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1

Antidiabetic Agents from Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the

Mankil Jung; Hyun Chul Lee; Yoon-Ho Kang; Eun Seok Kang; Sang Ki Kim

2006-01-01

2

Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

2002-06-01

3

A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

2012-01-01

4

An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

2012-04-01

5

An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

2012-01-01

6

Potent hypoglycemic effect of Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to investigate the phytochemistry and hypoglycemic activities of aqueous extracts of Anisopus mannii, Daniella olivieri, Detarium macrocarpum, Leptedenia hastate and Mimosa invisa, traditionally prescribed for diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extracts were tested for phytochemicals and free radical scavenging activity by the DPPH assay. The antidiabetic tests were performed in normoglycemic and alloxan induced diabetic mice. High intensity of saponins, xanthones, tannins and glycosides were detected in A. mannii, D. macrocarpum and M. invisa, respectively. For the free radical scavenging activity, D. macrocarpum showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 0.027 mg/ml which was 2.1 folds of ascorbic acid. All extracts showed potent hypoglycemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic mice with the highest fasting blood glucose reduction of 70.39 percent in A. mannii which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and human insulin, respectively. A. mannii showed the potent hypoglycemic activity which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and insulin, respectively. This study confirmed the traditional use of these Nigerian medicinal plants in diabetes treatment. These plants showed high potential for further investigation to novel anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:22754948

Manosroi, Jiradej; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Manosroi, Aranya

2011-01-01

7

Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saďd; Bnouham, Mohamed

2010-07-01

8

Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities  

PubMed Central

Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

2013-01-01

9

Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic stock for cross transferability in these plants and the literature on biomarkers and novel drug discovery for common chronic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24802971

Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

2014-05-01

10

Antioxidant and antidiabetic profiles of two African medicinal plants: Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) and Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia generally associated with oxidative stress. The present study aims at evaluating the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of methanol and hydroethanol extracts of the stem bark and leaves of Pricralima nitida and the Sonchus oleraceus whole plant respectively. Methods The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) for free radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method in determining their phenol contents. The antidiabetic activity was tested in mice following streptozotocin diabetes induction, and selected oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde, Hydrogen peroxides and Catalase) were measured in order to evaluate the level of oxidative stress in treated animals. Results The in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH showed IC50 ranging from 0.19?±?0.08 to 1.00?±?0.06 mg/mL. The highest activity was obtained with the hydroethanol extracts of S. oleraceus (0.19 mg/mL and P. nitida (0.24 mg/mL). Polyphenol contents ranged from 182.25?±?16.76 to 684.62?±?46.66 ?g Eq Cat/g. The methanol extract of P. nitida showed the highest activity, followed by the hydroethanol extract of S. oleraceus (616.89?±?19.20 ?Eq Cat/g). The hydroethanol extract of whole plants (150 mg/Kg) and methanol leave extract of P. nitida (300 mg/Kg) exhibited significant antidiabetic activities with 39.40% and 38.48% glycaemia reduction, respectively. The measurement of stress markers in plasma, liver and kidney after administration of both extracts showed significant reduction in MDA and hydrogen peroxide levels, coupled with a substantial increase in catalase activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that S. oleraceus whole plant and P. nitida leaves possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties, and therefore could be used as starting point for the development of herbal medicines and/or source of new drug molecules against diabetes. PMID:23855679

2013-01-01

11

PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

2014-01-01

12

Comprehensive Evidence-Based Assessment and Prioritization of Potential Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants: A Case Study from Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Canadian Aboriginals, like others globally, suffer from disproportionately high rates of diabetes. A comprehensive evidence-based approach was therefore developed to study potential antidiabetic medicinal plants stemming from Canadian Aboriginal Traditional Medicine to provide culturally adapted complementary and alternative treatment options. Key elements of pathophysiology of diabetes and of related contemporary drug therapy are presented to highlight relevant cellular and molecular targets for medicinal plants. Potential antidiabetic plants were identified using a novel ethnobotanical method based on a set of diabetes symptoms. The most promising species were screened for primary (glucose-lowering) and secondary (toxicity, drug interactions, complications) antidiabetic activity by using a comprehensive platform of in vitro cell-based and cell-free bioassays. The most active species were studied further for their mechanism of action and their active principles identified though bioassay-guided fractionation. Biological activity of key species was confirmed in animal models of diabetes. These in vitro and in vivo findings are the basis for evidence-based prioritization of antidiabetic plants. In parallel, plants were also prioritized by Cree Elders and healers according to their Traditional Medicine paradigm. This case study highlights the convergence of modern science and Traditional Medicine while providing a model that can be adapted to other Aboriginal realities worldwide. PMID:22235232

Haddad, Pierre S.; Musallam, Lina; Martineau, Louis C.; Harris, Cory; Lavoie, Louis; Arnason, John T.; Foster, Brian; Bennett, Steffany; Johns, Timothy; Cuerrier, Alain; Coon Come, Emma; Coon Come, Rene; Diamond, Josephine; Etapp, Louise; Etapp, Charlie; George, Jimmy; Husky Swallow, Charlotte; Husky Swallow, Johnny; Jolly, Mary; Kawapit, Andrew; Mamianskum, Eliza; Petagumskum, John; Petawabano, Smalley; Petawabano, Laurie; Weistche, Alex; Badawi, Alaa

2012-01-01

13

Vaccinium myrtillus as an antidiabetic medicinal plant--research through the ages.  

PubMed

Bilberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) were one of the most frequently used antidiabetic remedies of plant origin before the discovery of insulin. During the last century, many animal, clinical and phytochemical studies have been undertaken with this plant and its extracts and are summarized here. Overall, it must be concluded that the results were more or less disappointing and could not support the traditional use of bilberry leaves against diabetes mellitus which is sometimes recommended even up to the present day. PMID:20503920

Helmstädter, A; Schuster, N

2010-05-01

14

In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation.  

PubMed

Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100? ? g/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500? ? g/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

2013-01-01

15

In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation  

PubMed Central

Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100??g/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500??g/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

2013-01-01

16

Inhibitory Potential of Five Traditionally Used Native Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants on ?-Amylase, ?-Glucosidase, Glucose Entrapment, and Amylolysis Kinetics In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Five traditionally used antidiabetic native medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely, Stillingia lineata (SL), Faujasiopsis flexuosa (FF), Erythroxylum laurifolium (EL), Elaeodendron orientale (EO), and Antidesma madagascariensis (AM), were studied for possible ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory property, glucose entrapment, and amylolysis kinetics in vitro. Only methanolic extracts of EL, EO, and AM (7472.92 ± 5.99, 1745.58 ± 31.66, and 2222.96 ± 13.69??g/mL, resp.) were found to significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit ?-amylase and were comparable to acarbose. EL, EO, AM, and SL extracts (5000??g/mL) were found to significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit ?-glucosidase (between 87.41 ± 3.31 and 96.87 ± 1.37% inhibition). Enzyme kinetic studies showed an uncompetitive and mixed type of inhibition. Extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) glucose entrapment capacities (8 to 29% glucose diffusion retardation index (GDRI)), with SL being more active (29% GDRI) and showing concentration-dependent activity (29, 26, 21, 14, and 5%, resp.). Amylolysis kinetic studies showed that methanolic extracts were more potent inhibitors of ?-amylase compared to aqueous extracts and possessed glucose entrapment properties. Our findings tend to provide justification for the hypoglycaemic action of these medicinal plants which has opened novel avenues for the development of new phytopharmaceuticals geared towards diabetes management. PMID:24723945

Picot, Carene M. N.; Subratty, A. Hussein; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

2014-01-01

17

Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

Olabanji, S. O.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Adebajo, A. C.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

2008-05-01

18

Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic ?-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125??gmL?1), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1??gmL?1), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0??gmL?1) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16??gmL?1). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49??gmL?1), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127??gmL?1), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4??gmL?1) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511??gmL?1). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

2011-01-01

19

Evaluation of traditional Indian antidiabetic medicinal plants for human pancreatic amylase inhibitory effect in vitro.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic ?-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC(50) values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125??gmL(-1)), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1??gmL(-1)), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0??gmL(-1)) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16??gmL(-1)). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49??gmL(-1)), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127??gmL(-1)), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4??gmL(-1)) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511??gmL(-1)). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

2011-01-01

20

Anti-hyperglycaemic globulins from selected Cucurbitaceae seeds used as antidiabetic medicinal plants in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The recent epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Africa, coupled with rampant poverty, is an indication of the urgent need to develop new efficacious, cheaper and more available drugs to face this growing public health challenge. A number of plants products among which the protein-rich Cucurbitaceae seeds are commonly used in traditional medicine with increasing acclaimed efficacy against DM. The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity of storage proteins of five species of Cucurbitaceae, which include Telfairia occidentalis, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Cucumeropsis mannii and Cucurbita moschata. Methods The different families of storage proteins were extracted following differential solubility, and their contents were estimated using the Bradford method. The analysis of these proteins was done by electrophoresis in non-denaturing and denaturing conditions. The evaluation of hypoglycaemic properties of various globulins extracted was performed on male Wistar rats by the oral glucose tolerance test. Results The results showed that among the proteins extracted, globulins constitute the most abundant class of storage proteins in all five species selected. Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita moschata presented the highest levels of globulin (275.34 and 295.11 mg/g dry matter, respectively). The results of electrophoresis showed that all species possess acidic and neutrals albumins and globulins, with molecular weight of protein subunits ranging from 6.36-44.11 kDa for albumins, 6.5-173.86 kDa for globulins and 6.5-49.66 kDa for glutelins. The 6.36 kDa of albumin subunit protein and the 6.5 kDa of globulin subunit protein were present in all the species. The oral glucose tolerance test showed that the globulins of the seeds of all species except Cucumeropsis mannii caused significant drop in blood sugar (88 – 137.80%, compared to the controls, p<0.05). Conclusions These findings showed that the selected Cucurbitaceae seeds contained globulins with significant anti-hyperglycaemic activity. It is therefore highly encouraged to pursue investigations towards development of peptide-drugs and/or phytomedicines from these bioactive proteins which could be used as affordable alternative therapy against DM. PMID:23506532

2013-01-01

21

In vitro biological effects of two anti-diabetic medicinal plants used in Benin as folk medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Extracts from Polygonum senegalensis (Polygonaceae) and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Meliaceae) are two important traditionally used medicinal plants in rural Benin to treat many diseases and notably type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the ?-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of those plants extract: Polygonum senegalensis leaves, and Pseudocedrela kotschyi root. Methods Hydro-alcoholic (50%) extracts were analyzed for their phytochemical content and tested for their inhibition potency on ?-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antioxidant activities were assessed using the DPPH, ORAC, FRAP and DCFH-DA (cell based) assay. Finally, the antibacterial activity was evaluated using MIC determination on four Gram-positive cocci (Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and the yeast Candida albicans. Results Each extract presented significant ?-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activities. Polygonum senegalensis leaf extracts were the most active in each in vitro assay with an IC50 = 1.5 ?g/ml for ?-glucosidase inhibition and an IC50 = 6.8 ?g/ml for DPPH scavenging, - 4.5 ?mol Fe II/g of dry matter - 9366 ?mol Trolox / g DW - for FRAP and ORAC values, respectively. IC50 = 2.3 ?g GA / ml for DCFH-DA assay. Concerning its antibacterial activity, a growth inhibitory effect was observed only against three Gram negative bacilli: B. subtilis, E. faecalis, S. aureus and the yeast C. albicans at high concentration. Conclusion The results showed that the semi alcoholic extract of the two studied plants possess ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, antioxidant potency, and low antibacterial effect. PMID:23452899

2013-01-01

22

Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro.  

PubMed

In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in vitro. To confirm the observed effects, a further biochemical assay was undertaken to investigate the effects of Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in rat plasma. The highest inhibitory activity (27.20 +/- 5.00%) was observed at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. However, in both cases dose dependency was not observed. Enzyme kinetic studies using the Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations were performed to establish the type of inhibition involved. In the presence of the plant extract the maximal velocity (Vmax) remained constant (1/150 g / L/s) whereas the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) increased by 5.79 g / L, indicating that the aqueous leaf extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. PMID:16521114

Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

2006-03-01

23

Phytochemical Analyses and Activity of Herbal Medicinal Plants of North- East India for Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Cancer and Anti-Tuberculosis and their Docking Studies.  

PubMed

The traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of North-East India is documented here. The present study was carried out through the personal discussion with the president of the Jaintia Indigenous Herbal Medicine Association, Dr.H.Carehome Pakyntein from Jowai, Meghalaya. The plants being used generation after generation by his family of herbalists to cure ailments like tuberculosis, cancer and diabetes were selected for the present study. In order to scientifically validate the use of these selected plants for the cure of selected diseases, phytochemical analyses, characterization and molecular docking studies of some of the selected compounds from these plants have been carried out. The compounds 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy- Benzaldehyde from methanolic extract of Strophanthus Wallichii and DL tetrahydropalmatine from Stephania Hernandifolia have been confirmed after determining their molecular structures, justifying the activity of these two plants against TB and cancer, respectively. The present study covers the potentials of some of the medicinal plants of North east India in curing common diseases due to which millions of people suffer and die. The presence of certain compounds in these plants related to the cure of the diseases deserves further studies. PMID:25579573

Suhitha, Sivasubramanian; Devi, Seenivasan Karthiga; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Pakyntein, H Carehome; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Velmurugan, Devadasan

2015-01-01

24

A REVIEW ON SOME ANTIDIABETIC PLANTS OF INDIA  

PubMed Central

The control over diabetes mellitus depends upon the availability of insulin. Various efforts have been made in the recent past to control / check it. There is an increasing demand to use the natural antidiabetic agents. The literature pertaining to antidiabetic herbs is scattered. The present article is a conglomeration of available indigenous literature. It gives an additional information of list of antidiabetic plants which have not been discussed by Nagarajan et al76 and Handa et al45. It also presents some common plants used in diabetes, and the future of hypoglycaemic herbal drugs. PMID:22556695

Rai, M.K.

1995-01-01

25

Antidiabetic and cytotoxicity screening of five medicinal plants used by traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, South Africa.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine frutescens, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Ruta graveolens, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Tulbaghia violacea for antidiabetic and cytotoxic potential. In vitro glucose utilisation assays with Chang liver cells and C2C12 muscle cells, and growth inhibition assays with Chang liver cells were conducted. The aqueous extracts of Bulbine frutescens (143.5%), Ornithogalum longibracteatum (131.9%) and Tarchonanthus camphoratus (131.5%) showed significant increased glucose utilisation activity in Chang liver cells. The ethanol extracts of Ruta graveolens (136.9%) and Tulbaghia violacea (140.5%) produced the highest increase in glucose utilisation in C2C12 muscle cells. The ethanol extract of Bulbine frutescens produced the most pronounced growth inhibition (33.3%) on Chang liver cells. These findings highlight the potential for the use of traditional remedies in the future for the management of diabetes and it is recommended that combinations of these plants be tested in future. PMID:22238496

van Huyssteen, Mea; Milne, Pieter J; Campbell, Eileen E; van de Venter, Maryna

2011-01-01

26

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

27

Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

2013-01-01

28

Original Article Maintaining A Physiological Blood Glucose Level with ‘Glucolevel’, A Combination of Four Anti-Diabetes Plants Used in the Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine  

E-print Network

Safety and anti-diabetic effects of Glucolevel, a mixture of dry extract of leaves of the Juglans regia L, Olea europea L, Urtica dioica L and Atriplex halimus L were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro test systems. No sign of toxic effects (using LDH assay) were seen in cultured human fibroblasts treated with increasing concentrations of Glucolevel. Similar observations were seen in vivo studies using rats (LD50: 25 g/kg). Anti-diabetic effects were evidenced by the augmentation of glucose uptake by yeast cells (2-folds higher) and by inhibition of glucose intestinal absorption ( 49%) in a rat gut-segment. Furthermore, treatment with Glucolevel of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 2–3 weeks showed a significant reduction in glucose levels [above 400 50 mg/dl to 210 22 mg/dl (P50.001)] and significantly improved sugar uptake during the glucose tolerance test, compared with positive control. In addition, glucose levels were tested in sixteen human volunteers, with the recent onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, who received Glucolevel tablets 1 3 daily for a period of 4 weeks. Within the first week of Glucolevel consumption, baseline glucose levels were significantly reduced from 290 40 to 210 20 mg/dl. At baseline, a subgroup of eleven of these subjects had glucose levels below 300 mg % and the other subgroup had levels 300 mg%. Clinically acceptable glucose levels

Omar Said; Stephen Fulder; Khaled Khalil; Hassan Azaizeh; Eli Kassis; Bashar Saad

29

Botanical, Pharmacological, Phytochemical, and Toxicological Aspects of the Antidiabetic Plant Bidens pilosa L.  

PubMed Central

Bidens pilosa L. is an easy-to-grow, widespread, and palatable perennial on earth. Hence, it has traditionally been used as foods and medicines without noticeable adverse effects. Despite significant advancement in chemical and biological studies of B. pilosa over the past few years, comprehensive and critical reviews on its anti-diabetic properties are missing. The present review is to summarize up-to-date information on the pharmacology, phytochemistry, and toxicology of B. pilosa, in regard to type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of B. pilosa in diabetes, scientific studies investigating antidiabetic action of this species and its active phytochemicals are presented and discussed. The structure and biosynthesis of B. pilosa and its polyynes in relation to their anti-diabetic action and mechanism are emphasized. Although some progress has been made, rigorous efforts are further required to unlock the molecular basis and structure-activity relationship of the polyynes isolated from B. pilosa before their clinical applications. The present review provides preliminary information and gives guidance for further anti-diabetic research and development of this plant. PMID:24616740

2014-01-01

30

Animal Models as Tools to Investigate Antidiabetic and Anti-Inflammatory Plants  

PubMed Central

Plants have been historically used for diabetes treatment and related anti-inflammatory activity throughout the world; few of them have been validated by scientific criteria. Recently, a large diversity of animal models has been developed for better understanding the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its underlying inflammatory mechanism and new drugs have been introduced in the market to treat this disease. The aim of this work is to review the available animal models of diabetes and anti-inflammatory activity along with some in vitro models which have been used as tools to investigate the mechanism of action of drugs with potential antidiabetic properties and related anti-inflammatory mechanism. At present, the rigorous procedures for evaluation of conventional antidiabetic medicines have rarely been applied to test raw plant materials used as traditional treatments for diabetes; and natural products, mainly derived from plants, have been tested in chemically induced diabetes model. This paper contributes to design new strategies for the development of novel antidiabetic drugs and its related inflammatory activity in order to treat this serious condition which represents a global public health problem. PMID:22899950

Eddouks, Mohamed; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali

2012-01-01

31

Anti-diabetic effect of a traditional Chinese medicine formula.  

PubMed

An anti-diabetic TCM formula consisting of Schizandra chinensis Baill. (SC), Coptis chinensis (CC), Psidium guajava L. leaves (PG) and Morus alba L. leaves (MA) was developed based on its ?-glucosidase, DPP-4 and AGE inhibitory activities in vitro using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the in vivo study was carried out to confirm the anti-diabetic function of the formula. RSM results showed that the optimum anti-diabetic TCM formula is the combination SC (3000 ?g mL(-1)), CC (80 ?g mL(-1)), PG (374.56 ?g mL(-1)) and MA (480 ?g mL(-1)). For the in vivo study, insulin resistant mice were induced by high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) feeding for 6 weeks. Administration of the developed formula significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose in the HF/HS diet mice. Moreover, the formula decreased blood glucose levels in the insulin tolerance test. These results indicated that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the formula might be due to decreased insulin resistance. The serum fructosamine level in the high dose group was significantly lower than the HF/HS and normal control groups, indicating that the formula could improve middle term glucose levels and reduce the risk of complications. The contents of berberine and 1-deoxynojirimycin in the formula were 4.7 ± 0.4 and 77.1 ± 1.1 ?g mL(-1), respectively. These two compounds can be used as indicators for quality control during production. PMID:22899105

Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang

2012-11-01

32

Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on ?-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent ?-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 ?g/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

2014-01-01

33

Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.  

PubMed

Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics. PMID:21186373

Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

2011-01-01

34

Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.  

PubMed

Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

1994-01-01

35

Antidiabetic Indian plants: a good source of potent amylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II) is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly ?-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L.) (syn: Sanctum); Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana); Linum usitatissimum (L.) and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant ?-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:18955350

Bhat, Menakshi; Zinjarde, Smita S; Bhargava, Shobha Y; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Joshi, Bimba N

2011-01-01

36

Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

37

Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.  

PubMed

In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

2013-05-01

38

The action of antidiabetic plants of the canadian james bay cree traditional pharmacopeia on key enzymes of hepatic glucose homeostasis.  

PubMed

We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada) to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines. PMID:23864882

Nachar, Abir; Vallerand, Diane; Musallam, Lina; Lavoie, Louis; Badawi, Alaa; Arnason, John; Haddad, Pierre S

2013-01-01

39

TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556807

Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A.; Mrdula, V.

