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1

Exploiting an Antivirus Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a technique for defeating signature-based malware detectors by ex- ploiting information disclosed by antivirus interfaces. This information is lever- aged to reverse engineer relevant details of the detector's underlying signature database, revealing binary obfuscations that suce to conceal malware from the detector. Experiments with real malware and antivirus interfaces on Windows operating systems justies the eectiveness of our

Kevin W. Hamlen; Vishwath Mohan; Mohammad M. Masuda; Latifur Khan; Bhavani Thuraisingham

2

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

3

Vcatch Antivirus 6.3.1.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vcatch Antivirus is a program that will help users monitor their incoming emails and downloads in order to protect their computers from viruses and other such nefarious intruders. This program is integrated with Windows Explorer, and includes a detection engine that analyzes all files. Another helpful feature is that this application cooperates with anti-virus programs that are already installed on users' operating system. This program is compatible with all operating systems running Windows 95 and higher.

4

AMG Anti-Virus Free Edition 9.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this version of its popular product, AMG Anti-Virus is offering a few new notable highlights. For one, visitors can use the full-featured scheduling utility for automating tasks and checking for new definitions. This version of Anti-Virus also includes new anti-phishing detection techniques and an up-to-date link scanner. Users running Windows 2000 and newer as well as Linux will be able to use this application.

5

Evaluation and selection of an antivirus and content filtering software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations and individuals today need to have a comprehensive virus protection policy to face the growing threats of the Internet computer viruses. Given the rise in micro viruses within the last three years many organizations have adopted a proactive management approach to the problem by installing an antivirus and content filtering software in order to identify and prevent computer viruses

Farrokh Mamaghani

2002-01-01

6

Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and AntiVirus Techniques: A Short Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process,

Babak Bashari Rad; Maslin Masrom; Suhaimi Ibrahim

2011-01-01

7

The IGM Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed involving Caltech, NASA, Columbia, Laboratorie Astrophysique Marseille, CNES, and W. M. Keck Observatory, designed to discover and map emission from the IGM. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2IGM emission in the 0.3IGM from 0.05IGM and Circum-Galactic Medium emission at levels predicted by three independent cosmological simulations.

Martin, Christopher D.; Milliard, B.; Schiminovich, D.; Moore, A.; Chang, D.; Matuszewski, M.; Rahman, S.; Tuttle, S.; Deharveng, J.; Grange, R.; Frank, S.; Evrard, J.; FIREBALL Team; CWI Team; ISTOS Team; KCWI Team

2010-01-01

8

Deficiency of IgM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An 8 1/2-month-old infant with absent IgM had recurrent Pseudomonas infections. IgG and IgA, but no IgM-containing plasma cells, were identified in the spleen by immunofluorescence. The spleen and lymph nodes lacked germinal centers, but Peyer's patches a...

W. P. Faulk W. S. Kiyasu M. D. Cooper H. H. Fudenberg

1970-01-01

9

Toward Automatic Discovery of Malware Signature for Anti-Virus Cloud Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Security vendors are facing a serious problem of defeating the complexity of malwares. With the popularity and the variety of zero-day malware over the Internet, generating their signatures for detecting via anti-virus (AV) scan engines becomes an important reactive security function. However, AV security products consume much of the PC memory and resources due to their large signature files. AV cloud computing becomes a popular solution for this problem. In this paper, a novel Automatic Malware Signature Discovery System for AV cloud (AMSDS) is proposed to generate malware signatures from both static and dynamic aspects. Our experiments on millions-scale samples suggest that AMSDS outperforms most state-of-the-art automatic signature generation techniques of both industry and academia.

Yan, Wei; Wu, Erik

10

The hyper IgM syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyper IgM syndrome is a rare, inherited immune deficiency disorder resulting from defects in the CD40 ligand\\/ CD40-signaling\\u000a pathway. X-linked hyper IgM is caused by defects in the CD40 ligand gene, while autosomal recessive hyper IgM is caused by\\u000a defects in the CD40-activated RNAediting enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase, which is required for immunoglobulin\\u000a isotye switching and somatic hypermutation in

Ramsay L. Fuleihan

2001-01-01

11

The IGM Project: Searching For IGM Emission Over 0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed designed to discover and map emission from the IGM. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2IGM emission in the 0.3IGM in the space UV. I will report on preliminary results from FIREBALL and CWI. This work is supported by NASA and NSF.

Martin, Christopher D.; Matuszewski, M.; Morrissey, P.; Moore, A.; CWI Team

2013-01-01

12

Ender Bir IgM Nefropati Nedeni: Eriflkin Still Hastal›¤› Rare Cause of IgM Nephropathy: Adult Still's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type of mesengial proliferative glomerulonephritis having IgM deposition in DIF examination is called IgM nephropathy. A case performed renal biopsy due to urine findings and diagnosed as IgM nephropathy is presented. The patient was hospitalized for a 3-week fever of 39°C and weight loss. Viral and bacterial causes were not positive, and ANA, anti-ANA and ANCA were negative. Owing

Suat Ünver; Aptullah Haholu; Yaflar Küçükardal; Enes Murat Atasoyu

13

IgM in Microbial Infections: Taken for Granted?  

PubMed Central

Much has been learned about the structure, function, and production of IgM, since the antibody's initial characterization. It is widely accepted that IgM provides a first line of defense during microbial infections, prior to the generation of adaptive, high affinity IgG responses that are important for long-lived immunity and immunological memory. Although IgM responses are commonly used as a measure of exposure to infectious diseases, it is perhaps surprising that the role of and requirement for IgM in many microbial infections has not been well explored in vivo. This is in part due to the lack of capabilities, until relatively recently, to evaluate the requirement for IgM in the absence of coincident IgG responses. Such evaluations are now possible, using gene-targeted mouse strains that produce only IgM, or isotype-switched IgG. A number of studies have revealed that IgM, produced either innately, or in response to antigen challenge, plays an important and perhaps underappreciated role in many microbial infections. Moreover, the characterization of the roles of various B cell subsets, in the production of IgM, and in host defense, has revealed important and divergent roles for B-1a and B-1b cells. This review will highlight studies in which IgM, in its own right, has been found to play an important role, not only in early immunity, but also in long-term protection, against a variety of microbial pathogens. Observations that long-lived IgM responses can be generated in vivo suggest that it may be feasible to target IgM production as part of vaccination strategies.

Racine, Rachael; Winslow, Gary M.

2009-01-01

14

Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of ?-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol  

PubMed Central

Background Alpha-momorcharin (?-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG)2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa). Methodology/principal findings In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), ?-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of ?-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%–70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%–70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts. Conclusion/significance ?-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated ?-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with nanomaterials to be a targeting drug that can further decrease immunogenicity and side effects. Through nanotechnology we can make them low-release drugs, which can further prolong their half-life period in the human body.

Meng, Yao; Liu, Shuangfeng; Li, Juan; Meng, Yanfa; Zhao, Xiaojun

2012-01-01

15

Diagn?stico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA  

PubMed Central

Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis.

Gonzalez-Valcarcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

2011-01-01

16

Intrafamilial correlation analysis for IgM serum levels.  

PubMed Central

The IgM serum level was determined in the members of 29 healthy families. The IgM mean concentrations between fathers and mothers and between sons and daughters were significantly different (P less than .01), with higher serum IgM levels in females than in males. Simple linear regression analysis was done for the following intrafamilial combinations: son-father, daughter-father, son-mother, and daughter-mother. Significant correlation coefficients (P less than .05) were obtained in all four combinations, which does not support the X-linked gene hypothesis (i.e., that the X chromosome carries quantitative genes for immunoglobulin M). An alternative explanation for the differences between sexes for IgM serum concentration is considered.

Guizar-Vazquez, J; Saint-Martin, F P; Rostenberg, I; Suarez, P E; Armendares, S

1977-01-01

17

Natural serum IgM maintains immunological homeostasis and prevents autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural (i.e. low-affinity, preimmune) IgM has a wide range of actions in the immune system. That IgM is important in defence against infection has been recognised for many years but recently, due to the generation of mouse models specifically deficient in serum IgM, other functions of serum IgM have been revealed. The participation of natural IgM in autoimmunity has been

Jessica J. Manson; Claudia Mauri; Michael R. Ehrenstein

2005-01-01

18

Protective Roles of Natural IgM Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Antibodies are a vital part of the armamentarium of the adaptive immune system for the fine-tuning of the recognition and response to foreign threats. However, in health there are some types of antibodies that instead recognize self-antigens and these contribute to the enhancement of primitive innate functions. This repertoire of natural IgM antibodies is postulated to have been selected during immune evolution for their contributions to critical immunoregulatory and housekeeping properties. The clearance of dying cells is one of the most essential responsibilities of the immune system, which is required to prevent uncontrolled inflammation and autoimmunity. In the murine immune system, natural IgM antibodies that recognize apoptotic cells have been shown to enhance the phagocytic clearance of dead and dying cells and to suppress innate immune signaling pathways. In the mouse, natural IgM are often the products of B-1 cell clones that arise during immune development without an absolute requirement for exogenous antigenic stimulation. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, IgM autoantibodies, which bind to neo-epitopes on apoptotic cells, have been demonstrated to be present at significantly higher levels in patients with lower disease activity and with less severe organ damage. While certain specificities of IgM autoantibodies correlate with protection from lupus renal disease, others may convey protective properties from lupus-associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. New and unexpected insights into the functional roles of IgM antibodies are still emerging, especially regarding the functions of natural antibodies. Herein, we review recent progress in our understanding of the potential roles of natural IgM autoantibodies in the regulation of immune homeostasis and for protection from autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

Gronwall, Caroline; Vas, Jaya; Silverman, Gregg J.

2012-01-01

19

Multiple recurrent hordeola associated with selective IgM deficiency.  

PubMed

An external hordeolum is an acute, suppurative inflammation of the glands of Zeis and sweat glands or hair follicles most commonly caused by staphylococci, usually in the setting of a chronic blepharitis.(1) We report a case of a boy with unilateral multiple recurrent hordeola in association with selective IgM deficiency. PMID:11182678

Kiratli, H K; Akar, Y

2001-02-01

20

Detection of IgM Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Using an Enzyme-labelled Antigen (ELA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We have applied a peroxidase enzyme-labelled antigen (ELA) for the detection of IgM antibodies to cytomegalovirus: microtitre plates were coated with anti- IgM immunoglobulin. The IgM fraction of human serum was selectively bound to the precoated plates and the virus-specific IgM antibody was then detected by the enzyme-labelled antigen. A very efficient technique for the labelling of virus antigen

H. Schmitz; U. von Deimling; B. Flehmig

1980-01-01

21

Development of an Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Equine and Swine IgM Antibodies to Vesicular Stomatitis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MC-ELISA) was developed for the detection of primary infection of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in equine and swine sera. The test was based on the use of biotinylated sheep antibodies against equine or swine IgM molecules bound to a strepta- vidin-coated ELISA plate. The captured IgM antibodies were detected by application of

EN-MIN ZHOU; JOSE RIVA; ALFONSO CLAVIJO

2001-01-01

22

IgM, Fc?-receptors and malarial immune evasion  

PubMed Central

"This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may differ from the final version published in The JI (online and in print). AAI (The JI) is not liable for errors or omissions in this author-produced version of the manuscript or in any version derived from it by the U.S. National Institutes of Health or any other third party. The final, citable version of record can be found at www.jimmunol.org." Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an ancestral antibody class found in all jawed vertebrates from sharks to mammals. This ancient ancestry is shared by malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) that infect all classes of terrestrial vertebrates with whom they coevolved. IgM, the least studied, and most enigmatic of the vertebrate immunoglobulins has recently been shown to form an intimate relationship with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Here we discuss how this association might come about, building on the recently determined structure of the human IgM pentamer, and how this interaction could affect parasite survival, particularly in light of the just discovered Fc?-receptor (FcµR) localized to B and T cell surfaces. As this parasite may exploit an interaction with IgM to not only limit immune detection but also manipulate the immune response when detected, a better understanding of this association may prove critical for the development of improved vaccines or vaccination strategies.

Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Salanti, Ali; Ditlev, Sisse B; Shao, Zhifeng; Ghumra, Ashfaq; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Pleass, Richard J

2010-01-01

23

The IgM Response of Children to Salmonella Typhosa Vaccine. I. Measurements of Anti-Typhoid Concentrations and Their Proportions of Total Serum IgM Globulins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight children immunized with commercial typhoid vaccine had elevations of total IgM globulins that averaged 55% above pre-immunization levels within 10 days. Concentrations of IgM specific for the surface antigens of Salmonella typhosa were found by meas...

W. A. Altemeier J. A. Bellanti E. L. Buescher

1969-01-01

24

Peptide ligands that bind IgM antibodies and block interaction with antigen.  

PubMed

We have selected a peptide-display phage library on IgM Abs and identified a panel of phage-expressing peptides that bind to IgM Abs in general, but not to Abs of other classes. A synthetic peptide corresponding to one of the displayed peptide sequences also binds to IgM Abs. The peptides bind to both soluble pentameric Abs and to monomeric cell-surface IgM. The phage-displayed and synthetic peptides inhibit the binding of IgM Abs to Ag. These peptides may create confounding artifacts when IgM Abs are used for epitope mapping studies. Nonetheless, the peptides may have both experimental and therapeutic utility. PMID:10395676

Glee, P M; Pincus, S H; McNamer, D K; Smith, M J; Burritt, J B; Cutler, J E

1999-07-15

25

The structure of two IgMs showing different activity from a patient with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia.  

PubMed Central

The two monoclonal IgMs (IgM1 and IgM2) were characterized from a patient Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia that resulted in a gammapathy. Heavy and light chains were isolated from the IgM. The complete primary structure of the two light chains and the NH2-terminal region of the two heavy chain molecules were determined. The sequence data indicated that the heavy and light chains from both IgMs belong to the same (III and II) lambda subgroups. By testing their antibody activity it was found by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting that only IgM2 reacts with an intermediate filament protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Mendez, E; Osuna, C; Sanchez, A; Revilla, Y; Soriano, F; Montalban, C; Segui, J; Avila, J

1992-01-01

26

The significance of IgM antinuclear antibody in rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the incidence of IgG and IgM antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in patients with connective tissue diseases showed that IgM ANA predominated in rheumatoid arthritis, whilst in systemic lupus erythematosus IgG antibodies were more common. Patients with other connective tissue diseases less frequently had antinuclear antibodies and there was little difference in the incidence of IgG and IgM antibodies.

M. C. Chellingworth; M. Salmon; D. L. Scott; P. A. Bacon

1984-01-01

27

Ly1 B Cells: Functionally Distinct Lymphocytes That Secrete IgM Autoantibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies presented here introduce another perspective on the mechanisms responsible for IgM autoantibody production. A unique subpopulation of B lymphocytes (Ly-1 B) that concomitantly expresses IgM, IgD, Ia, and Ly-1 membrane glycoproteins is present at higher frequencies in NZB and NZB-related mice. The Ly-1 B subpopulation in these autoimmune animals is responsible for the ``spontaneous'' IgM secretion demonstrated with cultured

Kyoko Hayakawa; Richard R. Hardy; Masaaki Honda; Leonard A. Herzenberg; Alfred D. Steinberg; Leonore A. Herzenberg

1984-01-01

28

A comparative trial of anti-glycoconjugate antibody assays: IgM antibodies to GM1  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgM class antibodies against the ganglioside GM1 have been found in a subgroup of patients with lower motor neuron syndromes and multifocal motor neuropathies (MMN). The pathogenic relevance of these antibodies is still unclear, but some MMN patients with IgM antibodies against GM1 seem to profit from immunosuppressive therapy. A reliable test for IgM antibodies against GMl may be useful

J. Zielasek; G. Ritter; S. Magi; H. P. Hartung; K. V. Toyka

1994-01-01

29

Laboratory diagnosis of congenital syphilis by immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA immunoblotting.  

PubMed Central

We screened cord blood or serum samples from 101 infants at risk for congenital syphilis and serum samples from their mothers for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies to Treponema pallidum by western blotting (immunoblotting). Clinical evaluation showed that six infants had signs and/or symptoms consistent with congenital syphilis. The sera from five of these infants were IgM blot positive, and four were IgA blot positive. Four asymptomatic infants had serologic evidence of congenital syphilis. The sera from three of these infants were IgM blot positive, and two were IgA blot positive. However, the IgM reactivity of the serum from one asymptomatic infant, which was also IgA positive, was abolished by protein G treatment. An IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay corroborated the presence of IgM antibodies in six of seven IgM blot-reactive sera. Overall, for detection of symptomatic congenital syphilis, a sensitivity of 83% for IgM blotting and 67% for IgA blotting was obtained. The significance of positive IgM or IgA Western blots for asymptomatic infants requires further study to confirm infection in these infants. Images

Schmitz, J L; Gertis, K S; Mauney, C; Stamm, L V; Folds, J D

1994-01-01

30

Antigen-driven Induction of Polyreactive IgM during Intracellular Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

Polyreactivity is well known as a property of natural IgM produced by B-1 cells. We demonstrate that polyreactive IgM is also generated during infection of mice with Ehrlichia muris, a tick-borne intracellular bacterial pathogen. The polyreactive IgM bound self and foreign antigens, including single- and double-stranded DNA, insulin, thyroglobulin, lipopolysaccharide, influenza virus, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Production of polyreactive IgM during infection was antigen-driven, not due to polyclonal B cell activation, as the majority of polyreactive IgM recognized ehrlichial antigen(s), including an immunodominant outer membrane protein-19 (OMP-19). Monoclonal polyreactive IgM derived from T cell-independent spleen plasmablasts, which was germline-encoded, also bound cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in HEp-2 cells. Polyreactive IgM protected immunocompromised mice against lethal bacterial challenge infection. Serum from human ehrlichiosis patients also contained poly- and self-reactive IgM. We propose that polyreactivity increases IgM efficacy during infection, but may also exacerbate or mollify the response to foreign and self antigens.

Jones, Derek D.; DeIulio, Gregory A.; Winslow, Gary M.

2012-01-01

31

Development of SCA (Trade Name) Protein with Murine IgM Specificity, Phase 1 Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project involves development of a single-chain antigen-binding (SCA) protein with specific affinity for mouse IgM. A protein which specifically and reversibly binds murine IgM has application in the large-scale purification and separation of murine Ig...

D. R. Filpula

1990-01-01

32

Natural IgM in immune equilibrium and harnessing their therapeutic potential  

PubMed Central

Natural IgM antibodies are the constitutively secreted products of B1 cells (CD5+ in mice and CD20+CD27+CD43+ CD70? in humans) that have important and diverse roles in health and disease. Whereas the role of natural IgM as first line of defense for protection against invading microbes has been extensively investigated, more recent reports have highlighted their potential roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis via clearance of apoptotic and altered cells through complement-dependent mechanisms, inhibition of inflammation, removal of misfolded proteins, and regulation of pathogenic auto-reactive IgG antibodies and autoantibody-producing B cells. These observations have provided the theoretical underpinnings for efforts that currently seek to harness the untapped therapeutic potential of natural IgM either by boosting in vivo natural IgM production or via therapeutic infusions of monoclonal and polyclonal IgM preparations.

Kaveri, Srini V.; Silverman, Gregg J.; Bayry, Jagadeesh

2011-01-01

33

Assay of Chlamydia pneumoniae-Specific IgM Antibodies by ELISA Method---Reduction of Non-Specific Reaction and Resetting of Serological Criteria by Measuring IgM Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: In the present study, we tried to reduce the non-specific reactions for measuring anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibodies by the ELISA kit of HITAZYME C. pneumoniae Ab-IgM (HITAZYME IgM) by using a new absorbent. We also tried to reset the IgM cut-off index (ID) of HITAZYME IgM by testing serum samples from healthy children and healthy adults with no respiratory

Toshio Kishimoto; Shuji Ando; Kei Numazaki; Kazunobu Ouchi; Tsutomu Yamazaki; Chikara Nakahama

34

Accelerated development of IgG autoantibodies and autoimmune disease in the absence of secreted IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by the presence of high levels of circulating IgM and IgG autoantibodies. Although IgG autoantibodies often are pathogenic, the role of IgM autoantibodies in autoimmune disease is not clear. Using mice that are unable to secrete IgM but are able to express surface IgM and IgD and to secrete other

Marianne Boes; Tara Schmidt; Kathrin Linkemann; Britte C. Beaudette; Ann Marshak-Rothstein; Jianzhu Chen

2000-01-01

35

The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic  

PubMed Central

The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany.

Hanala, Sherif

2012-01-01

36

Performance of Indirect Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Serology Tests and IgM Capture Assays for Laboratory Diagnosis of Measles  

PubMed Central

As progress is made toward elimination of measles, the laboratory confirmation of measles becomes increasingly important. However, both false-positive and false-negative results can occur with the routinely used indirect measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology tests. The measles IgM capture assay is considered to be more specific, and therefore, its use is indicated for confirmatory testing, but its relative performance has not been fully assessed. Four commercial indirect measles IgM serology test kits (the Behring, Clark, Gull, and PanBio assays) and a commercial IgM capture assay (the Light Diagnostics assay) were evaluated for their abilities to detect measles virus-specific IgM antibody with a total of 308 serum samples from patients involved in a measles outbreak and with confirmed cases of measles and 454 samples from subjects without measles. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) IgM capture assay was also used in a part of the evaluation. Among the indirect assays, the overall sensitivities ranged from 82.8% (Clark assay) to 88.6% (Behring assay) and specificity ranged from 86.6% (PanBio assay) to 99.6% (Gull assay). These rates were 92.2 and 86.6%, respectively, for the Light Diagnostics capture assay and 87.0 and 94.8%, respectively, for the CDC capture assay. While the Light Diagnostics capture assay had the best detection rate (80%) with the acute-phase samples compared with those for the rest of the tests (CDC capture assay, 77%; Behring assay, 70%; Gull assay, 69%; PanBio assay, 58%; and Clark assay, 57%), all tests showed a significantly improved sensitivity in the range of 92% (Clark and PanBio assays) to 97% (Light Diagnostics and CDC capture assays) with the convalescent-phase samples, as expected. The best seropositivity rates (in the range of 92 to 100%) were observed with samples collected 6 to 14 days after the onset of symptoms. The Gull assay showed the highest positive predictive value (99.6%), followed by the Behring assay (97.8%) and the CDC capture assay (96.1%). Overall, the Gull and Behring assays were found to be as good as or better than the capture assays. In conclusion, laboratory diagnosis of measles based on IgM serology varies depending on the timing of specimen collection and the test used, and the case for the use of the IgM capture assay as the confirmatory test appears to be uncertain.

Ratnam, Samuel; Tipples, Graham; Head, Carol; Fauvel, Micheline; Fearon, Margaret; Ward, Brian J.

2000-01-01

37

Selective Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Deficiency in Two Immunodeficient Adults with Recurrent Staphylococcal Pyoderma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two adult men with recurrent pyoderma due to Staphylococcus aureus and a selective deficiency of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody synthesis are described. An analysis of each patient's polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis, phagocytosis and killing of Sta...

M. W. Yocum D. M. Strong M. J. Chusid J. D. Lakin

1975-01-01

38

Production and Validation of an IgM Antibody for the Detection of Spore- Forming Bioagents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antibodies are the essential components in biosensors that specifically bind biological agents, providing a capability essential to fulfilling the defense mission of Department of Defense. An IgM monoclonal antibody specific for the spore forming Bacillus...

F. J. Kragl J. T. Park A. M. Arasteh S. Chung D. Menking

2004-01-01

39

IgM Antibodies to Red Cells and Autoimmune Anemia in Patients with Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rising titers of IgM antibodies to red blood cells were found in 56 patients following infection with plasmodium falciparum parasites. These antibodies, detected by indirect immunofluorescence using fluorescein-conjugated monospecific antisera, were not p...

E. B. Rosenberg G. T. Strickland S. L. Yang G. E. Whalen

1972-01-01

40

Spitzer Observations of Stephan's Quintet -- IGM Dust and Gas in a Multi-galaxy Collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is the most famous and well studied compact group of galaxies. Spectacular activity is triggered by interactions between member galaxies and various constituents of the intragroup medium (IGM), including a ~40 kpc large scale-shock and IGM starbursts more than 20 kpc away from any neighboring galaxy centers. Our new Spitzer IRS (SH, LH, and SL) and MIPS (70? m and 160 ? m) observations of SQ with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity give new constraints on the physical conditions of the IGM gas and dust. In particular, our IRS observations discovered very strong pure MIR emission lines of molecular hydrogen in the SQ shock, the first time such a spectrum is detected in an extragalactic source. And the MIPS 160? m map of SQ shows clear evidence for the diffuse IGM dust emission.

Xu, C. K.; Appleton, P. N.; Dopita, M.; Gao, Y.; Lu, N. Y.; Popescu, C.; Reach, W. T.; Sulentic, J.; Tuffs, R.; Yun, M.

2008-03-01

41

Mutations in Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in Patients with Hyper IgM Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that mutations in a newly described RNA editing enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), can cause an autosomal recessive form of hyper IgM syndrome. To determine the relative frequency of mutations in AID, we evaluated a group of 27 patients with hyper IgM syndrome who did not have defects in CD40 ligand and 23 patients with common

Yoshiyuki Minegishi; Aubert Lavoie; Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles; Pierre-Michel Bédard; Jacques Hébert; Louise Côté; Kazuo Dan; Debra Sedlak; Rebecca H. Buckley; Alain Fischer; Anne Durandy; Mary Ellen Conley

2000-01-01

42

Role of natural and immune IgM antibodies in immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgM antibodies constitute the major component of the natural antibodies and is also the first class of antibodies produced during a primary antibody response. The IgM-type antibodies differ from other classes of antibodies in that they are predominantly produced by B1 cells, in the absence of apparent stimulation by specific antigens. In addition, IgM antibodies are mostly encoded by germline

Marianne Boes

2000-01-01

43

Conformation of the Free and Antigen-bound IgM Antibody Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE two major classes of antibody molecule, IgG and IgM1, have molecular weights of 150,000 and 900,000, respectively. They are composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains. In IgM each heavy (mu) chain, molecular weight 70,000, is linked by a disulphide bridge to a light (L) chain, molecular weight 23,000, and is probably linked by three further bridges to other

A. Feinstein; E. A. Munn

1969-01-01

44

Platelet antibodies of the IgM class in immune thrombocytopenic purpura  

SciTech Connect

The clinical course and response to therapy of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) are not completely determined by the level of IgG present on the platelet surface. It is possible that antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes also play a role in platelet destruction in some of these patients. Therefore, the authors studied 175 patients with ITP for the presence of IgM anti-platelet antibodies using radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM. They observed that 57% of patients with clinical ITP had increased levels of IgM on their platelets, compared with normal controls and patients with thrombocytopenia who did not have ITP. They obtained similar results using either radiolabeled polyclonal or monoclonal anti-IgM, reagents whose integrity was first characterized using erythrocytes coated with defined amounts of IgM antibody. Among patients with increased platelet-IgM there was a significant correlation both with the presence of increased platelet-C3 as well as the amount of platelet-C3. The authors demonstrated the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in the plasma of two of these patients who were further studied. These studies demonstrate the presence of warm-reacting IgM anti-platelet antibodies in some patients with ITP. They suggest that the binding of complement to platelets by IgM antibodies may initiate platelet clearance as well as enhance the effect of IgG antibodies in ITP.

Cines, D.B.; Wilson, S.B.; Tomaski, A.; Schreiber, A.D.

1985-04-01

45

The role of IgM rheumatoid factor in experimental immune vasculitis.  

PubMed Central

The effect of IgM rhematoid factor (RF) on reversepassive cutaneous Arthus reaction in rats was studied. The RF was obtained from the serum cryoglobulin of a patient with symptoms of purpura, arthralgia and digital gangrene. The cryoglobulins was of IgG-IgM type and when given i.v it induced a prompt hypocomplementaemia in experimental animals. The purified RF also induced low serum complement levels when injected i.v. along with complexes of non-complement-fixing, aggregated IgG. A reverse passive Arthus reaction was induced by intradermal injection of IgG anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA), followed by an i.v. dose of antigen (Ag). The cutaneous inflammatory reaction was aggravated by simultaneous administration of IgM RF intradermally, but not by IgM without antibody (Ab) properties. Intradermal injection of low concentrations of non-complement-fixing IgG anti-BSA, along with normal human IgM, followed by i.v. injection of BSA, resulted in a complete lack of cutaneous inflammation. At higher Ab concentrations there was only a mild inflammation. However, when IgM RF was substituted for normal IgM and injected with non-complement-fixing anti-BSA, an effective reverse passive cutaneous Arthus reaction and vasculitis was induced. The inflammatory response was greatly suppressed by decomplementation of animals by cobra venom factor. This study provides evidence favouring an inflammatory, complement-dependent role for RF in vasculitis.

Floyd, M; Tesar, J T

1979-01-01

46

Intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal IgM against myelin lipids predicts an aggressive disease course in MS  

PubMed Central

Oligoclonal IgM bands restricted to cerebrospinal fluid are an unfavorable prognostic marker in MS, the most common demyelinating disease of the CNS. We have attempted to identify the B cell subpopulation responsible for oligoclonal IgM secretion and the specificity of these bands. In addition, we explored the relationship between specificity and disease evolution. Intrathecal B cell subpopulations present in 29 MS patients with oligoclonal IgM bands and 52 without them were analyzed. A considerable increase in CD5+ B lymphocytes was found in patients with oligoclonal IgM bands. These cells mostly secrete IgM antibodies recognizing nonproteic molecules. We also studied whether oligoclonal IgM bands present in cerebrospinal fluid of 53 MS patients were directed against myelin lipids. This was the case in most patients, with phosphatidylcholine being the most frequently recognized lipid. Disease course of 15 patients with oligoclonal IgM against myelin lipids and 33 patients lacking them was followed. Patients with anti-lipid IgM suffered a second relapse earlier, had more relapses, and showed increased disability compared with those without anti-lipid IgM. The presence of intrathecal anti–myelin lipid IgM antibodies is therefore a very accurate predictor of aggressive evolution in MS.

Villar, Luisa M.; Sadaba, Maria C.; Roldan, Ernesto; Masjuan, Jaime; Gonzalez-Porque, Pedro; Villarrubia, Noelia; Espino, Mercedes; Garcia-Trujillo, Jose A.; Bootello, Alfredo; Alvarez-Cermeno, Jose C.

2005-01-01

47

Immunity in human schistosomiasis mansoni. Regulation of protective immune mechanisms by IgM blocking antibodies  

PubMed Central

After the demonstration of blocking antibodies during rat experimental schistosomiasis, the existence of such factors was investigated in human schistosomiasis. The depletion, in sera from S. mansoni-infected patients, of a given isotype (IgM) either by protein A-Sepharose (PAS) absorption or by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) induced a significant increase in IgG-mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula by human eosinophils. Inhibition experiments showed that IgM-enriched fractions (PAS effluents) were able to inhibit eosinophil- dependent cytotoxicity mediated by IgG fractions (total sera or PAS eluates). Both IgG and IgM antibodies from infected human sera immunoprecipitated antigens of 30,000-40,000 Mr in the labeled detergent extracts of schistosomulum surface. The specificity of IgG and IgM for the 38,000 Mr antigen was suggested by competition experiments using two radiolabeled mAbs (IPLSm1, IPLSm3) directed against this antigen. Moreover, crossinhibition between IgG and IgM antibodies for the Mr 38,000 antigen could be directly demonstrated. The in vivo relevance of such IgM blocking antibodies in the context of human immunity to schistosomiasis was evaluated in two groups of children classified as resistant or susceptible to posttreatment reinfection. IgM antibodies specifically directed against the 38,000 Mr antigen were measured by a capture assay. The mean levels of IgM antibodies were significantly higher in the susceptible than in the resistant group both before and after treatment. These results are consistent with the idea that immunity to schistosomiasis could be attributable not only to the existence of antibodies with defined effector function, but also to the absence of blocking antibodies. The description of the existence in human schistosomiasis of antibody isotypes blocking the effector response against defined surface targets might lead to a new understanding of the mechanisms regulating immunity to reinfection against schistosomes and possibly other parasites.

1986-01-01

48

Distribution of radiolabeled human and mouse monoclonal IgM antibodies in murine models  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and kinetics of six human and one murine monoclonal IgM antibodies (MoAb) were studied in BALB/c mice. Labeling was with /sup 111/In, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 125/I. The monomers and pentamers of certain MoAbs were studied. Human distribution studies were also performed. The serum containing (/sup 111/In)MoAb was obtained from one of the patients 24 hr after administration and injected into mice which were then killed and assayed for /sup 111/In distribution. In general, the (/sup 75/Se) and (/sup 111/In)MoAbs had distribution and kinetic patterns that were similar while the /sup 125/I-labeled MoAbs dehalogenated after 4 hr. Monomers and pentamers had highly similar distributions suggesting that the distribution of IgMs may be based on factors other than molecular size. The murine IgM showed a somewhat different distribution in mice than did human IgMs. Serum from the patient containing (/sup 111/In)MoAb had a distribution in mice similar to that of the patient with high liver and gastrointestinal uptake. The human imaging indicates that it is possible to target tumor with human IgM MoAbs, but significant problems remain in regard to their clinical use.

Halpern, S.E.; Hagan, P.L.; Chen, A.; Birdwell, C.R.; Bartholomew, R.M.; Burnett, K.G.; David, G.S.; Poggenburg, K.; Merchant, B.; Carlo, D.J.

1988-10-01

49

IgM Multiple Myeloma: Pathologic Evaluation of a Rare Entity.  

PubMed

Objectives: To delineate the pathology of immunoglobulin M-producing multiple myeloma (IgM MM). Methods: Clinicopathologic data were reviewed for 15 cases meeting World Health Organization criteria for MM and having a serum IgM paraprotein. Immunohistochemistry was performed on diagnostic bone marrow specimens for common B-cell and plasma cell markers. Results: Of the 15 IgM MM bone marrows reviewed, 6 (40%) had lymphoplasmacytoid cytology, and 12 (80%) expressed CD19, CD20, and/or CD45. Cyclin D1 expression was common (11 cases, 73%) and usually associated with t(11;14). No cases expressed CD5 or had an associated CD5-positive B-cell population. CD117 was positive in 20% of cases. Conclusions: The frequent B-cell-associated antigen expression by IgM MM distinguishes it from other MM types, causing significant pathologic overlap with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL). However, IgM MM is usually distinguished from LPL by aberrant cyclin D1 expression or t(11;14). Therefore, assessing for these abnormalities is recommended when evaluating bone marrow involvement by IgM-associated lymphoplasmacytoid disorders. PMID:24045549

King, Rebecca L; Howard, Matthew T; Hodnefield, Janice M; Morice, William G

2013-10-01

50

Human monoclonal IgM DJ binds to ssDNA and human commensal bacteria.  

PubMed

In this study we tried to elucidate further the crossreactivity pattern and binding characteristics of human monoclonal IgM DJ which is an anti-DNA antibody and possesses Y7 natural idiotope. Isolated IgM DJ and its enzymatically obtained fragments Fab' and (Fab')2 were tested for binding to more than 26 antigens and nine bacteria in indirect ELISA. Inhibition of binding studies and examination of the stability of antigen-antibody complexes were also done in ELISA assay. IgM DJ bound to single stranded DNA and human lactic acid bacteria, such as L. acidophyllus, B. bifidum and L. plantarum. This binding was shown to be mediated through IgM DJ Fab' fragment. High avidity and low affinity of interactions was estimated from the binding curves of Fab', (Fab')2 fragments and whole IgM. The common epitopic motif on both antigens were negatively charged phosphodiester moieties. Complexes formed with ssDNA and B. bifidum were resistant to washing with high salt. This suggested that electrostatic attraction was not a strong component of the binding. A novel pattern of natural autoantibody reactivity in a human system related to cross-reactivity with DNA and LAB is described. Possible involvement of LAB in induction of natural anti-DNA antibodies is discussed. PMID:10331184

Dimitrijevi?, L A; Radulovi?, M I; Ciri?, B P; Petri?evi?, M M; Ini?, A B; Nikoli?, D N; Apostolski, S

1999-01-01

51

Detection and quantification of IgM+ lymphocytes in fetal lamb spleen, liver and lymph nodes by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage in Peyer's patch development in the fetal lamb is characterized by the colonization of the rudimentary Peyer's patches by precursor cells expressing the IgM surface receptor. In the fetal lamb, the spleen has been implicated as the source of gene-rearranged IgM+ B lymphocytes. This study was intended to quantitate IgM+ lymphocytes in the spleen, lymph nodes and

Noorjahan Alitheen; Susan McClure; Peter McCullagh

2007-01-01

52

IgM quantification in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients by a latex card agglutination test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An increased IgM concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), occurring as a consequence of massive intrathecal IgM synthesis, is a marker of interest for diagnosis of the meningo-encephalitic stage in human African trypanosomiasis. However, in current practice, IgM in CSF is not determined because of the lack of a simple and robust test that is applicable in African rural regions

V. Lejon; D. Legros; M. Richer; J. A. Ruiz; V. Jamonneau; P. Truc; F. Doua; N. Dje; F. X. N'Siesi; S. Bisser; E. Magnus; I. Wouters; J. Konings; T. Vervoort; F. Sultan; P. Buscher

2002-01-01

53

Cerebrospinal Fluid IgM Index Correlates with Cranial MRI Lesion Load in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multiple sclerosis intrathecal IgM synthesis correlates with an unfavourable disease course. Whether this reflects a pathogenic role of IgM, possibly in conjunction with complement, is a matter of debate. In a cross-sectional study we measured intrathecal synthesis of IgM and the complement component C3, and on cranial MRI lesion load and central brain atrophy in clinically active patients, 17

Peter J. H. Jongen; Geert Lycklama a Nijeholt; Karel J. B. Lamers; Wim H. Doesburg; Frederik Barkhof; Wim A. J. G. Lemmens; Ina S. Klasen; Otto R. Hommes

2007-01-01

54

Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric\\/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that,

Lynn L Rumfelt; Rebecca L Lohr; Helen Dooley; Martin F Flajnik

2004-01-01

55

IgM quantification in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients by a latex card agglutination test.  

PubMed

An increased IgM concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), occurring as a consequence of massive intrathecal IgM synthesis, is a marker of interest for diagnosis of the meningo-encephalitic stage in human African trypanosomiasis. However, in current practice, IgM in CSF is not determined because of the lack of a simple and robust test that is applicable in African rural regions where the disease prevails. We describe the development of a sensitive semiquantitative card agglutination test, LATEX/IgM, for IgM quantification in CSF. The test is simple and fast and the lyophilized reagent remains stable even at 45 degrees C. CSF end-titres obtained with LATEX/IgM parallel the IgM concentrations determined by nephelometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Detection of intrathecal IgM synthesis is the most sensitive marker for CNS involvement in sleeping sickness. At a cut-off value of >or= 8, the sensitivity and specificity of LATEX/IgM for intrathecal IgM synthesis are 89.4 and 92.7%. As a consequence, patients with LATEX/IgM end-titres >or= 8 are likely to have intrathecal IgM synthesis, thus central nervous system involvement and therefore should be treated accordingly. Further studies should concentrate on the relationship between the LATEX/IgM end-titres, presence of intrathecal IgM synthesis and occurrence of treatment failures in patients treated with pentamidine. PMID:12167095

Lejon, V; Legros, D; Richer, M; Ruiz, J A; Jamonneau, V; Truc, P; Doua, F; Djé, N; N'Siesi, F X; Bisser, S; Magnus, E; Wouters, I; Konings, J; Vervoort, T; Sultan, F; Büscher, P

2002-08-01

56

Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the Hepatitis delta virus  

SciTech Connect

The IgM class antibody to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was determined in different clinical categories of hepatitis B surface antigen carriers infected by the HDV (positive in the test for total antibody to HDV). The IgM antibody was found at high titers in each 70 patients with inflammatory liver disease and at a low titer in one six patients with inactive cirrhosis; it was not found in eight carriers with normal liver histology. Testing for Igm antibody to HDV distinguishes hepatitis B surface antigen carriers who have underlying inflammatory HDV liver disease from those with past HDV infection and provides prognostic information on the course of chronic HDV hepatitis.

Farci, P.; Gerin, J.L.; Aragona, M.; Lindsey, I.; Crivelli, O.; Balestrieri, A.; Smedile, A.; Thomas, H.C.; Rizzetto, M.

1986-03-21

57

Evaluation of an immunofluorescent antibody test to detect bovine herpesvirus 1-specific IgM.  

PubMed

An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IIFAT) was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)-specific IgM. All sera were treated with protein-G agarose prior to testing to eliminate the possibility of false-positive results due to IgM-isotype rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). Specific IgM was first detected 8 days after experimental infection of 3 calves free of maternally derived antibody, with peak responses occurring 2-7 days later. Seroconversion was detected in all 3 calves using a single-dilution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following reinfection at 30 days postinfection, a low-level IgM response was detected in only 1 calf. Seroconversion was detected in 2 calves. There was no evidence of activation of IgM-RF by infection or reinfection with BHV-1. When 87 acute and convalescent serum pairs collected from 21 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested, specific IgM was detected in 58 animals (66.6%) from 19 (90.5%) outbreaks. Seroconversion was detected in 44 of these animals (50.6%) from 17 outbreaks (81.0%). The correlations between these 2 assays on a calf and outbreak basis were 79.3% and 90.5%, respectively. Specific IgM was detected in 17/20 sera (85.0%) collected from an additional outbreak. No virus was detected by virus isolation or immunofluorescent staining in nasal mucus samples collected at the same time. Detection of specific IgM by IIFAT is a useful technique for the serodiagnosis of BHV-1 infection. PMID:10424647

Graham, D A; Foster, J C; German, A; McLaren, I E; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1999-07-01

58

Reinvestigating the role of IgM in rabies virus postexposure vaccination.  

PubMed

B cells secreting IgG antibodies, but not IgM, are thought to be solely responsible for vaccine-induced protection against rabies virus (RABV) infections in postexposure settings. In this report, we reinvestigated the potential for IgM to mediate protection in a mouse model of RABV vaccination. Immunocompetent mice immunized with an experimental live replication-deficient RABV-based vaccine produced virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) within 3 days of vaccination. However, mice unable to produce soluble IgM (sIgM(-/-)) did not produce VNAs until 7 days postimmunization. Furthermore, sIgM(-/-) mice were not protected against RABV infection when challenged 3 days postimmunization, while all wild-type mice survived challenge. Consistent with the lack of protection against pathogenic RABV challenge, approximately 50- to 100-fold higher viral loads of challenge virus were detected in the muscle, spinal cord, and brain of immunized sIgM(-/-) mice compared to control mice. In addition, IgG antibody titers in vaccinated wild-type and sIgM(-/-) mice were similar at all time points postimmunization, suggesting that protection against RABV challenge is due to the direct effects of IgM and not the influence of IgM on the development of effective IgG antibody titers. In all, early vaccine-induced IgM can limit dissemination of pathogenic RABV to the central nervous system and mediate protection against pathogenic RABV challenge. Considering the importance for the rapid induction of VNAs to protect against RABV infections in postexposure prophylaxis settings, these findings may help guide the development of a single-dose human rabies vaccine. PMID:23760250

Dorfmeier, Corin L; Shen, Shixue; Tzvetkov, Evgeni P; McGettigan, James P

2013-06-12

59

No evidence for a specific role of IgM in mesangial proliferation of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

No evidence for a specific role of IgM in mesangial proliferation of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. To define the relationship of mesangial IgM to various morphologic categories of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), an analysis of 100 patients was carried out in which five morphologic subgroups were evaluated: group 1, minimal glomerular change (38 patients); group 2, minimal change with focal global

Yang Ji-Yun; Tyrone Melvin; Richard Sibley; Alfred F Michael

1984-01-01

60

The Identity of Light Chains of Monoclonal IgC and Monoclonal IgM IN One Patient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A patient with an IgG myeloma was found to have an elevated monoclonal IgM of the type seen in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. The light chains of the monoclonal IgG and monoclonal IgM were both kappa type. They were indistinguishable by urea starch gel ...

A. C. Wang I. Y. F. Wang J. N. McCormick H. H. Fudenberg

1968-01-01

61

Recognition of Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipain Epitopes by Natural IgM Binding to Malondialdehyde Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein  

PubMed Central

Objective Increased risk for atherosclerosis is associated with infectious diseases including periodontitis. Natural IgM antibodies recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns on bacteria, and oxidized lipid and protein epitopes on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apoptotic cells. We aimed to identify epitopes on periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis recognized by natural IgM binding to malondialdehyde (MDA) modified LDL. Methods and Results Mouse monoclonal IgM (MDmAb) specific for MDA-LDL recognized epitopes on P. gingivalis on flow cytometry and chemiluminescence immunoassays. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with P. gingivalis induced IgM, but not IgG, immune response to MDA-LDL and apoptotic cells. Immunization of LDLR?/? mice with P. gingivalis induced IgM, but not IgG, immune response to MDA-LDL and diminished aortic lipid deposition. On Western blot MDmAb bound to P. gingivalis fragments identified as arginine-specific gingipain (Rgp) by mass spectrometry. Recombinant domains of Rgp produced in E. coli were devoid of phosphocholine epitopes but contained epitopes recognized by MDmAb and human serum IgM. Serum IgM levels to P. gingivalis were associated with anti-MDA-LDL levels in humans. Conclusion Gingipain of P. gingivalis is recognized by natural IgM and shares molecular identity with epitopes on MDA-LDL. These findings suggest a role for natural antibodies in the pathogenesis of two related inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis and periodontitis.

Turunen, S. Pauliina; Kummu, Outi; Harila, Kirsi; Veneskoski, Marja; Soliymani, Rabah; Baumann, Marc; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Horkko, Sohvi

2012-01-01

62

The Induction of IgM and IgG Antibodies against HLA or MICA after Lung Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The production of IgG HLA antibodies after lung transplantation (LTx) is considered to be a major risk factor for the development of chronic rejection, represented by the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). It has recently been observed that elevated levels of IgM HLA antibodies also correlates with the development of chronic rejection in heart and kidney transplantation. This study investigates the relationship between IgM and IgG antibodies against HLA and MICA after lung transplantation. Serum was collected from 49 patients once prior to transplantation and monthly for up to 1 year after lung transplantation was analyzed by Luminex to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against HLA and MICA. The presence of either IgM or IgG HLA and/or MICA antibodies prior to or after transplantation was not related to survival, gender, primary disease, or the development of BOS. Additionally, the production of IgG alloantibodies was not preceded by an increase in levels of IgM, and IgM levels were not followed by an increase in IgG. Under current immune suppressive regimen, although the presence of IgM antibodies does not correlate with BOS after LTx, IgM high IgG low HLA class I antibody titers were observed more in patients with BOS compared to patients without BOS.

Paantjens, Annelieke W. M.; van de Graaf, Ed A.; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M.; Hoefnagel, Tineke; van Ginkel, Walter G. J.; Fakhry, Farzia; van Kessel, Diana A.; van den Bosch, Jules M. M.; Otten, Henny G.

2011-01-01

63

Biological inferences from IgM binding characteristics of recombinant human secretory component mutants.  

PubMed

The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) or membrane secretory component (SC) selectively transports polymeric IgA and IgM across secretory epithelial cells to mucosal surfaces. The ligand binding ectodomain consists of five homologous Ig-like domains with domain I being an absolute requirement for binding. The role of DII to V in IgM binding remains unknown. Here, using in vitro refolded non-glycosylated recombinant domain deletion mutants of human SC, we show by biological and biophysical binding assays that DII to V are required for high affinity binding to IgM. Competitive binding analysis, by whole cell ELISA, showed that DII-V significantly increase the affinity of recombinant SC for IgM (K(i)=2.42 nM) as opposed to recombinant DI only (K(i)=44.8 nM). Lastly, we provide qualitative data highlighting the complexity of measuring the IgM/SC interaction using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. PMID:19126415

Prinsloo, Earl; Oosthuizen, Vaughan; Van de Venter, Maryna; Naudé, Ryno J

2009-01-04

64

The role of IgM antibodies in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptotic cells not only translocate phosphatidylserine to the outside of the membrane, they activate phospholipases that remodel their membranes resulting in the exposure and diffusion of altered phospholipids. These altered phospholipids include lysophosphotidylcholine (LPC) that is a ligand for CRP and is also antigenic for natural IgM antibodies. Furthermore, soluble LPC acts as a “find me” signal to attract phagocytes

YuFeng Peng; Robert Kowalewski; SunJung Kim; Keith B Elkon

2005-01-01

65

Coxsackie-B-virus-specific IgM responses in patients with cardiac and other diseases.  

