Petitjean; T. Theuns; P. Tummuangpak; P. M. Weilbacher; L. Wisotzki; G. Worseck

2010-01-01

227

The VLT LBG Redshift Survey- II. Interactions between galaxies and the IGM at z˜ 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured redshifts for 243 z? 3 quasars in nine Very Large Telescope (VLT) Visible Imaging and Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) redshift survey areas, each of which is centred on a known bright quasar. Using the spectra of these quasars, we measure the cross-correlation between neutral hydrogen gas causing the Ly? forest and 1020 LBGs at z? 3. We find an increase in neutral hydrogen absorption within ?5 h-1 Mpc of a galaxy in agreement with the results of Adelberger et al. The Ly?-LBG cross-correlation can be described by a power law on scales larger than 3 h-1 Mpc. When galaxy velocity dispersions are taken into account, our results at smaller scales (<2 h-1 Mpc) are also in good agreement with the results of Adelberger et al. There is little immediate indication of a region with a transmission spike above the mean intergalactic medium value which might indicate the presence of star formation feedback. To measure the galaxy velocity dispersions, which include both intrinsic LBG velocity dispersion and redshift errors, we have used the LBG-LBG redshift-space distortion measurements of Bielby et al. We find that the redshift-space transmission spike implied in the results of Adelberger et al. is too narrow to be physical in the presence of the likely LBG velocity dispersion and is likely to be a statistical fluke. Nevertheless, neither our nor previous data can rule out the presence of a narrow, real-space transmission spike, given the evidence of the increased Ly? absorption surrounding LBGs which can mask the spike's presence when convolved with a realistic LBG velocity dispersion. Finally, we identify 176 C IV systems in the quasar spectra and find an LBG-C IV correlation strength on scales of 10 h-1 Mpc consistent with the relation measured at ?Mpc scales. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, during programmes 075.A-0683, 077.A-0612, 079.A-0442, 081.A-0418 and 082.A-0494.

Crighton, N. H. M.; Bielby, R.; Shanks, T.; Infante, L.; Bornancini, C. G.; Bouché, N.; Lambas, D. G.; Lowenthal, J. D.; Minniti, D.; Morris, S. L.; Padilla, N.; Péroux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Theuns, T.; Tummuangpak, P.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Worseck, G.

2011-06-01

228

VLT LBG Redshift Survey II: Interactions between galaxies and the IGM at z ~3  

E-print Network

We have measured redshifts for 243 z ~3 quasars in nine VLT VIMOS LBG redshift survey areas, each of which is centred on a known bright quasar. Using spectra of these quasars, we measure the cross-correlation between neutral hydrogen gas causing the Lya forest and 1020 Lyman-break galaxies at z ~3. We find an increase in neutral hydrogen absorption within 5 h^-1 Mpc of a galaxy in agreement with the results of Adelberger et al. (2003, 2005). The Lya-LBG cross-correlation can be described by a power-law on scales larger than 3 h^-1 Mpc. When galaxy velocity dispersions are taken into account our results at smaller scales (LBG velocity dispersion and redshift errors, we have used the LBG-LBG r...

Crighton, N H M; Shanks, T; Infante, L; Bornancini, C G; Bouche, N; Lambas, D G; Lowenthal, J D; Minniti, D; Morris, S L; Padilla, N; Peroux, C; Petitjean, P; Theuns, T; Tummuangpak, P; Weilbacher, P M; Wisotzki, L; Worseck, G

2010-01-01

229

The VLT LBG Redshift Survey II. Interactions between galaxies and the IGM at z˜ 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured redshifts for 243 z≈ 3 quasars in nine Very Large Telescope (VLT) Visible Imaging and Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) redshift survey areas, each of which is centred on a known bright quasar. Using the spectra of these quasars, we measure the cross-correlation between neutral hydrogen gas causing the Lyalpha forest and 1020 LBGs at z≈

N. H. M. Crighton; R. Bielby; T. Shanks; L. Infante; C. G. Bornancini; N. Bouché; D. G. Lambas; J. D. Lowenthal; D. Minniti; S. L. Morris; N. Padilla; C. Péroux; P. Petitjean; T. Theuns; P. Tummuangpak; P. M. Weilbacher; L. Wisotzki; G. Worseck

2011-01-01

230

Direct in vivo injection of 131I-GMS and its distribution and excretion in rabbit  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore the distribution and metabolism of 131I-gelatin microspheres (131I-GMSs) in rabbits after direct injection into rabbits’ livers. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into seven groups, with four rabbits per group. Each rabbit’s hepatic lobes were directly injected with 41.336 ± 5.106 MBq 131I-GMSs. Each day after 131I-GMSs administration, 4 rabbits were randomly selected, and 250 ?L of serum was collected for ? count. Hepatic and thyroid functions were tested on days 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48 and 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was taken for each group on days 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. A group of rabbits were sacrificed respectively on days 1, 4, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. Their livers were taken out for histological examination. RESULTS: After 131I-GMSs administration, the nuclide was collected in the hepatic area with microspheres. The radiation could be detected on day 48 after 131I-GMSs administration, and radiography could be seen in thyroid areas in SPECT on days 4, 8, 16 and 24. One day after 131I-GMSs administration, the liver function was damaged but recovered 4 d later. Eight days after 131I-GMSs administration, the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxin were reduced, which restored to normal levels on day 16. Histological examination showed that the microspheres were degraded to different degrees at 24, 32 and 48 d after 131I-GMSs administration. The surrounding parts of injection points were in fibrous sheathing. No microspheres were detected in histological examination on day 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. CONCLUSION: Direct in vivo injection of 131I-GMSs is safe in rabbits. It may be a promising method for treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:20440852

Ma, Yu; Wan, Yi; Luo, Dong-Hui; Duan, Li-Geng; Li, Lin; Xia, Chuan-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Li

2010-01-01

231

Long Term Maintenance of Polysaccharide-specific Antibodies by IgM Secreting Cells1  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria-associated polysaccharides induce long-lived antibody responses that protect against pathogenic microorganisms. The maintenance of polysaccharide-specific antibody titers may be due to long-lived plasma cells or ongoing antigen-driven B cell activation due to polysaccharide persistence. BALB/c and VHJ558.3 transgenic (TG) mice respond to ? 1?3-dextran (DEX) by generating a peak anti-DEX response at 7 days, followed by maintenance of serum antibody levels for up to 150 days. Analysis of the cellular response to DEX identified a population of short-lived, cyclophosphamide sensitive DEX-specific plasmablasts in the spleen, and a quiescent, cyclophosphamide resistant DEX-specific antibody-secreting population in the bone marrow. BrdU pulse-chase experiments demonstrated the longevity of the DEX-specific antibody-secreting population in the bone marrow. Splenic DEX-specific plasmablasts were located in the red pulp with persisting DEX-associated CD11c+ dendritic cells 90 days after immunization, whereas DEX was not detected in the bone marrow after 28 days. Selective depletion of short-lived DEX-specific plasmablasts and memory B1b B cells using cyclophosphamide and anti-CD20 treatment had a minimal impact on the maintenance of serum anti-DEX antibodies. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the maintenance of serum polysaccharide-specific antibodies is the result of continuous antigen-driven formation of short-lived plasmablasts in the spleen and a quiescent population of antibody-secreting cells maintained in the bone marrow for a long duration. PMID:22116821

Foote, Jeremy B.; Mahmoud, Tamer I.; Vale, Andre M.; Kearney, John F.

2011-01-01

232

MOSAIC at the E-ELT: A multi-object spectrograph for astrophysics, IGM and cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Universe is comprised of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each populated by hundreds of billions of stars. Astrophysics aims to understand the complexity of this almost incommensurable number of stars, stellar clusters and galaxies, including their spatial distribution, formation, and current interactions with the interstellar and intergalactic media. A considerable fraction of astrophysical discoveries require large statistical samples, which can only be addressed with multi-object spectrographs (MOS). Here we introduce the MOSAIC study of an optical/near-infrared MOS for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which has capabilities specified by science cases ranging from stellar physics and exoplanet studies to galaxy evolution and cosmology. Recent studies of critical technical issues such as sky-background subtraction and multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) have demonstrated that such a MOS is feasible with current technology and techniques. In the 2020s the E-ELT will become the world's largest optical/IR telescope, and we argue that it has to be equipped as soon as possible with a MOS. MOSAIC will provide a vast discovery space, enabled by a multiplex of ˜ 200 and spectral resolving powers of R = 5 000 and 20 000. MOSAIC will also offer the unique capability of 10-to-20 `high-definition' (MOAO) integral-field units, optimised to investigate the physics of the sources of reionisation, providing the most efficient follow-up of observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The combination of these modes will enable the study of the mass-assembly history of galaxies over cosmic time, including high-redshift dwarf galaxies and studies of the distribution of the intergalactic medium. It will also provide spectroscopy of resolved stars in external galaxies at unprecedented distances, from the outskirts of the Local Group for main-sequence stars, to a significant volume of the local Universe, including nearby galaxy clusters, for luminous red supergiants.

Hammer, F.; Barbuy, B.; Cuby, J. G.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S.; Evans, C. J.; Jagourel, P.; Dalton, G.; Rees, P.; Puech, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Pearson, D.; Disseau, K.

2014-08-01

233

ZAP-70 enhances IgM signaling independent of its kinase activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

We transduced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells lacking ZAP-70 with vectors encoding ZAP-70 or various mutant forms of ZAP-70 and monitored the response of transduced CLL cells to treatment with F(ab)2 anti-IgM (anti-?). CLL cells made to express ZAP-70, a kinase-defective ZAP-70 (ZAP-70-KA369), or a ZAP-70 unable to bind c-Cbl (ZAP-YF292) experienced greater intracellular calcium flux and had greater increases in the levels of phosphorylated p72Syk, B-cell linker protein (BLNK), and phospholipase C-?, and greater activation of the Ig accessory molecule CD79b in response to treatment with anti-? than did mock-transfected CLL cells lacking ZAP-70. Transfection of CLL cells with vectors encoding truncated forms of ZAP-70 revealed that the SH2 domain, but not the SH1 domain, was necessary to enhance intracellular calcium flux in response to treatment with anti-?. We conclude that ZAP-70 most likely acts as an adapter protein that facilitates B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in CLL cells independent of its tyrosine kinase activity or its ability to interact with c-Cbl. PMID:18048647

Chen, Liguang; Huynh, Lang; Apgar, John; Tang, Li; Rassenti, Laura; Weiss, Arthur

2008-01-01

234

MONOCLONAL IgM RHEUMATOID FACTORS DERIVED FROM ARTHRITIC MRL\\/Mp-lpr\\/lpr MICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies by Kunkel and co-workers (I-4) on human monoclonal rheumatoid factors (RF) 1 spontaneously arising in patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobu- linemia (5, 6) have greatly advanced our knowledge of the fine characteristics of these important anti-7-globulin autoantibodies. For experimental purposes, avail- ability of murine monoclonal RF will further expand our ability to assess the biologic significance of these autoantibodies in

ARGYRIOS N. THEOFILOPOULOS; ROBERT S. BALDERAS; LEMING HANG; FRANK J. DIXON

235

Genetics Home Reference: X-linked hyper IgM syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Center - Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases Additional NIH Resources - National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human ...

236

Metamorphic Detection via Emulation A Project Report  

E-print Network

Priyadarshi In parallel with improvements in anti-virus technologies, computer virus writers have developed signatures. Hence, there is a need for a more robust anti-virus technology. To counter metamorphic virus.........................................................................................................................................2 2.1 STEALTH VIRUS

Stamp, Mark

237

How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

Brown, Scott

2005-01-01

238

Identificación de péptidos miméticos al epítopo reconocido por el anticuerpo monoclonal específico por el EGF, CB-EGF1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of peptide mimics of the epitope recognized by CB-EGF1, a monoclonal antibody EGF specific. As part of an integral structure and function study, we characterized the natural epitope on the EGF recognized by the CB-EGF1 monoclonal antibody, by using peptides displayed on the coat protein of filamentous bacteriophages. Data analyzed demonstrated that the CB-EGF1 monoclonal antibody recognizes a conformational

Yaquelin Puchades; Ariana G Ojalvo; Yanet García; Glay Chinea; Haydée Gerónimo; Nelson S Vispo

239

Evaluación de Anticuerpos Desarrollados Contra la Proteína Recombinante de la Cápside del Virus Tristeza de los Cítricos  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant coat protein (rCP) p25 gene of (Citrus tristeza virus = CTV), were developed for isolates MX08 and MX14 from México and B227 from India. The reactivity of rCP antibodies was evaluated using healthy and CTV infected tissue. The combination of rCP ant...

240

THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE RESTRAINT STRESS ON PIG LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND IGM PRODUCTION IN VITRO AND CORTISOL LEVELS IN VIVO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the effect of acute restraint stress on immune function and plasma cortisol levels. Crossbred pigs were restrained and blood collected initially and at 3 and 6 min of restraint. Plasma was collected for cortisol analysis and lymphocytes were isolated and plated in media conta...

241

Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring a prediversified immunoglobulin repertoire  

PubMed Central

The human peripheral B cell compartment displays a large population of IgM+IgD+CD27+ “memory” B cell carrying a mutated Ig receptor. We show here, by phenotypic analysis, CDR3 spectratyping during a T-independent response and gene expression profiling of the different blood and splenic B cell subsets, that blood IgM+IgD+CD27+ cells correspond to circulating splenic marginal zone B cells. Furthermore, analysis of this peripheral subset in normal children below 2 years shows that these B cells develop and mutate their Ig receptor during ontogeny, prior to their differentiation into T-independent antigen-responsive cells. It is therefore proposed that these IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells provide the splenic marginal zone with a diversified and protective pre-immune repertoire in charge of the responses against encapsulated bacteria. PMID:15191950

Weller, Sandra; Braun, Moritz C.; Tan, Bruce K.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Cordier, Corinne; Conley, Mary Ellen; Plebani, Alessandro; Kumararatne, Dinakhanta S.; Bonnet, Damien; Tournilhac, Olivier; Tchernia, Gil; Steiniger, Birte; Staudt, Louis M.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Weill, Jean-Claude

2004-01-01

242

Myelodysplastic syndrome with 5q deletion following IgM monoclonal gammopathy, showing gene mutation MYD88 L265P.  

PubMed

Patients affected by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) very rarely develop a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, it was also demonstrated that MGUS patients had a significantly increased risk of developing MDS compared to the general population. We report a case of 5q-syndrome following a MGUS IgMk with mutation of MYD88 L256P. To our knowledge, this is the first case of del(5q) MDS following MGUS IgMk with the MYD88 L256P mutation in which there is coexistence of the markers of the two clonal diseases, but as an expression of distinct pathological features. PMID:25159121

Zagaria, Antonella; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Tota, Giuseppina; Anelli, Luisa; Minervini, Angela; Casieri, Paola; Cellamare, Angelo; Minervini, Crescenzio Francesco; Brunetti, Claudia; Ricco, Alessandra; Orsini, Paola; Cumbo, Cosimo; Specchia, Giorgina; Albano, Francesco

2015-01-01

243

SEQUENTIAL CHANGES IN SERUM ALBUMIN, IMMUNOGLOBULIN (IgG1, IgG2, IgM)  

E-print Network

- tanding of the infective process of bovine mastitis rely mainly on examination of mastitic milk. It has been stated that &dquo;staphylococcal mastitis is essentially a duct disease&dquo; (Anderson, 1982). This is most likely to apply to E. coli mastitis, since even attachment of these bacteria to epithelial cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Serologic Cross-Reactivity of Human IgM and IgG Antibodies to Five Species of Ebola Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of Ebola virus (EBOV) have been identified, with nucleotide differences of 30–45% between species. Four of these species have been shown to cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in humans and a fifth species (Reston ebolavirus) is capable of causing a similar disease in non-human primates. While examining potential serologic cross-reactivity between EBOV species is important for diagnostic assays

Adam MacNeil; Zachary Reed; Pierre E. Rollin

2011-01-01

245

Glomerular injury in end-stage liver disease — role of circulating IgG and IgM immune complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of IgG- and IgM-bound circulating immune complexes and immune dysfunction to glomerular injury was evaluated in 15 children with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting liver transplantation. Compared with age-matched controls, children with ESLD had significantly (PPP<0.01) increased compared with controls (4.65±2.56 vs. 0.16±0.04mg\\/mg). Light microscopy of renal biopsy tissue obtained from 6 children with ESLD at the time

Lawrence S. Milner; Mark T. Houser; Peter C. Kolbeck; Dean L. Antonson; Thomas L. McDonald; Rodney S. Markin; Byers W. Shaw Jr

1993-01-01

246

CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X- linked hyper IgM syndrome  

PubMed Central

X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restoring class switch recombination in XHM B cells and inducing cytokine secretion by monocytes. CP-870,893 infusions were well tolerated and showed significant activity in vivo, decreasing leukocyte concentration in peripheral blood. Although specific antibody responses were lacking, frequent dosing in one subject primed T cells to secrete IFN-g and suppressed oocyst shedding in the stool. Nevertheless, relapse occurred after discontinuation of therapy. The CD40 receptor was rapidly internalized following binding with CP-870,893, potentially explaining the limited capacity of CP-870,893 to mediate immune reconstitution. This study demonstrates that CP-870,893 suppressed oocysts shedding in XHM patients with biliary cryptosporidiosis. The continued study of CD40 agonists in XHM is warranted. PMID:22459705

Fan, Xiying; Upadhyaya, Bhaskar; Wu, Liming; Koh, Christopher; Santín-Durán, Mónica; Pittaluga, Stefania; Uzel, Gulbu; Kleiner, David; Williams, Ester; Ma, Chi A.; Bodansky, Aaron; Oliveira, Joao B.; Edmonds, Pamela; Hornung, Ronald; Wong, Duane W.; Fayer, Ronald; Fleisher, Tom; Heller, Theo; Prussin, Calman; Jain, Ashish

2012-01-01

247

Cellular targets and mechanistic strategies of remyelination-promoting IgMs as part of the naturally occurring autoantibody repertoire.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulins with germline sequences occur in invertebrates and vertebrates and are named naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs). NAbs may target foreign antigens, self- or altered self-components and are part of the normal immunoglobulin repertoire. Accumulating evidence indicates that naturally occurring antibodies can act as systemic surveillance molecules, which tag, damaged or stressed cells, invading pathogens and toxic cellular debris for elimination by the immune system. In addition to acting as detecting molecules, certain types of NAbs actively signal in different cell types with a broad range of responses from induction of apoptosis in cancer cells to stimulation of remyelination in glial cells. This review emphasizes functions and characteristics of NAbs with focus on remyelination-promoting mouse and human antibodies. Human remyelination-promoting NAbs are potential therapeutics to combat a wide spectrum of disease processes including demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. We will highlight the identified glycosphingolipid (SL) antigens of polyreactive remyelination-promoting antibodies and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. The nature of the identified antigens suggests a lipid raft-based mechanism for remyelination-promoting antibodies with SLs as most essential raft components. However, accumulating evidence also suggests involvement of other antigens in stimulation of remyelination, which will be discussed in the text. PMID:24053345

Watzlawik, Jens O; Wootla, Bharath; Painter, Meghan M; Warrington, Arthur E; Rodriguez, Moses

2013-09-01

248

In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1?, TNF?, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1?, TNF?, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections. PMID:25450998

Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-12-01

249

Enterprise Information Security Management Framework [EISMF  

E-print Network

There are several technological solutions available in the market to help organizations with information security breach detection and prevention such as intrusion detection and prevention systems, antivirus software, ...