1997-01-01

40

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

41

Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

42

Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant  

PubMed Central

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

43

Informant consensus selection method: A reliability assessment on medicinal plants used in north western Nigeria for the treatment of diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the reliability of informant consensus as a method of selecting medicinal plants for pharmacological screening was tested. Ten plants were selected based on the method and screened for antidiabetic properties using animal experimental model of the disease. The plants were selected from a list of medicinal plants obtained from a botanical survey of the region. A correlation

E. U. Etuk; B. J. Mohammed

44

[Simultaneous determination of four highly polar anti-diabetic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicines using high performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of four highly polar anti-diabetic drugs, metformin hydrochloride, phenformin hydrochloride, acarbose, and voglibose, in Chinese traditional patent medicines. The separation was performed on a Thermo NH2 analytical column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm), the mobile phase consisted of 30% A and 70% B, where A included 0.06% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.028% disodium hydrogen phosphate, B was acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min, the detection wavelength was set at 195 nm, and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. The limits bf detection were 0.1-3 mg/L. The linear regression equation for each component was obtained, and the correlation coefficients (r2) were better than 0.9981. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RDSs) were 0.10%-5.07% and 0.19%-6.41%, respectively. The average recoveries of four anti-diabetic drugs spiked in blank Chinese traditional patent medicine matrixes were more than 80% except that for the low concentration of voglibose was 64.05%. The RSDs of the recoveries were 1.14%-4.82%. The method can be used in the analysis of the four highly polar anti-diabetic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicines, and it is rapid, convenient, economic and specific. PMID:19626851

Guo, Dong; Nashunchaoketu; Wang, Jianghua; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Shuhong; Zhao, Xiumei; Yang, Binghu

2009-03-01

45

Antidiabetic oils.  

PubMed

Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications. PMID:24111621

Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

2013-11-01

46

Analysis of synthetic anti-diabetic drugs in adulterated traditional Chinese medicines by high-performance capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four synthetic anti-diabetic drugs, acetohexamide (ACE), chlorpropamide (CHL), glibenclamide (GLI) and tolbutamide (TOL), which can be found as adulterants in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) were assayed simultaneously using high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) in 4 min with UV detection at 200 nm. The electrolyte was a buffer solution containing 100 mM phosphate buffer (NaH2PO4\\/Na2B4O7, pH 7.5). Applied voltage was 15.0 kV

Yoe-Ray Ku; Li-Yun Chag; Li-Kang Ho; Jer-Huei Lin

2003-01-01

47

Kotalanol, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with thiosugar sulfonium sulfate structure, from antidiabetic ayurvedic medicine Salacia reticulata.  

PubMed

A potent natural alpha-glucosidase inhibitor called kotalanol has been isolated from an antidiabetic traditional Ayurvedic medicine, the roots and stems of Salacia reticulata Wight, through bioassay-guided separation. The structure of kotalanol was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence to be the inner salt comprised of 1-deoxyheptosyl-3-sulfate anion and 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranosyl sulfonium cation. Kotalanol was found to show more potent inhibitory activity against sucrase than salacinol and acarbose. PMID:9734318

Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Yashiro, K; Matsuda, H

1998-08-01

48

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556743

Tripathi, Y.C.; Prabhu, V.V.; Pal, R.S.; Mishra, R.N.

1996-01-01

49

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

50

Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

2010-01-01

51

MEDICINAL PLANT DISEASE LIST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The book covers the history, production, uses, and marketing of fourteen forest medicinals: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), bethroot (Trillium erectum), black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), false unicorn (Chamaelirium ...

52

Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. PMID:17089328

Anwar, Farooq; Latif, Sajid; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

2007-01-01

53

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access In vitro biological effects of two anti-diabetic  

E-print Network

Organization has estimated that 80% of the world's population use botanical medicine for their primary healthRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access In vitro biological effects of two anti-diabetic medicinal plants used in Benin as folk medicine Fifa TD Bothon1,2,3 , Eric Debiton1,2* , Felicien Avlessi3 , Christiane Forestier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Antidiabetic effects of extracts from Psidium guajava  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a screening of medicinal plants for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B), an extract from Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) leaves exhibited significant inhibitory effect on PTP1B. Thus, its antidiabetic effect on Leprdb\\/Leprdb mice was evaluated. Significant blood glucose lowering effects of the extract were observed after intraperitoneal injection of the extract at a dose of 10mg\\/kg in both 1- and

Won Keun Oh; Chul Ho Lee; Myung Sun Lee; Eun Young Bae; Cheon Bae Sohn; Hyuncheol Oh; Bo Yeon Kim; Jong Seog Ahn

2005-01-01

55

A study of antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and in vitro toxicity of selected traditional sudanese plants with anti-diabetic potential  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. Despite the enormous progress in conventional medicine and pharmaceutical industry, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected Sudanese plants that are traditionally used to treat diabetes. Methods Extraction was carried out according to method described by Sukhdev et. al. and the extracts were tested for their glycogen phosphorylase inhibition, Brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activity using (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves of Ambrosia maritima, fruits of Foeniculum vulgare and Ammi visnaga, exudates of Acacia Senegal, and seeds of Sesamum indicum and Nigella sativa. Results Nigella sativa ethanolic extract showed no toxicity on Brine shrimp Lethality Test, while its aqueous extract was toxic. All other extracts were highly toxic and ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited the highest toxicity. All plant extracts with exception of Acacia senegal revealed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Conclusions These results highly agree with the ethnobotanical uses of these plants as antidiabetic. This study endorses further studies on plants investigated, to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Moreover isolation and identification of active compounds are highly recommended. PMID:24885334

2014-01-01

56

Plant part substitution – a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts

S Zschocke; T Rabe; J. L. S Taylor; A. K Jäger; J van Staden

2000-01-01

57

Antioxidant, Metal Chelating, Anti-glucosidase Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Tropical Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the antioxidant potentials and anti-glucosidase activities of six tropical medicinal plants. The levels of phenolic constituents in these medicinal plants were also quantified and compared. Antioxidation potentials were determined colorimetrically for scavenging activities against DPPH and NO radicals. Metal chelating assay was based on the measurement of iron-ferrozine absorbance at 562 nm. Anti-diabetic potentials were measured by using ?-glucosidase as target enzyme. Medicinal plants’ total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents were determined using spectrophotometric methods, by comparison to standard plots prepared using gallic acid, quercetin and caffeic acid standards, respectively. Radical scavenging and metal chelating activities were detected in all medicinal plants, in concentration-dependent manners. Among the six plants tested, C. nutans, C. formosana and H. diffusa were found to possess ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that the total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents ranged from 12.13-21.39 mg GAE per g of dry sample, 1.83-9.86 mg QE per g of dry sample, and 0.91-2.74 mg CAE per g of dry sample, respectively. Our results suggested that C. nutans and C. formosana could potentially be used for the isolation of potent antioxidants and anti-diabetic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first time that C. nutans (Acanthaceae family) was reported in literature with glucosidase inhibition activity. PMID:25587331

Wong, Fai-Chu; Yong, Ann-Li; Ting, Evon Peir-Shan; Khoo, Sim-Chyi; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai

2014-01-01

58

Phytodentistry: use of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Finding healing powers in plants is an ancient idea. Herbs have been used as a traditional form of medicine since time immemorial. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, many of which have been the basis for the development of new chemicals for pharmaceuticals. Phytodentistry implies the use of plants and their products in the process of treating disease directly or indirectly. A crucial role is played by phytotherapy in the treatment of stomatological problems. It started with the use of miswak (chewing stick), and it is still relevant today as herbal toothpaste in many parts of the country. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is appropriately called the botanical garden of the world. The use of this readily available, natural and safe resource as a part of dental practice has great potential for a more "Natural and Green Dental Practice". Plant products have long been used in dentistry as part of various dental materials right from impression materials to eugenol, which forms an integral part of the dental clinic. The use of herbs in dental practice is not limited to only material sciences. A single herb shows a variety of effects like anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal activity and many more. Hence the incorporation of these herbs in dental practice will prove to be a valuable adjunct in dental treatment. This review is aimed at exploring the perspectives of this holistic treatment approach in dentistry and its benefits as an adjunctive therapy. PMID:25153610

Hotwani, Kavita; Baliga, Sudhindra; Sharma, Krishna

2014-12-01

59

Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.

2008-01-01

60

Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B

2008-04-01

61

Inhibition of ??Glucosidase by Aqueous Extracts of Some Potent Antidiabetic Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalant diseases of adults. Agents with ??glucosidase inhibitory activity have been useful as oral hypoglycemic drugs for the control of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2; noninsulin?dependent, diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Investigation of some medicinal herbs: Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Viscum album, and Myrtus communis with ??glucosidase inhibitor activity was conducted to identify a

Seçil Önal; Suna Timur; Burcu Okutucu; Figen Zihnio?lu

2005-01-01

62

Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids

H. O. Edeoga; D. E. Okwu; B. O Mbaebie

63

Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological disorder arising from insulin deficiency or due to ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. This results in high blood glucose and with time, to neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. It is a debilitating disease and affects the population of every country of the world. Around 200 million people of the world suffer from this disease and this figure is projected to rise to 300 million in the coming years. The disease cannot be cured with allopathic medicine as the drugs used do not restore normal glucose homeostasis and moreover have side-effects. On the other hand, traditional medicinal practitioners of various countries claim to cure diabetes or at least alleviate the major symptoms and progression of this disease through administration of medicinal plants. The Garos are an indigenous community of Bangladesh, who still follow their traditional medicinal practices. Their traditional medicinal formulations contain a number of plants, which they claim to be active antidiabetic agents. Since observation of indigenous practices have led to discovery of many modern drugs, it was the objective of the present study to conduct a survey among the Marakh sect of the Garos residing in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to find out the medicinal plants that they use for treatment of diabetes. It was found that the tribal practitioners of the Marakh sect of the Garos use twelve medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes. These plants were Lannea coromandelica, Alstonia scholaris, Catharanthus roseus, Enhydra fluctuans, Terminalia chebula, Coccinia grandis, Momordica charantia, Cuscuta reflexa, Phyllanthus emblica, Syzygium aqueum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Clerodendrum viscosum. A review of the scientific literature demonstrated that almost all the plants used by the Garo tribal practitioners have reported antidiabetic and/or antioxidant properties and have enormous potential for possible development of new and efficacious antidiabetic drugs. PMID:23983370

Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Azam, Md Nur Kabidul; Khatun, Zubaida; Seraj, Syeda; Islam, Farhana; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Jahan, Sharmin; Aziz, Md Shah

2012-01-01

64

[Chemical study of Indonesian medicinal plants].  

PubMed

A series of scientific expeditions in Indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinal plants and Javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. This article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine Indonesian medicinal plants: i.e. Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), Fagara rhetza (Rutaceae), Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), Beilschmiedia madang (Lauraceae), Caesalpinia major (Fabaceae), Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae), Taxus sumatrana (Taxaceae), Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae), and Merremia mammosa (Convolvulaceae), which were selected among plant materials collected in those surveys. PMID:8993230

Shibuya, H; Kitagawa, I

1996-12-01

65

Biochemical study of the anti-diabetic action of the Egyptian plants Fenugreek and Balanites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenugreek and Balanites are two plants commonly used in Egyptian folk medicine as hypoglycemic agents. In the present study, the effects of 21 days oral administration of Fenugreek seed and Balanites fruit extracts (1.5 g\\/kg bw) on the liver and kidney glycogen content and on some key liver enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in STZ-diabetic rats were studied. In addition, the

Mohamed Z. Gad; Maha M. El-Sawalhi; Manal F. Ismail; Nibal D. El-Tanbouly

2006-01-01

66

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

. In addition, the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine and Herb uses, systems and methods for Chinese;2 2. To introduce students the philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal uses. 3Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application

Weiblen, George D

67

Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. Objective: This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. Methods: A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. Results: In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. Conclusions: A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use. PMID:25489641

Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

2014-12-01

68

From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

2005-01-01

69

Antidiabetic effects of extracts from Psidium guajava.  

PubMed

During a screening of medicinal plants for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B), an extract from Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) leaves exhibited significant inhibitory effect on PTP1B. Thus, its antidiabetic effect on Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice was evaluated. Significant blood glucose lowering effects of the extract were observed after intraperitoneal injection of the extract at a dose of 10mg/kg in both 1- and 3-month-old Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice. In addition, histological analysis of the liver from the butanol-soluble fraction treated Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice revealed a significant decrease in the number of lipid droplets compared to the control mice. Taken together, it was suggested that the extract from Psidium guajava leaves possesses antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic mice model and these effect is, at least in part, mediated via the inhibition of PTP1B. PMID:15619559

Oh, Won Keun; Lee, Chul Ho; Lee, Myung Sun; Bae, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheon Bae; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Bo Yeon; Ahn, Jong Seog

2005-01-15

70

[Phytomedicine in otorhinolaryngology - evidence-based medicine with medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Phytomedicine has become an increasingly important treatment option for patients in the western world. Patients who experienced failure or adverse reactions with conventional western medicine often switch to natural and holistic methods. In eastern countries, with their long history of traditional medicine, patients often resort to herbal preparations as the majority of western medicines are unaffordable. The desire of western physicians for evidence-based medicine also applies in the sector of phytomedicine. A serious perception of natural products in scientific medicine can therefore only be based on data from prospective, controlled, randomized double-blind clinical trials. In order to illuminate the present scientific foundation of effective and reliable phytomedicine, a literature search in PubMed (Medline) was conducted based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main focus was on the field of otorhinolaryngology. Besides the presentation of selected, reliable studies and the evaluation of the efficacy of various medicinal plants, shortcomings of selected publications are discussed. PMID:22159338

Sertel, S

2011-12-01

71

[Unconventional antidiabetic agents].  

PubMed

The current pharmacological therapy of type 2 diabetes reduces the risk of diabetic complications, but is not able to achieve a long-lasting normalization of the metabolic disorder. Thus diabetic patients in increasing numbers are taking dietary supplements and herbs from which they expect additional health benefits. These unconventional antidiabetic agents consist mainly in trace metals like chromium, vanadium and zinc and a heterogeneous group of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs (e. g. Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre, Trigonella foenum-graecum) often derived from the ayurvedic medicine. In this overview the current evidence for the antidiabetic effect is presented. The trace elements chromium and vanadium have a number of potentially antidiabetic actions in vitro, however, the results obtained with diabetic patients are not convincing so far. Similarly, the available data on the therapeutic use of herbs suggest that in principle a number of them possess a blood glucose-lowering effect, but at present no firm conclusions as to their efficacy and safety can be made. To set up reliable dose-effect relationships requires the identification of the relevant antidiabetic molecules as was apparently achieved by isolating 4-hydroxyisoleucine from the seeds of T. foenum-graecum. This requirement is also valid in the case of the antidiabetic action of cinnamon. Coffee and a moderate alcohol consumption were found to be surprisingly effective in lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes manifestation, their effect being roughly equal to that of conventional drugs used in diabetes prevention trials. Diabetic patients should inform their physician about the use of unconventional agents and should be warned against uncontrolled starting or stopping their use. PMID:17484443

Rustenbeck, Ingo

2007-04-01

72

Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage  

PubMed Central

Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

2012-01-01

73

Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antidiabetic potential of the alcoholic stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum Colebr. (Menispermaceae), a medicinal plant widely used in the traditional Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus was evaluated in the STZ-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic model. Graded doses of the alcoholic stem extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 12

Annie Shirwaikar; K. Rajendran; I. S. R. Punitha

2005-01-01

74

Antiplasmodial properties of some Malaysian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven Malaysian medicinal plants were screened for their antiplasmodial activities in vitro. These plants were selected based on their traditional claims for treatment or to relieve fever. The plant extracts were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The antiplasmodial activities were carried out using the pLDH assay to Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) while the cytotoxic activities were

Noor Rain; S. Khozirah; Mohd Ridzuan; C. Rohaya; M. Rosilawati; Badrul Amin

2007-01-01

75

Biochemical study of the anti-diabetic action of the Egyptian plants fenugreek and balanites.  

PubMed

Fenugreek and Balanites are two plants commonly used in Egyptian folk medicine as hypoglycemic agents. In the present study, the effects of 21 days oral administration of Fenugreek seed and Balanites fruit extracts (1.5 g/kg bw) on the liver and kidney glycogen content and on some key liver enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in STZ-diabetic rats were studied. In addition, the effects of these two plant extracts on the intestinal alpha-amylase activity in vitro and starch digestion and absorption in vivo were also examined. Results indicated that single injection of STZ (50 mg/kg bw) caused 5-folds increase in the blood glucose level, 80% reduction in serum insulin level, 58% decrease in liver glycogen and 7-folds increase in kidney glycogen content as compared to the normal levels. The activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was markedly increased, whereas, the activities of both glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phospho-fructokinase were significantly decreased in the diabetic rat liver. Administration of Fenugreek extract to STZ-diabetic rats reduced blood glucose level by 58%, restored liver glycogen content and significantly decreased kidney glycogen as well as liver glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Meanwhile, Balanites extract reduced blood glucose level by 24% and significantly decreased liver glucose-6-phosphatase activity in diabetic rats. On the other hand, our results demonstrated that both the Fenugreek and Balanites extracts were able to in vitro inhibit alpha-amylase activity in dose-dependent manner. Fenugreek was more potent inhibitor than Balanites. This inhibition was reversed by increasing substrate concentration in a pattern which complies well with the effect of competitive inhibitors. Furthermore, this in vitro inhibition was confirmed by in vivo suppression of starch digestion and absorption induced by both plant extracts in normal rats. These findings suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of Fenugreek and Balanites is mediated through insulinomimetic effect as well as inhibition of intestinal alpha-amylase activity. PMID:16328970

Gad, Mohamed Z; El-Sawalhi, Maha M; Ismail, Manal F; El-Tanbouly, Nibal D

2006-01-01

76

Evaluation of metal pollution in medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study following plants were used: Withinia Coagulas, Sarcococca Saligna, Cronopus Didymus, Senecio Chrysanthamoides, Aerva javanica, Vinca major, Salvadora (yellow), Impatiens walleriana, Pteris vittata, Calotropis procera, Eicohhornia crassipes, Pinus walliachiana. All these plants have different medicinal properties. 10 metals used in study were Magnesium, Potassium, Chromium,Copper, Nickel, Iron, Arsenic, Cobalt, Lead and Cadmium. It was concluded from the study

Abida Taskeen; Nadia Arif; Hifsa Mubeen

77

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or

Raka Kamal; Sunita Yadav; Manas Mathur; Pawan Katariya

2011-01-01

78

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or

Raka Kamal; Sunita Yadav; Manas Mathur; Pawan Katariya

2012-01-01

79

Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10??g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10??g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

80

Cytotoxicity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

PubMed

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10? ? g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10? ? g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Wiench, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

81

[Plants and traditional medicine in southeast Madagascar].  

PubMed

This paper makes a first inventory of plants used by the medicine-men of the South-East of Madagascar (Tanala and Antemoro regions). The heirs - directly or indirectly - to an esoteric "moslem" knowledge which has been transmitted since the XVth century by the aristocratic islamized groups, the medicine-men are also the possessors of a knowledge which has been acquired by the autochthonous groups, that are said "masters of the earth" (commoners). Some divergences in the respective practices of the Tanala and Antemoro medicine-men seem to be connected with differences in the social structure and in the links between society and the environment. PMID:3193788

Beaujard, P

1988-01-01

82

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels. PMID:21251279

2011-01-01

83

Umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity  

PubMed Central

Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P?antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect on the STZ induced diabetic rat. Hence it could be the better choice to cure the diabetes. PMID:24138888

2013-01-01

84

Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part II): In Silico Prediction in Antidiabetic Extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012) [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity). Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus). Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors. PMID:23028712

Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Bladé, Cinta; Mulero, Miquel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

2012-01-01

85

Nuclear medicine and the nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

There were over 9,000,000 diagnostic and therapeutic administrations of radiopharmaceuticals in the United States in 1981. In Pennsylvania alone, there were approximately 650,000 diagnostic and 77,000 therapeutic administrations in 1981. With a state population of 12,000,000, this means that 1 in every 16 persons underwent some type of nuclear medicine treatment in a single year's time. These figures show that the chances of a nuclear power plant worker undergoing nuclear medicine treatment are far from remote. In fact, the chance are increasing each year as the use of nuclear diagnostic and therapeutic techniques continues to rise. Nuclear medicine patients present special problems to power plant health physicists. Some of these are discussed in this paper.

Buring, M.R. (Pennsylvania Power and Light Co., Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Berwick, PA (US)); Brill, D.R. (Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (US))

1985-04-01

86

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The whole plant of T. procumbens was collected in different regions of Madurai districts, Tamil Nadu. The air dried whole plant of T. procumbens was extracted with ethanol (95%) in a Soxhlet apparatus for 72 h. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (50 mg/jk, i.p.) and nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p) injection. The dry mass of the extract was used for preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Diabetic rats were treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, p.o.) or T. procumbens extract (250 and 500 mg/k, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days. The blood samples were collected at regular intervals to access hypoglycemic effect of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens. At the end of the experiment, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes levels were analyzed for all the experimental animals and compared with diabetic control. Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg has significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The diabetic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals. T. procumbens inhibited streptozotocin-induced weight loss and significantly alter the lipid levels. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens showed significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:24808679

Petchi, Ramesh R.; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.