PubMed

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test using polyvalent antigens and antisera was developed to detect Coxsackie-B-virus-specific IgM responses. The sera of 24 of 64 (37.5%) patients with acute pericarditis and 14 of 38 (36%) with acute myocarditis were positive for Coxsackie-B-virus-specific IgM. 4 of 30 (13.3%) patients with acute ischaemic heart disease and 2 of 28 (7.1%) patients with congestive cardiomyopathy were also positive. Coxsackie-B-virus-specific IgM was detected in the sera of 21 of 57 (36.8%) patients with Bornholm disease and 2 of 4 patients with acute-onset juvenile diabetes. Coxsackie-B-virus-specific IgM responses persisted for 6-8 weeks. Sera from patients with chronic valvular heart disease, Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, and virus infections caused by viruses other than Coxsackie-B viruses were all negative. False-positive results did not occur when sera containing high titres of rheumatoid factor were tested. PMID:6107769

El-Hagrassy, M M; Banatvala, J E; Coltart, D J

1980-11-29

66

Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark  

PubMed Central

Background Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that, unlike in many other vertebrates, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) expressed at birth is functional. IgW is present in the lungfish, a bony fish sharing a common ancestor with sharks 460 million years ago, implying that the IgW VH family is as old as the IgM VH family. This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families. Results IgM and IgW VH cDNA clones isolated from newborn nurse shark primary and secondary lymphoid tissues had highly diverse and unique CDR3 with N-region addition and VDJ gene rearrangement, implicating functional TdT and RAG gene activity. Despite the clear presence of N-region additions, newborn CDR3 were significantly shorter than those of adults. The IgM clones are all included in a conventional VH family that can be classified into five discrete groups, none of which is orthologous to IgM VH genes in other elasmobranchs. In addition, a novel divergent VH family was orthologous to a published monotypic VH horn shark family. IgW VH genes have diverged sufficiently to form three families. IgM and IgW VH serine codons using the potential somatic hypermutation hotspot sequence occur mainly in VH framework 1 (FR1) and CDR1. Phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous fish and lungfish IgM and IgW demonstrated they form two major ancient gene groups; furthermore, these VH genes generally diversify (duplicate and diverge) within a species. Conclusion As in ratfish, sandbar and horn sharks, most nurse shark IgM VH genes are from one family with multiple, heterogeneous loci. Their IgW VH genes have diversified, forming at least three families. The neonatal shark Ig VH CDR3 repertoire, diversified via N-region addition, is shorter than the adult VDJ junction, suggesting one means of postnatal repertoire diversification is expression of longer CDR3 junctions.

Rumfelt, Lynn L; Lohr, Rebecca L; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

2004-01-01

67

Directional dominance for low IgM and IgA levels.  

PubMed Central

A biometrical genetical analysis of IgG, IgM, and IgA levels in 134 sets of twins is reported. High heritabilities, around .8, are found for all three immunoglobulin levels, and possible reasons for lower heritabilities found in family studies are discussed. There is evidence for genetical dominance tending to decrease IgM and IgA levels, but there is no evidence for the importance of family environment although the presence of dominance may make its detection difficult. The causes of covariation in the three measurements are unclear in males but in females appear to be mainly environmental in correlations with IgA and equally genetical and environmental in the IgG-IgM correlation.

Clark, P; Jardine, R; Jones, P; Martin, N G; Walsh, R J

1981-01-01

68

Interconversion of different crystal forms of Fabs from human IgM cryoglobulins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attempts to produce diffraction-quality crystals of Fabs from two human IgM cryoglobulins (Pot and Yvo), we observed unexpected interconversions in crystal morphologies. The Pot Fab crystallized in two forms when polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6,000 was used as the precipitating agent. Broad, relatively short rods with hexagonal cross-sections were our crystals of choice. However, long, thin rods that were often

Paul A. Ramsland; Jadee L. Upshaw; Brandon B. Shultz; Christina R. DeWitt; William F. Chissoe III; Robert L. Raison; Allen B. Edmundson

2001-01-01

69

Evaluation of 15 commercial enzyme immunoassays for the detection of rubella-specific IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Detection of rubella-specific IgM is a critical investigation in the diagnosis of recent or congenital rubella for which many commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are now available.Objectives: To evaluate 15 commercially-available EIA kits for the detection of rubella-specific IgM.Study design: A panel of 229 sera was established comprising 72 sera from cases of primary rubella, re-infection, congenital rubella and primary

P. Hudson; P. Morgan-Capner

1996-01-01

70

Clinical manifestations and progression of IgM mesangial nephropathy: a single center prospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of 732 renal biopsies performed from 1988 to 1995 in Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 65 patients (8.9%, 43 male, 22 female) were diagnosed to have IgM mesangial nephropathy (IgMN). The mean age of the patients was 35 ±2 years. The clinical manifestations and progression of IgMN were studied in 39 of these 65 patients. The initial manifestations of the disease

Yiu-Han CHAN; Kim-Ming WONG; Koon-Shing CHOI; Wai-Leung CHAK; Chi-Yuen CHEUNG; Ka-Foon CHAU; Chun-Sang LI

2000-01-01

71

Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in IgM rheumatoid factor-positive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAntibodies to citrullinated proteins have been described in patients with RA and these appear to be the most specific markers of the disease. The objective of this study was to analyse the improvement in diagnostic accuracy of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies and IgA rheumatoid factor in patients with clinical suspicion of RA and who were IgM rheumatoid factor-positive. Anti-CCP antibodies

Belén García-Berrocal; Concepción González; Marta Pérez; José A. Navajo; Isabel Moreta; Carmen Dávila; José M. González-Buitrago

2005-01-01

72

A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons  

PubMed Central

Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

2013-01-01

73

A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.

Xu, Xiaohua; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Kumar, Shailabh; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

2013-07-01

74

A Human IgM Signals Axon Outgrowth: Coupling Lipid Raft to Microtubules  

PubMed Central

Mouse and human IgMs support neurite extension from primary cerebellar granule neurons. In this study using primary hippocampal and cortical neurons we demonstrate that a recombinant human IgM, rHIgM12, promotes axon outgrowth by coupling membrane domains (lipid rafts) to microtubules. rHIgM12 binds to the surface of neuron and induces clustering of cholesterol and ganglioside, GM1. After cell binding and membrane fractionation, rHIgM12 segregated into two pools, one associated with lipid raft fractions and the other with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton-containing pellet. Membrane-bound rHIgM12 co-localized with microtubules and co-immuno precipitated with ?3-tubulin. rHIgM12-membrane interaction also enhanced the tyrosination of ?-tubulin indicating a stabilization of new neurites. When presented as a substrate rHIgM12 induced axon outgrowth from primary neurons. We now demonstrate that a recombinant human mAb can induce signals in neurons that regulate membrane lipids and microtubule dynamics required for axon extension. We propose that the pentameric structure of the IgM is critical to crosslink membrane lipids and proteins resulting in signaling cascades.

Xu, Xiaohua; Warrington, Arthur E.; Wright, Brent R.; Bieber, Allan J.; Van Keulen, Virginia; Pease, Larry R.; Rodriguez, Moses

2011-01-01

75

Biotin IgM Antibodies in Human Blood: A Previously Unknown Factor Eliciting False Results in Biotinylation-Based Immunoassays  

PubMed Central

Biotin is an essential vitamin that binds streptavidin or avidin with high affinity and specificity. As biotin is a small molecule that can be linked to proteins without affecting their biological activity, biotinylation is applied widely in biochemical assays. In our laboratory, IgM enzyme immuno assays (EIAs) of µ-capture format have been set up against many viruses, using as antigen biotinylated virus like particles (VLPs) detected by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin. We recently encountered one serum sample reacting with the biotinylated VLP but not with the unbiotinylated one, suggesting in human sera the occurrence of biotin-reactive antibodies. In the present study, we search the general population (612 serum samples from adults and 678 from children) for IgM antibodies reactive with biotin and develop an indirect EIA for quantification of their levels and assessment of their seroprevalence. These IgM antibodies were present in 3% adults regardless of age, but were rarely found in children. The adverse effects of the biotin IgM on biotinylation-based immunoassays were assessed, including four inhouse and one commercial virus IgM EIAs, showing that biotin IgM do cause false positivities. The biotin can not bind IgM and streptavidin or avidin simultaneously, suggesting that these biotin-interactive compounds compete for the common binding site. In competitive inhibition assays, the affinities of biotin IgM antibodies ranged from 2.1×10?3 to 1.7×10?4 mol/L. This is the first report on biotin antibodies found in humans, providing new information on biotinylation-based immunoassays as well as new insights into the biomedical effects of vitamins.

Chen, Tingting; Hedman, Lea; Mattila, Petri S.; Jartti, Laura; Jartti, Tuomas; Ruuskanen, Olli; Soderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

2012-01-01

76

Simultaneous IgM reactivity by EIA against more than one virus in measles, parvovirus B19 and rubella infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A clinical diagnosis of rash-causing infections is not always possible and reliance has to be placed on serological evidence of infection, especially on the presence of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M. However, despite the use of modern serological methods and validated commercial kits, reports appear in the literature of simultaneous IgM reactivity against more than one virus in cases of Epstein

H. I. Janet Thomas; Emma Barrett; Louise M Hesketh; Angela Wynne; Peter Morgan-Capner

1999-01-01

77

Trypanosome non-specific IgM antibodies detected in serum of Trypanosoma congolense-infected cattle are polyreactive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum Ig from Trypanosoma congolense-infected cattle were affinity-purified using immobilised trypanosome or non-trypanosome antigens (ß-galactosidase, cytochrome C and ferritin). The bound and unbound IgG and IgM fractions were collected and tested in ELISA for reactivity to each antigen. The results indicated that the presence of reactivity to non-parasite antigens in serum of infected cattle is due to polyreactive IgM antibodies.

Joram Buza; Jan Naessens

1999-01-01

78

Maternal IgG avidity, IgM and ultrasound abnormalities: combined method to detect congenital cytomegalovirus infection with sequelae.  

PubMed

Objective:We used maternal immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity index (AI) and fetal ultrasonography (US) to effectively detect a congenital cytomegalovirus-infected fetus that would suffer neurological sequelae after birth.Study Design:The detecting method was prospectively adapted to 1163 unselected pregnant women. IgM, IgG and IgG-AI were measured at the first prenatal examination (10.8±2.2 weeks of gestation). Advanced US was performed for the IgM-positive women at our center. The urine of 1163 neonates was examined via PCR. All infected neonates were followed for neurological development.Result:Most women (83.3%) were seropositive. Among them, 40 (4.1%) were IgM positive. Nine of forty (22.5%) had low AI, of which one showed abnormal US and suffered severe sequelae. The remaining eight had a normal US; however, one infant had hearing impairment. There were another three infected infants with normal development. Their mothers' serological results were: IgM positive with high AI (n=1); IgG positive; IgM negative with high AI (n=1); and both IgG and IgM negative (n=1).Conclusion:This method enabled us to detect infected fetuses having severe sequelae. However, the problem remains of detecting infected fetuses that only have a hearing impairment. PMID:23867961

Kaneko, M; Sameshima, H; Minematsu, T; Kusumoto, K; Yamauchi, A; Ikenoue, T

2013-07-18

79

IgM Production by Bone Marrow Plasmablasts Contributes to Long-Term Protection against Intracellular Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

IgM responses are well known to occur early postinfection and tend to be short-lived, which has suggested that this Ig does not significantly contribute to long-term immunity. In this study, we demonstrate that chronic infection with the intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia muris elicits a protective, long-term IgM response. Moreover, we identified a population of CD138highIgMhigh B cells responsible for Ag-specific IgM production in the bone marrow. The IgM-secreting cells, which exhibited characteristics of both plasmablasts and plasma cells, contributed to protection against fatal ehrlichial challenge. Mice deficient in activation-induced cytidine deaminase, which produce only IgM, were protected against fatal ehrlichial challenge infection. The IgM-secreting cells that we have identified were maintained in the bone marrow in the absence of chronic infection, as antibiotic-treated mice remained protected against challenge infection. Our studies identify a cell population that is responsible for the IgM production in the bone marrow, and they highlight a novel role for IgM in the maintenance of long-term immunity during intracellular bacterial infection.

Racine, Rachael; McLaughlin, Maura; Jones, Derek D.; Wittmer, Susan T.; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Woodland, David L.; Winslow, Gary M.

2011-01-01

80

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients Contain Significantly Less IgM against Mono-Methylated Lysine than Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1–19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs) to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31–19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31–19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31–19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31–19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31–19 (H31–19K9me). Our further studies revealed that ?-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31–19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

Ma, Younan; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Shao, Yuehu; Gao, Fengying; Wu, Fengqi; Gao, Ruitong; Zhang, Wei

2013-01-01

81

Increased levels of serum IgM antibody to staphylococcal enterotoxin B in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the role of superantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by assaying the serum levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antibodies. METHODS--Serum IgG and IgM SEB antibodies were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and confirmed by Western blot analysis. The T cell receptor V beta (TCR V beta) repertoire was analysed using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS--RA patients had increased levels of serum IgM SEB antibody compared with normal subjects, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease. The titres of rheumatoid factor (RF) showed no correlation with the levels of IgM SEB antibodies, and the levels of SEB antibodies were not inhibited by the addition of human immunoglobulin, or after absorption of RF. RA patients whose disease duration was less than 10 years had greater levels of serum IgM SEB antibodies than those with disease duration more than 10 years. The levels of IgM and IgG SEB antibodies in synovial fluid from RA patients were correlated with those in their sera. Western blot analysis detected IgM and IgG SEB antibodies as a band of approximately 30 kDa molecular size. The percentage of TCR V beta 2, V beta 5.2, and V beta 12 in phytohaemagglutinin stimulated peripheral T cells correlated significantly with the levels of serum IgM SEB antibody in RA patients. CONCLUSION--These results suggest that SEB, one of the superantigens, may have a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. Images

Origuchi, T; Eguchi, K; Kawabe, Y; Yamashita, I; Mizokami, A; Ida, H; Nagataki, S

1995-01-01

82

Early detection of NSCLC with scFv selected against IgM autoantibody.  

PubMed

Survival of patients with lung cancer could be significantly prolonged should the disease be diagnosed early. Growing evidence indicates that the immune response in the form of autoantibodies to developing cancer is present before clinical presentation. We used a phage-displayed antibody library to select for recombinant scFvs that specifically bind to lung cancer-associated IgM autoantibodies. We selected for scFv recombinant antibodies reactive with circulating IgM autoantibodies found in the serum of patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma but not matched controls. Discriminatory performance of 6 selected scFvs was validated in an independent set of serum from stage 1 adenocarcinoma and matching control groups using two independent novel methods developed for this application. The panel of 6 selected scFvs predicted cancer based on seroreactivity value with sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.87. Receiver Operative Characteristic curve (ROC) for combined 6 scFv has an AUC of 0.88 (95%CI, 0.76-1.0) as determined by fluorometric microvolume assay technology (FMAT) The ROC curve generated using a homogeneous bridging Mesa Scale Discovery (MSD) assay had an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59-0.85). The panel of all 6 antibodies demonstrated better discriminative power than any single scFv alone. The scFv panel also demonstrated the association between a high score - based on seroreactivity - with poor survival. Selected scFvs were able to recognize lung cancer associated IgM autoantibodies in patient serum as early as 21 months before the clinical presentation of disease. The panel of antibodies discovered represents a potential unique non-invasive molecular tool to detect an immune response specific to lung adenocarcinoma at an early stage of disease. PMID:23585862

Pedchenko, Tetyana; Mernaugh, Ray; Parekh, Dipti; Li, Ming; Massion, Pierre P

2013-04-09

83

Early Detection of NSCLC with scFv Selected against IgM Autoantibody  

PubMed Central

Survival of patients with lung cancer could be significantly prolonged should the disease be diagnosed early. Growing evidence indicates that the immune response in the form of autoantibodies to developing cancer is present before clinical presentation. We used a phage-displayed antibody library to select for recombinant scFvs that specifically bind to lung cancer-associated IgM autoantibodies. We selected for scFv recombinant antibodies reactive with circulating IgM autoantibodies found in the serum of patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma but not matched controls. Discriminatory performance of 6 selected scFvs was validated in an independent set of serum from stage 1 adenocarcinoma and matching control groups using two independent novel methods developed for this application. The panel of 6 selected scFvs predicted cancer based on seroreactivity value with sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.87. Receiver Operative Characteristic curve (ROC) for combined 6 scFv has an AUC of 0.88 (95%CI, 0.76–1.0) as determined by fluorometric microvolume assay technology (FMAT) The ROC curve generated using a homogeneous bridging Mesa Scale Discovery (MSD) assay had an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59–0.85). The panel of all 6 antibodies demonstrated better discriminative power than any single scFv alone. The scFv panel also demonstrated the association between a high score - based on seroreactivity - with poor survival. Selected scFvs were able to recognize lung cancer associated IgM autoantibodies in patient serum as early as 21 months before the clinical presentation of disease. The panel of antibodies discovered represents a potential unique non-invasive molecular tool to detect an immune response specific to lung adenocarcinoma at an early stage of disease.

Pedchenko, Tetyana; Mernaugh, Ray; Parekh, Dipti; Li, Ming; Massion, Pierre P.

2013-01-01

84

Naturally Occurring IgM Anti-Leukocyte Autoantibodies Inhibit T-Cell Activation and Chemotaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Naturally occurring IgM antileukocyte antoantibodies (IgM-ALA) are present from birth and increase during inflammatory processes\\u000a of diverse etiologies. The clinical observation demonstrating a significant correlation (P?

Peter I. Lobo; Kailo H. Schlegal; John Vengal; Mark D. Okusa; Hong Pei

2010-01-01

85

Examples of in vivo isotype class switching in IgM+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.  

PubMed Central

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) usually involves the expansion of a clone of CD5+ B cells synthesizing IgM antibodies. These B cells appear to be blocked at the antigen receptor-expressing stage of B cell differentiation and are thought not to undergo an isotype class switch to IgG or IgA production. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest, however, that in some instances terminal differentiation and isotype switching can occur. To test the hypothesis that in vivo isotype class switching occurs in IgM+ B-type CLL cells, we analyzed the PBMC of 19 CLL patients for the presence of transcripts encoding the rearranged CLL V(H)DJ(H) associated with either gamma or alpha H chains. The molecular data indicate that approximately 50% of B-CLL patients have amplifications of IgM+ B cells that undergo an isotype class switch. Switching to IgA appears to occur more often than to IgG; also, switching can involve different IgG subclasses in individual patients. In many instances, these CLL-related gamma and alpha transcripts are much more plentiful than those of normal B cells that produce the same isotype. These switched transcripts do not reveal evidence for the accumulation of significant numbers of new V(H) gene mutations. The cellular data indicate that B cells with lesser amounts of surface membrane IgD and higher IgM/IgD ratios are more likely to undergo this switching process. Furthermore, B cells expressing IgG and IgA of the same idiotype or V(H) family and the same CDR3 length as those of the CLL IgM+ clone can be identified in the blood of patients studied using multiparameter immunofluorescence analyses. Collectively, these data suggest that not all members of a B-CLL clone are frozen at the surface membrane Ig-expressing stage of B cell maturation, and that some members can switch to the production of non-IgM isotypes. The occurrence of switching without the accumulation of V gene mutations indicates that the processes of differentiation and diversification are not linked.

Fais, F; Sellars, B; Ghiotto, F; Yan, X J; Dono, M; Allen, S L; Budman, D; Dittmar, K; Kolitz, J; Lichtman, S M; Schulman, P; Schuster, M; Vinciguerra, V P; Rai, K; Stevenson, F K; Gregersen, P K; Ferrarini, M; Chiorazzi, N

1996-01-01

86

Immune Deficiency State in a Girl with Eczema and Low Serum IgM  

PubMed Central

This report concerns an immune deficiency disorder in a girl with eczema. She has had recurrent infections including three severe attacks of herpes simplex and five attacks of pneumococcal meningitis. There is a moderate lymphopenia, dysgammaglobulinaemia with high IgG, high IgA, and low IgM; lymphocyte transformation with phytohaemagglutinin is impaired. Production of circulating antibody is abnormal, as are delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Although there is no thrombocytopenia, the resemblance to the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is discussed. ImagesFIG. 1.FIG. 2.FIG. 3

Evans, D. I. K.; Holzel, A.

1970-01-01

87

IgM LEVELS INVERSELY CORRELATE WITH CD40L PROMOTER METHYLATION IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS  

PubMed Central

The cross talk of CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) plays a key role in CD4+ T cell priming, B-cell terminal maturation, and immunoglobulin (Ig) class-switch recombination. Genetic defects in the CD40L lead to a disorder characterized by elevated concentrations of serum IgM and immunodeficiency. Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) characteristically show circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs), liver infiltrating autoreactive T lymphocytes against mitochondrial antigens, and high levels of IgM. We hypothesized that CD40L may play a key role in the pathogenesis of the elevated serum IgM and analyzed genetic and epigenetic modifications of the gene coding for CD40L in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from circulating mononuclear cells from PBC patients and healthy controls. We herein demonstrate significantly lower levels of DNA methylation of the CD40L promoter in CD4+ T cells from PBC patients as compared with controls, and this decreased methylation was inversely correlated with levels of serum IgM in PBC patients. In conclusion, the findings of an absence of genetic modifications of the CD40L gene in concert with decreased DNA methylation of the CD40L promoter in PBC patients suggests that environmental factors rather than genetics must play a major role in the pathogenesis of elevated serum IgM in PBC.

Lleo, Ana; Liao, Jieyue; Invernizzi, Pietro; Zhao, Ming; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Ma, Le; Lanzi, Gaetana; Ansari, Aftab A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yijun; Zhou, Zhiguang; Lu, Qianjin; Gershwin, M. Eric

2011-01-01

88

A comparison of IgM anti-P1 immunoblotting and a polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory infection in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid IgM immunoblotting serological test was compared to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of respiratory specimens for the diagnosis of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Among 112 paired specimens, the frequency of a positive diagnosis by any method was 7.1%. Both IgM serology and PCR were positive for only two out of eight infected patients. PCR positive, IgM negative

N. Cimolai; C. Trombley; D. G. Mah

1995-01-01

89

Combined Determination of Coxiella burnetii-Specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA Improves Specificity in the Diagnosis of Acute Q Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA responses in patients with acute Q fever were compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An increase in both IgM and IgA was observed in paired sera from all 19 patients with acute Q fever, and both IgM and IgA levels showed good correlation with complement fixation test titers. Paired sera from 23 patients with infections other

PETER DEVINE; CATHERINE DOYLE; GEOFF LAMBKIN

1997-01-01

90

Identification of residues in the C?4 domain of polymeric IgM essential for interaction with P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1)  

PubMed Central

The binding of non-specific human IgM to the surface of infected erythrocytes is important in rosetting, a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum, and IgM binding has also been implicated in placental malaria. Here we have identified the IgM-binding parasite ligand from a virulent P. falciparum strain as PfEMP1 (TM284var1 variant), and localized the region within this PfEMP1 variant that binds IgM (DBL4? domain). We have used this parasite IgM-binding protein to investigate the interaction with human IgM. Interaction studies with domain-swapped antibodies, IgM mutants and anti-IgM mAbs showed that PfEMP1 binds to the Fc portion of the human IgM heavy chain and requires the IgM C?4 domain. Polymerization of IgM was shown to be crucial for the interaction because PfEMP1 binding did not occur with mutant monomeric IgM molecules. These results with PfEMP1 protein have physiological relevance because infected erythrocytes from strain TM284 and four other IgM-binding P. falciparum strains showed analogous results to those seen with the DBL4? domain. Detailed investigation of the PfEMP1 binding site on IgM showed that some of the critical amino acids in the IgM C?4 domain are equivalent to those regions of IgG and IgA recognised by Fc-binding proteins from bacteria, suggesting that this region of immunoglobulin molecules may be of major functional significance in host-microbe interactions. We have therefore shown that PfEMP1 is an Fc-binding protein of malaria parasites specific for polymeric human IgM, and shows functional similarities with Fc-binding proteins from pathogenic bacteria.

Ghumra, Ashfaq; Semblat, Jean-Philippe; McIntosh, Richard S.; Raza, Ahmed; Rasmussen, Ingunn B.; Braathen, Ranveig; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Sandlie, Inger; Mongini, Patricia K.; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Pleass, Richard J.

2009-01-01

91

IgM and IgG Antibodies to Phenolic Glycolipid I from Mycobacterium leprae in Leprosy: Insight into Patient Monitoring, Erythema Nodosum Leprosum, and Bacillary Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum IgM and IgG antibodies against Mycobacterium leprae-derived phenolic glycolipid I (PG) were determined in leprosy patients, contacts, and controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-PG IgM levels increased from the tuberculoid (TT) to the lepromatous (LL) pole of the disease spectrum. There was a positive linear correlation between anti-PG IgM and bacillary index (BI). patients with erythema nodosum leprosum

William R. Levis; Harry C. Meeker; Georgia Schuller-Levis; Eugene Sersen; Beatrix Schwerer

1986-01-01

92

Detection of IgM antibody against region IV flagellin of Salmonella paratyphi A.  

PubMed

Salmonella paratyphi A is a pathogenic bacterium that causes paratyphoid fever. The current laboratory diagnostic techniques are unsatisfactory. To improve diagnosis, a plasmid (pSK-8E) encoding phase 1 flagellin gene nucleotide position 452-890 from S. paratyphi A has been constructed. The recombinant protein expressed from the plasmid has been used to develop an indirect ELISA for IgM antibody detection. Sera from patients with hemoculture positive for S. paratyphi A, S. typhi, other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and dengue hemorrhagic fever as well as from healthy control subjects were tested. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test were 56.9%, 98.8%, 90.6% and 92.1%, respectively. Since the sensitivity was low, the explanation for this result was investigated. It was found that the sensitivity of the test could be increased to 83.3% if the sera were obtained 9-12 days after onset of fever. The sera obtained earlier or later gave only 33.3% and 66.6% sensitivity, respectively. This result suggests that the IgM antibody detection assay which we have developed is a valuable tool for diagnosis of S. paratyphi A infection when the serum samples are taken at the appropriate time. PMID:10772578

Korbsrisate, S; Sarasombath, S; Praaporn, N; Iamkamala, P; Hossain, M; Mckay, S

1998-12-01

93

Evaluation of a rapid assay for detection of IgM antibodies to chikungunya.  

PubMed

Chikungunya (CHIK) is a re-emerging disease causing a large negative impact on global health and economics. Clinical manifestations of CHIK are non specific and difficult to differentiate from dengue hemorrhagic fever or other viral exanthema. A rapid, simple and reliable diagnostic assay is necessary for CHIK outbreak control especially in countries with insufficient access to well-equipped laboratories. The aim of the study is to evaluate a commercially rapid, qualitative CHIK diagnostic assay based on specific IgM antibody detection. Performance of the rapid assay was evaluated in comparison with semi-nested RT-PCR and IgM detection by ELISA. The sensitivity of the rapid assay was not constant but positively correlated with duration of symptoms. If the test was conducted within the first week, sensitivity and specificity was 22% and 88%, respectively. If the patients were tested after the first week, sensitivity was increased to 83% while specificity was decreased to 71%. Thus, the rapid assay should not be used as a screening tool during the first week of CHIK due to its low sensitivity. PMID:20578487

Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Wuttirattanakowit, Norra; Prianantathavorn, Kesmanee; Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

2010-01-01

94

Breast cancer imaging with In-111 human IgM monoclonal antibodies: preliminary studies.  

PubMed

Detection of specific tumor sites was studied with scintigraphy and radiolabeled human IgM monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). Ten patients with metastatic breast cancer received an infusion of one of three indium-111-labeled anti-breast carcinoma MoAbs. The time of infusion ranged from 30 minutes to 2 hours. Three patients received YBB-190 at total doses of 2, 4.25, or 11 mg, four patients received YBM-209 at total doses of 1 mg (n = 1) or 20 mg (n = 3), and three patients each received 22 mg of YBY-088. Imaging was performed immediately after infusion and at 4, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 144 hours. Many presumed sites of metastatic disease were imaged in three of the four patients who received 20 mg of YBM-209 and in two of the three patients who received YBY-088. Tumor was not detected in any of the patients who received YBB-190, in the patient who received a 1-mg dose of YBM-209, or in the patient who received YBY-088 and in whom a biopsy of tumor tissue failed to demonstrate target antigen. The authors conclude that In-111-labeled human IgM MoAbs can target human breast cancer, but antigen expression and antibody dose determine successful immunoscintigraphy. PMID:3347750

Ryan, K P; Dillman, R O; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; Beauregard, J; Hagan, P L; Amox, D G; Clutter, M L; Burnett, K G; Rulot, C M

1988-04-01

95

IgM in a human neuropathy related to paraproteinemia binds to a carbohydrate determinant in the myelin-associated glycoprotein and to a ganglioside.  

PubMed Central

The IgM in three patients with paraproteinemia and peripheral neuropathy was shown to bind to human myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) that had been purified to homogeneity by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-6B. The antigenic determinant reacting with the IgM from all three patients was in the carbohydrate part of the MAG molecule. In addition, the IgM from the same three patients bound to a single ganglioside of human sciatic nerve. The results indicate that the IgM paraproteins in these patients react with a carbohydrate determinant that is shared between MAG and a peripheral nerve ganglioside. Images

Ilyas, A A; Quarles, R H; MacIntosh, T D; Dobersen, M J; Trapp, B D; Dalakas, M C; Brady, R O

1984-01-01

96

Competitive adsorption-desorption of IgM monomers-dimers on silica and modified silica surfaces.  

PubMed

Understanding competitive adsorption-desorption of proteins onto surfaces is an important area of research in food processing and biomedical engineering. Here, we demonstrate, how electrospray-differential mobility analysis that has been traditionally used for characterizing bionanoparticles, can be used for quantifying complex competitive adsorption-desorption of oligomeric proteins or multiprotein systems using monomers and dimers of IgM as a model example onto silica and modified silica surfaces. Using ES-DMA, we show that IgM dimers show a preference to stay adsorbed to different surfaces although monomers adsorb more easily and desorption rates of monomers and dimers of IgM are surface-type-dependent and are not significantly affected by shear. We anticipate that this demonstration will make ES-DMA a popular "label-free" method for studying multicomponent multi-oligomeric protein adsorption to different surfaces in the future. PMID:23628202

Guha, Suvajyoti; Wayment, Joshua; Rastogi, Vinayak; Li, Mingdong; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

2013-03-26

97

[Demonstration of specific IgM antibody in cases of suspect congenital toxoplasmosis: interpretation of results (author's transl)].  

PubMed

From the aspect of laboratory Toxoplasmosis examination, a series of clinically and parasitologically confirmed cases of congenital Toxoplasmosis (CT) were selected. Serological findings (CFT, DT, IgM-IFAT) in infants and mothers were critically examined. The IgM titers in CT as a rule lay between 1:16 and 1:64, the highest recorded being 1:256. The serum IgM globulin levels showed no dependence on the high CFT titers. T recognize unspecific reactions amongst infants with positive IgM values, the serological testing of mothers was indispensable. It is also absolutely necessary with infants to repeatedly test serologically at intervals to clearly bring out the results of all the three serological reactions. The technical problems encountered for a definative diagnosis of CT and the clinical picture in the present critical examination are discussed. PMID:1014782

Werner, H; Schöning, C; Neuhaus, B; Maute, I

1976-12-01

98

Serum IgG, IgM and slow alpha-globulin levels in carrageenan-treated rats.  

PubMed Central

Serum levels of IgM, IgG, slow alpha 1- and slow alpha 2-globulins were measured either by quantitative radial immunodiffusion (IgG) or immunoelectrophoresis (IgM and slow alpha-globulins) during the 3-week period after i.p. injection of 50 mg potassium carrageenan. There was a significant elevation in levels of IgM and slow alpha 1-globulin, maximal on Day 4 and returning to normal by Day 14. Slow alpha 2-globulin was detectable within 24 h, reached a peak at Day 2, and was no longer measurable in most rats by Day 14. Levels of IgG however, were unaffected by carrageenan injection.

Fowler, E. F.; Thomson, A. W.

1979-01-01

99

Trypanosome non-specific IgM antibodies detected in serum of Trypanosoma congolense-infected cattle are polyreactive.  

PubMed

Serum Ig from Trypanosoma congolense-infected cattle were affinity-purified using immobilised trypanosome or non-trypanosome antigens (beta-galactosidase, cytochrome C and ferritin). The bound and unbound IgG and IgM fractions were collected and tested in ELISA for reactivity to each antigen. The results indicated that the presence of reactivity to non-parasite antigens in serum of infected cattle is due to polyreactive IgM antibodies. However, the IgG fraction only bound to trypanosome antigens and was only present in post-infection sera, indicating that it was induced by the infecting trypanosomes. Since the polyreactive IgM antibodies were also present in pre-infection sera, it is probable that they were natural antibodies that were not induced but only amplified by the trypanosome infection. PMID:10490230

Buza, J; Naessens, J

1999-07-01

100

Generation of a novel high-affinity monoclonal antibody with conformational recognition epitope on human IgM.  

PubMed

As IgM is the first isotype of antibody which appears in blood after initial exposure to a foreign antigen in the pattern of primary response, detection, and quantification of this molecule in blood seems invaluable. To approach these goals, generation, and characterization of a highly specific mAb (monoclonal antibody) against human IgM were investigated. Human IgM immunoglobulins were used to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells using PEG (polyethylene glycol, MW 1450) as fusogen. The hybridomas were cultured in HAT containing medium and supernatants from the growing hybrids were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using plates coated with pure human IgM and the positive wells were then cloned at limiting dilutions. The best clone designated as MAN-1, was injected intraperitoneally to some Pristane-injected mice. Anti-IgM mAb was purified from the animals' ascitic fluid by protein-G sepharose followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. MAN-1 interacted with human IgM with a very high specificity and affinity. The purity of the sample was tested by SDS-PAGE and the affinity constant was measured (K(a) = 3.5 x 10(9)M(-1). Immunoblotting and competitive ELISA were done and the results showed that the harvested antibody recognizes a conformational epitope on the mu chain of human IgM and there was no cross-reactivity with other subclasses of immunoglobulins. Furthermore, isotyping test was done and the results showed the subclass of the obtained mAb which was IgG(1)kappa. PMID:20162378

Sarikhani, Sina; Mirshahi, Manouchehr; Gharaati, Mohammad Reza; Mirshahi, Tooran

2010-02-18

101

Teleost Fish Mount Complex Clonal IgM and IgT Responses in Spleen upon Systemic Viral Infection  

PubMed Central

Upon infection, B-lymphocytes expressing antibodies specific for the intruding pathogen develop clonal responses triggered by pathogen recognition via the B-cell receptor. The constant region of antibodies produced by such responding clones dictates their functional properties. In teleost fish, the clonal structure of B-cell responses and the respective contribution of the three isotypes IgM, IgD and IgT remain unknown. The expression of IgM and IgT are mutually exclusive, leading to the existence of two B-cell subsets expressing either both IgM and IgD or only IgT. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the variable heavy chain (VH) domain repertoires of the IgM, IgD and IgT in spleen of homozygous isogenic rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) before, and after challenge with a rhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV), using CDR3-length spectratyping and pyrosequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts. In healthy fish, we observed distinct repertoires for IgM, IgD and IgT, respectively, with a few amplified ? and ? junctions, suggesting the presence of IgM- and IgT-secreting cells in the spleen. In infected animals, we detected complex and highly diverse IgM responses involving all VH subgroups, and dominated by a few large public and private clones. A lower number of robust clonal responses involving only a few VH were detected for the mucosal IgT, indicating that both IgM+ and IgT+ spleen B cells responded to systemic infection but at different degrees. In contrast, the IgD response to the infection was faint. Although fish IgD and IgT present different structural features and evolutionary origin compared to mammalian IgD and IgA, respectively, their implication in the B-cell response evokes these mouse and human counterparts. Thus, it appears that the general properties of antibody responses were already in place in common ancestors of fish and mammals, and were globally conserved during evolution with possible functional convergences.

Castro, Rosario; Jouneau, Luc; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Bouchez, Olivier; Giudicelli, Veronique; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Quillet, Edwige; Benmansour, Abdenour; Cazals, Frederic; Six, Adrien; Fillatreau, Simon; Sunyer, Oriol; Boudinot, Pierre

2013-01-01

102

Teleost fish mount complex clonal IgM and IgT responses in spleen upon systemic viral infection.  

PubMed

Upon infection, B-lymphocytes expressing antibodies specific for the intruding pathogen develop clonal responses triggered by pathogen recognition via the B-cell receptor. The constant region of antibodies produced by such responding clones dictates their functional properties. In teleost fish, the clonal structure of B-cell responses and the respective contribution of the three isotypes IgM, IgD and IgT remain unknown. The expression of IgM and IgT are mutually exclusive, leading to the existence of two B-cell subsets expressing either both IgM and IgD or only IgT. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the variable heavy chain (VH) domain repertoires of the IgM, IgD and IgT in spleen of homozygous isogenic rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) before, and after challenge with a rhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV), using CDR3-length spectratyping and pyrosequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts. In healthy fish, we observed distinct repertoires for IgM, IgD and IgT, respectively, with a few amplified ? and ? junctions, suggesting the presence of IgM- and IgT-secreting cells in the spleen. In infected animals, we detected complex and highly diverse IgM responses involving all VH subgroups, and dominated by a few large public and private clones. A lower number of robust clonal responses involving only a few VH were detected for the mucosal IgT, indicating that both IgM(+) and IgT(+) spleen B cells responded to systemic infection but at different degrees. In contrast, the IgD response to the infection was faint. Although fish IgD and IgT present different structural features and evolutionary origin compared to mammalian IgD and IgA, respectively, their implication in the B-cell response evokes these mouse and human counterparts. Thus, it appears that the general properties of antibody responses were already in place in common ancestors of fish and mammals, and were globally conserved during evolution with possible functional convergences. PMID:23326228

Castro, Rosario; Jouneau, Luc; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Bouchez, Olivier; Giudicelli, Véronique; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Quillet, Edwige; Benmansour, Abdenour; Cazals, Frédéric; Six, Adrien; Fillatreau, Simon; Sunyer, Oriol; Boudinot, Pierre

2013-01-10

103

Recent enterovirus infection in type 1 diabetes: evidence with a novel IgM method.  

PubMed

Enterovirus (EV) infection has been associated with Type 1 (T1D) diabetes and on a few occasions virus could be isolated at onset of the disease. Using two such isolates as antigens in a quantitative PCR enhanced immunoassay (T1D-EV-QPIA) we have measured IgM antibodies against such potentially diabetogenic viruses in serum from 33 newly diagnosed T1D children, 24 siblings, and 27 healthy children. Sera were also analysed with regard to autoantibodies against GAD65, the cytokine TNF-alpha and the chemokine IP-10. EV-RNA detection was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). IgM antibodies against this "new" EV antigen were more frequent in serum from T1D children than in serum from siblings and/or controls (P < 0.001). EV-RNA was detected more frequently in PBMC from T1D children than in healthy control children (P < 0.001) and also compared to the siblings (P < 0.003). The cytokine TNF-alpha was less frequently detected in serum from the T1D children compared with serum from siblings and/controls (P < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between the results obtained with the T1D-EV-QPIA and the EV-PCR (P < 0.001). These findings are in line with earlier findings of an increased frequency of enteroviral infections in newly diagnosed T1D patients. In addition, we found that T1D children at onset of the disease had lower frequencies of the chemokine TNF-alpha in their serum than age- and sex-matched controls had, suggesting an impaired immune response. PMID:17935175

Elfaitouri, A; Berg, A-K; Frisk, G; Yin, H; Tuvemo, T; Blomberg, J

2007-12-01

104

Identity of the elusive IgM Fc receptor (Fc?R) in humans  

PubMed Central

Although Fc receptors (FcRs) for switched immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes have been extensively characterized, FcR for IgM (Fc?R) has defied identification. By retroviral expression and functional cloning, we have identified a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a bona fide Fc?R in human B-lineage cDNA libraries. Fc?R is defined as a transmembrane sialoglycoprotein of ?60 kD, which contains an extracellular Ig-like domain homologous to two other IgM-binding receptors (polymeric Ig receptor and Fc?/?R) but exhibits an exclusive Fc?-binding specificity. The cytoplasmic tail of Fc?R contains conserved Ser and Tyr residues, but none of the Tyr residues match the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation, inhibitory, or switch motifs. Unlike other FcRs, the major cell types expressing Fc?R are adaptive immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes. After antigen-receptor ligation or phorbol myristate acetate stimulation, Fc?R expression was up-regulated on B cells but was down-modulated on T cells, suggesting differential regulation of Fc?R expression during B and T cell activation. Although this receptor was initially designated as Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 3, or TOSO, our results indicate that Fc?R per se has no inhibitory activity in Fas-mediated apoptosis and that such inhibition is only achieved when anti-Fas antibody of an IgM but not IgG isotype is used for inducing apoptosis.

Oka, Satoshi; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Torii, Ikuko; Takayama, Eiji; Kang, Dong-Won; Gartland, G. Larry; Bertoli, Luigi F.; Mori, Hiromi; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio; Ohno, Hiroshi; Wang, Ji-Yang

2009-01-01

105

Combined determination of Coxiella burnetii-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA improves specificity in the diagnosis of acute Q fever.  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA responses in patients with acute Q fever were compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An increase in both IgM and IgA was observed in paired sera from all 19 patients with acute Q fever, and both IgM and IgA levels showed good correlation with complement fixation test titers. Paired sera from 23 patients with infections other than Q fever were also tested. IgM levels were elevated in three of these patients, while IgA levels were elevated in three different patients (87% specificity for either IgM or IgA). As no patients in the disease control group showed elevated levels of both IgM and IgA, definition of a positive result as elevated levels of both IgM and IgA improved specificity to 100% without a decrease in sensitivity. This study indicates that detection of specific IgA is a useful adjunct to that of IgM in the diagnosis of acute Q fever.

Devine, P; Doyle, C; Lambkin, G

1997-01-01

106

Antigenic analysis of grass carp reovirus using single-chain variable fragment antibody against IgM from Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important species of freshwater aquaculture fish in China. However, grass carp reovirus (GCRV) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in yearling populations. Until now, a strategy to define the antigenic capacity of the virus's structural proteins for preparing an effective vaccine has not been available. In this study, some single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv), which could specifically recognize grass carp IgM, were selected from a constructed mouse naïve antibody phage display cDNA library. The identified scFv C1B3 clone was shown to possess relatively higher specific binding activity to grass carp IgM. Furthermore, ELISA analysis indicated that the IgM level in serum from virus-infected grass carp was more than two times higher than that of the control group at 5-7 days post infection. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the outer capsid protein VP7 has a specific immuno-binding-reaction with the serum IgM from virus-infected grass carp. Our results suggest that VP7 can induce a stronger immune response in grass carp than the other GCRV structural proteins, which implies that VP7 protein could be used as a preferred immunogen for vaccine design. PMID:23314868

Chen, CongLin; Sun, XiaoYun; Liao, LanJie; Luo, ShaoXiang; Li, ZhouQuan; Zhang, XiaoHua; Wang, YaPing; Guo, QionLin; Fang, Qin; Dai, HePing

2013-01-12

107

Rearrangement and Expression of Endogenous Immunoglobulin Genes Occur in Many Murine B Cells Expressing Transgenic Membrane IgM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In studies presented here, we reopen the question of whether the presence of a functionally rearranged mu heavy chain transgene ('mu transgene') is sufficient to block endogenous IgM gene rearrangement during B-cell development. Using anti-IgM allotypic r...

A. M. Stall D. G. Sieckmann F. G. Kroese F. T. Gadus L. A. Herzenberg

1988-01-01

108

Development and Persistence of West Nile Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG in Viremic Blood Donors  

PubMed Central

West Nile Virus (WNV) antibody development and persistence were investigated in blood donors who made WNV RNA-positive (viremic) donations in 2003. Plasma samples from the index donations and follow-up serum or plasma samples were tested for WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Antibody development was investigated with 154 samples collected from 84 donors 1 to 21 days after their RNA-positive, antibody-negative, index donation. WNV IgM and IgA were first detected on day 3, and all samples collected after day 9 were WNV IgM and IgA positive; WNV IgG was first detected on day 4, and all samples collected after day 16 were positive. Antibody persistence in this donor group (index donations antibody negative) was evaluated by using 128 samples collected from 89 donors on days 22 to 440 of follow-up; 88% of samples were WNV IgM positive, 86% were WNV IgA positive, and 100% were WNV IgG positive. In linear regression analysis, trendlines for WNV IgM and IgA reached the value discriminating positive from negative results at 218 days and 232 days of follow-up, respectively. Similar WNV IgM and IgA persistence trends characterized 27 donors whose index samples were positive for WNV IgM and IgA, as well as 14 donors whose index samples were positive for WNV IgG but negative for WNV IgM. These findings show that WNV IgG emerges after WNV IgM and IgA and that both WNV IgM and IgA typically persist for at least 6 months after infection. Thus, unlike some other flavivirus infections, WNV infection is not characterized by a relatively rapid disappearance of virus-specific IgA.

Prince, Harry E.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Lape-Nixon, Mary; Foster, Gregory A.; Stramer, Susan L.; Busch, Michael P.

2005-01-01

109

High Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM in Acute Q Fever by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)  

PubMed Central

Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare. We conducted a retrospective serological study of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a method widely used in clinical practice, in 102 cases of acute Q fever, 39 cases of scrub typhus, and 14 cases of murine typhus. The seropositive (57.8%, 7.7%, and 0%, p<0.001) and seroconversion rates (50.6%, 8.8%, and 0%, p<0.001) of M. pneumoniae IgM, but not M. pneumoniae IgG and C. pneumoniae IgG/IgM, in acute Q fever were significantly higher than in scrub typhus and murine typhus. Another ELISA kit also revealed a high seropositivity (49.5%) and seroconversion rate (33.3%) of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever. The temporal and age distributions of patients with positive M. pneumoniae IgM were not typical of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Comparing acute Q fever patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM (59 cases) with those who were negative (43 cases), the demographic characteristics and underlying diseases were not different. In addition, the clinical manifestations associated with atypical pneumonia, including headache (71.2% vs. 81.4%, p=0.255), sore throat (8.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.351), cough (35.6% vs. 23.3%, p=0.199), and chest x-ray suggesting pneumonia (19.3% vs. 9.5%, p=0.258), were unchanged between the two groups. Clinicians should be aware of the high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever, particularly with ELISA kits, which can lead to misdiagnosis, overestimations of the prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and underestimations of the true prevalence of Q fever pneumonia.

Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Wei-Fang; Kuo, Li-Li; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu

2013-01-01

110

High Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM in Acute Q Fever by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).  

PubMed

Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare. We conducted a retrospective serological study of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a method widely used in clinical practice, in 102 cases of acute Q fever, 39 cases of scrub typhus, and 14 cases of murine typhus. The seropositive (57.8%, 7.7%, and 0%, p<0.001) and seroconversion rates (50.6%, 8.8%, and 0%, p<0.001) of M. pneumoniae IgM, but not M. pneumoniae IgG and C. pneumoniae IgG/IgM, in acute Q fever were significantly higher than in scrub typhus and murine typhus. Another ELISA kit also revealed a high seropositivity (49.5%) and seroconversion rate (33.3%) of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever. The temporal and age distributions of patients with positive M. pneumoniae IgM were not typical of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Comparing acute Q fever patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM (59 cases) with those who were negative (43 cases), the demographic characteristics and underlying diseases were not different. In addition, the clinical manifestations associated with atypical pneumonia, including headache (71.2% vs. 81.4%, p=0.255), sore throat (8.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.351), cough (35.6% vs. 23.3%, p=0.199), and chest x-ray suggesting pneumonia (19.3% vs. 9.5%, p=0.258), were unchanged between the two groups. Clinicians should be aware of the high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever, particularly with ELISA kits, which can lead to misdiagnosis, overestimations of the prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and underestimations of the true prevalence of Q fever pneumonia. PMID:24147043

Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Wei-Fang; Kuo, Li-Li; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu

2013-10-17

111

Differences in IgM synthesis to gut bacterial peptidoglycan polysaccharide after burn injury and gut ischemia.  