Sharma, Dhirendra, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

250

An Attack Vector for Deception Through Persuasion Used by Hackers and Crakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We always uses the Anti-virus or Anti- Spyware software to secure our data but still most of our computers are infected by the Malware because we thought computer security as just technical field and anti-virus or firewall only can prevent us. Despite all the technological advancement in security, there is still one attack vector that leaves our network and computer

Mosin I. Hasan; Nilesh B. Prajapati

2009-01-01

251

Publicaciones del IGME: serie Hidrogeologa y aguas subterrneas, n 14. VI Simposio del Agua en Andaluca. II: 1.237-1.245  

E-print Network

aguas superficiales, subterráneas y residuales Sánchez Díaz, Luis* y Castillo Martín, Antonio, aguas superficiales, residuales y subterráneas RESUMEN En esta contribución se expone la calidad general que presentaron las aguas superficiales, subterráneas y residuales de la Vega de Granada durante 2003

Castillo, Antonio

252

Notch1 enhances B-cell receptor-induced apoptosis in mature activated B cells without affecting cell cycle progression and surface IgM expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmembrane receptor Notch1 plays a crucial role in differentiation and apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. To investigate the influence of Notch1 on apoptosis and cell growth of mature murine B cells, we transduced the murine B-lymphoma line NYC 31.1 with a constitutively active, intracellular form of human Notch1 (Notch1-ICT). NYC cells represent mature activated B cells that can be induced

S Romer; U Saunders; H-M Jäck; B M Jehn

2003-01-01

253

Analysis of Antigens of Mycobacterium leprae by Interaction to Sera IgG, IgM, and IgA Response to Improve Diagnosis of Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Till 2010, several countries have declared less than one leprosy patient among population of 10,000 and themselves feeling as eliminated from leprosy cases. However, new leprosy cases are still appearing from all these countries. In this situation one has to be confident to diagnose leprosy. This review paper highlighted already explored antigens for diagnosis purposes and finally suggested better combinations of protein antigens of M. leprae versus immunoglobulin as detector antibody to be useful for leprosy diagnosis. PMID:25101267

Kumar, Avnish; Parkash, Om; Girdhar, Bhawneshwar K.

2014-01-01

254

Regulatory B cells are enriched within the IgM memory and transitional subsets in healthy donors but are deficient in chronic GVHD  

PubMed Central

A subset of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in mice negatively regulate T-cell immune responses through the secretion of regulatory cytokines such as IL-10 and direct cell-cell contact and have been linked to experimental models of autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. However, the regulatory function of Bregs in human disease is much less clear. Here we demonstrate that B cells with immunoregulatory properties are enriched within both the CD19+IgM+CD27+ memory and CD19+CD24hiCD38hi transitional B-cell subsets in healthy human donors. Both subsets suppressed the proliferation and interferon-? production of CD3/CD28-stimulated autologous CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner, and both relied on IL-10 secretion as well as cell-cell contact, likely mediated through CD80 and CD86, to support their full suppressive function. Moreover, after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, Bregs from patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) were less frequent and less likely to produce IL-10 than were Bregs from healthy donors and patients without cGVHD. These findings suggest that Bregs may be involved in the pathogenesis of cGVHD and support future investigation of regulatory B cell–based therapy in the treatment of this disease. PMID:25051962

Khoder, Ahmad; Sarvaria, Anushruti; Alsuliman, Abdullah; Chew, Claude; Sekine, Takuya; Cooper, Nichola; Mielke, Stephan; de Lavallade, Hugues; Muftuoglu, Muharrem; Fernandez Curbelo, Irina; Liu, Enli; Muraro, Paolo A.; Alousi, Amin; Stringaris, Kate; Parmar, Simrit; Shah, Nina; Shaim, Hila; Yvon, Eric; Molldrem, Jeffrey; Rouce, Rayne; Champlin, Richard; McNiece, Ian; Mauri, Claudia; Shpall, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

255

Biotin-avidin amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of canine serum IgA, IgG and IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amplified capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed by the use of the biotin-avidin detection system, for the measurement of canine plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G and M. Test responses of dilutions of both the Ig standards and test plasma samples were consistently linear (r >0·987) for the three Ig classes. The within-assay variation was 3·53 per cent

W. E Bernadina

1996-01-01

256

Comparisons of the Ability of Human IgG3 Hinge Mutants, IgM, IgE, and IgA2, to Form Small Immune Complexes  

E-print Network

-15-15-15 genetic hinge. The MH is rich in cysteine and proline and, by analogy to the solution and crystal forms to the first hinge cysteine, a 50-aa middle hinge (MH) stretching from the first to the last cysteine in the hinge, and an 8-aa lower hinge (LH) stretching from the last cysteine in the hinge to Gly237 (EU

Ronquist, Fredrik

257

Improving the detection of IgM antibodies against glycolipids complexes of GM1 and Galactocerebroside in Multifocal Motor Neuropathy using glycoarray and ELISA assays.  

PubMed

Antibodies against complexes of GM1:GalC are detected in multifocal motor neuropathy. Previous studies used different techniques, explaining disparities in the results. Antibodies against GM1 and GM1:GalC with different proportions of GalC were measured with both glycoarray and ELISA in 20 multifocal motor neuropathies, and 45 controls. The 1:5 ratio and the 1:1 ratio of GM1:GalC (weight ratio) were respectively the most effective for glycoarray and for ELISA. Testing for anti-GM1:GalC antibodies increased the sensitivity from 40% with anti-GM1 antibodies to 65% with array and 60% with ELISA without loss in specificity (above 91%). Anti-GM1:GalC antibodies are effective biological tools to diagnose multifocal motor neuropathy. PMID:25468269

Delmont, Emilien; Halstead, Susan; Galban-Horcajo, Francesc; Yao, Denggao; Desnuelle, Claude; Willison, Hugh

2014-11-01

258

Anti-bovine IgM monoclonal antibodies produced by hybrid cells after in vitro immunization as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  

E-print Network

Imnunosorbent Assay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Titration of IgN and IgG in the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. ELISA Results of First Testing of Hybridoma Supernatant Fluids. ELISA Results of Second Test1ng of Hybridoma Supernatant Fluids. ELISA... Results of Third Test1ng of Hybr1doma Supernatant Fluids. ELISA Results of Fourth Testing of Hybri doma Supernatant Fluids. ELISA Results of Fifth Testing of Hybr1doma Supernatant Fluids. Page . . . 16 32 35 36 39 . 43 . 45 . 46 Table IX...

Hunter, Doris Marie

1983-01-01

259

Evaluation of the sensitivity of IgG and IgM ELISA in detecting Schistosoma mansoni infections in a low endemicity setting.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a major public health concern, with 200 million people infected worldwide. In Brazil, this disease has been reported in 19 states, and its prevalence in the city of Barra Mansa in Rio de Janeiro State is 1 %. The parasitological diagnostic methods currently available in these areas lack sensitivity; however, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been employed successfully for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis by using antibodies against antigens of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and eggs, and for the detection of circulating antigens. The objective of this study was to determine systematically the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in the peripheral areas of Barra Mansa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to December 2011 by using probabilistic sampling that collected 610 fecal samples and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgG with total extracts and ELISA-IgM with trichloroacetic acid-soluble fractions were employed to detect antibodies against S. mansoni and were compared with the Kato-Katz and Hoffman parasitological techniques. Among the individuals studied, anti-S. mansoni antibodies were detected in 11.16 % (n = 71) by ELISA-IgG and in 20.75 % (n = 132) by ELISA-IgM, while the parasitological techniques showed 0.82 % (n = 5) positivity. The agreement between the two ELISA tests was 85.38 % (n = 543), and 8.65 % (n = 55) of the serum samples showed positive results in both tests. The higher positivity of the ELISA-IgM test corroborates the results of previous reports and indicates that the test may be a useful tool in epidemiological studies, particularly in areas of low endemicity for S. mansoni. PMID:25030291

Espirito-Santo, M C C; Sanchez, M C A; Sanchez, A R; Alvarado-Mora, M V; Castilho, V L P; Gonçalves, E M N; Luna, E J A; Gryschek, R C B

2014-12-01

260

Intrinsic differences in the initiation of B cell receptor signaling favor responses of human IgG+ memory B cells over IgM+ naïve B cells  

PubMed Central

The acquisition of long-lived memory B cells (MBCs) is critical for the defense against many infectious diseases. Despite their importance, little is known about how antigens (Ags) trigger human MBCs, even though our understanding of the molecular basis of Ag activation of B cells in model systems has advanced considerably. Here, we use quantitative, high-resolution, live cell imaging at the single cell and single molecule levels to describe the earliest Ag-driven events in human isotype-switched, IgG-expressing MBCs and compare them to those in IgM-expressing naïve B cells. We show that human MBCs are more robust than naïve B cells at each step in the initiation of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including interrogation of Ag-containing membranes, formation of sub-microscopic BCR oligomers and recruitment and activation of signaling-associated kinases. Despite their robust response to Ag, MBCs remain highly sensitive to Fc?RIIB-mediated inhibition. We also demonstrate that in the absence of Ag, a portion of MBC receptors spontaneously oligomerized and phosphorylated kinases accumulated at the membrane and speculate that heightened constitutive signaling may play a role in maintaining MBC longevity. Using high-resolution imaging we have provided a description of the earliest events in the Ag activation of MBCs and evidence for acquired cell-intrinsic differences in the initiation of BCR signaling in human naïve and MBCs. PMID:22379037

Davey, Angel M.; Pierce, Susan K.

2012-01-01

261

CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restori...

262

Designing security into software  

E-print Network

When people talk about software security, they usually refer to security applications such as antivirus software, firewalls and intrusion detection systems. There is little emphasis on the security in the software itself. ...

Zhang, Chang Tony

2006-01-01

263

NUIT Recommended Practices for Digital Devices Use the checklist below to help you maintain a problem-free computer, tablet, smartphone, or other device.  

E-print Network

. Use a cable lock to protect your laptop or other equipment from theft. Install antivirus software-spyware, firewall, etc.) Productivity suites (i.e. Microsoft Office) Internet browsers iTunes and Quicktime

Shahriar, Selim

264

Encapsulation of Curcumin in O/W Nanoemulsions and Its Bioaccessibility After In Vitro Digestion.  

E-print Network

??The functional ingredient curcumin has a variety of biological and pharmacological actions, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV properties coupled with low toxicity.… (more)

Ahmed, Kashif

2010-01-01

265

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

266

Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates Development and application in parasitology-mycology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning

D. Aubert; F. Foudrinier; M. L. Kaltenbach; D. Guyot-Walser; C. Marx-Chemla; R. Geers; H. Lepan; J. M. Pinon

1995-01-01

267

Lymphocyte transformation, leucocyte migration, specific IgE, IgG and IgM before, during, and after penicillin treatment without adverse reaction. A follow-up study.  

PubMed

This in vitro follow-up study of the penicillin-induced immune response by a well-tolerated regimen was conducted with an association of four tests: lymphocyte transformation test; leucocyte migration test; passive anaphylaxis on monkey lung tissue; and passive hemagglutination. It showed (1) that previously sensitized subjects (including IgE) tolerated the treatment by pencillin. (2) That the treatment induced either a transient positive conversion of previously negative tests or a negative conversion of previously positive tests. These in vitro findings are in accordance with previously established concepts based upon cutaneous tests and must be taken into consideration when interpretating in vitro diagnosis of penicillin allergy. PMID:946571

Saurat, J H; Ponvert, C; Burtin, C; Soubrane, C; Lebel, B; Beucher, F; Paupe, J

1976-02-01

268

Early Neonatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Value of Comparative Enzyme-Linked Immunofiltration Assay Immunological Profiles and Anti-Toxoplasma gondiiImmunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgA Immunocapture and Implications for Postnatal Therapeutic Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic strategies for congenital toxoplasmosis have changed profoundly in recent years. Immunological diagnosticmethods,longconsidereddisappointing,cannowbeusedataveryearlystage.Overa3-yearperiod, 1,050 infants at risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (born to 1,048 mothers infected during pregnancy) were monitored for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 7 years. More than 6,000 serum specimens were analyzed by comparative mother-infant immunological profiles (CIPs) based on an enzyme-linked immuno- filtrationassay(ELIFA)andanimmunocapturemethodforthedetectionofspecificimmunoglobulinM(IgM)

J. M. PINON; C. CHEMLA; I. VILLENA; F. FOUDRINIER; D. AUBERT; D. PUYGAUTHIER-TOUBAS; B. LEROUX; D. DUPOUY; C. QUEREUX; M. TALMUD; T. TRENQUE; G. POTRON; M. PLUOT; G. REMY; Robert Debre ´

269

Myeloma isotype-switch variants in the murine 5T myeloma model: evidence that myeloma IgM and IgA expressing subclones can originate from the IgG expressing tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotype-switch variants can easily be detected in a significant proportion of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. The biological significance of these isotype-switch variants remains obscure. Therefore, we studied the appearance of these isotype-switch variants in two murine MM models, 5T2MM and 5T33MM, both of IgG isotype. With a MM-specific PCR assay we could detect isotype-switch variants in the bone marrow of

MHC Bakkus; K Asosingh; K Vanderkerken; K Thielemans; A Hagemeijer; H De Raeve; B Van Camp

2001-01-01

270

Respiratory Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles Decreases the Spleen IgM Response to a T Cell-Dependent Antigen in Female B6C3F1 Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the systemic immunotoxic potential of respira- tory exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in this study. Female B6C3F1 mice (8 weeks old) were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP intratracheally, 3 times every two weeks, and sacrificed 2 or 4 weeks after the first exposure. The systemic toxicity and immune status in mice were evaluated. Mice exposed to

H.-M. Yang; L. Butterworth; A. E. Munson; B. Jean

2003-01-01

271

Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of a typhoid IgM flow assay for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in Cambodian children using a Bayesian latent class model assuming an imperfect gold standard.  

PubMed

Rapid diagnostic tests are needed for typhoid fever (TF) diagnosis in febrile children in endemic areas. Five hundred children admitted to the hospital in Cambodia between 2009 and 2010 with documented fever (? 38°C) were investigated using blood cultures (BCs), Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi A real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), and a Typhoid immunoglobulin M flow assay (IgMFA). Test performance was determined by conventional methods and Bayesian latent class modeling. There were 32 cases of TF (10 BC- and PCR-positive cases, 14 BC-positive and PCR-negative cases, and 8 BC-negative and PCR-positive cases). IgMFA sensitivity was 59.4% (95% confidence interval = 41-76), and specificity was 97.8% (95% confidence interval = 96-99). The model estimate sensitivity for BC was 81.0% (95% credible interval = 54-99). The model estimate sensitivity for PCR was 37.8% (95% credible interval = 26-55), with a specificity of 98.2% (95% credible interval = 97-99). The model estimate sensitivity for IgMFA (? 2+) was 77.9% (95% credible interval = 58-90), with a specificity of 97.5% (95% credible interval = 95-100). The model estimates of IgMFA sensitivity and specificity were comparable with BCs and better than estimates using conventional analysis. PMID:24218407

Moore, Catrin E; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Wijedoru, Lalith P M; Sona, Soeng; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Duy, Pham Thanh; Vinh, Phat Voong; Chheng, Kheng; Kumar, Varun; Emary, Kate; Carter, Michael; White, Lisa; Baker, Stephen; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M

2014-01-01

272

Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of a Typhoid IgM Flow Assay for the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in Cambodian Children Using a Bayesian Latent Class Model Assuming an Imperfect Gold Standard  

PubMed Central

Rapid diagnostic tests are needed for typhoid fever (TF) diagnosis in febrile children in endemic areas. Five hundred children admitted to the hospital in Cambodia between 2009 and 2010 with documented fever (? 38°C) were investigated using blood cultures (BCs), Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi A real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), and a Typhoid immunoglobulin M flow assay (IgMFA). Test performance was determined by conventional methods and Bayesian latent class modeling. There were 32 cases of TF (10 BC- and PCR-positive cases, 14 BC-positive and PCR-negative cases, and 8 BC-negative and PCR-positive cases). IgMFA sensitivity was 59.4% (95% confidence interval = 41–76), and specificity was 97.8% (95% confidence interval = 96–99). The model estimate sensitivity for BC was 81.0% (95% credible interval = 54–99). The model estimate sensitivity for PCR was 37.8% (95% credible interval = 26–55), with a specificity of 98.2% (95% credible interval = 97–99). The model estimate sensitivity for IgMFA (? 2+) was 77.9% (95% credible interval = 58–90), with a specificity of 97.5% (95% credible interval = 95–100). The model estimates of IgMFA sensitivity and specificity were comparable with BCs and better than estimates using conventional analysis. PMID:24218407

Moore, Catrin E.; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Wijedoru, Lalith P. M.; Sona, Soeng; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Duy, Pham Thanh; Vinh, Phat Voong; Chheng, Kheng; Kumar, Varun; Emary, Kate; Carter, Michael; White, Lisa; Baker, Stephen; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Parry, Christopher M.

2014-01-01

273

Product sheet CaptureSelect IgM affinity matrix Warranty: Antibody toolbox affinity matrices of BAC BV are supplied for research use only and are intended to be used  

E-print Network

150 cm/h) Beads: NHS-activated Sepharose 4 Fast Flow (GE Healthcare)* Average particle size: 90 µm. A good general binding buffer is PBS, pH 7.2-7.4 (physiological pH & ionic strength). Ultimately matrices Equilibration and washing buffer: PBS pH 7.4 Elution buffer: 0.1 M Glycine pH 3.0 Flow: 150 cm

Lebendiker, Mario

274

Intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the phenylazomethine biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FTIR spectra of the solutions of biologically active molecules (screened phenylazomethines) in CCl4 are studied. The role of the OH- and N=C groups in the formation of the intramolecular H bonds is analyzed. The analysis of the FTIR spectra shows that three types of H bonds (O-H…O-H, O-H…N=C, and O-H…O-H…N=C) are possible in the molecules under study. A correlation of the H-bond formation in the phenylazomethine molecules and the antivirus properties of such molecules is revealed. The antivirus activity is observed for molecules that exhibit intramolecular O-H…O-H…N=C bonds in the absence of free hydroxyls. The antivirus activity decreases when the molecule contains additional OH groups that are not involved in H bonds.

Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Ksendzova, G. A.; Sorokin, V. L.

2014-07-01

275

Security Risks and Modern Cyber Security Technologies for Corporate Networks  

E-print Network

This article aims to highlight current trends on the market of corporate antivirus solutions. Brief overview of modern security threats that can destroy IT environment is provided as well as a typical structure and features of antivirus suits for corporate users presented on the market. The general requirements for corporate products are determined according to the last report from av-comparatives.org [1]. The detailed analysis of new features is provided based on an overview of products available on the market nowadays. At the end, an enumeration of modern trends in antivirus industry for corporate users completes this article. Finally, the main goal of this article is to stress an attention about new trends suggested by AV vendors in their solutions in order to protect customers against newest security threats.

Gharibi, Wajeb

2011-01-01

276

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing IgM ELISA Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Virus isolation Later in disease course or after recovery IgM and IgG antibodies ... Español ...