2013-01-01

87

Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and

Surya Hadi; John B. Bremner

2001-01-01

88

Medicinal plants for renal injury prevention  

PubMed Central

It has been estimated that about 20% of men and 25% of women between the ages of 65 and 74 have some degrees of chronic kidney. This complication is attributed to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an important factor contributing to kidney damage by increasing production of oxidants, particularly insufficiency of endogenous antioxidant defense system. Medicinal plants antioxidants are able to ameliorate oxidative induced kidney damage by reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of scavenging ability of antioxidant defense system. Supplementation of medicinal plants antioxidants might be considered important remedies to abrogate pathology of oxidative stress induced kidney damage, however, single antioxidants do not act the same and might not be beneficial. PMID:25340130

Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

89

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani

2014-04-25

90

Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)]. PMID:15567255

Pavela, Roman

2004-12-01

91

Valuation of commercial central Himalayan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

This study estimates the national-level annual volume and value of commercial medicinal plant harvest in Nepal. Data were collected using open-ended questionnaires administered to local medicinal plant traders (n=149) in 15 districts in Nepal and regional wholesalers (n=53) in India. The annual trade volume is estimated to range from 7000 to 27 000 tons, with 14 500 tons harvested in the case year 1997-1998. The corresponding annual export value, calculated using regional wholesaler purchasing prices in the main markets in India, is estimated at US dollars 7-30 million, with a value of US$16 million in 1997-1998. Around 10% of rural households are involved in commercial harvesting. Lower ecological zones dominate supplies in both volume and value terms; herbs constitute the most important life form in value terms. Around 36% of volume and 51% of value derive from destructive harvesting. It is argued that annual volume and value figures are likely to be conservative estimates. The implications of findings for Himalayan medicinal plant conservation and trade are briefly discussed. PMID:16521835

Olsen, Carsten Smith

2005-12-01

92

Efficacy and safety of Stephania glabra: an alkaloid-rich traditional medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers (Menispermaceae) has long been used for the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis, dysentery, hyperglycaemia, cancer, fever, intestinal complaints, sleep disturbances and inflammation in many Asian countries. It mainly contains alkaloids and, until now, over 30 alkaloids such as bisbenzylisoquinolines, hasubanalactams, berberines and aporphines have been isolated from its tuber. Most of its traditional medicinal activities are scientifically approved by various in vitro and in vivo studies. It shows remarkable anti-psychotic, anti-diabetic, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial and anti-hypertensive activities. This work includes comprehensive information on the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of S. glabra. This review also focuses on the future perspectives with main emphasis on the establishment of therapeutic index and safety index of the plant. This review concludes that S. glabra has a great potential to treat various diseases, and could be used as a source for novel healthcare products in the near future, which needs further studies. PMID:25186139

Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

2015-03-01

93

Medicinal Plants—Old and New *  

PubMed Central

The historic role of plants in healing declined early in the twentieth century with the ascendency of synthetic drugs, even though a number of basic medical tools, such as opium, strychnine, and cocaine, are of botanical origin. In recent years, interest in natural products has been restored dramatically by the discovery of penicillin, plant-derived tranquilizers, and plant precursors of cortisone. Contrary to previous beliefs, botanical drugs are proving more economical than synthetics and hold forth encouraging prospects of inhibiting or destroying tumors without undue damage to healthy tissue. Extensive plant screening programs are being conducted by governmental agencies and pharmaceutical houses. Folk remedies, still common in many tropical areas, are being evaluated. As a result of such research by Canadian and American scientists, alkaloids extracted from the Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea) are being effectively employed to achieve regression in childhood leukemia. Potentially more rewarding are investigations of compounds obtained from the Australian tree, Acronychia baueri and a Chinese species, Camptotheca acuminata. Universities are reestablishing medicinal plant gardens and placing more emphasis on pharmacognosy. Experimental work with narcotic plants in psychiatric treatment has given rise to popular fascination with and abuse of certain natural hallucinogens. Among scientists engaged in chemical studies, there is an active demand for information about plants, their properties and therapeutic uses. Even the general public is being made aware that plant drugs are not obsolete but offer new hope for conquering disease. PMID:5644801

Morton, Julia F.

1968-01-01

94

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus  

E-print Network

. However, both the plants themselves and the shamanic knowledge of the plants are fading fast dueAntimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis By Daniel The knowledge of medicinal plant use by indigenous populations constitutes the most understudied medical

Firestone, Jeremy

95

Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to

Alade Akintonwa; Olufunsho Awodele; Gbenga Afolayan; Herbert A. B. Coker

2009-01-01

96

Next generation sequencing and de novo transcriptome analysis of Costus pictus D. Don, a non-model plant with potent anti-diabetic properties  

PubMed Central

Background Phyto-remedies for diabetic control are popular among patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus (DM), in addition to other diabetic control measures. A number of plant species are known to possess diabetic control properties. Costus pictus D. Don is popularly known as “Insulin Plant” in Southern India whose leaves have been reported to increase insulin pools in blood plasma. Next Generation Sequencing is employed as a powerful tool for identifying molecular signatures in the transcriptome related to physiological functions of plant tissues. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of C. pictus using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing technology and used combination of bioinformatics tools for identifying transcripts related to anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus. Results A total of 55,006 transcripts were identified, of which 69.15% transcripts could be annotated. We identified transcripts related to pathways of bixin biosynthesis and geraniol and geranial biosynthesis as major transcripts from the class of isoprenoid secondary metabolites and validated the presence of putative norbixin methyltransferase, a precursor of Bixin. The transcripts encoding these terpenoids are known to be Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists and anti-glycation agents. Sequential extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of bixin in C. pictus methanolic extracts. Another significant transcript identified in relation to anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and immuno-modulation is of Abscisic Acid biosynthetic pathway. We also report many other transcripts for the biosynthesis of antitumor, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial metabolites of C. pictus leaves. Conclusion Solid molecular signatures (transcripts related to bixin, abscisic acid, and geranial and geraniol biosynthesis) for the anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus leaves and vital clues related to the other phytochemical functions like antitumor, anti-oxidant, immuno-modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-malarial properties through the secondary metabolite pathway annotations are reported. The data provided will be of immense help to researchers working in the treatment of DM using herbal therapies. PMID:23176672

2012-01-01

97

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

98

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

99

A review study on analgesic applications of Iranian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Numerous side effects of synthetic drugs have caused medicinal plants to be regarded in recent decades as a reliable source of new drugs. Regarding the analgesic effects of many plants that are pointed in traditional medicine of Iran, many studies have been performed in this field that have caused need to be reviewed. In this study, different methods of testing pain, analgesic activity and possible compounds of medicinal plants and also the possible mechanisms actions of these plants are presented. The data presented in this review paper provide scientific information that might be used for isolation of potentially active compounds from some of these medicinal plants in future. PMID:25312163

Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Majlesi, Maedeh; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-09-01

100

Turkish folk medicinal plants, part III: ?ile (Istanbul)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, forty-three folk medicinal plants from ?ile (Turkey) have been reported. Among them 35 species were wild and eight species were cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of eczema, stomach and kidney ailments, asthma, cough, diabetes, and wounds.

E. Tuzlac?; E. Tolon

2000-01-01

101

Review: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1  

E-print Network

constituents, medicinal properties, and analysis of four promising plants (skullcaps, devil's club, St. John plantes ont e´ te´ se´ lectionne´ es a` la suite d'entretiens avec des sages autochtones et du deReview: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1 , Zi-Hua Jiang2 , Tarannum A. Syed3

Qin, Wensheng

102

Traditional Indian anti-diabetic plants attenuate progression of renal damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of daily oral feeding Momordica charantia (MC) (200 mg/kg), Eugenia jambolana (EJ) (200 mg/kg), Mucuna pruriens (MP) (200 mg/kg) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extracts for 40 days on blood glucose concentrations and kidney functions in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Plasma glucose levels, body weight, urine volume and urinary albumin levels were monitored on every 10th day over a 40-day period while plasma creatinine levels were assessed at the beginning and end of experiment. Renal hypertrophy was assessed as the ratio between the kidney weight and total body weight. Plasma glucose concentrations in STZ-diabetic mice were reduced by the administration of extracts of MC, EJ, TC and MP by 24.4, 20.84, 7.45 and 9.07%, respectively (P<0.005 for MC, EJ, MP and P<0.05 for TC). Urine volume was significantly higher (P<0.005) in diabetic controls and MC, EJ, MP and TC treatment prevented polyuria (P<0.001, 0.0001, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). After 10 days of STZ administration urinary albumin levels (UAE) were over 6 fold higher in diabetic controls as compared to normal controls. Treatment with MC, EJ, MP and TC significantly prevented the rise in UAE levels from day 0 to 40 in comparison to diabetic controls (P<0.0001, 0.0001, 0.05, 0.05, respectively). Renal hypertrophy was significantly higher in diabetic controls as compared to non-diabetic controls. MC and EJ partially but significantly (P<0.05) prevented renal hypertrophy as compared to diabetic controls. TC and MP failed to modify renal hypertrophy. Results indicate that these plant drugs should be studied further. PMID:11448544

Grover, J K; Vats, V; Rathi, S S; Dawar, R

2001-08-01

103

Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousă, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds), presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties. PMID:20428065

Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2010-04-01

104

Antioxidants in Sutherlandia frutescens, a medicinal plant in South Africa.  

E-print Network

??Sutherlandia frutescens (syn. Lessertia frutescens)has been used as traditional medicine in South Africa for numerous ailments. In this study, plant material was extracted with dichloromethane… (more)

Nguyen, Yen Hoang Thi

2009-01-01

105

Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

2014-01-01

106

Sustained antidiabetic effects of a berberine-containing Chinese herbal medicine through regulation of hepatic gene expression.  

PubMed

Diabetes and obesity are complex diseases associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver. The latter is characterized by dysregulation of the Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and IGF-I pathways and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). In China, multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetes for centuries. In this study, we used a three-herb, berberine-containing TCM to treat male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. TCM showed sustained glucose-lowering effects for 1 week after a single-dose treatment. Two-week treatment attenuated insulin resistance and fatty degeneration, with hepatocyte regeneration lasting for 1 month posttreatment. These beneficial effects persisted for 1 year after 1-month treatment. Two-week treatment with TCM was associated with activation of AMPK, Akt, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)1 pathways, with downregulation of miR29-b and expression of a gene network implicated in cell cycle, intermediary, and NADPH metabolism with normalization of CYP7a1 and IGFBP1 expression. These concerted changes in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins may explain the sustained effects of TCM in favor of cell survival, increased glucose uptake, and lipid oxidation/catabolism with improved insulin sensitivity and liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that multicomponent TCM may be a useful tool to unravel genome regulation and expression in complex diseases. PMID:22396199

Zhao, Hai-Lu; Sui, Yi; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yip, Kevin Y; Leung, Ross K K; Tsui, Stephen K W; Lee, Heung-Man; Wong, Harriet K T; Zhu, Xun; Siu, Jennifer J; He, Lan; Guan, Jing; Liu, Li-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Tong, Peter C Y; Chan, Juliana C N

2012-04-01

107

Antidiabetic Effect of Sida cordata in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120?mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties. PMID:25114914

Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

2014-01-01

108

MPDB 1.0: a medicinal plant database of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The term of medicinal plants include a various types of plants used in herbalism with medicinal activities. These plants are considered as rich resources of ingredients which can be used as complementary and alternative medicines and, also in drug developments and synthesis. In addition, some plants regarded as valuable origin of nutrition. Thus, all these plants are recommended as therapeutic agents. Information related to medicinal plants and herbal drugs accumulated over the ages are scattered and unstructured which make it prudent to develop a curated database for medicinal plants. MPDB 1.0 database is dedicated to provide the first window to find the plants around Bangladesh claimed to have medicinal and/or nutritive values by accumulating data from the published literatures. This database contains 406 medicinal plants with their corresponding scientific, family and local names as well as utilized parts for treatment from different districts of Bangladesh. Information regarding ailments is available for 353 plants. In addition, we have found active compounds for 78 plants with their corresponding PubMed ID. Availability www.medicinalplantbd.net PMID:25097384

Ashraf, Mohammad Arif; Khatun, Achia; Sharmin, Tanzila; Mobin, Faraid; Tanu, Arifur Rahman; Morshed, Toufique; Fakir, Tawkir Ahmad; Begum, Rifat Ara; Nabi, AHM Nurun

2014-01-01

109

Traditional Indian medicines used for the management of diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim; Mishra, Neetu

2013-01-01

110

Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

Mishra, Neetu

2013-01-01

111

Antidiabetic drugs used in Europe prior to the discovery of insulin.  

PubMed

Many therapeutic agents had been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus before insulin was discovered and several hundred plants have shown some extent of antidiabetic activity. This study tries to explore which agents were most widely used in Europe in the pre-insulin era. According to the scientific literature and the proprietary drug industry around 1900, more than 100 agents were considered to have hypoglycemic activity. Most of them seem to have been used only occasionally while some others were recommended and marketed to a large extent. Among the medicinal plants, Syzygium cumini (syn. S. jambolanum, Eugenia jambolana), Vaccinum myrtillus and Phaseolus sp. were most common, and other frequently used agents were opium, opium alkaloids, other alkaloids like quinine or Belladonna alkaloids, salicylates, alkaline substances like sodium (bi)carbonate and even strong poisons like arsenic or uranium salts. Syzygium jambolanum seed powder seems to be one of the most intensively studied antidiabetic agents of plant origin. PMID:17944329

Helmstädter, A

2007-09-01

112

MEDICINAL PLANT WEALTH OF ANDHRA PRADESH – PART I  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the Medical Plant Wealth of Andhra Pradesh based on the results of Medico – Ethno – Botanical exploration undertaken during the last fourteen years (1971 – 72 till the end of 1984). In all, 117 well known medicinal plants widely used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other systems of Medicine are enumerated here. PMID:22557569

Hemadri, Koppula; Sarma, C. Raja Rajeswari; Rao, Swahari Sasibushana

1987-01-01

113

Bioactivity of Iranian medicinal plants against Yersinia enterocolitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Plant materials continue to play a major role in primary health care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries. Medicinal herbs contain physiologically active principles that over the years have been exploited in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments as they contain antimicrobial properties. This paper aims to determine the antibacterial activity of Iranian endemic plants.

Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Arian Asadpoor; Behzad Hamedi; Ahmad Reza Golparvar

2010-01-01

114

Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the abundance, distribution and knowledge of medicinal plant species in a Ransa Dayak village and adjoining\\u000a forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over 250 medicinal plant species from 165 genera and 75 families are utilized by the\\u000a local healer. Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of locally-utilized medicinal\\u000a species and the greatest number

Izefri Caniago; F. Siebert Stephen

1998-01-01

115

Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica).  

PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identified from neem leaf extracts showing predicted binding property with the known diabetes mellitus type 2 protein enzyme target phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). The structure data for compounds found in the leaf extract of neem was screened against PEPCK using molecular docking simulation and screening techniques. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses best binding properties with PEPCK. This observation finds application for further consideration in in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:24497731

Jalil, Asma; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Shahzadi, Samar; Rasul, Ijaz; Rehman, Shahid-Ur; Shah, Masaud; Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Masoud, Muhammad Shareef

2013-01-01

116

Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defense, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study, the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

2011-01-01

117

Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region. PMID:16790066

Johnson, Leslie Main

2006-01-01

118

Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants. PMID:17996050

Verma, Archana K; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

2007-01-01

119

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

PubMed

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

120

Antidiabetic Effect of Oral Borapetol B Compound, Isolated from the Plant Tinospora crispa, by Stimulating Insulin Release  

PubMed Central

Aims. To evaluate the antidiabetic properties of borapetol B known as compound 1 (C1) isolated from Tinospora crispa in normoglycemic control Wistar (W) and spontaneously type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods. The effect of C1 on blood glucose and plasma insulin was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. The effect of C1 on insulin secretion was assessed by batch incubation and perifusion experiments using isolated pancreatic islets. Results. An acute oral administration of C1 improved blood glucose levels in treated versus placebo groups with areas under glucose curves 0–120?min being 72 ± 17 versus 344 ± 10?mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 492 ± 63 versus 862 ± 55?mmol/L (P < 0.01) in W and GK rats, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were increased by 2-fold in treated W and GK rats versus placebo group at 30?min (P < 0.05). C1 dose-dependently increased insulin secretion from W and GK isolated islets at 3.3?mM and 16.7?mM glucose. The perifusions of isolated islets indicated that C1 did not cause leakage of insulin by damaging islet beta cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study provides evidence that borapetol B (C1) has antidiabetic properties mainly due to its stimulation of insulin release. PMID:24319481

Lokman, Faradianna E.; Gu, Harvest F.; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Chia, Keh Leong; Östenson, Claes-Göran

2013-01-01

121

Antidiabetic Effect of Oral Borapetol B Compound, Isolated from the Plant Tinospora crispa, by Stimulating Insulin Release.  

PubMed

Aims. To evaluate the antidiabetic properties of borapetol B known as compound 1 (C1) isolated from Tinospora crispa in normoglycemic control Wistar (W) and spontaneously type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods. The effect of C1 on blood glucose and plasma insulin was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. The effect of C1 on insulin secretion was assessed by batch incubation and perifusion experiments using isolated pancreatic islets. Results. An acute oral administration of C1 improved blood glucose levels in treated versus placebo groups with areas under glucose curves 0-120?min being 72 ± 17 versus 344 ± 10?mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 492 ± 63 versus 862 ± 55?mmol/L (P < 0.01) in W and GK rats, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were increased by 2-fold in treated W and GK rats versus placebo group at 30?min (P < 0.05). C1 dose-dependently increased insulin secretion from W and GK isolated islets at 3.3?mM and 16.7?mM glucose. The perifusions of isolated islets indicated that C1 did not cause leakage of insulin by damaging islet beta cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study provides evidence that borapetol B (C1) has antidiabetic properties mainly due to its stimulation of insulin release. PMID:24319481

Lokman, Faradianna E; Gu, Harvest F; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Chia, Keh Leong; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

2013-01-01

122

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health  

PubMed Central

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

123

AN INDEX OF THE AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS, USED IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE  

PubMed Central

The medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine and its distribution in Jammu and Kashmir has been categorized systematically here. The paper deals with 246 medicinal plants and has to off-set an index which is not there so far. Out of 246 medicinal plants 12 plants are considered to be controversial. Substitutes, Adulterants of these plants which are being used in various parts of India were also recorded separately in this study. PMID:22557549

Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

1986-01-01

124

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

125

Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?  

PubMed

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122

Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

126

Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies. PMID:22589384

Sharma, Vivekanand

2013-01-01

127

Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies. PMID:22589384

Sharma, Vivekanand; Sarkar, Indra Neil

2013-03-01

128

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against

T Okpekon; S Yolou; C Gleye; F Roblot; P Loiseau; C Bories; P Grellier; F Frappier; A Laurens; R Hocquemiller

2004-01-01

129

Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most

T Essawi; M Srour

2000-01-01

130

Promising anti-diabetes mellitus activity in rats of ?-amyrin palmitate isolated from Hemidesmus indicus roots.  

PubMed

While evaluating the toxicity of the tuberous root extracts of Hemidesmus indicus, a traditional medicinal plant, the glucose lowering property of the root was observed by the investigators. Therefore, it was thought of interest to isolate the anti-hyperglycemic principle from the root and determine its utility to develop an anti-diabetes mellitus medicine. The active principle was isolated from H. indicus root extract by anti-hyperglycemic activity guided chromatographic techniques. Glucose tolerance test in rats was used to evaluate the anti-hyperglycenic property. Anti-diabetes mellitus property was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as well as streptozotocin-induced (type-2 model) diabetic rats. The active principle was isolated and identified with spectral data as ?-amyrin palmitate. Although it is a known compound, its presence in H. indicus is not known previously. It was observed for the first time that ?-amyrin palmitate has remarkable anti-hyperglycemic activity in orally glucose loaded rats. Further, interestingly, it exhibited excellent anti-diabetes mellitus activity in both alloxan-diabetic and streptozotocin-diabetic rats at a very low concentration (50µg/kg body weight). One of the mechanisms of action of ?-amyrin palmitate appears to be blocking the entry of glucose from the intestine. ?-Amyrin palmitate is very promising to develop a medicine for diabetes for combination therapy and/or mono-therapy. PMID:24726843

Nair, S Ajikumaran; Sabulal, B; Radhika, J; Arunkumar, R; Subramoniam, A

2014-07-01

131

Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

2013-01-01

132

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of

S. Al-Qura’n

2009-01-01

133

Bioactive alkaloids from medicinal plants of Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products had been indispensably used by many cultures and traditions in folklore medicines for thousands of years. These traditional medicines cater to about 85% of the world population for their primary health care needs. Natural products have been intensively explored also for their bioactive pharmacophores by modern pharmaceutical companies. In fact they are the skeletal framework of about 60%

Phurpa Wangchuk

2004-01-01

134

The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.  

PubMed

In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205

Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

2004-01-01

135

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca,

E. M. Ritch-Krc; S. Thomas; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

136

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

137

ETHNOBOTANY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH  

PubMed Central

India has a rich heritage of herbal medicine of which the most important system namely Ayurveda needs even today a critical scientific scrutiny both in the correct identity of the proper drug plants and in the standard of the preparation of Ayurveda drugs. Authentic data on the medicinal plants growing in the Srikakulam district of Northern Andhra Pradesh is presented in the paper along with their etnobotainical data and their distribution in the district. PMID:22557487

Rao, K. Prakasa; Sreeramulu, S. Hara

1985-01-01

138

Antidiabetic compounds from Sarracenia purpurea used traditionally by the Eeyou Istchee Cree First Nation.  

