Sample records for antidiabetic medicinal plants

  1. DIACAN: Integrated Database for Antidiabetic and Anticancer Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    James, Priyanka; Mathai, Vipin Anithottam; Shajikumar, Silpa; Pereppadan, Priya Antony; Sudha, Parvathi; Keshavachandran, Raghunath; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants and plant derived molecules are widely used in traditional cultures all over the world and they are becoming large popular among biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies as a natural alternative to synthetic medicine. Information related to medicinal plants and herbal drugs accumulated over the ages are scattered and unstructured which make it prudent to develop a curated database for medicinal plants. The Antidiabetic and Anticancer Medicinal Plants Database (DIACAN) aims to collect and provide an integrated platform for plants and phytochemiclas having antidiabetic or anticancer activity. Availability http://www.kaubic.in/diacan PMID:24307774

  2. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  3. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  4. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  5. Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

  6. In vivo Studies on Antidiabetic Plants Used in South African Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    J. Afolayan, Anthony; O. Sunmonu, Taofik

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders worldwide. It is a major health problem with its frequency increasing every day in most countries. The disease is generally believed to be incurable; and the few orthodox drugs available to manage the disease are not readily affordable to the poor. Based on the historical success of natural products as antidiabetic agents and the ever increasing need for new antidiabetics, a number of South African medicinal plants have been evaluated for their antidiabetic properties. In this article, we review the major studies conducted based on ethnobotanical surveys carried out between 2005 and 2008 in South Africa on plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Overall, the results of the studies conducted confirmed the potential of South African medicinal plants in antidiabetic drug discovery and identified a number of promising taxa for further in vivo investigation as plant-based antidiabetic agents. PMID:20838564

  7. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Grover; S. Yadav; V. Vats

    2002-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45?000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally

  8. Elemental Content of Some AntiDiabetic Medicinal Plants Using PIXE Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nomita Devi; H. Nandakumar Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Elemental analysis of some selected medicinal plants of northeast India having anti-diabetic property was conducted using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Plant samples were excited with a 2.4-MeV proton beam from a 3-MV Tandetron accelerator, and the spectral data were analyzed by using GUPIX, a software package for fitting PIXE spectra from layered specimens. The elements K, Ca, Mn, Fe,

  9. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

    2013-01-01

    Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

  10. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic stock for cross transferability in these plants and the literature on biomarkers and novel drug discovery for common chronic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24802971

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of two traditional medicinal plants of India: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Priyanka; Abdulsalam, Fatima I.; Pandey, D. K.; Bhattacharjee, Aniruddha; Eruvaram, Naveen Reddy; Malik, Tabarak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita are temperate Himalayan medicinal plants used as potent herbal drugs in Indian traditional systems of medicine (Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha). Objective: Assessment of Antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita. Materials and Methods: Phytochemicals of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the two Swertia species were analyzed. The antioxidant potential of all the extracts was assessed by measuring total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging potential was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, antibacterial activity was assessed against various pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria in vitro by Kirby-Bauer agar well diffusion method and antidiabetic activity was assessed by ?-amylase inhibition. Results: Methanolic leaf extracts of both the species of Swertia contain significant antibacterial as well as anti-diabetic potential, whereas methanolic root extracts of both species were found to have potential antioxidant activity. However, Swertia chirayita showed better activities than Swertia cordata although both species have good reputation in traditional Indian medicine. Conclusion: Both the species are having high medicinal potential in terms of their antioxidant, antibacterial and antidiabetic activities. Studies are required to further elucidate antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antibacterial potentials using various in-vitro, in-vivo biochemical and molecular biology techniques. PMID:26109789