277

Bio-Rad Laboratories I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s PneumoTrolTM  

E-print Network

G and IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and IgG antibodies to Chlamydia species. · Liquid, human. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x 5 mL Analytes Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgG Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM Chlamydia trachomatis Ig

Rodriguez, Carlos

278

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228 PMID:22221904

2012-01-01

279

Application of Artificial Neural Networks Techniques to Computer Worm Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting computer worms is a highly challenging task. Commonly this task is performed by antivirus software tools that rely on prior explicit knowledge of the worm's code, which is represented by signatures. We present a new approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for detecting the presence of computer worms based on the computer's behavioral measures. In order to evaluate

Dima Stopel; Zvi Boger; Robert Moskovitch; Yuval Shahar; Yuval Elovici

2006-01-01

280

AA 2006/2007 Performance Evaluation August 30, 2007 Solution time: 3 hours  

E-print Network

in turn, enhances the value of the exam. The results will be available on the course site at the latest option performs better and explain why. Exercise 3 Personal Computers (PCs) can be infected by viruses. Using an antivirus software the infection can be prevented (if the PC was not infected) or solved (if

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

281

Detecting Virus Mutations Via Dynamic Matching Min Feng Rajiv Gupta  

E-print Network

Detecting Virus Mutations Via Dynamic Matching Min Feng Rajiv Gupta CSE Dept., University, the virus developers are employing obfuscation techniques to create mutating viruses. The current antivirus software can- not handle the obfuscated viruses well since its detection methods that are based upon static

Gupta, Rajiv

282

ITL BULLETIN FOR MAY 2011 USING SECURITY CONFIGURATION CHECKLISTS AND THE NATIONAL  

E-print Network

, accurate, safe, and secure operations. Cyber attacks have become more frequent, widespread, and potentially such as email clients, Web browsers, word processors, personal firewalls, and antivirus software; infrastructure devices such as routers, firewalls, virtual private network (VPN) gateways, intrusion detection systems

283

Global Mapping of Cyber Attacks Ghita Mezzour, L. Richard Carley, Kathleen M. Carley  

E-print Network

Global Mapping of Cyber Attacks Ghita Mezzour, L. Richard Carley, Kathleen M. Carley October 2014. The cyber-attack data used in the paper is accessible through the WINE infrastructure using reference WINE;Keywords: intrusion detection, anti-virus, socio-technical factors, cyber security, empirical study #12

284

Cyber-Security week is coming up during the week of October 13, thru October 17, 2008. This year the Residence Hall Association is sponsoring a poster contest to educate and  

E-print Network

Cyber-Security week is coming up during the week of October 13, thru October 17, 2008. This year the Residence Hall Association is sponsoring a poster contest to educate and bring awareness of cyber/emails · Global cyber crime · Physical security · Security updates, antivirus software, firewalls · Effective

Ray, David

285

JStill: Mostly Static Detection of Obfuscated Malicious JavaScript Code  

E-print Network

JStill: Mostly Static Detection of Obfuscated Malicious JavaScript Code Wei Xu Department University University Park, PA szhu@cse.psu.edu ABSTRACT The dynamic features of the JavaScript language the detection of anti-virus software. To defend against ob- fuscated malicious JavaScript code, in this paper we

Zhu, Sencun

286

The Power of Obfuscation Techniques in Malicious JavaScript Code: A Measurement Study  

E-print Network

The Power of Obfuscation Techniques in Malicious JavaScript Code: A Measurement Study Wei Xu University, University Park Email:{wxx104, fuz104, szhu}@cse.psu.edu Abstract JavaScript based attacks have rely on anti-virus software to protect themselves from malicious JavaScript code, attackers exploit

Zhu, Sencun

287

Bibliography of L.M. Liebrock Journal Papers  

E-print Network

", Journal of Digital Forensics Practice, V2, N4, pp. 196-208, 10.1080/15567280903140953, October, 2008. 5. MBibliography of L.M. Liebrock Journal Papers 1. D. Quist and L.M. Liebrock, "Reversing Compiled. Neil, "Improving Antivirus Accuracy with Hypervisor Assisted Analysis", Journal of Computer Virology

Liebrock, Lorie M.

288

RiskRanker: scalable and accurate zero-day android malware detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smartphone sales have recently experienced explosive growth. Their popularity also encourages malware authors to penetrate various mobile marketplaces with malicious applications (or apps). These malicious apps hide in the sheer number of other normal apps, which makes their detection challenging. Existing mobile anti-virus software are inadequate in their reactive nature by relying on known malware samples for signature extraction. In

Michael Grace; Yajin Zhou; Qiang Zhang; Shihong Zou; Xuxian Jiang

2012-01-01

289

04/16/2007 11:56 AMMore Females Because Sisters Kill Their Brothers -Not such an altruistic behavior in parasitoid wasps -Softpedia Page 1 of 2http://news.softpedia.com/news/More-Females-Because-They-Kill-Male-Offspring-51802.shtml  

E-print Network

Online Enjoy over 2500 Channels on your PC TV Shows, News, Movies, Sports visit site > Bit..signup free Trade the world markets today! www.gnutrade.com Ads by Google - Advertise on this site MoreDefender Antivirus Guaranteed detection and removal of all viruses. PC World Best Buy! visit site > SIPfoundry A Free

Gardner, Andy

290

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

291

How To: Protect against a Zero-Hour Attack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last year, a series of viruses and worms that caused damage across the Internet in record time has made very clear how vulnerable computer systems are. The MS Blaster, Slammer, Sasser, and Korgo.W worms have shown that signature-based antivirus software and traditional firewalls are not enough to protect networks. Everyone is worried about…

McCarthy, Rob

2005-01-01

292

Profiling and accelerating string matching algorithms in three network content security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of string matching algorithms is essential for network con- tent security applications, such as intrusion detection systems, anti-virus sys- tems, and Web content filters. This work reviews typical algorithms and profiles their performance under various situations to study the influence of the number, the length, and the character distribution of the signatures on performance. This profiling can reveal

Po-ching Lin; Zhi-xiang Li; Ying-dar Lin; Yuan-cheng Lai; Frank C. Lin

2006-01-01

293

Standard software installations Standard software, as listed below, is installed free of charge on all University of Aberdeen supplied PCs and Windows laptops.  

E-print Network

Standard software installations Standard software, as listed below, is installed free of charge with Microsoft Windows 7 64-bit Enterprise Edition as standard. Software Name Description 7-Zip Used to open transfer Microsoft Security Centre Endpoint Protection (SCEP) 2012 Anti-virus software for University

Pym, David J.

294

Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk  

E-print Network

Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk Locking your computer's screen is an easy and effective step to take to protect the information on your computer system while it's unattended. Create Virus Protection Computers are infected with a virus more often than most people. Make sure antivirus

California at Santa Barbara, University of

295

BotFinder: Finding Bots in Network Traffic Without Deep Packet Inspection  

E-print Network

information from infected machines, and perform distributed denial-of-service attacks. Many approaches to bot- Flow information of a large ISP that contains more than 25 billion flows. Our results show-based malware detection, such as anti-virus scanners, network-based bot detection approaches are increasingly

Vigna, Giovanni

296

Student Computing Support Computing @ The  

E-print Network

the Military Star credit card to make your purchase. Normally, free shipping applies to other credit cards, scanners and laser printers Application and antivirus software High-speed Internet access Extensive Information Resources * Comes with Junk Mail filtering #12;Student Computing Support June 2010 Campus

Young, Paul Thomas

297

An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

2002-01-01

298

Non-normalizable Functions: A New Method to Generate Metamorphic Malware  

E-print Network

Non-normalizable Functions: A New Method to Generate Metamorphic Malware Rodney Owens SIS Dept identify the metamorphic viruses oriented from the same base, anti-virus software has adopted the code. In this paper, we introduce a new technique of generating metamorphic viruses by embedding complicated

Wang, Weichao

299

Framework for Zombie Detection Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important threats to personal and corporate Internet security is the proliferation of zombie PCs operating as an organized network. Zombie detection is currently performed at the host level and\\/or network level, but these options have some important drawbacks: antivirus, anti-spyware and personal firewalls are ineffective in the detection of hosts that are compromised via new or

Paulo Salvador; Ant ´ onio Nogueira; U. Franca; R. Valadas

2009-01-01

300

Science and Technology Resources on the Internet: Computer Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to computer security, including confidentiality, integrity, and authentication or availability; and presents a selected list of Web sites that cover the basic issues of computer security under subject headings that include ethics, privacy, kids, antivirus, policies, cryptography, operating system security, and biometrics.…

Kinkus, Jane F.

2002-01-01

301

Page 1 of 3 Radiogram No. 9377u Form 24 for 06/04/2012  

E-print Network

Auxiliary Laptop Anti-Virus Update 08:15-09:55 FE-2 SM Ventilation System Preventive Maintenance. Group 1 08 Alignment Guide Removal 08:05-08:25 FE-3 Work Prep 08:15-08:20 CDR MRM1 Comm Config 08:15-08:45 FE-1 Potok Air Purification System Interference Measurements. Tagup with specialists (S-band, VHF) 14

302

Hunting for Undetectable Metamorphic Viruses A Project Report  

E-print Network

- 1 - Hunting for Undetectable Metamorphic Viruses A Project Report Presented to The Faculty Metamorphic Viruses by Da Lin Commercial anti-virus scanners are generally signature based, that is, they scan for known patterns to determine whether a file is infected by a virus or not. To evade signature

Stamp, Mark

303

Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

1992-01-01

304

Reuters, 2004.11.09: "Worm breaks speed record from discovery  

E-print Network

on Tuesday which broke the speed record from the announcement of a security vulnerability in Microsoft exploiting the weakness was developed and set loose, several virus-trackers reported. #12;"Microsoft said and infects the computer,' said technical consultant Graham Cluley at Sophos Anti-Virus. #12;"Microsoft

Bernstein, Daniel

305

Bio-Rad Laboratories I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s Diagnostics Group  

E-print Network

detecting IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, IgG and IgM antibodies to Rubella Virus, IgG and Ig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x 5 mL Analytes Toxoplasma gondii IgG Toxoplasma gondii IgM Rubella IgG Rubella Ig

Rodriguez, Carlos

306

Bio-Rad Laboratories I N F E C T I O U S D I S E A S E C O N T R O L S LiquichekTM  

E-print Network

-Barr Virus (VCA) IgG Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) IgG Helicobacter pylori IgG Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) IgG Syphilis RPR Toxoplasma gondii IgM Rubella Virus IgM Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM Herpes Simplex

Rodriguez, Carlos

307

The WildList Organization International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WildList is a free list of all known computer viruses that are spreading in the world, as compiled by volunteer antivirus experts of the WildList Organization International. It is updated monthly and, as one can imagine, is quite lengthy. The site has many other interesting features besides the list. For example, a somewhat humorous article by the WildList's founder describes his views on "how scientific naming works" for computer viruses. Several other papers are also offered that deal with virus issues. Some links to sites that test products or describe viruses are given as well. This site takes a very objective approach to releasing information and, therefore, does not endorse any particular antivirus software.

1999-01-01

308

Distributive immunization of networks against viruses using the `honey-pot' architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although computer viruses cause tremendous economic loss, defence mechanisms fail to adapt to their rapid evolution. Previous immunization strategies have been characterized as being static and centralized, which has made virus containment difficult or even impossible. We suggest, instead, to propagate the immunization agent as an epidemic. The main problem with epidemic vaccine propagation is that it is bound to lag behind the virus. We suggest giving the vaccine an advantage over the virus by allowing it to leapfrog through a separate, overlapping, partially correlated network. This enables the antivirus to contain the epidemic efficiently. We systemize this concept with a `honey-pot' architecture that achieves both early virus discovery and rapid antivirus dissemination. We present analytic, as well as simulation, results for a set of realistic topologies that illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

Goldenberg, Jacob; Shavitt, Yuval; Shir, Eran; Solomon, Sorin

2005-12-01

309

Immunobullous dermatosis associated with Waldenström macroglobulinaemia treated with rituximab.  

PubMed

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the presence of a monoclonal IgM paraprotein. Specific cutaneous features of WM include neoplastic cell infiltrates, IgM storage papules and IgM bullous dermatosis. We report a patient with subepidermal bullous disease associated with WM. Immunofluorescence identified IgM deposition along the basement membrane zone (BMZ) with circulating anti-BMZ IgM antibodies reacting with the dermal side of salt-split skin. The autoantibodies did not react with type VII collagen or laminin 332. Following failed treatment with doxycycline, prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and dapsone, the patient was successfully treated with a modified RCVP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of IgM bullous disease of WM treated with rituximab. PMID:23782150

Chattopadhyay, M; Rytina, E; Dada, M; Bhogal, B S; Groves, R; Handfield-Jones, S

2013-12-01

310

Can DNS-Based Blacklists Keep Up with Bots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Internet Service Providers (ISPs), anti-virus com- panies, and enterprise email vendors use Domain Name System-based Blackhole Lists (DNSBLs) to keep track of IP addresses that originate spam, so that future emails sent from these IP addresses can be rejected out-of-hand. DNSBL operators populate blocking lists based on complaints from recipients of spam, who report the IP address of the

Anirudh Ramachandran; David Dagon; Nick Feamster

2006-01-01

311

Secure Mechanism for Mobile Web Browsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing of mobile network provides increasing web applications and services available on mobile devices. However, most of the websites are developed with limited security consideration, let alone web services for mobile users. Hackers take advantage of the web-based vulnerabilities to inject malicious JavaScript into compromised web pages, and a mobile victim visits the site will be compromised. Current anti-virus

Chia-Mei Chen; Ya-Hui Ou

2011-01-01

312

Metamorphic Viruses with Built-In Buffer Overflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metamorphic computer viruses change their structure—and thereby their signature—each time they infect a system. Metamorphic viruses are potentially one of the most dangerous types of computer viruses because they are difficult to detect using signature-based methods. Most anti-virus software today is based on signature detection techniques. In this project, we create and analyze a metamorphic virus toolkit which creates viruses

Ronak Shah

2010-01-01

313

Information Technology Services Newsletter: Spring 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

C O N T E N T S ANGEL 6.0, Smart Classroom, NetOP 1 Anti-Virus FAQ, Websites, Faculty\\/Staff Technology Support Initiative, MINITAB 2 CTC Survey, Printing 3 Web Building, Assistive Technology, IT Spotlight 4 Web Accessibility, SUNY Learning Network 5 SUNY Training Center, EASI Training 6 Library Database Training,ITSS Software Training 7-8 FAQ’s - Firewalls, Spyware, SPAM, E-mail Filters 9

Mary Jo Orzech

2004-01-01

314

Genetic polymorphisms of TLR3 are associated with Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in Cantonese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is endemic in Southern China, displays a strong relationship with genetic susceptibility and associates with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays an important role in the antivirus response. Therefore, we examined the association between TLR3 gene polymorphisms and NPC susceptibility. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 434 NPC cases and 512 healthy controls matched

Jun-Fang He; Wei-Hua Jia; Qin Fan; Xin-Xi Zhou; Hai-De Qin; Yin Yao Shugart; Yi-Xin Zeng

2007-01-01

315

An unusual cause of recurrent pneumonia in adults  

PubMed Central

Selective IgM deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency defined as isolated low levels of IgM. It presents with recurrent infections and has been described as first presenting in adulthood with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Unlike its better known counterpart of IgA deficiency, this particular immunodeficiency is often overlooked. We present a case of selective IgM deficiency who presented with recurrent respiratory infections. PMID:25125825

Dhir, Varun; Sagar, Vinay; Aggarwal, Ashutosh; Rawat, Amit; Singhal, Manphool

2014-01-01

316

Reproduction related immunoglobulin changes in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual changes in plasma immunoglobulin (IgM) levels were investigated in three strains of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss which have different spawning periods, i.e., September–October, November–December, and January, reared under constant water temperature and natural day length. Plasma IgM levels decreased during the spawning season in all strains tested. The IgM changes became reversed in response to significant increases in plasma

Y. Suzuki; T. Otaka; S. Sato; Y. Y. Hou; K. Aida

1997-01-01

317

Association of anti-GM 2 antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome with acute cytomegalovirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined serum anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) and anti-ganglioside antibodies by ELISA in 51 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and titers were compared with those from 47 normal and 74 disease controls. Three GBS patients with IgM anti-CMV antibodies had high titers of IgM and IgG anti-GM2 antibodies. The other GBS patients without IgM anti-CMV antibodies, and the normal and disease controls

Sachiko Irie; Toyokazu Saito; Naomi Kanazawa; Mieko Ogino; Tatsushi Nukazawa; Hiroaki Ito; Yoichi Tamai; Hisayuki Kowa

1996-01-01

318

Immunoglobulin M Serum Levels in Females and Pups of Southern Elephant Seal ( Mirounga leonina) During the Suckling Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports Immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels in serum samples from eight female-pup pairs of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), at King George Island, Antarctica. IgM levels were determined on sera obtained from sequential sampling throughout the suckling period (approximately 23 days). The IgM concentration in southern elephant seal serum was measured by single radial immunodiffusion on agarose plates. Female

M. E. I Marquez; A. R Carlini; N. H Slobodianik; P. A. Ronayne de Ferrer; M. F Godoy

1998-01-01

319

Can Cosmic Rays Heat the Intergalactic Medium?  

E-print Network

Supernova explosions in the early star forming galaxies will accelerate cosmic rays (CRs). CRs are typically confined in the collapsed objects for a short period before escaping into the intergalactic medium (IGM). Galactic outflows can facilitate this escape by advecting CRs into the IGM. An outflow that results in a termination shock can also generate more CRs. We show that the CR protons from the above processes can significantly affect the thermal history of the IGM. Within plausible range of parameters, cosmic ray heating can compensate for adiabatic cooling and explain the measured IGM temperature at redshifts z between 2 to 4, even with early reionization.

Saumyadip Samui; Kandaswamy Subramanian; Raghunathan Srianand

2005-05-30

320

Thermal Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) can provide clues regarding the reionization history of the IGM. Recent temperature measurements of the IGM from Lyman alpha forest data have given insight into the timeline of these reionization events, specifically the reionization of HeII at z~3. We model the thermal history of the IGM from HI reionization through HeII reionization based on well established heating and cooling processes. We present a comparison of such modeling of the thermal evolution with the recent observational constraints anddiscuss additional heating mechanisms.

Upton Sanderbeck, Phoebe; McQuinn, Matthew

2015-01-01

321

Can Cosmic Rays Heat the Intergalactic Medium?  

E-print Network

Supernova explosions in the early star forming galaxies will accelerate cosmic rays (CRs). CRs are typically confined in the collapsed objects for a short period before escaping into the intergalactic medium (IGM). Galactic outflows can facilitate this escape by advecting CRs into the IGM. An outflow that results in a termination shock can also generate more CRs. We show that the CR protons from the above processes can significantly affect the thermal history of the IGM. Within plausible range of parameters, cosmic ray heating can compensate for adiabatic cooling and explain the measured IGM temperature at redshifts z between 2 to 4, even with early reionization.