PubMed

Through ethnobotanical surveys, the CIHR Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines identified 17 boreal forest plants stemming from the pharmacopeia of the Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (James Bay region of Northern Quebec) that were used traditionally against diabetes symptoms. The leaves of Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant), one of the identified Cree plants, exhibited marked antidiabetic activity in vitro by stimulating glucose uptake in C2C12 mouse muscle cells and by reducing glucose production in H4IIE rat liver cells. Fractionation guided by glucose uptake in C2C12 cells resulted in the isolation of 11 compounds from this plant extract, including a new phenolic glycoside, flavonoid glycosides, and iridoids. Compounds 6 (isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside), 8 [kaempferol-3-O-(6?-caffeoylglucoside], and 11 (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) potentiated glucose uptake in vitro, which suggests they represent active principles of S. purpurea (EC(50) values of 18.5, 13.8, and 60.5 ?M, respectively). This is the first report of potentiation of glucose uptake by compounds 6 and 8, while compound 11 (isolated from Vaccinium vitis) was previously shown to enhance glucose uptake. Treatment of H4IIE liver cells with the new compound 1, 6'-O-caffeoylgoodyeroside, decreased hepatic glucose production by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase enzymatic activity (IC(50) = 13.6 ?M), which would contribute to lowering glycemia and to the antidiabetic potential of S. purpurea. PMID:22738356

Muhammad, Asim; Guerrero-Analco, Jose A; Martineau, Louis C; Musallam, Lina; Madiraju, Padma; Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre S; Arnason, John T

2012-07-27

139

Molecular approaches for improvement of medicinal and aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are important sources for plant secondary metabolites, which are important for human\\u000a healthcare. Improvement of the yield and quality of these natural plant products through conventional breeding is still a\\u000a challenge. However, recent advances in plant genomics research has generated knowledge leading to a better understanding of\\u000a the complex genetics and biochemistry involved in biosynthesis

Jitendra Kumar; Pushpendra Kumar Gupta

2008-01-01

140

Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity. PMID:23569804

Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Patil, Ravindra Y

2011-01-01

141

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

142

Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants.  

PubMed

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absence of flavonoids and Terpenoids in A. longifolia (L.)Nees and Alkaloids in, P edulis Sims, A.longifolia (L.)Nees, B. tinctoria Lesch and S. indicus Linn. respectively. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557345

Doss, A

2009-10-01

143

Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absence of flavonoids and Terpenoids in A. longifolia (L.) Nees and Alkaloids in, P edulis Sims, A.longifolia (L.) Nees, B. tinctoria Lesch and S. indicus Linn. respectively. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557345

Doss, A.

2009-01-01

144

Development of thiadiazole as an antidiabetic agent- a review.  

PubMed

This review provides a brief summary of thiadiazole ring containing compounds as antidiabetic agents. It covers the most active thiadiazole derivatives selected from reported literature of thiadiazole system as antidiabetic drug substance in the form of synthesis and structural activity relationship study reports. Some of the promising thiadiazole compounds interacting with targets such as sodium-glucose linked transporter, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and cannabinoid-1 receptor have been collected with their biological potency. The information provided in this review acts as important overview for medicinal chemist to develop a new chemical entity possessing antidiabetic activity. PMID:24387711

Datar, Prasanna A; Deokule, Tejashree A

2014-02-01

145

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

Škrovánková, So?a; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

146

A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

2014-01-01

147

The genetic manipulation of medicinal and aromatic plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal and aromatic plants have always been intimately linked with human health and culture. Plant-derived medicines constitute a substantial component of present day human healthcare systems in industrialized as well as developing countries. They are products of plant secondary metabolism and are involved in many other aspects of a plant's interaction with its immediate environment. The genetic manipulation of plants together with the establishment of in vitro plant regeneration systems facilitates efforts to engineer secondary product metabolic pathways. Advances in the cloning of genes involved in relevant pathways, the development of high throughput screening systems for chemical and biological activity, genomics tools and resources, and the recognition of a higher order of regulation of secondary plant metabolism operating at the whole plant level facilitate strategies for the effective manipulation of secondary products in plants. Here, we discuss advances in engineering metabolic pathways for specific classes of compounds in medicinal and aromatic plants and we identify remaining constraints and future prospects in the field. In particular we focus on indole, tropane, nicotine, isoquinoline alcaloids, monoterpenoids such as menthol and related compounds, diterpenoids such as taxol, sequiterpenoids such as artemisinin and aromatic amino acids. PMID:17609957

Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Pelacho, Ana M; Gené, Anna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

2007-10-01

148

People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies. PMID:23148504

2012-01-01

149

Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in Puerto Rico was evaluated. Medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). Respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. Patients 65 years or older tended to use herbal remedies more often. Seven of the 11 most commonly used plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Other medicinal uses given were for sedation, sleep disorders, elevated blood pressure, kidney disorders, and respiratory ailments. The most frequently used plant was Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange), which was used as a sedative by 39% of the patients and for gastrointestinal disorders by 17%. Two potentially toxic plants, Solanum americanum and Annona muricata, were among the most commonly used plants. Medicinal plants were used widely by the outpatient population studied. Most herbs were used to treat self-limiting conditions but some were used to treat potentially serious medical problems, such as hypertension. PMID:6496496

Hernández, L; Muńoz, R A; Miró, G; Martínez, M; Silva-Parra, J; Chávez, P I

1984-10-01

150

Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

2011-07-01

151

Assessment of Bioactivity of Indian Medicinal Plants Using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Lethality Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants constitute an important component of flora and are widely distrib- uted in India. The pharmacological evaluation of substances from plants is an established method for the identification of lead compounds which can leads to the development of novel and safe medicinal agents. Based on the ethnopharmacological literature, several species of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in India

Alluri V. Krishnaraju; Tayi V. N. Rao; Dodda Sundararaju; Mulabagal Vanisree; Hsin-Sheng Tsay; Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju

152

Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

2014-01-01

153

Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal ?-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression  

PubMed Central

Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg?1) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal ?-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg?1 bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg?1 bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg?1 bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg?1 bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of ?-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage. PMID:24250646

Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

154

Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal ?-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression.  

PubMed

Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg(-1)) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal ?-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg(-1) bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg(-1) bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of ?-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage. PMID:24250646

Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

155

Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk-medicine  

PubMed Central

Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plant extracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ? 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of plant material ? 50 ?g/ml were obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa and the whole plant of Aristolochia bracteolata. The ten plants were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. The two most active plants showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids and tannins. PMID:20523878

Ahmed, El-Hadi M.; Nour, Bakri Y.M.; Mohammed, Yousif G.; Khalid, Hassan S.

2010-01-01

156

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.  

PubMed

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100?mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

157

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100?mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

158

Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.  

PubMed

Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future. PMID:20180763

Hefferon, Kathleen

2010-06-01

159

Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p?medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development. PMID:24885586

2014-01-01

160

Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Materials and methods: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". Results: A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Conclusion: Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori. PMID:25430849

Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

2014-11-28

161

Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit’s duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200mgkg?1 dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal

Attia H Atta; Samar M Mouneir

2004-01-01

162

FURTHER NOMENCLATURAL CHANGES IN INDIAN HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS  

PubMed Central

Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of Southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by earlier collectors. Moreover, many exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine have not been collected and preserved. The present paper lists 34 species of plants used in homeopathy belonging to 31 genera under 23 families. PMID:22556573

Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S.S

1992-01-01

163

Effect of some medicinal plant preparations of adipose tissue metabolism.  

PubMed

Powder in fine suspension, water and alcoholic extract preparations of Cyperus Rotundus (Mustak), Iris versicolor (Haimavati) and Holoptelai integrifolia (Chirubilva) were used in adipose cell suspension and also administered orally to evaluate the effect of these plant preparations on adipose tissue metabolism in rats. The result, showed that the preparations from these medicinal plants exhibited lipolytic action to mobilize fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the reduction of obesity. PMID:22557642

Bambhole, V D

1988-10-01

164

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC<100 ?g\\/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia

L. Tona; K. Kambu; N. Ngimbi; K. Cimanga; A. J. Vlietinck

1998-01-01

165

Perilla frutescens: interesting new medicinal and melliferous plant in Italy.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to inform those potentially interested (researchers, farmers, industry and public bodies) in the medicinal and aromatic properties, and profitability of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton (Lamiaceae). Perilla, a medicinal and edible plant of Asian origin, was recently introduced to the Piedmont Region in the north-west of Italy. P. frutescens is commonly known for its anti-allergic, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties. It is also widely used as human food. We collected a variety of data on Perilla crops in the Piedmont Region, including: agricultural practices, crop profitability, and its value as a bee plant. Our results suggest that ease of cultivation, approximate break-even economics, medicinal claims, and value for bees all contribute to make Perilla of economic interest in Italy. PMID:22164783

Barbieri, Cinzia; Ferrazzi, Paola

2011-10-01

166

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

2014-01-01

167

Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC50 (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.

M Markouk; K Bekkouche; M Larhsini; M Bousaid; H. B Lazrek; M Jana

2000-01-01

168

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

2010-06-01

169

Antifungal Properties of Some Mexican Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal properties of some extracts from Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., Heliopsis longipes 'A. Gray' Blake., Satureja macrostema Benth. and Tagetes lucida Cav. were analyzed, using the agar disc diffusion method. After 72 h incubation, the plant extracts inhibited the growth of fungi, but the ethyl acetate and methanol-chloroform extracts from A. ludoviciana, H. longipes and T. lucida inhibited all the

Luz Maria Damian-Badillo; Rafael Salgado-Garciglia; Rosa Elisa Martinez-Munoz; Mauro Manuel Martinez-Pacheco

2008-01-01

170

Antiprotease activity of selected Slovak medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Fifty-six methanol extracts obtained from the barks, flowers, leaves and stems of 30 Slovak trees, bushes and herbs used in the traditional medicine of the Small Carpathians, Slovakia, have been screened for antiprotease (trypsin, thrombin and urokinase) activity using chromogenic bioassay. In this study, 14 extracts showed the strong inhibition activity to protease trypsin with IC50 values below 10 microg/mL. The highest inhibition activities were observed for methanol extracts of Acer platanoides IC50 = 1.8 microg/mL, Rhus typhina IC50 = 1.2 microg/mL and Tamarix gallica IC50 = 1.7 microg/mL. However, the results of extracts tested on thrombin were generally different from those observed for trypsin. The most marked inhibition activity to thrombin were estimated for extracts of Castanea sativa IC50 = 73.2 microg/mL, Larix decidua IC50 = 96.9 microg/mL and Rhus typhina IC50 = 20.5 microg/mL. In addition, Acer platanoides and Rhus typhina were the only extracts which showed inhibition activity to urokinase with IC50 = 171.1 microg/mL and IC50 = 38.3 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, Rhus typhina showed the broadest spectrum of inhibition activity to all tested serine proteases and seems to be a prospective new source of natural products as inhibitors of serine proteases. PMID:20225660

Jedinak, A; Valachova, M; Maliar, T; Sturdik, E

2010-02-01

171

Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities  

PubMed Central

Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

2011-01-01

172

Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases  

PubMed Central

Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described. PMID:24278070

2013-01-01

173

Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.  

PubMed

Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

2012-12-15

174

Medicinal plants: a public resource for metabolomics and hypothesis development.  

PubMed

Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology. PMID:24957774

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Jones, A Daniel; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; P Widrlechner, Mark; Nikolau, Basil J

2012-01-01

175

Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development  

PubMed Central

Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range ofantioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology. PMID:24957774

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Daniel Jones, A.; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Nikolau, Basil J.

2012-01-01

176

Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

1984-07-01

177

Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.  

PubMed

Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain, cardiovascular function, microbial infection, inflammation, pain, and many more. PMID:25001990

Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

2015-01-01

178

Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in S. Tomé and Pr??ncipe islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the antimalarial activity of 13 medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in S. Tomé and Pr??ncipe (STP) islands in the Gulf of Guinea, aiming at identifying the most effective plants for further research. Fieldwork was carried out with the collaboration of 37 traditional healers from both islands, during an ethnobotanical study, which was conducted from 1993

Maria do Céu de Madureira; Ana Paula Martins; Milene Gomes; Jorge Paiva; António Proença da Cunha; Virg??lio do Rosário

2002-01-01

179

Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

180

Antiangiogenic activity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

PubMed

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Kadioglu, Onat; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

181

Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.  

PubMed

Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC?? value of 1.6 ?g/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC?? 13.0 ?g/ml). PMID:22683318

Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

2012-08-01

182

A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

Vimala, G.; Gricilda Shoba, F.

2014-01-01

183

A review on antiulcer activity of few Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

Vimala, G; Gricilda Shoba, F

2014-01-01

184

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.  

PubMed

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed. PMID:10837988

Pieroni, A

2000-06-01

185

Indigenous Traditional Medicine: Plants for the Treatment of Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ethnopharmacology can contribute to the exploration of phytotherapeutical resources for use in local contexts and countries\\u000a of origin. Indigenous people living on their traditional territory largely rely on medicinal plants for healthcare and they\\u000a are therefore rich in ethnopharmacological knowledge. For public health professionals, such knowledge can help to create the\\u000a basis for a health system that is more respectful

Clara Lia Costa Brandelli; Raquel Brandt Giordani; Alexandre José Macedo; Geraldo Attilio De Carli; Tiana Tasca

186

A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

2013-01-01

187

Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress  

PubMed Central

Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

2013-01-01

188

Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress.  

PubMed

Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

2013-01-01

189

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-04-01

190

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

2010-09-01

191

Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) Plants  

PubMed Central

The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2014-01-01

192

Unraveling the commercial market for medicinal plants and plant parts on the witwatersrand, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To unravel the market for commercial medicinal plants on the Witwatersrand in South Africa, a semiquantitative approach was\\u000a taken. A stratified random sample of 50 herb-traders was surveyed, and an inventory of all plants and parts sold was compiled.\\u000a Research participants were questioned on the scarcity and popularity of the plants traded, as well as suppliers and origins.\\u000a The rarefaction

Vivienne L. Williams; Kevin Balkwill; Edward T. F. Witkowski

2000-01-01

193

[Molecular genetics and biotechnology in medicinal plants: studies by transgenic plants].  

PubMed

The advances in molecular genetics and biotechnology in the field of medicinal plant research are discussed with focusing on the works using transgenic plants. Differentiated organ cultures and transgenic teratomas, incited by the infection with mutants of Agrobacterium Ti and Ri plasmids, were established in quinolizidine-alkaloid producing plants and Solanaceae plants. These cultured cells were used for the production and bioconversion of specific alkaloids produced in these plants. The methods of integration of foreign genes into medicinal plants were developed using an Ri binary vector. The mode of gene expression driven by TR1'-2' promoters was elucidated in transgenic medicinal plants, e.g., Nicotiana tabacum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Digitalis purpurea and Atropa belladonna. The genes for herbicide resistance, mammalian cytochrome P450 and bacterial beta-hydroxydecanoylthioester dehydrase were transferred and expressed in plants either to confer herbicide-resistant trait or to change the pattern of metabolites. The cDNA clones encoding cysteine synthase responsible for sulfur assimilation and biosynthesis of non-protein amino acids were isolated and characterized from Spinacea oleracea and Citrullus vulgaris. The functional lysine residue was identified by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. An over-expression system in Escherichia coli was constructed for the bacterial production of the plant specific non-protein amino acids. We made transgenic N. tabacum integrated with sense- and antisense-constructs of cysteine synthase cDNA driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter for the purpose of genetic manipulation of biosynthetic flow of cysteine in plants. The future prospects of medicinal plant research are also discussed in the context of modern plant molecular biology. PMID:8133455

Saito, K

1994-01-01

194

Biophytum sensitivum: Ancient medicine, modern targets  

PubMed Central

Research on medicinal plants began to focus on discovery of natural products as potential active principles against various diseases. Medicinal plants are very interesting, have the ability to produce remarkable chemical structures with diverse biological activities. Biophytum sensitivum is used as traditional medicine to cure variety of diseases. During the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out to elucidate the chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal applications of B. sensitivum. Phytochemical analysis have shown that the plant parts are rich in various beneficial compounds which include amentoflavone, cupressuflavone, and isoorientin. Extracts and its bioactive compounds have been known to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, radioprotective, chemoprotective, antimetastatic, antiangiogenesis, wound-healing, immunomodulation, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective activity. The present review has been carried out to shed light on the diverse role of this plant in the management of various ailments facing us. PMID:22837955

Sakthivel, K. M.; Guruvayoorappan, C.

2012-01-01

195

Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic potentials. The results of internationally accepted Allium cepa were comparable with the modified Ames test. However, a long term in vivo and dose dependent study should be carried out to validate these results and the findings should be communicated to drug and food regulatory body and also to the general public. PMID:19619631

Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

2009-09-25

196

Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Results Both flowers and leaves of M. sylvestris methanol extracts exhibited strong antibacterial effects against Erwinia carotovora, a plant pathogen, with MIC value of 128 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The flowers extract also showed high antibacterial effects against some human pathogen bacteria strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus faecalis, with MIC value of 192, 200 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The plant methanol extracts had relatively high cytotoxic activity against MacCoy cell line. Conclusion We concluded that Malva sylvestris can be candidated as an antiseptic, a chemopreventive or a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23493458

Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Molavi, Ghader; Ghasemi, Ghader

2011-01-01

197

Recent literature extols Tibetan medicine and its plants (Kletter and Kriechbaum 2001; Dash  

E-print Network

, medicinal plants. Economic Botany, 60(3), 2006, pp. 227­253. © 2006, by The New York Botanical Garden PressRecent literature extols Tibetan medicine and its plants (Kletter and Kriechbaum 2001; Dash 1994 systems, Tibetan medicine has a central core of historic literary reference works, called "the four

Amend, Anthony S.

198

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

2004-01-01

199

Antibacterial Property of Different Medicinal Plants: Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Xanthoxylum armatum and Origanum majorana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries like Nepal and India have been using crude plants as medicine since Vedic period. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources (Farnsworth 1994). With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of worlds population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their

Sunil Lekhak; Anuja Sharma

2010-01-01

200

Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?  

PubMed

An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

2011-12-01

201

TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF GUREZ (KASHMIR) – AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Gurez Valley is situated along the Krishna Ganga river and is less exploited. It has reserve forests. The forests are very rich in herbal wealth. The population of the area consists of the types Dard, Kashimiries; Gujars and Pathans. They have got much faith in herbs and the elders of the family mostly know the uses of the herbs and prescribe for the ailments to their families and neighbours. The folklores of 56 plants species belonging to 50 genera and 28 families and neighbourers. The folklores of 56 plants species belonging to 50 genera and 28 families and their mode of administration were collected during the survey of the area. Botanical names with author citations, plant family, local name, connection with altitude and medicinal uses have been enlisted. PMID:22556637

Kapahi, B.K.; Srivastava, T.N.; Sarin, Y.K.

1993-01-01

202

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-01-01

203

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC < 100 microg/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

1998-05-01

204

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants species from 54 plant families, 98 genera used for treating diseases in Babungo. The Asteraceae was the most represented plant family while herbs made up 57% of the total medicinal plants used. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part while concoction and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. Most medicinal plants (72%) are harvested from the wild and 45% of these have other non medicinal uses. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. Conclusions A divers number of plants species are used for treating different diseases in Babungo. In addition to their use as medicines, a large number of plants have other non medicinal uses. The youth should be encouraged to learn the traditional medicinal knowledge to preserve it from being lost with the older generation. PMID:20156356

2010-01-01

205

Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of

Qing-Jun Yuan; Zhi-Yong Zhang; Juan Hu; Lan-Ping Guo; Ai-Juan Shao; Lu-Qi Huang

2010-01-01

206

Market potential and research in cultivation of some endangered medicinal plants Literature survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the uncontrolled exploitation of wild plants several medicinal plant species are endangered in some countries in Europe and efforts have been made to encourage their cultivation (Lange 1998). Some of these medicinal plants originate from the cooler parts of Europe and they seem to be climati- cally suitable for cultivation in the southern part of Finland. This review

Bertalan Galambosi; Kirsi Jokela

2002-01-01

207

Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed

Iqbal Ahmad; Arina Z. Beg

2001-01-01

208

Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

1997-08-01

209

Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

2010-01-01

210

Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

2005-02-28

211

In vitro screening of medicinal plant extracts for macrofilaricidal activity.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants were screened at 1-10 mg/ml for in vitro macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility assay against adult Setaria digitata, the cattle filarial worm. Four plant extracts showed macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility at concentrations below 4 mg/ml and an incubation period of 100 min. Complete inhibition of worm motility and subsequent mortality was observed at 3, 2, 1 and 1 mg/ml, respectively, for Centratherum anthelminticum, Cedrus deodara, Sphaeranthus indicus and Ricinus communis. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was carried out at 1 mg ml(-1) and 4-h incubation period, and the results showed that C. deodara, R. communis, S. indicus and C. anthelminticum exhibited 86.56, 72.39, 61.20 and 43.15% inhibition respectively in formazan formation compared to the control. PMID:17013649

Nisha, Mathew; Kalyanasundaram, M; Paily, K P; Abidha; Vanamail, P; Balaraman, K

2007-02-01

212

Anti-inflammatory activity of Chinese medicinal vine plants.  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts from nine vine plants used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory conditions were evaluated against a panel of key enzymes relating to inflammation. The enzymes included cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO). The vine plants studied were: the stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, the stem of Trachelospermum jasminoides Lem., the root from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., the stem of Sinomenium acutum Rehder and Wilson, the stem of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, the stem of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., the root and stem from Tinospora sagittata Gagnep., the root of Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill, and the stem of Clematis chinensis Osbeck. All of the plant extracts showed inhibitory activities against at least one of the enzymes in various percentages depending upon the concentrations. The extract from S. suberectus was found to be active against all enzymes except COX-2. Its IC(50) values were 158, 54, 31 and 35 microg/ml in COX-1, PLA(2), 5-LO and 12-LO assays, respectively. T. jasminoides showed potent inhibitory activities against both COX-1 (IC(50) 35 microg/ml) and PLA(2) (IC(50) 33 microg/ml). The most potent COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LO inhibition was observed in the extract of T. wilfordii with the IC(50) values of 27, 125 and 22 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may partly explain the use of these vine plants in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. PMID:12576203

Li, Rachel W; David Lin, G; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N

2003-03-01

213

Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.  