  12. Antioxidant and antidiabetic profiles of two African medicinal plants: Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) and Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia generally associated with oxidative stress. The present study aims at evaluating the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of methanol and hydroethanol extracts of the stem bark and leaves of Pricralima nitida and the Sonchus oleraceus whole plant respectively. Methods The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) for free radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method in determining their phenol contents. The antidiabetic activity was tested in mice following streptozotocin diabetes induction, and selected oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde, Hydrogen peroxides and Catalase) were measured in order to evaluate the level of oxidative stress in treated animals. Results The in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH showed IC50 ranging from 0.19?±?0.08 to 1.00?±?0.06 mg/mL. The highest activity was obtained with the hydroethanol extracts of S. oleraceus (0.19 mg/mL and P. nitida (0.24 mg/mL). Polyphenol contents ranged from 182.25?±?16.76 to 684.62?±?46.66 ?g Eq Cat/g. The methanol extract of P. nitida showed the highest activity, followed by the hydroethanol extract of S. oleraceus (616.89?±?19.20 ?Eq Cat/g). The hydroethanol extract of whole plants (150 mg/Kg) and methanol leave extract of P. nitida (300 mg/Kg) exhibited significant antidiabetic activities with 39.40% and 38.48% glycaemia reduction, respectively. The measurement of stress markers in plasma, liver and kidney after administration of both extracts showed significant reduction in MDA and hydrogen peroxide levels, coupled with a substantial increase in catalase activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that S. oleraceus whole plant and P. nitida leaves possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties, and therefore could be used as starting point for the development of herbal medicines and/or source of new drug molecules against diabetes. PMID:23855679

  13. Comprehensive Evidence-Based Assessment and Prioritization of Potential Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants: A Case Study from Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Pierre S.; Musallam, Lina; Martineau, Louis C.; Harris, Cory; Lavoie, Louis; Arnason, John T.; Foster, Brian; Bennett, Steffany; Johns, Timothy; Cuerrier, Alain; Coon Come, Emma; Coon Come, Rene; Diamond, Josephine; Etapp, Louise; Etapp, Charlie; George, Jimmy; Husky Swallow, Charlotte; Husky Swallow, Johnny; Jolly, Mary; Kawapit, Andrew; Mamianskum, Eliza; Petagumskum, John; Petawabano, Smalley; Petawabano, Laurie; Weistche, Alex; Badawi, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Canadian Aboriginals, like others globally, suffer from disproportionately high rates of diabetes. A comprehensive evidence-based approach was therefore developed to study potential antidiabetic medicinal plants stemming from Canadian Aboriginal Traditional Medicine to provide culturally adapted complementary and alternative treatment options. Key elements of pathophysiology of diabetes and of related contemporary drug therapy are presented to highlight relevant cellular and molecular targets for medicinal plants. Potential antidiabetic plants were identified using a novel ethnobotanical method based on a set of diabetes symptoms. The most promising species were screened for primary (glucose-lowering) and secondary (toxicity, drug interactions, complications) antidiabetic activity by using a comprehensive platform of in vitro cell-based and cell-free bioassays. The most active species were studied further for their mechanism of action and their active principles identified though bioassay-guided fractionation. Biological activity of key species was confirmed in animal models of diabetes. These in vitro and in vivo findings are the basis for evidence-based prioritization of antidiabetic plants. In parallel, plants were also prioritized by Cree Elders and healers according to their Traditional Medicine paradigm. This case study highlights the convergence of modern science and Traditional Medicine while providing a model that can be adapted to other Aboriginal realities worldwide. PMID:22235232

  14. [Search for antidiabetic constituents of medicinal food].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Chinese traditional medicine, the treatment using medicinal foods has been recommended highly. Recently, we examined the effects of the extract and constituents of several medicinal foods on experimental models of diabetes. In this paper, we focus on the bioactive constituents of four medicinal foods, namely the antidiabetic constituents from 1) the roots, stems and leaves of Salacia plants, 2) the male flowers of Borassus flabellifer, 3) the flower buds of Camellia sinensis, 4) the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii (Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium). PMID:21628977

  15. Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by plant extracts used as traditional antidiabetic medicines.