Samui, S; Srianand, R; Samui, Saumyadip; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Srianand, Raghunathan

2005-01-01

322

LEPTO Dipstick: a rapid and simple method for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LEPTO Dipstick assay is a newly developed test for the diagnosis of leptospirosis and uses a broadly reactive antigen for detecting IgM antibodies. The test was evaluated in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, using 867 serum samples from known cases of leptospirosis and controls. The efficacy of IgM ELISA was also tested for comparison. The LEPTO Dipstick had a

S. C. Sehgal; P. Vijayachari; S. Sharma; A. P. Sugunan

1999-01-01

323

Bio-Rad Laboratories I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s I n f e c t I o u s D I s e a s e c o n t r o l s  

E-print Network

to Rubella Virus, IgG and IgM antibodies to Cytomegalovirus, and IgG antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x 5 mL Analytes Toxoplasma gondii IgG Toxoplasma gondii IgM Rubella IgG Rubella Ig

Rodriguez, Carlos

324

Interaction of temperature and salinity on the expression of immunity factors in different tissues of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus based on response surface methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Composite Design (CCD) and response surface methodology were used in the experiment to examine the combined effect of temperature (16-28°C) and salinity (18-42) on Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) liver and kidney. The results showed that the coefficients of determination ( R 2 =0.965 2 for liver Hsp70, 0.972 9 for kidney Hsp70, 0.921 for liver IgM and 0.962 1 for kidney IgM) and probability values ( P<0.01) were significant for the regression model. The interactive effect between temperature and salinity on liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70 and liver IgM were not significant ( P>0.05), while the interactive effect between temperature and salinity on kidney IgM was significant ( P<0.01). The model equation could be used in practice for forecasting Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in the liver and kidney of juvenile turbot via applying statistical optimization of the response of interest, at which the maximum liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70, liver IgM and kidney IgM of 1.48, 1.49, 2.48, and 1.38, respectively, were reached. The present model may be valuable in assessing the feasibility of turbot farming at different geographic locations and, furthermore, could be a useful reference for scientists studying the immunity of turbot.

Huang, Zhihui; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Lei, Jilin; Li, Weiye; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

2015-01-01

325

Interfacing the Gaussian package with Mathematica  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have written a Mathematica ‡ package igm.m to import data from the Gaus- sian § program for ab initio computational chemistry. The utilities in igm.m can be used to import the output of many other programs, too ¶ . Each constituent table and non-tabular datum is associated with a name that the scripts construct mechani- cally from the identifier

Michael P. Barnett; Joseph F. Capitani

326

The Hot Inter-Galactic Medium and the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

The physical characteristics of the Lyman-alpha forest cloud systems are combined with observations on the baryonic mass density of the Universe and constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis to set boundary conditions on the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) at the epoch of z=2.5. The Universe is considered a closed system and allowed to expand adiabatically from the epoch when QSOs first ionized the IGM (5 <= z_on <= 20). The average kinetic energy of a gas is calculated in the region where the gas transitions from relativistic to non-relativistic behavior. All of the above measurements are then used to determine the thermal history of the IGM in the redshift range 2.5 <= z <= z_on. The hot IGM is assumed to inverse Compton scatter photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMBR) and consequently distort the CMBR as seen at the present epoch. The temperature of the IGM at z=2.5 and the epoch z_on are adjusted, within the constraints defined above, to give the best overall agreement with published data on the temperature of the IGM. We find that the model of the IGM proposed here does not grossly distort the CMBR, and in fact agrees quite closely with the preliminary results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. However, our model of the IGM cannot explain the observed cosmic x ray background. This paper was originally written in 1990. It was never submitted for publication.

Michael Fisher

2007-05-01

327

Identification and characterization of two distinct bursal B-cell subpopulations following infectious bursal disease virus infection of White Leghorn chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus which primarily infects IgM, B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius. Flow cytometric analysis was used to phenotype B-cell populations in the bursa and spleen following IBDV infection. In the bursa, two IgM B-cell subpopulations, desig...

328

Interaction of temperature and salinity on the expression of immunity factors in different tissues of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus based on response surface methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Composite Design (CCD) and response surface methodology were used in the experiment to examine the combined effect of temperature (16-28°C) and salinity (18-42) on Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) liver and kidney. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R 2=0.965 2 for liver Hsp70, 0.972 9 for kidney Hsp70, 0.921 for liver IgM and 0.962 1 for kidney IgM) and probability values (P<0.01) were significant for the regression model. The interactive effect between temperature and salinity on liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70 and liver IgM were not significant (P>0.05), while the interactive effect between temperature and salinity on kidney IgM was significant (P<0.01). The model equation could be used in practice for forecasting Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in the liver and kidney of juvenile turbot via applying statistical optimization of the response of interest, at which the maximum liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70, liver IgM and kidney IgM of 1.48, 1.49, 2.48, and 1.38, respectively, were reached. The present model may be valuable in assessing the feasibility of turbot farming at different geographic locations and, furthermore, could be a useful reference for scientists studying the immunity of turbot.

Huang, Zhihui; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Lei, Jilin; Li, Weiye; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

2014-10-01

329

Persistence of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies after postnatal rubella infection determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay.  

PubMed Central

The appearance and persistence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in postnatal rubella infections were studied by employing a solid-phase radioimmunoassay test. Altogether, 222 serial serum specimens from 51 patients with acute rubella infection were tested. Both IgG and IgM antibodies developed rapidly and appeared in all patients within 4 days after the onset of rash. In some patients, the IgM antibodies clearly preceded the IgG antibodies; however, the reverse situation was also noticed in a few cases. The IgG antibodies showed only minor changes after 8 to 10 days from the onset of rash. The IgM titers also reached a maximum level at approximately 8 to 10 days after the onset of rash, after which time a rapid decrease was normally seen. The mean half-life of IgM antibodies after 15 days from the onset of rash was 4.5 days, giving for IgM antibodies persistence times from 43 to approximately 80 days. Two patients with a prolonged IgM antibody response were detected. One of these patients had bilateral arthritis of the knee as a complication, whereas in the other patient no complication caused by rubella virus was detected. The IgM antibody response and its value in diagnosis are discussed. PMID:624770

Meurman, O H

1978-01-01

330

Immunoglobulin M serum levels in females and pups of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) during the suckling period.  

PubMed

This paper reports Immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels in serum samples from eight female-pup pairs of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), at King George Island, Antarctica. IgM levels were determined on sera obtained from sequential sampling throughout the suckling period (approximately 23 days). The IgM concentration in southern elephant seal serum was measured by single radial immunodiffusion on agarose plates. Female IgM levels (123.5-613.0 mg/dL, n = 8) were significantly higher than pup levels (5.9-123.6 mg/dL, n = 8). Both groups showed an increasing trend throughout the entire suckling period, with significant differences in relation to stages of lactation. Pup IgM levels on the first day of life (mean +/- SD, 7.6 +/- 2.9 mg/dL, n = 3) suggest that endogenous synthesis takes place before birth. PMID:9683413

Marquez, M E; Carlini, A R; Slobodianik, N H; Ronayne de Ferrer, P A; Godoy, M F

1998-03-01

331

Innate Functions of Immunoglobulin M Lessen Liver Gene Transfer with Helper-Dependent Adenovirus  

PubMed Central

The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

Unzu, Carmen; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo

2014-01-01

332

Innate functions of immunoglobulin M lessen liver gene transfer with helper-dependent adenovirus.  

PubMed

The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

Unzu, Carmen; Melero, Ignacio; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo; Fontanellas, Antonio

2014-01-01

333

IgG subclass responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection and immunization suggest a dominant role for Th1 cells in susceptible mouse strains.  

PubMed Central

Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease. A strong correlation between disease susceptibility and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) has been previously demonstrated, but no strong correlation between disease susceptibility and total anti-TMEV ELISA titres was shown. Since both DTH and IgG2a antibody production are regulated by CD4+ Th1 cells, we investigated three strains of mice to determine whether antivirus IgG2a antibody levels, like DTH in previous studies, correlated with disease susceptibility. Susceptible SJL/J, intermediately susceptible C3H/HeJ, and resistant C57BL/6 mice were infected intracerebrally (i.c.) with the BeAn strain of TMEV and monitored for clinical signs of demyelination and for levels of TMEV-specific antibody of different IgG subclasses using a particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA). Resistant C57BL/6 mice were found to have significantly lower concentrations of total anti-TMEV antibody than susceptible SJL/J mice and intermediately susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show variable antibody responses. A predominance of anti-TMEV IgG2a (Th1 regulated) antibody was seen in susceptible and intermediately susceptible mice, whereas resistant mice displayed a predominant anti-TMEV IgG1 (Th2 regulated) response accompanied by a marked deficiency of IgG2a. In contrast, immunization of C57BL/6 mice with UV-inactivated TMEV in adjuvant revealed that this strain was not defective either in its ability to generate high levels of anti-TMEV antibody or in its ability to produce IgG2a antibody. These results suggest that the antivirus IgG subclass profile is dependent upon the immunization route, virus viability and/or the use of adjuvant and that the levels of antivirus subclasses may be predictive of disease susceptibility. PMID:1350571

Peterson, J D; Waltenbaugh, C; Miller, S D

1992-01-01

334

Assessment of dried blood samples as an alternative less invasive method for detection of Hepatitis E virus marker in an outbreak setting.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E. It can be asymptomatic, associated with acute self-limiting hepatitis or acute liver failure. The conventional diagnosis of HEV infection relies on anti-HEV IgM serology. The collection of blood samples by venepunture for laboratory confirmation is often difficult during an outbreak. Thus, testing the specimens of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter papers can prove to be a feasible alternative. The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of anti-HEV IgM detection from DBS samples and the stability of anti-HEV IgM detection at varied time interval, at various storage temperatures. Paired blood and DBS sample were collected from 44 jaundiced patients and eight healthy controls during HEV outbreaks. The DBS were tested for anti-HEV IgM by available ELISA kit with in-house modifications. Three cut offs were determined, that is, the CO1: kit cut-off, CO2: mean of negative controls above 3SD and CO3: area under Receiver operating Curve. The sensitivity of anti-HEV IgM detection ranged from 86-91%. The maximum sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%) was obtained using CO3. Maximum stability of anti-HEV IgM antibodies (100%) was observed till 65 days at 4°C. Storage at 37°C significantly reduced anti-HEV IgM positivity, wherein 42.85% sample became negative by 45 days. DBS showed good sensitivity and specificity for detecting anti-HEV IgM and can be considered an alternate to serum sample. Moreover, anti-HEV IgM was stable at 4°C, which makes DBS a preferred method for storage and transportation of the sample to reference laboratory. PMID:24375126

Singh, Mini P; Majumdar, Manasi; Budhathoki, Bimal; Goyal, Kapil; Chawla, Yogesh; Ratho, Radha K

2014-04-01

335

Stability and Hopf bifurcation for a delayed SLBRS computer virus model.  

PubMed

By incorporating the time delay due to the period that computers use antivirus software to clean the virus into the SLBRS model a delayed SLBRS computer virus model is proposed in this paper. The dynamical behaviors which include local stability and Hopf bifurcation are investigated by regarding the delay as bifurcating parameter. Specially, direction and stability of the Hopf bifurcation are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theory. Finally, an illustrative example is also presented to testify our analytical results. PMID:25202722

Zhang, Zizhen; Yang, Huizhong

2014-01-01

336

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

337

Northern Light Special Edition: Computer Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest special edition from Northern Light brings together a handy collection of resources on computer viruses, primarily news items and links to related sites. These are grouped in six sections, including current news, US government resources, online reference, anti-virus solutions, and virus writers & hackers. Each section begins with a link to related search returns from Northern Light. While this page is certainly not the end-all resource for virus information, it is a perfectly fine place to begin your search.

338

Jumbo!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jumbo: the "official" shareware site of the Web. This searchable archive contains over 24,000 shareware and freeware programs. Categories include: business, home and personal, programming, utilities, and words and graphics. Within each category, programs are cataloged by operating system. The entire archive is a searchable by program category and operating system. There is a short annotation with the programs to help determine whether to download them or not. Size of program is given. A "starter kit" of a decompression and anti-virus program is also provided for each operating system. This is an excellent specialty site.

1998-01-01

339

Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously. In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools are marketed as perfect solutions to the ever culminating problems such as loss of data and privacy in networked and world wide intercommunications. We provide a forum for addressing these perceived problems in this paper.

Jahankhani, Hossein; Antonijevic, Branko; Walcott, Terry

340

Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

1995-02-01

341

Stability and Hopf Bifurcation for a Delayed SLBRS Computer Virus Model  

PubMed Central

By incorporating the time delay due to the period that computers use antivirus software to clean the virus into the SLBRS model a delayed SLBRS computer virus model is proposed in this paper. The dynamical behaviors which include local stability and Hopf bifurcation are investigated by regarding the delay as bifurcating parameter. Specially, direction and stability of the Hopf bifurcation are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theory. Finally, an illustrative example is also presented to testify our analytical results. PMID:25202722

Yang, Huizhong

2014-01-01

342

System Toolbox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

2001-01-01

343

Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

344

[Follicular lymphoma complicated with myelofibrosis and macroglobulinemia at initial presentation].  

PubMed

A 49-year-old woman presented with pharyngeal and cervical lymph node swelling in December 2010. Biopsy of the pharynx demonstrated follicular lymphoma which secreted large volumes of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Bone marrow aspiration yielded a dry tap, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated myelofibrosis associated with lymphoma cells on admission. The plasma concentration of TGF-? was elevated and monoclonal IgM gammopathy was detected. After only one course of chemotherapy with CHOP plus rituximab, remission of both lymphoma and myelofibrosis was achieved. Bone marrow aspiration became possible, and TGF-? and IgM levels normalized. Thus, the myelofibrosis was reversible. PMID:24305541

Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Abe, Tomoyuki; Jomen, Wataru; Yoshida, Masahiro; Matsuno, Teppei; Sato, Masanori; Yamada, Michiko; Sakurai, Tamaki; Fujii, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Fujita, Miri; Nagashima, Kazuo; Murase, Kazuyuki; Kato, Junji

2013-11-01

345

Polymeric immunoglobulin M is secreted by transfectants of non-lymphoid cells in the absence of immunoglobulin J chain.  

PubMed Central

Plasmids were constructed in which expression of genes encoding the heavy and light chains of a hapten-specific IgM antibody is under control of a heat shock promoter. Glioma, phaeochromocytoma and other non-lymphoid cell lines transfected with the plasmids were able to process and secrete immunoglobulin following heat induction. The glioma transfectants were studied in detail and were shown to secrete polymeric IgM in a yield similar to that obtained with a plasmacytoma. However, the glioma IgM was not associated with J chain and was largely composed of pentamers and hexamers. Thus, neither J chain nor other lymphoid-specific proteins are required for assembly and secretion of polymeric IgM although the absence of J chain may encourage hexamer formation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3119328

Cattaneo, A; Neuberger, M S

1987-01-01

346

XBP-1 regulates signal transduction, transcription factors and bone marrow colonization in B cells  

E-print Network

XBP-1, a transcription factor that drives the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated in B cells when they differentiate to plasma cells. Here, we show that in the B cells, whose capacity to secrete IgM has been ...

Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew

347

[The chronobiological aspects of changes in the level of serum immunoglobulins in healthy people].  

PubMed

The results of the determination of the concentration of immunoglobulins (Ig) in the blood of 540 donors, carried out at the period of 1989-1990, are analyzed. The presence of annual biorhythms in the content of IgA, IgG and IgM has been established, the biorhythmic curves of IgG and IgM practically coinciding and the biorhythmic curve of IgA shifting with respect to the curves of IgG and IgM by about 3 months. As revealed by this analysis, a decrease in the concentration of IgG and IgM correlates with an increase in the occurrence of purulent septic infections after surgical interventions. The presence of annual rhythms in the content serum should be considered in the interpretation of the results of immunological studies, as well as in planning and realization of different therapeutic and prophylactic measures. PMID:8184620

Sorochinskaia, I N; Bazhenov, L G; Nechmirev, A B

1994-01-01

348

Quantitative nephelometry  

MedlinePLUS

... or inflammation Hyperimmunization IgG multiple myeloma Liver disease Rheumatoid arthritis Decreased levels of IgG may be due to: Agammaglobulinemia (very rare) Leukemia Myeloma Preeclampsia Treatment with certain chemotherapy drugs Increased levels of IgM ...

349

Hepatitis B Test  

MedlinePLUS

... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... of tests detect or evaluate the genetic material ( DNA ) of the virus. The pattern of test results ...

350

X-ray Observations of the Hot Intergalactic Medium  

E-print Network

A definite prediction from recent N-body/hydro simulations of the structure formation of the universe is the presence of a diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) in a temperature range of 10^5 - 10^7 K. This hot phase of the IGM may account for most of the baryon content of the universe and may provide unique information on various physical and chemical processes of the structure formation. I review lines of observational evidence for the hot IGM. The topics include the decomposition of the soft X-ray background into point-like and diffuse components, the preliminary spectroscopic data from ASCA for a thermal component, the separation of the Galactic foreground from the extragalactic background, and the detection of individual hot IGM enhancements near rich clusters of galaxies. The results demonstrate the potential of X-ray observations as a powerful tool to study the large-scale structure of the universe.

Q. Daniel Wang

1997-10-14

351

REVIEW Open Access The Schnitzler syndrome  

E-print Network

to other patients with IgM MGUS. It was exceedingly difficult to treat patients with this syndrome until significance (MGUS) [1]. AA-amyloidosis is a concern in untreated patients [2,3]. This review will provide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Immunoglobulin M concentration in Waldenström macroglobulinemia: correlation with bone marrow B cells and plasma cells.  

PubMed

Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M levels vary considerably among patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and previous studies have failed to demonstrate a correlation with overall bone marrow disease burden. In this study, bone marrow B cells and plasma cells were enumerated by flow cytometry and correlated with serum IgM concentrations. Monotypic B cells comprised a median of 6% of bone marrow leukocytes but did not correlate with IgM levels (r = 0.071, P = .5). Plasma cells, although typically present in lower numbers (median, 0.52%) did show a correlation with IgM (r = 0.452, P = .01). IgM levels in Waldenström macroglobulinemia, at least in part, correlate with the degree of plasma cell differentiation seen within the tumor. PMID:23523273

de Tute, Ruth M; Rawstron, Andy C; Owen, Roger G

2013-04-01

353

Lyme Disease Test  

MedlinePLUS

... begin producing B. burgdorferi antibodies. B. burgdorferi IgM (immunoglobulin M) antibodies are usually detectable in the blood ... six weeks and then begin to decline. IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibodies are detectable several weeks after exposure, ...

354

What Is Waldenstrom Macroglobulinema?  

MedlinePLUS

... Plasma cells make proteins called antibodies (also called immunoglobulins ) that help the body attack and kill disease- ... large amounts of a certain type of antibody (immunoglobulin M, or IgM), which is known as a ...

355

Travelers' Health: Dengue Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... onset), IgM anti-DENV can be detected with ELISA. For patients presenting during the first week after ... laboratory confirmation of dengue. IgG anti-DENV by ELISA in a single serum sample is not useful ...

356

Lymphocyte Surface Markers and Serum Immunoglobulins in Persons with Down's Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distributions of the serum immunoglobulins (IgM), of T and B lymphocytes, and subpopulations of B lymphocytes were studied in children and institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome and appropriate mentally retarded controls. (Author)

And Others; Hann, Hie-Won L.

1979-01-01

357

Joint Action, Group Minds and Musical Improvisation: A Philosophical Analysis   

E-print Network

In this thesis, I shall explore the possibility of offering a non-reductive theory of group minds and joint action in performances of IGM. What makes my account distinct from many currently on offer is that I suggest group ...