PubMed

More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

Wang, Yuan-Chuen

2014-08-14

214

Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to plant medicines in Ghana: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some essential elements in eleven plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5.1011 n.s-1.cm-2. The plant medicines were: Sirappac powder-E, Tina-A powder, Blighia powder, Aphrodisiac powder, Ninga powder and

Y. Serfor-Armah; E. H. K. Akaho; B. J. B. Nyarko; A. W. K. Kyere; K. Oppon-Boachie

2003-01-01

215

OBSERVATIONS ON WILD PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF THE KOLHAPUR DISTRICT  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the wild medicinal plants used by rural population of south-western part of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra State. The authors gathered data on 34 species of locally available wild plants used in curing common human ailments. The plants are arranged according to the type of ailment. Vernacular name of each species followed by its botanical name, relevant plant family and known use of the plant in local medicine are given. PMID:22557559

Upadhye, Anuradha; Kumbhojkar, M. S.; Vartak, V. D.

1986-01-01

216

Gymnemagenin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.  

PubMed

Gymnema sylvestre is a plant containing the triterpenoid gymnemagenin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an antidiabetic agent. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi, isolated from G. sylvestre, produce gymnemagenin. We isolated an endophytic fungal strain from the leaves of G. sylvestre which produces gymnemagenin in the medium. The fungus was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on morphological and molecular methods. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic gymnemagenin. The presence of gymnemagenin was further confirmed by FTIR, UV, and (1)H NMR analyses. PMID:24497046

Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

2014-03-01

217

Characterizing the cytoprotective activity of Sarracenia purpurea L., a medicinal plant that inhibits glucotoxicity in PC12 cells  

PubMed Central

Background The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea L., is a widely distributed species in North America with a history of use as both a marketed pain therapy and a traditional medicine in many aboriginal communities. Among the Cree of Eeyou Istchee in northern Québec, the plant is employed to treat symptoms of diabetes and the leaf extract demonstrates multiple anti-diabetic activities including cytoprotection in an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. The current study aimed to further investigate this activity by identifying the plant parts and secondary metabolites that contribute to these cytoprotective effects. Methods Ethanolic extracts of S. purpurea leaves and roots were separately administered to PC12 cells exposed to glucose toxicity with subsequent assessment by two cell viability assays. Assay-guided fractionation of the active extract and fractions was then conducted to identify active principles. Using high pressure liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, the presence of identified actives in both leaf and root extracts were determined. Results The leaf extract, but not that of the root, prevented glucose-mediated cell loss in a concentration-dependent manner. Several fractions elicited protective effects, indicative of multiple active metabolites, and, following subfractionation of the polar fraction, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and morroniside were isolated as active constituents. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of hyperoside in the leaf but not root extract and, although morroniside was detected in both organs, its concentration was seven times higher in the leaf. Conclusion Our results not only support further study into the therapeutic potential and safety of S. purpurea as an alternative and complementary treatment for diabetic complications associated with glucose toxicity but also identify active principles that can be used for purposes of standardization and quality control. PMID:23216659

2012-01-01

218

Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24856756

Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

2014-05-01

219

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

2012-01-01

220

Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257

Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

2010-01-01

221

LESS KNOWN USES OF WEEDS AS MEDICINAL PLANTS  

PubMed Central

In this paper the author presents medicinal or otherwise useful weed species with details of family, vernacular name and its medicinal utility. Information on other general economic importance of medicinal weeds is also described here. PMID:22557414

Sahu, T. R.

1984-01-01

222

Anti-diabetic properties of the African mistletoe in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The African mistletoe, Loranthus bengwensis L. (Loranthaceae), has been widely used in Nigerian folk medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract or infusion (1.32 g/kg per day) of the leaves of this plant parasitic on lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Brum f. (Rutaceae), guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and jatropha, Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), respectively, were supplied ad libitum to separate groups of both non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, as their only source of fluid for a period of 28 days. The infusions of mistletoe parasite on both lemon and guava trees significantly decreased serum glucose levels in non-diabetic (P < 0.05) and diabetic (P < 0.001) rats, whereas that prepared from mistletoe parasitic on jatropha did not. The data indicate that African mistletoe possesses significant anti-diabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; its anti-diabetic activity appears to be highly dependent on the host plant species. PMID:7967645

Obatomi, D K; Bikomo, E O; Temple, V J

1994-06-01

223

Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 ?-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3?,7?,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-?-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 ?M). At 125 ?g/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 ?g/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p?0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

2012-01-01

224

Metal uptake by medicinal plant species grown in soils contaminated by a smelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis tested in this study was if medicinal plants could be grown as alternative crops in heavy metal polluted soils without contamination of the final marketable produce. Furthermore, medicinal crops may offer a phytoremediation option for mildly heavy metal polluted agricultural soils. The effect of metal-enriched soils was evaluated in five medicinal species (Bidens tripartita L., Leonurus cardiaca L.,

Valcho D. Zheljazkov; Ekaterina A. Jeliazkova; Natasha Kovacheva; Anatoli Dzhurmanski

2008-01-01

225

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. PMID:19821994

Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

2009-01-01

226

Metabolic Variations, Antioxidant Potential, and Antiviral Activity of Different Extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an Endangered Medicinal Plant Used by Kani Tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) Leaf  

PubMed Central

Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

John, K. M. Maria; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

2014-01-01

227

Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.  

PubMed

Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

2014-01-01

228

Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.  

PubMed

Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

2006-09-01

229

Binding Energy calculation of GSK-3 protein of Human against some anti-diabetic compounds of Momordica charantia linn (Bitter melon).  

PubMed

Diabetes is one of the major life threatening diseases worldwide. It creates major health problems in urban India. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) protein of human is known for phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase which also acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis. In traditional medicine, Momordica charantia is used as antidiabetic plant because of its hypoglycemic effect. Hence to block the active site of the GSK-3 protein three anti-diabetic compounds namely, charantin, momordenol & momordicilin were taken from Momordica charantia for docking study and calculation of binding energy. The aim of present investigation is to find the binding energy of three major insulin-like active compounds against glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), one of the key proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, with the help of molecular docking using ExomeTM Horizon suite. The study recorded minimum binding energy by momordicilin in comparison to the others. PMID:22493531

Hazarika, Ridip; Parida, Pratap; Neog, Bijoy; Yadav, Raj Narain Singh

2012-01-01

230

Binding Energy calculation of GSK-3 protein of Human against some anti-diabetic compounds of Momordica charantia linn (Bitter melon)  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is one of the major life threatening diseases worldwide. It creates major health problems in urban India. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) protein of human is known for phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase which also acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis. In traditional medicine, Momordica charantia is used as antidiabetic plant because of its hypoglycemic effect. Hence to block the active site of the GSK-3 protein three anti-diabetic compounds namely, charantin, momordenol & momordicilin were taken from Momordica charantia for docking study and calculation of binding energy. The aim of present investigation is to find the binding energy of three major insulin-like active compounds against glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), one of the key proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, with the help of molecular docking using ExomeTM Horizon suite. The study recorded minimum binding energy by momordicilin in comparison to the others. PMID:22493531

Hazarika, Ridip; Parida, Pratap; Neog, Bijoy; Yadav, Raj Narain Singh

2012-01-01

231

From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

Weso, Thomas F.

2004-01-01

232

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

233

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:21718504

2011-01-01

234

Antibacterial properties of traditionally used Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria. In vitro efficacy was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of plant extracts. MIC values ranged from 0.32-7.5 mg/ml against MRSA and 0.31-6.25 mg/ml against ESbetaL-producing enteric bacteria. The overall activity against all groups of bacteria was found in order of Plumbago zeylanica > Hemidesmus indicus > Acorus calamus > Camellia sinensis > Terminalia chebula > Terminalia bellerica > Holarrhena antidysenterica > Lawsonia inermis > Mangifera indica > Punica granatum > Cichorium intybus and Delonix regia. In addition, these extracts showed synergistic interaction with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts of more than 12 plants were found nontoxic to sheep erythrocytes and nonmutagenic, determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium test strains (TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104). Based on above properties, six plants-Plumbago zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Acorus calamus, Punica granatum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Delonix regia-were further subjected to fractionation-based study. Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of more than six plants indicated that the active phytocompounds were distributed mainly into acetone and ethyl acetate fractions, whereas they were least prevalent in methanol fractions as evident from their antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria are almost equally sensitive to these extracts/fractions, indicating their broad-spectrum nature. However, strain- and plant extract-dependent variations in the antibacterial activity were also evident. Time-kill assay with the most promising plant fraction Plumbago zeylanica (ethyl acetate fraction) demonstrated killing of test bacteria at the level lower than its MIC. Further, identification of active constituents in each fraction and their additive and synergistic interactions are needed to exploit them in evaluating efficacy and safety in vivo against MDR bacteria. PMID:17440624

Aqil, F; Ahmad, I

2007-03-01

235

Antiinflammatory screening of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens.  

PubMed

Gynura procumbens is used in Thai folk medicine to treat topical inflammation, rheumatism, and viral ailments. In the present work, attempts were made to verify the folk medicinal claim that the crude ethanolic extract of G. procumbens has antiinflammatory action and to relate the activity to particular fractions using a croton oil-induced mouse ear inflammation model. The original ethanolic extract of G. procumbens was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The residues were subjected to antiinflammatory evaluation. While the water extract did not show any antiinflammatory activity, the administration of the original organic extract significantly inhibited the increase in ear thickness in response to croton oil (n = 5). The activity of 0.75 mg/ear original organic extract showed similar antiinflammatory activity (inhibition 65.2%) to that of 6 mg/ear hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate sodium salt (inhibition 64.8%). The organic extract was then fractionated with a series of solvents in order of increasing polarity. Each fraction was dried, dissolved in acetone and monitored using the same bioassay. These experiments showed that the hexane and toluene fractions showed significant inhibitions of 44.6% and 34.8%, respectively. These two fractions had similar activities to 4 mg/ear of hydrocortisone (inhibition 35.0%). The possible chemical constituents in the extracts and fractions were investigated using thin layer chromatography and specific color reagents. These tests showed that steroids might be one class of antiinflammatory compounds in this plant. PMID:12602932

Iskander, M N; Song, Y; Coupar, I M; Jiratchariyakul, W

2002-01-01

236

Antiviral phenylpropanoid glycosides from the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea.  

PubMed

Three new phenylpropanoid glycosides, named luteoside A (3), luteoside B (4), and luteoside C (5), were isolated together with the known compounds verbascoside (1) and isoverbascoside (2) from the roots of the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea. The structures of the new compounds were determined to be 1-O-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-4-O- caffeo yl-6-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 1-O-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-6-O- caffeo yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, and 1-O-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-6-O- ferulo yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All five phenylpropanoid glycosides exhibited potent in vitro activity against respiratory syncytial virus. PMID:9599250

Kernan, M R; Amarquaye, A; Chen, J L; Chan, J; Sesin, D F; Parkinson, N; Ye, Z; Barrett, M; Bales, C; Stoddart, C A; Sloan, B; Blanc, P; Limbach, C; Mrisho, S; Rozhon, E J

1998-05-01

237

Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 ?g/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

2009-05-01

238

Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.

2009-01-01

239

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic. PMID:19057813

Cyrus, Wagate G; Daniel, Gakuya W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Njonge, Francis K; Mbaria, James M

2008-11-01

240

Levels of Tannins and Flavonoids in Medicinal Plants: Evaluating Bioprospecting Strategies  

PubMed Central

There are several species of plants used by traditional communities in the Brazilian semiarid. An approach used in the search for natural substances that possess therapeutic value is ethnobotany or ethnopharmacology. Active substances that have phenolic groups in their structure have great pharmacological potential. To establish a quantitative relationship between the species popularly considered to be antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and antidiarrheal, the contents of tannins and flavonoids were determined. The plant selection was based on an ethnobotanical survey conducted in a community located in the municipality of Altinho, northeastern Brazil. For determination of tannin content was utilized the technique of radial diffusion, and for flavonoids, an assay based on the complexation of aluminum chloride. The group of plants with antimicrobial indications showed a higher content of tannins compared to the control groups. The results evidence suggests a possible relationship between these compounds and the observed activity. PMID:21969842

Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda de Queiroz; Cabral, Daniela Lyra Vasconcelos; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Araújo, Thiago Antônio de Sousa; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2012-01-01

241

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.  

PubMed

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251

Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2009-10-01

242

Endogenous transitional metal and proximate analysis of selected medicinal plants from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitional metal and proximate analysis plays an important role in assessing the appropriateness of medicinal plants or their extracts orally taken by the marginal communities. To acquaint, various proximate parameters like ash, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, fat and moisture (both dry and wet) and endogenous transition metals like copper, magnesium, manganese, lead, cadmium, iron, chromium and sodium; four medicinal plant species,

Javid Hussain; Riaz Ullah; Najeeb ur Rehman; Abdul Latif Khan; Zia Muhammad; Farman Ullah Khan; Syed Tasleem Hussain; Saeed Anwar

243

Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide

Chandra Prakash Kala; Pitamber Prasad Dhyani; Bikram Singh Sajwan

2006-01-01

244

Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the Malarial Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to test the efficacy of 11 commonly available medicinal plants and compare its efficacy in\\u000a relation to larvicidal and mosquitocidal activities against larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). All the medicinal plants and the mixture were effective against larvae of A. stephensi as evidenced by low lethal concentration and lethal time. The lethality varied

N. Senthilkumar; Pushkala Varma; G. Gurusubramanian

2009-01-01

245

Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Burkina Faso, most people in particular, in rural areas, use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat usual diseases. In the course of new antimalarial compounds, an ethnobotanical survey has been conducted in different regions. Seven plants, often cited by traditional practitioners and not chemically investigated, have been selected for an antiplasmodial screening: Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum), Acanthospermum hispidum

S Sanon; E Ollivier; N Azas; V Mahiou; M Gasquet; C. T Ouattara; I Nebie; A. S Traore; F Esposito; G Balansard; P Timon-David; F Fumoux

2003-01-01

246

Pressurized liquid extraction of berberine and aristolochic acids in medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberine and aristolochic acids I and II present naturally in medicinal plants were extracted using a laboratory-made pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) system in the dynamic mode. As the target analytes were present naturally in the medicinal plants, spiking was not done and comparison with ultrasonic extraction and Soxhlet extraction was performed to assess the method accuracy. The effect of temperature,

Eng-Shi Ong; Soo-On Woo; Yuk-Lin Yong

2000-01-01

247

Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research conducted in 2003\\/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale,\\u000a organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic\\u000a farmers or holistic medicinal\\/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based\\u000a treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas

Cheryl Lans; Nancy Turner; Tonya Khan

2008-01-01

248

PROPHYLACTIC USES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN BASTAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH  

PubMed Central

The present ethnobotanical exploratory study embodies the folk medicinal uses of certain important medicinal plants by tribals of bastar district in Madhya Pradesh state of India. Twenty seven medicinal plants form diverse families have been covered being therapeutically used against different diseases such acidity, debility, diabetes, male and female weakness, fistula, migraine and skin diseases etc. How the tribal folks consider the mode of drug administration and application in different ailments has been ailments has been elaborately emphasized. PMID:22556857

Sharma, D.C.; Chandra, Umesh

1998-01-01

249

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants. PMID:15588663

Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

2005-01-01

250

PlantID – DNA-based identification of multiple medicinal plants in complex mixtures  

PubMed Central

Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao). Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants. PMID:22838839

2012-01-01

251

Ethnobotanical appraisal and medicinal use of plants in Patriata, New Murree, evidence from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reflects the empirical findings of an ethnobotanical survey which was undertaken in Patriata (New Murree) of district Rawalpindi in Pakistan. The aims and objectives of the study were to document indigenous knowledge of plants particularly of medicinal, veterinary, fruit, vegetable, fodder, fuel etc. Methods For this purpose, the whole area was surveyed for documenting folk knowledge using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 93 plants species belonging to 80 genera and 56 families were found in a variety of uses by the local people for the accomplishment of their basic needs. The study further employs binary logit regression model of medicinal uses of these plants so as to identify the probability of occurrence of medicinal use of woody or non-woody plants keeping other plant characteristics in view. Results Ethnobotanical data shows that most plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes (27.93% each), followed by fuel (16.90%), fruit (6.55%), vegetable (5.52%) and ethno-veterinary (3.79%). There is also an established association of medicinal use of plants to the fruits use. Non-woody plants have high tendency towards medicinal use of the plants as compared to woody plants. Annual plants are less likely to be directly associated with medicinal use of plants in the surveyed vegetation. Underground plant parts are more likely to be used for medicinal purposes as revealed from the Logit expressions. Conclusions The study revealed that most of the plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes. The results of Logit Model showed that the probabilities of plant species for their medicinal use are associated to the woody or non-woody, aerial or underground, perennial or annual characteristics of plants. One should be careful in completely generalizing the results as the survey findings are sensitive to the plant species and the vegetation under consideration. But it can be specified that there exists either some positive or negative association of medicinal use of plants to the various characteristics of plant species. PMID:23445756

2013-01-01

252

Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru  

PubMed Central

Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinal plants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinal plants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinal plants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda) and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque), as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinal plants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1) common exotic medicinal plants; (2) plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"); (3) specialized medicinal plants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4) highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere. PMID:18070350

Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas; Vandebroek, Ina; Jones, Ana; Revene, Zachary

2007-01-01

253

[Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].  

PubMed

The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583

Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

2007-01-01

254

Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Palestinian area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were

M. S Ali-Shtayeh; Reem M.-R Yaghmour; Y. R Faidi; Khalid Salem; M. A Al-Nuri

1998-01-01

255

Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179

Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

2010-06-01

256

Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties  

PubMed Central

Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 ?g/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 ?g/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress. PMID:22518084

Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

2012-01-01

257

Fourteen microsatellite loci for the Chinese medicinal plant Epimedium sagittatum and cross-species application in other medicinal species.  

PubMed

Epimedium sagittatum is a well-known medicinal plant as well as potential ground cover and ornamental plant. A total of 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for use in taxonomy, phylogenetics and conservation genetics. Markers were presented between two and eight alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity (H(O) ) and expected heterozygosity (H(E) ) ranged from 0.03 to 0.81 and from 0.05 to 0.81, respectively. Cross-amplification among other four medicinal species revealed promising results in three to six polymorphic loci. These microsatellite loci contributed to the limited number of useful markers currently available for E. sagittatum. PMID:21585857

Xu, Yanqin; Li, Zuozhou; Wang, Ying

2008-05-01

258

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan - Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran.  

PubMed

Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan (_) Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

2014-11-01

259

Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western boreal forest. In addition, several critical issues need to be addressed regarding the legal, ethical and cultural aspects of the conservation of medicinal plant species and the protection of the associated traditional knowledge. PMID:22289509

2012-01-01

260

Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants’ antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

2014-01-01

261

Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants' antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p<0.01) anti-E. coli activities. Not all medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

Adnan, Muhammad; Bibi, Roqaia; Mussarat, Sakina; Tariq, Akash; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

2014-01-01

262

Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as complementary and African traditional medicines.  

PubMed

The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined. PMID:22024968

Müller, Adrienne C; Kanfer, Isadore

2011-11-01

263

The use of medicinal plants by the Yanomami Indians of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the first detailed study of the use of medicinal plants by a group of Yanomami Indians are presented. Contrary\\u000a to previous assumptions, they are shown to possess a substantial pharmacopoeia, including at least 113 species of plants and\\u000a fungi. The changes in their use and knowledge of plant medicine are discussed in the context of the past

William Milliken; Bruce Albert

1996-01-01

264

[Studies on the medicinal plant in the "Sambutsu-cho" of Bungo Province possessed by the Kumamoto Clan (II); studies on the medicinal herbs].  