    PubMed

    Gumy, Christel; Thurnbichler, Carmen; Aubry, Evelyne M; Balazs, Zoltan; Pfisterer, Petra; Baumgartner, Lisa; Stuppner, Hermann; Odermatt, Alex; Rollinger, Judith M

    2009-04-01

    Elevated glucocorticoids are a key risk factor for metabolic diseases, and the glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) represents a promising therapeutic target. We measured the potential of six traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants extracts to inhibit 11beta-HSD1 activity and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation in transfected HEK-293 cells. Leave extracts of Eriobotrya japonica preferentially inhibited 11beta-HSD1 over 11beta-HSD2. Extracts of roasted but not native coffee beans preferentially inhibited 11beta-HSD1 over 11beta-HSD2, emphasizing the importance of sample preparation. Thus, natural compounds inhibiting 11beta-HSD1 may contribute to the antidiabetic effect of the investigated plant extracts. PMID:19535018

  16. Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

    2002-01-01

    Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

  17. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation.

    PubMed

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100? ? g/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500? ? g/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

  18. Evaluation of traditional Indian antidiabetic medicinal plants for human pancreatic amylase inhibitory effect in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic ?-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC(50) values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125??gmL(-1)), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1??gmL(-1)), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0??gmL(-1)) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16??gmL(-1)). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49??gmL(-1)), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127??gmL(-1)), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4??gmL(-1)) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511??gmL(-1)). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

  19. Anti-hyperglycaemic globulins from selected Cucurbitaceae seeds used as antidiabetic medicinal plants in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Africa, coupled with rampant poverty, is an indication of the urgent need to develop new efficacious, cheaper and more available drugs to face this growing public health challenge. A number of plants products among which the protein-rich Cucurbitaceae seeds are commonly used in traditional medicine with increasing acclaimed efficacy against DM. The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity of storage proteins of five species of Cucurbitaceae, which include Telfairia occidentalis, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Cucumeropsis mannii and Cucurbita moschata. Methods The different families of storage proteins were extracted following differential solubility, and their contents were estimated using the Bradford method. The analysis of these proteins was done by electrophoresis in non-denaturing and denaturing conditions. The evaluation of hypoglycaemic properties of various globulins extracted was performed on male Wistar rats by the oral glucose tolerance test. Results The results showed that among the proteins extracted, globulins constitute the most abundant class of storage proteins in all five species selected. Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita moschata presented the highest levels of globulin (275.34 and 295.11 mg/g dry matter, respectively). The results of electrophoresis showed that all species possess acidic and neutrals albumins and globulins, with molecular weight of protein subunits ranging from 6.36-44.11 kDa for albumins, 6.5-173.86 kDa for globulins and 6.5-49.66 kDa for glutelins. The 6.36 kDa of albumin subunit protein and the 6.5 kDa of globulin subunit protein were present in all the species. The oral glucose tolerance test showed that the globulins of the seeds of all species except Cucumeropsis mannii caused significant drop in blood sugar (88 – 137.80%, compared to the controls, p<0.05). Conclusions These findings showed that the selected Cucurbitaceae seeds contained globulins with significant anti-hyperglycaemic activity. It is therefore highly encouraged to pursue investigations towards development of peptide-drugs and/or phytomedicines from these bioactive proteins which could be used as affordable alternative therapy against DM. PMID:23506532

  20. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Effects of the Traditional Medicinal Plant Gynostemma pentaphyllum and the Possible Mechanisms of Insulin Release

    PubMed Central

    Lokman, Ezarul Faradianna; Gu, Harvest F.; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the antidiabetic effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, and to investigate the mechanisms of insulin release. Methods. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and plasma insulin levels were measured. Results. An oral treatment with GP (0.3?g/kg of body weight daily) for two weeks in GK rats improved glucose tolerance versus placebo group (P < 0.01). Plasma insulin levels were significantly increased in the GP-treated group. The insulin release from GP-treated GK rats was 1.9-fold higher as compared to the control group (P < 0.001). GP stimulated insulin release in isolated GK rat islets at high glucose. Opening of ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels by diazoxide and inhibition of calcium channels by nifedipine significantly decreased insulin response to GP. Furthermore, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 decreased the insulin response to GP (P < 0.05). In addition, GP-induced insulin secretion was decreased after preincubation of GK islets with pertussis toxin to inhibit exocytotic Ge proteins (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The antidiabetic effect of GP is associated with the stimulation of insulin release from the islets. GP-induced insulin release is partly mediated via K-ATP and L-type Ca2+ channels, the PKA system and also dependent on pertussis toxin sensitive Ge-protein. PMID:26199630

  1. Evaluation of the antidiabetic potential of selected medicinal plant extracts from the Canadian boreal forest used to treat symptoms of diabetes: part II.