PubMed

Both burn injury and intestinal ischemia have been proven to induce bacterial translocation from the gut. It is still unknown, however, whether the bacteria induces immune response in these different models. To assess this, we measured in vitro IgM synthesis to peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PGPS), a ubiquitous gut bacterial antigen, after burn injury or gut ischemia-reperfusion in a mouse model. Eighty-five BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. Gut ischemia was produced by placing a vessel loop around the superior mesenteric artery at celiotomy (group Isc; n = 31). After 45 minutes, the abdomen was reopened, and the vessel loop removed. All animals had visible gut ischemia. Control mice (group Isc-C; n = 15) underwent two sham operations. Burn injury was 25% body surface area full-thickness to the dorsum (group B; n = 27). Another control group (B-C; n = 12) was also used. Animals were euthanized 24 hours after recirculation or 5 days after the burn injury. All spleens were removed, and cell suspensions prepared. Cells were cultured in 2.5 micrograms/ml lipopolysaccharide for 5 days, and anti-PGPS IgM level in the supernatant was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intestinal ischemia produced a significant rise in in vitro anti-PGPS IgM synthesis per 10(5) lymphocytes, which is the principal immunoglobulin response to infection. However, anti-PGPS IgM in mice after burn injury was significantly decreased. This decreased IgM synthesis after burn injury compared to gut ischemia may represent continued immune impairment from the burn wound, and may account for organ dysfunction related to bacterial translocation after burn injury. PMID:8736368

Tabata, T; deSerres, S; Meyer, A A

112

rROP2186–533: A Novel Peptide Antigen for Detection of IgM Antibodies Against Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in a wide range of mammalian hosts including humans. Infection in pregnant women may cause the transmission of parasite to the fetus that makes serious problems. IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma (Toxo-IgM) have been believed to be significant indicators for both recently acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis. So far, however, there has not been any recognized protein of T. gondii that specifically reacts to IgM antibodies. Here, an antigen exclusively for detection of IgM antibodies screened by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry has been reported. The study identified 13 Toxoplasma proteins probed by IgG antibodies and one (rhpotry protein 2 [ROP2]) by IgM antibodies with human sera of Toxo-IgM–-IgG+ and -IgM+-IgG–, respectively, which had been prescreened by Toxo-IgM and -IgG commercial kits from the suspected cases. Following cloning, expression, and purification of the fragment of ROP2186–533, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with rROP2186–533 to measure IgM and IgG antibodies was developed. As a result, 100%(48/48) of sera with Toxo-IgM+-IgG–showed positive Toxo-IgM but none of them (0%) showed positive Toxo-IgG when rROP2186–533 was used as antigen. Neither Toxo-IgG nor Toxo-IgM antibodies were found when tested with 59 sera of Toxo-IgM–-IgG+. These results indicate that rROP2186–533 could be used as an antigen that specifically capture Toxo-IgM antibodies and may have a high potential in the serological diagnosis of both acute acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis.

Liu, Lili; Liu, Tingting; Yu, Li; Cai, Yihong; Zhang, Aimei; Xu, Xiucai; Luo, Qingli; Hu, Yuansheng; Song, Wenjian; Lun, Zhaorong; Lu, Fangli; Wang, Yong

2012-01-01

113

Genome-Wide Scan Identifies Variant in TNFSF13 Associated with Serum IgM in a Healthy Chinese Male Population  

PubMed Central

IgM provides a first line of defense during microbial infections. Serum IgM levels are detected routinely in clinical practice. And IgM is a genetically complex trait. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants affecting serum IgM levels in a Chinese population of 3495, including 1999 unrelated subjects in the first stage and 1496 independent individuals in the second stage. Our data show that a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11552708 located in the TNFSF13 gene was significantly associated with IgM levels (p?=?5.00×10?7 in first stage, p?=?1.34×10?3 in second stage, and p?=?4.22×10?9 when combined). Besides, smoking was identified to be associated with IgM levels in both stages (P<0.05), but there was no significant interaction between smoking and the identified SNP (P>0.05). It is suggested that TNFSF13 may be a susceptibility gene affecting serum IgM levels in Chinese male population.

Sun, Jielin; Liao, Ming; Qin, Min; Mo, Linjian; Gao, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Wu, Chunlei; Zhang, Youjie; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Shijun; Li, Jianling; Dong, Min; Zheng, S. Lilly; Xu, Jianfeng; Yang, Xiaobo; Tan, Aihua; Mo, Zengnan

2012-01-01

114

Toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on lysozyme activities, the contents of complement C3 and IgM, and IgM and complement C3 expressions in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos is one of the organophosphate pesticides widely used in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. In the present study, toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on lysozyme activities, contents of IgM and complement C3, and the expressions of IgM and complement C3 at mRNA level in common carp were evaluated by acute exposure of 15 (1/10 LC50) or 75?gL(-1) (1/2 LC50) of chlorpyrifos for 7d. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96h-LC50 of chlorpyrifos for common carp was determined to be 149?gL(-1). We also found that chlorpyrifos promoted lysozyme activities at the earlier stages of exposure but inhibited it at the late stages in the serum, hepatopancreas, and spleen of common carp. Furthermore, it was observed that chlorpyrifos-exposure decreased IgM contents in fish serum and spleen while increased it in kidney. No obvious change was found in the contents of complement C3 in fish spleen, while a slight increase of complement C3 was observed in fish serum and kidney after 1d of chlorpyrifos-exposure. In addition, the results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that IgM and complement C3 expressions were up-regulated at the earlier stage of exposure but down-regulated at later stage. Our results indicate that chlorpyrifos causes immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:23769463

Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yaning; Fang, Qian; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yuanlong

2013-06-13

115

Identification of residues in the Cmu4 domain of polymeric IgM essential for interaction with Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1).  

PubMed

The binding of nonspecific human IgM to the surface of infected erythrocytes is important in rosetting, a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum, and IgM binding has also been implicated in placental malaria. Herein we have identified the IgM-binding parasite ligand from a virulent P. falciparum strain as PfEMP1 (TM284var1 variant), and localized the region within this PfEMP1 variant that binds IgM (DBL4beta domain). We have used this parasite IgM-binding protein to investigate the interaction with human IgM. Interaction studies with domain-swapped Abs, IgM mutants, and anti-IgM mAbs showed that PfEMP1 binds to the Fc portion of the human IgM H chain and requires the IgM Cmu4 domain. Polymerization of IgM was shown to be crucial for the interaction because PfEMP1 binding did not occur with mutant monomeric IgM molecules. These results with PfEMP1 protein have physiological relevance because infected erythrocytes from strain TM284 and four other IgM-binding P. falciparum strains showed analogous results to those seen with the DBL4beta domain. Detailed investigation of the PfEMP1 binding site on IgM showed that some of the critical amino acids in the IgM Cmu4 domain are equivalent to those regions of IgG and IgA recognized by Fc-binding proteins from bacteria, suggesting that this region of Ig molecules may be of major functional significance in host-microbe interactions. We have therefore shown that PfEMP1 is an Fc-binding protein of malaria parasites specific for polymeric human IgM, and that it shows functional similarities with Fc-binding proteins from pathogenic bacteria. PMID:18641336

Ghumra, Ashfaq; Semblat, Jean-Philippe; McIntosh, Richard S; Raza, Ahmed; Rasmussen, Ingunn B; Braathen, Ranveig; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Sandlie, Inger; Mongini, Patricia K; Rowe, J Alexandra; Pleass, Richard J

2008-08-01

116

The isolation and structure of the core oligosaccharide sequences of IgM.  

PubMed

Methods are presented for separating the three IgM heavy chain sialoglycopeptides associated with asparagines 170, 332, and 395. The core glycopeptide units containing the disaccharide fucosyl-N-acetylglucosamine were obtained through the use of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosamindase from Diplococcus pneumoniae, following exoglycosidase treatment of the sialoglycopeptides. In addition to the core glycopeptides, high yields of a tetrasaccharide, (Man)3GlcNAc, were obtained. The fucose in the core disaccharide is glycosidically linked to the 6-O position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in Asn-GlcNAc. This core unit is resistant to glycosyl asparaginase, but becomes susceptible to hydrolysis on removal of the fucosyl residue by a purified hen oviduct alpha-L-fucosidase. The core sequence of the immunoglobulin M sialoglycopeptides appears to be similar to that of most other asparagine-linked oligosaccharides in consisting of a basic unit composed of beta-D-Man-(1 leads to 4)beta-D-GlcNAc(1 leads to 4)beta-D-GlcNAc(1 leads to 4), but with L fucose linked alpha-(1 leads to 6) to the proximal GlcNAc. The two nonreducing terminal ends of (Man)3GlcNAc are linked to beta-D-Man by alpha-(1 leads to 3) and alpha(1 leads to 6) bonds, respectively. PMID:1201277

Tarentino, A L; Plummer, T H; Maley, F

1975-12-16

117

Chemical Enrichment of the Early IGM by Low-Mass Primordial Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For now, primordial stars lie beyond the realm of direct observation, but indirect measures of their masses may be possible by analyzing their nucleosynthetic imprint on subsequent generations of low-mass long-lived stars, some of which may persist as extremely metal-poor (EMP) and hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars in the Galactic halo today. The absence of the "odd-even" abundance pattern of pair-instability SNe in metal-poor halo stars surveyed to date suggests that the early IGM was primarily enriched by low-mass stars. We present numerical simulations of spherically-symmetric core collapse SNe of 15 - 40 solar mass stars, surveying two progenitor rotation rates, three masses, two metallicities and three explosion energies, for a total of 36 models. We compare our nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances of the three most iron-poor stars and match the abundance pattern of one, HE 0557-4840, with a zero-metallicity 15 solar mass, 2.4 Bethe explosion. A Salpeter IMF average of our yields for Z = 0 models with explosion energies of 2.4 Bethe or less is a good match to the abundances in the much larger sample of EMP stars. Since EMP stars likely carry the cumulative nucleosynthetic imprint of a few well-established populations of SNe progenitors, our findings suggest that low-mass SNe contributed the bulk of the metals to the early universe.

Whalen, Daniel J.; Joggerst, C.

2010-01-01

118

Antigen receptor editing in anti-DNA transitional B cells deficient for surface IgM.  

PubMed

In response to encounter with self-Ag, autoreactive B cells may undergo secondary L chain gene rearrangement (receptor editing) and change the specificity of their Ag receptor. Knowing at what differentiative stage(s) developing B cells undergo receptor editing is important for understanding how self-reactive B cells are regulated. In this study, in mice with Ig transgenes coding for anti-self (DNA) Ab, we report dsDNA breaks indicative of ongoing secondary L chain rearrangement not only in bone marrow cells with a pre-B/B cell phenotype but also in immature/transitional splenic B cells with little or no surface IgM (sIgM(-/low)). L chain-edited transgenic B cells were detectable in spleen but not bone marrow and were still found to produce Ab specific for DNA (and apoptotic cells), albeit with lower affinity for DNA than the unedited transgenic Ab. We conclude that L chain editing in anti-DNA-transgenic B cells is not only ongoing in bone marrow but also in spleen. Indeed, transfer of sIgM(-/low) anti-DNA splenic B cells into SCID mice resulted in the appearance of a L chain editor (Vlambdax) in the serum of engrafted recipients. Finally, we also report evidence for ongoing L chain editing in sIgM(low) transitional splenic B cells of wild-type mice. PMID:18424731

Kiefer, Kerstin; Nakajima, Pamela B; Oshinsky, Jennifer; Seeholzer, Steven H; Radic, Marko; Bosma, Gayle C; Bosma, Melvin J

2008-05-01

119

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting IgM and IgE antibodies in human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Sera from patients with acute or early and chronic schistosomiasis were examined for IgG, IgM, and IgE antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, using soluble egg antigen from Schistosoma mansoni. Cercarial/adult IgG antibody ratios were determined, using soluble cercarial and adult worm antigens. Sera with cercarial/adult ratios indicative of acute or early schistosomiasis also contained specific IgM antibodies. Schistosome IgE antibody was found in sera from patients with acute schistosomiasis, but in only 1 of 10 sera from patients with chronic schistosomiasis. The inability of ELISA to detect IgE antibodies in chronic sera indicates that it may be a relatively insensitive measure of IgE antibodies in those patients with chronic schistosomiasis. PMID:6986098

Lunde, M N; Ottesen, E A

1980-01-01

120

An unusual human IgM antibody with a protruding HCDR3 and high avidity for its peptide ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of the Fv molecule from a human monoclonal IgM cryoglobulin (Mez) was determined at 2.6 Å resolution. Amino acid sequences of framework regions (FR) of the Mez light (L) and heavy (H) chain variable domains (VL and VH) are highly similar to their counterparts in another human Fv (Pot) previously subjected to X-ray analysis in our laboratory.

Paul A. Ramsland; Lin Shan; Carolyn R. Moomaw; Clive A. Slaughter; Zhao-Chang Fan; Luke W. Guddat; Allen B. Edmundson

2000-01-01

121

Measurement of IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations in canine serum, saliva, tears and bile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capture ELISAs, for canine IgG, IgM, IgA and albumin, were developed and used to analyse immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in both serum and secretions. Matched samples of serum, saliva and tears were taken from 31 dogs, assigned to two groups based on age, whilst bile samples were obtained from nine adult dogs at post-mortem. Serum and tear IgA concentrations were significantly

A. J German; E. J Hall; M. J Day

1998-01-01

122

Prevalence of Legionella-specific IgG and IgM Antibody in a Dental Clinic Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of Legionella infection in a dental clinic setting. Serum samples from 270 dental clinic personnel were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Legionella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The pooled-species whole-cell-antigen preparation used in these assays was derived from six Legionella pneumophila strains and one strain each from Legionella bozemanii and

P. G. Fotos; H. N. Westfall; I. S. Snyder; R. W. Miller; B. M. Mutchler

1985-01-01

123

Tropical Splenomegaly Syndrome: Long-term Proguanil Therapy Correlated with Spleen Size, Serum IgM, and Lymphocyte Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three patients with an initial diagnosis of tropical splenomegaly syndrome were placed on long-term proguanil therapy. All patients who failed to respond to proguanil and who were adequately followed up developed identifiable disease, usually malignant lymphoma or chronic lymphatic leukaemia. In patients who responded to proguanil IgM values were always very high and phytohaemagglutinin (P.H.A.)-lymphocyte-transformation scores were always normal before

Aba-Segua Sagoe

1970-01-01

124

Examples of In Vivo Isotype Class Switching In IgM 1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) usually involves the expansion of a clone of CD5 1 B cells synthesizing IgM anti- bodies. These B cells appear to be blocked at the antigen re- ceptor-expressing stage of B cell differentiation and are thought not to undergo an isotype class switch to IgG or IgA production. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest, how-

Franco Fais; Brian Sellars; Fabio Ghiotto; Xiao-Jie Yan; Mariella Dono; Steven L. Allen; Daniel Budman; Klaus Dittmar; Jonathan Kolitz; Stuart M. Lichtman; Philip Schulman; Michael Schuster; Vincent P. Vinciguerra; Kanti Rai; Freda K. Stevenson; Peter K. Gregersen; Manlio Ferrarini; Nicholas Chiorazzi

125

Biological characterization of a chimeric mouse-human IgM antibody directed against the 17-1A antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A chimeric antibody was constructed in which the murine H- and L-chain variable regions of mAb 17-1A, raised against human colorectal cancer cells, were joined with the human constant µ and ? regions. Transfection of these constructs into the murine myeloma Sp2\\/0 resulted in the expression and secretion of a pentameric Ig, designated chimeric 17-1A IgM. The chimeric 17-1A

William E. Fogler; Lee K. Sun; Mark R. Klinger; John Ghrayeb; Peter E. Daddona

1989-01-01

126

CWI and FIREBall: Two Spectrographs Built to Observe Emission from the IGM. Instrument Design and Early Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) and the Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall) are two integral field specrographs designed to investigate line emission from the intergalactic medium (predominantly Ly ?, O VI, and CIV). CWI, a ground based instrument, observes in the wavelength interval 4500 to 5400 A, while FIREBall takes advantage of a narrow stratospheric balloon window around 2000 A. The performance and design of the two instruments are discussed. Results of observations of the IGM with these new tools are presented.

Matuszewski, Mateusz; Martin, C.; Morrissey, P.; Moore, A.; CWI Team; FIREBall Team

2012-01-01

127

Structural requirements for the interaction of human IgM and IgA with the human Fc?/? receptor  

PubMed Central

Here we unravel the structural features of human IgM and IgA that govern their interaction with the human Fc?/? receptor (hFc?/?R). Ligand polymerization status was crucial for the interaction, because hFc?/?R binding did not occur with monomeric Ab of either class. hFc?/?R bound IgM with an affinity in the nanomolar range, whereas the affinity for dimeric IgA (dIgA) was tenfold lower. Panels of mutant IgM and dIgA were used to identify regions critical for hFc?/?R binding. IgM binding required contributions from both C?3 and C?4 Fc domains, whereas for dIgA, an exposed loop in the C?3 domain was crucial. This loop, comprising residues Pro440–Phe443, lies at the Fc domain interface and has been implicated in the binding of host receptors Fc?RI and polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), as well as IgA-binding proteins produced by certain pathogenic bacteria. Substitutions within the Pro440–Phe443 loop resulted in loss of hFc?/?R binding. Furthermore, secretory component (SC, the extracellular portion of pIgR) and bacterial IgA-binding proteins were shown to inhibit the dIgA–hFc?/?R interaction. Therefore, we have identified a motif in the IgA–Fc inter-domain region critical for hFc?/?R interaction, and highlighted the multi-functional nature of a key site for protein–protein interaction at the IgA Fc domain interface.

Ghumra, Ashfaq; Shi, Jianguo; Mcintosh, Richard S.; Rasmussen, Ingunn B.; Braathen, Ranveig; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Sandlie, Inger; Mongini, Patricia K.; Areschoug, Thomas; Lindahl, Gunnar; Lewis, Melanie J.; Woof, Jenny M.; Pleass, Richard J.

2011-01-01

128

Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis associated with IgM antibodies to GM1b and GalNAc-GD1a  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of a case of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) associated with IgM antibodies to GM1b and GalNAc-GD1a. Subsequent to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis, the patient rapidly developed consciousness disturbance and hyperreflexia in addition to external ophthalmoplegia and cerebellar-like ataxia. EEG showed transient 7 Hz monorhythmic ? activities, predominantly in the front-central area. He received high doses of

Muneaki Matsuo; Masaaki Odaka; Michiaki Koga; Katsunori Tsuchiya; Yuhei Hamasaki; Nobuhiro Yuki

2004-01-01

129

Analysis of the human VH gene repertoire. Differential effects of selection and somatic hypermutation on human peripheral CD5(+)/IgM+ and CD5(-)/IgM+ B cells.  

PubMed Central

To analyze the immunoglobulin repertoire of human IgM+ B cells and the CD5(+) and CD5(-) subsets, individual CD19(+)/ IgM+/CD5(+) or CD5(-) B cells were sorted and non-productive as well as productive VH gene rearrangements were amplified from genomic DNA and sequenced. In both subsets, the VH3 family was overrepresented largely as a result of preferential usage of a small number of specific individual family members. In the CD5(+) B cell subset, all other VH families were found at a frequency expected from random usage, whereas in the CD5(-) population, VH4 appeared to be overrepresented in the nonproductive repertoire, and also negatively selected since it was found significantly less often in the productive compared to the nonproductive repertoire; the VH1 family was significantly diminished in the productive rearrangements of CD5(-) B cells. 3-23/DP-47 was the most frequently used VH gene segment and was found significantly more often than expected from random usage in productive rearrangements of both CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. Evidence for selection based on the D segment and the JH gene usage was noted in CD5(+) B cells. No differences were found between the B cell subsets in CDR3 length, the number of N-nucleotides or evidence of exonuclease activity. Somatically hypermutated VHDJH rearrangements were significantly more frequent and extensive in CD5(-) compared to CD5(+) IgM+ B cells, indicating that IgM+ memory B cells were more frequent in the CD5(-) B cell population. Of note, the frequency of specific VH genes in the mutated population differed from that in the nonmutated population, suggesting that antigen stimulation imposed additional biases on the repertoire of IgM+ B cells. These results indicate that the expressed repertoire of IgM+ B cell subsets is shaped by recombinational bias, as well as selection before and after antigen exposure. Moreover, the influences on the repertoires of CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells are significantly different, suggesting that human peripheral blood CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells represent different B cell lineages, with similarities to murine B-1a and B-2 subsets, respectively.

Brezinschek, H P; Foster, S J; Brezinschek, R I; Dorner, T; Domiati-Saad, R; Lipsky, P E

1997-01-01

130

Comparative study of immunochromatographic assay (IgM) and widal test for early diagnosis of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is a severe systemic infection endemic in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Present study evaluated immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Widal test in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever cases. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July, 2010 and June, 2011, including 200 individuals of different age and sex. Of them, 150 were clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever and 50 age-sex matched controls. Among 150 blood samples from the suspected cases 106(70.7%) were positive for IgM of Salmonella typhi by ICT and 67(44.7%) were positive by Widal test. Whereas, among the 50 controls 4(8%) were positive by ICT and 6(12%) were positive by Widal test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the ICT was found as 83.3%, 92.00%, 91.9% and 83.6% respectively. On the other hand corresponding values for Widal test were of 44.4%, 88%, 80% and 59.5% respectively. Thus, The ICT (IgM) is better alternative to Widal test for early and accurate diagnosis of typhoid fever. The ICT (IgM) is rapid, easy to perform, applicable for field use and highly sensitive and specific for detection of antibodies in patients with typhoid fever. PMID:23134904

Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Alam, M A; Paul, S K; Kabir, M R; Hoque, S M; Yesmin, T; Habiba, U; Sarkar, S R; Maruf, M A; Halim, P I; Hoque, M R

2012-10-01

131

Mutations of CD40 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of immunodeficiency with hyper IgM  

PubMed Central

CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, expressed on a wide range of cell types including B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD40 is the receptor for CD40 ligand (CD40L), a molecule predominantly expressed by activated CD4+ T cells. CD40/CD40L interaction induces the formation of memory B lymphocytes and promotes Ig isotype switching, as demonstrated in mice knocked-out for either CD40L or CD40 gene, and in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome, a disease caused by CD40L/TNFSF5 gene mutations. In the present study, we have identified three patients with an autosomal recessive form of hyper IgM who fail to express CD40 on the cell surface. Sequence analysis of CD40 genomic DNA showed that one patient carried a homozygous silent mutation at the fifth base pair position of exon 5, involving an exonic splicing enhancer and leading to exon skipping and premature termination; the other two patients showed a homozygous point mutation in exon 3, resulting in a cysteine to arginine substitution. These findings show that mutations of the CD40 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of hyper IgM, which is immunologically and clinically undistinguishable from the X-linked form.

Ferrari, Simona; Giliani, Silvia; Insalaco, Antonella; Al-Ghonaium, Abdulaziz; Soresina, Anna R.; Loubser, Michael; Avanzini, Maria A.; Marconi, Massimo; Badolato, Raffaele; Ugazio, Alberto G.; Levy, Yves; Catalan, Nadia; Durandy, Anne; Tbakhi, Abdelghani; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Plebani, Alessandro

2001-01-01

132

Mutations of CD40 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of immunodeficiency with hyper IgM.  

PubMed

CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, expressed on a wide range of cell types including B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD40 is the receptor for CD40 ligand (CD40L), a molecule predominantly expressed by activated CD4(+) T cells. CD40/CD40L interaction induces the formation of memory B lymphocytes and promotes Ig isotype switching, as demonstrated in mice knocked-out for either CD40L or CD40 gene, and in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome, a disease caused by CD40L/TNFSF5 gene mutations. In the present study, we have identified three patients with an autosomal recessive form of hyper IgM who fail to express CD40 on the cell surface. Sequence analysis of CD40 genomic DNA showed that one patient carried a homozygous silent mutation at the fifth base pair position of exon 5, involving an exonic splicing enhancer and leading to exon skipping and premature termination; the other two patients showed a homozygous point mutation in exon 3, resulting in a cysteine to arginine substitution. These findings show that mutations of the CD40 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of hyper IgM, which is immunologically and clinically undistinguishable from the X-linked form. PMID:11675497

Ferrari, S; Giliani, S; Insalaco, A; Al-Ghonaium, A; Soresina, A R; Loubser, M; Avanzini, M A; Marconi, M; Badolato, R; Ugazio, A G; Levy, Y; Catalan, N; Durandy, A; Tbakhi, A; Notarangelo, L D; Plebani, A

2001-10-23

133

IgM-class rheumatoid factor interference in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay of rubella-specific IgM antibodies.  

PubMed Central

The interference of IgM-class rheumatoid factor (RF) in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) of rubella virus IgM antibodies was studied. Acute rubella infections did not significantly activate RF. False-positive rubella antibody results were obtained, however, when patients with raised RF levels were tested. If a low rubella IgG antibody titre was present, a high level of RF was required to cause a false-positive IgM result; conversely, in sera with high IgG titres, only a low level of RF was required for interference. Although the false-positive IgM titres obtained were generally low, thet did show a positive correlation to both RF levels and rubella IgG titres. False-positive results were successfully avoided by removing the RF by absorption with heat-aggregated human gamma globulin. The absorption procedure did not affect true rubella IgM antibody titres.

Meurman, O H; Ziola, B R

1978-01-01

134

Analysis and characterization of the expression of the secretory and membrane forms of IgM heavy chains in the pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the structure and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes, a highly prized and economically important fish species. The cDNA fragment that partially encodes the constant region of the IgM heavy chain was isolated in these animals by RACE using degenerate primers after which it was used as a probe for screening IgM heavy chains in

Nil Ratan Saha; Hiroaki Suetake; Yuzuru Suzuki

2005-01-01

135

Comparative evaluation of three recombinant antigen-based enzyme immunoassays for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to human parvovirus B19  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diagnosis of acute and past infection with parvovirus B19 is based on detection of IgM and IgG antibodies.Objectives: To evaluate two commercial recombinant antigen-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test kits for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to parvovirus B19 and to compare the commercial EIAs to in-house EIA test procedures.Study design: A panel of 121 sera was used to

Jerry W Pickering; Bagher Forghani; Gordon R Shell; Linxian Wu

1998-01-01

136

Specific and early detection of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis 38kDa antigen in pulmonary tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to apply the purified 38kDa protein antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in ELISA to estimate the IgG, IgA and IgM antibody levels in sera and circulating immune complexes of tuberculosis patients. Sera from smear and culture positive tuberculosis patients were positive for anti 38kDa IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies, with a sensitivity of 61%, 30% and 10%, respectively,

K. R. Uma Devi; B. Ramalingam; P. J. Brennan; P. R. Narayanan; A. Raja

2001-01-01

137

Primary structure of the antigen-binding domains of a human oligodendrocyte-reactive IgM monoclonal antibody derived from a patient with multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several murine IgM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) promoting remyelination in mice were shown to be germline gene-encoded natural autoantibodies that react with oligodendrocytes and intracellular antigens. Here, we show that human oligodendrocyte-reactive IgM mAb DS1F8 derived from a patient with multiple sclerosis targets microtubule-like structures similar to the murine mAbs. Sequencing of the cDNAs of the variable regions revealed that the

Eckhard Kirschning; Kirsten Jensen; Stefan Dübel; Gabriel Rutter; Heinz Hohenberg; Hans Will

1999-01-01

138

PDGF is Required for Remyelination-Promoting IgM Stimulation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Promotion of remyelination is a major goal in treating demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The recombinant human monoclonal IgM, rHIgM22, targets myelin and oligodendrocytes (OLs) and promotes remyelination in animal models of MS. It is unclear whether rHIgM22-mediated stimulation of lesion repair is due to promotion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and survival, OPC differentiation into myelinating OLs or protection of mature OLs. It is also unknown whether astrocytes or microglia play a functional role in IgM-mediated lesion repair. Methods We assessed the effect of rHIgM22 on cell proliferation in mixed CNS glial and OPC cultures by tritiated-thymidine uptake and by double-label immunocytochemistry using the proliferation marker, Ki-67. Antibody-mediated signaling events, OPC differentiation and OPC survival were investigated and quantified by Western blots. Results rHIgM22 stimulates OPC proliferation in mixed glial cultures but not in purified OPCs. There is no proliferative response in astrocytes or microglia. rHIgM22 activates PDGF?R in OPCs in mixed glial cultures. Blocking PDGFR-kinase inhibits rHIgM22-mediated OPC proliferation in mixed glia. We confirm in isolated OPCs that rHIgM22-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling and inhibition of OPC differentiation requires PDGF and FGF-2. We observed no IgM-mediated effect in mature OLs in the absence of PDGF and FGF-2. Conclusion Stimulation of OPC proliferation by rHIgM22 depends on co-stimulatory astrocytic and/or microglial factors. We demonstrate that rHIgM22-mediated activation of PDGF?R is required for stimulation of OPC proliferation. We propose that rHIgM22 lowers the PDGF threshold required for OPC proliferation and protection, which can result in remyelination of CNS lesions.

Watzlawik, Jens O.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Rodriguez, Moses

2013-01-01

139

Isolation of RAG-1 and IgM transcripts from the striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), and their expression as markers for development of the adaptive immune response.  

PubMed

A partial sequence of the recombination activating gene-1 (RAG-1) and several full length sequences of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) heavy chain mRNA were obtained from the striped trumpeter (Latris lineata). The RAG-1 fragment consisted of 205 aa and fell within the core region of the open reading frame. The complete IgM heavy chain sequences translated into peptides ranging between 581 and 591 aa. Both genes showed good homology to other vertebrate sequences. The expression of the two genes was assessed throughout the early developmental stages of striped trumpeter larvae (5-100 dph) and used as markers to follow the ontogeny of the adaptive immune response. Using RT-PCR, RAG-1 mRNA expression was detectable at 5 dph and remained so until 80 dph, before becoming undetectable at 100 dph. IgM expression was also detectable at 5 dph, and remained so throughout. These patterns of expression may suggest that the striped trumpeter possess mature B cells with surface IgM at 100 dph. However, complete immunological competence is likely not reached until some time later. The early detection of IgM mRNA at 5 dph led to the investigation of its presence in oocytes. Both RAG-1 and IgM mRNA transcripts were detected in unfertilized oocytes, suggesting that they are maternally transferred. The biological significance of such a phenomenon remains to be investigated. PMID:23291253

Covello, J M; Bird, S; Morrison, R N; Bridle, A R; Battaglene, S C; Secombes, C J; Nowak, B F

2013-01-03

140

Alleviation of IgM monoclonal protein interference in nephelometric assays by sample treatment with reducing agent in a chaotropic salt solution.  

PubMed

In some patients, the presence of monoclonal IgM proteins can cause substantial false elevation in nephelometric assays. A 59-year-old woman with previously unrecognized Waldenström macroglobulinemia had high serum viscosity. Nephelometric analysis revealed elevated measured concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM. Pretreatment with a reducing salt solution yielded resolution of cross-linked immunoglobulins into a distinct IgM ? monoclonal protein band by immunofixation electrophoresis. Measured quantitative immunoglobulin measurements in treated and untreated specimens were compared. An approximately 50% drop in IgG and IgA concentrations was observed in the presence of reducing agent, while IgM concentrations were unchanged. We report that the addition of reducing agent solution can alleviate artifactual elevation of nephelometric determination of IgG and IgA concentrations. These results are consistent with dissociation of higher order IgM complexes, leading to reduction of nonspecific light scattering by IgM complexes in IgA and IgG nephelometric reactions. PMID:22180475

Schnebelen, Alicia; Sweat, Kellen; Marshall, James; Bornhorst, Joshua

2012-01-01

141

Production of a human monoclonal IgM directed against human cardiac myosin in a hollow-fiber bioreactor for membrane anion exchange chromatography one-step purification.  

PubMed

Purification of human IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has proved to be difficult. Since IgM Mabs tend to bind strongly to a variety of resin support surfaces, the number of chromatographic steps used in the purification of these biomolecules should be minimized. Here we describe procedures developed for the optimal production and purification of the human monoclonal IgM B7, which specifically binds to the myosin heavy chain of human ventricular myocardium. This property makes this antibody potentially useful for the diagnosis of myocardial necrosis. Several chromatographic techniques were evaluated (size exclusion, ion exchange, affinity chromatography). The best results were obtained with anion exchange membrane chromatography using Sartobind Q15 (98% purity, 30% recovery). IgM production was improved by the hollow fiber technology which permitted the use of serum-reduced medium and an increase in antibody concentration to an average production of 300-400 microg/ml, compared to 20 microg/ml in flask culture. Several flow-rates were also evaluated, the optimal being 20 ml/minute for 30% of recovery. Importantly, the purified IgM molecule was able to bind to human myosin in ELISA and Western-blotting, thus allowing the IgM to be kept intact for further radiolabeling. PMID:15598987

Jacobin, Marie-Josée; Santarelli, Xavier; Laroche-Traineau, Jeanny; Clofent-Sanchez, Gisèle

2004-01-01

142

Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG to Arboviral Diseases.  

PubMed

Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression "Logitboost" as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests. PMID:24086608

Basile, Alison J; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Panella, Amanda J; Laven, Janeen; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Biggerstaff, Brad J

2013-09-25

143

Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassays for the Detection of IgM and IgG to Arboviral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Serodiagnosis of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) at the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, CDC, employs a combination of individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) to test for IgM and IgG, followed by confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Based upon the geographic origin of a sample, it may be tested concurrently for multiple arboviruses, which can be a cumbersome task. The advent of multiplexing represents an opportunity to streamline these types of assays; however, because serologic cross-reactivity of the arboviral antigens often confounds results, it is of interest to employ data analysis methods that address this issue. Here, we constructed 13-virus multiplexed IgM and IgG MIAs that included internal and external controls, based upon the Luminex platform. Results from samples tested using these methods were analyzed using 8 different statistical schemes to identify the best way to classify the data. Geographic batteries were also devised to serve as a more practical diagnostic format, and further samples were tested using the abbreviated multiplexes. Comparative error rates for the classification schemes identified a specific boosting method based on logistic regression “Logitboost” as the classification method of choice. When the data from all samples tested were combined into one set, error rates from the multiplex IgM and IgG MIAs were <5% for all geographic batteries. This work represents both the most comprehensive, validated multiplexing method for arboviruses to date, and also the most systematic attempt to determine the most useful classification method for use with these types of serologic tests.

Basile, Alison J.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Panella, Amanda J.; Laven, Janeen; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Biggerstaff, Brad J.

2013-01-01

144

Shift of C3 deposition from localization in the glomerulus into the tubulo-interstitial compartment in the absence of secreted IgM in immune complex glomerulonephritis  

PubMed Central

The role of secretory IgM in protecting kidney tissue from immune complex glomerulonephritis induced by 4 mg horse spleen apoferritin and 0·05 mg lipopolysaccharide has been investigated in mutant mice in which B cells do not secrete IgM, but are capable of expressing surface IgM and IgD and secreting other Ig isotypes. Glomerular size, number of glomeruli per cross-section, glomerular cellularity and urine content of protein and creatinine was comparable in treated secreted IgM (sIgM)-deficient and wild-type mice. Assessment of urinary proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a 30 kDa low molecular weight protein in treated sIgM-deficient animals only, reflecting dysfunction of proximal tubules. A shift of bound C3 from glomeruli to the tubulo-interstitial compartment in sIgM-deficient mice also suggests tubulo-interstitial damage. In contrast, local C3 synthesis within the kidney tissue did not differ between the two treated groups. Apoptosis physiologically present to maintain kidney cell homeostasis was increased slightly in treated wild-type mice. These results indicate that secretory IgM can protect the tubulo-interstitial compartment from immune complex-induced damage without having an effect on the glomerulus.

Vaculik, C; Ruger, B M; Yanagida, G; Hollemann, D; Soleiman, A; Losert, U M; Chen, J; Fischer, M B

2008-01-01

145

A holistic view of the dynamisms of teleost IgM: a case study of Streptococcus iniae vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

To date, little is known about how trout IgM, the primary antibody of fish, varies in titer, specificity, disulfide cross-linking, and affinity following immunization with a pathogen. Work using defined antigens has demonstrated that the disulfide cross-linking structure of IgM becomes increasingly more polymerized during an immune response, coinciding with an increase in affinity, but it is unknown if this has relevance to aquatic pathogens. Understanding how IgM varies following vaccination with an aquatic pathogen is of considerable importance as effector functions allocated to multiple antibody isotypes in mammals are essentially relegated to this single molecule. To gain insights into the dynamism of IgM, rainbow trout were immunized with Streptococcus iniae and individual serum titers, their specificity and affinity to S. iniae, and the disulfide cross-linking pattern of both total-serum and specific Ig were analyzed over a period of 37 weeks. We found that in vaccinated animals titer increased by a factor of ?100 from starting levels, affinity increased 10-fold, and diversity of S. iniae proteins recognized by trout antibody increased at least 5-fold. Most intriguing, though less cross-linked IgM predominated early in response, by week 5, the fully tetramerized antibody comprised 50% of total specific protein. We propose that this is a mechanism to optimize efficacy of carrying out effector functions and recognizing a wide array of epitopes with higher affinity. PMID:21641928

Costa, Gregory; Danz, Hillary; Kataria, Priti; Bromage, Erin

2011-05-27

146

Human Immunoglobulin (Ig)M 1 IgD 1 Peripheral Blood B Cells Expressing the CD27 Cell Surface Antigen Carry Somatically Mutated Variable Region Genes: CD27 as a General Marker for Somatically Mutated (Memory) B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Immunoglobulin (Ig)M 1 IgD 1 B cells are generally assumed to represent antigen-inexperi- enced, naive B cells expressing variable (V) region genes without somatic mutations. We report here that human IgM 1 IgD 1 peripheral blood (PB) B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry mutated V genes, in contrast to CD27-negative IgM 1 IgD 1 B cells.

Ulf Klein; Klaus Rajewsky; Ralf Küppers

147

Testing of bovine sera by ELISA for IgG, IgM and IgA rheumatoid factors.  

PubMed

Sera from 19 colostrum-deprived calves less than 1 week old, 24 colostrum-supplemented calves less than 1 week old, 36 3-5-month-old calves and 200 females greater than 9 months of age were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors (RF). An increasing level of IgM- and IgG-RF with age was found. IgG-RF levels in the colostrum-supplemented calves were significantly higher than in the non-supplemented calves (p < 0.001). Individual IgG-RF values correlated with serum IgG levels, as determined by zinc sulphate turbidity testing (r=0.59, p < 0.01). No IgA-RF was detected. The cross-reactivity of IgM-RF with heterologous IgG was found to be greatest with rabbit IgG, followed by mouse and chicken IgG. The significance of rheumatoid factors in relation to diagnostic testing is discussed. PMID:9613438

Graham, D A; Mawhinney, K A; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1998-02-27

148

Prevalence of Legionella-specific IgG and IgM antibody in a dental clinic population.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of Legionella infection in a dental clinic setting. Serum samples from 270 dental clinic personnel were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Legionella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The pooled-species whole-cell-antigen preparation used in these assays was derived from six Legionella pneumophila strains and one strain each from Legionella bozemanii and Legionella micdadei. Significant levels of IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 20% and 16%, respectively, of the samples. This compares with 8% and 10%, respectively, for a randomly selected non-clinical group from the region (P less than 0.005). Samples from clinic personnel with significant IgG titers (greater than 1:128) were also evaluated for activity to each of the eight single-species antigens, with the following results: L. pneumophila, 45% (combined six strains); L. micdadei, 37%; and L. bozemanii, 18%. Comparing individuals' "years spent in the clinic environment" with the incidence of significant antibody levels strongly suggests that the risk of Legionella infection increases proportionately with increased clinic exposure time (P less than 0.05). Analysis of these data implies that Legionella may be present in the dental clinic environment, thus creating an increased risk for clinical personnel or patients. PMID:3865949

Fotos, P G; Westfall, H N; Snyder, I S; Miller, R W; Mutchler, B M

1985-12-01

149

Inadequacy of mucosal IgM antibodies in selective IgA deficiency: excretion of attenuated polio viruses is prolonged.  

PubMed

A nationwide vaccination campaign with oral poliovirus vaccine was organized in Finland in 1985 in order to cease an outbreak of poliomyelitis. We followed eight IgA-deficient individuals and nine controls for poliovirus excretion in feces and for antibody responses in serum and saliva. Five weeks after oral poliovirus vaccination all eight IgA-deficient individuals were still excreting polioviruses, in contrast to one of nine controls. The concentration of polioviruses, as estimated by a semi-quantitative immunofluorescent assay, was generally higher and the test was significantly more often positive in the samples from the IgA-deficient individuals. Although serum levels of antibodies to poliovirus type 3 were lower in IgA-deficient individuals before vaccination, both measurements showed that the two groups had similar antibody levels 4 weeks after vaccination. IgA-deficient individuals lacked salivary IgA antibodies to poliovirus types 1 and 3 but had increased levels of IgM antipolio antibodies, which were shown to carry secretory component. We conclude that the mucosal IgM antibodies of IgA-deficient individuals eliminate polioviruses less efficiently than do the IgA antibodies of normal individuals. PMID:2836474

Savilahti, E; Klemola, T; Carlsson, B; Mellander, L; Stenvik, M; Hovi, T

1988-03-01

150

Differential diagnosis of IgM MGUS and WM according to B-lymphoid infiltration by morphology and flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The distinction between IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), asymptomatic Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM; aWM), and symptomatic WM (sWM) relies on two features: the presence of infiltration by lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in the bone marrow (BM) biopsy and the existence of signs or symptoms attributable to the disease. Nevertheless, some patients lack a BM biopsy or it is not conclusive for diagnosis. In this study we have investigated 94 patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathies, in which a BM trephine biopsy and morphological and flow cytometry (FCM) evaluation of BM aspirate were available at diagnosis. We found a clear correlation between BM infiltration of B-lymphocytes assessed by morphology and by FCM with a Pearson correlation of 0.62 (P<.001). Moreover, in the absence of a BM trephine biopsy, the cut-off points that would help in the differential diagnosis between MGUS, aWM, and sWM would be 20% for morphology and 5% for FCM, both assessed in the BM aspirate. PMID:21454201

Ocio, Enrique M; del Carpio, Daniel; Caballero, Álvaro; Alonso, Jennifer; Paiva, Bruno; Pesoa, Roberto; Villaescusa, Teresa; López-Anglada, Lucía; Vidriales, Belén; García-Sanz, Ramón

2011-02-01

151

2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) promotes IgG but not IgM antibody production in vivo in mice.  

PubMed

Individuals working in a dental clinic are exposed to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). HEMA has been found to have several effects on the immune system, including acting as an adjuvant in mice and stimulating the production of human IgG1 in vitro. In this study we continued to explore the immunomodulatory properties of HEMA in mice. Mice were co-injected subcutaneously with the following: HEMA + ovalbumin (OVA) in bicarbonate buffer, OVA in bicarbonate buffer, HEMA in bicarbonate buffer, or bicarbonate buffer alone. Mice immunized with OVA were killed 2 wk after a booster injection. Mice exposed to HEMA only were killed 6 d after the last injection with HEMA. Serum and spleens were collected. The activities of anti-OVA IgG and anti-OVA IgM were determined using ELISAs, as was the in vitro production of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by splenocytes after 2 d of incubation. Splenocyte proliferation was analyzed using [(3) H]thymidine decomposition. Mice exposed twice to HEMA in vivo had a higher baseline and a higher concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation of splenocytes, and produced less TNF-? in relation to IL-6, compared with controls. Immunization of mice with OVA/HEMA resulted in a higher anti-OVA IgG activity, relative to anti-OVA IgM activity, compared with controls. In conclusion, HEMA has selective effects on cytokine and antibody production in mice. PMID:21726292

Andersson, Jennie; Dahlgren, Ulf

2011-08-01

152

Diagnostic significance of influenza subtype-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies.  

PubMed

Up to now, the complement fixation test (CFT) has been the basis for the serological diagnosis of influenza virus infection in routine laboratories. Generally, low CF titers (1:20 or 1:40) are difficult to interpret. This means that the differentiation between recent and remote influenza infections is not possible by CFTs on single sera. Nonetheless this is generally possible by the subtype- and immunoglobulin class-specific immunofluorescence test (IFT) reported in this paper. Sera from 76 patients with confirmed influenza infection were tested and we obtained the following results: only 27.6% contained antibodies of all immunoglobulin classes, 51% contained IgG and IgA antibodies (without IgM) and 3.9% responded only with the IgG isotype. The IFT-positive and CFT-negative were 5.2% and the IFT-negative and CFT-positive 4%. In 7.9% no antibody rises were detected by CFT or by IFT despite virus isolation. Results from IFT may permit the interpretation of low CF titers. In contrast to CFT, IFT makes possible the differentiation between vaccinated and unvaccinated persons because vaccinated persons regularly produce IgM antibodies against all strains of the vaccine. PMID:3531214

Döller, G; Döller, P C; Gerth, H J

1986-07-01

153

Analysis of the interaction of monoclonal antibodies with surface IgM on neoplastic B-cells  

PubMed Central

In vitro studies identified three Burkitts lymphoma cell lines, Ramos, MUTU-I and Daudi, that were growth inhibited by anti-IgM antibody. However, only Ramos and MUTU-I were sensitive to monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing the Fc region of surface IgM (anti-Fc?). Experiments using anti-Fc? mAb (single or non-crossblocking pairs), polyclonal anti-? Ab, and hyper-crosslinking with a secondary layer of Ab, showed that growth inhibition of B-cell lines was highly dependent on the extent of IgM crosslinking. This was confirmed by using Fab?, F(ab?)2and F(ab?)3derivatives from anti-Fc? mAb, where increasing valency caused corresponding increases in growth arrest and apoptosis, presumably as a result of more efficient BCR-crosslinking on the cell surface. The ability of a single mAb to induce growth arrest was highly dependent on epitope specificity, with mAb specific for the Fc region (C?2–C?4 domains) being much more effective than those recognizing the Fab region (anti-L chain, anti-Id and anti-Fd?, or C?1). Only when hyper-crosslinked with polyclonal anti-mouse IgG did the latter result in appreciable growth inhibition. Binding studies showed that these differences in function were not related to differences in the affinity, but probably related to intrinsic crosslinking capacity of mAb. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Cragg, M S; Zhang, L; French, R R; Glennie, M J

1999-01-01

154

Improved serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection by detection of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM antibodies against P30 by using the immunoblot technique.  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA antibodies against the major surface protein of Toxoplasma gondii were determined in a total of 195 human sera and five human cerebrospinal fluids by using a P30 membrane extract and the immunoblot technique. By using two different T. gondii strains (RH and BK) simultaneously as antigens, we were able to demonstrate diagnostically important strain-specific human antibody responses in 4.5% of the samples tested. A comparison of the immunoblot technique with an IgM immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the IgM and IgA immunoblot seems to be of advantage in the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in certain groups of patients, especially in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. The immunoblot technique described is easy to perform and might be useful as an additional serological assay for routine diagnosis of T. gondii infections. Images

Gross, U; Roos, T; Appoldt, D; Heesemann, J

1992-01-01

155

Simultaneous Detection of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM Antibodies against Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Is Highly Specific for Diagnosis of Acute HEV Infection  

PubMed Central

Serum samples collected from 68 patients (age, mean ± the standard deviation [SD], 56.3 ± 12.8 years) at admission who were subsequently molecularly diagnosed as having hepatitis E and from 2,781 individuals who were assumed not to have been recently infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV; negative controls; 52.9 ± 18.9 years), were tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA classes of antibodies to HEV (anti-HEV) by in-house solid-phase enzyme immunoassay with recombinant open reading frame 2 protein expressed in the pupae of silkworm as the antigen probe. The 68 patients with hepatitis E had both anti-HEV IgM and anti-HEV IgA. Among the 2,781 controls, 16 (0.6%) had anti-HEV IgM alone and 4 (0.1%) had anti-HEV IgA alone: these IgA/IgM anti-HEV-positive individuals were not only negative for HEV RNA but lack IgG anti-HEV antibody as well (at least in most of the cases). Periodic serum samples obtained from 15 patients with hepatitis E were tested for HEV RNA, anti-HEV IgM, and anti-HEV IgA. Although HEV RNA was detectable in the serum until 7 to 40 (21.4 ± 9.7) days after disease onset, both IgM and IgA anti-HEV antibodies were detectable until 37, 55, or 62 days after disease onset in three patients and up through the end of the observation period (50 to 144 days) in 12 patients. These results indicate that detection of anti-HEV IgA alone or along with anti-HEV IgM is useful for serological diagnosis of hepatitis E with increased specificity and longer duration of positivity than that by RNA detection.