PubMed

In the previous report, I studied the medicinal trees contained in the Sambutsu-cho of the Kumamoto clan in Bungo Province. In this report, I studied the medicinal herbs contained in the same book. There were 259 names in the herbal part. I identified 156 species and found 103 species as the medicinal plants. The ratio of the medicinal plants was 66%. The famous medicinal plants were as follows: Atractilodes japonica, Platycodon gradiflorum, Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Lisospermum erythrorizon, Pharbitis nil, Gentiana scabra var. buergeri, Cnidium officianal, Angelica acutiloba, Bupleurum falcatum, Pueraria lobata, Paeonia lactiflora, Paeonia suffruticosa, Achyranthes fauriei, Asarum dimidiatum, Ophiopogon japonica, Pinellia ternata and Cyperus rotundus. PMID:11639706

Hamada, T

1992-01-01

265

Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016

Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

2004-06-01

266

Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

2006-09-19

267

[Phytochemical evaluation of essential oils, medicinal plants and their preparations].  

PubMed

A surway is presented on the authors' work in the field of volatile oil research. The gas chromatographic method previously used for analysis of essential oils was transformed to capillary gas chromatographic conditions. The method is also suitable for separation of compound-pairs frequently occurring in essential oils (peppermint, rosemary, lavender, sage, clary sage, thyme oils). Beside the gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils, which was necessary for their standardization and qualification, the influence of different extraction methods and some biological facts e.g. the ontogenesis on the change of essential oil composition are also discussed. It has been established that the water steam distillation from acidic medium can be more advantageous than the traditional one, if the volatile terpene derivatives were bound in form of glycosides or dimeric quajazolide lactons were present in plant (oregano, Sideritis, wormwood oils). Comparing the composition of essential oil obtained by water steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) it was found that the SFE fractions are richer in ester constituents because the possibility of hydrolysis is reduced, and the oils are more valuable than the classic oils. On the other hand, when the transformation processes are important (chamomile), the distillation is the better method. The change of essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Anthriscus cerefolium L. was also studied during the vegetation period. It has been established that in budding and early flowering stages the basil oil was rich in monoterpenes; the quantity of sesquiterpenes and phenylpropane derivatives increased only in later stadiums. Finally the extraction and analytical processes are discussed which are used for standardization of complex plant preparations which contained essential oil as active agent and represented various medicinal forms. PMID:9703700

Lemberkovics, E; Kéry, A; Marczal, G; Simándi, B; Szöke, E

1998-05-01

268

Antitrypanosomal screening and cytotoxic effects of selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 ?g/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 ?g/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:24862048

Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S; Rasedee, A; Mohd-Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

2014-03-01

269

Kineococcus gynurae sp. nov., isolated from a Thai medicinal plant.  

PubMed

A novel, Gram-positive, motile, coccus-shaped, orange-pigmented organism, designated strain KKD096(T), was isolated from the roots of a Thai medicinal plant, Gynura pseudochina DC. var. hispida Thwaites. Growth of strain KKD096(T) occurred at temperatures of 14-34 degrees C, at pH 5.0-9.0 and at NaCl concentrations up to 7 % (w/v). Whole-cell hydrolysates contained arabinose and galactose as the characteristic sugars. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The glycan moiety of the murein contained acetyl residues. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H2); mycolic acids were not detected. The genomic DNA G+C content was 73.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0) (81.42 % of the total). Strain KKD096(T) was assigned to the genus Kineococcus on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis; it was most closely related to Kineococcus radiotolerans DSM 14245(T) (97.1 % similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed 39.4 % relatedness between these two taxa. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic data presented, strain KKD096(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Kineococcus, for which the name Kineococcus gynurae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KKD096(T) (=TISTR 1856(T)=NRRL B-24568(T)=BCC 26245(T)=NBRC 103943(T)). PMID:18842871

Duangmal, Kannika; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Ara, Ismet; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yoko

2008-10-01

270

Williamsia sterculiae sp. nov., isolated from a Chinese medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Two actinobacterial strains, CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448, isolated from surface-sterilized stems of medicinal plants were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. These two aerobic organisms formed pale yellow colonies on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-acid-fast, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-like elements. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strains CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448 were most closely related to the type strains of the species of the genus Williamsia. Chemotaxonomic properties such as containing meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, arabinose, galactose and ribose being the whole-cell hydrolysate sugars, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) as the phospholipids, and C16?:?0, 10-methyl C18?:?0, C18?:?1?9c, C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strains CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448 to the genus Williamsia. The DNA-DNA hybridization values in combination with differentiating chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics strongly suggested that these two isolates should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Williamsia. The name Williamsia sterculiae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CPCC 203464(T) (?=?DSM 45741(T)?=?KCTC 29118(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23771621

Fang, Xiao-Mei; Su, Jing; Wang, Hao; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li-Li; Liu, Hong-Yu; Ma, Bai-Ping; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan

2013-11-01

271

A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

2014-01-01

272

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Traditional Medicine for Treatment of Wound Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanolic and water extracts of some medicinal plants (Acacia nilotica ssp. nilotica pods, Lawsonia inermis leaves, Azadirachta indica leaves, Trigonella foenum- graecum seeds and Cordia sinensis stem bark) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against six standard bacterial strains commonly associated with wound infections (Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8236), Escherichia coli

Hatil Hashim El-Kamali; Ehsan Musa; Awad EL-Karim

2009-01-01

273

Pharmacological investigations of the anti-diabetic effect of Cortex Moutan and its active component paeonol.  

PubMed

Cortex Moutan (CM, root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) is one of the common herbs found in anti-diabetic traditional Chinese medicine formulae. To study the potential anti-diabetic mechanisms of CM, four in vitro models (intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE, human skin fibroblasts cell line Hs68 and mouse adipocytes 3T3-L1) were used. CM showed significant in vitro anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting glucose uptake of BBMV and enhancing glucose uptake into Hs68 and 3T3-L1 cells. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, paeonol was confirmed to be one of the active constituents for inhibiting BBMV glucose uptake. With neonatal-streptozotocin diabetic rats, paeonol (200 and 400mg/kgbody wt.) was found to improve oral glucose tolerance in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-diabetic effect of paeonol. PMID:17298878

Lau, C H; Chan, C M; Chan, Y W; Lau, K M; Lau, T W; Lam, F C; Law, W T; Che, C T; Leung, P C; Fung, K P; Ho, Y Y; Lau, C B S

2007-11-01

274

Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.  

PubMed

Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant. PMID:23681554

Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

2013-12-01

275

The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal species are necessary. PMID:20370901

2010-01-01

276

PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE BY TRIBALS OF PRAKASAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH  

PubMed Central

The paper deals with 37 selected species of plants which are used as medicine by tribals of the Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh. Detailed uses of these plants as suggested by the tribals are mentioned. It is however, suggested to carry out chemical screening to identify the active principles in these plants before concluding anything on their uses. PMID:22556584

Mohan, R. Krishna; Murthy, P. V. Bhirava

1992-01-01

277

Monitoring of metallic micronutrients and heavy metals in herbs, spices and medicinal plants from Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal, aromatic and spice plants grown in different regions of Austria were monitored as to their Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents. Since the plants were grown under common field conditions, the essential elements were within the usual ranges for plant material. The contamination level with the toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd, can be classified as normally

Remigius Chizzola; Hanneliese Michitsch; Chlodwig Franz

2003-01-01

278

Variation in heavy metals and microelements in South African medicinal plants obtained from street markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

South African medicinal plants are traditionally harvested from a wide range of undisclosed locations by plant gatherers. Thus, there is a risk that plant material may be exposed to a variety of pollutants. The variation in five heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and lead) and six essential elements (boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc) was determined in commonly

M. G. Kulkarni; W. A. Stirk; C. Southway; J. Van Staden

2008-01-01

279

Heavy metals in medicinal and fodder plants of the negev desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals (zinc, copper, iron, manganese, cadmium, lead and nickel) were measured in 51 desert plants, of which 42 are considered medicinal, three fodder and six common plant species. Accumulation of certain heavy metals in some plant species was 2 ? 260?fold higher than the available heavy metal content of the soil of the Negev desert.The highest

P. Sathiyamoorthy; P. Van Damme; M. Oven

1997-01-01

280

Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Popularly Used in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined antioxidant activities of twenty-six medicinal herbal extracts that have been popularly used as folk medicines in Taiwan. The results of scavenging DPPH radical activity show that, among the 26 tested medicinal plants, Ludwigia octovalvis, Vitis thunbergii, Rubus parvifolius, Lindernia anagallis, and Zanthoxylum nitidum exhibited strong activities and their IC50 values for DPPH radicals were 4.6, 24, 27,

Lie-Fen Shyur; Jieh-Hen Tsung; Je-Hsin Chen; Chih-Yang Chiu; Chiu-Ping Lo

281

Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22769046

2012-01-01

282

Compositional studies: antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew.  

PubMed

Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms. PMID:22272107

Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Cavar, Sanja; Qayum, Mughal; Imran, Imran; de Feo, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

283

Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew  

PubMed Central

Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms. PMID:22272107

Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; ?avar, Sanja; Qayum, Mughal; Imran, Imran; de Feo, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

284

The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. METHODS: Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in

Shandesh Bhattarai; Ram P Chaudhary; Cassandra L Quave; Robin SL Taylor

2010-01-01

285

Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some medicinal and spice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination was made on the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of four medicinal plants Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Hyssopus officinalis, and Eucalyptus globulus, the first three of which are also used as culinary spice herbs. Carum carvi L. and Coriandrum sativum L. belong to the Apiacea family. In traditional medicine, Carum carvi is used in the form of a

M. Cvijovic; D. Djukic; L. Mandic; G. Acamovic-Djokovic; M. Pesakovic

2010-01-01

286

Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke

2006-01-01

287

RAPD Profile for Authentication of Medicinal Plant Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correct identification and quality assurance is indispensable to ensure reproducible medicinal quality of herbal drugs. Authentication is especially useful in case of those medicinal herbs that are frequently substituted or adulterated with other species or varieties morphologically and phytochemically indistinguishable. In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for authentication of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from its

Salim Khan; Khanda Jabeen Mirza; Malik Zainul Abdin

2009-01-01

288

Antiquity of medicinal plant usage in two Macro-Mayan ethnic groups (México).  

PubMed

In the biological sciences the use of medicinal plants in indigenous cultures is commonly seen as being based on a long tradition ('traditional medicine'). However, under normal circumstances, ethnobotanical studies cannot provide evidence on the antiquity of specific uses for medicinal plants since oral traditions have a limited historical depth and archaeological evidence does not provide evidence for the specific medicinal use of a certain plant. Here, we provide evidence for the antiquity of medicinal plant use in the Olmec region in Mexico by comparing the pharmacopoeias of the linguistically related Lowland Mixe and Zoque-Popoluca. These cultures, separated for about 2000 years, have cognates for vernacular medicinal plant names in common. For fifteen species such cognate names were detected. Also, a statistically significant segment of the medicinal flora is used for similar purposes. Overall, 123 species are shared between the two groups and of these 62 have a similar usage. In nine cases they also have a similar name. These findings make a transmission of such knowledge since the time of the Olmecs highly likely. PMID:12963130

Leonti, Marco; Sticher, Otto; Heinrich, Michael

2003-10-01

289

Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n?=?74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (? 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation. PMID:24898079

2014-01-01

290

Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P.falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassiaoccidentalis leaves, Cryptolepissanguinolenta root bark,

L. Tona; N. P. Ngimbi; M. Tsakala; K. Mesia; K. Cimanga; S. Apers; T. De Bruyne; L. Pieters; J. Totté; A. J. Vlietinck

1999-01-01

291

Screening of some Algerian medicinal plants for the phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since recent times, there is a growing interest in the food industry and in preventive health care for the development and\\u000a evaluation of natural antioxidants from medicinal plant materials. In the present work we have investigated the antioxidant\\u000a potency of phenolic compounds of 11 indigenous wild plant species from the Algerian Atlas commonly used in Arab folk medicine\\u000a for a

A. Djeridane; M. Yousfi; B. Nadjemi; N. Vidal; J. F. Lesgards; P. Stocker

2007-01-01

292

Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614

Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab

2012-01-01

293

Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan. PMID:25209636

Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

2014-01-01

294

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the potential sources for the isolation of new oral anti hypoglycemic agent(s). PMID:23414307

2013-01-01

295

Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.  

PubMed

Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials. PMID:25553680

Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

2015-01-01

296

The heavy metal contents of some selected medicinal plants sampled from different geographical locations  

PubMed Central

Background: The levels of 5 minerals namely; lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and aluminum were assessed in 10 medicinal plants sampled from 5 different geographical locations to determine the effect of location on the plants’ mineral content. Materials and Methods: Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (wet digestion) was used for the analyzes, and content of the minerals per sample was expressed as ?g/g. The levels of minerals were compared to their limit specification for herbs and daily total intake of these minerals. A two-way analysis of variance, which tends to look at the effect of the location and the medicinal plant itself on the plants mineral content, was used in the statistical analysis. Results: Lead (Pb) was present in all plant species examined, except Ocimum gratissimum. One plant exceeded the maximum safety limit for lead. Cadmium was also detected in some of the medicinal plant species (44%) whilst majority were below the detection limit (0.002) representing 56%. 40% of the plant species exceeded the limit for cadmium. Mercury and arsenic in all the plant species were below the detection limit (0.001). Significant variation existed in mineral content for the various locations (P ? 0.05). Conclusion: The findings generally suggest the variation in mineral levels for the various locations. Thus, our study has shown that same species of medicinal plants, growing in different environments, accumulates different levels of heavy metals. PMID:23798884

Annan, Kofi; Dickson, Rita A.; Amponsah, Isaac K.; Nooni, Isaac K.

2013-01-01

297

Isolation of the plant hormone (+)-abscisic acid as an antimycobacterial constituent of the medicinal plant endophyte Nigrospora sp.  

PubMed

An extract of the endophytic fungus Nigropsora sp. (isolate TC2-054) from the Canadian medicinal plant Fragaria virginiana exhibited significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that linoleic acid derivatives and the plant hormone (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) were responsible for the observed antimycobacterial activity. This activity of ABA has not been previously reported. PMID:24555269

Clark, Trevor N; Ellsworth, Katelyn; Li, Haoxin; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

2013-12-01

298

Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

2010-01-01

299

World Trade in Medicinal Plants from Spanish America, 1717–1815  

PubMed Central

This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global ‘spread’ of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their ‘exotic’ charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

Gänger, Stefanie

2015-01-01

300

The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery". Environ  

E-print Network

In this review we describe and discuss several approaches to selecting higher plants as candidates for drug development with the greatest possibility of success. We emphasize the role of information derived from various systems of traditional medicine (ethnomedicine) and its utility for drug discovery purposes. We have identified 122 compounds of defined structure, obtained from only 94 species of plants, that are used globally as drugs and demonstrate that 80 % of these have had an ethnomedical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant. We identify and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using plants as starting points for drug development, specifically those used in traditional medicine. Key words: drug discovery, ethnomedicine, plants, traditional medicine. — Environ Health Perspect 109(suppl 1):69–75 (2001).

Daniel S. Fabricant; Norman R. Farnsworth

2001-01-01

301

World trade in medicinal plants from Spanish America, 1717-1815.  

PubMed

This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global 'spread' of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their 'exotic' charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

Gänger, Stefanie

2015-01-01

302

Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region  

PubMed Central

The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb’s clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

2012-01-01

303

Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested. PMID:21707967

2011-01-01

304

Biological activities of a Turkish medicinal plant, Prangos platychlaena.  

PubMed

Prangos platychlaena has been used in traditional medicine in eastern Turkey. It stops bleeding and heals the scars when applied externally. When the isolated coumarins were tested against bacterial strains, only a slight activity was obtained. PMID:7623483

Ulubelen, A; Topcu, G; Tan, N; Olçal, S; Johansson, C; Uçer, M; Birman, H; Tamer, S

1995-03-01

305

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

306

Medicinal Plants and Ethnomedicine in Peril: A Case Study from Nepal Himalaya  

PubMed Central

The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change. PMID:24734114

Kunwar, Ripu M.; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi

2014-01-01

307

Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL) value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major threat to the continuation of the traditional medical practice in the study area. Awareness should, therefore, be created among the Bench community, especially the young ones, by concerned organizations and individuals regarding the usefulness of the practice. PMID:19912633

2009-01-01

308

Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation. PMID:21241484

2011-01-01

309

Trace metal concentrations in the medicinal plants of the flora of Bahrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal concentrations of a number of medicinal plants in the flora of Bahrain, particularly fresh edible herbs are reported. Samples were analyzed by Inductively coupled plasma (ICP). A large portion of the plants examined contained high concentration of toxic metals and some of them exceed the limit of toxicity. The reported data indicate a potential health hazard.

S. Chudasama

1994-01-01

310

Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

2014-01-01

311

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

312

Screening of medicinal plants from Trinidad and Tobago for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity in 51 extracts from 29 plant species currently used in traditional medicine in Trinidad and the neighbouring Caribbean islands was tested for by the agar dilution streak method using six bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts from eight of the plants tested showed significant activity against one or

C. M Chariandy; C. E Seaforth; R. H Phelps; G. V Pollard; B. P. S Khambay

1999-01-01

313

Antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of ethnopharmacologically selected medicinal plants from South Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria is a major global public health problem and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. An ethnopharmacological investigation was undertaken of medicinal plants traditionally used to treat malaria in the South Vietnam. Forty-nine plants were identified, 228 extracts were prepared and tested

Julie Nguyen-Pouplin; Hop Tran; Hung Tran; Tuyet Anh Phan; Christiane Dolecek; Jeremy Farrar; Tinh Hien Tran; Philippe Caron; Bernard Bodo; Philippe Grellier

2007-01-01

314

Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from five plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities: Agrostemma githago L., Potentilla reptans L., Thymbra spicata var. spicata L., Urtica dioica L. and Viscum album var. album L. We assayed the effects of the administration of plant extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose,

Gulcan Avc?; Esra Kupeli; Abdullah Eryavuz; Erdem Yesilada; Ismail Kucukkurt

2006-01-01

315

Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-01-01

316

Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-01-01

317

Distribution of three endangered medicinal plant species and their colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study of 12 districts of arid zones of Rajasthan was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence of three selected endangered medicinal plant species (Leptadenia reticulata, Mitragyna parvifolia, Withania coagulans), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) associations with them. Five genera were identified in the rhizosphere of these selected plant species. A high diversity of AMF was observed which varied between

J. Panwar; J. C. Tarafdar

2006-01-01

318

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

319

Antifungal activity of several medicinal plants extracts against the early blight pathogen (Alternaria solani)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity for several medicinal plants against the early blight fungus (Alternaria solani) has been investigated. These plants were Syrian marjoram (Majorana syriaca), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus). The inhibitory effect of these extracts on the radial mycelial growth as well as on spore germination was measured in vitro

Saba J. Goussous; Firas M. Abu el-Samen; Ragheb A. Tahhan

2010-01-01

320

Antiviral activities of some Ethiopian medicinal plants used for the treatment of dermatological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), Euclea schimperi (Ebenaceae), Inula confertiflora (Asteraceae), Melilotus elegans (Leguminosae), and Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae), are some of the medicinal plants used in Ethiopia for treatment of various skin disorders. In this study, the antiviral activities of the 80% methanolic extracts of these plants have been examined against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), influenza A virus and herpes simplex virus type1

T. Gebre-Mariam; R. Neubert; P. C. Schmidt; P. Wutzler; M. Schmidtke

2006-01-01

321

Chemo- and bioinformatics resources for in silico drug discovery from medicinal plants beyond their traditional use: a critical review.  

PubMed

In silico approaches have been widely recognised to be useful for drug discovery. Here, we consider the significance of available databases of medicinal plants and chemo- and bioinformatics tools for in silico drug discovery beyond the traditional use of folk medicines. This review contains a practical example of the application of combined chemo- and bioinformatics methods to study pleiotropic therapeutic effects (known and novel) of 50 medicinal plants from Traditional Indian Medicine. PMID:25051191

Lagunin, Alexey A; Goel, Rajesh K; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Pahwa, Priynka; Gloriozova, Tatyana A; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Ivanov, Sergey M; Rudik, Anastassia V; Konova, Varvara I; Pogodin, Pavel V; Druzhilovsky, Dmitry S; Poroikov, Vladimir V

2014-11-01

322

Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge. PMID:19857257

Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

2009-01-01

323

Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community. PMID:20109179

2010-01-01

324

Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.  