    PubMed

    Harbilas, Despina; Martineau, Louis C; Harris, Cory S; Adeyiwola-Spoor, Danielle C A; Saleem, Ammar; Lambert, Jennifer; Caves, Dayna; Johns, Timothy; Prentki, Marc; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T; Bennett, Steffany A L; Haddad, Pierre S

    2009-06-01

    Among the Cree of northern Quebec, the disproportionately high rate of diabetic complications is largely due to the cultural inadequacy of modern therapies for type 2 diabetes. To establish culturally adapted antidiabetic treatments, our team identified several candidate plant species used by the Cree to treat symptoms of diabetes. An initial study focused on 8 species and revealed that most possess significant in vitro antidiabetic activity. The purpose of the present study was to assess a further 9 species identified through the ethnobotanical survey. Crude plant extracts were screened for (i) potentiation of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) and adipocytes (3T3-L1); (ii) potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells (betaTC); (iii) potentiation of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells; (iv) protection against glucose toxicity and glucose deprivation in PC12-AC neuronal precursor cells; and (v) diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) oxygen free radical scavenging. Four species potentiated basal glucose uptake in muscle cells or adipocytes, one species being as potent as metformin. Adipogenesis was accelerated by 4 species with a potency roughly half that of rosiglitazone. Five species protected PC12-AC cells against glucose toxicity and 4 protected against glucose deprivation. Five species exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid. However, no species increased insulin secretion. The present study revealed that Gaultheria hispidula, Rhododendron tomentosum, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea exhibit a promising profile of antidiabetic potential and are good candidates for more in-depth evaluation. PMID:19526043

  2. Do plants mediate their anti-diabetic effects through anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic actions? an in vitro assay of 3 Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both experimental and clinical studies suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. This oxidative stress leads to ?-cell destruction by apoptosis. Hence exploring agents modulating oxidative stress is an effective strategy in the treatment of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Plants are a major source of anti-oxidants and exert protective effects against oxidative stress in biological systems. Phyllanthus emblica, Curcuma longa and Tinospora cordifolia are three such plants widely used in Ayurveda for their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Additionally their anti-oxidant properties have been scientifically validated in various experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Hence the present in vitro study was planned to assess whether the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Curcuma longa (Cl) and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) are mediated through their antioxidant and/or anti-apoptotic property in a streptozotocin induced stress model. Methods RINm5F cell line was used as a model of pancreatic ?-cells against stress induced by streptozotocin (2 mM). Non-toxic concentrations of the plant extracts were identified using MTT assay. Lipid peroxidation through MDA release, modulation of apoptosis and insulin release were the variables measured to assess streptozotocin induced damage and protection afforded by the plant extracts. Results All 3 plants extracts significantly inhibited MDA release from RIN cells indicating protective effect against STZ induced oxidative damage. They also exhibited a dose dependent anti-apoptotic effect as seen by a decrease in the sub G0 population in response to STZ. None of the plant extracts affected insulin secretion from the cells to a great extent. Conclusion The present study thus demonstrated that the protective effect of the selected medicinal plants against oxidative stress induced by STZ in vitro, which was exerted through their anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic actions. PMID:24093976

  3. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  4. Stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and enhancement of basal glucose uptake in muscle cells by quercetin and quercetin glycosides, active principles of the antidiabetic medicinal plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

    PubMed

    Eid, Hoda M; Martineau, Louis C; Saleem, Ammar; Muhammad, Asim; Vallerand, Diane; Benhaddou-Andaloussi, Ali; Nistor, Lidia; Afshar, Arvind; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-07-01