Ryan, Kevin

2013-11-27

358

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, erythema nodosum and bilateral ankle arthritis in an Iranian woman  

PubMed Central

Here we report a case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) associated with erythema nodosum (EN) and ankle arthritis. The skin, joint and mammary symptoms improved with corticosteroid. Coincidence of granulomatous mastitis, EN and arthritis is a rare feature. PMID:23355571

Binesh, Fariba; Shiryazdi, Mostafa; Bagher Owlia, Mohammad; Azimi, Soheila

2013-01-01

359

Pleural innate response activator B cells protect against pneumonia via a GM-CSF-IgM axis  

PubMed Central

Pneumonia is a major cause of mortality worldwide and a serious problem in critical care medicine, but the immunophysiological processes that confer either protection or morbidity are not completely understood. We show that in response to lung infection, B1a B cells migrate from the pleural space to the lung parenchyma to secrete polyreactive emergency immunoglobulin M (IgM). The process requires innate response activator (IRA) B cells, a transitional B1a-derived inflammatory subset which controls IgM production via autocrine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling. The strategic location of these cells, coupled with the capacity to produce GM-CSF–dependent IgM, ensures effective early frontline defense against bacteria invading the lungs. The study describes a previously unrecognized GM-CSF-IgM axis and positions IRA B cells as orchestrators of protective IgM immunity. PMID:24821911

Chousterman, Benjamin G.; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Robbins, Clinton S.; Theurl, Igor; Gerhardt, Louisa M.S.; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Quach, Tam D.; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, John W.; Rothstein, Thomas L.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph

2014-01-01

360

Quasar spectroscopy in UV and X-ray- probing the intergalactic medium using helium and oxygen  

E-print Network

We employ ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray quasar spectroscopy to study the physical state of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). First, we quantify the possibility of measuring the temperature of moderately over-dense regions of ...

Gong, Donglai, 1977-

2004-01-01

361

Quasar continuum fitting and silicon absorption on the low redshift intergalactic medium  

E-print Network

We present results on the evolution of Ly[alpha] absorption at low redshift, and the first systematic search for Si II absorption systems in the low redshift IGM. Our sample consists of 832 Ly[alpha] absorbers from 328 ...

Miller, Adam A. (Adam Andrew)

2006-01-01

362

The Effects of Photoionization on Galaxy Formation - I: Model and Results at z=0  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a coupled model for the evolution of the global properties of the\\u000aintergalactic medium (IGM) and the formation of galaxies, in the presence of a\\u000aphotoionizing background due to stars and quasars. We use this model to predict\\u000athe thermodynamic history of the IGM when photoionized by galaxies forming in a\\u000acold dark matter (CDM) universe. The evolution

A. J. Benson; C. G. Lacey; C. M. Baugh; S. Cole; C. S. Frenk

2001-01-01

363

Cosmic far ultraviolet background. [observations for intergalactic medium properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expected intensities of various possible components of the far ultraviolet background are discussed. It is concluded that existing results do not place interesting constraints on the density of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Current techniques and instrumentation for far ultraviolet astronomy are, however, sufficient to achieve vastly improved limits. New observations are required to determine whether the IGM can be detected in the far ultraviolet or whether the extragalactic component of the background is masked by radiation with a more local origin.

Davidsen, A.; Bowyer, S.; Lampton, M.

1974-01-01

364

Recent findings on the structure and function of teleost IgT  

Microsoft Academic Search

As key effector molecules of jawed vertebrate’s adaptive immune system, immunoglobulins are produced by B lymphocytes, either as a secretory form (antibody) or as a membrane form (B cell receptor). Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD. In addition, IgM in these species was thought to be the only

Yong-An Zhang; Irene Salinas; J. Oriol Sunyer

2011-01-01

365

PHENOTYPE AND PROLIFERATION OF EARLY B LYMPHOCYTE PRECURSOR CELLS IN MOUSE BONE MARROW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary development of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow can be divided into two major phases based on the expression of the lineage-specific molecule, IgM .In the laterof the two phases, the progressive expression of IgM molecules provides a precise identificationof phenotypically distinctsubsets of B lymphocyte precursors . This has permitted detailed studies of the population sizes,proliferation,and functional maturation

YOUNG-HOON PARK; DENNIS G. OSMOND

366

Comparison of the clinical and serologic diagnosis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and leptospirosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

fluorescence assay (IFA), in 1:16 dilution, for IgG and IgM antibodies to Hantaan 76-118, Seoul, Porogia and Puumala viruses. Positive sera were further tested in two-fold dilutions against the corresponding virus and the serologic diagnosis of HFRS was confirmed by the presence of increasing antibody titers (IgM- and IgG-specific) to the corresponding Hantavirus. For the serodiagnosis of Leptospirosis, all sera

A. Antoniadis; S. Alexiou-Daniel; L. Fidani; E. F. K. Bautz

1995-01-01

367

Evaluation of an immunoenzimatic test (ELISA) for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was assessed to detect in humans IgM and IgG against the main serogroups\\/serovars of Leptospira present in Italy. Sonicated antigens from strain Wijnberg, serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Riccio 2, serogroup Australis, were used in ELISA and the results were compared to microagglutination test (MAT). IgM were confirmed to be the predominant class of antibodies; the total

M. Cinco; D. Balanzin; E. Banfi

1992-01-01

368

Dengue seroconversion among Israeli travelers to tropical countries.  

PubMed Central

We tested for dengue seroconversion among 104 Israeli young adults who traveled to tropical countries for at least 3 months. Seven (6. 7%) seroconverted during travel; four (3.8%) had immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies; one was symptomatic with borderline IgM and a rise in IgG; two others (1.9%) had a rise in IgG titers, without detectable IgM. All four IgM-positive patients had traveled to Southeast Asia. PMID:10603220

Potasman, I.; Srugo, I.; Schwartz, E.

1999-01-01

369

Detecting the redshifted 21cm forest during reionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 21cm forest -- HI absorption features in the spectra of high-redshift radio sources -- can potentially provide a unique probe of the largely neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) during the epoch of reionization. We present simulations of the 21cm forest due to the large scale structure of the reionization-era IGM, including a prescription for x-ray heating and the percolation of

Katherine J. Mack; J. Stuart B. Wyithe

2011-01-01

370

Altered immunoglobulin metabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

IgG and IgM metabolism was evaluated in 10 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in seven normal volunteers. The biological half-lives of purified IgG and IgM, labeled with 131I and 125I, respectively, were determined by serial measurements of radioactivity in the blood and urine with a gamma well counter, and by serial counts of total body radioactivity in a total body counting chamber. The mean survival half-life for IgG in patients with SLE was 8.2 days as compared to an average of 18 days in normal controls. An average of 10.1% of total body IgG was catabolized daily compared to a mean of 3.9% in normal controls. Turnover of IgM in patients with SLE was, with very few exceptions, normal. In contrast, patients with rheumatoid arthritis revealed a milder abnormality of IgG metabolism, but markedly abnormal IgM catabolism with a mean half-life averaging 5.9 days as compared to 9.3 days in control subjects. An average of 14.2% of total body IgM was catabolized daily in patients with RA as compared to 8.1% in normal controls. Our data suggest that there are basic differences between patients with RA and SLE in the synthesis and catabolism of IgG and IgM not readily apparent from serum IgG and IgM concentration. Abnormal IgG and IgM metabolism may be related to underlying immunological mechanisms in these diseases. Immunoglobulin turnover studies appear to be an additional means for the characterization of rheumatic diseases. PMID:5309797

Levy, Joshua; Barnett, Eugene V.; MacDonald, Norman S.; Klinenberg, James R.

1970-01-01

371

Intrarenal red cell and plasma volumes in the non-diuretic rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrarenal distribution of51Cr-labelled red cells and125I-?M-immunoglobulin (125I-IgM) was studied in non-diuretic rats. IgM was chosen as a macroprotein which will either stay intravascularly or only very slowly permeate the renal blood vessels. Tracer equilibration times of 1, 2 and 10 min were used. In the three renal zones (cortex, outer and inner medulla) the IgM distribution volume was not

S. Nybo Rasmussen

1973-01-01

372

Serodiagnosis of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection by Using Recombinant Viral Capsid Antigen Fragments and Autologous Gene Fusion  

PubMed Central

Using recombinant 15- to 30-kDa fragments and fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST), we investigated the seroreactivity of three large structural proteins of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), p150 (BcLF1, capsid), p143 (BNRF1, tegument), and gp125 (BALF4, membrane) in Western blots. None of 13 fragments tested, however, was qualified for diagnostic application. In contrast, the two small viral capsid antigens (VCA), p18 (BFRF3) and p23 (BLRF2), demonstrated sensitive (100%) EBV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivities. While p18 additionally showed maximum sensitivity for IgM detection, the IgM sensitivity of p23 was restricted (44%). An autologous fusion protein, p23-p18, which consists N-terminally of full-length p23, followed by the carboxy half of p18, was constructed. This antigen was subjected to indirect VCA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), for IgG and IgM, as well as to a ?-capture (?c) IgM ELISA. All assays were found to be 100% specific when EBV-negative sera were tested. Using sera from previously infected individuals, the p23-p18 fusion revealed an improved IgG sensitivity of 99% compared to sensitivities of 97 and 93% for the single antigens p18 and p23, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the indirect IgM ELISA with samples of primary and past infections, respectively, were 100%. The ?c principle for IgM overcame completely the interference by rheumatoid factors. Compared to the specificity of the indirect IgM version, the specificity with sera collected from rheumatoid arthritis patients increased from 48 to 100%. In summary, the p23-p18 IgG and ?c IgM ELISAs showed excellent performances and are promising new diagnostic tests for the detection of EBV-specific antiviral capsid antibodies. PMID:10488185

Hinderer, Walter; Lang, Dieter; Rothe, Markus; Vornhagen, Rolf; Sonneborn, Hans H.; Wolf, Hans

1999-01-01

373

Comparison of two rapid diagnostic assays for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to dengue virus.  

PubMed

Two easy-to-use commercial diagnostic assays, a dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Integrated Diagnostics, Baltimore, Md.) and an immunochromatographic card assay (PanBio, Brisbane, Australia) were evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to dengue virus with an in-house IgM antibody capture microplate ELISA as a reference assay. The dipstick ELISA was based on the indirect-ELISA format using dengue 2 virus as the only antigen and enzyme-labeled goat anti-human IgM antibody as the detector. The total assay time was 75 min. The immunochromatographic card assay was based on the antibody capture format and separately measured both anti-dengue virus IgM and IgG in the same test. Colloidal-gold-labeled anti-dengue virus monoclonal antibody bound with dengue virus 1 to 4 antigen cocktail was the detector, and anti-human IgM and IgG were the capture antibodies. The total assay time was <10 min. Sera from 164 individuals classified as either anti-dengue virus IgM positive (94) or anti-dengue virus IgM negative (70) in the reference microplate ELISA with a dengue virus 1 to 4 antigen cocktail were tested in the two commercial assays. The dipstick ELISA missed 7 of 94 positive samples, for a sensitivity of 92.6%, while the immunochromatographic card assay missed two positive samples, for a sensitivity of 97.9%. Of the 70 negative samples, four were false positive by the dipstick ELISA and two were false positive in the immunochromatographic card assay, resulting in specificities of 94.3 and 97.1%, respectively. Both commercial assays provide sensitive and specific detection of anti-dengue virus IgM antibody and could prove useful in settings where the microplate ELISA is impractical. PMID:10618287

Wu, S J; Paxton, H; Hanson, B; Kung, C G; Chen, T B; Rossi, C; Vaughn, D W; Murphy, G S; Hayes, C G

2000-01-01

374

Evaluation of four methods for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to dengue virus.  

PubMed

Dengue has become hyperendemic in many islands of the Caribbean region. The performance in a diagnostic laboratory of four commercial assays for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies was evaluated. Sera from 62 patients with dengue virus infection were studied. These included 18 patients from whom dengue virus type 2 was isolated in a 1997 outbreak (specimens collected a mean of 14 days after onset of symptoms), 8 patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (mean time after onset, 11 days), and 36 patients in whom dengue was previously confirmed by serology (mean time after onset, 10 days). Thirty serum specimens from blood donors in a country where dengue is not endemic were used as negative controls. The methods evaluated were two IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) (MRL Diagnostics, Cypress, Calif., and PanBio, Queensland, Australia), a dot ELISA dipstick assay (Integrated Diagnostics, Baltimore, Md.), and a rapid immunochromatographic assay for dengue IgG and IgM (PanBio IC). IgG antibodies were also detected by an ELISA method (MRL Diagnostics). The sensitivities of the four assays were as follows: MRL Diagnostics IgM ELISA, 98.4%; PanBio IgM ELISA, 85.5%; Integrated Diagnostics IgM dot ELISA, 96. 8%; and PanBio IC, 83.9%. The specificities of all tests were 100%. Evidence of secondary dengue was found in all patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever and in 83% of the remaining patients. The MRL Diagnostics IgM ELISA appears to be more sensitive than the PanBio IgM ELISA, and this may be significant when IgM titers are low, particularly in patients with secondary dengue infections. The dot ELISA dipstick assay is equally sensitive and may be more appropriate for use in laboratories with lower workloads. PMID:10391862

Branch, S L; Levett, P N

1999-07-01

375

The intergalactic medium thermal history at redshift z = 1.7-3.2 from the Ly? forest: a comparison of measurements using wavelets and the flux distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the redshift interval z = 1.7-3.2 by studying the small-scale fluctuations in the Lyman ? forest transmitted flux. We apply a wavelet filtering technique to 18 high-resolution quasar spectra obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph, and compare these data to synthetic spectra drawn from a suite of hydrodynamical simulations in which the IGM thermal state and cosmological parameters are varied. From the wavelet analysis we obtain estimates of the IGM thermal state that are in good agreement with other recent, independent wavelet-based measurements. We also perform a reanalysis of the same data set using the Lyman ? forest flux probability distribution function (PDF), which has previously been used to measure the IGM temperature-density relation. This provides an important consistency test for measurements of the IGM thermal state, as it enables a direct comparison of the constraints obtained using these two different methodologies. We find the constraints obtained from wavelets and the flux PDF are formally consistent with each other, although in agreement with previous studies, the flux PDF constraints favour an isothermal or inverted IGM temperature-density relation. We also perform a joint analysis by combining our wavelet and flux PDF measurements, constraining the IGM thermal state at z = 2.1 to have a temperature at mean density of T0/[103 K] = 17.3 ± 1.9 and a power-law temperature-density relation exponent ? = 1.1 ± 0.1 (1?). Our results are consistent with previous observations that indicate there may be additional sources of heating in the IGM at z < 4.

Garzilli, A.; Bolton, J. S.; Kim, T.-S.; Leach, S.; Viel, M.

2012-08-01

376

Further Characterization of the Autoantibody Response of Palmerston North Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

PN mice spontaneously develop, with age, a lupus-like disease. The present study further evaluated autoantibody production in female PN mice. As early as 1 month of age, all PN mice had detectable IgM antibodies to dsDNA and ssDNA and two-thirds produced IgM anticardiolipin antibodies. By 3 months of age, all PN mice exhibited evidence of isotype switch in their autoantibody

Barry S. Handwerger; Catherine E. Storrer; Craig S. Wasson; Ferideh Movafagh; Morris Reichlin

1999-01-01

377

Constraining the Evolution of the Ionizing Background and the Epoch of Reionization with z~6 Quasars. II. A Sample of 19 Quasars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the evolution of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of the reionization epoch using moderate-resolution spectra of a sample of 19 quasars at 5.74~11, and the average length of dark gaps with tau>3.5 increases from 80 comoving Mpc. The dispersion of IGM properties

Xiaohui Fan; Robert H. Becker; Richard L. White; James E. Gunn; Gillian R. Knapp; Gordon T. Richards; Donald P. Schneider; J. Brinkmann; Masataka Fukugita

2006-01-01

378

Heterologous antibodies to evaluate the kinetics of the humoral immune response in dogs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain.  

PubMed

An IgM capture ELISA using heterologous antibodies was developed to evaluate the kinetics of the humoral immune response in dogs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain. Detection of parasite in tissues from inoculated dogs was evaluated by mouse bioassay and immunohistochemical techniques. Serum samples were obtained at regular intervals up to 62 days post-inoculation (p.i.), when the animals were necropsied and their tissues examined. Antibody levels were measured by IgM capture ELISA (McELISA), indirect hemagglutination (IHA), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IgG-IFAT) and indirect immunoenzymatic assay (IgG-ELISA). All dogs seroconverted but only one exhibited severe clinical signs of infection. IgM antibodies were detected by McELISA from the seventh day on, with decreasing IgM levels around the 27th day. Similar results were obtained from IHA, although McELISA showed earlier and longer detection of IgM antibodies. IgG antibodies were detected from the seventh day on, and throughout the period of observation. Immunohistochemical findings and mouse bioassay revealed the presence of free tachyzoites in tissues of the clinically affected dog only. These results suggest that T. gondii acute infection in dogs shows a remarkably transient IgM synthesis, and this feature may constitute an important marker of active infection. Furthermore, McELISA was shown to be a potential tool to diagnose canine toxoplasmosis. PMID:12127249

Silva, Deise A O; Silva, Neide M; Mineo, Tiago W P; Pajuaba Neto, Adalberto A; Ferro, Eloisa A V; Mineo, José R

2002-08-01

379

Neutralizing antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed Central

Neutralization of varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus by human sera and immune rhesus monkey sera was enhanced by fresh guinea pig complement. There was no marked difference in the degree to which complement enhanced neutralization by sera from current V-Z virus infections and sera from long-past varicella infections. Immunoglobulin G neutralizing antibody in sera from varicella cases was enhanced by complement to a slightly higher degree than was immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody, and immunoglobulin G neutralizing antibody in immune monkey sera was enhanced to a much greater degree than was IgM antibody. There was a rapid decline in the complement requirement of IgM neutralizing antibodies over the course of immunization of the rhesus monkeys. V-Z neutralizing antibody titers in the presence of complement were higher than complement-fixing titers of the same sera in all groups of individuals studied. IgM neutralizing antibody for V-Z virus was demonstrable in all cases of varicella but in only 1 of 22 zoster cases, and V-Z IgM neutralizing antibody was not detectable in primary herpes simplex virus infections in which heterotypic antibody titer rises occurred to V-Z virus. Complement-fixing antibody for V-Z virus was absent in 19S serum fractions which contained IgM neutralizing antibody for the virus. PMID:170206

Schmidt, N J; Lennette, E H

1975-01-01

380

Characterizing the non-equilibrium ionization state of the intergalactic medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most common ions used to track metals in the intergalactic medium (IGM) is OVI. Ion species in the IGM are typically assumed to be in ionization equilibrium, but owing to the low density of the plasma they may be significantly out of equilibrium. Divergences from equilibrium would make estimates of the amount and evolution of metals in the IGM incorrect. Using a new software package for building and solving complex chemical networks coupled to cosmological hydrodynamic + N-body simulations, we investigate the non-equilibrium properties of the IGM. In particular, we explore how significantly the ionization structure of the IGM diverges from the equilibrium state as a function of time and physical environment. Motivated by the abundant observational data that probes the intergalactic medium via OVI absorption lines in quasar spectra, we track all ionization states of atomic oxygen alongside those of hydrogen and helium. We use the results of these non-equilibrium simulations to characterize the mass content and ionization properties of the IGM and help interpret current observations made by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.

Silvia, Devin W.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D.; Shull, J. Michael; Turk, Matthew; Reynolds, Daniel

2015-01-01

381

Unveiling the nature of dark matter with high redshift 21 cm line experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen will open a new window on the early Universe. By influencing the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), annihilating dark matter (DM) can leave a detectable imprint in the 21 cm signal. Building on the publicly available 21cmFAST code, we compute the 21 cm signal for a 10 GeV WIMP DM candidate. The most pronounced role of DM annihilations is in heating the IGM earlier and more uniformly than astrophysical sources of X-rays. This leaves several unambiguous, qualitative signatures in the redshift evolution of the large-scale (k simeq 0.1 Mpc-1) 21 cm power amplitude: (i) the local maximum (peak) associated with IGM heating can be lower than the other maxima; (ii) the heating peak can occur while the IGM is in emission against the cosmic microwave background (CMB); (iii) there can be a dramatic drop in power (a global minimum) corresponding to the epoch when the IGM temperature is comparable to the CMB temperature. These signatures are robust to astrophysical uncertainties, and will be easily detectable with second generation interferometers. We also briefly show that decaying warm dark matter has a negligible role in heating the IGM.