PubMed

Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:24579376

Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

2013-12-01

325

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis for sustainable cultivation of Chinese medicinal plants: a promising research direction.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) are symbiotic systems in nature and have great significance in promoting the growth and stress resistance of medicinal plants. During our literature search from the Chinese Scientific Information Database (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI) we obtained 65 articles with "AM fungi" and "medicinal plant" as the key words, which indicates that in China, research efforts on these topics have been increasing. The main purposes of this review are to discuss the effects of mycorrhiza on the active ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants in comparison with results obtained in other plants in studies conducted by the international research community, and to introduce works published in Chinese journals to international colleagues. PMID:24228596

Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

2013-01-01

326

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government is addressing the potential loss of valuable species in this region. PMID:22591592

2012-01-01

327

A Drug-Target Network-Based Approach to Evaluate the Efficacy of Medicinal Plants for Type II Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

The use of plants as natural medicines in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has long been of special interest. In this work, we developed a docking score-weighted prediction model based on drug-target network to evaluate the efficacy of medicinal plants for T2DM. High throughput virtual screening from chemical library of natural products was adopted to calculate the binding affinity between natural products contained in medicinal plants and 33 T2DM-related proteins. The drug-target network was constructed according to the strength of the binding affinity if the molecular docking score satisfied the threshold. By linking the medicinal plant with T2DM through drug-target network, the model can predict the efficacy of natural products and medicinal plant for T2DM. Eighteen thousand nine hundred ninety-nine natural products and 1669 medicinal plants were predicted to be potentially bioactive. PMID:24223610

Gu, Jiangyong; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

2013-01-01

328

Exploration of some Medicinal Plants used by tribals from Digras region of District- Yavatmal, Maharashtra,  

E-print Network

Abstract- Digras tahsil is rich in floral biodiversity with tremendous medicinal potential; this is due to certain changes in physical features and soil texture. This tahsil is surrounded by thick forest areas. The forests are tropical dry-deciduous type and existing in the hilly tract of tahsil. The plants in this area made the integral part of the routine health care system of the tribals residing in the small villages and towns. In this area large number of tribal community like Gond, Banjara, Gawali, Andh, etc. these tribal peoples residing in canopy area of forest used different plant and plant parts for food, medicine, fodder, fuel, dye for festivals, rituals and various other functions. The tribal peoples have immense knowledge about the uses of plants and plant parts. India is very rich harbor with reference to diversity of higher plant species and also India is one of the leading countries in Asia with respect to wealth of traditional knowledge system

Lachure P. S

329

Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

330

Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

331

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents. PMID:20442821

Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

2009-01-01

332

Evaluation of the In Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial, and Antitrypanosomal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Saudi and Yemeni Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinal plants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10??g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8??g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2??g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1??g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3??g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinal plants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents. PMID:24963330

Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

2014-01-01

333

Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the reducing effect of some medicinal herbs on voluntary alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism. Pueraria lobata, Tabernanthe iboga, Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum proved to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. Reduction of alcohol absorption from the gastrointestinal system appears to be a common feature

Mauro A. M Carai; Roberta Agabio; Ezio Bombardelli; Iouri Bourov; Gian Luigi Gessa; Carla Lobina; Paolo Morazzoni; Marialaura Pani; Roberta Reali; Giovanni Vacca; Giancarlo Colombo

2000-01-01

334

[Application of hyperspectral remote sensing in field of medicinal plants monitoring research].  

PubMed

The paper introduces the basic concept and characteristics of hyperspectral remote sensing, and analyzed the application of hyperspectral remote sensing in the field of plants research. On the basis of the research advances of hyperspectral plant study, paper also analyzed the key facts that effects the application of hyperspectral remote sensing on the some researches which include distinguishing species,monitoring growth and quality etc. It proposed a new ideas and methods for people to research medicinal plants. PMID:23944052

Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Ma, Wei-Feng

2013-05-01

335

Natural plant chemicals: source of industrial and medicinal materials  

SciTech Connect

Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. However, most species of higher plants have never been described, much less surveyed for chemical or biologically active constituents, and new sources of commercially valuable materials remain to be discovered. Advances in biotechnology, particularly methods for culturing plants cells and tissues, should provide new means for the commercial processing of even rare plants and the chemicals they produce. These new technologies will extend and enhance the usefulness of plants as renewable resources of valuable chemicals. In the future, biologically active plant-derived chemicals can be expected to play an increasingly significant role in the commercial development of new products for regulating plant growth and for insect and weed control. 65 references.

Balandrin, M.F.; Klocke, J.A.; Wurtele, E.S.; Bollinger, W.H.

1985-01-01

336

The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in Southern Spain.  

PubMed

We studied medicinal and food plant species, recording an extraordinary number of species and uses in Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia and Valencia in Spain. Focusing on two demographically distinct regions - Castilla-La Mancha and Lower Segura Valley. A high proportion of the flora (20 to 30 %) is known for its medicinal properties, and, interestingly, a high number of medicinal-food plants (5 to 7 %) is recorded. The concept of "Local Food" involves the whole repertory of species that characterises the local diet (incl. local cultivars and non-cultivated gathered food plants). The number of food plant species varies between 15 and 25 % of the vascular flora, and for the gathered food plants (GFP) this decreases to a 3 to 8 %. Those GFP that are also used for medicinal purposes are only 2 to 4 % of the total vascular flora. The relevant plant families are very similar in relative numbers along the different areas: Compositae, Rosaceae and Umbelliferae, followed of Boraginaceae, Liliaceae, Cruciferae, and Caryophyllaceae. Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae and Gramineae are less uniformly represented or in lesser numbers. The high species diversity does not imply a general dietary relevance of this particular plant family. For instance Caryophyllaceae with a relatively low number of species comprises the "collejas" (Silene vulgaris) that have shown to be the more widely consumed species. Information regarding 145 species has been recorded. Among the Gathered Food Plant Species 81 are used in medicine, in double proportion than the cultivated food plants. 61 are orally administered, in the same form as food. PMID:15800388

Rivera, D; Obon, C; Inocencio, C; Heinrich, M; Verde, A; Fajardo, J; Llorach, R

2005-03-01

337

Traditional medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh—Used against kidney and urinary disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the StudyTraditional medicine of clod desert Ladakh has large potential to treat various ailments among tribal communities inhabited in the remotest region of Indian subcontinent. This study was conducted to document the new ethno-medico-botanical information and traditional use of medicinal plants against kidney and urinary disorders, and thus to conserve the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge system of Amchis

Basant Ballabh; O. P. Chaurasia; Zakwan Ahmed; Shashi Bala Singh

2008-01-01

338

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

This study documents indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and the threats affecting them. The study was carried out in Mana Angetu district between January 2003 and December 2004. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. The ethnomedicinal use of 230 plant species was documented in the study area. Most of the plants (78.7%) were reportedly used to treat human diseases. The most frequently used plant part were roots (33.9%), followed by leaves (25.6%). Most of the medicinal species (90.4%) were collected from the wild. Direct matrix analysis showed that Olea europaea L. Subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) was the most important species followed by Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne (120) indicating high utility value of these species for the local community. The principal threatening factors reported were deforestation (90%), agricultural expansion (85%) and fire (53%). Documenting the eroding plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area. PMID:18442379

Lulekal, Ermias; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Bekele, Tamrat; Yineger, Haile

2008-01-01

339

Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Kakamega forest is Kenya’s only rainforest and is distinguishably rich in biodiversity but threatened by agricultural encroachment and other forms of human activity. It is also one of Kenya’s Important Bird Areas and a significant source of natural products to neighboring rural communities, such as medicinal plants, food, wood and other fibers. By using structured questionnaires for direct interviews, local indigenous knowledge was tapped through involvement of a focal group of elderly key informants in three blocks of the forest. Forty key species of medicinal plants used by local people were identified and recorded. Fifty-five percent of these were shrubs, thirty-two percent trees, seven-and-a-half percent lower plants such as herbs or forbs while five percent were climbers. About seventy percent of the medicinal plants occurred inside the forest itself and thirty percent around the edge and the immediate surroundings outside the forest. Thirty-eight (95%) of the plants were indigenous to Kenya and two (5%) exotic. Such extensive indigenous knowledge of the medicinal uses of the plants, including their distribution trends in the forest, may be tapped for decision support in rural health service planning, policy formulation for conserving the forest, tracking and mitigation of climate change impacts. PMID:24701341

Otieno, Nickson Erick

2012-01-01

340

Methods for the study of endophytic microorganisms from traditional Chinese medicine plants.  

PubMed

Plant endophytes are very numerous and widely distributed in nature, their relationships being described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through commensalism to parasitism during a long period of coevolution. Traditional Chinese medicines have played a very important role in disease treatment in China and other Asian countries. Investigations show that these medicinal plants harbor endophytes with different kinds of ecological functions, and some of them have potential to produce bioactive small-molecule compounds. This chapter will focus on the selective isolation methods, the diversity of some endophytes (actinobacteria and fungi) isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plants, and the bioactive compounds from selected endophytic actinobacteria reported in the past 3 years. PMID:23084931

Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

2012-01-01

341

Medicinal plant diversity of Sitamata wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has been carried out in Sitamata wildlife sanctuary of Chittorgarh and Udaipur district located in south-west region of Rajasthan. A field survey of the study area was carried out during 2002–2004 to document the medicinal utility of herbs occurring in this area. Two hundred fourty-three genera belonging to 76 families have been reported which are used by

Anita Jain; S. S. Katewa; P. K. Galav; Pallavi Sharma

2005-01-01

342

Application of the ITS2 Region for Barcoding Medicinal Plants of Selaginellaceae in Pteridophyta  

PubMed Central

Background Selaginellaceae is a family of nonseed plants with special evolutionary significance. Plants of the family Selaginellaceae are similarly shaped and easily confused, complicating identification via traditional methods. This study explored, for the first time, the use of the DNA barcode ITS2 to identify medicinal plants of the Selaginellaceae family. Methodology/Principal Findings In our study, 103 samples were collected from the main distribution areas in China; these samples represented 34 species and contained almost all of the medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. The ITS2 region of the genome was amplified from these samples and sequenced using universal primers and reaction conditions. The success rates of the PCR amplification and sequencing were 100%. There was significant divergence between the interspecific and intraspecific genetic distances of the ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Using the BLAST1 and nearest distance methods, our results proved that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of all Selaginellaceae samples examined. In addition, the secondary structures of ITS2 in the helical regions displayed clear differences in stem loop number, size, position, and screw angle among the medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. Furthermore, cluster analysis using the ITS2 barcode supported the relationship between the species of Selaginellaceae established by traditional morphological methods. Conclusion The ITS2 barcode can effectively identify medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. The results provide a scientific basis for the precise identification of plants of the family Selaginellaceae and the reasonable development of these resources. This study may broaden the application of DNA barcoding in the medicinal plant field and benefit phylogenetic investigations. PMID:23826345

Gu, Wei; Song, Jingyuan; Cao, Yuan; Sun, Qingwen; Yao, Hui; Wu, Qinan; Chao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juanjuan; Xue, Wenda; Duan, Jinao

2013-01-01

343

Anthocyanins: analysis and distribution in selected medicinal plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthocyanins are water soluble plant secondary metabolites responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many plant tissues. They have been shown to be strong antioxidants, and may exert a wide range of health benefits through antioxidant or other mechanisms. Anthocyanins occur primarily as g...

344

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate,

D. Ivanova; D. Gerova; T. Chervenkov; T. Yankova

2005-01-01

345

Weight Loss in Animals and Humans Treated with 'Weighlevel', a Combination of Four Medicinal Plants Used In Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighlevel, a mixture of extract of four plants used in traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine as well as in European herbal medicine, was prepared and assessed for its safety and efficacy in weight loss. Leaves of Alchemilla vulgaris, Olea europaea and Mentha longifolia L., as well as seeds of Cuminum cyminum, were used. Cultured human fibroblasts treated with Weighlevel did

Omar Said; Bashar Saad; Stephen Fulder; Khaled Khalil; Eli Kassis

2008-01-01

346

Ethnobotany of Food Plants in the High River Ter Valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): Non-Crop Food Vascular Plants and Crop Food Plants with Medicinal Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this

Montse Rigat; Maria Ŕngels Bonet; Sňnia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Joan Vallčs

2009-01-01

347

Red carpeting the newer antidiabetics  

PubMed Central

The rapidly increasing prevalence of diabetes on a global scale beseeches an urgent need for newer and better treatment options. Our better understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes has enabled a continual churn out of newer antidiabetic agents with varying modes of action. Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins-2 inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide analogues, glucokinase activators, dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, monoclonal antibodies, and dopamine-2 receptor agonists either as monotherapy or combination therapy with the existing oral hypoglycemic agents compound our fight against diabetes. A review of the newer drugs targeting various aspects in the management of diabetes is presented. PMID:22629086

Gude, Dilip

2012-01-01

348

TRAMIL Ethnopharmacological Survey: Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plant Use in the Southeast Region of Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background TRAMIL network aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. Objectives The purpose of this study was to document both the medicinal plants that are frequently used to treat health conditions prevalent in the southeastern region of the archipelago of Puerto Rico and the trends in their use among the study population. Methods An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in the study region. The results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Overall, 118 medicinal plants were recorded as being used to treat depression, nervousness, chronic sinusitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, allergic rhinitis, rhinofaryngitis, asthma, arthritis and migraine. The plant species with significant use were Citrus aurantium L., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don in Sweet, and Mentha piperita L. The use of medicinal plants is more frequent among single women with a high educational level, a trend similar to the use of CAM in the US. Conclusion Ethnopharmacological knowledge and the use of medicinal plants is decreasing in the study region due to an increase in the use of conventional medical care and to self-medication with over-the-counter pharmaceutical products. Four botanical species with significant uses that were not previously recorded in the Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia have been identified. This report will be followed by the scientific validation and toxicity studies of these plant species and the TRADIF activities in the study region. PMID:19999241

ALVARADO-GUZMÁN, JOSÉ A.; GAVILLÁN-SUÁREZ, JANNETTE; GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU, LIONEL

2014-01-01

349

Medicinal plants popularly used in the Xingó region – a semi-arid location in Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI) of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinal plant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species) were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark. PMID:16556305

Almeida, Cecília de Fátima CBR; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Maia, Maria Bernadete S

2006-01-01

350

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

351

Presence of phthalate derivatives in the essential oils of a medicinal plant Achillea tenuifolia.  

PubMed

BackgroundPhthalate, esters of phthalic acid, are mainly applied as plasticizers and cause several human health and environment hazards. The essential oils of Achillea species have attracted a great concern, since several biological activities have been reported from varieties of these medicinal species. On the other side, due to the problems regarding the waste disposal in developing countries, phthalate derivatives can easily release from waste disposal to the water and soil resulting in probable absorption and accumulation by medicinal and dietary plants. As a matter of fact, although the toxicity of phthalate derivatives in human is well-known, food crops and medicinal plants have been exposing to phthalates that can be detected in their extracts and essential oils. Achillea tenuifolia (Compositea) is one of these herbaceous plants with traditional applications which widely growing in Iran.FindingThe plant root was subjected to hydro-distillation for 4 h using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain its essential oil before and after acid treatment. Both of the hydro-distilled essential oils were analysed by GC-MS method resulted in recognition of their constituent. Phthalate contamination as (1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester (5.4%) and phthalic acid (4.5%), were identified in the first and second extracted oils, respectively.ConclusionAs a warning, due to the potential role of phthalates to cause reproductive toxicity, disturb of endocrine system and causing cancers, medicinal plants have to be considered through quality control for detection of these compounds. PMID:25429772

Manayi, Azadeh; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Ajani, Yousef; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

2014-11-28

352

Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

Ahmad, Shabir; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

2014-01-01

353

Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.  

PubMed

By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:15752638

Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun

2005-03-01

354

A review on Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.: from traditional Iranian medicine to modern phytotherapy.  

PubMed

Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is an annual plant that grows in the south, center, and east areas of Iran. It is recognized by different pharmacologic activities in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) (i.e., purgative, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, analgesic, hair growth-promoting, abortifacient, and antiepileptic. Some of these activities were confirmed in modern phytotherapy. Adverse events such as colic, diarrhea, hematochezia, nephrosis, and vomiting and narrow therapeutic index cause herbalists to use this plant cautiously. If some points about this plant in TIM are considered, it may be possible to produce more tolerable preparations from this plant. In this article, all aspects of this plant in TIM are reviewed; also, the medicinal properties declared for this plant in TIM are compared with those showed in modern phytotherapy. In addition, opinions of TIM and modern phytotherapy about safety and acceptable dosage of this plant are discussed. PMID:22784342

Rahimi, Roja; Amin, Gholamreza; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

2012-06-01

355

Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India  

PubMed Central

There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:18371206

Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

2008-01-01

356

Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)  

PubMed Central

Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60 years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families. PMID:24188563

2013-01-01

357

ETHNOBOTANY OF CERTAIN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY TRIBALS OF INDIA AGAINST SKIN INFECTIONS  

PubMed Central

Tribals of India have been using many plants for curing their ailments since time immemorial. Plants most commonly used by different tribal population in India against skin infections have been listed out in this report. Some of these plants have already been proved scientifically to possess antimicrobial and antiallergic principles. Many more are yet to be surveyed and proven for their known medicinal value. Once the principles underlying the particular activity of the plants described are known, they could safely by recommended for use for the rest of the population of our country, as it would not only be effective but also a cheaper source of drug. PMID:22556578

Iyer, S. Radhika

1992-01-01

358

The potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males  

PubMed Central

Rising human population throughout the world especially in developing and underdeveloped countries has detrimental effects on life supporting system on earth. Traditionally, plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments. The growing importance of phytochemicals in males has been reported. Contraceptive ability of plants has been reported in several animal models. The reversibility of the anti-fertility effects of plants and its active compounds are of potential clinical relevance in the development of male contraceptive. This review attempts to discuss the latest reports on the potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males. PMID:22540095

Ogbuewu, Ifeanyi Princewill; Unamba-Oparah, Ihemdirim Chukwuma; Odoemenam, Victor Udodirim; Etuk, Idorenyin Friday; Okoli, Ifeanyi Charles

2011-01-01

359

Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant  

PubMed Central

Background: Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. Objectives: This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Results: Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Conclusions: Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases. PMID:25625045

Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

2014-01-01

360

Hairy root induction and plant regeneration of medicinal plant Dracocephalum kotschyi.  

PubMed

An efficient hairy root induction system for an important endangered medicinal plant, Dracocephalum kotschyi, was developed through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation by modifying the co-cultivation medium using five bacterial strains, A4, ATCC15834, LBA9402, MSU440, and A13 (MAFF-02-10266). A drastic increase in transformation frequency was observed when a Murashige and Skoog medium lacking NH4NO3 KH2PO4, KNO3 and CaCl2 was used, resulting in hairy root induction frequencies of 52.3 %, 69.6 %, 48.6 %, 89.0 %, and 80.0 % by A4, A13, LBA9402, MSU440, and ATCC15834 strains, respectively. For shoot induction, hairy roots and unorganized tumors induced by strain ATCC15834 were placed on an MS media supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/l BA plus 0.1 mg/l NAA. The high frequency of shoot regeneration and number of shoot were obtained in the medium containing 0.25 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA. Root induction occurred from the base of regenerated shoots on the MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA after 10 days. PMID:24757330

Sharafi, Ali; Sohi, Haleh Hashemi; Azadi, Pejman; Sharafi, Ata Allah

2014-04-01

361

Uses of medicinal plants by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba  

PubMed Central

Background Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. Methods Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the literature. Results Informants reported using 123 plant species belonging to 112 genera in 63 families. Haitian immigrants and their descendants mainly decoct or infuse aerial parts and ingest them, but medicinal baths are also relevant. Some 22 herbal mixtures are reported, including formulas for a preparation obtained using the fruit of Crescentia cujete. Cultural aspects related to traditional plant posology are addressed, as well as changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. Conclusion The rapid disappearance of Haitian migrants' traditional culture due to integration and urbanization suggests that unrecorded ethnomedicinal information may be lost forever. Given this, as well as the poor availability of ethnobotanical data relating to traditional Haitian medicine, there is an urgent need to record this knowledge. PMID:19450279

Volpato, Gabriele; Godínez, Daimy; Beyra, Angela; Barreto, Adelaida

2009-01-01

362

Estimation of essential and trace elements in some medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques are employed for the determination of essential and trace elements in some commonly used medicinal plants of north east India. Light elements such as Na, Mg, Al and P are determined by PIGE while medium Z elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr are determined by PIXE. Analysis is performed on pellets (thick targets) prepared using powders of the specimens which, in turn, are obtained following a series of processing steps. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants, with the contents of Mn and Zn being notably large in certain specimens. Medicinal properties possessed by these plants have been correlated with their elemental distribution.

Devi, K. Nomita; Sarma, H. Nandakumar; Kumar, Sanjiv

2008-04-01

363

Acorus calamus (The Healing Plant): a review on its medicinal potential, micropropagation and conservation.  