    Several medicinal plants that stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells were identified from among species used by the Cree of Eeyou Istchee of northern Quebec to treat symptoms of diabetes. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of action of one of these products, the berries of Vaccinium vitis idaea, as well as to isolate and identify its active constituents using a classical bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Western immunoblot analysis in C2C12 muscle cells revealed that the ethanol extract of the berries stimulated the insulin-independent AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. The extract mildly inhibited ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption in isolated mitochondria, an effect consistent with metabolic stress and the ensuing stimulation of AMPK. This mechanism is highly analogous to that of Metformin. Fractionation guided by glucose uptake activity resulted in the isolation of ten compounds. The two most active, quercetin-3-O-glycosides, enhanced glucose uptake by 38-59% (50 muM; 18 h treatment) in the absence of insulin. Quercetin aglycone, a minor constituent, stimulated uptake by 37%. The quercetin glycosides and the aglycone stimulated the AMPK pathway at concentrations of 25-100 muM, but only the aglycone inhibited ATP synthase in isolated mitochondria (by 34 and 79% at 25 and 100 muM, respectively). This discrepancy suggests that the activity of the glycosides may require hydrolysis to the aglycone form. These findings indicate that quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides are responsible for the antidiabetic activity of V. vitis crude berry extract mediated by AMPK. These common plant products may thus have potential applications for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and other metabolic diseases. PMID:20087853

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of plants used in Mexico as antidiabetics.

    PubMed

    Román Ramos, R; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Lara-Lemus, A; Flores-Saenz, J L

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of 12 "antidiabetic" plants used in Mexico. The studies were performed using 27 healthy rabbits with the gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or decoction of the "antidiabetic" plant before the induction of temporary hyperglycemia by subcutaneous injection of 50% dextrose solution (4 ml/kg of weight) at the beginning of the experiment and after 60 min. Blood glucose was determined every 60 min for a period of 5 h. Tolbutamide and eight of the studied plants decreased significantly the hyperglycemia as compared with control test (water) (p < 0.05). The strongest effect was yielded by Guaiacum coulteri, followed by Marrubium vulgare, Crataegus pubescens, Cynodon dactylon, Calea zacatechichi, Buddleia americana, Bauhinia divaricata and Coix lachryma. The decrease of hyperglycemia caused by Physalis phyladelphyca, Pavonia schiedeana and Eucaliptus globulus was not significant (p > 0.05). Urtica dioica increased glycemia slightly. PMID:1308793

  6. Animal models as tools to investigate antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory plants.

    PubMed

    Eddouks, Mohamed; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali

    2012-01-01

    Plants have been historically used for diabetes treatment and related anti-inflammatory activity throughout the world; few of them have been validated by scientific criteria. Recently, a large diversity of animal models has been developed for better understanding the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its underlying inflammatory mechanism and new drugs have been introduced in the market to treat this disease. The aim of this work is to review the available animal models of diabetes and anti-inflammatory activity along with some in vitro models which have been used as tools to investigate the mechanism of action of drugs with potential antidiabetic properties and related anti-inflammatory mechanism. At present, the rigorous procedures for evaluation of conventional antidiabetic medicines have rarely been applied to test raw plant materials used as traditional treatments for diabetes; and natural products, mainly derived from plants, have been tested in chemically induced diabetes model. This paper contributes to design new strategies for the development of novel antidiabetic drugs and its related inflammatory activity in order to treat this serious condition which represents a global public health problem. PMID:22899950

  7. Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudha P; Smita S Zinjarde; Shobha Y Bhargava; Ameeta R Kumar

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for

  8. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on ?-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent ?-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 ?g/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

  9. Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics. PMID:21186373

  10. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  11. The action of antidiabetic plants of the canadian james bay cree traditional pharmacopeia on key enzymes of hepatic glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nachar, Abir; Vallerand, Diane; Musallam, Lina; Lavoie, Louis; Badawi, Alaa; Arnason, John; Haddad, Pierre S

    2013-01-01

    We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada) to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines. PMID:23864882

  12. Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

    2013-05-01

    In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

  13. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  14. Antidiabetic oils.