Takahashi, Masaharu; Kusakai, Shigeyuki; Mizuo, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Fujimura, Kuniko; Masuko, Kazuo; Sugai, Yoshiki; Aikawa, Tatsuya; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

2005-01-01

156

A monoclonal antibody distinguishes between two IgM heavy chain isotypes in Atlantic salmon and brown trout: protein characterization, 3D modeling and epitope mapping.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) possess two distinct subpopulations of IgM which can be separated by anion exchange chromatography. Accordingly, there are two isotypic ? genes in these species, related to ancestral tetraploidy. In the present work it was verified by mass spectrometry that IgM of peak 1 (subpopulation 1) have heavy chains previously designated as ?B type whereas IgM of peak 2 (subpopulation 2) have heavy chains of ?A type. Two adjacent cysteine residues are present near the C-terminal part of ?B, in contrast to one cysteine residue in ?A. Salmon IgM of both peak 1 and peak 2 contain light chains of the two most common isotypes: IgL1 and IgL3. In contrast to salmon and brown trout, IgM of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is eluted in a single peak when subjected to anion exchange chromatography. Surprisingly, a monoclonal antibody MAb4C10 against rainbow trout IgM, reacted with ?A in salmon, whereas in brown trout it reacted with ?B. It is plausible to assume that DNA has been exchanged between the paralogous A and B loci during evolution while maintaining the two sub-variants, with and without the extra cysteine. MAb4C10 was conjugated to magnetic beads and used to separate cells, demonstrating that ? transcripts residing from captured cells were primarily of A type in salmon and B type in brown trout. An analysis of amino acid substitutions in ?A and ?B of salmon and brown trout indicated that the third constant domain is essential for MAb4C10 binding. This was supported by 3D modeling and was finally verified by studies of MAb4C10 reactivity with a series of recombinant ?3 constructs. PMID:21628072

Kamil, Atif; Falk, Knut; Sharma, Animesh; Raae, Arnt; Berven, Frode; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Hordvik, Ivar

2011-05-31

157

Detection of IgG and IgM in sera from canines with blastomycosis using eight blastomyces dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of eight Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens (T-58: dog, Tennessee; T-27: polar bear, Tennessee; ERC-2: dog, Wisconsin; B5894: human, Minnesota; SOIL: soil, Canada; B5896: human, Minnesota; 48089: human, Zaire; 48938: bat, India) in the detection of the immunoglobulins IgG and IgM in serum specimens from canines with blastomycosis. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, peroxidase system) was used to analyze sera collected during four different intervals post-infection. The yeast lysate antigen 48938 was a reactive antigen for the detection of both IgG (mean absorbance value range: 1.198-2.934) and IgM (mean absorbance value range: 0.505-0.845). For the same sera, antigen T-27 was also effective in the detection of IgG (mean absorbance value range: 0.904-3.356) and antigen 48089 was useful for the detection of IgM (mean absorbance value range: 0.377-0.554). The yeast lysate antigen B5894 proved to be a poor antigen for the detection of both IgG and IgM (mean absorbance value ranges: 0.310-0.744 for IgG, 0.025-0.069 for IgM). Inherent variations in yeast lysate antigens such as these may be utilized to develop improved immunoassay procedures for the specific detection of IgG or IgM in cases of blastomycosis. PMID:16830189

Sestero, Christine M; Scalarone, Gene M

2006-07-01

158

Human rotavirus-specific IgM Memory B cells have differential cloning efficiencies and switch capacities and play a role in antiviral immunity in vivo.  

PubMed

Protective immunity to rotavirus (RV) is primarily mediated by antibodies produced by RV-specific memory B cells (RV-mBc). Of note, most of these cells express IgM, but the function of this subset is poorly understood. Here, using limiting dilution assays of highly sort-purified human IgM(+) mBc, we found that 62% and 21% of total (non-antigen-specific) IgM(+) and RV-IgM(+) mBc, respectively, switched in vitro to IgG production after polyclonal stimulation. Moreover, in these assays, the median cloning efficiencies of total IgM(+) (17%) and RV-IgM(+) (7%) mBc were lower than those of the corresponding switched (IgG(+) IgA(+)) total (34%) and RV-mBc (17%), leading to an underestimate of their actual frequency. In order to evaluate the in vivo role of IgM(+) RV-mBc in antiviral immunity, NOD/Shi-scid interleukin-2 receptor-deficient (IL-2R?(null)) immunodeficient mice were adoptively transferred highly purified human IgM(+) mBc and infected with virulent murine rotavirus. These mice developed high titers of serum human RV-IgM and IgG and had significantly lower levels than control mice of both antigenemia and viremia. Finally, we determined that human RV-IgM(+) mBc are phenotypically diverse and significantly enriched in the IgM(hi) IgD(low) subset. Thus, RV-IgM(+) mBc are heterogeneous, occur more frequently than estimated by traditional limiting dilution analysis, have the capacity to switch Ig class in vitro as well as in vivo, and can mediate systemic antiviral immunity. PMID:22855480

Narváez, Carlos F; Feng, Ningguo; Vásquez, Camilo; Sen, Adrish; Angel, Juana; Greenberg, Harry B; Franco, Manuel A

2012-08-01

159

Studies on the diagnostic value of an immunofluorescence test for EB virus-specific IgM  

PubMed Central

A modification of the test for EB virus/IgM introduced by Schmitz and Scherer (1972) is described. It is simple and gives reproducible results. EB virus/IgM was demonstrated in all but one case of infectious mononucleosis and in students with minor illness shown to have acquired EB virus/IgG recently. Unlike the EB virus/IgG, the IgM disappears within a few months. Although the Paul-Bunnell-Davidsohn test is still the test of choice for the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, the EB virus/IgM test could be useful to establish a diagnosis of current or recent EB virus infection where the Paul-Bunnell-Davidsohn test was negative or equivocal.

Edwards, Joan M. B.; McSwiggan, D. A.

1974-01-01

160

Detection of IgM responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus by indirect ELISA following experimental infection and reinfection of calves: abolition of false positive and false negative results by pre-treatment of sera with protein-G agarose.  

PubMed

The IgM responses in three panels of sera generated by infection and reinfection of calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were measured by indirect ELISA (I-ELISA). The effect of depleting serum IgG by pre-treatment with protein G agarose (PGA) was evaluated. Following primary infection a weak IgM response was detected in the untreated sera of 3 out of 4 calves with maternally derived antibody (MDA). Both the magnitude and duration of the specific IgM responses in these calves were increased by pre-treatment with PGA. In addition, the fourth infected calf tested gave a single positive IgM result following PGA treatment. Transient or persistent IgM responses which were abolished by pre-treatment of sera with PGA were detected in 4/8 calves following reinfection. These were considered to be false positive results, consistent with the influence of IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). One of these calves and two additional calves showed transient increases in IgM which were resistant to PGA treatment. These were considered to represent specific IgM responses to reinfection. The results indicate the ability of PGA treatment to eliminate both false positive and false negative results and emphasise the necessity for controlling the influence of IgM-RF in IgM-specific indirect ELISAs. PMID:10522785

Graham, D A; Foster, J C; Mawhinney, K A; Elvander, M; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1999-10-01

161

T cell-dependent IgM memory B cells generated during bacterial infection are required for IgG responses to antigen challenge.  

PubMed

Immunological memory has long considered to be harbored in B cells that express high-affinity class-switched IgG. IgM-positive memory B cells can also be generated following immunization, although their physiological role has been unclear. In this study, we show that bacterial infection elicited a relatively large population of IgM memory B cells that were uniquely identified by their surface expression of CD11c, CD73, and programmed death-ligand 2. The cells lacked expression of cell surface markers typically expressed by germinal center B cells, were CD138 negative, and did not secrete Ab ex vivo. The population was also largely quiescent and accumulated somatic mutations. The IgM memory B cells were located in the region of the splenic marginal zone and were not detected in blood or other secondary lymphoid organs. Generation of the memory cells was CD4 T cell dependent and required IL-21R signaling. In vivo depletion of the IgM memory B cells abrogated the IgG recall responses to specific Ag challenge, demonstrating that the cell population was required for humoral memory, and underwent class-switch recombination following Ag encounter. Our findings demonstrate that T cell-dependent IgM memory B cells can be elicited at high frequency and can play an important role in maintaining long-term immunity during bacterial infection. PMID:23804710

Yates, Jennifer L; Racine, Rachael; McBride, Kevin M; Winslow, Gary M

2013-06-26

162

Search for QSOS Suitable for Subsequent Observation of he II 304 Absorption Arising in the IGM, Ly-Alpha and ... PART3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THIS IS PART Three OF PROPOSAL 3801. IT CONTAINS 40 TARGETS OF HIGH PRIORITY. EXCEPT FOR TARGETS, THIS PROPOSAL IS IDENTICAL TO 3801. Targets are in order of decreasing priority. Priority matters a lot. Best targets are listed first. Ultraviolet images will be obtained in snapshot mode of the 500 known high-redshift (z > 2.8) QSOs in order to identify the few (about 20) targets which have sufficient ultraviolet flux for subsequent FOC/FOS or GHRS observations of He II 304. The detection of absorption by the Helium II Lyman-alpha line at 304 A, one of the most exciting prospects of the HST, will provide the first direct detection of the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM). The absence of Gunn-Peterson H I 1215 absorption shows that the IGM is hot and/or of very low density, thus He I 584 is not expected to be observable. He II 304--the most promising line--should be observable from three sources: the diffuse IGM, the discrete Ly-alpha clouds, and the much rarer metal line absorption systems. The Gunn-Peterson continuum optical depth is not well constrained by models (range 0.3-3000). The mere detection of only one QSO below 304 A would rule out many models, limiting the IGM density, temperature, and ionization mechanisms. Similarly the total absence of flux from several targets would rule out other models.

Tytler, David

1992-07-01

163

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of IgG and IgM antibodies after infection with mumps virus.  

PubMed

Under routine laboratory conditions ELISA was tested for suitability for serological demonstration of specific antibodies of the immunoglobulin classes G and M against mumps virus. Sera from patients with known clinical and virological data were used. The results of ELISA were compared with those of CFT. 45 paired sera were tested in ELISA IgG, 87 first sera in ELISA IgM. Both tests were highly sensitive, antibodies were detected earlier and with higher titers than with the CFT. The ELISA IgM is particularly suitable for early diagnosis of mumps infection with the first serum. In addition 23 paired sera from patients with acute parainfluenza virus infection were examined for cross-reacting antibodies. Low anti-mumps IgG antibody titers were found in some sera. These findings reduced the mumps specificity of the IgG test. In five serum samples from one patient--obtained before, during, and after an infection with mumps--the course of IgG and IgM antibodies could be demonstrated. Advantages and limitations of ELISA IgG and IgM are summarized. PMID:7453669

Nicolai-Scholten, M E; Ziegelmaier, R; Behrens, F; Höpken, W

1980-01-01

164

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of IgG and IgM antibodies after infection with mumps virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under routine laboratory conditions ELISA was tested for suitability for serological demonstration of specific antibodies of the immunoglobulin classes G and M against mumps virus. Sera from patients with known clinical and virological data were used. The results of ELISA were compared with those of CFT. 45 paired sera were tested in ELISA IgG, 87 first sera in ELISA IgM.

M. E. Nicolai-Scholten; R. Ziegelmaier; F. Behrens; W. Höpken

1980-01-01

165

Studies of Immune Mechanisms in Leprosy. Ii. Quantitative Relationships of IgG, IgA, and IgM Immunoglobulins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quantities of IgG, IgA, and IgM immunoglobulins in sera from 193 patients with lepromatous or tuberculoid leprosy were measured and compared with 2 groups of nonleprous controls of similar racial and geographic derivation. Mean concertrations of the 3...

W. E. Bullock M. F. Ho M. J. Chen

1970-01-01

166

Studies on Human IgD: Molecular Weight and Sedimentation Coefficient. I. Studies on Human IgM: Characteristics of Products of Mild Reductive Cleavage. Ii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immunoglobulin D constitutes a class of human immunoglobulins which is antigenically and functionally distinct from the other classes currently recognized: IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE. The antigenic distinctiveness of IgD lies in its heavy polypeptide chains. I...

D. S. Rowe H. C. Isliker F. Dolder D. Welscher

1968-01-01

167

Effect of Multiple Freeze and Thaw Cycles on the Sensitivity of IgG and IgM Immunoglobulins in the Sera of Patients With Syphilis.  

PubMed

We describe the effects of multiple freeze and thaw cycles on the sensitivity of the immunoglobulins IgG and IgM measured by enzyme-linked immunoassays in the sera of patients with syphilis. Stored frozen sera can withstand repeated freezing and thawing cycles with a minimal detrimental effect on the sensitivity of the sera. PMID:24113410

Castro, Arnold R; Jost, Heather A

2013-11-01

168

Evasion of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria by IgM masking of protective IgG epitopes in infected erythrocyte surface-exposed PfEMP1  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Its virulence is related to the parasite's ability to evade host immunity through clonal antigenic variation and tissue-specific adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs). The P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family is central to both. Here, we present evidence of a P. falciparum evasion mechanism not previously documented: the masking of PfEMP1-specific IgG epitopes by nonspecific IgM. Nonspecific IgM binding to erythrocytes infected by parasites expressing the PfEMP1 protein VAR2CSA (involved in placental malaria pathogenesis and protective immunity) blocked subsequent specific binding of human monoclonal IgG to the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains DBL3X and DBL5? of this PfEMP1 variant. Strikingly, a VAR2CSA-specific monoclonal antibody that binds outside these domains and can inhibit IE adhesion to the specific VAR2CSA receptor chondroitin sulfate A was unaffected. Nonspecific IgM binding protected the parasites from Fc?R-dependent phagocytosis of VAR2CSA+ IEs, but it did not affect IE adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A or lead to C1q deposition on IEs. Taken together, our results indicate that the VAR2CSA affinity for nonspecific IgM has evolved to allow placenta-sequestering P. falciparum to evade acquired protective immunity without compromising VAR2CSA function or increasing IE susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis. Furthermore, functionally important PfEMP1 epitopes not prone to IgM masking are likely to be particularly important targets of acquired protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria.

Barfod, Lea; Dalgaard, Michael B.; Pleman, Suzan T.; Ofori, Michael F.; Pleass, Richard J.; Hviid, Lars

2011-01-01

169

Avira AntiVir Personal-Free Antivirus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are quite pesky, and the free version of Avira AntiVir Personal can help those bedeviled by such afflictions. This application will help users locate and remove Trojans, worms, and backdoor programs. Users can customize their scans and they can elect to fully scan all hard drives. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP, and Vista.

2008-01-01

170

Malware and Antivirus Deployment for Enterprise IT Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threats to information security are spreading, from both outside and within an organization. Computer security has evolved so as the methods of identification, detection, and prevention of malware, only to be followed by a new set of threats that circumvent those safeguards. Internet and wide availability of toolsets and documentation exacerbates this problem by making malware development easy. As blended

Nadejda Belbus Vasilyevna; Sang-Soo Yeo; Eun-Suk Cho; Jeon-Ah Kim

2008-01-01

171

Chemically Self-assembled Antibody Nanorings (CSANs): Design and Characterization of an Anti-CD3 IgM Biomimetic  

PubMed Central

A number of clever recombinant methodologies have been developed that recapitulate the valencies of IgG’s (bivalent) and IgA’s (tetravalent). Although, higher synthetic valencies have been achieved by conjugation of either monoclonal antibodies or single-chain antibodies to nanoparticles and liposomes, a method for the preparation of recombinant antibodies with valencies similar to IgM’s (decavalent) but considerably less than what is generally found after antibody particle conjugation has yet to be devised. Recently, we have developed a methodology for the design of bivalent Chemically Self-Assembled Antibody Nanorings (CSANs). We now report the crystal structure of the nanoring subunit composed of the E. coli DHFR dimer and a methotrexate dimerizer (MTX2-C9) containing visible nine methylene linker and a protocol for the preparation of CSANs from this subunit with valencies similar to IgMs, ranging from 8–10 single chain antibodies (scFvs). The multivalent CSANs were reversibly assembled from a fusion protein dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-DHFR-antiCD3 scFv containing a single glycine linker between the two DHFR scaffolding proteins. We also demonstrate that, similar to the parental bivalent anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (MAB), anti-CD3 CSANs selectively bind to CD3+ leukemia cells, and undergo rapid internalization through a caveolin-independent pathway that requires cholesterol, actin polymerization and protein tyrosine kinase activation. While treatment with the monoclonal antibody leads to T-cell activation and nearly complete loss (i.e. 90%) of surface displayed T-cell receptor (TCR), only 25–30% of the TCR down regulate and no significant T-cell proliferation is observed after treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with anti-CD3 CSANs. Consistent with the proliferation findings, 15–25 % less CD25 (IL-2 receptor) was found on the surface of PBMCs treated with either the polyvalent or bivalent anti-CD3 CSANs, respectively, than on PBMCs treated with the parental MAB. Comparative experiments with F(ab')2 derived from the MAB confirm that the activation of the T-cells by the MAB is dependent on the Fc domain, and thus interactions of the PBMC T-cells with accessory cells, such as macrophages. Taken together, our results demonstrate that anti-CD3 CSANs with valencies ranging from 2 to 8 could be employed for radionuclide, drug or potentially oligonucleotide delivery to T-cells without, as has been observed for other antibody conjugated nanoparticles, the deleterious affects of activation observed for MAB. Further the CSAN construct may be adapted for the preparation of other multivalent scFvs.

Li, Qing; So, Christopher R.; Fegan, Adrian; Cody, Vivian; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Vallera, Daniel A.; Wagner, Carston R.

2010-01-01

172

Characterization of RAG1 and IgM (mu chain) marking development of the immune system in red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).  

PubMed

In vertebrates, lymphoid-specific recombinase protein encoded by recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) plays a key role in V(D)J recombination of the T-cell receptor and B-cell receptor. In this study, both RAG1 and the immunoglobulin M (IgM) mu chain were cloned to characterize their potential role in the immune defense at developmental stages of red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara. The open reading frame (ORF) of E. akaara RAG1 included 2778 nucleotide residues encoding a putative protein of 925 amino acids, while the ORF of the IgM mu chain had 1734 nucleotide residues encoding 578 amino acids including variable (VH) and constant (CH1-CH2-CH3-CH4) regions. E. akaara RAG1 was composed of a zinc-binding dimerization domain (ZDD) with a RING finger and zinc finger A (ZFA) in the non-core region and a nonamer-binding region (NBR), with a zinc finger B (ZFB), the central and C-terminal domains in the core region. Tridimensional models of the ZDD and NBR of E. akaara RAG1 were constructed for the first time in fishes, while a 3D model of the E. akaara IgM mu chain was also clarified. The RAG1 mRNA was only detected in the thymus and kidney of 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers using qPCR, and the RAG1 protein was confirmed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IgM mu mRNA was examined in most tissues except the gonad. RAG1 and IgM mu gene expression were observed at 15 dph (days post-hatching) and 23 dph respectively, and increased to a higher level at 37 dph. In addition, this was the first time that the morphology of the E. akaara thymus was characterized. The oval-shaped thymus of 4-month old fish was clearly seen and there were amounts of T lymphocytes present. The results suggested that the immune action of E. akaara was likely to start to develop around 15 dph to 29 dph. The transcript level of the RAG1 gene and the number of lymphocytes in the thymus between 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers indicated that age-related thymic atrophy also occurs in fishes. The similar functional structures of RAG1 and IgM protein between fish and mammals indicated that teleost species share a similar mechanism of V(D)J recombination with higher vertebrates. PMID:22796426

Mao, Ming-Guang; Lei, Ji-Lin; Alex, Perálvarez-Marín; Hong, Wan-Shu; Wang, Ke-Jian

2012-07-11

173

Seeing the Lyman-Alpha Forest for the Trees: Constraints on the Thermal State of the IGM from SDSS-III/BOSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lyman-alpha (Lya) forest in the line-of-sight to distant quasars is an important probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM). The thermal properties of the IGM can provide insight the reionization history of the universe, as well as indirectly constraining energy sources in the universe such as galaxies and quasars. This thesis is concerned primarily with studying the IGM using moderate quality Lya forest data sets from large-scale spectroscopic surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). In Chapter 1, we study the potential of SDSS Lya forest data to study the IGM. Using simulated mock spectra, we show that the flux probability distribution function (PDF) of SDSS data can place interesting constraints on the spatially-averaged temperature-density relation (TDR) of the IGM. We also introduce the threshold probability functions, a one-dimensional two-point statistic adapted from material sciences that can be applied to SDSS data to detect ˜ 50 Mpc IGM thermal inhomogeneities arising from He II reionization. Chapter 2 discusses the effect of continuum biases in the TDR measured from high-resolution Lyalpha forest spectra in the context of recent evidence for an inverted (gamma < 1) TDR. We argue that forward modeling of continuum errors in mock spectra are necessary to make robust estimates of the TDR. Motivated by the importance of accurate continuum estimation in Lya forest analysis, Chapter 3 introduces the mean-flux regulated/principal component analysis (MF-PCA) continuum estimation technique. We show using mock spectra that this technique can achieve continuum accuracies of < 10% and < 4% in noisy spectra of S/N ˜ 2 and S/N ˜ 5, respectively. We have also publicly released ˜ 13,000 continua from SDSS Data Release 7. In Chapter 4, we measure the flux PDF from BOSS, drawing from an overall sample of ˜ 30,000 Lya forest sightlines. This uses a novel procedure for optimally combining the multiple BOSS exposures and estimating the spectral noise contribution. Comparing a high signal-to-noise subsample in BOSS with mock spectra generated from detailed hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the flux PDF from BOSS at 2 < z < 3 is consistent with an isothermal TDR, consistent with theoretical expectations from He II reionization.

Lee, Khee-Gan

174

Zebrafish immunoglobulin IgD: unusual exon usage and quantitative expression profiles with IgM and IgZ/T heavy chain isotypes.  

PubMed

The zebrafish is an emerging model for comparative immunology and biomedical research. In contrast to the five heavy chain isotype system of mice and human (IgD, IgM, IgA, IgG, IgE), zebrafish harbor gene segments for IgD, IgM, and novel heavy chain isotype called IgZ/T which appears restricted to bony fishes. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a suite of quantitative real time RT-PCR protocols to measure IgH expression in a vertebrate model which has considerable promise for modeling both pathogenic infection and chronic conditions leading to immune dysfunction. Specific primers were designed and following verification of their specificty, relative expression levels of IgD, IgM, and IgZ/T were measured in triplicate for zebrafish raised under standard laboratory conditions. During embryonic stages, low levels of each heavy chain isotype (IgH) were detected with each increasing steadily between 2 and 17 weeks post fertilization. Overall IgM>IgZ>IgD throughout zebrafish development with the copy number of IgM being several fold higher than that of IgD or IgZ/T. IgD exon usage was also characterized, as its extremely long size and presence of a stop codon in the second IgD exon in zebrafish, raised questions as to how this antibody might be expressed. Zebrafish IgD was found to be a chimeric immunoglobulin, with the third IgD exon spliced to the first IgM constant exon thereby circumventing the first and second IgD exons. Collectively, the qRT-PCR results represent the first comparative profile of IgD, IgM, IgZ/T expression over the lifespan of any fish species and the primers and assay parameters reported should prove useful in enabling researchers to rapidly quantify changes in IgH expression in zebrafish models of disease where altered IgH expression is manifested. PMID:21820179

Zimmerman, Anastasia M; Moustafa, Farah M; Romanowski, Kryzstof E; Steiner, Lisa A

2011-08-04

175

Zebrafish immunoglobulin IgD: unusual exon usage and quantitative expression profiles with IgM and IgZ/T heavy chain isotypes  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish is an emerging model for comparative immunology and biomedical research. In contrast to the five heavy chain isotype system of mice and human (IgD, IgM, IgA, IgG, IgE), zebrafish harbor gene segments for IgD, IgM, and novel heavy chain isotype called IgZ/T which appears restricted to bony fishes. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a suite of quantitative real time RT-PCR protocols to measure IgH expression in a vertebrate model which has considerable promise for modelling both pathogenic infection and chronic conditions leading to immune dysfunction. Specific primers were designed and following verification of their specificty, relative expression levels of IgD, IgM, and IgZ/T were measured in triplicate for zebrafish raised under standard laboratory conditions. During embryonic stages, low levels of each heavy chain isotype (IgH) were detected with each increasing steadily between 2 and 17 weeks post fertilization. Overall IgM>IgZ>IgD throughout zebrafish development with the copy number of IgM being several fold higher than that of IgD or IgZ/T. IgD exon usage was also characterized, as its extremely long size and presence of a stop codon in the second IgD exon in zebrafish, raised questions as to how this antibody might be expressed. Zebrafish IgD was found to be a chimeric immunoglobulin, with the third IgD exon spliced to the first IgM constant exon thereby circumventing the first and second IgD exons. Collectively, the qRT-PCR results represent the first comparative profile of IgD, IgM, IgZ/T expression over the lifespan of any fish species and the primers and assay parameters reported should prove useful in enabling researchers to rapidly quantify changes in IgH expression in zebrafish models of disease where altered IgH expression is manifested.

Zimmerman, Anastasia M.; Moustafa, Farah M.; Romanowski, Kryzstof E.; Steiner, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

176

Partial immune reconstitution of X-linked hyper IgM syndrome with recombinant CD40 ligand  

PubMed Central

X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by genetic alterations in CD40 ligand. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of recombinant CD40 ligand (rCD40L) in the treatment of the disease. Three children were administered rCD40L subcutaneously 3 times per week at 0.03 mg/kg for 22 weeks, and after a 12-week drug-free interval, the dose was increased to 0.05 mg/kg for an additional 22 weeks of treatment. Although specific antibody responses to T cell–dependent antigens was lacking, administration of rCD40 resulted in acquisition of the capacity to mount cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity reactions that disappeared during the drug-free interval as well as the postbiologic follow-up period. With rCD40L treatment, patient T cells developed a new capacity to respond to T-cell mitogens with synthesis of IFN-? and TNF-?. Intracellular cytokine staining studies showed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells participated in this response. Finally, CD40L therapy was associated with changes in lymph node size and architecture based on comparison of biopsies taken before and after therapy. This clinical study showed that rCD40L is capable of improving T cell–immune function in patients with XHM.

Kovacs, Joseph A.; Nelson, David L.; Migueles, Stephen A.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Fanslow, William; Fan, Xiying; Wong, Duane W.; Massey, Justin; Hornung, Ronald; Brown, Margaret R.; Spinner, Jacob J.; Liu, Shuying; Davey, Victoria; Hill, Harry A.; Ochs, Hans; Fleisher, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

177

A novel immunosensor for detecting toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM based on goldmag nanoparticles and graphene sheets.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical immunosensor for detecting toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM (Tg-IgM) was constructed based on goldmag (Au-Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS). Thionine (Thi), as a mediator, was first electropolymerized on a nafion-GS (Nf-GS) modified electrode. Subsequently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were attached onto the poly-thionine film through ?-stacking interactions, and then were used to immobilize toxoplasma gondii antigen (Tg-Ag) for immunosensor fabrication. A sandwich-type immunoassay for Tg-IgM was performed using Au-Fe(3)O(4) labeled anti-IgM-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as trace label. Electrochemical detection was carried out in the presence of H(2)O(2) as HRP substrate. Using Au-Fe(3)O(4) provided a simple, non-chemical damaging method for regeneration, and enhanced the HRP reduction ability toward H(2)O(2). The AuNPs/Thi/Nf-GS nanocomposite also had good conductivity and biocompatibility, which effectively improved the immunosensor sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor can detect Tg-IgM in two linear ranges from 0.0375 to 1.2 AU mL(-1) and from 2.0 to 18 AU mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.016 AU mL(-1) (S/N=3). The immunosensor exhibited good reproducibility, stability, and selectivity as well. PMID:23010058

Jiang, Shuting; Hua, Erhui; Liang, Mo; Liu, Bei; Xie, Guoming

2012-07-25

178

In vitro synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in response to Staphylococcus aureus, by lymphocytes from healthy adults  

SciTech Connect

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 healthy adults were tested in vitro for the production of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) or pokeweed mitogen. Fifteen of the 20 normal subjects produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 46 +/- 55 ng/ml) in response to SAC, compared with only 2 of 20 who produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 2 +/- 4 ng/ml) in response to pokeweed mitogen (P = 0.0001). Separation and reconstitution of autologous T and B cell-enriched fractions, with and without prior T cell irradiation, provided evidence for a radiosensitive T helper/inducer cell involved in the IgM-RF response to SAC in 70% of the normal subjects studied. SAC appears to be a potent stimulus of IgM-RF production, with a cellular mechanism distinct from that of other in vitro systems.

Goldstein, R.; Karsh, J.

1986-12-01

179

Severe motor-dominant neuropathy with IgM M-protein binding to the NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta- moiety.  

PubMed

We report the occurrence of a relapsing, severe predominantly motor neuropathy in a 75-year-old man with an IGM-K M-protein binding to gangliosides GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1a, GT1b and LM1. Motor nerve conduction velocities were slowed with conduction block. A superficial peroneal nerve biopsy specimen revealed segmental demyelination and remyelination. The patient improved after repeated plasma exchanges, and the antibody titer decreased in association with clinical recovery. This IgM M-protein has a unique, previously unreported binding specificity for terminal NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta- moiety in common to all gangliosides bound by the antibody except GM2. M-proteins with this affinity may be involved in the pathogenesis of this and other cases of motor-dominant demyelinating neuropathy. PMID:9543315

Oga, T; Kusunoki, S; Fujimura, H; Kuboki, T; Yoshida, T; Takai, T

1998-01-21

180

The post-mortem diagnosis of influenzal infection by fluorescent IgG, IgA and IgM antibody studies on necropsy blood  

PubMed Central

Necropsy blood from cases diagnosed as dying from influenza A was examined for specific antibody in the IgG, IgA and IgM fractions and a specific diagnosis of recent infection was made if either IgM or IgA antibody and low titres of IgG antibody were found. By these criteria a diagnostic rate of 77% was found in those cases from whom no virus was isolated. The use of infected cell monolayers grown on polytetrafluoroethylene-coated slides gave a simple method of carrying out these antibody assays, and the use of necropsy blood did not require any special methods of transport of specimens to the virus laboratory.

De Silva, L. M.; Khan, M. S.; Kampfner, G.; Tobin, J. O'H.; Gillett, R.; Morris, C. A.

1973-01-01

181

Development and partial validation of a recombinant E2-based indirect ELISA for detection of specific IgM antibody responses against classical swine fever virus.  

PubMed

Detecting classical swine fever virus specific antibody responses is critical for prevention and control of CSF. In this study, a ?E2-based indirect ELISA was developed to detect specific IgM antibodies against CSFV. The optimized conditions that were determined experimentally are: a ?E2 antigen concentration of 0.5 ?g/ml, a serum sample dilution of 1/100 incubated at 37°C for 1.5 h, and a HRP conjugated rabbit anti-pig IgM dilution of 1/50,000 incubated at 37°C for 1 h. Three hundred clinical sera were tested with ?E2-IgM-ELISA and IDEXX ELISA and the positive rates were 77.3% (232/300) and 71.7% (215/300), respectively. Concordance rate between them was 80.3% (241/300). The 59 inconsistent sera were tested further: among the 21 IDEXX ELISA +/?E2-IgM-ELISA - and 38 IDEXX ELISA +/?E2-IgM-ELISA - samples, 17 and 24 were determined positive by virus neutralization test; 15 and 25 were tested positive by ?E2-IgG-ELISA, respectively. In addition, the E2-specific IgM antibody response in 15 vaccinated piglets could be detected 2 weeks post-vaccination and earlier than specific IgG antibody. It increased regularly and reached high levels by 6 weeks post-vaccination. The ?E2-IgM-ELISA could be used for clinical detection and for exploring the kinetics of IgM antibody response. PMID:23500647

Li, Wenliang; Mao, Li; Yang, Leilei; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Jieyuan

2013-03-14

182

IgM, IgG and IgA class enterobacterial antibodies in serum and synovial fluid in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY IgM, IgG and IgA class antibodies against three Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular types, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, as well as total immunoglobulin concentrations, were measured by enzyme immunoassay and radial immunodiÄusion tech- nique, respectively, in paired serum and synovial fluid samples from eight patients with ankylosing spondylitis and 10 with rheumatoid arthritis. No clear evidence for intra-articular antibody production

O. MAKI-IKOLA; M. PENTTINEN; R. VON ESSEN; C. GRIPENBERG-LERCHE; H. ISOMAKI; K. GRANFORS

1997-01-01

183

Evaluation of Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA rELISAs Medac for Diagnosis ofChlamydia pneumoniaeInfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydiapneumoniaeisanimportantpathogenresponsibleforavarietyofrespiratorydiseasesinhumans. Cell culture remains the most specific method for C. pneumoniae diagnosis, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, serology, particularly microimmunofluorescence (MIF) testing, is frequently utilized. However, the MIF test has a significant subjective component. We evaluated a new serological test: Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgG), IgA, and IgM rELISAs Medac, based on a recombinant Chlamydia-specific lipo- polysaccharide (LPS) fragment,

ANDREI KUTLIN; NAOKI TSUMURA; UMIT EMRE; PATRICIA M. ROBLIN; ANDMARGARET R. HAMMERSCHLAG

1997-01-01

184

Detection of IgG and IgM in Sera from Canines with Blastomycosis using Eight Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast Phase Lysate Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of eight Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens (T-58: dog, Tennessee; T-27: polar bear, Tennessee; ERC-2: dog, Wisconsin; B5894: human, Minnesota;\\u000a SOIL: soil, Canada; B5896: human, Minnesota; 48089: human, Zaire; 48938: bat, India) in the detection of the immunoglobulins\\u000a IgG and IgM in serum specimens from canines with blastomycosis. An

Christine M. Sestero; Gene M. Scalarone

2006-01-01

185

Diagnostic tests for rheumatoid arthritis: comparison of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, anti-keratin antibodies and IgM rheumatoid factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine the value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, anti-keratin antibodies (AKA) and immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factors (IgM RF) in discriminating between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases, and to determine whether the clinical manifestations or severity of erosions in RA are associated with anti-CCP positivity. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, we determined the concentrations or titres

S. Bas; T. V. Perneger; M. Seitz; J.-M. Tiercy

2002-01-01

186

Cell surface sialic acids do not affect primary CD22 interactions with CD45 and surface IgM nor the rate of constitutive CD22 endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD22\\/Siglec-2 is a B cell-specific molecule modulating sur- face IgM (sIgM) signaling via cytosolic tyrosine-based motifs. CD22 recognizes a2-6-linked sialic acids (Sias) via an amino-terminal Ig-like domain. This Sia-binding site is typically masked by unknown sialylated ligands on the same cell surface, an interaction required for optimal signaling function. We studied the effect of cell surface Sias on specific interactions

Mai Zhang; Ajit Varki

2004-01-01

187

[The value of an immunocapture method for the study of serum IgM in the surveillance of dengue in Martinique].  

PubMed

The use of IgM capture ELISA for surveillance of dengue in Martinique is described. This only pathogenic for human population arbovirus infection, which the transmission is caused by bites of haematophagous diptera like Aedes (Aedes aegypti principally) show an active circulation in Martinique. Clinical evolution was always benign among the adults and the children. To date no case of dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (the World Health Organization criteria) was not reported in Martinique. PMID:2663212

Scat, Y; Moreau, O; Fougère, V

1989-01-01

188

Multiplex Immunoassay for Lyme Disease Using VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM Antibodies: Improving Test Performance through Bioinformatics ?  

PubMed Central

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends a 2-tier serologic approach to Lyme disease laboratory diagnosis, comprised of an initial serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi followed by supplementary IgG and IgM Western blotting of EIA-positive or -equivocal samples. Western blot accuracy is limited by subjective interpretation of weakly positive bands, false-positive IgM immunoblots, and low sensitivity for detection of early disease. We developed an objective alternative second-tier immunoassay using a multiplex microsphere system that measures VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies simultaneously in the same sample. Our study population comprised 79 patients with early acute Lyme disease, 82 patients with early-convalescent-phase disease, 47 patients with stage II and III disease, 34 patients post-antibiotic treatment, and 794 controls. A bioinformatic technique called partial receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) regression was used to combine individual antibody levels into a single diagnostic score with a single cutoff; this technique enhances test performance when a high specificity is required (e.g., ?95%). Compared to Western blotting, the multiplex assay was equally specific (95.6%) but 20.7% more sensitive for early-convalescent-phase disease (89.0% versus 68.3%, respectively; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] for difference, 12.1% to 30.9%) and 12.5% more sensitive overall (75.0% versus 62.5%, respectively; 95% CI for difference, 8.1% to 17.1%). As a second-tier test, a multiplex assay for VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies performed as well as or better than Western blotting for Lyme disease diagnosis. Prospective validation studies appear to be warranted.

Porwancher, Richard B.; Hagerty, C. Greg; Fan, Jianqing; Landsberg, Lisa; Johnson, Barbara J. B.; Kopnitsky, Mark; Steere, Allen C.; Kulas, Karen; Wong, Susan J.

2011-01-01

189

Antigenic modulation of the cytophilic binding of guinea-pig IgG and IgM antibodies to homologous macrophages.  

PubMed Central

The cytophilic binding of immune complexes by peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) from adjuvant-stimulated guinea-pigs was studied using 125I-labelled guinea-pig IgG1, IgG2 and IgM antibodies to the dinitrophenyl (DNP) group. The influence of hapten density upon cytophilic activity was studied by the addition of DNP-conjugated antigens to antibody in 2-200 molar ratios of DNP:antibody. Only IgG2 binding was enhanced by immune complex formation, and the increased binding of IgG2 anti-DNP was dependent on the number of DNP determinants per antigen molecule. Cytophilic activity with epsilon-DNP-L-lysine (DNP-LYS), alpha,epsilon-di-DNP-L-lysine (DNP-LYS-DNP), or DNP1-8-BSA was no greater than that seen in the absence of hapten. Increased cytophilic binding was noted only with DNP20-41-BSA. The binding of IgG2 and IgG2 anti-DNP:DNP-bovine serum albumin (BSA) complexes was inhibited by monomeric IgG2. The relative cytophilic capacities of guinea-pig immunoglobulins appeared as follows: IgG greater than IgG1 greater than IgM. IgG1 and IgM binding of DNP conjugates did not enhance their cytophilic activity; therefore, IgG1 and IgM cytophilic binding to PEC was considered biologically insignificant. This investigation provides further evidence that cytophilic binding of immune complexes to macrophages is due to the co-operative action of multiple Fc sites rather than a conformational change in the IgG2 antibodies, and serum proteins, notably complement components, can alter the binding and/or phagocytosis of IgG2 anti-DNP:DNP-BSA complexes.

Webster, R O; Lawrence, D A

1979-01-01

190

Cold Pressure Test Producing Coronary Spasm, Coronary Thrombosis and Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with IgM Antibodies against Coxsackie B Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence have shown that viral infections are capable of causing coronary spasm and precipitating or mimicking clinical myocardial infarction. Here we report the case of a 41-year-old woman with recurrent angina who was admitted to our hospital because of ventricular tachycardia. Laboratory examination revealed positive IgM titers against Coxsackie B virus. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries,

Werner Haberbosch; Norbert Roerich; Joerg Neuzner

1999-01-01

191

A test strip IgM dot-ELISA assay using leptospiral antigen of endemic strains for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis.  

PubMed

A test strip IgM dot-ELISA assay for the detection of leptospire-specific IgM antibodies in human sera was developed. Antigen dotted on a nitrocellulose paper strip was the pool sonicated antigen prepared from three predominant reactive Leptospira serovars currently in endemic area, i.e., Bratislava, Sejroe and Pyrogenes. The ability of the test to diagnose acute leptospiral infection was assessed by testing 343 single serum samples from 96 laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis case patients with positive result in the standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 55 serum samples from patients with various diseases other than leptospirosis, and 192 serum samples from healthy individuals. Using the results of the MAT as a gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the test strip IgM dot-ELISA assay were 98.96 and 93.93 per cent, respectively. The assay offered relatively high negative predictive values (99.57%) thus making the assay ideally suited for rapid screening. The stability of the test strip was assessed with a panel of five positive and five negative control sera after storage at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C at different times. The results showed a good performance of the test strip at both storage temperatures for up to one year. In conclusion, the test strip IgM dot-ELISA assay was sufficiently sensitive for use as a screening test for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis. The assay was simple, inexpensive, and easy to perform for both a single test format and a large number of specimens. However, further studies are still needed to improve the stability of the test strip and assay reagents at ambient temperature, and to make the assay more rapidly and more user friendly. PMID:15962650

Tansuphasiri, Unchalee; Deepradit, Sukanya; Phulsuksombati, Duangporn; Tangkanakul, Waraluk

2005-03-01

192

I. Studies on pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase in rat liver mitochondria. II. Identification of the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of IgM in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The orientation of the transmembrane enzyme, pyridine dinucleotide transhydrogenase, in the inner mitochondrial membrane of rat liver has been determined by evaluating effects of proteases on the integrity of the enzyme in mitoplasts and submitochondrial particles. Following treatment of these membranes with the non-specific protease, proteinase K, antigenic proteolytic products were detected by immunoblot analysis using polyclonal antibody prepared against purified bovine heart enzyme. Information from these proteolysis studies was used to construct a model of the orientation of transhydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this work, I have used the residualizing label, dilactitol-{sup 125}I-tyramine ({asterisk}I-DLT) to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of the immunoglobulin, IgM. Purified IgM was labeled conventionally with {sup 125}I or with the residualizing label, {asterisk}I-DLT. The circulating half-life of the protein, 2.7 {plus minus} 0.3 days, was the same when measured using either label, indicating that the residualizing label does not affect the kinetics of the protein's catabolism in vivo. At 2.4 or 5.1 days post injection, the liver contained the major fraction of catabolized protein compared to all the other organs in the body. Additionally, following collagenase digestion of the liver, the hepatocytes were shown to be 77% responsible for the catabolism of IgM by the liver. Autoradiography of the liver revealed that the remaining 23% of IgM catabolized by the liver was due to the Kupffer cells.

Weis, J.K.

1988-01-01

193

Evaluation of Puumala virus IgG and IgM enzyme immunoassays based on recombinant baculovirus-expressed nucleocapsid protein for early nephropathia epidemica diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Puumala virus (PUU), a member of Hantavirus genus, is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a milder form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Rapid diagnosis is essential for clinical management of NE.Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of recombinant protein-based IgM (direct- and ?-capture) and IgG (direct- and antigen (Ag)-capture) enzyme immunoassays (EIA) in early diagnosis of

Hannimari Kallio-Kokko; Olli Vapalahti; Åke Lundkvist; Antti Vaheri

1998-01-01

194

IgG, IgM and IgA antibody responses against immediate-early, early and late human cytomegalovirus proteins in patients with HCMV infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IgG, IgM and IgA antibody responses against the immediate-early, early and late proteins of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 in sera from HCMV-seropositive subjects and from patients with primary and secondary HCMV infections were studied by immunoblotting. Antibodies against 16 HCMV proteins with molecular masses of 150, 145, 140, 130, 100, 92, 85, 72, 65, 62, 55, 52, 45,

M. Segondy; S. L Salhi

1995-01-01

195

Specificity and Mechanism of Immunoglobulin M (IgM)- and IgG-Dependent Protective Immunity to Larval Strongyloides stercoralis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective immunity in mice to the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Strongyloides stercoralis was shown to be dependent on immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement activation, and granulocytes. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether IgG was also a protective antibody isotype and to define the specificity and the mechanism by which IgG functions. Purified IgG recovered from mice

Jessica A. Ligas; Laura A. Kerepesi; Ann Marie Galioto; Sara Lustigman; Thomas J. Nolan; Gerhard A. Schad; David Abraham

2003-01-01

196

Psychological Stress and Its Influence on Salivary Flow Rate, Total Protein Concentration and IgA, IgG and IgM Titers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenomedullary axes are the main systems activated in response to stress. Alterations in salivary components and flow rate have been associated with oral health problems and psychological stress. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of psychological stress on salivary flow, total protein concentration and IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations. Methods: Thirty-eight

Nathália Matos-Gomes; Marilise Katsurayama; Fabiano Hiromichi Makimoto; Linda Luciana Oliveira Santana; Edijane Paredes-Garcia; Maria Alice d’Ávila Becker; Maria Cristina Dos-Santos

2010-01-01

197

Evaluations of Commercial West Nile Virus Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM Enzyme Immunoassays Show the Value of Continuous Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in 1999 and in only four seasons has become endemic east of the Rocky Mountains. Recently, immunoglobulin M (IgM)-capture enzyme immunoassays for the detection of West Nile virus-specific IgM and indirect IgG enzyme immunoassays for the detection of IgG antibodies against West Nile virus were made available from Focus Technologies and

Annette K. Malan; Thomas B. Martins; Harry R. Hill; Christine M. Litwin

2004-01-01

198

Structural requirements for the interaction of human IgM and IgA with the human Fcalpha/mu receptor.  

PubMed

Here we unravel the structural features of human IgM and IgA that govern their interaction with the human Fcalpha/mu receptor (hFcalpha/muR). Ligand polymerization status was crucial for the interaction, because hFcalpha/muR binding did not occur with monomeric Ab of either class. hFcalpha/muR bound IgM with an affinity in the nanomolar range, whereas the affinity for dimeric IgA (dIgA) was tenfold lower. Panels of mutant IgM and dIgA were used to identify regions critical for hFcalpha/muR binding. IgM binding required contributions from both Cmu3 and Cmu4 Fc domains, whereas for dIgA, an exposed loop in the Calpha3 domain was crucial. This loop, comprising residues Pro440-Phe443, lies at the Fc domain interface and has been implicated in the binding of host receptors FcalphaRI and polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), as well as IgA-binding proteins produced by certain pathogenic bacteria. Substitutions within the Pro440-Phe443 loop resulted in loss of hFcalpha/muR binding. Furthermore, secretory component (SC, the extracellular portion of pIgR) and bacterial IgA-binding proteins were shown to inhibit the dIgA-hFcalpha/muR interaction. Therefore, we have identified a motif in the IgA-Fc inter-domain region critical for hFcalpha/muR interaction, and highlighted the multi-functional nature of a key site for protein-protein interaction at the IgA Fc domain interface. PMID:19266484

Ghumra, Ashfaq; Shi, Jianguo; Mcintosh, Richard S; Rasmussen, Ingunn B; Braathen, Ranveig; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Sandlie, Inger; Mongini, Patricia K; Areschoug, Thomas; Lindahl, Gunnar; Lewis, Melanie J; Woof, Jenny M; Pleass, Richard J

2009-04-01

199

Detection of erythrocyte binding IgM and IgG by flow cytometry in sick dogs with Babesia canis canis or Babesia canis vogeli infection.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine by means of flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) if sick dogs infected with Babesia canis canis (B. c. canis) or Babesia canis vogeli (B. c. vogeli) had anti-erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and/or IgM at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis of Babesia infection was assessed by blood smear and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 30 sick dogs. Signalment, clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests of B. c. canis (n=24) and of B. c. vogeli (n=6) infected dogs were studied. The majority of B. c. canis infected dogs showed anemia (92%) predominantly non-regenerative (94%), while the B. c. vogeli infected dogs had a regenerative anemia (67%). Eccentrocytosis was present in 33% of the B. c. canis infections. Four of six B. c. vogeli infected dogs had erythrocytes membrane antibodies. One dog resulted uncertain and one resulted negative to FCI. In contrast, all the B. c. canis infected dogs were negative for erythrocytes membrane binding immunoglobulins detection. In addition, the mean percentages of erythrocytes binding IgG and IgM were statistically much lower in B. c. canis than in B. c. vogeli infected dogs. At the time of the diagnosis, the formation of erythrocyte membrane binding IgG and IgM by immune mechanisms appears not to be involved in B. c. canis infections while it is present in the majority of B. c. vogeli infections. PMID:19269745

Carli, E; Tasca, S; Trotta, M; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M; Solano-Gallego, L

2009-02-12

200

A Flow Cytometry-Based Strategy to Identify and Express IgM from VH1-69+ Clonal Peripheral B Cells  

PubMed Central

Pathologic rheumatoid factor (RF) levels are hallmarks of several human diseases. Production of monoclonal RF in vitro is essential for studies of the antigenic specificities of RF, as well as for a dissection of the mechanisms of aberrant RF+ B cell activation. We have expanded upon previous methods to develop a flow cytometry-based method to efficiently clone monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from humans with expansions of RF-like, immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgVH) 1-69 gene segment-containing B cells. The cloned variable regions are expressed as IgM and produced during culture at concentrations between 5–20 ?g/ml. Using this system, we show that clonal Igs from patients with HCV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia, when expressed as IgM, have RF activity. We anticipate that this system will be useful for the cloning and expression of mAbs partially encoded by VH1-69 and for determination of the reactivity patterns of polyspecific, low-affinity IgMs of human pathogenic importance.

Charles, Edgar D.; Orloff, Michael I. M.; Dustin, Lynn B.

2010-01-01

201

Detection of viral antigen, IgM and IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid of Chikungunya patients with neurological complications  

PubMed Central

Background During Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic in Nagpur, India, we identified some suspected Chikungunya patients with neurological complications. Early and cost-effective diagnosis of these patients remains problematic despite many new advanced diagnostic methods. A reliable diagnostic test, which could be performed in any standard pathology laboratory, would help to obtain definitive early diagnosis of CHIKV patients with neurological complications. In our laboratory, in-house ELISA protocol for viral antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG detection has been developed and assessed for the diagnosis of CHIKV patients with neurological complications. Method Cerebrospinal fluid samples of forty-six patients who developed neurological symptoms within two months of CHIKV infections along with control subjects were included in the study and were analyzed for the presence of antigens and of IgM and IgG using an ELISA protocol. Results The ELISA method for antigen detection yielded 80% sensitivity and 87% specificity for the diagnosis of CHIKV patients with neurological complications. The sensitivity for detection of IgM 48% or IgG 63% was significantly lower than the antigen assay (80%). Conclusion The detection of viral antigen in CSF of CHIKV patients with neurological complications by ELISA method gave a more reliable diagnosis than antibodies detection that can be used to develop an immunodiagnostic assay with increased sensitivity and specificity.