Evoli, C.; Mesinger, A.; Ferrara, A.

2014-11-01

382

Human secretory immunoglobulin M. An immunochemical and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed Central

IgM was purified from normal human colostrum and salivary secretions devoid of IgA. The isolated immunoglobulin was found to contain J chain, and showed a slight affinity for free secretory component (SC). In the secretions IgM was saturated with SC, but only 60--70 per cent of the molecules had retained the component after purification. Moreover, the I determinant of SC was much more exposed in secretory IgM than in secretory IgA, indicating a relatively 'loose' quaternary structure of the former immunoglobulin. Paired immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that secretory epithelial cells of colonic glands contained IgM in exactly the same distribution as IgA. IgM appearing in exocrine secretions is therefore a true secretory immunoglobulin in contrast to IgG. However, the quaternary structure of secretory IgM is less covalently stabilized than that of secretory IgA. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:809350

Brandtzaeg, P

1975-01-01

383

Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift  

E-print Network

Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

2007-07-13

384

Human serum antibody response in Campylobacter jejuni enteritis as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed

An ELISA for detection of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody using an acid-glycine extract from Campylobacter jejuni as antigen was developed. To determine the value of this assay for the diagnosis of acute Campylobacter jejuni infections, the IgG, IgA, and IgM immune response against Campylobacter jejuni was investigated at various timepoints after infection in patients with culture-proven infection. A total of 112 sera from 46 patients and 78 sera from a control group were tested. All but one of the 46 patients with culture-proven Campylobacter jejuni enteritis developed IgG antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni. IgA and IgM ELISA both showed 97% specificity, and sensitivity of 63% and 30% respectively. IgG antibody titers generally remained at a constant level for more than 50 days, whereas IgA and IgM antibody titers declined more rapidly to normal values within 30 to 50 days after onset of clinical symptoms. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni specific IgA antibodies in a single serum sample provided the most useful assay for serological diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. The presence of Campylobacter jejuni specific IgM antibodies was the sole diagnostic criterion in three cases. Serological diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis should therefore include both IgA and IgM antibody determination. PMID:3137040

Herbrink, P; van den Munckhof, H A; Bumkens, M; Lindeman, J; van Dijk, W C

1988-06-01

385

Effect of cold exposure on the metabolism of immunoglobulins in rabbits.  

PubMed

The effect of low environmental temperature on the metabolism of IgG and IgM was examined in unimmunized rabbits. The half-lives of both IgG and IgM were less in animals kept at 4 degrees C for 6 weeks than in animals kept at 22 degrees C. Serum concentration of IgM and GG were unaltered by cold exposure but intravascular pool sizes tended to increase as a consequence of an expanded serum volume. Fractional turnover rates of both IgM and IgG were greater in cold-exposed animals. At both 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C, the fractional catabolic rate of IgM was independent of its serum concentration whereas that of IgG was correlated directly with its serum concentration. Absolute turnover of both IgM and IgG was accelerated by cold exposure. It is suggested that increased synthesis of immunoglobulin could account for the higher levels of antibody reportedly found in cold-exposed rabbits. PMID:1245734

Sabiston, B H; Rose, J E

1976-01-01

386

Monolith peptide affinity chromatography for quantification of immunoglobulin M.  

PubMed

We have developed a method for quantification of a specific monoclonal IgM directed toward embryonic stem cells based on a peptide affinity monolith. A peptide affinity ligand with the sequence C-C-H-Q-R-L-S-Q-R-K was obtained by epitope mapping using peptide SPOT synthesis. The peptide ligand was covalently immobilized by coupling the N-terminal cysteine to a monolithic disk that was previously modified with iodated spacer molecules. The monolithic disc was used for quantification of purified IgM and for IgM present in mammalian cell culture supernatant. We observed 17% unspecific binding of IgM to the monolithic disk and additionally a product loss in the flow through of 20%. Nevertheless, calibration curves had high correlation coefficients and inter/intra-assay variability experiments proved sufficient precision of the method. A limit of quantification of 51.69 ?g/mL for purified IgM and 48.40 ?g/mL for IgM in cell culture supernatant could be calculated. The binding capacity was consistent within the period of the study which included more than 200 cycles. The analysis time of less than 2 min is an advantage over existing chromatographic methods that rely on pore diffusion. PMID:21067766

Neff, Silke; Jungbauer, Alois

2011-04-29

387

ANISOTROPIC ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTFLOWS AND ENRICHMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. II. METALLICITY  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the large-scale influence of outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in enriching the intergalactic medium (IGM) with metals in a cosmological context. We combine cosmological simulations of large-scale structure formation with a detailed model of metal enrichment, in which outflows expand anisotropically along the direction of least resistance, distributing metals into the IGM. The metals carried by the outflows are generated by two separate stellar populations: stars located near the central AGN, and stars located in the greater galaxy. Using this algorithm, we performed a series of five simulations of the propagation of AGN-driven outflows in a cosmological volume of size (128 h{sup -1} Mpc){sup 3} in a {Lambda}CDM universe, and analyze the resulting metal enrichment of the IGM. We found that the metallicity induced in the IGM is greatly dominated by AGNs having bolometric luminosity L>10{sup 9} L{sub sun}, sources with 10{sup 8} < L/L{sub sun} < 10{sup 9} having a negligible contribution. Our simulations produced an average IGM metallicity of [O/H] = -5 at z = 5.5, which then rises gradually, and remains relatively flat at a value [O/H] = -2.8 between z = 2 and z = 0. The ejection of metals from AGN host galaxies by AGN-driven outflows is found to enrich the IGM to >10%-20% of the observed values, the number dependent on redshift. The enriched IGM volume fractions are small at z>3, then rise rapidly to the following values at z = 0: 6%-10% of the volume enriched to [O/H]> - 2.5, 14%-24% volume to [O/H]> - 3, and 34%-45% volume to [O/H]> - 4. At z {>=} 2, there is a gradient of the induced enrichment, the metallicity decreasing with increasing IGM density, enriching the underdense IGM to higher metallicities, a trend more prominent with increasing anisotropy of the outflows. This can explain observations of the metal-enriched low-density IGM at z {approx} 3-4.

Barai, Paramita [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Martel, Hugo; Germain, Joel [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada)

2011-01-20

388

Serologic Responses to Recombinant Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein among Ugandan Patients with Respiratory Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the serologic responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg) antigen in African cohorts, or the IgM responses to Msg in HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons with respiratory symptoms. Methods We conducted a prospective study of 550 patients, both HIV-positive (n?=?467) and HIV-negative (n?=?83), hospitalized with cough ?2 weeks in Kampala, Uganda, to evaluate the association between HIV status, CD4 cell count, and other clinical predictors and antibody responses to P. jirovecii. We utilized ELISA to measure the IgM and IgG serologic responses to three overlapping recombinant fragments that span the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein: MsgA (amino terminus), MsgB (middle portion) and MsgC1 (carboxyl terminus), and to three variations of MsgC1 (MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9). Results HIV-positive patients demonstrated significantly lower IgM antibody responses to MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9 compared to HIV-negative patients. We found the same pattern of low IgM antibody responses to MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9 among HIV-positive patients with a CD4 cell count <200 cells/µl compared to those with a CD4 cell count ?200 cells/µl. HIV-positive patients on PCP prophylaxis had significantly lower IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC9, and lower IgG responses to MsgA, MsgC1, MsgC3, and MsgC8. In contrast, cigarette smoking was associated with increased IgM antibody responses to MsgC1 and MsgC3 but was not associated with IgG responses. We evaluated IgM and IgG as predictors of mortality. Lower IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC8 were both associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Conclusions HIV infection and degree of immunosuppression are associated with reduced IgM responses to Msg. In addition, low IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC8 are associated with increased mortality. PMID:23284710

Blount, Robert J.; Jarlsberg, Leah G.; Daly, Kieran R.; Worodria, William; Davis, J. Lucian; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Djawe, Kpandja; Andama, Alfred; Koch, Judith; Walzer, Peter D.; Huang, Laurence

2012-01-01

389

Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2) cannot account for the baryon content of the universe at z approximately 3 observed in quasar absorption line gas unless Omega (sub B) significantly exceeds the maximum value allowed by big bang nucleocynthesis. (5) For a CDM model with bias parameter within the allowed range of (lower) values, the lower limit to Omega(sub B) imposed by big bang nucleosynthesis (Omega(sub B) h(sup 2) greater than or equal to 0.01) combines with our results to yield the minimum IGM density for the CDM fodel. For CDM with b = 1 (Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization), we find Omega(sub IGM)(sup min) (z approximately 4) approx. equal 0.02-0.03, and Omega(sub IGM)(sup min)(z approximately 0) approx. equal 0.005-0.03, depending upon the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (6) In general, we find that self-consistent reionization of the IGM by the collapsed baryon fraction has a strong effect on the rate of collapse. (7) As a further example, we show that the feedback effect on the IGM of energy release by the collapsed baryon fraction may explain the slow evolution of the observed comoving QSO number density between z = 5 and z = 2, followed by the sharp decline after z = 2.

Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

1994-01-01

390

Fármacos dirigidos activos contra el cáncer de seno HER-2 positivo: preguntas y respuestas  

Cancer.gov

ALTTO fue un estudio clínico diseñado para determinar si la combinación del anticuerpo monoclonal trastuzumab (Herceptina) y el fármaco lapatinib (Tykerb) era más eficaz para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno HER2/ErbB2 positivo al combinarse con quimioterapia que el tratamiento con uno solo de los fármacos. Los resultados del estudio no indicaron que existan ventajas al combinar trastuzumab y lapatinib frente al tratamiento solo con trastuzumab.

391

Defective immunoglobulin M responses to vaccination or infection with Schistosoma mansoni in xid mice.  

PubMed Central

Mice vaccinated with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae develop a persistent immunoglobulin M (IgM) antischistosomulum antibody response. To investigate the possible role of antilarval IgM antibodies in the effector mechanism of vaccine-induced immunity, CBA/N mice, which have an X-linked genetic defect resulting in impaired IgM antibody responses to certain antigens, were analyzed for their resistance to a challenge infection. When either infected with unattenuated parasites or vaccinated with irradiated cercariae, mice of this inbred strain failed to produce detectable IgM antibodies to schistosomulum surface membrane and soluble worm antigens. To analyze the effect of this IgM deficiency on immunity, F1 hybrids were constructed between CBA/N females and nondefective C57BL/6J males. As expected, vaccinated (CBA/N X C57BL/6J)F1 females, as well as (CBA/J X C57BL/6J)F1 males and females, produced normal IgM antibodies to both surface antigens and worm antigen extracts. However, such antibodies were not produced by (CBA/N X C57BL/6J)F1 males (hemizygous for xid). Nevertheless, (CBA/N + C57BL/6J)F1 males displayed the same high levels of immunity to challenge infection as (CBA/N X C57BL/6J)F1 females and (CBA/J X C57BL/6J)F1 males and females. These results indicate that vaccine-induced immunity is not dependent on an IgM response to schistosome antigens. PMID:3932208

Correa-Oliveira, R; Sher, A

1985-01-01

392

Photo-heating and the fate of hard photons during the reionisation of HeII by quasars  

E-print Network

We use a combination of analytic and numerical arguments to consider the impact of quasar photo-heating during HeII reionisation on the thermal evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We demonstrate that rapid (\\Delta z 10^4 K) photo-heating is difficult to achieve across the entire IGM unless quasar spectra are significantly harder than implied by current observational constraints. Although filtering of intrinsic quasar radiation through dense regions in the IGM does increase the mean excess energy per HeII photo-ionisation, it also weakens the radiation intensity and lowers the photo-ionisation rate, preventing rapid heating over time intervals shorter than the local photo-ionisation timescale. Moreover, the hard photons responsible for the strongest heating are more likely to deposit their energy inside dense clumps. The abundance of such clumps is, however, uncertain and model-dependent, leading to a fairly large uncertainty in the photo-heating rates. Nevertheless, although some of the IGM may be exposed to a hardened and weakened ionising background for long periods, most of the IGM must instead be reionised by the more abundant, softer photons and with accordingly modest heating rates (\\Delta T < 10^4 K). The repeated ionisation of fossil quasar HeIII regions does not increase the net heating because the recombination times in these regions typically exceed the IGM cooling times and the average time lag between successive rounds of quasar activity. Detailed line-of-sight radiative transfer simulations confirm these expectations and predict a rich thermal structure in the IGM during HeII reionisation. [Abridged

James S. Bolton; S. Peng Oh; Steven R. Furlanetto

2009-03-16

393

Can the intergalactic medium cause a rapid drop in Ly? emission at z > 6?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large cross-section of the Ly? line makes it a sensitive probe of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we present the most complete study to date of the IGM Ly? opacity, and its application to the redshift evolution of the `Ly? fraction', i.e. the fraction of colour-selected galaxies with a detectable Ly? emission line. We use a tiered approach, which combines large-scale seminumeric simulations of reionization with moderate-scale hydrodynamic simulations of the ionized IGM. This allows us to simultaneously account for evolution in both: (i) the opacity from an incomplete (patchy) reionization, parametrized by the filling factor of ionized regions, QH II; and (ii) the opacity from self-shielded systems in the ionized IGM, parametrized by the average photoionization rate inside H II regions, H II. In contrast to recent empirical models, attenuation from patchy reionization has a unimodal distribution along different sightlines, while attenuation from self-shielded systems is more bimodal. We quantify the average IGM transmission in our (QH II, H II) parameter space, which can easily be used to interpret new data sets. Our new, improved models highly disfavour an evolution in H II as the sole driver of a large change in IGM opacity. Using current observations, we predict that the Ly? fraction cannot drop by more than a factor of ?2 with IGM attenuation alone, even for H II filling factors as low as QH II ? 0.1. Larger changes in the Ly? fraction could result from a co-evolution with galaxy properties. Marginalizing over H II, we find that current observations constrain QH II(z ? 7) ? 0.6, at a 68 per cent confidence level (CL). However, all of our parameter space is consistent with observations at 95 per cent CL, highlighting the need for larger observational samples at z ? 6.

Mesinger, Andrei; Aykutalp, Aycin; Vanzella, Eros; Pentericci, Laura; Ferrara, Andrea; Dijkstra, Mark

2015-01-01

394

THE 21 cm FOREST AS A PROBE OF THE REIONIZATION AND THE TEMPERATURE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect

Using high-redshift radio sources as background, the 21 cm forest observations probe the neutral hydrogen absorption signatures of early structures along the lines of sight. Directly sensitive to the spin temperature of the hydrogen atoms, it complements the 21 cm tomography observations, and provides information on the temperature as well as the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We use a radiative transfer simulation to investigate the 21 cm forest signals during the epoch of reionization. We first confirmed that the optical depth and equivalent width (EW) are good representations of the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. The features selected by their relative optical depth are excellent tracers of ionization fields, and the features selected by their absolute optical depth are very sensitive to the IGM temperature, so the IGM temperature information could potentially be extracted from 21 cm forest observation, thus breaking a degeneracy in 21 cm tomographic observation. With the EW statistics, we predict some observational consequences for 21 cm forest. From the distributions of EWs and the number evolution of absorbers and leakers with different EWs, we see clearly the cosmological evolution of ionization state of the IGM. The number density of potentially observable features decreases rapidly with increasing gas temperature. The sensitivity of the proposed EW statistic to the IGM temperature makes it a unique and potentially powerful probe of reionization. Missing small-scale structures, such as small filaments and minihalos that are unresolved in our current simulation, and lack of an accurate calculation of the IGM temperature, however, likely have rendered the presented signals quantitatively inaccurate. Finally, we discuss the requirements of the background radio sources for such observations, and find that signals with equivalent widths larger than 1 kHz are hopeful to be detected.

Xu Yidong; Fan Zuhui [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen Xuelei [National Astronomical Observatory of China, CAS, Beijing 100012 (China); Trac, Hy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Cen, Renyue [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2009-10-20

395

Diagnostic Potential and Antigenic Properties of Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Subviral Particles Expressed in Mammalian Cells from Semliki Forest Virus Replicons  

PubMed Central

The precursor membrane envelope (prME) proteins of all three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) subtypes were produced based on expression from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicons transcribed from recombinant plasmids. Vero E6 cells transfected by these plasmids showed specific reactivities in immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays by monoclonal antibodies against European and Far-Eastern subtype strains of TBEV, indicating proper folding of the expressed glycoproteins. The prME glycoproteins were secreted into the cell culture supernatant, forming TBEV subviral particles of 20 to 30 nm in diameter. IgM ?-capture and IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were developed based on prME Karelia-94 (Siberian subtype) particles. Altogether, 140 human serum samples were tested using these assays, and the results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgM EIA, an in-house ?-capture IgM assay based on baculovirus-expressed antigen, a commercial IgG EIA, and a hemagglutination inhibition test. Compared to reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the sensitivities of the generated ?-capture IgM SFV-prME and IgG MAb-capture SFV-prME EIAs were 97.4 to 100% and 98.7%, respectively, and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. IgM and IgG immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) were created based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the recombinant plasmid carrying the TBEV Karelia-94 prME glycoproteins. The IgM IFA was 100% concordant with the ?-capture IgM bac-prME ELISA. The IgG IFA sensitivity and specificity were 98.7% and 100%, respectively, compared to those of the commercial ELISA. In conclusion, the tests developed based on SFV replicon-driven expression of TBEV glycoproteins provide safe and robust alternatives for conducting TBEV serology. PMID:24371235

Kuivanen, Suvi; Matveev, Andrey; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Jääskeläinen-Hakala, Anu; Vapalahti, Olli

2014-01-01

396

Taxing the rich: recombinations and bubble growth during reionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM), and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present the first analytic model that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers, because at any given moment the bubbles have a well-defined characteristic size. As a result, reionization resembles `punctuated equilibrium,' with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles grow until recombinations balance ionizations, when their expansion abruptly halts. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts (because of minihalo formation, for example), the limit could be much smaller. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the Universe has for all intents and purposes entered the `post-overlap' stage. Because different HII regions saturate over a finite time interval, the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. Our model also predicts a mean recombination rate several times larger than expected for a uniformly illuminated IGM. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z > 6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the `bubble-dominated' topology characteristic of reionization and the `web-dominated' topology characteristic of the later Universe.

Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng

2005-11-01

397

Evaluation of a dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to dengue virus.  