    PubMed

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications. PMID:24111621

  15. Medicinal Chemistry of the Anti-Diabetic Effects of Momordica Charantia: Active Constituents and Modes of Actions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaipaul; Cumming, Emmanuel; Manoharan, Gunasekar; Kalasz, Huba; Adeghate, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the oldest known human disease currently affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is derived from two Greek words meaning siphon and sugar. In DM, patients have high blood level of glucose and this passes out with urine. This is because the endocrine pancreas does not produce either or not enough insulin or the insulin which is produced is not exerting its biochemical effect (or insulin resistance) effectively. Insulin is a major metabolic hormone which has numerous functions in the body and one main role is to stimulate glucose uptake into body’s cells where it is utilized to provide energy. The disease is classified into type 1 and type 2 DM. Type 1 DM develops when the insulin producing ? cells have been destroyed and are unable to produce insulin. This is very common in children and is treated with insulin. Type 2 DM (T2DM) develops when the body is unable to produce an adequate amount of insulin or the insulin which is provided does not work efficiently. This is due to life style habits including unhealthy diet, obesity, lack of exercise and hereditary and environmental factors. Some symptoms of DM include excess urination, constant thirst, lethargy, weight loss, itching, decreased digestive enzyme secretion, slow wound healing and other related symptoms. If left untreated, DM can result in severe long-term complications such as kidney and heart failure, stroke, blindness, nerve damage, exocrine glands insufficiency and other forms of complications. T2DM can be treated and controlled by prescribed drugs, regular exercise, diet (including some plant-based food) and general change in life style habits. This review is concerned with the role of plant-based medicine to treat DM. One such plant is Momordica charantia which is grown in tropical countries worldwide and it has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years although its origin in unknown. This review examines the medicinal chemistry and use(s) of M. charantia and its various extracts and compounds, their biochemical properties and how they act as anti-diabetic (hypoglycemic) drugs and the various mechanisms by which they exert their beneficial effects in controlling and treating DM. PMID:21966327

  16. Drug discovery from medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcy J. Balunas; A. Douglas Kinghorn

    2005-01-01

    Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV\\/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether,

  17. Kotalanol, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with thiosugar sulfonium sulfate structure, from antidiabetic ayurvedic medicine Salacia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Yashiro, K; Matsuda, H

    1998-08-01

    A potent natural alpha-glucosidase inhibitor called kotalanol has been isolated from an antidiabetic traditional Ayurvedic medicine, the roots and stems of Salacia reticulata Wight, through bioassay-guided separation. The structure of kotalanol was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence to be the inner salt comprised of 1-deoxyheptosyl-3-sulfate anion and 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranosyl sulfonium cation. Kotalanol was found to show more potent inhibitory activity against sucrase than salacinol and acarbose. PMID:9734318

  18. Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

  19. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  20. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. PMID:25921562

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access In vitro biological effects of two anti-diabetic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to reduce oxidative stress but also to * Correspondence: eric.debiton@inserm.fr 1 Clermont UniversityRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access In vitro biological effects of two anti-diabetic medicinal plants used used medicinal plants in rural Benin to treat many diseases and notably type 2 diabetes. The aim

  2. A study of antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and in vitro toxicity of selected traditional sudanese plants with anti-diabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. Despite the enormous progress in conventional medicine and pharmaceutical industry, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected Sudanese plants that are traditionally used to treat diabetes. Methods Extraction was carried out according to method described by Sukhdev et. al. and the extracts were tested for their glycogen phosphorylase inhibition, Brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activity using (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves of Ambrosia maritima, fruits of Foeniculum vulgare and Ammi visnaga, exudates of Acacia Senegal, and seeds of Sesamum indicum and Nigella sativa. Results Nigella sativa ethanolic extract showed no toxicity on Brine shrimp Lethality Test, while its aqueous extract was toxic. All other extracts were highly toxic and ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited the highest toxicity. All plant extracts with exception of Acacia senegal revealed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Conclusions These results highly agree with the ethnobotanical uses of these plants as antidiabetic. This study endorses further studies on plants investigated, to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Moreover isolation and identification of active compounds are highly recommended. PMID:24885334