PubMed

Acorus calamus L., a tall, perennial, grass-like monocot plant from the Acoraceae family, is a well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines for centuries. It is a highly valued herb as it acts as a rejuvenator for brain and nervous system. It is a main medhya drug, which has the property of improving the memory power and intellect. Rhizomes of the plant are widely used in the treatment of number of ailments such as epilepsy, mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, abdominal tumours, kidney and liver troubles, and rheumatism. A. calamus leaves, rhizomes and its essential oil possess many biological activities such as antispasmodic, carminative and are compiled in a simple approach in this review. This review presents a pragmatic description that deals with chemical constituents, toxicology, ethnobotany and pharmacological properties of A. calamus for easy and better understanding of the outstanding medicinal potential of this very special plant and sirens for its conservation. PMID:24824923

Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Isha; Chaudhary, Priyanka

2014-01-01

364

Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-12-15

365

Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ficus deltoidea fruit extracts and fractions  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A number of studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress, leading to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The use of F. deltoidea as an alternative medicinal herb is increasingly gaining popularity with the sale of F. deltoidea tea bags and capsules in the local market. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruits from different varieties of F. deltoidea, employing in vitro methods. Method Two fruit varieties of F. deltoidea (var. angustifolia (SF) and var. kunstleri (BF)) were extracted separately using double-distilled water. The resulting aqueous extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate to obtain the ethyl acetate and water fractions. The crude aqueous extracts and the corresponding fractions were evaluated for their phenolic, flavonoid, sugar and protein contents. Protein profiling of the extracts and fractions were also carried out by means of SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF MS. Antidiabetic activities were assessed based on the ability of the samples to inhibit yeast and mammalian ?-glucosidase as well as ?-amylase. Antioxidant capacities were examined by measuring the ability of the samples to reduce ferric ions and to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals. Results The crude extracts and fractions of SF and BF inhibited both yeast and rat intestinal ?-glucosidases in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit porcine pancreatic ?-amylase. The water fraction of BF showed the highest percentage of ?-glucosidase inhibition while having the highest amount of protein (73.33?±?4.99 ?g/mg fraction). All the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities, with SF crude extract showing the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic content (121.62?±?4.86 mg/g extract). Fractionation of the crude extracts resulted in loss of antioxidant activities. There was no positive correlation between phenolic and flavonoid content with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. However, phenolic content correlated well with antioxidant activities of the crude extracts but not with the fractions. Conclusions The antioxidant activities of the fruits of F. deltoidea might be asserted by the phenolic content but other polar plant components were possibly involved in the antidiabetic properties. The study of these compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:23718315

2013-01-01

366

Application of medicinal plants in maternal healthcare and infertility: a South African perspective.  

PubMed

Plants have played significant roles as medicine during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum care in many rural areas of the world. In addition to this, plants have been used for centuries to treat infertility and related reproduction problems. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of plant species used in maternal healthcare, including infertility, in South Africa, in terms of scientific evaluation for efficacy and safety. In addition to this, the role of medicinal plants as a tool in achieving the MDG5 of reducing maternal mortality by 2015 was evaluated. A search was done with the aid of Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, peer-reviewed papers, and books, using keywords such as child birth, labour pain, maternal health, maternal mortality, menstrual pains, and postpartum. The plants listed in the different research articles were classified according to their use and the target effect of a plant extract or compound on reproductive function. Eighty-four plant species were found to be used to treat infertility and related problems. Twenty plant species are used during pregnancy, while 26 plant species are used to ease childbirth. For postpartum healing and any problems after childbirth, nine plant species were recorded. Unhealthy pregnancy and birth complications are among the factors that contribute to the loss of cognitive potential in the developing world's children, condemning them to impoverished lives. The best way to keep a country poor is to rob its children of their full developmental potential. In this respect, medicinal plants play a significant role in reducing maternal mortality and ensuring the birth of healthy children. PMID:23609109

Abdillahi, Halima S; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-05-01

367

The importance of botellas and other plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance Plant mixtures are understudied in ethnobotanical research Aim of the study To investigate the importance of plant mixtures (remedies consisting of at least two plants) in Dominican traditional medicine. Materials and Methods A Spanish language questionnaire was administered to 174 Dominicans living in New York City (NYC) and 145 Dominicans living in the Dominican Republic (DR), including lay persons (who self-medicate with plants) and specialists (traditional healers). Plants were identified through specimens purchased in NYC botánica shops and Latino grocery shops, and from voucher collections. Results The percentage of mixtures as compared to single plants in plant use reports varied between 32 to 41%, depending on the geographic location (NYC or DR) and participant status (lay person or specialist). Respiratory conditions, reproductive health and genitourinary conditions were the main categories for which Dominicans use plant mixtures. Lay persons reported significantly more mixtures prepared as teas, mainly used in NYC to treat respiratory conditions. Specialists mentioned significantly more botellas (bottled herbal mixtures), used most frequently in the DR to treat reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Cluster analysis demonstrated that different plant species are used to treat respiratory conditions as compared to reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Interview participants believed that combining plants in mixtures increases their potency and versatility as medicines. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the importance and complexity of plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine and the variation in its practices influenced by migration from the DR to NYC, shedding new light on the foundations of a particular ethnomedical system. PMID:20006697

Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.; Ososki, Andreana; Kronenberg, Fredi; Yukes, Jolene; Wade, Christine; Jiménez, Francisco; Peguero, Brígido; Castillo, Daisy

2010-01-01

368

Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (p<0.05 to 0.001) decreased distance travelled by the charcoal meal. The large dose of the tested plant extracts was slightly more effective than the small one. The antidiarrhoeal effect was confirmed by the reported dose dependent inhibition of the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. The EP and PM methanol extract produced a transient stimulation followed by inhibition in doses of less than 0.05 and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively. Higher concentrations caused rapid muscle relaxation. Tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids were reported as major active constituents of the tested plants. PMID:16114083

Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

2005-06-01

369

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of ailments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 ailments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific ailment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of ailments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana). PMID:17355645

Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

2007-01-01

370

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 aliments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific aliment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of aliments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana). PMID:17355645

Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

2007-01-01

371

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF CRUDE ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of twelve crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts from six medicinal plants against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was studied. The medicinal plants included Alstonia macrophylla Wall., Bixa orellana L., Blumea balsamifera (L.) D.C., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr., and Leea rubra Blume. Crude ethanolic extracts from leaves of Bixa orellana L.

Metta Ongsakul; Chanapong Rojanaworarit

372

Regeneration of Plants Through Somatic Embryogenesis in Emilia zeylanica C. B. Clarke a Potential Medicinal Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue culture techniques are useful for ex situ conservation of rare, endemic or threatened plant species. This report describes a protocol for somatic embryogenesis of Emilia zeylanica (Asteraceae) a rare medicinal plant species, using stem explants. Highest frequency of embryogenic callus formation obtained from stem explants on MS media supplemented with KIN (0.50 mg\\/l) and 2, 4- D (0.10 mg\\/l).

Jayachandran Philip Robinson; S. John Britto; V. Balakrishnan

373

Commercial Medicinal Plant Extraction in the Hills of Nepal: Local Management System and Ecological Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study from Jumla District, Nepal, investigating local management systems and ecological sustainability\\u000a of commercial collection of a medicinal plant, spikenard (Nardostachys grandiflora DC, Valerianaceae), growing in alpine meadows. Interviews were undertaken with local collectors, traders, and district forest\\u000a office staff, and the dynamics of people–plant interactions are analyzed using the Oakerson model. In all, 110

Helle Overgaard Larsen

2002-01-01

374

An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31–75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Results Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. Conclusion This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities. PMID:24739524

2014-01-01

375

Antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative\\u000a drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials.\\u000a The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Naveen Kumar Kaushik; Dinesh Mohanakrishnan; Gandhi Elango; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Dinkar Sahal

376

Essential Oil of Croton flavens L. (Welensali), a Medicinal Plant from Curacao  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents from aerial and underground parts of Croton flavens L, a medicinal plant from Curacao, were investigated by GC and GC\\/MS (El) analysis. The various plant parts yielded 0.27-0.50% (v\\/w) essential oil on a dry weight basis. There were only small differences in the qualitative composition of the oils analyzed. A total of 70 components were identified. The

Herman J. Woerdenbag; Rein Bos; Heidi E. van Meeteren; Jacoba J. J. Baarslag; Lolkje T. W. de Jong-van den Berg; Niesko Pras; Gladys do Rego Kuster; Royce R. L. Petronia; George I. Vos

2000-01-01

377

Cytotoxicity of six South African medicinal plant extracts used in the treatment of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts prepared from six South African medicinal plants, with cancer-related ethnobotanical uses, were tested for their cytotoxic ability in vitro against three human cancer cell lines: DU-145 prostate cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells and a non-malignant breast cell line, MCF-12A. The plants studied were: Bidens pilosa, Centella asiatica, Cnicus benedictus, Dicoma capensis, Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Sutherlandia

V. Steenkamp; M. C. Gouws

2006-01-01

378

Medicinal plants used by latino healers for women’s health conditions in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of medicinal plants by Latino healers in New York City to treat various women’s illnesses. Eight\\u000a Latino healers collaborated on the study through consultations with female patients who had one of the following conditions\\u000a as diagnosed by biomedically trained physicians: uterine fibroids, hot flashes, menorrhagia, or endometriosis. The study identified\\u000a a total of 67 plant

Michael J. Balick; Fredi Kronenberg; Andreana L. Ososki; Marian Reiff; Adriane Fugh-Berman; O’Connor Bonnie; Maria Roble; Patricia Lohr; Daniel Atha

2000-01-01

379

Neurotoxicity following the ingestion of a Chinese medicinal plant, Alocasia macrorrhiza.  

PubMed

1. A case of poisoning due to the raw root tuber of a Chinese medicinal plant, Alocasia macrorrhiza is presented. 2. The patient developed neurological (severe pain and numbness in the perioral area and throat) and gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain) symptoms immediately after eating the root tuber. 3. A macrorrhiza has properties and morphology very similar to another medical plant. A. odora. The root tuber of the latter is known to contain a neurotoxin sapotoxin. PMID:8579883

Chan, T Y; Chan, L Y; Tam, L S; Critchley, J A

1995-09-01

380

Antifungal screening of medicinal plants of British Columbian native peoples.  

PubMed

One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antifungal activity against 9 fungal species. Eighty-one were found to have some antifungal activity and 30 extracts showed activity against 4 or more of the fungi assayed. The extracts with the greatest fungal inhibition were prepared from Alnus rubra catkins, Artemisia ludoviciana aerial parts, Artemisia tridentata aerial parts, Geum macrophyllum roots, Mahonia aquifolium roots and Moneses uniflora aerial parts. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants also exhibited antifungal activity against all 9 fungi: Asarum caudatum whole plant, Balsamorhiza sagittata roots, Empetrum nigrum branches, Fragaria chiloensis leaves, Gilia aggregata aerial parts and roots, Glehnia littoralis roots, Heracleum lanatum roots, Heuchera cylindrica roots and Rhus glabra branches. PMID:7898123

McCutcheon, A R; Ellis, S M; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

1994-12-01

381

A phytopharmacological review on an important medicinal plant - Amorphophallus paeoniifolius  

PubMed Central

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review. PMID:23049180

Dey, Yadu Nandan; Ota, Sarada; Srikanth, N.; Jamal, Mahvish; Wanjari, Manish

2012-01-01

382

Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity  

PubMed Central

Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay method, using a standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Results Twenty- seven (48%) out of the 56 plants were found to be active. Extracts of the root barks of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca, and roots of Plectranthus barbatus showed strong activity. Conclusion The extracts that showed strong anti-Candida activity are worth of further investigation in order to isolate and identify the active compounds. PMID:16571139

Runyoro, Deborah KB; Matee, Mecky IN; Ngassapa, Olipa D; Joseph, Cosam C; Mbwambo, Zakaria H

2006-01-01

383

Developing optimal search strategies for finding information on herbs and other medicinal plants in MEDLINE.  

PubMed

The MEDLINE database is an important resource for locating up-to-date information on herbs and other botanical therapies. However, the evolving nature of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the complexity of herbal terminology can make it difficult to identify useful citations. This paper describes optimal search strategies for finding clinical information on herbs and medicinal plants in MEDLINE using the PubMed retrieval system. Searchers will benefit from an understanding of the structure of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and PubMed's advanced search capabilities. Details for using PubMed's MeSH Database, Clinical Queries, Clipboard, and limiting features to retrieve pertinent botanical research are described. Tables containing MeSH terms for medicinal plants and useful print and electronic resources are included. PMID:16131300

Saxton, Jane D; Owen, David J

2005-08-01

384

Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models. PMID:25125884

Jain, Gyan Chand; Jangir, Ram Niwas

2014-01-01

385

Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

2013-01-01

386

A Simple Electrochemical Method for the Rapid Estimation of Antioxidant Potentials of Some Selected Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. Cyclic Voltammetry of methanolic extracts of seven medicinal plants: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

2012-01-01

387

A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

2012-01-01

388

Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya  

PubMed Central

The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to illicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 35 plant species are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (45%) under ground part of the plant was used. New medicinal uses of Ranunculus hirtellus and Anemone rupicola are reported from this area. Similarly, preparation of "sik" a traditional recipe served as a nutritious diet to pregnant women is also not documented elsewhere. Implication of developmental activities and changing socio-economic conditions on the traditional knowledge are also discussed. PMID:16545146

Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, KN; Jamwal, Pankaj; Lal, Brij

2006-01-01

389

Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20 plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20 tested methanolic extracts, those

Fernanda G. Braga; Maria Lúcia M. Bouzada; Rodrigo L. Fabri; Magnum de O. Matos; Francis O. Moreira; Elita Scio; Elaine S. Coimbra

2007-01-01

390

Pressurized hot water extraction of bioactive or marker compounds in botanicals and medicinal plant materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce the use of organic solvent, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) has been shown to be a feasible option for the extraction of bioactive and marker compounds in botanicals and medicinal plants. The parameters that may affect the extraction efficiencies in PHWE include temperature, extraction time and addition of small percentage of organic solvent or surfactants. Currently, applications of

Eng Shi Ong; Jane Si Han Cheong; David Goh

2006-01-01

391

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

392

Quantity estimation of some contaminants in commonly used medicinal plants in the Egyptian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide residues, heavy metal contents and aflatoxins were estimated in five medicinal plants frequently used by both infants and adults (peppermint, chamomile, anise, caraway and tilio). Samples were collected from different sources in the Egyptian market. Results showed that malathion, dimethoate and profenofos predominated in most of the analysed samples. On the other hand, the lowest mean levels were detected

A. A. K Abou-Arab; M Soliman Kawther; M. E El Tantawy; R. Ismail Badeaa; Naguib Khayria

1999-01-01

393

Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus

A. Ben Sassi; F. Harzallah-Skhiri; N. Bourgougnon; M. Aouni

2008-01-01

394

Assessment of Antimalarial Activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Phytochemical Screening of Some Yemeni Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as

Mohammed A. Alshawsh; Ramzi A. Mothana; Hassan A. Al-shamahy; Salah F. Alsllami; Ulrike Lindequist

2009-01-01

395

Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and related total antioxidant capacity of 70 medicinal plant infusions was analyzed. Infusions were prepared in common way in which teas are prepared for human consumption. The total phenolics were measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by Ferric Reducing\\/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. To make practical comparison of relative antioxidant potential of phenolics

V. Katalinic; M. Milos; T. Kulisic; M. Jukic

2006-01-01

396

Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in

Yanchun Liu; Zhiling Dao; Chunyan Yang; Yitao Liu; Chunlin Long

2009-01-01

397

The potential of South African plants in the development of new medicinal products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Africa is an important focal point of botanical and cultural diversity but only a few plant species have hitherto become fully commercialised as medicinal products. In recent years there has been an upsurge in research and development activity, resulting in several new products and new crops. In this review, more than 90 of the best-known and most promising indigenous

B.-E. Van Wyk

398

Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

399

Determination of the content of elements in some wild medicinal plants of Uzbekistan by radioactivation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a complex of activation methods of analysis using a nuclear reactor (nuclear activation analysis) and a cyclotron (charged-particle activation analysis). The methods have been used to determine the concentrations of more than 20 elements in five medicinal plants native to Uzbekistan: Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), peppermint (Mentha piperata L.), sage (Salvia officinalis

S. Mukhammedov; K. Tillaeva; N. B. Badalov

1987-01-01

400

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also

A. Ferreira; C. Proença; M. L. M. Serralheiro; M. E. M. Araújo

2006-01-01

401

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Extracts from medicinal plants inhibit cancer cell  

E-print Network

on the proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis of cancer cells. Materials and methods Our work aimed to evaluatePOSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Extracts from medicinal plants inhibit cancer cell proliferation, induce apoptosis in ovary, lung and neuronal cancer cell lines Wafa Ghali1* , David Vaudry2 , Thierry

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by some Chinese medicinal plants used to treat gout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid, which plays a crucial role in gout. A total of 122 traditional Chinese medicinal plants, selected according to the clinical efficacy and prescription frequency for the treatment of gout and other hyperuricemia-related disorders, have been evaluated for the enzyme inhibitory activity. Among the 122

L. D. Kong; Y. Cai; W. W. Huang; Christopher H. K. Cheng; R. X. Tan

2000-01-01

403

A SURVEY OF USEFUL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ABBOTTABAD IN NORTHERN PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abbottabad District has an interesting location of biodiversity, which serves a starting point for the great mountainous areas of Himalayan ranges. This survey was undertaken with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of this area as new sources of drugs. The inhabitants of the area have always used medicinal plants for various ailments and have for a long time

S. J. Qureshi; M. A. Khan; M. Ahmad

2008-01-01

404

Cellulase production by six Trichoderma spp. fermented on medicinal plant processings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capabilities of cellulase production, using delignified bioprocessings of medicinal and aromatic plants, viz. citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and Artemisia annua (known as marc of Artemisia) and garden waste (chiefly containing Cynodon dactylon), by the six species of Trichoderma were comparatively evaluated. Among the members of Trichoderma studied, T. citrinoviride was found to be the most efficient producer of cellulases along with

Mahesh Chandra; Alok Kalra; Pradeep K. Sharma; Rajender S. Sangwan

2009-01-01

405

Natural Phenolic Compounds From Medicinal Herbs and Dietary Plants: Potential Use for Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and also contribute to their inducing apoptosis by arresting

Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Yanbo Zhang

2009-01-01

406

[Effects of drought stress on growth and water use efficiency of two medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Growth characteristics, stable carbon isotope discrimination (Delta13C), water use efficiency (WUE), and their correlation of Cassia obtusifolia and Isatis indigotica were measured at three soil water levels, i. e., 30%, 50% and 75% of field water holding capacity (FWHC), and at three growth stages. The growth indices of the two medicinal plants at 75% of FWHC were higher than those at 30% and 50% of FWHC, suggesting that the two medicinal plants could obtain high production under sufficient moisture condition. The Delta13C(A) (aboveground biomass-based Delta13C) and Delta13C(T) (total biomass-based Delta13C) decreased, and the WUE(A) (aboveground biomass-based WUE) and WUE(T) (total biomass-based WUE) of C. obtusifolia and I. indigotica increased with the increasing degree of drought stress. The growth indices of the two medicinal plants had little difference in the different water treatments, which indicated that the two medicinal plants were insensitive to drought stress. Water use efficiency of I. indigotica had significant negative relationships with aboveground biomass and total biomass, while that of C. obtusifolia had a significant positive correlation with the root/shoot ratio. PMID:25129928

Chen, Ping; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; He, Chun-Xia; Jia, Chang-Rong; Li, Jian-Zhong

2014-05-01

407

Insulin sensitizing effect of 3 Indian medicinal plants: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Measurement of glucose uptake into peripheral tissue is an important mechanism to assess Insulin sensitivity. The present in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the Insulin sensitizing activity of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe), Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) and Curcuma longa (Cl) by assessing glucose uptake activity in a 3T3L1 adipocyte model. Materials and Methods: The 3T3 L1 fibroblast cells were differentiated to adipocytes, using a cocktail of insulin, isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethazone. These adipocytes were initially treated with different concentrations of the selected plants following which 2-deoxy glucose uptake was estimated using a radioactive assay. The effects of plants on glucose uptake both in the presence and absence of insulin was evaluated and compared with pioglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer. Results: Pe and Tc per se significantly stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose dependent manner with maximal effect at higher concentrations (200?g/ml). The effect of both Pe and Tc at 200?g/ml was comparable to insulin and greater than pioglitazone. Cl per se stimulated glucose uptake with maximal effect at 50?g/ml. However, this effect was lesser as compared to insulin with higher concentrations inhibiting glucose uptake. When combined with insulin, an antagonist effect was observed between Pe, Tc and insulin indicating a possible plant-drug interaction while Cl in combination with insulin showed an increase in the glucose uptake as compared to Cl alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that one of the mechanisms for the anti-diabetic effect of Pe, Cl and Tc may be through an insulin sensitizing effect (stimulation of glucose uptake into adipocytes). Further studies using other target sites viz. skeletal muscle and hepatocytes models and in an insulin resistant state would help substantiate this conclusion. PMID:23543787

Kalekar, Samidha A.; Munshi, Renuka P.; Bhalerao, Supriya S.; Thatte, Urmila M.

2013-01-01

408

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21745405

2011-01-01

409

Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Comores (Ngazidja) about plant species used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Antimalarial activity of 76 vegetal extracts obtained from 17 species traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in vitro using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain (W2). Antiproliferative activity was evaluated on human monocytic THP1 cells and the selectivity index

Ali Mohamed Kaou; Valérie Mahiou-Leddet; Sébastien Hutter; Sidi Aďnouddine; Said Hassani; Ibrahim Yahaya; Nadine Azas; Evelyne Ollivier

2008-01-01

410

In vitro screening of Indian medicinal plants for antiplasmodial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants traditionally used in India to treat fever or malaria were examined in vitro for antiplasmodial properties against Plasmodium falciparum. Of 80 analysed ethanol extracts, from 47 species, significant effects were found for 31 of the extracts. These represent 23 different species from 20 families. Of the active species 20 were tested against P. falciparum for the first time. The

Henrik Toft Simonsen; Jesper Brćndegaard Nordsk