2010-01-01

202

Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. III. Determination of the clonal persistence of the IgM autoantibody for a four and one-half year period.  

PubMed Central

The persistence in the structure of IgM anti-IgGs obtained from the serum of a patient (Gil) with Felty's syndrome was studied. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments showed that intact IgM from early (1970) and late (1973) sera, and their heavy and light chains had identical isoelectric points (pI). Light chains from 1970, 1973, and 1974 IgM-Gil had identical amino terminal amino acid sequences and belonged to the v Kappa II light chain subgroup. Specificity studies of IgM-Gil isolated from serum obtained in 1970, 1972 and 1974 showed identical patterns of reactivity with IgG and IgG subunits of all gamma chain subclasses. Finally, by haemagglutination-inhibition, antisera specific for idiotypic determinants of IgM-Gil-1970 were shown to be shared by IgM from 1970, 1972 and 1974 sera. The data support the notion that autoantibody-producing cell clones persist unaltered during the course of an untreated autoimmune disease, in this instance for 4 1/2 years.

Abraham, G N; Brown, P; Johnston, S L; Nellis, L; Marks, S; Welch, E H

1978-01-01

203

[Introduction to a study of specific antibodies (IgG and IgM) detection with ELISA in the diagnosis of poliomyelitis].  

PubMed

Samples of single sera collected from 38 patients with different clinical diagnosis were studied in order to perform ELISA techniques with the purpose of detecting poliomyelitis IgG and IgM antibodies. The résults were compared through antibody titration by neutralization test. 21 pairs of sera from infants suffering from acute flaccid paralysis were studied by ELISA-IgM, ELISA-IgG and neutralization test. Stool samples were collected from 20 of the latter patient. Wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated in 8 cases. ELISA-IgM technique was positive in 14 cases. The true positive poliomyelitis diagnosis was based on the persistence of flaccid paralysis 60 days after the onset and on wild poliovirus isolation with significant increase in antibody level. 16 cases were classified as poliomyelitis, 2 cases as non poliomyelitic paralysis and 3 cases as undetermined. 16 out of the 18 well established diagnosis were in agreement (88.8%) with the detection or not of IgM antibodies by ELISA. The specificity of these IgM ELISA antibodies was examined by studying 11 cases of lymphocytic meningitis. Cross reaction in serological responses between polioviruses and coxsackieviruses was observed. These cross reactions should be evaluated by studying a greater number of cases. The poliovirus ELISA-IgM is a sensitive, economical and rapid method to be used in poliomyelitis diagnosis to complete the neutralizing test and virus isolation. PMID:11256313

Khenchouche, A; Bisker, M A; Selloum, L; Arrar, L; Boudjadja, S; Lazizi, L; Chouchane, A; Seghier, M; Bouguermouh, A

1998-01-01

204

Both IgM and IgG anti-DNA antibodies are the products of clonally selective B cell stimulation in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice  

PubMed Central

Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus is closely associated with the appearance of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody to native DNA in both humans and mice. Like normal antibody responses, the anti-DNA autoantibody first appears as IgM and then switches to IgG. Structural studies of IgG anti-DNA suggest that these antibodies are the products of clonally selected, specifically stimulated B cells. The origins of the IgM anti-DNA have been less clear. To determine whether the earlier appearing IgM anti-DNA antibody in autoimmune mice also derives from clonally selected, specifically stimulated B cells or B cells activated by nonselective, polyclonal stimuli, we have analyzed the molecular and serological characteristics of a large number of monoclonal IgM anti- DNA antibodies from autoimmune (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. We have also analyzed IgM and IgG anti-DNA hybridomas obtained from the same individual mice to determine how the later-appearing IgG autoantibody may be related to the earlier-appearing IgM autoantibody within an individual mouse. The results demonstrate that: (a) IgM anti-DNA, like IgG, has the characteristics of a specifically stimulated antibody; (b) IgM and IgG anti-DNA antibodies have similar variable region structures and within individual mice may be produced by B cells derived from the same clonal precursors; (c) recurrent germline and somatically derived VH and VL structures may influence the specificity of anti-DNA monoclonal antibody for denatured vs. native DNA; and (d) the results provide a structural explanation for the selective development of IgG antibody to native DNA as autoimmunity to DNA progresses in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice.

1992-01-01

205

Evaluation of an IgM-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection: influence of IgM rheumatoid factor on test results with field sera.  

PubMed

A commercially available indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)-specific IgG was adapted to measure virus-specific IgM. Using this assay, the development of rapid IgM responses in experimentally infected calves was observed 7-9 days postinfection, with peak absorbance values ranging from 1.698 to 2.873. When absorbance values were expressed as a percentage of a positive reference serum, a positive/negative threshold of 22% was determined by testing serum samples from 59 healthy 3-5-month-old calves. Acute and convalescent serum samples collected from 151 calves during 38 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested, and 130 sera were positive. To determine the number of false-positive results due to the presence of IgM rheumatoid factor, a method for depleting serum IgG by pretreatment of sera with a suspension of protein-G-agarose was developed. All sera that initially tested IgM positive were retested following depletion of serum IgG. False-positive IgM reactions were detected in 23 sera (17.7%). Specific IgM responses were confirmed in 107 sera from 84 calves. Evidence of BRSV infection was detected in 34 of 38 outbreaks. In contrast, seroconversion was detected in 69 calves from 24 outbreaks, confirming the diagnostic potential of the IgM assay. Overall correlation between IgM and seroconversion results was 74.2%. Intra- and interassay reproducibility were 12.50% and 17.48%, respectively (mean coefficients of variation). PMID:9786520

Graham, D A; Mawhinney, K A; Elvander, M; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1998-10-01

206

Effect of some constituents of chicken egg yolk lipoprotein on the growth and IgM production of human-human hybridoma cells and other human-derived cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken egg yolk lipoprotein (YLP) was partially fractionated into some constituents, and the effect of constituents of YLP were examined on the growth and immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG) secretion of a HB4C5 human-human hybridoma cell line cultured in serum-free medium. Among the fractions, YP-1 and YP-2 fractions (LDL-rich fractions) were found to enhance the growth and IgM secretion of HB4C5

Kazuki Shinohara; Tatsunobu Fukushima; Michiko Suzuki; Masakazu Tsutsumi; Masuko Kobori; Zwe-Ling Kong

1993-01-01

207

Comparative analysis of IgM sub-variants in salmonid fish and identification of a residue in ?3 which is essential for MAb4C10 reactivity.  

PubMed

In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) it has been shown that high affinity IgM antibodies have a higher degree of disulfide polymerization and a longer half life time. In the present study, distinct IgM sub-variants related to ancestral tetraploidy in salmonid fish were analyzed to reveal possible characteristic differences between these. A monoclonal antibody (MAb4C10) which distinguishes between IgM-A and IgM-B in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) was further characterized. It was shown that substitution of a proline located in the loop between the B and C beta strands of the third constant domain (?3) of salmon ?A eliminated MAb4C10 reactivity. Accordingly, the reverse substitution in salmon ?B restored MAb4C10 reactivity. Molecular cloning of ? cDNA from arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) revealed two sub-variants (?A-1 and ?A-2), i.e. a similar situation as in Atlantic salmon and brown trout. However, arctic char IgM eluted in one peak by anion exchange chromatography, in contrast to salmon and brown trout IgM that are eluted in two peaks. The only characteristic residue of salmon and brown trout ?B is an additional cysteine in the C-terminal part of ?4. Most likely, this cysteine is involved in inter-chain disulfide bonding and influences the elution profiles of IgM-A and IgM-B on anion exchange chromatography. Neither of the ? sub-variants in arctic char have the additional cysteine, and char IgM, as well as salmon and brown trout IgM-A, showed a lower degree of inter-chain disulfide bonding than IgM-B when subjected to denaturation and gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions. Hybrids of char/salmon expressed ?A-1, ?A-2, ?A and ?B, indicating that there are two paralogous Ig heavy chain gene complexes in the haploid genome of char, like in Atlantic salmon. A comparison of salmonid ? sequences is presented, including representatives of Salmoninae (trout, salmon and char), Thymallinae (grayling) and Coregoninae (whitefish). PMID:23261504

Kamil, Atif; Raae, Arnt; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Fladmark, Kari E; Hordvik, Ivar

2012-12-20

208

Downstream class switching leads to IgE antibody production by B lymphocytes lacking IgM switch regions  

PubMed Central

Ig heavy chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) replaces the IgH C? constant region exons with one of several sets of downstream IgH constant region exons (e.g., C?, C?, or C?), which affects switching from IgM to another IgH class (e.g., IgG, IgE, or IgA). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates CSR by promoting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within switch (S) regions flanking the donor C? (S?) and a downstream acceptor CH (e.g., S?, S?, S?) that are then joined to complete CSR. DSBs generated in S? frequently are joined within S? to form internal switch region deletions (ISD). AID-induced ISD and mutations have been considered rare in downstream S regions, suggesting that AID targeting to these S regions requires its prior recruitment to S?. We have now assayed for CSR and ISD in B cells lacking S? (S??/? B cells). In S??/? B cells activated for CSR to IgG1 and IgE, CSR to IgG1 was greatly reduced; but, surprisingly, CSR to IgE occurred at nearly normal levels. Moreover, normal B cells had substantial S?1 ISD and increased mutations in and near S?1, and levels of both were greatly increased in S??/? B cells. Finally, S??/? B cells underwent downstream CSR between S?1 and S? on alleles that lacked S? CSR to these sequences. Our findings show that AID targets downstream S regions independently of CSR with S? and implicate an alternative pathway for IgE class switching that involves generation and joining of DSBs within two different downstream S regions before S? joining.

Zhang, Tingting; Franklin, Andrew; Boboila, Cristian; McQuay, Amy; Gallagher, Michael P.; Manis, John P.; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine; Alt, Frederick W.

2010-01-01

209

CD5-positive B-cell malignancies frequently express cross-reactive idiotypes associated with IgM autoantibodies.  

PubMed Central

Using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for cross-reactive idiotypes (CRIs) associated with human monoclonal IgM autoantibodies, we examined 57 biopsy specimens that previously had been noted to have immunohistologic features of CD5-positive B-cell small lymphocytic (SL) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Twenty-five lymphoma specimens were noted to be from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Eight of thirty-four (24%) immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light-chain expressing lymphomas reacted with 17.109, a MAb specific for a major CRI encoded by a conserved Ig kappa variable region gene (Vk gene) of the VkIIIb sub-subgroup. All 17.109-reactive tissues and two 17.109-negative specimens were recognized by another MAb specific for VkIIIb framework determinant(s). Seven of all fifty-six (13%) Ig-expressing tumors bound G6, a MAb specific for an autoantibody heavy-chain-associated CRI that is encoded by a conserved antibody heavy chain variable region gene(s) (VHgene) of the VH1 subgroup. All seven G6-positive lymphomas and two G6-negative tumors reacted with Cc1, another MAb specific for a rheumatoid factor heavy-chain-associated CRI. A third autoantibody-heavy-chain-associated CRI, termed Lc1, was expressed by seven (13%) other lymphomas. Finally, a fourth MAb specific for RF heavy-chain-associated CRI, named B6, detected two additional tumors. The expression frequencies of autoantibody-associated CRIs among SL NHL patients without peripheral lymphocytosis did not differ from those noted among patients with CLL but were significantly higher than those observed among patients with NHL of follicular center-cell origin. These data imply that the malignant B cells of patients with either CD5-positive B-cell SL NHL or CLL express a restricted set of Ig V genes that have not substantially diversified from the germline DNA. Images Figure 1

Kipps, T. J.; Robbins, B. A.; Tefferi, A.; Meisenholder, G.; Banks, P. M.; Carson, D. A.

1990-01-01

210

Pitfalls of "hyper"-IgM syndrome: a new CD40 ligand mutation in the presence of low IgM levels. A case report and a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

Here, we report on a male infant with low serum IgG, IgA and IgM levels who suffered from Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. The patient was tested to be HIV-negative. Absolute and relative numbers of lymphocyte subsets were normal, excluding the diagnosis of an X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (Bruton's disease). Despite the decreased serum IgM level, an X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM) was considered. X-HIGM is a rare immunodeficiency usually characterised by recurrent severe opportunistic infections, low serum IgG and IgA, but normal or increased serum IgM. The syndrome is caused by mutations of the CD40 ligand (CD40L) gene. In our patient, CD40L mutation analysis proved a novel mutation at codon 257 associated with non-detectable expression of CD40L on the surface of activated T cells. A literature search revealed that approximately 6.4% of X-HIGM patients had been found to have low serum IgM levels. Our statistical analysis of the IgM levels as reported by different studies arouses suspicion that many patients with low IgM levels may not have undergone diagnostic procedures for X-HIGM. In summary, in this report and critical review of the literature, we described a new mutation of CD40L and highlighted the pitfalls of the diagnosis of X-HIGM. PMID:20981468

Heinold, A; Hanebeck, B; Daniel, V; Heyder, J; Tran, T H; Döhler, B; Greil, J; Müller, F-M

2010-10-28

211

Metals in the IGM approaching the re-ionization epoch: results from X-shooter at the VLT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of observations taken with the X-shooter spectrograph devoted to the study of quasars at z ˜ 6. This paper focuses on the properties of metals at high redshift traced, in particular, by the C IV doublet absorption systems. Six objects were observed with resolutions ?27 and 34 km s-1 in the visual, and 37.5 and 53.5 km s-1 in the near-infrared. We detected 102 C IV lines in the range: 4.35 < z < 6.2 of which 27 are above z ˜ 5. Thanks to the characteristics of resolution and spectral coverage of X-shooter, we could also detect 25 Si IV doublets associated with the C IV at z ? 5. The column density distribution function of the C IV line sample is observed to evolve in redshift for z ? 5.3, with respect to the normalization defined by low-redshift (1.5 < z < 4) C IV lines. This behaviour is reflected in the redshift evolution of the C IV cosmic mass density, ? _{C IV}}, of lines with column density in the range 13.4 < log N(C IV) < 15, which is consistent with a drop of a factor of ˜2 for z ? 5.3. Considering only the stronger C IV lines (13.8 < log N(C IV) < 15), ? _{C IV} gently rises by a factor of ˜10 between z ? 6.2 and z ? 1.5 with a possible flattening towards z ˜ 0. The increase is well fitted by a power law: ? _{C IV} = (2± 1)× 10^{-8} [(1+z)/4]^{-3.1± 0.1}. An insight into the properties of the C IV absorbers and their evolution with redshift is obtained by comparing the observed column densities of associated C IV, Si IV and C II absorptions with the output of a set of CLOUDY photoionization models. As already claimed by cosmological simulations, we find that C IV is a good tracer of the metallicity in the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) gas at z ˜ 5-6 while at z ˜ 3 it arises in gas with overdensity ? ˜ 100.

D'Odorico, V.; Cupani, G.; Cristiani, S.; Maiolino, R.; Molaro, P.; Nonino, M.; Centurión, M.; Cimatti, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Gallerani, S.; Giallongo, E.; Mannucci, F.; Marconi, A.; Pentericci, L.; Viel, M.; Vladilo, G.

2013-10-01

212

Receptor-dependent inhibition by vasoactive intestinal peptide of phorbol ester-enhanced IgM secretion by a human B cell line  

SciTech Connect

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28 amino acid neuromediator, which is released into tissues during inflammatory reactions. To examine the mechanisms of VIP effects on lymphocyte functions, replicate 5 ml suspensions of 2{times}10{sup 6} cultured SKW 6.4 human B lymphocytes per ml of RPMI 1640 medium with 10% FCS were incubated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) at 37C. After 2 hr of exposure of SKW 6.4 cells to 100 ng/ml of PMA, the specific high-affinity binding of ({sup 125}I)VIP was decreased by 43{plus minus}7.8% and remained suppressed for up to 8 hr. Continued incubation of SKW 6.4 cells with PMA for 7 days increased the specific high-affinity binding of ({sup 125}I)VIP by 55{plus minus}16%. The secretion of IgM by SKW 6.4 cells, as quantified in an ELISA assay, was enhanced a mean of 3.6 fold by 100 ng/ml of PMA after 7 days. The concurrent addition of 10{sup {minus}12}M-10{sup {minus}6}M VIP to the SKW 6.4 cells inhibited the PMA-enhanced secretion of IgM in an concentration-dependent manner with maximal mean inhibition ({plus minus}S.D.) of 40{plus minus}2% by 10{sup {minus}10}M VIP at 7 days, without an effect on unstimulated levels of IgM. The potent inhibition of immunoglobulin production by VIP has apparent specificity for stimulated B cells with an increased number of VIP receptors.

Cheng, P.P.J.; Sreedharan, S.P.; Robichon, A.; Gronroos, E.; Goetzl, E.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

1991-03-15

213

Myelin protein P0-specific IgM producing monoclonal B cell lines were established from polyneuropathy patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal expansion of B cells and plasma cells, producing antibodies against ‘self’ molecules, can be found not only in different autoimmune diseases, such as peripheral neuropathy (PN), but also in malignancies, such as Waldenström’s macroglobulinaemia and B-type of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL), as well as in precancerous conditions including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). About 50% of patients with PN-MGUS have serum antibodies against peripheral nerve myelin, but the specific role of these antibodies remains uncertain. The aims of the study were to establish, and characterize, myelin-specific B cell clones from peripheral blood of patients with PN-MGUS, by selection of cells bearing specific membrane Ig-receptors for myelin protein P0, using beads coated with P0. P0-coated magnetic beads were used for selection of cells, which subsequently were transformed by Epstein–Barr virus. The specificity of secreted antibodies was tested by ELISA. Two of the clones producing anti-P0 antibodies were selected and expanded. The magnetic selection procedure was repeated and new clones established. The cells were CD5+ positive, although the expression declined in vitro over time. The anti-P0 antibodies were of IgM-? type. The antibodies belonged to the VH3gene family with presence of somatic mutations. The IgM reacted with P0 and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and showed no evidence for polyreactivity, in contrast to other IgM CD5+clones included in the study as controls. The expanded clones expressed CD80 and HLA-DR, which is compatible with properties of antigen-presenting cells. The immunomagnetic selection technique was successfully used for isolation of antimyelin protein P0-specific clones. The cell lines may provide useful tools in studies of monoclonal gammopathies, leukaemia, and autoimmune diseases, including aspects of antigen-presentation by these cells followed by T cell activation.

KVARNSTROM, M; SIDOROVA, E; NILSSON, J; EKERFELT, C; VRETHEM, M; SODERBERG, O; JOHANSSON, M; ROSEN, A; ERNERUDH, J

2002-01-01

214

Interleukin-2-induced enhancement of an antigen-specific IgM plaque-forming cell response is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system.  

PubMed

Interleukin (IL)-2, a lymphokine produced by activated T-cells, stimulates T-cell proliferation and differentiation and potentiates B-cell production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins. IL-2 also increases hypothalamic norepinephrine turnover without affecting plasma corticosterone levels, which suggests that it selectively impacts on central sites that mediate sympathetic outflow to lymphoid organs. Because sympathetic stimulation during the early phases of an immunoglobulin (Ig)M plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to sheep red blood cells results in an increase in the subsequent number of antibody-forming cells, we assessed whether the enhancing effects of IL-2 on the PFC response are mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. The peak splenic IgM PFC response was increased in male Sprague-Dawley rats and BALB/c mice administered recombinant human IL-2 (50, 100 or 200 ng i.p.) in close temporal congruity with sheep red blood cell administration (i.e., 1 day before or immediately before immunization), compared with vehicle-treated controls. IL-2 administered at a later interval after immunization (i.e., 2 days) did not increase the number of antibody-forming cells. Intact sympathetic innervation of the spleen was required for the IL-2-induced immunoenhancement to occur because cutting the splenic nerve 10 days prior to IL-2 administration blocked the lymphokine's potentiation of the IgM PFC response. The immunostimulatory effects of IL-2 were also blocked in mice administered the beta adrenergic antagonist propranolol (5 mg/kg) immediately and 1 day after IL-2 administration. The alpha adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg) had no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7965820

Zalcman, S; Green-Johnson, J M; Murray, L; Wan, W; Nance, D M; Greenberg, A H

1994-11-01

215

Presence of Mycoplasma fermentans in the bloodstream of Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis and IgM and IgG antibodies against whole microorganism  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence incriminates bacteria, especially Mycoplasma fermentans, as possible arthritogenic agents in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate M. fermentans in the bloodstream of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Two hundred and nineteen blood samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, and healthy individuals were screened by bacterial culture and direct PCR in order to detect mycoplasmas; IgM and IgG against M. fermentans PG18 were also detected by ELISA and Immunoblotting assays in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy individuals. Results Blood samples from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and healthy individuals were negative for mycoplasma by culture or direct PCR. In blood samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were detected by direct PCR M. fermentans in 2/50 (2%), M. hominis in 2/50 (2%) and U. urealyticum in 1/50 (0.5%). In patients with RA M. fermentans was detected by culture in 13/87 blood samples and in 13/87 by direct PCR, however, there was only concordance between culture and direct PCR in six samples, so M. fermentans was detected in 20/87(23%) of the blood samples from patients with RA by either culture or PCR. Antibody-specific ELISA assay to M. fermentans PG18 was done, IgM was detected in sera from 40/87 patients with RA and in sera of 7/67 control individuals, IgG was detected in sera from 48/87 RA patients and in sera from 7/67 healthy individuals. Antibody-specific immunoblotting to M. fermentans PG18 showed IgM in sera from 35/87 patients with RA and in sera from 4/67 healthy individuals, IgG was detected in sera from 34/87 patients and in sera from 5/67 healthy individuals. Conclusion Our findings show that only M. fermentans produce bacteremia in a high percentage of patients with RA. This finding is similar to those reported in the literature. IgM and IgG against M. fermentans PG18 were more frequent in patients with RA than healthy individuals.

Gil, Constantino; Rivera, Antonio; Banuelos, David; Salinas, Salvador; Garcia-Latorre, Ethel; Cedillo, Lilia

2009-01-01

216

Identification of high-mannose and multiantennary complex-type N -linked glycans containing ?-galactose epitopes from Nurse shark IgM heavy chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, negative ion nano-electrospray MS\\/MS and exoglycosidase digestion were used to identify 36 N-linked glycans from 19S IgM heavy chain derived from the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). The major glycan was the high-mannose compound, Man6GlcNAc2 accompanied by small amounts of Man5GlcNAc2, Man7GlcNAc2 and Man8GlcNAc2. Bi- and tri-antennary (isomer with a branched 3-antenna) complex-type glycans were also abundant, most

David J. Harvey; Max Crispin; Beryl E. Moffatt; Sylvia L. Smith; Robert B. Sim; Pauline M. Rudd; Raymond A. Dwek

2009-01-01

217

Antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides of IgG, IgA and IgM isotype and rheumatoid factor of IgM and IgA isotype are increased in unaffected members of multicase rheumatoid arthritis families from northern Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Rheumatoid factors (RFs) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) of IgG, IgA and IgM isotype have been shown to precede disease onset by years. Objective To evaluate serological risk markers in first-degree relatives from multicase families in relation to genetic and environmental risk factors. Methods 51 multicase families consisting of 163 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; disease duration 21 years; 71.8% female) and with 157 first-degree relatives unaffected by RA (54±17 years; 59.9% female) were recruited. Isotypes of antibodies against CCPs (IgG, IgA and IgM) and RFs (IgM and IgA) were determined using automated enzyme immunoassays. Cut-off levels were established using receiver operating characteristic curves based on values for 100 unrelated healthy controls. Results The concentrations and frequencies of all anti-CCP and RF isotypes were significantly increased in first-degree relatives and patients with RA compared with unrelated healthy controls. The relative distribution of IgA and IgM isotypes was higher than IgG in the relatives, whereas the IgG isotype dominated in patients with RA. The patients carried human leucocyte antigen-shared epitope (HLA-SE) significantly more often than the relatives (71.4% vs 53.9%, p=0.01), while the frequency of the PTPN22 T variant was similar. HLA-SE, combined with smoking, was significantly related to all combinations of anti-CCP and RF isotypes in patients with RA. No such relationships were found for the first-degree relatives. Conclusions All anti-CCP and RF isotypes analysed occurred more commonly in unaffected first-degree relatives from multicase families than in controls, but with different isotype distribution from patients with RA.

Arlestig, Lisbeth; Mullazehi, Mohammed; Kokkonen, Heidi; Rocklov, Joacim; Ronnelid, Johan; Dahlqvist, Solbritt Rantapaa

2012-01-01

218

NIVELES DE INMUNOGLOBULINAS (IgM, IgG e IgA) EN SUERO SANGUÍNEO DE BÚFALOS DE AGUA, BAJO DOS SISTEMAS DE AMAMANTAMIENTO DIFERENTES Blood serum Inmunoglobulins levels (IgM, IgG, IgA) in Water Buffaloes under two Different Weaning Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water buffaloes production has increased greatly during the late 90's having the nead of better production systems in this kind of exploitations. There has been a tendency to determine the biological and physiological parameters as well as the nu- tritional condition of these animals. Blood serum Inmunoglobu- lins (IgM, IgG and IgA) levels were measured in 30 samples from two

Oswaldo E. Vale Echeto; José D. Vargas; María A. Vale Oviedo; María G. Oviedo de Vale

219

Evaluation of Chlamydia immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA rELISAs Medac for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for a variety of respiratory diseases in humans. Cell culture remains the most specific method for C. pneumoniae diagnosis, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, serology, particularly microimmunofluorescence (MIF) testing, is frequently utilized. However, the MIF test has a significant subjective component. We evaluated a new serological test: Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgA, and IgM rELISAs Medac, based on a recombinant Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fragment, for the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection. The results of this study demonstrated that the use of rELISAs Medac with single sera does not appear to be sensitive or specific for diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection compared to culture. In children, sensitivities of the rELISAs compared to culture did not exceed 34.2%, and the specificities ranged from 68.4% (IgG) to 91.2% (IgA). In adults, the sensitivities of the rELISAs were slightly higher, up to 77.8% (IgA or IgG), but the specificities ranged from a very low 20.8% for IgA or IgG to 81.1% for IgM. When multiple sera were tested, the results of the rELISAs Medac correlated with culture results in five of eight (62.5%) patients. However, this offers only a retrospective diagnosis, which makes it difficult to manage these patients prospectively.

Kutlin, A; Tsumura, N; Emre, U; Roblin, P M; Hammerschlag, M R

1997-01-01

220

Development of new, broadly reactive, rapid IgG and IgM lateral flow assays for diagnosis of scrub typhus.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two broadly reactive rapid immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for detection of IgM and IgG against Orientia tsutsugamushi by using archived acute-phase serum samples from 102 patients with laboratory-confirmed scrub typhus, and from 62 archived serum samples from patients with other causes of fever as a negative control. These ICTs were constructed by using a mixture of recombinant proteins: 1) C1, a chimeric protein containing epitopes of the 56-kD antigen from Karp and TA763 strains; 2) Ktr56; and 3) Gmr56. Sensitivities of the ICTs for detection of IgM and IgG were 90.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 84.4-96.0%) and 86.3% (95% CI = 80.9-93.8%), respectively. Specificities were 85.5% (95% CI = 73.9-92.2%) and 96.8% (95% CI = 90.3-100%), respectively. Both assays were more sensitive and specific than the standard immune immunofluorescence assay for the early diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:22764306

Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Srisamut, Nujorn; Ekpo, Pattama; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chao, Chien-Chung; Ching, Wei-Mei; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

2012-07-01

221

Development of Novel Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM Enzyme Immunoassays Based on Recombinant Puumala and Dobrava Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins?  

PubMed Central

Human infections with Asian and European hantaviruses can result in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndromes of differing severities characterized by renal dysfunction and sometimes by pulmonary symptoms. For the serological detection of human infections by hantaviruses relevant for Europe, we developed monoclonal antibody capture immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on yeast-expressed nucleocapsid proteins of Puumala and Dobrava hantaviruses. Moreover, for diagnosis of acute infections, ?-capture IgM ELISAs were established with nucleocapsid proteins expressed in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider S2 cells. The cutoff values of the ELISAs were determined by investigation of up to 500 human anti-hantavirus-negative serum samples. The specificities of the Puumala and Dobrava virus-specific IgM, IgA, and IgG ELISAs were found to be 100%. The sensitivities of these ELISAs were determined to be 100% with panels of characterized anti-Puumala or anti-Dobrava virus-positive human serum samples. In most cases, Puumala and Dobrava virus infections could be differentiated by ELISA reactivity alone, i.e., endpoint titration with homologous and heterologous antigens.

Meisel, Helga; Wolbert, Anne; Razanskiene, Ausra; Marg, Andreas; Kazaks, Andris; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Pauli, Georg; Ulrich, Rainer; Kruger, Detlev H.

2006-01-01

222

PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with z{sub em} {approx} 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM). The survey is magnitude limited (R {approx} 19.5 mag) and highly complete out to 10' from the quasar in each field. It was designed to detect dwarf galaxies (L {approx} 0.1L*) at an impact parameter {rho} {approx} 1 Mpc (z = 0.1) from a quasar. The complete sample (all 20 fields) includes R-band photometry for 84,718 sources and confirmed redshifts for 2800 sources. This includes 1198 galaxies with 0.005 < z < (z{sub em} - 0.01) at a median redshift of 0.18, which may associated with IGM absorption lines. All of the imaging was acquired with cameras on the Swope 40'' telescope and the spectra were obtained via slit mask observations using the WFCCD spectrograph on the Dupont 100'' telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction, imaging analysis, photometry, and spectral analysis of the survey. We tabulate the principal measurements for all sources in each field and provide the spectroscopic data set online.

Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Weiner, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chen, H.-W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cooksey, K. L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-611, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Mulchaey, J. S., E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org, E-mail: bjw@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: hchen@oddjob.uchicago.edu, E-mail: kcooksey@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 213 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2011-04-01

223

Cellular immunity in pregnancy: subpopulations of T lymphocytes bearing Fc receptors for IgG and IgM in pregnant women.  

PubMed Central

Studies on the change of peripheral T and B lymphocytes and T cells bearing Fc receptors for IgG and IgM in pregnant women were performed by using rosette-formation tests. There was no significant difference in the proportion of T and B lymphocytes between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The percentage of T cells bearing Fc receptors for IgG in the T lymphocytes which are considered to have suppressive activity increased in the various stages of pregnancy and post-partum as compared with that in non-pregnant women. On the contrary, the percentage of T cells bearing Fc receptors for IgM in the T lymphocytes which have a helper function decreased in pregnant and post-partum women. The results of this investigation suggest that the depression of cell-mediated immunity during pregnancy depends on the qualitative change of T lymphocytes, i.e. increased suppressor and decreased helper T lymphocyte subpopulations.

Hirahara, F; Gorai, I; Tanaka, K; Matsuzaki, Y; Sumiyoshi, Y; Shiojima, Y

1980-01-01

224

Genetic analysis of JC virus and BK virus from a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with hyper IgM syndrome.  

PubMed

A case of acute progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with hyper IgM syndrome 1 is reported. Viral DNA and VP1 protein of JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) were detected by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, semi-nested polymerase chain (PCR) and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. JCV DNA and VP1 protein were found in the nuclei of oligodendrocytes. The non-coding control region (NCCR) and VP1 region of the JCV genome were sequenced; this revealed a novel rearrangement pattern of the NCCR in the brain tissue. The VP1 regions of brain and urine JCV were identical and of genotype type 2A. The BKV in the urine sample was genotype I. No BKV genome was found in the brain. The novel genomic rearrangement of the JCV NCCR in the brain tissue may have altered JCV pathogenesis to induce PML; the impaired immunity from hyper IgM syndrome 1 may have enabled the rearrangement. The JCV NCCR rearrangement in the brain may have originated from the archetypal form in the urine through deletion and duplication. PMID:15902714

Han, Gui Ping; Miura, Katsutoshi; Ide, Yoshihiro; Tsutsui, Yoshihiro

2005-07-01

225

Phentolamine but not propranolol blocks the immunopotentiating effect of cold stress on antigen-specific IgM production in mice orally immunized with sheep red blood cells.  

PubMed

The effect of cold stress on immunocompetence was investigated in mice intragastrically intubated with sheep red blood cells. Cold stress was found to consistently augment total IgG and IgM production by splenic lymphocytes. In addition, antigen-specific IgM production by cultured splenic lymphocytes obtained from cold stressed animals was enhanced compared to unstressed mice. However, serum levels of total and antigen-specific immunoglobulins were suppressed or unaltered following cold stress. The alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, phentolamine, could block the effects mediated by cold stress while the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol, potentiated the action of cold stress. Taken together, the data indicate cold stress-mediated enhancement in immunoglobulin production by orally immunized animals takes place through the activation of alpha-adrenergic pathways. The results also suggest alpha- and beta-adrenergic pathways independently regulate antibody production following oral administration of antigen. These observations illustrate the integrative nature of the immune and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:1315180

Carr, D J; Woolley, T W; Blalock, J E

1992-03-01

226

Reference Intervals for Serum Immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and Complements C3 and C4 in Iranian Healthy Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Determination of reference ranges of each serum protein in normal population of each country is required for studies and clinical interpretation. The aim of this study was defining reference range values of immunoglobulins and complement components in Iranian healthy children. Methods: This study was conducted from June 2003 to June 2006 in Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Serum levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4 in 800 Iranian healthy children from newborn to 18 years of age in four population were measured by nephelometry. Kolmogrov-Smirnov tests and Pearson correlation tests were used for analysis. Results: Our results mainly agree with previous reports, except for some discrepancy that might be due to the ethnic and geographic variety. There was a significant difference between two sexes only with IgA in the group of 1–3 months old, which was higher in male group and IgM in groups of 3–5, 6–8 and 9–11 years old that were higher in female groups. Mean of other serum immunoglobulins and complements was not significantly different between male and female groups. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a local reference for use in laboratories, clinical interpretations, and research for Iranian children.

Kardar, GA; Oraei, M; Shahsavani, M; Namdar, Z; Kazemisefat, GE; Haghi Ashtiani, MT; Shams, S; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M

2012-01-01

227

New synthesis method for 4-MAPBA monomer and using for the recognition of IgM and mannose with MIP-based QCM sensors.  

PubMed

Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) have been developed for the recognition of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and mannose. In this method, methacryloylamidophenylboronic acid (MAPBA) was used as a monomer and mannose was used as a template. For this purpose, initially, QCM electrodes were modified with 2-propene-1-thiol to form mannose-binding regions on the QCM sensor surface. In the second step, the methacryloylamidophenylboronic acid-mannose [MAPBA-mannose], pre-organized monomer system, was prepared using the MAPBA monomer. Then, a molecularly imprinted film was coated on to the QCM electrode surface under UV light using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA), and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as a cross-linking agent and an initiator, respectively. The mannose can be simultaneously bound to MAPBA and fitted into the shape-selective cavities. The binding affinity of the mannose-imprinted sensors was investigated using the Langmuir isotherm. The mannose-imprinted QCM electrodes have shown homogeneous binding sites for mannose (K(a): 3.3 × 10(4) M(-1)) and heterogeneous binding sites for IgM (K(a1): 1.0 × 10(4) M(-1); K(a2): 3.3 × 10(3) M(-1)). PMID:23350065

Diltemiz, Sibel Emir; Hür, Deniz; Keçili, Rüstem; Ersöz, Arzu; Say, R?dvan

2013-03-01

228

Comparison of a Treponema pallidum IgM immunoblot with a 19S fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test for the diagnosis of congenital syphilis.  

PubMed

We compared an in-house Treponema pallidum IgM immunoblot (IB) with a 19S fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (IgM) test during routine use for the diagnosis of congenital syphilis (CS) in a national reference laboratory in a nonendemic setting. The overall agreement between the assays was high (97%), and 19S positive samples had at least 2 reactive bands in the IB. The high agreement is mainly caused by the large number of negative results (95%). If the 19S is taken as the gold standard, the estimate sensitivity of the IB was at least 88% with a specificity of 97.2%. Analysis of the discrepancies revealed that the IB was positive with 1 or 2 specific bands in 2.8% of the cases, whereas 19S was negative, possibly indicating higher sensitivity of the IB. We conclude that the IB is a sensitive method to detect contact with T. pallidum in neonates and can replace the 19S in routine laboratory screening for CS cases. PMID:17662551

Herremans, Martina; Notermans, Daan W; Mommers, Mart; Kortbeek, Laetitia M

2007-07-26

229

Antibodies of IgG, IgA and IgM isotypes against cyclic citrullinated peptide precede the development of rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction We and others have previously shown that antibodies against cyclic citrullinated proteins (anti-CCP) precede the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in a more recent study we reported that individuals who subsequently developed RA had increased concentrations of several cytokines and chemokines years before the onset of symptoms of joint disease. Here we aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictive values of anti-CCP antibodies of IgG, IgM and IgA isotype in individuals who subsequently developed RA and also to relate these to cytokines and chemokines, smoking, genetic factors and radiographic score. Methods A case-control study (1:4 ratio) was nested within the Medical Biobank and the Maternity cohorts of Northern Sweden. Patients with RA were identified from blood donors predating the onset of disease by years. Matched controls were selected randomly from the same registers. IgG, IgA and IgM anti-CCP2 antibodies were determined using EliA anti-CCP assay on ImmunoCAP 250 (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden). Results Of 86 patients with RA identified as blood donors prior to the onset of symptoms, samples were available from 71 for analyses. The median (Q1 to Q3) predating time was 2.5 years (1.1 to 5.9 years). The sensitivity of anti-CCP antibodies in the pre-patient samples was 35.2% for IgG, 23.9% for IgA, and 11.8% for IgM. The presence of IgG and IgA anti-CCP antibodies was highly significant compared with controls. IgG and IgA anti-CCP2 predicted RA significantly in conditional logistic regression models odds ratio (OR) = 94.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.7 to 695.4 and OR = 11.1, 95% CI 4.4 to 28.1, respectively, the IgM anti-CCP showed borderline significance OR = 2.5 95% CI 0.9 to 6.3. Concentrations of all anti-CCP isotypes increased the closer to the onset of symptoms the samples were collected with an earlier and higher increase for IgG and IgA compared with IgM anti-CCP. IgA and IgG anti-CCP positive individuals had different patterns of up-regulated chemokines and also, smoking brought forward the appearance of IgA anti-CCP antibodies in pre-RA individuals. Conclusions Anti-CCP2 antibodies of both the IgG and IgA isotypes pre-dated the onset of RA by years; also, both IgG and IgA anti-CCP2 antibodies predicted the development of RA, with the highest predictive value for IgG anti-CCP2 antibodies.

2011-01-01

230

Lenalidomide alone or lenalidomide plus dexamethasone significantly inhibit IgG and IgM in vitro... A possible explanation for their mechanism of action in treating multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Lenalidomide (len) is an analog of thalidomide (thal), and both are used in the treatment of a diverse group of medical conditions. A common finding in this group is the detection of immunoglobulin in skin lesions, or high levels of immunoglobulin or myeloma protein in serum and urine. While their mechanism(s) of action is not known, the drugs are noted for their ability to modulate monocyte, lymphocyte, and natural killer cell functions; suppression of immunoglobulin synthesis could offer an explanation for their effectiveness in treating multiple myeloma (MM). Our objective was to determine if, on an equimolar basis, thal, len or dexamethasone (dex) could affect pokeweed (PWM)-induced synthesis of IgG, IgM and IL-2. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with PWM, len surpassed thal in suppressing IgM and IgG, and enhancing IL-2. Dex enhanced IgG, and suppressed IL-2. When the stimulated cells were treated with len (an effective promoter of IL-2 and suppressor of IgM and IgG) plus dex (an effective suppressor of IL-2 and enhancer of IgG), the net result was suppression of IgM and IgG. The synthesis of IgM and IgG by putative PWM-stimulated B cell blasts is significantly blocked by len. This suggest that the B-lymphocyte is a targeted cell for len, and that suppression of the synthesis of IgG and IgM could provide an explanation for the mechanism by which len effectively treats MM. PMID:22245427

Shannon, E; Sandoval, F; Greig, N; Stagg, P

2012-01-11

231

Storage and stability of IgG and IgM monoclonal antibodies dried on filter paper and utility in Neisseria meningitidis serotyping by Dot-blot ELISA  

PubMed Central

Background A simple filter paper method was developed for, the transport and storage of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) at room temperature or -20°C after spotting on filter paper, for subsequent serotyping of outer membrane antigens of N.meningitidis by dot-blot ELISA. Methods Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were spotted within a 0.5–1 cm diameter area of Whatman grade 903 paper, which were stored individually at room temperature or at -20°C. These MAbs were stored and analyzed after periods of one week, 4 weeks, 12 months, or 13 years in the case of frozen Mab aliquots, or after 4 weeks at -20°C or at room temperature (RT) in the case of Mabs dried on filter paper strips. Assays were performed in parallel using dot-blot ELISA. In addition to the MAbs specific for serotyping class 1, 2 or 3, we used a larger number of Mabs for polysaccharides, lipooligosaccharides (LOS), class 5 and cross-reactive antigens for native outer membrane of N.meningitidis. The Mabs dried on filter paper were eluted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.2% gelatin. Results Mabs of the isotypes IgG and IgM dried on filter papers were not affected by duration of storage. The detection by serotyping Mabs was generally consistent for dried filter paper MAb samples stored frozen for over 1 year at -20°C, and although decreased reactive antibody titers were found after storage, this did not interfere with the specificity of the Mabs used after 13 years as dry spots on filter paper. Conclusion The use of filter paper is an inexpensive and convenient method for collecting, storing, and transporting Mab samples for serotyping studies. In addition, the samples occupy little space and can be readily transported without freezing. The efficiency of using immunoglobulin G (IgG) or M (IgM) eluted was found to be consistent with measurement of IgG or IgM titers in most corresponding, ascites Mabs stored frozen for over 1 year. The application of meningococcal typing methods and designations depend on the question being asked.

Ferraz, Aline S; Belo, Elza FT; Coutinho, Ligia MCC; Oliveira, Ana P; Carmo, Andreia MS; Franco, Daniele L; Ferreira, Tatiane; Yto, Andre Y; Machado, Marta SF; Scola, Monica CG; De Gaspari, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

232

Low levels of IgM antibodies to oxidized cardiolipin increase and high levels decrease risk of cardiovascular disease among 60-year olds: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Antibodies against cardiolipin (aCL) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We here determine the role of antibodies against oxidized CL (aOxCL). Methods One third of sixty-year olds from the Stockholm County were screened (2039 men, 2193 women), where 211 incident CVD-cases and 633 age- and sex-matched controls were identified (5–7 year follow-up). Antibodies were determined by ELISA and uptake of oxLDL in macrophages by FACScan. Results IgM aOxCL was lower among CVD cases than controls (p=0.024). aOxCL-levels were divided in quartiles with the highest quartile set as the reference group. After adjustment for smoking, BMI, type II diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension, an increased risk was determined in the lowest quartile of IgM aOxCL (OR: 1.80, CI: 1.12–2.91, p=0.0159); OR for men in the lowest quartile was 2.46 (CI 1.34–4.53, p=0.0037) for CVD and for stroke: 12.28 (CI: 1.48-101.77, p=0.02). IgG aOxCL levels did not differ between quartiles in CVD-risk. High levels of IgM aOxCL (reaching significance above 86th) and IgG aOxCL (above 95th percentile) were associated with decreased risk of CVD (OR: 0.485, CI: 0.283-0.829; p=0.0082 and OR: 0.23, CI: 0.07-0.69; p=0.0091). aCL were not associated with CVD. oxCL but not CL competed out uptake of OxLDL in macrophages, and aOxLDL recognized oxCL but not CL. In contrast to aCL, aOxCL was not dependent on co-factor Beta2-glycoprotein-I. Conclusions aOxCL is a novel risk/protection marker for CVD, with therapeutic implications. OxCL competes with oxLDL for uptake in macrophages and the possibility that aOxCL inhibits such uptake by interfering with same or similar epitopes in oxCL and oxLDL should be further studied.

2013-01-01

233

Isotype- and subclass-specific responses to infection and reinfection with parainfluenza-3 virus: comparison of the diagnostic potential of ELISAs detecting seroconversion and specific IgM and IgA.  

PubMed

Isotype- and subclass-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed to detect parainfluenza-3 virus-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA responses. Sera were treated with protein G-agarose prior to testing for specific IgM and IgA to eliminate the possibility of false-positive results due to IgM-rheumatoid factor and to remove interisotypic competition due to specific IgG. IgM and IgA absorbance values were expressed as a percentage of the absorbance values of positive reference sera included on each plate (S/P%), and respective positive/negative threshold values of 15.0% and 28.0% were determined. The mean interval between experimental infection of 3 calves and initial detection of specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses was 8.0 and 9.3 days respectively, rising rapidly to an initial plateau 13.7 and 11.0 days postinfection (dpi). Reinfection of these calves at 30 dpi resulted in further rapid increases, with higher plateau values reached 13.0 (IgG1) and 13.7 (IgG2) days later. The mean interval between infection and the first positive IgM and IgA responses was 6.7 and 12.3 days, respectively. IgM S/P% values peaked at 13.0 dpi, with all 3 calves showing a secondary anamnestic response to reinfection, peaking 4.7 days later. The IgA response to initial infection was weak, with only 2 calves showing an obvious peak response at 15.0 dpi. A strong anamnestic IgA response to reinfection occurred in 2 calves, with a peak response 9.5 days later. Apparent biphasic and triphasic IgM and IgA responses were evident in some calves. Acute and convalescent serum samples from 80 calves involved in 17 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested for specific IgM and IgA. Positive IgM results were detected in 15 outbreaks, with 71 sera from 44 calves testing positive. Although IgA-positive results were detected in the same 15 outbreaks, only 42 sera from 31 calves were positive. In a previous study, seroconversion was detected in 21 of these calves from 10 outbreaks. Thus the diagnostic potential of the assays was in the order IgM > IgA > seroconversion. The correlations between IgM and IgA, IgM and seroconversion, and IgA and seroconversion results for each calf were 73.8%, 58.8% and 62.5%, respectively. PMID:10098683

Graham, D A; Mawhinney, K A; German, A; Foster, J C; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1999-03-01

234

Examination of IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP Ab) in Japanese patients with palindromic rheumatism.  

PubMed

We have studied the serology of 6 patients with palindromic rheumatism. None of the patients fulfilled the classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis at the entry; however, 4 out of the 6 patients were seropositive for IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) at entry. Sequential serological study was performed in 4 patients; IgM-RF changed from seronegative to seropositive in one patient, and the titer increased in another patient. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP Ab) at the entry was detected in only one of the 6 patients; that patient later developed RA. Although follow-up is necessary, the present study may suggest the importance of serological examination, especially anti-CCP Ab, in patients with palindromic rheumatism. PMID:16847371

Tamai, Mami; Kawakami, Atsushi; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Fujikawa, Keita; Tanaka, Fumiko; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumi, Yasumori; Aratake, Kouichiro; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kamachi, Makoto; Nakamura, Hideki; Huang, Mingguo; Ida, Hiroaki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Eguchi, Katsumi

2006-07-18

235

Rubella IgM antibodies in sera from infants born after maternal rubella later than the 12th week of pregnancy.  

PubMed

The outcome of 338 pregnancies complicated by serologically confirmed rubella after the 12th week of gestation is reported. Therapeutic abortions were performed on 93 women, 1 pregnancy resulted in a spontaneous abortion and 5 in stillbirths. Cord blood or a sample collected at an age of 0--2 months from 209 liveborn infants were tested for rubella IgM antibodies after sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Such antibodies were detected in samples from approximately 33% of infants born after maternal rubella in the 4th and 5th month of gestation, but only in 11% of infants born after maternal rubella later in pregnancy. The classical symptoms of congenital rubella were not observed with the possible exception of a suspected unilateral hearing loss in 1 infant born after maternal rubella in the 5th month of pregnancy. PMID:6768125

Vejtorp, M; Mansa, B

1980-01-01

236

Comparison of four Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM-, IgG- and IgA-specific enzyme immunoassays in blood donors and patients.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies were studied in 504 blood donors and 102 patients with infections not caused by M. pneumoniae with the use of enzyme immunoassay kits from ThermoLabsystems (L), Savyon (S), Bio-Rad (B) and Novitec (N). Detection frequencies of M. pneumoniae IgM in blood donors were 14.9% (L), 16.0% (S), 2.8% (B) and 3.8% (N), and in patients were 40.2% (L), 42.2% (S), 9.8% (B) and 16.7% (N). Detection frequencies of M. pneumoniae IgA were 68.5% (L) and 22.8% (S), and in 65 respiratory disease patients were 100% (L) and 53.8% (S). Thus, use of some kits may lead to overdiagnosis of M. pneumoniae infections. PMID:15606638

Csángó, P A; Pedersen, J E; Hess, R D

2004-12-01

237

Molecular Cloning of a New Immunomodulatory Protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which Induces B Cell IgM Secretion through a T-Independent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF) was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity.

Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Tsai-Jen; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Chang, Wen-Ying; Sheu, Fuu

2011-01-01

238

Evaluation of Chlamydia immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA rELISAs Medac for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for a variety of respiratory diseases in humans. Cell culture remains the most specific method for C. pneumoniae diagnosis, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, serology, particularly microimmunofluorescence (MIF) testing, is frequently utilized. However, the MIF test has a significant subjective component. We evaluated a new serological test: Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgA, and IgM rELISAs Medac, based on a recombinant Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fragment, for the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection. The results of this study demonstrated that the use of rELISAs Medac with single sera does not appear to be sensitive or specific for diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection compared to culture. In children, sensitivities of the rELISAs compared to culture did not exceed 34.2%, and the specificities ranged from 68.4% (IgG) to 91.2% (IgA). In adults, the sensitivities of the rELISAs were slightly higher, up to 77.8% (IgA or IgG), but the specificities ranged from a very low 20.8% for IgA or IgG to 81.1% for IgM. When multiple sera were tested, the results of the rELISAs Medac correlated with culture results in five of eight (62.5%) patients. However, this offers only a retrospective diagnosis, which makes it difficult to manage these patients prospectively. PMID:9067658

Kutlin, A; Tsumura, N; Emre, U; Roblin, P M; Hammerschlag, M R

1997-03-01

239

Advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-damaged IgG and IgM autoantibodies to IgG-AGE in patients with early synovitis  

PubMed Central

Advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-damaged IgG occurs as a result of hyperglycemia and/or oxidative stress. Autoantibodies to IgG-AGE were previously demonstrated in patients with severe, longstanding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether IgG-AGE and anti-IgG-AGE antibodies were present early in the course of RA and other inflammatory arthropathies. We prospectively followed a cohort of 238 patients with inflammatory arthritis of duration less than 1 year. Patients were evaluated clinically and serologically, and radiographs were obtained at initial and 1-year visits. Sera were assayed for IgG-AGE and anti-IgG-AGE antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rheumatoid factor (RF) was determined by nephelometry and ELISA. Of all patients, 29% had RF-positive RA, 15% had RF-negative RA, 18% had spondyloarthropathy, and 38% had undifferentiated arthritis. IgG-AGE was present in 19% of patients, and was similar in amount and frequency in all groups. Patients with elevated IgG-AGE levels had significantly higher levels of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, but there was no correlation with blood glucose levels. Overall, 27% of the patients had IgM anti-IgG-AGE antibodies. These antibodies were highly significantly associated with RFs (P < 0.0001) and with swollen joint count (P < 0.01). In early onset arthritis, IgG damaged by AGE was detected in all patient groups. The ability to make IgM anti-IgG-AGE antibodies, however, was restricted to a subset of RF-positive RA patients with more active disease. The persistence of the anti-IgG-AGE response was more specific to RA, and was transient in the patients with spondyloarthropathy and with undifferentiated arthritis who were initially found to be positive for anti-IgG-AGE antibodies.

Newkirk, Marianna M; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Lee, Jennifer; Hoxworth, Joseph; McCoy, Angie; Yarboro, Cheryl; Klippel, John; El-Gabalawy, Hani S

2003-01-01

240

Secretory component (SC): preferential binding to heavy (greater than 11S) IgA polymers and IgM in serum, in contrast to predominance of 11S and free SC forms in secretions.  

PubMed Central

The origin and molecular form(s) of the small amounts of secretory component (SC) found in serum are but poorly known. Using sensitive immunoradiometric assays for SC, we studied its molecular distribution after ultracentrifugation of native sera containing various proportions of IgA and IgM, with SC levels (sIgA equivalents) ranging from 4 to 25 micrograms/ml. Large proportions of SC were found bound to IgM and IgA polymers heavier than the classical 11S sIgA, in contrast to saliva and bile where SC was found mainly in the 11S region and in the free form. A comparative study of the ultracentrifugal distribution of labelled free SC, incubated in vitro with sera containing various proportions of IgA and IgM, yielded similar results, indicating a direct relationship between the proportion of IgM-bound SC and the IgM concentration. Free SC in serum was only found in the in vitro experiments. The data suggest that the epithelial cells synthesizing SC not only release (secrete?) SC as pre-assembled SC-Ig complexes in lymph or plasma, but also directly release some SC in free form.

Delacroix, D L; Vaerman, J P

1982-01-01

241

The development of IgM- and IgG-containing plasmablasts in the white pulp of the spleen after stimulation with a thymus-independent antigen (LPS) and a thymus-dependent antigen (SRBC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development of IgM and IgG containing plasmablasts in splenic white pulp after a single intravenous injection of the thymus-independent antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the thymus-dependent antigen sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) using immunohistoperoxidase techniques.

P. Eikelenboom; D. M. Boorsma; N. Rooijen

1982-01-01

242

Isolation of germinal centerlike events from human spleen RNA. Somatic hypermutation of a clonally related VH6DJH rearrangement expressed with IgM, IgG, and IgA.  

PubMed Central

12 rearranged human VH6 immunoglobulin heavy chain genes arising from the same rearrangement were isolated without preselection from the RNA of a fragment of human spleen. The 12 clones were isolated from a pool of 31 unique VH6 clones arising from 18 unique rearrangements. 2 of the 12 related clones were expressed with IgM, 2 with IgG, and 8 with IgA1. All the clones, including those expressing IgM, showed extensive somatic mutation of germline bases (5.6%), which was consistent with antigen-driven activation of these VH6-expressing clones with recruitment into the immune repertoire. On the basis of significant sharing of somatic mutations between the IgM clones and clones expressing the other isotypes (six mutations shared with IgG clones and eight mutations shared with IgA clones), it was apparent that the IgM-expressing precursor in this diversified family had undergone extensive antigen-driven somatic mutation prior to isotype switching. This family of related clones suggests that a germinal centerlike event had been sampled. The highly mutated IgM clones suggest that there may exist memory B cells capable of further somatic mutation and differential isotype-switching depending on the specific antigenic stimulus.

Varade, W S; Insel, R A

1993-01-01

243

Immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies against oxidized cardiolipin but not native cardiolipin are novel biomarkers in haemodialysis patients, associated negatively with mortality.  

PubMed

The risk of premature death is high in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Antibodies against cardiolipin (anti-CL) are thrombogenic in diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CL is easily oxidized (Ox) and plays a role in apoptosis. In this work we studied immunoglobulin (Ig)M anti-CL and anti-OxCL in HD-patients. We conducted an observational study with a prospective follow-up examining the relationship between anti-CL, anti-OxCL and mortality risk in a well-characterized cohort of 221 prevalent HD patients [56% men, median age 66 (interquartile range 51-74) years, vintage time 29 (15-58) months] with a mean follow-up period of 41 (20-48 months). According to the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, anti-OxCL [area under the curve (AUC) 0·62, P?IgM is ?2-glycoprotein 1 (GPI)-independent and a novel biomarker; low levels are associated with death among HD patients (and high levels with decreased risk). Combination with anti-PC increases this association. Putative therapeutic implications warrant further investigation. PMID:23879320

Frostegård, A G; Hua, X; Su, J; Carrero, J J; Heimbürger, O; Bárány, P; Stenvinkel, P; Frostegård, J

2013-12-01

244

The usefulness of IgG and IgM immunostaining of periportal inflammatory cells (plasma cells and lymphocytes) for the distinction of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis and their staining pattern in autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)-primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) overlap syndrome (OS) is a vaguely defined entity demonstrating features of AIH and PBC. We investigated the usefulness of IgG and IgM immunostaining for the distinction of AIH and PBC and their staining pattern in cases of possible OS. The approximate quantity of IgG+ and IgM+ periportal inflammatory cells in immunohistochemical analysis were compared in cases of AIH, PBC, and OS. AIH cases showed predominant IgG immunostaining of periportal inflammatory cells. A significant number of PBC cases also demonstrated IgG predominance rather than IgM. Six OS cases had IgG predominance, 4 had IgM predominance, and 1 was equivocal. The usefulness of IgG and IgM immunostaining is limited in PBC cases with IgM predominance for excluding AIH. IgG predominance is not specific for AIH. OS does not demonstrate either IgG or IgM predominance (P > .2) and does not help classify OS into either category. PMID:20154281

Lee, Hwajeong; Stapp, Robert T; Ormsby, Adrian H; Shah, Veena V

2010-03-01

245

Distribution function approach to the study of the kinetics of IgM antibody binding to Fc?RIIIb (CD16b) receptors on neutrophils by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Though flow cytometry provides the entire distribution of cellular fluorescence (i.e., "fluorescence profile"), only mean fluorescence data are usually considered in studies of ligand-receptor binding. In this study, we presented a method of the treatment of the temporal evolution of the whole fluorescence profile with a comprehensive statistical approach extended to the reversible binding case. The method was demonstrated in the study of the 1D3 IgM monoclonal antibodies binding to Fc?RIIIb receptors (CD16b) on neutrophils. Kinetic experiments were carried out using a FACSCalibur (Becton Dickinson, USA) flow cytometer. For each of four donors, we obtained the distribution of the number of Fc?RIIIb surface receptors for neutrophils and the rate constants per receptor: the association rate constant of (2.7±0.4)×10(7) M(-1) min(-1), and the dissociation rate constant of (1.3±0.4)×10(-1) min(-1). Based on the obtained values, the size of the receptor reaction site was estimated at approximately 1 nm. It was found, that cell receptors distributions differed sufficiently between donors in mean and the skewness values, whereas the coefficient of variation (i.e., the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean) did not vary significantly. PMID:21920371

Orlova, Darya Yu; Borisov, Vyacheslav I; Kozhevnikov, Vladimir S; Maltsev, Valeri P; Chernyshev, Andrei V

2011-09-08

246

The proteolytic activity of milk fat, whey and casein for iodinated, extrinsic bovine IgG1, IgG2, SIgA and IgM.  

PubMed

Purified, iodinated bovine immunoglobulins (Igs) were incubated with fresh Guernsey milk or with the casein, fat and whey fraction of such milk for up to 12 hr at 37 degrees C. Igs incubated in whole milk, showed little evidence of proteolysis in either the whey, fat or casein fractions although the amount of radioactivity which became associated with the latter two fractions prevented adequate analysis. When the individual milk fractions were first prepared and then incubated with iodinated Igs, we found no evidence for proteolysis of any Ig in whey or casein but ca. 25% breakdown or dissociation of the IgM and SIgA which had been incubated with milk fat. Breakdown of these Igs in fat was not inhibited with benzamidine-HCl, sodium azide or EDTA. These data show that: only those Igs which associate with milk fat are degraded or dissociated by it and the Ig fragments described from cows milk or recovered during studies on Ig transport cannot be ascribed to the proteolytic activity of fresh milk. PMID:3492071

Frenyo, V L; Butler, J E

1986-11-01

247

Immunoglobulin light chains dictate vesicular transport-dependent and -independent routes for IgM degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.  

PubMed

Degradation of IgM mu heavy chains in light chain-negative pre-B cells is independent of vesicular transport, as is evident by its insensitivity to brefeldin A or cell permeabilization. Conversely, by the same criteria, degradation of the secretory mu heavy chain in light chain-expressing B cells depends on vesicular transport. To investigate whether the presence of conventional light chains or the developmental stage of the B-lymphocytes dictates the degradative route taken by mu, we express in 70Z/3 pre-B cells either lambda ectopically or kappa by lipopolysaccharides-stimulated differentiation into B cells and show their assembly with mu heavy chains. The resulting sensitivity of mu degradation to brefeldin A and cell permeabilization demonstrates that conventional light chains, a hallmark of B cell differentiation, are necessary and sufficient to divert mu from a vesicular transport-independent to a vesicular transport-dependent degradative route. Although both routes converge at the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway, only in light chain-expressing cells is vesicular transport a prerequisite for mu ubiquitination. PMID:12754269

Elkabetz, Yechiel; Kerem, Anat; Tencer, Lilach; Winitz, Dorit; Kopito, Ron R; Bar-Nun, Shoshana

2003-05-23

248

B-cell activation by crosslinking of surface IgM or ligation of CD40 involves alternative signal pathways and results in different B-cell phenotypes.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of small resting B cells with soluble F(ab')2 fragments of anti-IgM, an analogue of T-independent type 2 antigens, induced activation characterized by proliferation and the expression of surface CD5. In contrast, B cells induced to proliferate in response to thymus-dependent inductive signals provided by either fixed activated T-helper 2 cells or soluble CD40 ligand-CD8 (CD40L) recombinant protein displayed elevated levels of CD23 (Fc epsilon II receptor) and no surface CD5. Treatment with anti-IgM and CD40L induced higher levels of proliferation and generated a single population of B cells coexpressing minimal amounts of CD5 and only a slight elevation of CD23. Anti-IgM- but not CD40L-mediated activation was highly sensitive to inhibition by cyclosporin A and FK520. Sp-cAMPS, an analogue of cAMP, augmented CD40L and suppressed surface IgM-mediated activation. Taken together these results are interpreted to mean that there is a single population of small resting B cells that can respond to either T-independent type 2 (surface IgM)- or T-dependent (CD40)-mediated activation. In response to different intracellular signals these cells are induced to enter alternative differentiation pathways.

Wortis, H H; Teutsch, M; Higer, M; Zheng, J; Parker, D C

1995-01-01

249

Evaluation of serological diagnostic indices for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: immunofluorescence tests and enzyme-linked immunoassays for IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies.  

PubMed Central

The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and efficiency of immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) for IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies were assessed on sera from mucocutaneous leishmaniasis patients and controls. The sensitivity of the IgG-ELISA test was 93.3% with 95% confidence interval higher than what could be due to a random test not associated with the disease. The specificity of all tests, except the IgM-ELISA, gave indices that could not have been due to chance. The IgG-ELISA and IgG-IF had the highest positive predictive value and the kappa statistic showed that the strength of agreement between the disease and the test was strongest for IgG-ELISA. The IgG-ELISA had a negative predictive value with 95% confidence limits that were not due to chance alone. Efficiency was highest for IgG-ELISA and IgG-IF. These results were obtained using sera from patients with severe or long-standing disease and from controls in whom the disease was ruled out by a negative Montenegro skin test. In field surveys where the differences between cases and controls are less easy to define the diagnostic indices of these tests may vary with the disease prevalence.

Guimaraes, M. C.; Celeste, B. J.; Franco, E. L.; Cuce, L. C.; Belda, W.

1989-01-01

250

Stimulation of human blood lymphocyte by different polyclonal B cell activators of bacterial and plant origin: production of IgM, IgG and IgA estimated by the ELISA method.  

PubMed

Lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were stimulated in vitro with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A, flagellin, Nocardia delipidated cell mitogen (NDCM) and heat-killed bacteria Escherichia coli and Actinomyces viscosus. A simple and sensitive technique, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection of nanogram levels of IgM, IgA and IgC in media from lymphocyte cultures after polyclonal stimulation, Pokeweed mitogen, NDCM and E. coli were shown to stimulate a high production of IgM; after stimulation with A. viscosus a higher production of IgA was detected. No immunoglobulin production was observed after stimulation with polymerized flagellin. PMID:3891552

Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H; Bártová, J; Mrklas, L; Mancal, P; Broukal, Z; Barot-Ciorbaru, R; Novák, M; Hanikýrová, M

1985-01-01

251

Plasmodium falciparum-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgE antibodies in paired maternal-cord sera from east Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed Central

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (immunoblot) serological analyses for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgE antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum were made from 46 maternal-cord serum pairs obtained from parturient East Sepik (Papua New Guinea) women and their newborn. Concurrent study of these women had shown that placental parasitemia rates were related to parity with the highest rate (41%) in the primiparous group and the lowest rate (3%) in the women who had given birth more than three times (> 3 parity group). Overall ELISA positivity rates for antimalarial IgG, IgM, and IgE antibodies in the maternal sera were 54.3, 28.2, and 8.3%, respectively, while those for the cord sera were 36.9, 0, and 16.6% respectively. Seropositivity rates were not related to maternal parity group, except for maternal IgE, in which there was a higher rate, of borderline significance, in the > 3 parity group than in the primiparous group. Cord IgE positivity was largely independent of maternal positivity and vice versa. Cord and maternal IgG immunoblot pairs showed near homology. IgG antibodies to the P. falciparum antigens of sizes < 36 kDa were either weak or absent in parity group 1 and 2 maternal-cord serum pairs. Neither ELISA or immunoblot revealed IgM antibody in the cord serum samples. Maternal IgM antibodies showed a heterogeneity of responses both between paired IgG immunoblots and between different serum samples. The IgE immunoblots exhibited a similar diversity, albeit of less complexity. The presence of P. falciparum-specific IgE in the cord sera would indicate that prenatal immune hypersensitization of the fetus to malaria had occurred. Images

Desowitz, R S; Elm, J; Alpers, M P

1993-01-01

252

Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA Antibody Response against Cytomegalovirus-Specific Proteins in Renal Transplant Recipients during Primary and Secondary\\/Recurrent Infection as Determined by Immunoblotting Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 190 selected serum samples from 30 kidney graft recipients obtained in temporal connection with the first occurrence of CMV-pp65- antigen positive leukocytes or IgM-anti-CMV-antibodies were analysed by immunoblot (IB) in a blinded manner. In all sera the number of IgG, IgM and IgA specificities against 8 defined CMV polypeptides and the intensity of reactions were measured. In

J. Kaden; U. Ludwig; R. Preyer

253

CD27 synergizes with CD40 to induce IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody responses of peripheral blood B cells in the presence of IL2 and IL10  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, promotes IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody (Ab) synthesis in combination with a variety of cytokines. Another TNFR family member, CD27, causes B cells to differentiate into antibody-forming cells, with marginal effects on proliferation. In the present study, we examined whether anti-CD27 monoclonal antibody (mAb) modulates the antibody production induced

Testuo Hirano; Isao Yonekubo; Kuniaki Shimo; Junichiro Mizuguchi

2003-01-01

254

Association of Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Anti-Citrullin Antibodies, and IgM and IgA Rheumatoid Factors with Serological Parameters of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the association of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody titers with serological markers of disease activity. We also compared three different anti-CCP antibody ELISAs with an anti-citrullin ELISA and the IgM and the IgA rheumatoid factor (RF) in their performance of discriminating between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases. Sera from 333 consecutive patients of the Rheumaeinheit der

Alexander Greiner; Herbert Plischke; Herbert Kellner; Rudolf Gruber

2005-01-01

255

Longitudinal Profile of Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA Antibodies against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein in Patients with Pneumonia Due to the SARS Coronavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid protein- based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum specimens serially collected (from day 0 to day 240 after symptom onset) from patients with pneumonia due to SARS-CoV, we analyzed the longitudinal profiles of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein in patients with pneumonia

Patrick C. Y. Woo; Susanna K. P. Lau; Beatrice H. L. Wong; Kwok-hung Chan; Chung-ming Chu; Hoi-wah Tsoi; Yi Huang; J. S. Malik Peiris; Kwok-yung Yuen

2004-01-01

256

Saliva IgM and IgA are a sensitive indicator of the humoral immune response to Escherichia coli O157 lipopolysaccharide in children with enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

Saliva antibodies to Escherichia coli O157 were investigated as markers of the immune response in children with enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Paired serum and saliva samples were collected from 22 children with HUS during acute disease and convalescence and were tested for E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific IgM and IgA antibodies by ELISA. Serum and saliva samples from 44 age-matched controls were used to establish the cut-off values. Elevated levels of IgM and/or IgA antibodies to O157 LPS were detected in saliva of 13/13 HUS patients with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157 in stool culture and from 4 of 5 HUS patients in whom STEC were not detected. These results closely mirrored the results obtained with paired serum samples. In contrast, saliva and serum samples from four children with STEC isolates belonging to O-groups O26, O145 (n = 2), and O165 lacked detectable O157 LPS-specific antibodies. The specificity of the ELISA was confirmed by western blotting. In STEC O157 culture-confirmed cases, the sensitivity of the ELISA was 92% for saliva IgM and IgA, based on the first available sample, and 100% and 92%, respectively, when subsequent samples were included. The specificity was 98% for IgM and 100% for IgA. Children with E. coli O157 HUS demonstrate a brisk, easily detectable immune response as reflected by the presence of specific antibodies in their saliva. Saliva-based immunoassays offer a reliable, noninvasive method for the diagnosis of E. coli O157 infection in patients with enteropathic HUS. PMID:12149511

Ludwig, Kerstin; Grabhorn, Enke; Bitzan, Martin; Bobrowski, Christoph; Kemper, Markus J; Sobottka, Ingo; Laufs, Rainer; Karch, Helge; Müller-Wiefel, Dirk E

2002-08-01

257

Basic characteristics and evaluation of a partially automated Behring laser nephelometer for the measurement of IgG, IgA, IgM and C3c in serum.  

PubMed

We have evaluated a partially automated Behring laser nephelometer for the measurement of IgG, IgA, IgM and C3c in serum. The system consisted of a manual Behring laser nephelometer, an automatic cuvette carrier and a Hewlett-Packard 9815 A calculator/printer. The system could process 240 preincubated samples per h when the interval between each voltage reading was set at 15 s. Day-to-day precision was near 6%. We obtained the worst precision for the determination of IgG which requires the smallest volume of diluted sample (10 microliters). The Frigen treatment used to clarify turbid sera seems to decrease IgG and increase C3c concentrations. The addition of polyethylene glycol 6000 at a concentrations of 40 micro/L in the reaction mixture did not improve the assay ranges. Comparison studies with radial immunodiffusion for the four proteins and with the IgM - BMC Immunological Turbidity Test using either least-squares or Deming's regressions gave very good correlation figures, except for C3c and for some IgM paraproteins. We could decrease the cost per test by re-using the plastic cuvettes. The utilization of the calculator-printer greatly simplified data handling but the automatic carrier was not considered a real asset without complete automation. PMID:6794939

Desjarlais, F; Daigneault, R

1981-04-01

258

Skin Inqjuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + ?-Photons) Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body ?-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body ?-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3?Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + ?-photons) radiations at 0.38?Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival.

Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

2013-01-01

259

Comparison of human B cell antigen receptor complexes: membrane- expressed forms of immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgD, and IgG are associated with structurally related heterodimers  

PubMed Central

We have recently reported that on human B lymphocytes, membrane IgM (mIgM) associates with a heterodimer of 47- and 37-kD polypeptides, the 47-kD subunit being encoded by the mb-1 gene. We show here that expression of mb-1, both at the mRNA and the protein level, is not restricted to IgM+ B cells but can also be found in IgM- pre-B cells and mIgM-IgG+ B cells. Membrane forms of IgD and IgG, isolated from freshly isolated human B cells and B cell lines, are expressed together with heterodimeric protein structures biochemically similar to the mIgM- associated polypeptides, and these were shown to comprise the products of the mb-1 and B29 genes, or homologous genes. Finally, all three classes of antigen receptors are linked to protein kinases, capable of phosphorylating the Ig-associated heterodimers. Our findings provide insight in the structural organization of the different antigen receptors on human B cells and have implications for their function.

1992-01-01

260

Skin Inqjuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E 2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + ?-Photons) Irradiation.  

PubMed

Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body ?-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body ?-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3?Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + ?-photons) radiations at 0.38?Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

Kiang, Juliann G; Ledney, G David

2013-09-18

261

Simultaneous binding of the anti-cancer IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 to low density lipoproteins and GRP78.  

PubMed

The tumour-derived monoclonal IgM antibody PAT-SM6 specifically kills malignant cells by an apoptotic mechanism linked to the excessive uptake of plasma lipids. The mechanism is postulated to occur via the multi-point attachment of PAT-SM6 to the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78, located on the surface of tumour cells, coupled to the simultaneous binding of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL). We prepared and characterised LDL and oxidized LDL using sedimentation velocity and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) techniques indicated apparent dissociation constants of approximately 20 nM for the binding of LDL or oxidized LDL to PAT-SM6. ELISA experiments showed cross competition with LDL inhibiting PAT-SM6 binding to immobilised GRP78, while, in the reverse experiment, GRP78 inhibited PAT-SM6 binding to immobilized LDL. In contrast to the results of the ELISA experiments, sedimentation velocity experiments indicated relatively weak interactions between LDL and PAT-SM6, suggesting immunoabsorbance to the microtiter plate is driven by an avidity-based binding mechanism. The importance of avidity and the multipoint attachment of antigens to PAT-SM6 was further investigated using antigen-coated polystyrene beads. Absorption of GRP78 or LDL to polystyrene microspheres led to an increase in the inhibition of PAT-SM6 binding to microtiter plates coated with GRP78 or LDL, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that the biological action of PAT-SM6 in tumour cell apoptosis depends on the multivalent nature of PAT-SM6 and the ability to interact simultaneously with LDL and multiple GRP78 molecules clustered on the tumour cell surface. PMID:23620733

Rosenes, Zachary; Mok, Yee-Foong; Yang, Shuo; Griffin, Michael D W; Mulhern, Terrence D; Hatters, Danny M; Hensel, Frank; Howlett, Geoffrey J

2013-04-19

262

Simultaneous Binding of the Anti-Cancer IgM Monoclonal Antibody PAT-SM6 to Low Density Lipoproteins and GRP78  

PubMed Central

The tumour-derived monoclonal IgM antibody PAT-SM6 specifically kills malignant cells by an apoptotic mechanism linked to the excessive uptake of plasma lipids. The mechanism is postulated to occur via the multi-point attachment of PAT-SM6 to the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78, located on the surface of tumour cells, coupled to the simultaneous binding of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL). We prepared and characterised LDL and oxidized LDL using sedimentation velocity and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) techniques indicated apparent dissociation constants of approximately 20 nM for the binding of LDL or oxidized LDL to PAT-SM6. ELISA experiments showed cross competition with LDL inhibiting PAT-SM6 binding to immobilised GRP78, while, in the reverse experiment, GRP78 inhibited PAT-SM6 binding to immobilized LDL. In contrast to the results of the ELISA experiments, sedimentation velocity experiments indicated relatively weak interactions between LDL and PAT-SM6, suggesting immunoabsorbance to the microtiter plate is driven by an avidity-based binding mechanism. The importance of avidity and the multipoint attachment of antigens to PAT-SM6 was further investigated using antigen-coated polystyrene beads. Absorption of GRP78 or LDL to polystyrene microspheres led to an increase in the inhibition of PAT-SM6 binding to microtiter plates coated with GRP78 or LDL, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that the biological action of PAT-SM6 in tumour cell apoptosis depends on the multivalent nature of PAT-SM6 and the ability to interact simultaneously with LDL and multiple GRP78 molecules clustered on the tumour cell surface.

Rosenes, Zachary; Mok, Yee-Foong; Yang, Shuo; Griffin, Michael D. W.; Mulhern, Terrence D.; Hatters, Danny M.; Hensel, Frank; Howlett, Geoffrey J.

2013-01-01

263

Enhancement by ascorbic acid 2-glucoside or repeated additions of ascorbate of mitogen-induced IgM and IgG productions by human peripheral blood lymphocytes.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), a stable derivative of ascorbic acid (AsA), or repeated additions of ascorbate on antibody productions by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was examined, and the physiological function of AsA was evaluated. When human PBLs were stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I or pokeweed mitogen, AA-2G remarkably increased the numbers of IgM- and IgG-secreting cells which were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Although a single addition of ascorbate was without effect, the effect of AA-2G was remarkably inhibited by the addition of castanospermine, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; and moreover, repeated additions of AsA to the culture medium during the culture period enhanced the response to the same level as did a single addition of AA-2G. These results indicate that AsA has the ability to stimulate the immunoglobulin productions by AA-2G. The phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferative response of PBLs was also stimulated by AA-2G. The intracellular AsA content in PBLs cultured with AA-2G was maintained at relatively high levels during the culture period, whereas the content with a single dose of AsA reached nearly zero by the end of the experiment. These in vitro findings suggest that AA-2G and AsA function as potent immunostimulators of antibody production in humans and that the intracellular AsA content is a key parameter for establishing the immune response of PBLs. PMID:7723222

Tanaka, M; Muto, N; Gohda, E; Yamamoto, I

1994-12-01

264

Levels of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and IgM rheumatoid factor are not associated with outcome in early arthritis patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate whether baseline levels of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) or IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) and changes in the year thereafter are associated with disease activity, functional and radiographic outcome in early arthritis patients, and provide additional information over baseline autoantibody status. Methods In 545 early arthritis patients ACPA and IgM-RF levels, disease activity (DAS28), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Sharp/Van der Heijde Score (SHS) were assessed annually. Baseline status, levels and first-year changes of the autoantibodies were associated with these measures at the two-year follow-up and sub-analysed according to autoantibody status. Results The mean age was 52.7 years, 69% was female, at baseline 56% was ACPA positive, 47% IgM-RF positive. At the two-year follow-up the mean DAS28 was 2.88, and the median HAQ and SHS were 0.38 and 1, respectively. At one year, ACPA and IgM-RF levels had decreased by 31% and 56%, respectively. A switch from negative to positive occurred in 2% for ACPA and 3% for IgM-RF. Positive ACPA and RF status were both associated with SHS at two years (P < 0.001), but baseline levels only showed a minor correlation of ACPA with DAS28 and HAQ at two years. Level changes were not associated with the outcome parameters. Conclusions Baseline levels and first-year changes of ACPA and IgM-RF are hardly associated with outcome after two years. Seroconversion seldom occurs. Therefore, it does not appear useful to repeat ACPA or IgM-RF measurements.

2010-01-01

265

Data Mining of Supersecondary Structure Homology between Light Chains of Immunogloblins and MHC Molecules: Absence of the Common Conformational Fragment in the Human IgM Rheumatoid Factor.  

PubMed

It is shown that fuzzy search and data mining techniques of supersecondary structure homology for subunits of proteins using conformational code patterns of ?-helix-type (3?5?4?) and ?-sheet-type (6?4?4?) fragments can be used to extract correlations between fragments of MHC class I molecules and the light chain of immunoglobulins. The new method of conformational pattern analysis with fuzzy search of structural code homology reflects well the shape of main chain rather than secondary structure in comparison with the DSSP method. Further, the data mining technique using the combination of h- and s-fragment patterns can quantify the supersecondary structure homology between any subunits of proteins with different amino acid sequences. Characteristic fragment patterns (string "shhshss"), which were sandwiched between two identical amino acid sequences His and Pro, were found in light chains of various types of immunogloblins, ?-chain and ?-2 microglobulin of MHC class I and ?-chain and ?-chain of MHC class II, but not in heavy chains of Fab immunoglobulin fragments and T cell receptors (TCR). Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are related by the conformational fragment (string "shhshss") to ?-2 microglobulins as a type of pair forms (string "sohsss"). Further, human IgM rheumatoid factor, one of the immunogloblins, did not strongly exhibit the conformational fragment pattern. Nonclassic MHC class I molecules CD1D, MIC-A, and MIC-B, which have functions to activate NKT, NK, and T cells, did not also clearly show the patterns. These code-driven mining techniques can be utilized as a metadata-generating tool for systems biology to elucidate the biological function of such conformational fragments of MHC I and II molecules, which come in contact with various signal ligands on the surface of T cells and natural killer cells. PMID:23394723

Izumi, Hiroshi; Wakisaka, Akihiro; Nafie, Laurence A; Dukor, Rina K

2013-02-26

266

No Correlations Between the Development of Specific IgA and IgM Antibodies Against Anti-TNF Blocking Agents, Disease Activity and Adverse Side Reactions in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.  

PubMed

The use of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists (infliximab [IFN], etanercept [ETN], adalimumab [ADA]) has changed the course of many rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, some questions concerning their safety have emerged since their approval because they can trigger immunisation, induce rare type I and III hypersensitivity, and cause acute and delayed reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between hypersensitivity reactions to biological agents, disease activity and the development of class-specific IgA and IgM antibodies against the three anti-TNF agents in patients with RA. This longitudinal observational study involved consecutive outpatients with active RA who started treatment with IFN (n=30), ETN (n=41) or ADA (n=28). Clinical data and systemic and local side effects were collected prospectively at baseline and after six months of anti-TNF treatment. Serum samples were taken at the same time points in order to measure antibodies against the TNF blockers, anti-nuclear (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies. The IgA and IgM antibodies specific to all three anti-TNF-? agents were analysed using ImmunoCaP Phadia- Thermofisher especially developed in collaboration with the laboratory of Immunology and Allergy, San Giovanni di Dio, Florence. The mean age of the 99 patients (86% females) was 54.6±12.4 years, and the median disease duration was 11.2±.3.2 years (range 3-14.3). The three treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody positivity, and baseline C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 28-joint disease activity scores, and concomitant medications. Twelve patients treated with INF (40%) had anti-IFN IgM, and two (6%) anti-IFN IgA; 19 patients treated with ADA (68%) had anti-ADA IgM, and four (6%) anti-ADA IgA; and 27 patients treated with ETN (66%) had anti-ETN IgM, and 24 (58%) anti-ETN IgA. There were five systemic reactions in the IFN group, and seven adverse local reactions in both the ADA and the ETN group. There was no correlation between drug-specific IgA and IgM antibodies (p=0.65). There was also no correlation between the antibodies and disease activity after six months of treatment (r=0.189;p=0.32). Our findings show that the development of antibodies against IFN, ADA or ETN of IgA and IgM class are not related to any decrease in efficacy or early discontinuation of anti-TNF treatment in RA patients, nor to systemic and local reactions. Further studies of larger series of RA patients are needed to confirm the relationships between the development of drug-specific antibodies, serum TNF blocker levels, and disease activity. PMID:24115967

Benucci, Maurizio; Saviola, Gianantonio; Meacci, Francesca; Manfredi, Mariangela; Infantino, Maria; Campi, Paolo; Severino, Maurizio; Iorno, Miriam; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

2013-09-30

267

No Correlations Between the Development of Specific IgA and IgM Antibodies Against Anti-TNF Blocking Agents, Disease Activity and Adverse Side Reactions in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

The use of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists (infliximab [IFN], etanercept [ETN], adalimumab [ADA]) has changed the course of many rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, some questions concerning their safety have emerged since their approval because they can trigger immunisation, induce rare type I and III hypersensitivity, and cause acute and delayed reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between hypersensitivity reactions to biological agents, disease activity and the development of class-specific IgA and IgM antibodies against the three anti-TNF agents in patients with RA. This longitudinal observational study involved consecutive outpatients with active RA who started treatment with IFN (n=30), ETN (n=41) or ADA (n=28). Clinical data and systemic and local side effects were collected prospectively at baseline and after six months of anti-TNF treatment. Serum samples were taken at the same time points in order to measure antibodies against the TNF blockers, anti-nuclear (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies. The IgA and IgM antibodies specific to all three anti-TNF-? agents were analysed using ImmunoCaP Phadia- Thermofisher especially developed in collaboration with the laboratory of Immunology and Allergy, San Giovanni di Dio, Florence. The mean age of the 99 patients (86% females) was 54.6±12.4 years, and the median disease duration was 11.2±.3.2 years (range 3-14.3). The three treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody positivity, and baseline C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 28-joint disease activity scores, and concomitant medications. Twelve patients treated with INF (40%) had anti-IFN IgM, and two (6%) anti-IFN IgA; 19 patients treated with ADA (68%) had anti-ADA IgM, and four (6%) anti-ADA IgA; and 27 patients treated with ETN (66%) had anti-ETN IgM, and 24 (58%) anti-ETN IgA. There were five systemic reactions in the IFN group, and seven adverse local reactions in both the ADA and the ETN group. There was no correlation between drug-specific IgA and IgM antibodies (p=0.65). There was also no correlation between the antibodies and disease activity after six months of treatment (r=0.189;p=0.32). Our findings show that the development of antibodies against IFN, ADA or ETN of IgA and IgM class are not related to any decrease in efficacy or early discontinuation of anti-TNF treatment in RA patients, nor to systemic and local reactions. Further studies of larger series of RA patients are needed to confirm the relationships between the development of drug-specific antibodies, serum TNF blocker levels, and disease activity.

Benucci, Maurizio; Saviola, Gianantonio; Meacci, Francesca; Manfredi, Mariangela; Infantino, Maria; Campi, Paolo; Severino, Maurizio; Iorno, Miriam; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

2013-01-01

268

Production and characterization of a murine monoclonal IgM antibody to human C1q receptor (C1qR)  

SciTech Connect

A hybridoma cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cell surface C1q receptor (C1qr) has been produced by fusion of the P3 x 63-Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cell line with the spleen cells of a CD-1 mouse that had been hyperimmunized with viable Raji cell suspensions (5 x 10/sup 7/ cells/inoculum). This MAb, designated II1/D1, is an IgM antibody with lambda-light chain specificity. Radiolabeled or unlabeled, highly purified II1/D1 was used to determine that: a) this antibody competes for C1q binding sites on C1qR-bearing cells; b) the molecule recognized by this MAb is the C1qR; and c) cells that are known to bind C1q also bind II1/D1 in a specific manner. Western blot analysis of solubilized Raji, or U937 cell membranes, showed that the /sup 125/I-MAb detected a major protein band of approximately 85000 m.w. in its unreduced state, indicating that the C1qR is similar, if not identical, in both types of cells. Analyses of /sup 125/I-II/D1 binding experiments revealed that the antibody bound to Raji cells or u937 cells in a specific manner. Uptake of the antibody was saturable, with equilibrium virtually attained within 35 min. Scatchard analysis of the binding data using the intact MAb suggests that the affinity constant K/sub D/ is 2.9 x 10/sup -10/ M, and at apparent saturation, 24.6 ng of the antibody were bound per 2 x 10/sup 6/ cells, giving an estimated 7.8 x 10/sup 3/ antibody molecules bound per cell. That the II1/D1 antibody is specifically directed to the C1q was further evidenced by an ELISA in which the ability of C1qR-bearing cells to bind the MAb was abrogated by c-C1q in a specific dose-dependent manner.

Ghebrehiwet, B.

1986-07-15

269

Evaluation of a commercial IgE ELISA in comparison with IgA and IgM ELISAs, IgG avidity assay and complement fixation for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

A panel of sera from patients with known case histories representative of acute toxoplasmosis (primarily lymphadenopathy, n = 106), latent toxoplasmosis (asymptomatic, n = 368) and negative samples (n = 54) was used to evaluate the capacity of five serological tests to differentiate among patients with acute or latent toxoplasmosis and non-infected individuals. Positive IgA, IgE and IgM ELISA results and low IgG avidity and complement fixation test (CFT) titres of >or=256 were considered to be indicative of acute toxoplasmosis. The most sensitive methods were IgM ELISA (98.1%) and CFT (97.1%), albeit with low specificity (65.0% and 64.5%, respectively) and positive predictive values (43.3% and 42.7%, respectively). IgG avidity assay and IgE ELISA had the highest specificity (97.7% and 91.7%, respectively) and the highest positive predictive values (89.4% and 75.6%, respectively). The best association between serological results and clinical findings was obtained with IgE ELISA (86%, as expressed via Youden's index). In a subset of 259 samples categorised by the period between the onset of clinical symptoms and sampling, >50% of patients had enlarged lymph nodes for <4 months, despite a broad range of differences. However, IgM remained positive for 12-18 months, IgA for 6-9 months and IgE for 4-6 months. IgG avidity remained low for a maximum of 4 months, after which avidity increased despite the persistence of enlarged lymph nodes and a positive IgE assay. Detection of IgE appears to be a highly specific test for confirming the acute nature of Toxoplasma infections that have been detected by other sensitive methods. PMID:17184286

Kodym, P; Machala, L; Rohácová, H; Sirocká, B; Malý, M

2007-01-01

270

Evaluation of 12 Commercial Tests and the Complement Fixation Test for Mycoplasma pneumoniae-Specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM Antibodies, with PCR Used as the "Gold Standard"  

PubMed Central

Serology and nucleic acid amplification are the main diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Since no reference standard is generally accepted, serologic assays for M. pneumoniae have not been evaluated on a broad scale. In this study, 12 commercially available serologic assays (for immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgM) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were evaluated by using M. pneumoniae DNA detection by real-time PCR as the “gold standard.” The assays tested were Platelia EIA (Bio-Rad), SeroMP EIA (Savyon), Serion classic EIA (Virion/Serion), Biotest EIA (Biotest), Ridascreen EIA (r-Biopharm), AniLabsystems EIA (Labsystems), Novum EIA (Novum Diagnostica), Diagnosys EIA (MP products), Genzyme/Virotech EIA, ImmunoWell EIA (Genbio), ImmunoCard EIA (Meridian), and SerodiaMycoII microparticle agglutination (Fujirebio). Serum samples (n = 46) from 27 PCR-positive patients with a known first day of disease and sera (n = 33) from PCR-negative controls were obtained from prospective studies of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Additionally, control sera (n = 63) from patients with acute viral or bacterial respiratory infections other than those caused by M. pneumoniae were tested. The results showed low specificities for both the Novum and the ImmunoCard IgM assays. The IgM assays with the best performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity were AniLabsystems (77% and 92%, respectively), SeroMP (71% and 88%, respectively), and CFT (65% and 97%, respectively). Good receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve were found for CFT (0.94), the Platelia assay (0.87), and the AniLabsystems assay (0.85). We conclude that there are few commercial serologic assays for the detection of M. pneumoniae infections with appropriate performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity and that PCR has become increasingly important for the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infections in defined groups of patients.

Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Dirven, Kristien; van Dam, Alje P.; Templeton, Kate E.; Claas, Eric C. J.; Goossens, Herman

2005-01-01

271

Experimental evidence for direct in situ binding of IgM and IgT to early trophonts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) in the gills of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).  

PubMed

Freshwater fish are able to mount a protective immune response against the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) following a non-lethal exposure. Factors involved in immunity comprise cellular and humoral factors, but antibodies have been suggested to play a prominent role in protection. However, host antibodies have not yet been demonstrated to bind to the parasite in situ. By the use of immunohistochemical techniques, this study demonstrated that IgT and IgM bind to surface structures, including cilia, on the early feeding stage of the parasite in the gills of immune rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, shortly (2 h) after invasion. No binding of IgT and no or only a weak binding of IgM was observed on the parasites in the gills of similarly exposed but naïve rainbow trout. This study indicates that antibodies play an important part in the protection of immune fish against Ich although additional humoral and cellular factors may contribute to this reaction. PMID:21916900

von Gersdorff Jørgensen, L; Heinecke, R D; Skjødt, K; Rasmussen, K J; Buchmann, K

2011-10-01

272

Coxsackievirus B1-based antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA with broad specificity for enteroviruses.  

PubMed Central

An antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with coxsackievirus B1 as the antigen was evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies and showed broad specificity for enteroviruses. In total, 116 serum or cerebrospinal fluid samples from 62 patients were tested by ELISA and the complement fixation test (CFT). Additionally, 15 serum samples that contained poliovirus-specific IgM antibody were tested. Serum samples from 200 healthy blood donors were used for standardization of the assays. The sensitivity of the ELISA varied with time of serum sampling, with a relatively low sensitivity when serum was collected within 3 days after the onset of symptoms (23%; 5 of 22) but good sensitivity when serum was collected later (83%; 20 of 24). The sensitivity was better than that of the CFT. The ELISAs were broadly reactive as concluded from typing of virus isolates that were simultaneously obtained. The assay did, furthermore, detect antibody against poliovirus type 3. Sera that contained rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, or cardiolipin antibody (by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test) did not react in this ELISA. Nonspecific reactivity did occur, however, in cases of infectious mononucleosis and in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The enterovirus-specific ELISA is found to be simple to perform, more sensitive than the CFT, and far less laborious than the neutralization test.

Swanink, C M; Veenstra, L; Poort, Y A; Kaan, J A; Galama, J M

1993-01-01

273

Concomitant Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and IgA plasmablastic myeloma in a patient with untreated IgM paraproteinemia: sequential development of biclonal B-cell neoplasms over a 10-year period in a single individual.  

PubMed

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and plasma cell myeloma are both mature B-cell neoplasms primarily involving bone marrow and frequently demonstrating paraproteinemia. Plasma cell myeloma has been described in association with other indolent B-cell lymphomas, particularly chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but concomitant Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and plasma cell myeloma has not been previously described. We report the first case of sequential development of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and plasma cell myeloma over a 10-year period in a 73-year-old man with untreated IgM paraproteinemia. The bone marrow biopsy demonstrated dual populations of lymphoid cells: small mature lymphocytes and immature plasma cells. Although both Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and plasma cell myeloma were restricted to ? light chain, plasma cell myeloma expressed IgA, whereas the plasmacytic component in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia produced IgM. The biclonal nature of these 2 B-cell neoplasms was further supported by immunofixation electrophoresis and cytogenetic studies. Although the clinical outcome of plasma cell myeloma when concomitant with other indolent B-cell neoplasms is unfavorable, our patient seemed to respond to high-dose bortezomib plus lenalidomide. PMID:22404949

Wang, Endi; Kulbacki, Evan; Stoecker, Maggie

2012-03-08

274

Cyber Security Challenges: Designing Efficient Intrusion Detection Systems and Antivirus Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Introduction to Intrusion Detection SystemsIntrusion detection an important component of information security technology helps indiscovering, determining, and identifying unauthorized use, duplication, alteration, anddestruction of information and information systems. Intrusion detection relies on the assumptionthat information and information systems under attack exhibit several distinguishable behavioralpatterns or characteristics to that of the normal ones. Though intrusion detection...

Srinivas Mukkamala; Andrew Sung; Ajith Abraham

275

Research on the anti-virus system of military network based on cloud security  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the stepping up of information technology in military, information is increasingly playing a key role which enhance efficiency for military command, training, battle. Connecting With the military networks among in army universities, research institutes, the size of the military information network is rapidly expanding, while the Hidden danger of information security also increase with the virus develop from the

Wang Xin; Huang Ting-lei; Ren Zhi-jian

2010-01-01

276

Chemical constituents from Lobelia chinensis and their anti-virus and anti-inflammatory bioactivities.  

PubMed

In total, forty six compounds, including the novel compound lobechine (1), were characterized from the methanol extracts of Lobelia chinensis. The chemical structures of known metabolites were identified by comparing their spectroscopic and physical data with compounds reported in the literature. The structure of lobechine (1) was comprehensively established with the aid of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. In addition, selected isolates were screened for their inhibition of HSV-1 replication, superoxide anion generation, and elastase release. Among the tested compounds, scoparone (10) exhibited significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation with IC(50) of 6.14 ± 1.97 ?M and lobechine (1) exhibited moderate inhibition of elastase release with IC(50) of 25.01 ± 6.95 ?M, respectively. PMID:21656355

Kuo, Ping-Chung; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Lin, Ying-Ting; Kuo, Yuh-Chi; Leu, Yann-Lii

2011-06-09

277

A dual function of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Summary Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) and the associated proteins (Cas) comprise a system of adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids in prokaryotes. Cas1 is a CRISPR-associated protein that is common to all CRISPR-containing prokaryotes but its function remains obscure. Here we show that the purified Cas1 protein of Escherichia coli (YgbT) exhibits nuclease activity against single-stranded and branched DNAs including Holliday junctions, replication forks, and 5?-flaps. The crystal structure of YgbT and site-directed mutagenesis have revealed the potential active site. Genome-wide screens show that YgbT physically and genetically interacts with key components of DNA repair systems, including recB, recC and ruvB. Consistent with these findings, the ygbT deletion strain showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage and impaired chromosomal segregation. Similar phenotypes were observed in strains with deletion of CRISPR clusters, suggesting that the function of YgbT in repair involves interaction with the CRISPRs. These results show that YgbT belongs to a novel, structurally distinct family of nucleases acting on branched DNAs and suggest that, in addition to antiviral immunity, at least some components of the CRISPR-Cas system have a function in DNA repair.

Babu, Mohan; Beloglazova, Natalia; Flick, Robert; Graham, Chris; Skarina, Tatiana; Nocek, Boguslaw; Gagarinova, Alla; Pogoutse, Oxana; Brown, Greg; Binkowski, Andrew; Phanse, Sadhna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koonin, Eugene V.; Savchenko, Alexei; Emili, Andrew; Greenblatt, Jack; Edwards, Aled M.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

2011-01-01

278

Cryptosporidium parvum in calves: kinetics and immunoblot analysis of specific serum and local antibody responses (immunoglobulin A [IgA], IgG, and IgM) after natural and experimental infections.  