PubMed

Accurate serological confirmation of dengue (DEN) infection is difficult, because simple reliable assays for the detection of DEN antibodies are not available. To address this problem, a dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated. The dipstick contained dots of serially diluted DEN 2 antigen. To detect immunoglobulin G (IgG), the dipstick was processed through four reaction cuvettes containing test serum, enhancer, enzyme-conjugated anti-human IgG and IgM antibody, and substrate. Total assay time was 45 min. To detect IgM, the serum was passed through a protein G device to remove IgG. The dipstick was then processed as before, except that the incubation times were longer and enzyme-conjugated anti-human IgM was used. The total assay time was 3 h. The dipstick ELISA results were compared with results from microplate ELISA. The IgG dipstick ELISA showed a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 100% compared to an IgG microplate ELISA with serum samples from 125 individuals living in an area in which DEN is endemic. In tests with 75 serum samples from patients with clinically suspected acute DEN infections, the IgM dipstick ELISA showed a sensitivity of 97.9% and specificity of 100% compared to those of an IgM antibody capture microplate ELISA. These results showed that the dipstick ELISA was a sensitive and specific test for the detection of either DEN IgM or IgG in human serum. The dipstick ELISA was also shown to be useful for detecting seroconversions to DEN IgM or IgG in paired serum samples from 20 patients with virus isolation-confirmed acute DEN infections. PMID:9220163

Wu, S J; Hanson, B; Paxton, H; Nisalak, A; Vaughn, D W; Rossi, C; Henchal, E A; Porter, K R; Watts, D M; Hayes, C G

1997-07-01

398

Development of a Lepto-IgM EIACR test to diagnose leptospirosis disease in Costa Rican patient samples.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an endemic disease throughout Costa Rica, which could be misdiagnosed because manifestations of this febrile disease may vary from mild flu-like symptoms to severe illness involving vital organs such as liver and lungs. Therefore an early specific diagnosis is important to ensure a favorable clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to develop a Leptospira sp. anti-IgM EIA (Lepto-IgM EIACR) test and to compare it using Lepto-Dipstick IgM (Lepto-DS IgM) and PanBio-EIA IgM with the Microscopy Agglutination test (MAT) as a reference assay. Sera from 736 healthy blood donors were used as negative controls to calculate specificity (97.1%), Confidence Interval 95 (CI (96-98). Cross reactivity was evaluated in 268 patient samples with 6 different diseases. Dengue and measles had the highest cross reactivity (16%) while rubella showed the lowest (3%). To determine the sensitivity of the Lepto- IgM EIACR, 33 samples positive by MAT of 96 paired samples from patients with symptoms related to leptospirosis infection were tested. Lepto-IgM EIACR reached a sensitivity of 90.9% (CI 81-100), while Lepto-DS IgM was 48.5% (CI (31-66). The most frequent serovars detected by MAT in these paired samples were Hebdomadis 14.7%, Hardjo 11.8%, Pomona 8.8% and Icterohaemorrhagiae 5.9%. Furthermore 59 febrile patient samples were tested initially with PanBio-EIA IgM, 21 samples (35%) were positive. When these samples were re-tested by Lepto-IgM EIACR and Lepto-DS IgM, 80.9% and 33% were positive, respectively. The results of the evaluation indicate that Lepto-IgM EIACR test could be a good alternative to detect acute leptospirosis in Costa Rica. PMID:17853789

de los A Valverde, María; León, Bernal; Taylor, Lizeth; Visona, Kirsten

2007-09-01

399

Immunoglobulin M and D antigen receptors are both capable of mediating B lymphocyte activation, deletion, or anergy after interaction with specific antigen  

PubMed Central

A series of immunoglobulin (Ig)-transgenic mice were generated to study the functional capabilities of the IgM and IgD classes of B lymphocyte antigen receptor in regulating both cellular development and responses to specific antigen. B cells from Ig-transgenic mice expressing either hen-egg lysozyme (HEL)-specific IgM or IgD alone were compared with B cells from mice that coexpressed IgM and IgD of the same anti-HEL specificity. In all three types of Ig-transgenic mice, conventional B cells specific for HEL exhibited exclusion of endogenous Ig expression and matured to populate the usual microenvironments in peripheral lymphoid tissues. These peripheral B cells could be stimulated by HEL through either IgM or IgD antigen receptors to generate T cell dependent antibody production in vivo or to enhance T cell independent proliferative responses to lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Conversely, when HEL was encountered in vivo as a self-antigen, B cells expressing HEL-specific IgM or IgD alone were both rendered tolerant. In each case this occurred by clonal anergy in response to soluble autologous HEL, and clonal deletion when HEL was recognized as a membrane-bound self- antigen. Taken together, these findings indicate that IgM and IgD antigen receptors expressed alone on conventional B cells can support normal differentiation, antigen-dependent activation, and induction of self-tolerance, the only overt difference lying in a greater degree of receptor downregulation for IgM relative to IgD after induction of clonal anergy by soluble HEL. PMID:1402669

1992-01-01

400

Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.  

SciTech Connect

The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout the rest of this report. The features are extracted using an instrumented PDF viewer, and are the inputs to a prediction model that scores the likelihood of a PDF file containing malware. The prediction model is constructed from a sample of labeled data by a machine learning algorithm (specifically, decision tree ensemble learning). Preliminary experiments show that the model is able to detect half of the PDF malware in the corpus with zero false alarms. We conclude the report with suggestions for extending this work to detect a greater variety of PDF malware.

Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO)

2011-09-01

401

Identification of potential serodiagnostic and subunit vaccine antigens by antibody profiling of toxoplasmosis cases in Turkey.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a 'tier-1' test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a 'tier-2' test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of improved serodiagnostics and vaccines. PMID:21512035

Liang, Li; Dö?kaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ay?e; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E; Bradley, Peter J; Korkmaz, Metin; Gürüz, Yüksel; Felgner, Philip L; Davies, D Huw

2011-07-01

402

Identification of Potential Serodiagnostic and Subunit Vaccine Antigens by Antibody Profiling of Toxoplasmosis Cases in Turkey*  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a ‘tier-1? test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a ‘tier-2? test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of improved serodiagnostics and vaccines. PMID:21512035

Liang, Li; Dö?kaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ay?e; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E.; Bradley, Peter J.; Korkmaz, Metin; Gürüz, Yüksel; Felgner, Philip L.; Davies, D. Huw

2011-01-01

403

Characterization of the pseudorabies virus-specific immunoglobulin M response and evaluation of its diagnostic use in pigs with preexisting immunity to the virus.  

PubMed Central

Despite preexisting immunity to pseudorabies virus (PRV), pigs may become infected and may or may not show clinical signs of disease. To investigate whether detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to PRV is suitable for diagnosis of recent infection in pigs with (or without) preexisting immunity, the IgM responses of pigs were examined after both experimental and natural infections. Upon inoculation of seronegative pigs with a low dose of a mildly virulent strain of PRV, IgM was first detectable at day 7 postinoculation (p.i.), reached a maximum at day 14 p.i., and became undetectable again at about days 32 to 36 p.i. In inoculated pigs with maternal antibodies against PRV, the IgM response began later and ended sooner, and peak titers were also lower. In immune pigs with maternally derived antibodies, there was apparently no correlation between the virulence of the inoculated strain and the IgM response. The suitability of the IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of recent infection in the field was compared with that of the virus neutralization (VN) assay and with an ELISA which specifically detects antibodies directed to glycoprotein I (gI) of PRV. Paired sera were obtained from pigs suspected of PRV infection in an area endemic for PRV infection in which vaccination against PRV is often applied. Practically all pigs had antibodies to PRV in the acute phase of the disease. Compared with the VN assay, the specificity of the IgM ELISA was high but its sensitivity was low. However, all three serotests apparently failed to detect some PRV infections. The IgM ELISA appeared to be especially useful as a diagnostic aid for detection of recent infections in pigs with high levels of neutralizing and gI antibodies, probably maternally derived, in the acute phase of the disease. Such pigs may fail to develop a significant rise in VN antibody titer. The IgM ELISA may be the only serotest for monitoring infections in such pigs. PMID:8408547

Kimman, T G

1993-01-01

404

Characterization of the pseudorabies virus-specific immunoglobulin M response and evaluation of its diagnostic use in pigs with preexisting immunity to the virus.  

PubMed

Despite preexisting immunity to pseudorabies virus (PRV), pigs may become infected and may or may not show clinical signs of disease. To investigate whether detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to PRV is suitable for diagnosis of recent infection in pigs with (or without) preexisting immunity, the IgM responses of pigs were examined after both experimental and natural infections. Upon inoculation of seronegative pigs with a low dose of a mildly virulent strain of PRV, IgM was first detectable at day 7 postinoculation (p.i.), reached a maximum at day 14 p.i., and became undetectable again at about days 32 to 36 p.i. In inoculated pigs with maternal antibodies against PRV, the IgM response began later and ended sooner, and peak titers were also lower. In immune pigs with maternally derived antibodies, there was apparently no correlation between the virulence of the inoculated strain and the IgM response. The suitability of the IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of recent infection in the field was compared with that of the virus neutralization (VN) assay and with an ELISA which specifically detects antibodies directed to glycoprotein I (gI) of PRV. Paired sera were obtained from pigs suspected of PRV infection in an area endemic for PRV infection in which vaccination against PRV is often applied. Practically all pigs had antibodies to PRV in the acute phase of the disease. Compared with the VN assay, the specificity of the IgM ELISA was high but its sensitivity was low. However, all three serotests apparently failed to detect some PRV infections. The IgM ELISA appeared to be especially useful as a diagnostic aid for detection of recent infections in pigs with high levels of neutralizing and gI antibodies, probably maternally derived, in the acute phase of the disease. Such pigs may fail to develop a significant rise in VN antibody titer. The IgM ELISA may be the only serotest for monitoring infections in such pigs. PMID:8408547

Kimman, T G

1993-09-01

405

Differentiation of cytomegalovirus antigens by their reactivity with various classes of human antibodies in the indirect fluorescent antibody test.  

PubMed Central

Human sera containing immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibodies were tested by immunofluorescence for reactivity with cytomegalovirus-infected cell cultures and with early antigens of cytomegalovirus produced by treating the infected cultures with either bromodeoxyuridine or cytosine arabinoside. IgG antibody but not IgM antibody reacted with early antigens produced in bromodeoxyuridine-treated infected cultures. This observation on a small sample of sera suggested that a positive IgM reaction with an infected, nontreated culture and a negative reaction with a bromodeoxyuridine-treated infected culture may indicate a positive specific IgM reaction for cytomegalovirus, even in the presence of IgM rhematoid factor. The hyothesis requires further testing. The different classes of antibody did not all react or did not react to the same extent with early antigens produced in infected cells blocked with cytosine arabinoside or bromodeoxyuridine. This observation indicates that different antigens were being produced as a result of the two treatments. Images PMID:6243674

Riggs, J L; Cremer, N E

1980-01-01

406

The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

1991-01-01

407

Inter-Specific Coral Chimerism: Genetically Distinct Multicellular Structures Associated with Tissue Loss in Montipora capitata  

PubMed Central

Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss. PMID:21829541

Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabó, Zoltán; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

2011-01-01

408

Noncoordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp-1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny.  

PubMed

B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as those encoding J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete "natural" IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp-1. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp-1(-) antibody-secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages. Sharks naturally produce large amounts of both pentameric (classically "19S") and monomeric (classically "7S") IgM, the latter an indicator of adaptive immunity. Consistent with the mammalian paradigm, shark Blimp-1 is expressed in splenic 7S IgM-secreting cells, though rarely detected in the J-chain(+) cells producing 19S IgM. Although IgM transcript levels are lower in J-chain(+) cells, these cells nevertheless secrete 19S IgM in the absence of Blimp-1, as demonstrated by ELISPOT and metabolic labeling. Additionally, cells in the shark BM equivalent (epigonal) are Blimp-1(-). Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal are maintained for long periods without Blimp-1, but like in mammals, Blimp-1 is required for terminating the B-cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen. PMID:23897025

Castro, Caitlin D; Ohta, Yuko; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

2013-11-01

409

SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF VIRAL, SYPHILITIC AND TOXOPLASMIC INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME: CASE SERIES FROM MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Some infections can be the cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of a Renal Disease Reference Clinic from Central Brazil, in which serological markers of some infectious agents are systematically screened in children with nephrotic syndrome. Data were obtained from the assessment of medical files of all children under fifteen years of age, who matched nephrotic syndrome criteria. Subjects were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii and cytomegalovirus; antibodies against Herpes simplex, hepatitis C virus and HIV; and surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus. The VDRL test was also performed. 169 cases were studied. The median age on the first visit was 44 months and 103 (60.9%) patients were male. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM were found in 70.4% and 4.1%, respectively. IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii were present in 32.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Two patients were positive for HBsAg, but none showed markers for HIV, hepatitis C, or Treponema pallidum. IgG and IgM against herpes simplex virus were performed on 54 patients, of which 48.1% and 22.2% were positive. IgM antibodies in some children with clinical signs of recent infection suggest that these diseases may play a role in the genesis of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25351544

Soares, Silvania França da Silva; Donatti, Teresinha Lermen; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

2014-01-01

410

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire interview was carried out to ask about some risk factors of infection. Among the 487 studied pregnant women, 38.8 % were seropositive for anti T. gondii IgG while 6.2 % were positive for anti T. gondii IgM and 3.3 % were positive for both anti T. gondii IgG & IgM. The only risk factor associated with seropositive anti T. gondii IgM was the history of the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Regarding anti T. gondii IgG seropositivity, it was found to increase significantly with increased age, number of gravida and parities, and previous history of toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG & IgM by ELISA among pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia is considerable with few identifiable significant risk factors reported. PMID:24505169

Almushait, Mona A; Dajem, Saad M Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M; Eskandar, Mamdoh A; Al Azraqi, Tarik A; Makhlouf, Laila M

2014-03-01

411

GCN5 is involved in regulation of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene expression in immature B cells.  

PubMed

GCN5 is involved in the acetylation of core histones, which is an important epigenetic event for transcriptional regulation through alterations in the chromatin structure in eukaryotes. To investigate physiological roles of GCN5, we have systematically analyzed phenotypes of homozygous GCN5-deficient DT40 mutants. Here, we report participation of GCN5 in regulation of IgM heavy chain (H-chain) gene expression. GCN5-deficiency down-regulates gene expressions of IgM H-chain (as whole, membrane-bound and secreted forms of its mRNA) but not light chain (L-chain), causing decreases in membrane-bound and secreted forms of IgM proteins. Chromatin immnoprecipitation assay revealed that GCN5 binds to the chicken IgM H-chain gene around its constant region but not L-chain gene, and acetylate Lys-9 residues of histone H3 within chromatin surrounding the constant region. These results suggest that GCN5 takes part in transcriptional regulation of the IgM H-chain gene via histone acetylation resulting in formation of relaxed chromatin arrangement around its coding region and plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of B cell functions. PMID:24746634

Kikuchi, Hidehiko; Nakayama, Masami; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Nishitoh, Hideki; Takami, Yasunari; Nakayama, Tatsuo

2014-07-01

412

Production of a monoclonal antibody against serum immunoglobulin M of South American camelids and assessment of its suitability in two immunoassays.  

PubMed

A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced against immunoglobulin M (IgM) of South American camelids. A single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to measure IgM in serum samples. Isotype and specificity of the mAb were assessed. The performance of the SRID assay was preliminarily evaluated in terms of working range, plate stability over a 4-week period, and initial intra- and interassay variation. The concentration of IgM was determined in 55 samples by SRID assay and ELISA, and results were not significantly different by t-test (0.64 ± 0.19 mg/ml for the SRID assay, and 0.58 ± 0.24 mg/ml for ELISA; P = 0.1489). The mAb was shown to be stable over the 4-week evaluation period, and the SRID assay was reproducible when tested in triplicate for intra-assay variability and in quadruplicate for interassay variability, with a percentage coefficient of variation of less than or equal to 5%. Also, the SRID assay proved to be sensitive enough to measure IgM levels in undiluted serum samples, and had a good correlation with ELISA. The current study is intended to submit a preliminary report of a mAb against IgM of South American camelids, and suggest the future potential of the mAb developed for diagnostic application, including use in the SRID assay. PMID:25057160

Friedrich, Adrián; Ledesma, Martín; Landone, Ignacio; Ferrari, Alejandro; Leoni, Juliana

2014-09-01

413

Serological diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection: Problems and solutions  

PubMed Central

Serological tests for antibodies specific for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens are frequently used to define infection status and for the differential diagnosis of other pathogens responsible for mononucleosis syndrome. Using only three parameters [viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM and EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 IgG],it is normally possible to distinguish acute from past infection: the presence of VCA IgM and VCA IgG without EBNA-1 IgG indicates acute infection, whereas the presence of VCA IgG and EBNA-1 IgG without VCA IgM is typical of past infection. However, serological findings may sometimes be difficult to interpret as VCA IgG can be present without VCA IgM or EBNA-1 IgG in cases of acute or past infection, or all the three parameters may be detected simultaneously in the case of recent infection or during the course of reactivation. A profile of isolated EBNA-1 IgG may also create some doubts. In order to interpret these patterns correctly, it is necessary to determine IgG avidity, identify anti-EBV IgG and IgM antibodies by immunoblotting, and look for heterophile antibodies, anti-EA (D) antibodies or viral genome using molecular biology methods. These tests make it possible to define the status of the infection and solve any problems that may arise in routine laboratory practice. PMID:24175209

De Paschale, Massimo; Clerici, Pierangelo

2012-01-01

414

Visualization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O antigens by using a protein A-dextran-colloidal gold conjugate with both immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Two lipopolysaccharide O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, MA1-8 (an immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1]) and MF15-4 (an IgM), were used to localize the O antigen of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. A protein A-dextran-gold conjugate with an average particle diameter of 12.5 nm was used to label bacterial cells treated with MA1-8, while a second antibody (goat anti-mouse IgM) was required before the same probe could interact with cells treated with the IgM antibody MF15-4. Both antibodies resulted in exclusive labeling of the surface of P. aeruginosa PAO1 but not that of an isogenic O-antigen-lacking rough mutant. When the monoclonal antibodies became attached to the cell surface of P. aeruginosa PAO1, resulting in an even coating, the foldings and other topographic details could not be discerned by negative staining. In thin sections of monoclonal-antibody-treated bacteria, a 20- and a 30- to 40-nm thick amorphous layer was observed around the outside of the outer membrane when MA1-8 (IgG) and MF15-4 (IgM) plus goat anti-mouse IgM antibodies were used, respectively. This amorphous layer presumably resulted from the stabilization of the lipopolysaccharide structure by the monoclonal antibodies which prevented the long O-antigen chains from collapsing owing to dehydration. Images PMID:2440850

Lam, J S; Lam, M Y; MacDonald, L A; Hancock, R E

1987-01-01

415

Evaluation of a dipstick ELISA and a rapid immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of Dengue virus infection.  

PubMed

Here we report standardization of a dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dipstick ELISA) and its comparative evaluation with a commercial Rapid PanBio Immunochromatographic test (IC test) for detection of Dengue (DEN) virus-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in patient sera. Among crude and purified viral antigens prepared from mouse brains or cell cultures, a DEN virus type 2 antigen purified from cell cultures by sucrose density gradient centrifugation was found superior in terms of the signal/ noise (S/N) ratio in the assay system. The sensitivity of detection of the virus by specific IgM antibody was improved by removal of IgG from patient sera prior to testing. The evaluation of the Dipstick ELISA by use of 156 serum samples revealed an overall accordance of 96% and 93% with the IC test in detection of IgM antibodies to DEN viruses (IgM antibodies) and IgG antibodies to DEN viruses (IgG antibodies), respectively. The sensitivity of the Dipstick ELISA and the IC test with reference to the mu-capture ELISA was 83% and 87%, respectively, with a specificity of 98% in both cases. The sensitivity of the Dipstick ELISA with reference to the IC test in detecting IgM and IgG antibodies was 84% and 94%, respectively, and the specificity of the Dipstick ELISA was 98% and 92%, respectively. PMID:12083329

Parida, M M; Upadhyay, C; Saxena, P; Dash, P K; Jana, A M; Seth, P

2001-01-01

416

Comparison of major immunoglobulins intrathecal synthesis patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban patients with angiostrongyliasis.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Moreira, Juan M; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

2011-03-01

417

Immunological memory in latent Japanese encephalitis virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Long term B-cell memory to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in latently infected mice was investigated by adoptive cell transfer. Both IgM and IgG memory were elicited by antigen challenge or cyclophosphamide induced reactivation of virus. A weak antigen-specific IgM response for a brief period and a strong IgG response were detected in Swiss albino mice exposed to secondary infection. A correlation between the secondary IgM antibody and protection against JEV challenge was observed in adoptive transfer experiments. This was abrogated by pretreatment of the serum with 2-mercaptoethanol. Similarly secondary immune splenic T-cells up to day 5 post-reactivation provided protection. These results suggest that a long term antigen-specific IgM and IgG memory was induced by JEV challenge in latently infected mice. Further, the role of IgM antibody and T-cells in the response of mice to secondary JEV infection has been shown. PMID:2460122

Kulshreshtha, R.; Mathur, A.; Chaturvedi, U. C.