PubMed Central

Fecal and serum anti-Cryptosporidium parvum immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after experimental and natural infection of calves with C. parvum. Although all experimentally infected calves showed high levels of colostral antibodies in the feces, they acquired C. parvum infection. Three of five animals died. Calves which acquired natural infection showed only diarrhea. Levels of colostral coproantibodies dropped quickly. Experimental infection was followed by a rise in local anti-C. parvum IgM levels from day 5 postinfection (p.i.). IgM peaked at day 14 p.i. and then disappeared quickly. Anti-C. parvum IgA levels rose between days 7 and 14 p.i. and decreased slowly. Rising levels of coproantibodies coincided with falling oocyst output. Fecal anti-C. parvum IgG levels rose slightly during oocyst output, and IgG disappeared 3 weeks p.i. Similar kinetics were established in naturally infected calves. Although fecal anti-C. parvum IgA levels declined slowly, reinfections were established 5, 7, and 14 weeks after the primary contact. Serum anti-C. parvum IgG levels rose during maximal oocyst excretion, whereas serum anti-C. parvum IgA levels peaked later than did local IgA levels. Challenge reinfection of naturally infected calves at day 112 was not followed by clinical signs or oocyst output or by a secondary antibody response. Sequential Western immunoblotting with fecal extracts revealed up to 32 different parasite antigens. Convalescent-phase sera recognized up to 23 antigens. Fecal IgA reacted intensely with antigens with relative molecular weights (M(r)) of approximately 11,000 and 15,000. These antigens were not recognized by convalescent-phase serum IgG. Both local IgA and serum IgG also showed strong reactions with 23,000- and 44,000-M(r) antigens and with several antigens of between 66,200 and 200,000 M(r). Most bands remained detectable for at least 16 weeks p.i. Images

Peeters, J E; Villacorta, I; Vanopdenbosch, E; Vandergheynst, D; Naciri, M; Ares-Mazas, E; Yvore, P

1992-01-01

279

Alterations in immunological reactivity in encephalomyocarditis virus-induced murine diabetes. I. Defective primary IgM plaque forming cell responses to sheep erythrocytes: correction by islet cell transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Increasing data suggest a possible viral aetiology of juvenile onset, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The M variant of the encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infects murine pancreatic beta cells and causes a diabetes like syndrome in susceptible strains of mice. Abnormalities in immunological function have been documented in patients with diabetes mellitus and in spontaneous, streptozotocin-induced and alloxan-induced diabetes in animals. The present study documents a significant impairment of the ability of mice with EMC virus (M variant)-induced diabetes to generate a direct, IgM PFC response after in vivo immunization with sheep erythrocytes. This abnormality appears to be a direct consequence of the diabetic state and not EMC virus infection, per se, since mice infected with EMC virus that do not become diabetic have normal direct PFC responses and islet cell transplantation, which cures the diabetes, corrects the defect in PFC responsiveness.

Handwerger, B S; Fernandes, G; Riehm, T; Yoon, J W; Sutherland, D E; Brown, D M

1985-01-01

280

Development of an indirect ELISA method for the parallel measurement of IgG and IgM antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus using recombinant nucleoprotein as antigen.  

PubMed

Recombinant nucleoprotein from Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus was successfully derived from a baculovirus expression system and purified for use in a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic test. Comparable tests were used for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies, thus allowing efficient detection of both antibodies in parallel. The major benefits of the assay also included removing any requirement for polyclonal sera, thus eliminating variation in preparations and allowing standardisation between laboratories. The assay was successfully tested using a panel of positive sera supplied from samples identified as being positive in Turkey, Tajikistan and Kosovo and shown to be sensitive and specific. It is envisaged that this simple diagnostic ELISA for CCHF virus infection which removes the reliance on polyclonal antibody preparations, will be accessible to a wider range of laboratories enabling them to carry out routine diagnosis. This will improve the efficiency of diagnosis and subsequent management of infected patients. PMID:22155577

Dowall, S D; Richards, K S; Graham, V A; Chamberlain, J; Hewson, R

2011-12-02

281

In Situ IgM Production and Clonal Expansion of B-1 Cells in Peritoneal Cavity Promote Elimination of C. albicans Infection in IgH Transgenic Mice with VH Derived from a Natural Antibody  

PubMed Central

B-1 cells are innate-like cells that play important roles in host defense against infection. However, the function of B-1 cells in fungi infection remains unclear. Previously we produced IgH transgenic mice TgVH3B4 with VH derived from a natural antibody 3B4 that can identify C. albicans, and found that TgVH3B4 mice were resistant to intraperitoneal (i. p.) and intravenous C. albicans infection. Most of the peritoneal cavity (PEC) B-1 cells in TgVH3B4 mice express transgenic BCR that binds C. albicans. In the present study, we explored the response of B-1 cells to C. albicans infection by applying i. p. inoculation of fungi in TgVH3B4 mice. We found that C. albicans was cleared more efficiently in TgVH3B4 mice after i. p. inoculation than that of littermate control. The level of C. albicans-reactive IgM in PEC of TgVH3B4 mice was much higher than that of control, and the number of B-1a B cells was also elevated in TgVH3B4 mice, which was mainly due to enhanced proliferation of B-1 cells. Additionally, numbers of C. albicans-specific B cells increased greatly in TgVH3B4 mice after C. albicans inoculation. Our data suggested that in situ IgM production and clonal expansion of B-1 cells in PEC participate in host defense against C. albicans infection.

Ren, Jing; An, Jingang; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Wei

2013-01-01

282

Accuracy of IgM antibody testing, FQ-PCR and culture in laboratory diagnosis of acute infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults and adolescents is hampered by a lack of rapid and standardized tests for detection. METHODS: CAP patients from 12 teaching hospitals were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Basic and clinical information, throat swabs and paired sera were collected. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by IgG and IgM antibody tests, fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and culture. A comparative study of the diagnostic values of three methods, including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was conducted. A fourfold or greater increase of IgG antibody titers of paired sera was set as the diagnostic "gold standard". RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five CAP patients (52.8% males, median age 47 years, range 14--85) were enrolled. Twenty-seven (21.6%) patients were diagnosed with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections by the "gold standard". Specificity values of all three methods were around 90%. An increasing trend of sensitivity, positive predictive value and PLR was found, with the lowest in IgM testing (7.4%, 28.6% and 1.45), intermediate in FQ-PCR (40.7%, 50% and 3.63), and highest in culture (55.6%, 75% and 10.9). CONCLUSIONS: In the defined group of patients, there was a good agreement between positive rate of MP cultivation of throat swabs and acute M. pneumoniae infection (PLR of 10.9). Since the sensitivity is low in all of the evaluated methods, the logical approach would be to incorporate PCR, culture and serological tests for optimum diagnosis of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in adults and adolescents. PMID:23578215

Qu, Jiuxin; Gu, Li; Wu, Jiang; Dong, Jianping; Pu, Zenghui; Gao, Yan; Hu, Ming; Zhang, Yongxiang; Gao, Feng; Cao, Bin; Wang, Chen

2013-04-11

283

Accuracy of IgM antibody testing, FQ-PCR and culture in laboratory diagnosis of acute infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults and adolescents is hampered by a lack of rapid and standardized tests for detection. Methods CAP patients from 12 teaching hospitals were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Basic and clinical information, throat swabs and paired sera were collected. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by IgG and IgM antibody tests, fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and culture. A comparative study of the diagnostic values of three methods, including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was conducted. A fourfold or greater increase of IgG antibody titers of paired sera was set as the diagnostic “gold standard”. Results One hundred and twenty-five CAP patients (52.8% males, median age 47 years, range 14–85) were enrolled. Twenty-seven (21.6%) patients were diagnosed with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections by the “gold standard”. Specificity values of all three methods were around 90%. An increasing trend of sensitivity, positive predictive value and PLR was found, with the lowest in IgM testing (7.4%, 28.6% and 1.45), intermediate in FQ-PCR (40.7%, 50% and 3.63), and highest in culture (55.6%, 75% and 10.9). Conclusions In the defined group of patients, there was a good agreement between positive rate of MP cultivation of throat swabs and acute M. pneumoniae infection (PLR of 10.9). Since the sensitivity is low in all of the evaluated methods, the logical approach would be to incorporate PCR, culture and serological tests for optimum diagnosis of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in adults and adolescents.

2013-01-01

284

Identification and real-time expression analysis of selected Toxoplasma gondii in-vivo induced antigens recognized by IgG and IgM in sera of acute toxoplasmosis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa which infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study in-vivo induced antigens of this parasite was investigated using in-vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) and pooled sera from patients with serological evidence of acute infection. Methods The pooled sera was first pre-absorbed against three different preparations of antigens from in-vitro-grown cells of each T. gondii and E. coli XL1-Blue MRF’, subsequently it was used to screen T. gondii cDNA phage expression library. Positive clones from each group were subjected to quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis on mRNA of in-vivo and in-vitro grown parasites. Results A total of 29 reactive clones from each IgM and IgG immunoscreenings were found to have high homology to T. gondii genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis showed that 20 IgM-detected genes and 11 IgG-detected genes were up-regulated in-vivo relative to their expression levels in-vitro. These included genes encoding micronemes, sterol-regulatory element binding protein site, SRS34A, MIC2-associated protein M2AP, nucleoredoxin, protein phosphatase 2C and several hypothetical proteins. A hypothetical protein (GenBank accession no. 7899266) detected by IgG had the highest in-vivo over in-vitro fold change of 499.86; while another up-regulated hypothetical protein (GenBank accession no. 7898829) recognized by IgM showed high sensitivity (90%) and moderate specificity (70%) in detecting T. gondii antibodies when tested with 20 individual serum samples. Conclusion The highly up-regulated genes and the corresponding proteins, in particular the hypothetical proteins, may be useful in further studies on understanding the disease pathogenesis and as potential vaccine candidates.

2013-01-01

285

Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers  

PubMed Central

Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg) or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III) in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers.

Liu, Juan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Hesong; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yuanxin; Wang, Kangping

2013-01-01

286

T cell development in B cell-deficient mice. II. Serological characterization of suppressor T cell factors (TsF1) produced in normal mice and in mice treated chronically with rabbit anti-mouse IgM antibodies  

PubMed Central

Serological analysis of idiotypic specificities present in azobenzenearsonate (ABA)-specific first-order suppressor T cell factors (TsF1) from C.AL-20 and BALB/c mice revealed a significant difference between TsF from these two strains of mice. The idiotypic composition of TsF1 from BALB/c mice appears to be more heterogeneous, and at least two different fractions can be readily identified. One bears the characteristic BALB/c-associated CRI(C) (crossreactive idiotype) determinants, and the other is non-CRI(C)-bearing. Analysis of ABA- specific TsF1 from animals lacking B cells uncovered a fundamental change in the expression of their idiotypic specificities. TsF from rabbit anti-mouse IgM (anti-mu)-treated C.AL-20 mice failed to express the characteristic CRI(A) determinants. Instead, they express CRI(C) specificities. Similarly, TsF1 from anti-mu-treated BALB/c mice did not express their characteristic CRI(C) specificities, but rather express CRI(A) determinants. These experiments provide strong evidence that the Igh restriction specificity of TsF is dictated by the particular idiotypic specificities expressed. They also clearly demonstrate that B cells and their products play an important role in establishing the idiotypic composition and repertoire of suppressor T cells.

1985-01-01

287

De novo 13q12.3-q14.11 deletion involving BRCA2 gene in a patient with developmental delay, elevated IgM levels, transient ataxia, and cerebellar hypoplasia, mimicking an A-T like phenotype.  

PubMed

We report on a child with a de novo deletion of approximately 12 Mb detected through array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The deletion involved chromosome bands 13q12.3-13q14.11 and determined the loss of ?50 genes. A second deletion on chromosome 12p11.3p11.22 of 43-167 kb, including about 12 genes, was unlikely of clinical relevance because inherited from the asymptomatic father. The child had developmental delay, dysmorphisms, and many features reminiscent of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), as cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneus telangiectasia, and recurrent upper airway infections. Atraumatic fractures of the metatarsus were noted. Moreover, this is a rare case of 13q deletion syndrome associated with peripheral blood white cells radiosensitivity to bleomycin, reminiscent of what previously reported on X-ray hypersensitivity of fibroblasts from patients with alterations of this chromosome. The immunological evaluation revealed increased IgM serum levels and a low proliferative response to mitogens, PHA, and CD3 cross-linking (CD3 XL). After 12 years of age only a mild dysmetria persisted, while the proliferative response to mitogens became normal by 9 years of age. PMID:22903806

Cirillo, Emilia; Romano, Rosa; Romano, Alfonso; Giardino, Giuliana; Durandy, Anne; Nitsch, Lucio; Genesio, Rita; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Cavalieri, Simona; Abate, Giovanna; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Brusco, Alfredo; Pignata, Claudio

2012-08-17

288

Marsupial immunoglobulins: the distribution and evolution of macropod IgG2, IgG1, IgM and light chain antigenic markers within the sub-class Metatheria.  

PubMed Central

The distribution within Australian and American marsupials of the heavy and light chain antigenic markers identified by antisera to purified quokka (Setonix brachyurus) immunoglobulins is described. Markers for IgM and IgG2 constant region determinants as well as for light chains were widely distributed in Australian species and were also detected in Didelphis, the American opossum, thus indicating a long-term structural conservatism of some immunoglobulins within the marsupials. More detailed analysis of the distribution of quokka IgG2 determinants by quantitative precipitation and sequential absorption procedures suggested that there had been a gradual and cumulative acquisition of these markers with time. The presence of IgG2 markers in species separated for 130 million years (quokka and opossum) suggested that IgG2 was the ancestral IgG present before the divergence of these separate lines. The origin of IgG1 remains obscure as it appears to be limited to a small group of closely related diprotodont marsupials suggesting a recent origin. Images Figure 1

Bell, R G

1977-01-01

289

Human IgE, IgG subclass, and IgM responses to worm and egg antigens in schistosomiasis haematobium: a 12-month study of reinfection in Cameroonian children.  

PubMed

Levels of IgE, IgM, and IgG subclasses against Schistosoma haematobium adult worm antigen (AWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) in a cohort of 148 S. haematobium-infected schoolchildren were determined before and up to 12 months after chemotherapy. Infection intensities were determined as concentrations of circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum. One month posttreatment, the antibody levels of all isotypes against AWA were increased, but 1 year after treatment they returned to pretreatment levels. CAA concentrations were positively associated with levels of IgG4 against AWA and SEA but not with levels of IgE. Age correlated negatively with CAA concentrations and positively with levels of IgE to AWA. The balance of anti-AWA IgG4 and IgE was significantly correlated to the CAA concentration, in particular in the older age group (11-13 years). This may suggest that protective immune mechanisms in S. haematobium infections become effective around the age of 12 years. PMID:9597243

Naus, C W; van Dam, G J; Kremsner, P G; Krijger, F W; Deelder, A M

1998-05-01

290

Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates. Development and application in parasitology-mycology.  

PubMed

Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning each of the 96 wells of a standard microplate in 32 different locations. The inherent advantages of the automatic reader were further maximized by coupling it to a dedicated computer running customized software designed to process data coming on-line from the spectrophotometer. This approach has been applied to the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis and candidosis. Suspensions of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites or of sensitised erythrocytes were used for the determination of IgG antibodies or the quantification of IgM, IgA, or IgE specific isotypes. This procedure allows the simple and reproducible collection of objective results. Moreover, it permits a reduction in cut-off values and direct interpretation of results with automatic conversion of scores into titer, units, index, or into any other scale appropriate for standardization purposes. PMID:7594632

Aubert, D; Foudrinier, F; Kaltenbach, M L; Guyot-Walser, D; Marx-Chemla, C; Geers, R; Lepan, H; Pinon, J M

1995-10-26

291

Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Plays a Role in the Generation of Germinal Center and Memory B Cells, but Not in the Production of Antigen-Specific IgG and IgM, in Response to T-dependent Antigens  

PubMed Central

The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been reported to modulate B cell functions including migration, proliferation and isotype class switching. Since these processes are required for the generation of the germinal center (GC) and antigen-specific plasma and memory cells following immunization with a T-dependent antigen, CB2 has the capacity to alter the quality and magnitude of T-dependent immune responses. To address this question, we immunized WT and CB2?/? mice with the T-dependent antigen 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl (NP)-chicken-gamma-globulin (CGG) and measured GC B cell formation and the generation of antigen-specific B cells and serum immunoglobulin (Ig). While there was a significant reduction in the number of splenic GC B cells in CB2?/? mice early in the response there was no detectable difference in the number of NP-specific IgM and IgG1 plasma cells. There was also no difference in NP-specific IgM and class switched IgG1 in the serum. In addition, we found no defect in the homing of plasma cells to the bone marrow (BM) and affinity maturation, although memory B cell cells in the spleen were reduced in CB2?/? mice. CB2-deficient mice also generated similar levels of antigen-specific IgM and IgG in the serum as WT following immunization with sheep red blood cells (sRBC). This study demonstrates that although CB2 plays a role in promoting GC and memory B cell formation/maintenance in the spleen, it is dispensable on all immune cell types required for the generation of antigen-specific IgM and IgG in T-dependent immune responses.

Dittel, Bonnie N.

2013-01-01

292

[How to handle unexpected biological abnormalities observed in the pre-donation workup for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: An SFGM-TC report on pre-transplant cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, or syphilis IgM positive serology test].  

PubMed

In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the third annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in October 2012 in Lille. Here we report our results and recommendations regarding the management of pre-transplant donor's cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, or syphilis IgM positive serology test. PMID:24011960

Duléry, R; Giraud, C; Beaumont, J-L; Bilger, K; Borel, C; Dhedin, N; Thiebaut, A; Willems, E; Alain, S; Alfandari, S; Dewilde, A; Jouet, J-P; Milpied, N; Yakoub-Agha, I

2013-09-04

293

Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis: Comparison of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Response to Sulfolipid I with IgG and IgM Responses to 2,3-Diacyltrehalose, 2,3,6-Triacyltrehalose, and Cord Factor Antigens  

PubMed Central

Nonpeptidic antigens from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall are the focus of extensive studies to determine their potential role as protective antigens or serological markers of tuberculous disease. Regarding this latter role and using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we have made a comparative study of the immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibody responses to four trehalose-containing glycolipids purified from M. tuberculosis: diacyltrehaloses, triacyltrehaloses, cord factor, and sulfolipid I (SL-I). Sera from 92 tuberculosis patients (taken before starting antituberculosis treatment) and a wide group of control individuals (84 sera from healthy donors, including purified protein derivative-negative, -positive, healed, and vaccinated individuals, and 52 sera from nontuberculous pneumonia patients), all from Spain, were studied. The results indicated a significantly elevated IgG and IgA antibody response in tuberculosis patients, compared with controls, with all the antigens used. SL-I was the best antigen studied, showing test sensitivities and specificities for IgG of 81 and 77.6%, respectively, and of 66 and 87.5% for IgA. Using this antigen and combining IgA and IgG antibody detection, high test specificity was achieved (93.7%) with a sensitivity of 67.5%. Currently, it is widely accepted that it is not possible to achieve sensitivities above 80% in tuberculosis serodiagnosis when using one antigen alone. Thus, we conclude that SL-I, in combination with other antigenic molecules, could be a useful antigen for tuberculosis serodiagnosis.

Julian, Esther; Matas, Lurdes; Perez, Andres; Alcaide, Jose; Laneelle, Marie-Antoinette; Luquin, Marina

2002-01-01

294

Thalidomide inhibited the synthesis of IgM and IgG whereas Thalidomide+Dexamethasone and Dexamethasone alone acted as co-stimulants with pokeweed and enhanced their synthesis.  

PubMed

Thalidomide (Thal) provides effective treatment for erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). In combination with Dexamethasome (Dex) it is an effective treatment for multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Thal's mechanism(s) of action in the treatment of these diverse medical conditions is not known, but it could be suppression of immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis. Mononuclear cells were stimulated with pokeweed (PWM), and treated with Thal, Thal+Dex or Dex. The cultures were assayed for IgM and IgG. The maximum synthesis was expected to occur in cultures stimulated with PWM at 0.5, 5.0 or 10 microg/ml. The test agents at 15 microM each were expected to alter the response. Compared to cultures stimulated with PWM alone, there was significantly less Ig in the cultures containing Thal+PWM, and significantly more Ig in the cultures containing Thal+Dex+PWM or Dex+PWM (Wilcoxon). The median % of maximum was 57 for cultures treated with Thal+PWM; 184 for cultures treated with Thal+Dex+PWM, and 139 for cultures treated with Dex+PWM. Thal also acted as a co-stimulant with PWM and enhanced the synthesis of IL-2, IL-6 and DNA; whereas, Thal+Dex or Dex enhanced Ig synthesis, but suppressed IL-2, IL-6 and cell proliferation. Thal's ability to suppress Ig may explain its activity in ENL, MM and WM. The enhancement of Ig by Dex does not help to explain a role for Dex alone or in combination with Thal for the treatment of MM and WM. PMID:20123041

Shannon, E J; Sandoval, F

2010-02-01

295

A rapid immune plaque assay for the detection of Hendra and Nipah viruses and anti-virus antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid immune plaque assays have been developed to quantify biohazard level 4 agents Hendra and Nipah viruses and detect neutralising antibodies to both viruses. The methods rely on the fact that both viruses rapidly generate large syncytia in monolayers of Vero cells within 24 h and that monospecific antiserum to the Hendra virus phosphoprotein (P) detects that protein in both

Gary Crameri; Lin-Fa Wang; Christopher Morrissy; John White; Bryan T Eaton

2002-01-01

296

Securing PCs and Data in Libraries and Schools: A Handbook with Menuing, Anti-Virus, and Other Protective Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook is designed to help readers identify and eliminate security risks, with sound recommendations and library-tested security software. Chapter 1 "Managing Your Facilities and Assessing Your Risks" addresses fundamental management responsibilities including planning for a secure system, organizing computer-related information, assessing…

Benson, Allen C.

297

A System Administrator's Guide to Implementing Various AntiVirus Mechanisms: What to do When a Virus is Suspected On a Computer Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, presented in the form of sample guidelines\\/procedures, will express in much detail the steps, techniques and methods of defense utilized\\/implemented in the detection, investigation and tracing of a suspected computer virus. Proposed courses of action will be discussed. The effectiveness of these actions, as well as the use and effectiveness of established mechanisms of defense will be evaluated.

Robert B. Fried

2003-01-01

298

The non-haemadsorbing African swine fever virus isolate ASFV\\/NH\\/P68 provides a model for defining the protective anti-virus immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

African swine fever virus ASFV\\/NH\\/P68 is a naturally occurring, non-haemadsorbing and non-fatal isolate. Longitudinal clinical and immunological studies on 31 pigs inoculated oronasally or intramuscularly with this isolate defined two discrete groups of animals: those developing ASF chronic type lesions and those remaining asymptomatic. Animals developing lesions had viraemia and fever late after infection, NK activity levels close to that

Alexandre Leita; Clara Cartaxeiro; Ricardo Coelho; Benedita Cruz; R. M. E. Parkhouse

299

Gas exchanges between galaxies and IGM (Rodrigues+, 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The galaxies presented in this paper are a subsample of Rodrigues et al. (2008A&A...492..371R) which have available archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data. The imaging is used to measure their gas radius and to derive their gas fraction. The targets have been gathered from the IMAGES-FORS2 survey, a representative sample drawn from both spectroscopic and MJ selection criteria (see Rodrigues et al., 2008A&A...492..371R). (2 data files).

Rodrigues, M.; Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Rothberg, B.; Flores, H.

2013-03-01

300

Detección de anticuerpos antineuronas en pacientes con enfermedades del sistema nervioso: estudio preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de profundizar en la patogenia de enfermedades que involucren al sistema nervioso central, un colectivo de los laboratorios se dio a la tarea de detectar autoanticuerpos antineuronas en pacientes con estas enfermedades mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Se analizaron 31 sueros de pacientes y 72 controles, se obtuvo como resultado una sensibilida d de 77

Raisa Jofra Hernández; Arturo Muster; Roberto Alegre Mendez

301

How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

Brown, Scott

2005-01-01

302

How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

Brown, Scott

2005-01-01

303

Identificación de péptidos miméticos al epítopo reconocido por el anticuerpo monoclonal específico por el EGF, CB-EGF1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of peptide mimics of the epitope recognized by CB-EGF1, a monoclonal antibody EGF specific. As part of an integral structure and function study, we characterized the natural epitope on the EGF recognized by the CB-EGF1 monoclonal antibody, by using peptides displayed on the coat protein of filamentous bacteriophages. Data analyzed demonstrated that the CB-EGF1 monoclonal antibody recognizes a conformational

Yaquelin Puchades; Ariana G Ojalvo; Yanet García; Glay Chinea; Haydée Gerónimo; Nelson S Vispo

304

[Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediatricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a condition that is increasingly more frequently diagnosed in the paediatric age. Unlike adults, in many cases it is not associated to tumours and the most common initial manifestations in children are seizures and movement disorders, while in adults there is a predominance of psychiatric alterations. CASE REPORTS. We present six confirmed paediatric cases with antibodies against the subunit NR1 of the NMDA receptor in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Five of the cases began with seizures as the initial clinical symptom prior to the development of the classical clinical features of this condition. In all cases, steroids were used as the first line of treatment, although these only brought about control over the manifestations in one of them; the other patients therefore required second-line immunomodulators. All the patients received methotrexate as immunomodulator treatment to prevent relapses, and in all cases there was an improvement in the patients' situation. CONCLUSIONS. In our series of patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, none were associated with tumours. All of them were given methotrexate for at least one year and no adverse clinical or analytical events were observed; likewise, there were no neurological sequelae or relapses during treatment. Although it is a small series and it would be advisable to increase the number and time to progression, we see methotrexate as an excellent alternative immunomodulator treatment for this pathology. PMID:24150952

Bravo-Oro, A; Abud-Mendoza, C; Quezada-Corona, A; Dalmau, J; Campos-Guevara, V

2013-11-01

305

[Presence of IgM antibodies for Leptospira interrogans in wild animals from Tocantins State, 2002].  

PubMed

Four hundred and twenty-seven serum samples of wild animals were tested against 18 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Of 286 samples of Cebus apella, 46 (16.1%) were positive for the serovars pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippotyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica and icterohaemorrhagiae. Of 82 samples of Alouatta caraya, 2 (2.4%) were positive for the serovars mangus and fluminense. Of 31 samples of Nasua nasua, 4 (12.9%) were positive for the serovars fluminense and javanica, and of 10 samples of Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20 %) were positive for the serovars fluminense and brasiliensis. Seven samples of Dasyprocta sp, 6 of Tamandua tetradactyla and 5 of Euphractus sexcintus did not present reactivity. PMID:16906258

de Souza Júnior, Milton Formiga; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Moreira, Elvio Carlos; de Oliveira, Rogério Rodrigues; Leite, Geysa Goulart; Freitas, Theonys Diógenes; de Assis, Ronnie Antunes

306

Persistence of Virus-Specific IgM and Clinical Recovery after Japanese Encephalitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evidence of a chronic Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in six Thai patients convalescing from acute Japanese encephalitis (JE) was investigated. These six patients were compared with 94 other JE patients matched for age, sex and serological res...

R. Edelman R. J. Schneider A. Vejjajiva R. Pornpibul P. Voodhikul

1976-01-01

307

Staphylococcal IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections.  

PubMed

Delayed orthopedic joint prosthesis infections (DOJP-Is) due to staphylococci frequently result in prosthetic revision. Specific and noninvasive diagnostic tests are unavailable, and DOJP-Is are commonly diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect serum antibodies against staphylococcal slime polysaccharide antigens. Using a cutoff of 0.35 ELISA units, the test showed a specificity of 95.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.4 to 98.7%) and a sensitivity of 89.7% (71.5 to 97.3%) on a sample of 90 individuals. PMID:21068292

Artini, Marco; Romanò, Carlo; Manzoli, Lamberto; Scoarughi, Gian Luca; Papa, Rosanna; Meani, Enzo; Drago, Lorenzo; Selan, Laura

2010-11-10

308

A novel serological technique: polymerase chain reaction enhanced immunoassay. Application to enterovirus IgM diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is a sensitive, specific and rapid technique for virus detection. The principles of a PCR enhanced immunoassay (PIA) are described. The method combines solid phase serological techniques with the PCR, providing a versatile and sensitive method for antibody detection. By linking the antigenicity of virus particles with their content of nucleic acid, the method

Robert Aspholm; Shusheng Zuo; Jan Fohlman; Gun Frisk; Göran Friman; Jonas Blomberg

1999-01-01

309

Staphylococcal IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infections ? ?  

PubMed Central

Delayed orthopedic joint prosthesis infections (DOJP-Is) due to staphylococci frequently result in prosthetic revision. Specific and noninvasive diagnostic tests are unavailable, and DOJP-Is are commonly diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect serum antibodies against staphylococcal slime polysaccharide antigens. Using a cutoff of 0.35 ELISA units, the test showed a specificity of 95.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.4 to 98.7%) and a sensitivity of 89.7% (71.5 to 97.3%) on a sample of 90 individuals.

Artini, Marco; Romano, Carlo; Manzoli, Lamberto; Scoarughi, Gian Luca; Papa, Rosanna; Meani, Enzo; Drago, Lorenzo; Selan, Laura

2011-01-01

310

Evaluation of the immunological specificity of fluorescein-labelled anti-human IgM conjugates  

PubMed Central

The immunological specificity of two anti-IgM fluorescein-labelled antisera was evaluated in gel diffusion, by the direct immunofluorescent technique on characterized bone marrow preparations taken from patients with myeloma and by an indirect staining method employing virus-infected cells and selected post-infection sera. The results show that neither gel diffusion nor direct immunofluorescent methods provide a reliable index of specificity for conjugates to be used in indirect procedures.

Chantler, Shireen; Haire, Margaret

1972-01-01

311

IgA Antibody Response of Swine to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection and Vaccination? #  

PubMed Central

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Control of the disease involves the use of killed-virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. After natural infection, the primary site of replication of FMDV is the pharyngeal area, suggesting that a mucosal immune response is the most effective. Humoral immunity to killed-virus vaccination induces antibodies that can prevent the clinical disease but not local infection. Determining whether infection or vaccination stimulates IgA-mediated local immunity depends on the method of analysis. Different assays have been described to analyze the quality of antibody responses of cattle and swine to FMDV, including indirect double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDAS-ELISA) and antibody capture assay-ELISA (ACA-ELISA). We tested these assays on swine and show that vaccinated animals had FMDV-specific IgM and IgG but no IgA in either serum or saliva. After the infection, both assays detected FMDV-specific IgM, IgG, and IgA in serum. Notably, serum IgA was more readily detected using the ACA-ELISA, whereas IgA was not detected in saliva with this assay. FMDV-specific IgA antibodies were detected in saliva samples using the IDAS-ELISA. These data show that parenterally administered, killed-virus vaccine does not induce a mucosal antibody response to FMDV and illuminates limitations and appropriate applications of the two ELISAs used to measure FMDV-specific responses. Further, the presence of the IgA antivirus in serum correlates with the presence of such antibodies in saliva.

Pacheco, Juan M.; Butler, John E.; Jew, Jessica; Ferman, Geoffrey S.; Zhu, James; Golde, William T.

2010-01-01

312

Elevated levels of IgM and IgA antibodies to Proteus mirabilis and IgM antibodies to Escherichia coli are associated with early rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Antibodies to Proteus mirabilis were previously detected in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the prevalence of antibodies to P. mirabilis and their associations with RA in early synovitis patients. Methods. Two hundred and forty-six patients with inflammatory arthritis for less than 1 yr were prospectively evaluated for 1 yr. Of these patients, 30% had rheumatoid factor

M. M. Newkirk; R. Goldbach-Mansky; B. W. Senior; J. Klippel; H. R. Schumacher Jr; H. S. El-Gabalawy

2005-01-01

313

A novel activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene mutation in a Tunisian family with hyper IgM syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in activation-induced cytidine deaminase can cause an autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome. We have examined a Tunisian family composed of six members: two healthy parents, their two healthy daughters and two affected sons. We found a homozygous transversion G to T in the two sons while heterozygosity for the mutation was found in all other family members. This

Claudia Fiorini; Sawssen Jilani; Claretta Gioia Losi; Antonietta Silini; Silvia Giliani; Simona Ferrari; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Alessandro Plebani; Taher Sfar; Ahmed Helal

2004-01-01

314

Generation of Human Antigen-Specific Monoclonal IgM Antibodies Using Vaccinated “Human Immune System” Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPassive transfer of antibodies not only provides immediate short-term protection against disease, but also can be exploited as a therapeutic tool. However, the ‘humanization’ of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a time-consuming and expensive process that has the inherent drawback of potentially altering antigenic specificity and\\/or affinity. The immortalization of human B cells represents an alternative for obtaining human mAbs,

Pablo D. Becker; Nicolas Legrand; Caroline M. M. van Geelen; Miriam Noerder; Nicholas D. Huntington; Annick Lim; Etsuko Yasuda; Sean A. Diehl; Ferenc A. Scheeren; Michael Ott; Kees Weijer; Heiner Wedemeyer; James P. Di Santo; Tim Beaumont; Carlos A. Guzman; Hergen Spits

2010-01-01

315

Comparative Specificities of Serum and Synovial Cell 19S IgM Rheumatoid Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rheumatoid factor (RF) may play a key role in sustaining the inflammatory events and tissue damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, many serum RF have greater specificity for rabbit IgG than for human IgG, thus raising questions about RF pathogenici...

D. L. Robbins R. Wistar

1985-01-01

316

Epitope analysis of peanut allergen Ara h1 with human monoclonal IgM antibody 92-2  

PubMed Central

A human-mouse hybridoma clone 92-2 secreting IgM-class human monoclonal antibody to peanut allergen protein Ara h1 was established. To detect antibody-binding sequences on Ara h1, we synthesized a series of peptides of the Ara h1 protein on a multi-pin apparatus for the pin-peptide ELISA. The 92-2 human monoclonal antibody was found to recognize a sequence of GREGEQEWGTPGSHVREETS. Further analysis with shorter pin-peptides with eight amino acid-long showed that the sequence of QEWGTPGS was an essential linear sequence of this epitope. When the QEW part of the sequence was replaced by alanine, the 92-2 monoclonal antibody did not bind to the substituted peptide, showing that those amino acids play an important role in the binding of the 92-2 monoclonal antibody.

Matsuo, Yuji; Naganawa, Yasunori; Tomita, Shinichi; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

2009-01-01

317

Epitope analysis of peanut allergen Ara h1 with oligoclonal IgM antibody from human B-lymphoblastoid cells  

PubMed Central

To analyze epitopes of peanut allergen Ara h1, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human peripheral oligoclonal B-cells were cultured to obtain antibodies to Ara h1. The combined reaction pattern with six oligoclonal antibodies showed there were six antibody binding areas named a to f in Ara h1. We found the novel antibody binding area named “area c” (171–230aa).

Shimmoto, Michie; Maleki, Soheila J.; Takase, Masayuki; Shinmoto, Hiroshi

2008-01-01

318

THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE RESTRAINT STRESS ON PIG LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND IGM PRODUCTION IN VITRO AND CORTISOL LEVELS IN VIVO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the effect of acute restraint stress on immune function and plasma cortisol levels. Crossbred pigs were restrained and blood collected initially and at 3 and 6 min of restraint. Plasma was collected for cortisol analysis and lymphocytes were isolated and plated in media conta...

319

Specific IGM and IGG Levels during the Acute and Chronic Phases of Fascioliasis. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human fascioliasis is a world-wide problem caused by the presence of either Fasciola hepatica or F. gigantica parasites. In Egypt, both Fasciola species are found and human fascioliasis is considered one of the causes of hepatic disorders. The present stu...

F. G. Youssef N. S. Mansour

1993-01-01

320

Modification of cord blood IL6 production with IgM enriched human immunoglobulin in term and preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute significantly to the morbidity of premature infants. IL-6 and IL-8 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary and cerebral tissue injury. The effect of human immunoglobulin preparations on cytokine production in preterm infants has not been studied. We investigated the influence of immunoglobulin on LPS stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production in cord blood of healthy preterm neonates.

J. Dembinski; R. Martini; D. Behrendt; P. Bartmann

2004-01-01

321

BCR Ligation Induces Receptor Editing in IgM +IgD ? Bone Marrow B Cells In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of BCR cross-linking to stimulate receptor editing was analyzed in vitro using bone marrow B cells from immunoglobulin (Ig) transgenic (Tg) and non-Tg mice. In cultured Ig-Tg cells, BCR ligation induced receptor editing as measured by up-regulation of RAG gene expression, light chain gene DNA rearrangements, and expression of ?-light chain protein in cells that previously expressed ?.

Marc Hertz; David Nemazee

1997-01-01

322

CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X- linked hyper IgM syndrome  

PubMed Central

X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restoring class switch recombination in XHM B cells and inducing cytokine secretion by monocytes. CP-870,893 infusions were well tolerated and showed significant activity in vivo, decreasing leukocyte concentration in peripheral blood. Although specific antibody responses were lacking, frequent dosing in one subject primed T cells to secrete IFN-g and suppressed oocyst shedding in the stool. Nevertheless, relapse occurred after discontinuation of therapy. The CD40 receptor was rapidly internalized following binding with CP-870,893, potentially explaining the limited capacity of CP-870,893 to mediate immune reconstitution. This study demonstrates that CP-870,893 suppressed oocysts shedding in XHM patients with biliary cryptosporidiosis. The continued study of CD40 agonists in XHM is warranted.

Fan, Xiying; Upadhyaya, Bhaskar; Wu, Liming; Koh, Christopher; Santin-Duran, Monica; Pittaluga, Stefania; Uzel, Gulbu; Kleiner, David; Williams, Ester; Ma, Chi A.; Bodansky, Aaron; Oliveira, Joao B.; Edmonds, Pamela; Hornung, Ronald; Wong, Duane W.; Fayer, Ronald; Fleisher, Tom; Heller, Theo; Prussin, Calman; Jain, Ashish

2012-01-01

323

Evidence of fibrinogen as a target of citrullination in IgM rheumatoid factor-positive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Several studies have noted the significance of measuring anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies in juvenile idiopathic\\u000a arthritis (JIA) as an important indicator for destructive disease, as is the case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While the\\u000a role of anti-CCP antibodies in RA and JIA has become better understood, the identity of the target proteins of this modification\\u000a has remained elusive. In

Brooke E Gilliam; Melinda R Reed; Anil K Chauhan; Amanda B Dehlendorf; Terry L Moore

2011-01-01

324

Analysis of Functional Epitopes on the Dengue 2 Envelope (E) Protein using Monoclonal IgM Antibodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty-two hybridomas secreting lgM antibody against dengue virus were derived from spleen cells of dengue 2 infected mice. Antibody from 27 of these recognised the E protein of this virus. Of the 22 antibodies which neutralised dengue 2, only two cross-re...

Z. Jianmin M. L. Linn R. Bulich M. K. Gentry J. G. Aaskov

1995-01-01

325

Biotin-labeled antigen: A novel approach for detection of Puumala virus-specific IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, BLA IgM-ELISA, based on baculovirus-expressed Puumala (PUU) virus nucleocapsid protein, was developed for rapid diagnosis of nephropathia epidemica. The recombinant antigen (bac-PUU-N) was purified to homogeneity by HPLC and conjugated to biotin. The biotin-streptavidin system, in combination with the ?-capture technique, rendered the BLA IgM-ELISA a sensitivity similar to or higher than that of PUU

A. Ivanov; O. Vapalahti; H. Lankinen; E. Tkachenko; A. Vaheri; B. Niklasson; A. Lundkvist

1996-01-01

326

Inadequacy of musocal IgM antibodies in selective IgA deficiency: Excretion of attenuated polio viruses is prolonged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nationwide vaccination campaign with oral poliovirus vaccine was organized in Finland in 1985 in order to cease an outbreak of poliomyelitis. We followed eight IgA-deficient individuals and nine controls for poliovirus excretion in feces and for antibody responses in serum and saliva. Five weeks after oral poliovirus vaccination all eight IgA-deficient individuals were still excreting polioviruses, in contrast to

E. Savilahti; T. Klemola; B. Carlsson; L. Mellander; M. Stenvik; T. Hovi

1988-01-01

327

Synergistic antitumor effects of 131I-LC-1 IgM and IL12 vaccine on Lewis lung carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the antitumor effects of iodine-131 labeled monoclonal antibody LC-1 (131I-LC-1), interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccine, or the combination of both on C57BL\\/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors. Tumor-bearing mice models were randomly divided into 4 groups that were respectively injected intratumorally with phosphate buffered solution (PBS), IL-12 vaccine gene therapy (GT), 131I-LC-1 radioimmuno-therapy (RIT),

Xiao Ling Yin; Xuexian Yan; Ming Wen; Zhi Ping Peng; Shao Lin Li

2010-01-01

328

Testing and evaluating virus detectors for handheld devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of personal digital assistants and smartphones gives securing these devices a high priority. Yet little attention has been placed on protecting handheld devices against viruses. Currently available antivirus software for handhelds is few in number. At this stage, the opportunity exists for the evaluation and improvement of current solutions. By pinpointing weaknesses in the current antivirus software,

Jose Andre Morales; Peter J. Clarke; Yi Deng; B. M. Golam Kibria

2006-01-01

329

Embedded Malware Detection Using Markov n-Grams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded malware is a recently discovered security threat that allows malcode to be hidden inside a benign file. It has been shown that embedded malware is not detected by commercial antivirus software even when the malware signature is present in the antivirus database. In this paper, we present a novel anomaly detection scheme to detect embedded malware. We first analyze

M. Zubair Shafiq; Syed Ali Khayam; Muddassar Farooq

2008-01-01

330

Mitogenic stimulation of malignant B cells. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: secretion of monoclonal IgM by in vitro-induced plasmablasts.  

PubMed Central

This study provides evidence that leukaemic B cells are able to proliferate and differentiate into plasmablasts. The Ig produced was monoclonal in nature and this was shown by gel electrophoresis. Images Fig. 2

Bloem, A C; van Hooff, C O; Bast, E J; Ballieux, R E

1984-01-01

331

Development of a micropshere-based immunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies to West Nile virus and St. Louis Encephalitis virus in sentinel chicken sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis Encephalitis (SLEV) are arthropod-borne viruses belonging to the genus Flavivirus and are classified as significant human pathogens of global epidemiological importance. Since its introduction into the United States in 1999, WNV has spread throughout most of the country and has caused major epidemics of neuroinvasive disease (Hayes and Gubler, 2005). SLEV is endemic

Logan C Haller

2006-01-01

332

T cell-independent development and induction of somatic hypermutation in human IgM+ IgD+ CD27+ B cells.  

PubMed

IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells from peripheral blood have been described as circulating marginal zone B cells. It is still unknown when and where these cells develop. These IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells exhibit somatic hypermutations (SHMs) in their B cell receptors, but the exact nature of the signals leading to induction of these SHMs remains elusive. Here, we show that IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells carrying SHMs are observed during human fetal development. To examine the role of T cells in human IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cell development we used an in vivo model in which Rag2(-/-)gamma(C)(-/-) mice were repopulated with human hematopoietic stem cells. Using Rag2(-/-)gamma(C)(-/-) mice on a Nude background, we demonstrated that development and induction of SHMs of human IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells can occur in a T cell-independent manner. PMID:18695003

Scheeren, Ferenc A; Nagasawa, Maho; Weijer, Kees; Cupedo, Tom; Kirberg, Jörg; Legrand, Nicolas; Spits, Hergen

2008-08-11

333

An Alternative Form of IL18 in Human Blood Plasma: Complex Formation with IgM Defined by Monoclonal Antibodies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal Abs 21 and 132 were raised against human functionally inactive rIL-18, and plasma IL-18 levels were determined by the sandwich ELISA established with these mAbs. Plasma IL-18, designated type 2, was detected by this ELISA, and the levels found were not consistent with those obtained with the commercially available kit for determination of functionally active IL-18 (type 1). Type

Kyoko Shida; Ikuo Shiratori; Misak Matsumoto; Yasuo Fukumori; Akio Matsuhisa; Satomi Kikkawa; Shoutaro Tsuji; Haruki Okamura; Kumao Toyoshima; Tsukasa Seya

334

Heterosubtypic Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Cross-Protective against H5N1 and H1N1 Recovered from Human IgM+ Memory B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein is the principal target of protective humoral immune responses to influenza virus infections but such antibody responses only provide efficient protection against a narrow spectrum of HA antigenic variants within a given virus subtype. Avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 are currently panzootic and pose a pandemic threat. These viruses are antigenically diverse and protective strategies

Mark Throsby; Edward van den Brink; Mandy Jongeneelen; Leo L. M. Poon; Philippe Alard; Lisette Cornelissen; Arjen Bakker; Freek Cox; Els van Deventer; Yi Guan; Jindrich Cinatl; Jan Ter Meulen; Ignace Lasters; Rita Carsetti; Malik Peiris; John de Kruif; Jaap Goudsmit; Derya Unutmaz

2008-01-01

335

Effect of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on IgA, IgM and IgG concentrations and proliferation of porcine blood lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important effect of the trichothecene mycotoxins is the impairment of the immune function, but immunotoxicity studies have mainly been conducted on the mouse model. In the present study, the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) on the proliferation of ConA stimulated porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) was assessed in vitro after adding of 70–560ng DON per ml medium, and in vivo

Tanja Goyarts; Sven Dänicke; Ute Tiemann; Hermann-Josef Rothkötter

2006-01-01

336

Field Evaluation and Impact on Clinical Management of a Rapid Diagnostic Kit That Detects Dengue NS1, IgM and IgG  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue diagnosis is complex and until recently only specialized laboratories were able to definitively confirm dengue infection. Rapid tests are now available commercially making biological diagnosis possible in the field. The aim of this study was to evaluate a combined dengue rapid test for the detection of NS1 and IgM/IgG antibodies. The evaluation was made prospectively in the field conditions and included the study of the impact of its use as a point-of-care test for case management as well as retrospectively against a panel of well-characterized samples in a reference laboratory. Methodology/Principal Findings During the prospective study, 157 patients hospitalized for a suspicion of dengue were enrolled. In the hospital laboratories, the overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the NS1/IgM/IgG combination tests were 85.7%, 83.9%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively, whereas they were 94,4%, 90.0%, 97.5% and 77.1% respectively in the national reference laboratory at Institut Pasteur in Cambodia. These results demonstrate that optimal performances require adequate training and quality assurance. The retrospective study showed that the sensitivity of the combined kit did not vary significantly between the serotypes and was not affected by the immune status or by the interval of time between onset of fever and sample collection. The analysis of the medical records indicates that the physicians did not take into consideration the results obtained with the rapid test including for care management and use of antibiotic therapy. Conclusions In the context of our prospective field study, we demonstrated that if the SD Bioline Dengue Duo kit is correctly used, a positive result highly suggests a dengue case but a negative result doesn't rule out a dengue infection. Nevertheless, Cambodian pediatricians in their daily practice relied on their clinical diagnosis and thus the false negative results obtained did not directly impact on the clinical management.

Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ngan, Chantha; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Sroin, Kim Kim; Te, Vantha; Y, Bunthin; Try, Patrich Lorn; Buchy, Philippe

2012-01-01

337

Cryosurgical ablation of liver tumors in colon cancer patients increases the serum total ganglioside level and then selectively augments antiganglioside IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryosurgical ablation (CSA) of tumors induces disruptive necrosis. Necrosis may release tumor gangliosides into circulation and they may augment serum antiganglioside antibodies depending on the nature of gangliosides released. The hypothesis is tested by determining the level of serum total gangliosides (STG) and their antibody titers in the sera of colon cancer patients with cryoablated liver tumors. As controls, we

Mepur H Ravindranath; Thomas F Wood; Daniel Soh; Alexandra Gonzales; Sakunthala Muthugounder; Carlos Perez; Donald L Morton; Anton J Bilchik

2002-01-01

338

CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restori...

339

Development of Novel Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM Enzyme Immunoassays Based on Recombinant Puumala and Dobrava Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human infections with Asian and European hantaviruses can result in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndromes of differing severities characterized by renal dysfunction and sometimes by pulmonary symptoms. For the serological detection of human infections by hantaviruses relevant for Europe, we developed mono- clonal antibody capture immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on yeast-expressed nucleocapsid proteins of

Helga Meisel; Anne Wolbert; Ausra Razanskiene; Andreas Marg; Andris Kazaks; Kestutis Sasnauskas; Georg Pauli; Rainer Ulrich; Detlev H. Kruger

2006-01-01

340

Single Antigen Detects both Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Antibodies Elicited by All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resurgence of dengue (DEN) virus infections in the last few decades coupled with the lack of a preventive vaccine and specific antiviral drugs has jointly contributed to making this a significant global public health problem. Currently, symptomatic supportive treatment and fluid replacement therapy are the only means available to minimize DEN-induced mortality. As the clinical symptoms associated with DEN

Menaka D. Hapugoda; Gaurav Batra; W. Abeyewickreme; S. Swaminathan; N. Khanna

2007-01-01

341

Development of a measles specific IgM ELISA for use with serum and oral fluid samples using recombinant measles nucleoprotein produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop sensitive assays for detecting measles antibodies in oral fluid specimens, we have produced recombinant measles virus nucleoprotein (rMVN) in a yeast expression system and prepared monoclonal antibodies to the protein. Measles nucleoprotein gene from the Schwarz vaccine strain was cloned into a yeast expression vector, pFX7 under the control of the hybrid GAL10-PYK1 promoter. High levels

Dhanraj Samuel; Kestutis Sasnauskas; Li Jin; Alma Gedvilaite; Rimas Slibinskas; Stuart Beard; Aurelija Zvirbliene; Solange Artimos Oliveira; Juozas Staniulis; Bernard Cohen; David Brown

2003-01-01

342

Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from the peripheral blood of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia can secrete IgM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from the peripheral blood of three individuals with X-linked agammaglobulinemia as well as three of their immunodeficient first-degree relatives. Lines could be induced with Epstein-Barr virus only when T lymphocytes were depleted from total mononuclear leukocytes. The LCLs derived from XLA patients expressed characteristics of IgM-secreting plasmacytes, including intense cytoplasmic fluorescence after staining

Daniel Levitt; Hans Ochs; Ralph J. Wedgwood

1984-01-01

343

The common occurrence of internal image type anti-idiotypic antibodies in rabbits immunized with monoclonal and polyclonal human IgM rheumatoid factors.  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that rabbits immunized with a polyclonal human rheumatoid factor (RF) autoantibody preparation could induce anti-idiotypic antibodies bearing the 'internal image' of the Fc fragments of human IgG. The 'internal image' anti-idiotype have been shown to react with both the RF molecules as well as with the RF receptors on B lymphocytes. Under what conditions these anti-idiotypes occur is not known. Presently, we report that these anti-idiotypic antibodies occur more frequently than previously thought and could be isolated in sera of rabbits immunized with either monoclonal paraproteins with RF activity or other purified human polyclonal serum RFs. Immunization of rabbits with a peptide corresponding to the second complementarity-determining regions of a monoclonal RF did not induce this anti-idiotype. Immunization of goats with human RF similarly did not result in induction of such anti-idiotype. Induction of these anti-idiotypes thus depended upon immunization with the intact RF antigen as well as the species of animal immunized. The repeated isolation of 'internal image' anti-idiotypic antibodies from RF immunized rabbits suggests that the antigenic conformations recognized by human RF autoantibodies are restricted, and that 'internal image' anti-idiotypic species to RF may pre-exist within the rabbit immune network. Such broadly cross-reactive anti-idiotypic reagents provide unique reagents for studying the regulation of RF autoantibody synthesis.

Fong, S; Gilbertson, T A; Chen, P P; Karras, J G; Vaughan, J H; Carson, D A

1986-01-01

344

Evaluation of the MRL Diagnostics Dengue Fever Virus IgM Capture ELISA and the PanBio Rapid Immunochromatographic Test for Diagnosis of Dengue Fever in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile illness caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The more severe form of DF, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)-dengue shock syndrome (DSS), can prove fatal, especially among young children, who account for the majority of the 5% annual case-fatality rate in countries where DF is endemic (4). The most challenging problem associated with patient

CAROL J. PALMER; S. DOROTHY KING; RAUL R. CUADRADO; EDDY PEREZ; MARIANA BAUM; ARBA L. AGER

1999-01-01

345

Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates Development and application in parasitology-mycology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning

D. Aubert; F. Foudrinier; M. L. Kaltenbach; D. Guyot-Walser; C. Marx-Chemla; R. Geers; H. Lepan; J. M. Pinon

1995-01-01

346

IDIOTYPE PROFILE OF AN IMMUNE RESPONSE I. Contrasts in Idiotypic Dominance between Primary and Secondary Responses and between IgM and IgG Plaque-forming Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous antigens are now known that can induce antibodies bearing similar or identical variable region determinants (idiotypes) in all individuals of one or more strains of inbred mice (1-3). In many cases, the immune response to such antigens is of a highly restricted character, as judged by isoelectricfocusing (IEF) 1 of induced antibodies or other criteria. A curious feature is

JOHN D. CONGER; GEORGE K. LEWIS; JOEL W. GOODMAN

347

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Antibodies against Canine Distemper Virus by a New Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) infection causes a frequently fatal systemic disease in a broad range of carnivore species, including domestic dogs. In CDV infection, classical serology provides data of diagnostic and prognostic values (kinetics of seroconversion) and is also used to predict the optimal vaccination age of pups. Routine CDV serology is still based on time- and cost-intensive virus neutralization

VERONIKA VON MESSLING; TIMM C. HARDER; VOLKER MOENNIG; PETER RAUTENBERG; INGO NOLTE; LUDWIG HAAS

348

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Soluble Promastigote Antigen Detects Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Antibodies in Sera from Cases of Visceral and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality in areas where it is endemic. In areas where it is nonendemic, global travel and increased incidence of the disease in human immunodeficiency virus and intravenous-drug user populations are also causes for concern. The unavailability of rapid and reliable tests for diagnosis of the various leishmaniases makes patient management difficult. We have developed an

Jeffrey R. Ryan; Anthony M. Smithyman; G-Halli Rajasekariah; Lisa Hochberg; John M. Stiteler

2002-01-01

349

Intrinsic differences in the initiation of B cell receptor signaling favor responses of human IgG+ memory B cells over IgM+ na?ve B cells  

PubMed Central

The acquisition of long-lived memory B cells (MBCs) is critical for the defense against many infectious diseases. Despite their importance, little is known about how antigens (Ags) trigger human MBCs, even though our understanding of the molecular basis of Ag activation of B cells in model systems has advanced considerably. Here, we use quantitative, high-resolution, live cell imaging at the single cell and single molecule levels to describe the earliest Ag-driven events in human isotype-switched, IgG-expressing MBCs and compare them to those in IgM-expressing naïve B cells. We show that human MBCs are more robust than naïve B cells at each step in the initiation of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including interrogation of Ag-containing membranes, formation of sub-microscopic BCR oligomers and recruitment and activation of signaling-associated kinases. Despite their robust response to Ag, MBCs remain highly sensitive to Fc?RIIB-mediated inhibition. We also demonstrate that in the absence of Ag, a portion of MBC receptors spontaneously oligomerized and phosphorylated kinases accumulated at the membrane and speculate that heightened constitutive signaling may play a role in maintaining MBC longevity. Using high-resolution imaging we have provided a description of the earliest events in the Ag activation of MBCs and evidence for acquired cell-intrinsic differences in the initiation of BCR signaling in human naïve and MBCs.

Davey, Angel M.; Pierce, Susan K.

2012-01-01

350

Intrathecal IgM, IgA and IgG antibody response in tick-borne encephalitis. Long-term follow-up related to clinical course and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) of western subtype causes long-term morbidity and is considered a health problem in Scandinavia, eastern and central parts of Europe and Russia. The pathophysiology is not fully elucidated. As TBE RNA is rarely demonstrable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) the kinetics of the CSF antibody response to the disease has attracted attention.Objectives: To investigate the intrathecal TBE-specific

Göran Günther; Mats Haglund; Lars Lindquist; Birgit Sköldenberg; Marianne Forsgren

1997-01-01

351

Architectural Support for Run-Time Validation of Program Data Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer systems penetrate deeper into our lives and handle private data, safety-critical applications, and transactions of high monetary value, efforts to breach their security also assume significant dimensions way beyond an amateur hacker's play. Until now, security was always an afterthought. This is evident in regular updates to antivirus software, patches issued by vendors after software bugs are discovered,

Divya Arora; Srivaths Ravi; Anand Raghunathan; Niraj K. Jha

2007-01-01

352

RiskRanker: scalable and accurate zero-day android malware detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smartphone sales have recently experienced explosive growth. Their popularity also encourages malware authors to penetrate various mobile marketplaces with malicious applications (or apps). These malicious apps hide in the sheer number of other normal apps, which makes their detection challenging. Existing mobile anti-virus software are inadequate in their reactive nature by relying on known malware samples for signature extraction. In

Michael Grace; Yajin Zhou; Qiang Zhang; Shihong Zou; Xuxian Jiang

2012-01-01

353

The effectiveness of vaccinations on the spread of email-borne computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, computer viruses have caused tremendous losses to organizations. New viruses continue to cause havoc, in spite of having better antivirus software. It is thus imperative that we understand what factors significantly influence the spread of viruses. In this paper, we model the networks of users as graphs. For simplicity, we assume that every user works only

S. Data; Hui Wang

2005-01-01

354

Server-side dynamic code analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common use of packers is a real challenge for the anti-virus community. Indeed, a static signature analysis can usually only detect and sometimes remove known packers if a specific unpacking routine has been programmed manually. Generic unpacking does not solve the problem due to its limited effectiveness. Additionally, the important number of binaries to scan on a daily basis

Wadie Guizani; Jean-Yves Marion; Daniel Reynaud-Plantey

2009-01-01

355

Large-scale malware indexing using function-call graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge of the anti-virus (AV) industry is how to ef- fectively process the huge influx of malware samples they receive every day. One possible solution to this problem is to quickly de- termine if a new malware sample is similar to any previously-seen malware program. In thispaper, we design, implement and evaluate a malware database management system called

Xin Hu; Tzi-cker Chiueh; Kang G. Shin

2009-01-01

356

MalTRAK: Tracking and Eliminating Unknown Malware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malware or malicious code is a rapidly evolving threat to the computing community. Zero-day malware are exploiting vulnerabilities very soon after being discovered and are spreading quickly. However, anti-virus tools, which are the most widely used countering mechanism, are unable to cope with this. They are based on signatures which need to be computed for new malware strains. After a

Amit Vasudevan

2008-01-01

357

Computer Forensics Investigations in a Corporate Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most organizations today accept that it is a fundamental business requirement to protect electronic information assets, and are implementing an increasing number of information security counter_measures, such as intrusion detection systems (IDS), access control mechanisms, and anti_virus products to protect their IT systems from potential security threats.

Deniz Sinangin

2002-01-01

358

Help for the Help Desk: School District Technology Managers Learn to Do with Less.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the E-Rate has been a catalyst for school technology purchases, there are no subsidies for hiring qualified technology support staff. District technology coordinators are relying on technology support systems and shoestring survival strategies, employing standardized equipment and hard-drive configurations, desktop lockdowns, anti-virus

Kongshem, Lars

2001-01-01

359

Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

Gunter, Glenda A.

1997-01-01

360

Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

1995-01-01

361

Design of RFID Slot Tag Antenna for Metal Containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worm propagation model is an important issue in network information security. Based on the knowledge of infectious disease dynamics, the major methods to research worm propagation are related to some characteristics of network, such as topology, traffic, user behavior. In 2008, with the transformation of key antivirus work from the terminal PC to network server group, the industry put forward

Yanmei Zhang; Hongjin Wang

2010-01-01

362

An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

2002-01-01

363

Collective Defense: Applying the Public-Health Model to the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments, enterprises, and consumers face myriad technically advanced and persistent computer threats. Commonly available cyberdefenses such as firewalls, antivirus software, and automatic updates for security patches help reduce the risk from threats. However, they're inadequate because many consumers sometimes ignore the guidance provided or engage in other unsafe actions (such as downloading executable programs from unknown sources). Those with infected

Scott Charney

2012-01-01

364

IT Security Strategies for SME's  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is leaning more on their information technology (IT) infrastructure but they lack the means to secure it appropriately due to financial restrictions, limited resources, and adequate know-how. Many SME managers believe that IT security in their company is basically equivalent to having a firewall and updating the antivirus software regularly. Strategic policies, information theft, business

Ji-Yeu Park; Rosslin John Robles; Chang-Hwa Hong; Sang-Soo Yeo; Tai-hoon Kim

2008-01-01

365

How Much Security Does Your Library Need?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how to keep library systems healthy and functioning by taking sensible security measures. Examines why hackers would target library systems and how library systems are compromised. Describes tools that can help, including: firewalls; antivirus software; alarms; network analysis tools; and encryption. Identifies several strategies for…

Banerjee, Kyle

2003-01-01

366

Peace (of Mind) in Our Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There's no silver bullet to information security; universities must continue to keep their antivirus, anti-spyware, firewall, and patch management systems in good working order. These days, the largest target for hackers appears to be university databases. Now, universities are searching for new solutions to safeguard those systems. This article…

Panettieri, Joseph C.

2007-01-01

367

Computer viruses: ways of reproduction in MS-DOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods used by computer viruses to reproduce themselves in IBM PC-compatibles operating under MS-DOS are studied. The results can be of use for classification of viruses and the creation of anti-virus tools. Viruses are examined under the following headings: irritating viruses, viruses that damage files, viruses that damage the file system and viruses that injure the hardware

S. I. Shoutkov; A. V. Spesivtsev

1991-01-01

368

Using Code Normalization for Fighting Self-Mutating Malware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self mutating malware has been introduced by computer virus writers who, in '90s, started to write polymorphic and metamorphic viruses in order to defeat anti-virus products. In this paper we present a novel approach for dealing with self mutating code which could represent the basis for a new detection strategy for this type of malware. A tool prototype has been

Danilo Bruschi; Lorenzo Martignoni; Mattia Monga

2006-01-01

369

Towards Stealthy Malware Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malcode can be easily hidden in document files and go undetected by standard technology. We demonstrate this opportunity of stealthy malcode insertion in several experiments using a standard COTS Anti-Virus (AV) scanner. Furthermore, in the case ofzero-daymalicious exploit code, signature- based AV scanners would fail to detect such malcode even if the scanner knew where to look. We propose the

Salvatore J. Stolfo; Ke Wang; Wei-Jen Li

370

Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Ines; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, Maria A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Alvarez, Angel L.

2012-01-01

371

A Mission-Impact-Based Approach to INFOSEC Alarm Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a mission-impact-based approach to the analysis of security alerts produced by spatially distributed heterogeneous information security (INFOSEC) devices, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, authentication services, and antivirus software. The intent of this work is to deliver an automated capa- bility to reduce the time and cost of managing multiple INFOSEC devices through a strategy of topology analysis,

Phillip A. Porras; Martin W. Fong; Alfonso Valdes

2002-01-01

372

Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco

2012-12-01

373

Research of intelligent immune intrusion detection system about combating virus with “virus”  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the limitation problems exist in the anti-virus software, firewall, intrusion detection system, intrusion defense system and vulnerability scanning system, the research of the active defense system is imperative. This paper cited the feasibility and necessity of combating virus with \\

Zhou Shao-jing; Shao Wen-li; Rong Hui; Chen Zhen-ting; Yang Yu

2011-01-01

374

Biological activities and corresponding SARs of andrographolide and its derivatives.  

PubMed

In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized large numbers of andrographolide derivatives, which bear important biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antivirus, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antifeedant. Consequently, corresponding SARs were increasingly obvious. This paper aimed to review all the available literature in this field, highlighting the significant achievements on the structural modification and SARs of andrographolide and its derivatives. PMID:23438057

Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Dayong; Wu, Xiaoming

2013-02-01

375

Lock It Up! Computer Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The data contained on desktop computer systems and networks pose security issues for virtually every district. Sensitive information can be protected by educating users, altering the physical layout, using password protection, designating access levels, backing up data, reformatting floppy disks, using antivirus software, and installing…

Wodarz, Nan

1997-01-01

376

A Comparative Study on Marketing Mix Models for Digital Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of the Internet and electronic commerce provide a huge marketspace and unique transaction process for digital products. It is signiflcant to discuss whether established marketing models can be revised for digital products. First, the unique features of digital products are systematically reviewed, and then three typical digital products, in- cluding e-books, anti-virus, and online translation services, are analyzed

Kanliang Wang; Yuan Wang; Jingtao Yao

2005-01-01

377

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AS A TOOL FOR STUDYING THE PROTEIN-STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP IN FISH MYOSIN ANTICUERPOS MONOCLONALES COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA EL ESTUDIO DE LA RELACIÓN PROTEÍNA-ESTRUCTURA EN MIOSINA DE PEZ ANTICORPOS MONOCLONAIS COMO FERRAMENTA PARA O ESTUDO DA RELACIÓN PROTEÍNA-ESTRUCTURA EN MIOSINA DE PEIXE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish muscle protein presents unique properties such as reduced frozen storage stability and setting phenomena. Both two are associated with myosin interactions and are highly dependent on fish specie. Although protein functional properties are highly correlated with amino acid sequence and with distinct structural domains, it is very difficult to determine this relationship for fish myosin, due to its high

J. A. Ramírez; E. Bandman; M. Wick; M. O. Martín-Polo

1998-01-01

378

Seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra el virus de hepatitis C (VHC) en trabajadoras sexuales que acuden a un Centro de Referencia de Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (CERITSS) de la ciudad de Iquitos, Perú Seroprevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C virus in Female sex workers patients from the sexually transmitted Infections Reference Center in Iquitos, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducction: the principal described risk factors to contract the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are blood transfusion antecedents and intravenous drug use; sexual transmission risk is controversial. In Peru there exist few studies whose female sex worker (FSW) HCV prevalence oscillates between 0-1%. The present study is based in Iquitos, a Peruvian jungle city with high sexual commerce and HIV\\/AIDS prevalence.

2007-01-01

379

Ionization History of The Intergalactic Medium:.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The funded project seeked a unified description of the ionization, physical structure, and evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and quasar intervening absorption systems. We proposed to conduct theoretical studies of the IGM and QSO absorbers in th...

P. Madau

2003-01-01

380

Diagnósticos In Vitro de Análisis de Sangre (OBRR)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... que han salido al mercado, que detectan anticuerpos al VIH, al virus linfotrópico de células T humano (VLTH), al virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) y al ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

381

Marginal zone B cells transport and deposit IgM-containing immune complexes onto follicular dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secreted IgM and complement are important mediators in the optimal initiation of primary T-dependent humoral immune responses. Secreted IgM serves as a natural adjuvant by enhancing the immunogenicity of protein antigens, perhaps as a result of IgM's ability to facilitate antigen deposition onto follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and promote rapid germinal center (GC) formation. To understand how IgM enhances adaptive

Andrew R. Ferguson; Michele E. Youd; Ronald B. Corley

2004-01-01

382

IDENTIFICATION OF SUBPOPULATIONS OF MONONUCLEAR CELLS IN CUTANEOUS INFILTRATES I. DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN B CELLS, T CELLS, AND HISTIOCYTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation between bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (B cells), thymus-derived lymphocytes (T cells), and histiocytes has been achieved in tissue sections through utilization of known differences in cell membrane receptors.Sheep erythrocytes (E) were coated with either IgG or IgM antibody (A) to form IgG or IgM EA. IgM EA was incubated with mouse complement (C) to form IgM EAC. Cryosections were layered

Richard L. Edelson; Richard W. Smith; Michael M. Frank; Ira Green

1973-01-01

383

Determination of normal human fetal immunoglobulin M levels.  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were measured in 198 cord blood samples from 192 apparently normal pregnancies from 24 weeks of gestation to term. Simple linear regression analysis yielded a standard curve for IgM development during pregnancy showing a 0.5 mg/dl increase in IgM per week of gestation. This curve allows the comparison of fetal IgM levels from pregnancies considered to be at risk for intrauterine infection.

Vick, D J; Hogge, W A; Normansell, D E; Burkett, B J; Harbert, G M

1995-01-01

384

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis Associated with Corynebacterium Sp. Infection  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory condition of the breast. The etiology and treatments options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that Corynebacterium sp., a gram-positive bacillus endogenous to the skin, may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM with a positive culture for Corynebacterium sp. reported in the United States.

Lee, Yun Sun; Balfour, John

2011-01-01

385

Spontaneous Production of Immunoglobulin M in Human Epithelial Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

It is well known that B-1 B cells are the main cell type that is responsible for the production of natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) and can respond to infection by increasing IgM secretion. However, we unexpectedly found that some epithelial cells also can express rearranged IgM transcript that has natural IgM characteristics, such as germline-encoded and restricted rearrangement patterns. Here we studied IgM expression in human non-B cells and found that IgM was frequently expressed by many human epithelial cancer cells as well as non-cancer epithelial cells. Moreover, CD79A and CD79B, two molecules that are physically linked to membranous IgM on the surface of B cells to form the B cell antigen receptor complex, were also expressed on the cell surface of epithelial cancer cells and co-located with IgM. Like the natural IgM, the epithelial cancer cell-derived IgM recognized a series of microbial antigens, such as single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, lipopolysaccharide, and the HEp-2 cell antigen. More important, stimulation of the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which mimics bacterial infection, substantially increased the secretion of IgM in human epithelial cancer cells. These findings indicate that human epithelial cancer cells as well as non-cancer epithelial cells can spontaneously produce IgM with natural antibody activity.

Hu, Fanlei; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Jie; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Jing; Shao, Wenwei; Liao, Qinyuan; Ma, Teng; Geng, Li; Yin, C. Cameron; Qiu, Xiaoyan

2012-01-01

386

SPICE: Scalable P2P implicit group messaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit group messaging (IGM) is a decoupled messaging paradigm for connecting content publishers and consumers over the Inter- net. Unlike traditional multicast or publish\\/subscribe messaging, IGM delivers content to ''implicit groups'' of consumers with charac- teristics specified by the publisher at the time of publication. IGM systems must support thousands of users and an infinite number of implicit groups formed

Daniel Cutting; Aaron J. Quigley; Björn Landfeldt

2008-01-01

387

Can DNS-Based Blacklists Keep Up with Bots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Internet Service Providers (ISPs), anti-virus com- panies, and enterprise email vendors use Domain Name System-based Blackhole Lists (DNSBLs) to keep track of IP addresses that originate spam, so that future emails sent from these IP addresses can be rejected out-of-hand. DNSBL operators populate blocking lists based on complaints from recipients of spam, who report the IP address of the

Anirudh Ramachandran; David Dagon; Nick Feamster

2006-01-01

388

Variations in the large surface protein gene of hepatitis B virus in vivo: a longitudinal study and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To develop a method for longitudinal study of variations in the large surface protein gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vivo and apply it to the investigation of the dynamics of HBV quasispecies. METHODS: Two HBV carriers were included in the study. Patient 1 was a 38-year-old male who received no anti-virus therapy before and dur- ing the

Nan Yu; Jin Cui; Guo-Bao Zhou; Yun-Jiao Zhang; Jing-Li Chen

389

ZDVUE: prioritization of javascript attacks to discover new vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malware writers are constantly looking for new vulnerabilities to exploit in popular software applications. A successful exploit of a previously unknown vulnerability, that evades state-of-the art anti-virus and intrusion-detection systems is called a zero-day vulnerability. JavaScript is a popular vehicle for testing and delivering attacks through drive-by downloads on web clients. Failed attack attempts leave traces of suspicious activity on

Sandeep Karanth; Srivatsan Laxman; Prasad Naldurg; Ramarathnam Venkatesan; J. Lambert; Jinwook Shin

2011-01-01

390

Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks\\u000a and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security\\u000a solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks\\u000a that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version

Igor Nai Fovino; Andrea Carcano; Marcelo Masera; Alberto Trombetta

2009-01-01

391

Effects of zhaoyangwan on chronic hepatitis B and posthepatic cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the therapeutic effects of zhaoyangwan (ZYW) on chronic hepatitis B and hepatic cirrhosis and the anti-virus, anti-fibrosis and immunoregulatory mechanisms of ZYW. METHODS: Fifty cases of chronic hepatitis B and posthepatic cirrhosis with positive serum HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-Hbc and HBV-DNA were divided randomly and single-blindly into the treatment group (treated with ZYW) and the control group (treated

Cui-Ping Zhang; Zi-Bin Tian; Xi-Shuang Liu; Qing-Xi Zhao; Jun Wu; Yong-Xin Liang

392

A Robust Technique of Anti Key-Logging using Key-Logging Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

System security and privacy always have to face new confronts. Continuous updates in the operating systems and anti-virus applications strive to amplify the system security level. In recent years 'key-loggers' have proved to be one of the prevalent intimidations to security and privacy. Key-logger is a surreptitious surveillance application, which is used to keep record of user's activities on the

Muzammil M. Baig; W. Mahmood

2007-01-01

393

WORM vs. WORM: Preliminary Study of an Active Counter›Attack Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-propagating computer worms have been terrorizing the Internet for the last several years. With the increasing den- sity, inter-connectivity and bandwidth of the Internet com- bined with security measures that inadequately scale, worms will continue to plague the Internet community. Existing anti-virus and intrusion detection systems are clearly inade- quate to defend against many recent fast-spreading worms. In this paper

Frank Cast; Emre Can Sezer; Jun Xu

394

WORM vs. WORM: preliminary study of an active counter-attack mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-propagating computer worms have been terrorizing the Internet for the last several years. With the increasing density, inter-connectivity and bandwidth of the Internet combined with security measures that inadequately scale, worms will continue to plague the Internet community. Existing anti-virus and intrusion detection systems are clearly inadequate to defend against many recent fast-spreading worms. In this paper we explore an

Frank Castaneda; Emre Can Sezer; Jun Xu

2004-01-01

395

Information Technology Services Newsletter: Spring 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

C O N T E N T S New Lab PCs, Campus Computing in Top Ten 1 Managing E-mail Quotas 2 Identity Management System Enabled, Faculty Access To COCIDs 3 Computer Training Workshops 4 ANGEL 6.2, Camtasia, Resnet 5 AntiVirus 6 Users In The News 7 Technology Survey 8 PCount Pilot, Sympodium Interactive Pen Display 8 Wireless Update 8 New

Mary Jo Orzech

2005-01-01

396

Information Technology Services Newsletter: Spring 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

C O N T E N T S ANGEL 6.0, Smart Classroom, NetOP 1 Anti-Virus FAQ, Websites, Faculty\\/Staff Technology Support Initiative, MINITAB 2 CTC Survey, Printing 3 Web Building, Assistive Technology, IT Spotlight 4 Web Accessibility, SUNY Learning Network 5 SUNY Training Center, EASI Training 6 Library Database Training,ITSS Software Training 7-8 FAQ’s - Firewalls, Spyware, SPAM, E-mail Filters 9

Mary Jo Orzech

2004-01-01

397

Immune responses and protection induced by mucosal and systemic immunisation with recombinant measles nucleoprotein in a mouse model of measles virus-induced encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?In this study the immunogenicity of recombinant nucleoprotein (Np) administered intranasally or intraperitoneally, and its\\u000a ability to support a systemic protective anti-virus antibody response was examined, in a mouse model of measles virus (MV)-induced\\u000a encephalitis. Although both intranasal and intraperitoneal routes of immunisation resulted in priming Np-and MV-specific T-cell\\u000a responses, the intraperitoneal route was shown to prime for a predominantly

W. Olszewska; J. Erume; J. Ripley; M. W. Steward; C. D. Partidos

2001-01-01

398

Influence of arachidonic acid and phytoviruses on the hormonal system of potato plants grown in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the phytohormonal system during the development of antivirus resistance was investigated. This resistance was induced\\u000a by arachidonic acid (AA) in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in vitro. The plants in tubes were treated with AA 7 days before infection with tobacco mosaic virus or potato X virus. These plants\\u000a were used for ABA, IAA, and cytokinin quantification.

N. A. Rozhnova; G. A. Gerashchenkov

2006-01-01

399

Aktivitas imunostimulan susu kedelai terhadap imunoglobulin (IgG, IgA) dan proliferasi sel limfosit pada mencit Balb\\/c yang diinduksi hepatitis A Immunostimulant activity of soybean milk against immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA) and lymphocyte cells proliferation of Balb\\/c mice induced hepatitis A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean milk contains of isoflavon aglycon as genestein and rich of proteins. The genestein of soybean milk potentially has antitumor\\/anticancer, antivirus, antiallergic activities and immunity responses. The aim of this research was to evaluate the immunostimulant activity of soybean milk against immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA) and lymphocyte cells proliferation in Balb\\/c mice induced by hepatitis A. The test was done

Ediati Sasmito

2006-01-01

400

[The flu syndrome: update and therapeutic and prophylactic approach].  

PubMed

Authors in the present work analyse the history of the flu from V century A.C. until our days. We can know the different flu epidemic the structure of the virus and to take note of the different preventing device; of these the core is the vaccine. Thanks the vaccine is possible to weaken the big epidemics. Authors attract the importance on the mass vaccine and conclude to mention the new antivirus drugs per os. PMID:11865535

Abetti, P; Bossi, A; Monaco, E; Melino, C; Messineo, A

401

An unusual case of bilateral granulomatous mastitis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM. PMID:23781373

Pistolese, C A; Di Trapano, R; Girardi, V; Costanzo, E; Di Poce, I; Simonetti, G

2013-05-23

402

Association of anti-GM 2 antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome with acute cytomegalovirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined serum anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) and anti-ganglioside antibodies by ELISA in 51 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and titers were compared with those from 47 normal and 74 disease controls. Three GBS patients with IgM anti-CMV antibodies had high titers of IgM and IgG anti-GM2 antibodies. The other GBS patients without IgM anti-CMV antibodies, and the normal and disease controls

Sachiko Irie; Toyokazu Saito; Naomi Kanazawa; Mieko Ogino; Tatsushi Nukazawa; Hiroaki Ito; Yoichi Tamai; Hisayuki Kowa

1996-01-01

403

Value of Serological Testing for Diagnosis of Legionellosis in Outbreak Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum antibody detection tests and a urine antigen detection technique were compared in samples from 116 patients epidemiologically characterized as belonging to a legionellosis outbreak. Sera were tested by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG plus IgM and by immunoflu- orescent assays (IFAs) for IgG, IgM, IgA, and polyimmunoglobulin using commercial kits (Vircell); concen- trated

Almudena Rojas; M. Dolores Navarro; Francisca E. Fornes

404

New Probes of Intergalactic Magnetic Fields by Radiometry and Faraday Rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy injection of galactic black holes (BH) into the intergalactic medium via extragalactic radio source jets and lobes is sufficient to magnetize the IGM in the filaments and walls of Large Scale Structure at ˜ 0.1muG or more. It appears that this process of galaxy-IGM feedback is the primary source of IGM cosmic rays(CR) and magnetic field energy. Large

Philipp P. Kronberg

2004-01-01

405

Differential Diagnosis in Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis and Tuberculous Mastitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The diagnosis of IGM requires that other granulomatous lesions in the breast be excluded. Tuberculous mastitis (TM) is also an uncommon disease that is often difficult to differentiate from IGM. The purpose of this study is to develop a new algorithm for the differential diagnosis and treatment of IGM and TM. Methods Medical records of 68 patients (58 with IGM and 10 with TM) between July 1999 and February 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The mean age of the patients was 33.5 (IGM) and 40 (TM) years (p=0.018). The median follow-up was 84 months. Of the total 10 patients with TM, 5 patients had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The most common symptoms of the diseases were breast lump and pain. However, axillary lymphadenopathy was more seen in TM (50%) compared to IGM (20.6%) (p=0.048). TM showed more cancer-mimicking findings on radiologic study (p=0.028). In IGM, 48 patients (82.7%) underwent surgical wide excision and 21 patients (36.2%) were managed with corticosteroid therapy and antibiotics. All of the TM patients received anti-tuberculosis medications and 9 patients (90%) underwent wide excision. The mean treatment duration was 2.8 months in IGM and 8.4 months in TM. Recurrence developed in 5 patients (8.6%) in IGM and 1 patient (10%) in TM. Conclusion This study shows different characteristics between IGM and TM. The IGM patients were younger and had more mastalgia symptoms than the TM patients. Axillary lymphadenopathy was seen more often in TM patients. Half of the TM patients had pulmonary tuberculosis or tuberculosis lymphadenitis. Surgical wide excision might be both therapeutic and useful for providing an exact diagnosis.

Seo, Hee Ri Na; Na, Kuk Young; Yim, Hyun Ee; Kim, Tae Hee; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Oh, Ki Keun; Kang, Seok Yun; An, Young-Sil; Chun, Mison; Kim, Woojae; Park, Rae Woong; Jung, Yong Sik

2012-01-01

406

NCI Funded Research Portfolio - ZIA CP005804-08244 Detail  

Cancer.gov

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinctive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma featuring overproduction of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and has a clear familial component. No susceptibility genes have been identified. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in eleven high-risk WM families having 122 individuals with DNA samples, including 34 WM cases and 10 cases of IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM MGUS) which is a potential precursor to WM.

407

NCI Funded Research Portfolio - ZIA CP005804 08244 Detail  

Cancer.gov

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinctive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma featuring overproduction of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and has a clear familial component. No susceptibility genes have been identified. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in eleven high-risk WM families having 122 individuals with DNA samples, including 34 WM cases and 10 cases of IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM MGUS) which is a potential precursor to WM.

408

Immunoglobulin Receptor Signaling Depends on the Carboxyl Terminus but not the Heavy-Chain Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the isotypic and structural requirements involved in signaling through the immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor on B lymphocytes, we established a panel of T15 idiotype-positive transfectants that expressed wild-type IgM, wild-type IgD, or hybrid IgM molecules. Growth inhibition of the transfected lymphoma cells in response to anti-idiotype antibodies was used to measure signaling. Hybrid IgM molecules were constructed so that

Carol F. Webb; Chieko Nakai; Philip W. Tucker

1989-01-01

409

Total serum immunoglobulin M levels are affected by immunomodulators in seabream (Sparus aurata L.).  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a major component of the teleost humoral immune system. Despite the significance of IgM levels as an immune parameter, there are relatively few studies on changes induced in its total levels in serum. This study examines the effects of several immunomodulators (vitamin A, chitin, yeast cells or levamisole, which act as immunostimulants, and crowding, hypoxia or anaesthetics, which act as stressors) upon the total serum IgM levels of non-immunized gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Total serum IgM levels of fish fed with the assayed immunostimulant-supplemented diets were statistically higher than those in fish fed a non-supplemented diet, especially in the case of levamisole. On the other hand, serum IgM levels of fish subjected to different stressors were not affected by crowding, hypoxia or certain anaesthetics. However, benzocaine and a narcotic dose of 2-phenoxyethanol provoked a great reduction, while quinaldine sulphate increased IgM levels to a significant degree. These results show how the seric IgM levels can be differently affected by some immunomodulators and the important role they may play in the regulation of total circulating IgM levels in seabream. The possibility of using total serum IgM for assessing immunostimulation, disease diagnosis and stress symptoms during fish farming is discussed. PMID:15350750

Cuesta, A; Meseguer, J; Esteban, M A

2004-10-01

410

Defense Islands in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes and Prediction of Novel Defense Systems ?†‡  

PubMed Central

The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic “sinks” that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.

2011-01-01

411

Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

412

Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

1995-02-01

413

Identification of Malicious Web Pages by Inductive Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malicious web pages are an increasing threat to current computer systems in recent years. Traditional anti-virus techniques focus typically on detection of the static signatures of Malware and are ineffective against these new threats because they cannot deal with zero-day attacks. In this paper, a novel classification method for detecting malicious web pages is presented. This method is generalization and specialization of attack pattern based on inductive learning, which can be used for updating and expanding knowledge database. The attack pattern is established from an example and generalized by inductive learning, which can be used to detect unknown attacks whose behavior is similar to the example.

Liu, Peishun; Wang, Xuefang

414

Malware distributed collection and pre-classification system using honeypot technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malware has become a major threat in the last years due to the ease of spread through the Internet. Malware detection has become difficult with the use of compression, polymorphic methods and techniques to detect and disable security software. Those and other obfuscation techniques pose a problem for detection and classification schemes that analyze malware behavior. In this paper we propose a distributed architecture to improve malware collection using different honeypot technologies to increase the variety of malware collected. We also present a daemon tool developed to grab malware distributed through spam and a pre-classification technique that uses antivirus technology to separate malware in generic classes.

Grégio, André R. A.; Oliveira, Isabela L.; Santos, Rafael D. C.; Cansian, Adriano M.; de Geus, Paulo L.

2009-04-01

415

System Toolbox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

2001-01-01

416

Jumbo!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jumbo: the "official" shareware site of the Web. This searchable archive contains over 24,000 shareware and freeware programs. Categories include: business, home and personal, programming, utilities, and words and graphics. Within each category, programs are cataloged by operating system. The entire archive is a searchable by program category and operating system. There is a short annotation with the programs to help determine whether to download them or not. Size of program is given. A "starter kit" of a decompression and anti-virus program is also provided for each operating system. This is an excellent specialty site.

1998-01-01

417

Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function of size and magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We generically find that by a redshift z~3,

Steven R. Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

2001-01-01

418

Frequency of Detection of Immunoglobulins of Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus in Livestock\\/Farm and Abattoir Workers in Trinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondi, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus are all established parasitic and bacterial zoonoses that manifest themselves in several forms of human diseases. They have been associated with occupational exposures, particularly amongst workers associated with livestock farms. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunoglobulins (serum antibodies), Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins,

Abiodun Adesiyun; Mervyn Campbell; Saed Rahaman; Sham Bissessar; Alva Stewart-Johnson; Shakti Dookeran; Marquita Gittens-St. Hilaire

2011-01-01

419

An enzyme immunoassay for immunoglobulin M antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii which is not affected by rheumatoid factor or immunoglobulin G antibodies.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was modified to measure specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. The assay requires three incubation periods totaling 2 h and enzyme-labeled-heavy-chain-specific antibodies to human IgM. The objective read-out in absorbance was normalized to percent of a standardized positive control for interpretations. No difference was observed between the assay results with or without previous absorption of the samples by Staphylococcus aureus protein A to remove most of the IgG antibodies. Addition of serum containing very high levels of IgG antibodies to another containing both IgG and IgM antibodies did not change the IgM assay values for the latter. None of the 22 sera containing high levels of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) gave positive ELISA IgM results, even though 8 of them also had high levels of IgG toxoplasma antibodies. Mixtures of sera containing high concentrations of RF with sera having high levels of IgG toxoplasma antibodies also failed to show any false-positive reactions in the IgM toxoplasma assay. Thus, this ELISA for T. gondii IgM antibodies was not affected by IgG toxoplasma antibodies and RF.

Lin, T M; Chin-See, M W; Halbert, S P; Joseph, J M

1986-01-01

420

Prognostic significance of immunoglobulin M overexpression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Abstract Conclusions: Immunoglobulin (Ig) M is overexpressed in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), and its expression has an independent protective impact on disease-free survival in LSCC. Objective: A number of studies have reported on the ectopic expression of Ig in cancer cells, yet there has been a lack of understanding of its clinical and prognostic significance. This study aimed to investigate the expression of IgM in resected specimens of LSCC and to evaluate its clinical significance and prognostic value. Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of IgM in LSCC and normal laryngeal tissues. The serum level of IgM was also analyzed by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: IHC and Western blot studies demonstrated that IgM was overexpressed in LSCC specimens (p < 0.001), while the serum level of IgM in patients with LSCC was not different from healthy controls. Chi-squared analysis revealed that the expression level of IgM was negatively correlated with regional lymph node metastasis and tumor stage (p = 0.011 and 0.025, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that IgM expression was significantly correlated with enhanced disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, IgM retained its independent prognostic value for DFS (p = 0.048, HR = 0.506, 95% CI = 0.257-0.995). PMID:23964818

Wang, Haiyang; Cao, Xu; Liu, Eric-Chen; He, Dan; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Ting; Feng, Yang; Qin, Gang

2013-08-22

421

21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or total antibodies (IgM and IgG), in human serum or plasma. These devices are used for testing specimens from...

2010-04-01

422

21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or total antibodies (IgM and IgG), in human serum or plasma. These devices are used for testing specimens from...

2009-04-01

423

Comparison of nonspecific reactivity in indirect and reverse immunoassays for measles and mumps immunoglobulin M antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Serum specimens collected from patients convalescing from acute measles or mumps infections, other viral infections, or rheumatoid arthritis and from blood donors were tested in indirect and reverse assays for measles and mumps immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All the samples from patients convalescing from acute mumps and measles infections gave positive IgM results in both tests. However, 6% of sera from patients recovering from other viral infections, 68.4% of sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 5.6% of sera from normal blood donors gave false-positive results by the indirect measles IgM enzyme immunoassay (EIA). By the indirect mumps IgM EIA, 9% of sera from other viral infections, 70.1% of sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 5.6% of sera from normal blood donors gave false-positive reactions. The reverse test system for measles IgM gave false-positive results in 1.5% of sera from the group with other viral infections, and the reverse mumps EIA gave false-positive results in 0.9% of the patients. Other sera groups did not react in either measles or mumps reverse IgM assays. The results indicated that although nonspecific reactions are frequent in indirect IgM tests for viral antibodies, such reactions are rarely encountered when reverse IgM EIA tests are employed.

Tuokko, H

1984-01-01

424

Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M antibodies in porcine sera.  

PubMed

A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection of porcine immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Antibodies in sera were captured onto the solid phase of Microtiter plates sensitized with mouse monoclonal antibodies to porcine mu heavy chain. Virus antigen binding to the lawn of IgM was quantitated by subsequent binding of peroxidase-labeled human hyperimmune anti-JEV IgG, which in the final step, catalyzed a substrate color change. In sucrose density-gradient fractionated sera from recently infected pigs, the peak of ELISA JEV IgM activity corresponded to the peak of 18-S, 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) antibody activity. Within 2 to 3 days, JEV-infected sentinel pigs developed high JEV IgM activity; this activity decreased within 2 weeks. Among specimens collected from 99 random swine at abattoirs in Thailand during a period of low JEV transmission, none of 25 JEV HAI-negative sera had JEV IgM activity, 7 of 74 JEV HAI-positive sera did have JEV IgM activity, and the remaining 67 sera had readily detectable JEV HAI antibodies, but lacked JEV IgM. The JEV IgM solid-phase ELISA was useful for rapidly diagnosing active or recent JEV infections in swine. PMID:2998237

Burke, D S; Tingpalapong, M; Elwell, M R; Paul, P S; Van Deusen, R A

1985-10-01

425

Hydrodynamical Models of Lyalpha Forest Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

~ }} <}}} The hydrodynamical evolution of spherical perturbations consisting of dark matter and a hydrogen\\/helium baryonic component is computed to model the evolution of Lyalpha forest systems. If the IGM is photoionized for z≲6, the baryons in perturbations with circular velocities less than the sound speed will expand into the IGM driven by their thermal pressure. The hydrodynamical motion

A. Meiksin

1993-01-01

426

Characterization and Classification of the Light Chain Composition of a Macromolecular Cryoprecipitating Factor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several patients were reported to have a form of cryoglobulinemia in which the IgM protein precipitated in the complex with the IgG protein. In certain instances, the light chains of the IgM were of both kappa and lambda types. In one previous instance, t...

R. A. Gams J. J. Costanzi C. A. Coltman

1967-01-01

427

Persistence of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies after postnatal rubella infection determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay.  

PubMed Central

The appearance and persistence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in postnatal rubella infections were studied by employing a solid-phase radioimmunoassay test. Altogether, 222 serial serum specimens from 51 patients with acute rubella infection were tested. Both IgG and IgM antibodies developed rapidly and appeared in all patients within 4 days after the onset of rash. In some patients, the IgM antibodies clearly preceded the IgG antibodies; however, the reverse situation was also noticed in a few cases. The IgG antibodies showed only minor changes after 8 to 10 days from the onset of rash. The IgM titers also reached a maximum level at approximately 8 to 10 days after the onset of rash, after which time a rapid decrease was normally seen. The mean half-life of IgM antibodies after 15 days from the onset of rash was 4.5 days, giving for IgM antibodies persistence times from 43 to approximately 80 days. Two patients with a prolonged IgM antibody response were detected. One of these patients had bilateral arthritis of the knee as a complication, whereas in the other patient no complication caused by rubella virus was detected. The IgM antibody response and its value in diagnosis are discussed.

Meurman, O H

1978-01-01

428

LEPTO Dipstick: a rapid and simple method for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LEPTO Dipstick assay is a newly developed test for the diagnosis of leptospirosis and uses a broadly reactive antigen for detecting IgM antibodies. The test was evaluated in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, using 867 serum samples from known cases of leptospirosis and controls. The efficacy of IgM ELISA was also tested for comparison. The LEPTO Dipstick had a

S. C. Sehgal; P. Vijayachari; S. Sharma; A. P. Sugunan

1999-01-01

429

Implantable continuous glucose sensors.  

PubMed

Because of the limits of wearable needle-type or microdialysis-based enzymatic sensors in clinical use, fully implantable glucose monitoring systems (IGMS) represent a promising alternative. Long-term use reducing impact of invasiveness due to implantation, less frequent calibration needs because of a more stable tissue environment around the sensor and potential easier inclusion in a closed-loop insulin delivery system are the expected benefits of IGMS. First experiences with subcutaneous and intravenous IGMS have been recently collected in pilot studies. While no severe adverse events have been reported, biointerface issues have been responsible for the failures of IGMS. Tissue reactions around implanted subcutaneous devices and damages of intravenous sensors due to shearing forces of blood flow impaired IGMS function and longevity. In functioning systems, accuracy of glucose measurement reached satisfactory levels for average durations of about 120 days with subcutaneous IGMS and 259 days with intravenous sensors. Moreover, sensor information could help to improve time spent in normal glucose range when provided to patients wearing subcutaneous IGMS and allowed safe and effective closed-loop glucose control when intravenous sensors were connected to implanted pumps using intra-peritoneal insulin delivery. These data could open a favourable perspective for IGMS after improvement of biointerface conditions and if compatible with an affordable cost. PMID:18690897

Renard, Eric

2008-08-01

430

Síndrome antifosfolípido secundario a lupus eritematoso sistémico en un hombre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Paciente de sexo masculino de 23 años con sín- tomas de una semana de evolución de cambios en el comportamiento, y seis meses de pérdida de peso, eritema malar y palpebral, úlceras orales, se le detecta anticuerpos antinucleares (ANAS) positi- vos, planteándose como diagnóstico, lupus erite- matoso sistémico (LES). El paciente permanece controlado durante tres años; al cabo de

Franco J. Vallejo; Luis Fernando Medina; Claudia Juliana Díaz

431

MECANISMOS MOLECULARES DE DIVERSIFICACIÓN DE INMUNOGLOBULINAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El sistema inmune es capaz de reconocer una enorme cantidad de antígenos de manera específica por medio de receptores codificados por un número muy limitado de exones funcionales de línea germinal. Es por ello que los linfocitos B cuentan con cuatro mecanismos de diversificación somática de anticuerpos, que producen modificaciones a nivel de secuencia en los genes de inmunoglobulinas

Martha Rendón-Anaya; Alejandro Alagón

432

Determinantes de las respuestas a vacunas orales en países en vías de desarrollo  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoLas vacunas orales que se han diseñado para uso global no inducen necesariamente las mismas respuestas inmunitarias en todos los niños de todo el mundo. De hecho, varias vacunas inducen a menudo respuestas medias de anticuerpos menos frecuentes y menores en niños en países en vías de desarrollo, lo que permite suponer que las vacunas pueden producir un efecto menos

David A. Sack; Firdausi Qadri; Ann-Mari Svennerholm

2008-01-01

433

Detection of specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to cytomegalovirus by using monoclonal antibody to immunoglobulin M in an indirect immunofluorescence assay.  

PubMed Central

The detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to cytomegalovirus-induced late antigens by an indirect immunofluorescence assay was improved by the use of monoclonal antibodies to human IgM. Nonspecific background fluorescence was absent, facilitating the reading of the slides and the detection of a specific fluorescence reaction in sera with low levels of specific IgM. Moreover, the indirect immunofluorescence assay with monoclonal antibodies to IgM proved more sensitive than the indirect immunofluorescence assay with polyclonal antibodies to IgM. The absorption of human sera on staphylococcal protein A avoided false reactions due to the presence of rheumatoid factor and high levels of specific IgG in test sera.

Zerbini, M; Musiani, M; Gentilomi, G; La Placa, M

1986-01-01

434

Antiviral activity and mode of action of extracts from neem seed kernel against duck plague virus in vitro1.  

PubMed

Four fractions obtained from alcohol extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel by column chromatography were investigated for antivirus activity against the duck plague virus (DPV) in vitro. Duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) infected with DPV were treated with the neem seed kernel extracts, and the effect of antivirus was judged by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide colorimetric method assay and direct immunofluorescence assay. The mode of action was tested by the plaque reduction assay. The results showed that fractions 1 to 3 were inactive. The median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of fraction 4 was 10.9 ?g/mL and inhibited the virus protein expression in the direct immunofluorescence assay. In the plaque reduction assay, fraction 4 could significantly reduce the number of plaques compared with the negative control (P < 0.01) in all modes of action. This study indicated that the fourth fraction obtained from neem seed kernel could improve the viability of infected cells, and reduce the cytopathic effects caused by DPV and the amount of the virus protein expressed in virus-infected cells. The antiviral activity works in the whole process of virus infecting the normal cells. PMID:23091135

Xu, J; Song, X; Yin, Z Q; Cheng, A C; Jia, R Y; Deng, Y X; Ye, K C; Shi, C F; Lv, C; Zhang, W

2012-11-01

435