1988-01-01

418

Human B cell clones can be induced to proliferate and to switch to IgE and IgG4 synthesis by interleukin 4 and a signal provided by activated CD4+ T cell clones  

PubMed Central

In the present study, it is demonstrated that cloned surface IgM- positive human B cells can be induced to proliferate and to switch with high frequencies to IgG4 and IgE production after a contact-mediated signal provided by T cell clones and interleukin 4 (IL-4). This T cell signal is antigen nonspecific and is provided by activated CD4+ cells, whereas activated CD8+ or resting CD4+ T cell clones are ineffective. 15-35% of the B cell clones cultured with cloned CD4+ T cells and IL-4 produced antibodies; 35-45% of those wells in which antibodies were produced contained IgE and IgG4. In addition to B cell clones that produced IgG4 or IgE only, B cell clones producing multiple isotypes were observed. Simultaneous production of IgG4 and IgE, IgM, IgE, and IgM, or IgG4 and IgE was detected, suggesting that during clonal expansion switching might occur in successive steps from IgM to IgG4 and IgE. In addition, production of only IgM, IgG4, and IgE during clonal expansion indicates that this isotype switching is directed by the way a B cell is stimulated and that it is not a stochastic process. PMID:1997653

1991-01-01

419

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a healthy adult population from Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway by different assays. Sera from 1213 blood donors at four different blood banks were analysed in Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE/IgG (IgG), Enzygnost Borreliosis IgM (IgM), and Immunetics C6 Lyme ELISA kit (C6). Sera showing positive or grey-zone reactivities were further examined with Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgG blot and Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgM blot. The seroprevalences were 9.6%, 8.2%, 8.4%, 6.4% and 5.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence for IgG was lower in the eastern part of the county and in owners of pet animals. It was higher in men, and increased with age and number of tick bites. C6 and IgG gave comparable results. IgM only was found in 4.5%, more often in women, did not increase with age, and showed no relationship with geography, and 56.4% were positive in IgM blot. In conclusion, antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. are common in blood donors in western Norway. The results may be used for evaluation of predictive values of test results in patients, as well as a basis for test algorithms in the laboratory. PMID:24730472

Hjetland, Reidar; Nilsen, Roy M; Grude, Nils; Ulvestad, Elling

2014-11-01

420

Non-coordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp-1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Summary Blimp-1 is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete “natural” IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp-1. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp-1- antibody secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages. Sharks naturally produce large amounts of both pentameric (classically ‘19S’) and monomeric (classically ‘7S’) IgM, the latter an indicator of adaptive immunity. Consistent with the mammalian paradigm, shark Blimp-1 is expressed in splenic 7S IgM-secreting cells, though rarely detected in the J-chain+ cells producing 19S IgM. Although IgM transcript levels are lower in J-chain+ cells, these cells nevertheless secrete 19S IgM in the absence of Blimp-1, as demonstrated by ELISPOT and metabolic labeling. Additionally, cells in the shark bone marrow equivalent (epigonal) are Blimp-1-. Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal can be maintained for long periods without Blimp-1, but like in mammals, Blimp-1 is required for terminating the B cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen. PMID:23897025

Castro, Caitlin D.; Ohta, Yuko; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F.

2014-01-01

421

Of four murine, anti-Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O-polysaccharide antibodies, three employ V-genes that differ extensively from those of the fourth.  

PubMed

Three murine, monoclonal antibodies, IgM 5286 F2, IgM 5297 C1, and IgG 5338 H4 were generated against Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP)-conjugate. They are specific for the O-SP, which is a poly-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-al pha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-2-deoxy-2-amino-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyr anosyl]. The VH and VL genes of these antibodies were cloned and their sequences determined. They showed 93% homology, but were quite different to the primary sequence of IgM 3707 E9, of the same O-SP-specificity, previously reported. The fine-specificities of both IgG 5338 H4 and IgM 3707 E9 were for the same disaccharide moiety in the O-SP, while IgMs 5286 F2 and 5297 C1 showed fine-specificity for the entire repeating unit of the O-SP. Therefore, divergent sequences can confer upon antibodies similar-, or even identical-carbohydrate-epitope fine-specificity. In addition, close primary sequence-homology does not preclude differences in antibody fine-specificity. PMID:9129157

Miller, C E; Karpas, A; Schneerson, R; Huppi, K; Ková?, P; Pozsgay, V; Glaudemans, C P

1996-11-01

422

A generalized framework for interactive dynamic simulation for MultiRigid bodies.  

PubMed

This paper presents a generalized framework for dynamic simulation realized in a prototype simulator called the Interactive Generalized Motion Simulator (I-GMS), which can simulate motions of multirigid-body systems with contact interaction in virtual environments. I-GMS is designed to meet two important goals: generality and interactivity. By generality, we mean a dynamic simulator which can easily support various systems of rigid bodies, ranging from a single free-flying rigid object to complex linkages such as those needed for robotic systems or human body simulation. To provide this generality, we have developed I-GMS in an object-oriented framework. The user interactivity is supported through a haptic interface for articulated bodies, introducing interactive dynamic simulation schemes. This user-interaction is achieved by performing push and pull operations via the PHANToM haptic device, which runs as an integrated part of I-GMS. Also, a hybrid scheme was used for simulating internal contacts (between bodies in the multirigid-body system) in the presence of friction, which could avoid the nonexistent solution problem often faced when solving contact problems with Coulomb friction. In our hybrid scheme, two impulse-based methods are exploited so that different methods are applied adaptively, depending on whether the current contact situation is characterized as "bouncing" or "steady." We demonstrate the user-interaction capability of I-GMS through on-line editing of trajectories of a 6-degree of freedom (dof) articulated structure. PMID:15376839

Son, Wookho; Kim, Kyunghwan; Amato, Nancy M; Trinkle, Jeffrey C

2004-04-01

423

Cyber-Insurance in Internet Security: A Dig into the Information Asymmetry Problem  

E-print Network

Internet users such as individuals and organizations are subject to different types of epidemic risks such as worms, viruses, spams, and botnets. To reduce the probability of risk, an Internet user generally invests in traditional security mechanisms like anti-virus and anti-spam software, sometimes also known as \\emph{self-defense} mechanisms. However, according to security experts, such software (and their subsequent advancements) will not completely eliminate risk. Recent research efforts have considered the problem of residual risk elimination by proposing the idea of \\emph{cyber-insurance}. In this regard, an important research problem is resolving information asymmetry issues associated with cyber-insurance contracts. In this paper we propose \\emph{three} mechanisms to resolve information asymmetry in cyber-insurance. Our mechanisms are based on the \\emph{Principal-Agent} (PA) model in microeconomic theory. We show that (1) optimal cyber-insurance contracts induced by our mechanisms only provide partial...

Pal, Ranjan

2012-01-01

424

Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped baculovirus vector-transduced ribozyme in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

The baculovirus has recently emerged as a promising vector for in vivo gene therapy. To investigate its potential as a delivery vector for an anti-virus ribozyme targeting HIV-1, we constructed recombinant baculovirus vectors bearing a ribozyme-synthesizing cassette driven by the tRNA(i)(Met) promoter with enhanced transduction efficiency by displaying vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) on the viral envelope. Transduction of HeLa CD4(+) cells with a recombinant baculovirus delivering the HIV-1 U5 gene-specific ribozyme dramatically suppressed HIV-1 expression in this cell line. The VSV-G pseudotyped baculovirus vector-transduced ribozyme potently inhibited HIV-1 replication compared to a recombinant baculovirus vector-transduced ribozyme lacking VSV-G. The use of a baculovirus vector might be beneficial for application in gene therapy. PMID:16979590

Kaneko, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Abe, Takashi; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Takaku, Hiroshi

2006-11-01

425

[Roles of geldanamycin biosynthetic genes in Streptomyces hygroscopicus 17997].  

PubMed

Geldanamycin (Gdm), an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), shows antitumor and antivirus bioactivity. Most Geldanamycin biosynthetic genes have been cloned from the genome library of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 17997. In this report, polyketide synthase (pks) gene, mono-oxygenase (gdmM) gene and carbamoyltransferase gene (gdmN) were subjected to inactivation. Three gene disrupted mutants (deltapks, deltagdmM and deltagdmN) were obtained by double crossover. No Geldanamycin production was detected in three mutant strains cultured in fermentation broth. Gene complementation experiments excluded the possible polar effect of gene disruption on other genes. These results confirmed that pks, gdmM and gdmN genes were essential for Geldanamycin biosynthesis. PMID:18837385

He, Weiqing; Liu, Yuying; Sun, Guizhi; Wang, Yiguang

2008-07-01

426

[Chronic HBsAg negative hepatitis in childhood, Stud using the immunofluorescence method].  

PubMed

13 children with chronic HBsAg negative hepatitis were examined in this work with the I.F. method. Comparison can be made with a previous work on chronic HBsAg positive hepatitis. 8 of these patients were cases of ECP, 1 was a ECA-A and 4 were ECA-B. Research has been done to point out immunoglobulins and immunocomplexes in the liver and serum. On the whole, fluorescence was less both in liver and serum than fluorescence in chronic HBsAg positive hepatitis. Reasons of it can be: the absence of anti-virus B antibodies (HBcAb, delta-Ab, HBsAb), the relative lightness of our cases and, probably, a better answer of HBsAg negative hepatitis than of HBsAg positive one to immunodepressive treatment. PMID:7034745

Calzia, R; Ciravegna, B; Navone, C; Tolentino, P

1981-07-31

427

Synthesis and biological evaluation of fucoidan-mimetic glycopolymers through cyanoxyl-mediated free-radical polymerization.  

PubMed

The sulfated marine polysaccharide fucoidan has been reported to have health benefits ranging from antivirus and anticancer properties to modulation of high blood pressure. Hence, they could enhance the biological function of materials for biomedical applications. However, the incorporation of fucoidan into biomaterials has been difficult, possibly due to its complex structure and lack of suitable functional groups for covalent anchoring to biomaterials. We have developed an approach for a rapid synthesis of fucoidan-mimetic glycopolymer chains through cyanoxyl-mediated free-radical polymerization, a method suitable for chain-end functionalizing and subsequent linkage to biomaterials. The resulting sulfated and nonsulfated methacrylamido ?-L-fucoside glycopolymers' fucoidan-mimetic properties were studied in HSV-1 infection and platelet activation assays. The sulfated glycopolymer showed similar properties to natural fucoidan in inducing platelet activation and inhibiting HSV-1 binding and entry to cells, thus indicating successful syntheses of fucoidan-mimetic glycopolymers. PMID:24813544

Tengdelius, Mattias; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Grenegård, Magnus; Griffith, May; Påhlsson, Peter; Konradsson, Peter

2014-07-14

428

Metamorphic Virus Variants Classification Using Opcode Frequency Histogram  

E-print Network

In order to prevent detection and evade signature-based scanning methods, which are normally exploited by antivirus software, metamorphic viruses use several various obfuscation approaches. They transform their code in new instances as look entirely or partly different and contain dissimilar sequences of string, but their behavior and function remain unchanged. This obfuscation process allows them to stay away from the string based signature detection. In this research, we use a statistical technique to compare the similarity between two files infected by two morphed versions of a given metamorphic virus. Our proposed solution based on static analysis and it uses the histogram of machine instructions frequency in various offspring of obfuscated viruses. We use Euclidean histogram distance metric to compare a pair of portable executable (PE) files. The aim of this study is to show that for some particular obfuscation methods, the presented solution can be exploited to detect morphed varieties of a file. Hence,...

Rad, Babak Bashari

2011-01-01

429

Design, Synthesis and Antiviral Activity Studies of Schizonepetin Derivatives  

PubMed Central

A series of schizonepetin derivatives have been designed and synthesized in order to obtain potent antivirus agents. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 and influenza virus H3N2 as well as the cytotoxicity of these derivatives was evaluated by using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay in vitro. Compounds M2, M4, M5 and M34 showed higher inhibitory activity against HSV-1 virus with the TC50 values being in micromole. Compounds M28, M33, and M35 showed higher inhibitory activity against influenza virus H3N2 with their TC50 values being 96.4, 71.0 and 75.4 ?M, respectively. Preliminary biological activity evaluation indicated that the anti-H3N2 and anti-HSV-1 activities improved obviously through the introduction of halogen into the structure of schizonepetin. PMID:23965980

Bao, Beihua; Meng, Zheng; Li, Nianguang; Meng, Zhengjie; Zhang, Li; Cao, Yudan; Yao, Weifeng; Shan, Mingqiu; Ding, Anwei

2013-01-01

430

Stay Safe Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the National Cyber Security Alliance, Stay Safe Online works to educate the public on the importance of protecting their personal computers from online intruders. If proper security procedures are not implemented, computers can become victims to viruses, denial of service attacks, Trojan horse programs, and other malicious activities that take advantage of computer vulnerabilities and result in billions of dollars of damage. Designed to provide information needed to protect home and small business computers, this Web site provides the top ten security tips on how to safeguard computer systems, such as using anti-virus software, not opening e-mail from unknown sources, and backing up computer data. The site also contains a self-guided cyber security test, educational materials, and links to other Internet security sources. In all, this is an important resource for all computer users to explore.

2007-08-09

431

[Advance in studies on effective components in wheat bran and their pharmacological activities].  

PubMed

Wheat bran, as the testa of wheat, has a long history of medication. Modern studies have discovered that wheat bran contains dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, proteins, vitamins, minerals and many other compounds, and boasts wide pharmacological activities such as blood glucose reduction, hypertension reduction, lipid reduction, anti-oxidation, anti-bacteria, anti-inflammatory, antivirus, prevention of colon cancer and mutations, immunomodulation and adsorption of heavy metals. With great development and utilization values, wheat bran has long attracted wide attention from Chinese and foreign scholars. The paper summarizes the latest advance in domestic and foreign studies on effective components in wheat bran and their pharmacological effect, and gives a brief introduction of the limiting factors in the comprehensive development and utilization of wheat bran, in order to provide new preference for the development and utilization of abundant wheat bran resources in China. PMID:24761627

Zhang, Yi; Li, Yu; Wang, Jian; Yang, Ya-Li; Yuan, Lv-Jiang

2014-01-01

432

The effect of infected external computers on the spread of viruses: A compartment modeling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inevitably, there exist infected computers outside of the Internet. This paper aims to understand how infected external computers affect the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a new virus-antivirus spreading model, which takes into account the effect of infected/immune external computers, is established. A systematic study shows that, unlike most previous models, the proposed model admits no virus-free equilibrium and admits a globally asymptotically stable viral equilibrium. This result implies that it would be practically impossible to eradicate viruses on the Internet. As a result, inhibiting the virus prevalence to below an acceptable level would be the next best thing. A theoretical study reveals the effect of different parameters on the steady virus prevalence. On this basis, a number of suggestions are made so as to contain virus spreading.

Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

2013-12-01

433

Pricing and Investments in Internet Security: A Cyber-Insurance Perspective  

E-print Network

Internet users such as individuals and organizations are subject to different types of epidemic risks such as worms, viruses, spams, and botnets. To reduce the probability of risk, an Internet user generally invests in traditional security mechanisms like anti-virus and anti-spam software, sometimes also known as self-defense mechanisms. However, such software does not completely eliminate risk. Recent works have considered the problem of residual risk elimination by proposing the idea of cyber-insurance. In this regard, an important research problem is the analysis of optimal user self-defense investments and cyber-insurance contracts under the Internet environment. In this paper, we investigate two problems and their relationship: 1) analyzing optimal self-defense investments in the Internet, under optimal cyber-insurance coverage, where optimality is an insurer objective and 2) designing optimal cyber-insurance contracts for Internet users, where a contract is a (premium, coverage) pair.

Pal, Ranjan

2011-01-01

434

ISOLATION OF CAFFEIC ACID FROM EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM SPRENG BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY AND SYNTHESIS OF CAFFEIC ACID-INTERCALATED LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE  

PubMed Central

Preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for isolation and purification of caffeic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng with a solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water at a volume ratio of 10:1:10, v/v. Using a preparative unit of the HSCCC centrifuge, about a 938 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 63.2 mg of caffeic acid at purity of 96.0%. Then, the anti-microbial and anti-virus drug caffeic acid (C9H8O4) was intercalated into layered double hydroxides for the first time by anion exchange under a nitrogen atmosphere. The product caffeic acid–LDH has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron micrographs (SEM), indicating that the drug has been successfully intercalated into LDH. PMID:20454592

Wei, Yun; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Kai; Ito, Yoichiro

2010-01-01

435

ISOLATION OF CAFFEIC ACID FROM EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM SPRENG BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY AND SYNTHESIS OF CAFFEIC ACID-INTERCALATED LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE.  

PubMed

Preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for isolation and purification of caffeic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng with a solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water at a volume ratio of 10:1:10, v/v. Using a preparative unit of the HSCCC centrifuge, about a 938 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 63.2 mg of caffeic acid at purity of 96.0%. Then, the anti-microbial and anti-virus drug caffeic acid (C(9)H(8)O(4)) was intercalated into layered double hydroxides for the first time by anion exchange under a nitrogen atmosphere. The product caffeic acid-LDH has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron micrographs (SEM), indicating that the drug has been successfully intercalated into LDH. PMID:20454592

Wei, Yun; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Kai; Ito, Yoichiro

2010-01-01

436

Detection of immunoglobulin M in cerebrospinal fluid from syphilis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were evaluated in an immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) for syphilis with sonic extracts of Treponema pallidum coated on polystyrene plates. The ELISA procedure was reproducible, and T. pallidum antigens were stable., A total of 15 CSF samples from patients with neurosyphilis, 18 CSF samples from patients with syphilis, 12 CSF samples from patients treated for syphilis, and 494 CSF samples from patients with neurologic or other systemic diseases were tested. The IgM ELISA gave reactive results in all of six symptomatic and congenital neurosyphilitic patients and none of nine asymptomatic neurosyphilitic patients. Of 524 CSF samples from nonneurosyphilitic individuals, 513 were nonreactive, resulting in 98% test specificity. The IgM ELISA in CSF should prove to be useful for confirmation of symptomatic neurosyphilis. PMID:3533984

Lee, J B; Farshy, C E; Hunter, E F; Hambie, E A; Wobig, G H; Larsen, S A

1986-01-01

437

GeV excess electrons upscattering the CMB: a possible resolution to the "Photon Underproduction Crisis"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a gamma-ray excess has been identified in the inner Milky Way, which may be associated with the final state photon shower following DM annihilation to standard model final states. In this scenario ~ GeV electrons are also produced and, given their long energy loss timescale (~ Gyr), they can diffuse and escape the galaxy before losing too much energy. If such an electron population exists in the IGM, one observable consequence would be inverse Compton scattering on the CMB, which would produce UV photons that can efficiently ionize the IGM. This may be a possible resolution to the "Photon Underproduction Crisis", recent