  3. Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ríos; M. C. Recio

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. In the past few decades, the search for new anti-infection agents has occupied many research groups in the field of ethnopharmacology. When we reviewed the number

  4. Search for bioactive constituents from several medicinal foods: hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and antiallergic activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Morikawa

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our characterization studies on bioactive constituents from medicinal herbs, several medicinal foods and\\u000a their constituents were found to show the following biological activities: (1) hepatoprotective sesquiterpenes from Zedoariae\\u000a Rhizoma (2) ?-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitors form Salacia spices and the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum, and (3) anti-allergic and antiinflammatory diaryloheptanoids from the barks of Myrica rubra

  5. Antioxidant, Metal Chelating, Anti-glucosidase Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Tropical Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fai-Chu; Yong, Ann-Li; Ting, Evon Peir-Shan; Khoo, Sim-Chyi; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the antioxidant potentials and anti-glucosidase activities of six tropical medicinal plants. The levels of phenolic constituents in these medicinal plants were also quantified and compared. Antioxidation potentials were determined colorimetrically for scavenging activities against DPPH and NO radicals. Metal chelating assay was based on the measurement of iron-ferrozine absorbance at 562 nm. Anti-diabetic potentials were measured by using ?-glucosidase as target enzyme. Medicinal plants' total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents were determined using spectrophotometric methods, by comparison to standard plots prepared using gallic acid, quercetin and caffeic acid standards, respectively. Radical scavenging and metal chelating activities were detected in all medicinal plants, in concentration-dependent manners. Among the six plants tested, C. nutans, C. formosana and H. diffusa were found to possess ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that the total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents ranged from 12.13-21.39 mg GAE per g of dry sample, 1.83-9.86 mg QE per g of dry sample, and 0.91-2.74 mg CAE per g of dry sample, respectively. Our results suggested that C. nutans and C. formosana could potentially be used for the isolation of potent antioxidants and anti-diabetic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first time that C. nutans (Acanthaceae family) was reported in literature with glucosidase inhibition activity. PMID:25587331

  6. Plant part substitution – a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Zschocke; T Rabe; J. L. S Taylor; A. K Jäger; J van Staden

    2000-01-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts

  7. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh – an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. Methods In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. Results In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Conclusion Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23800215

  8. Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Prasad; Alka Kulshreshtha; Taj N. Qureshi

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR) were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg\\/kg body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally

  9. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.

    2008-01-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  10. [Chemical study of Indonesian medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, H; Kitagawa, I

    1996-12-01

    A series of scientific expeditions in Indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinal plants and Javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. This article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine Indonesian medicinal plants: i.e. Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), Fagara rhetza (Rutaceae), Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), Beilschmiedia madang (Lauraceae), Caesalpinia major (Fabaceae), Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae), Taxus sumatrana (Taxaceae), Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae), and Merremia mammosa (Convolvulaceae), which were selected among plant materials collected in those surveys. PMID:8993230

  11. Investigation of some bioactive Thai medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chulabhorn Mahidol; Hunsa Prawat; Vilailak Prachyawarakorn; Somsak Ruchirawat

    2002-01-01

    It has been estimated that plants are the most important source of medicine for more than 80% of the world’s population. Medicinal\\u000a plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. Despite the wealth of human experience and folklore concerning\\u000a the medicinal uses of plants, proper scientific investigation has only been applied to a small fraction of the world’s

  12. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  13. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

  14. Salicylic acid elicitation during cultivation of the peppermint plant improves anti-diabetic effects of its infusions.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Pérez, Marely G; Gallegos-Corona, Marco A; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-06-10

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) infusions represent an important source of bioactive compounds with health benefits, which can be enhanced by applying salicylic acid (SA) during plant cultivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SA (0, 0.5 and 2 mM) during peppermint cultivation on the chemical profile of saponins and alkaloids, as well as the anti-diabetic properties of the resulting infusions. The results showed that a 2 mM SA treatment significantly improved the chemical profiles of the infusions. Furthermore, the administration of 2 mM SA-treated peppermint infusions for 4 weeks to a high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats decreased serum glucose levels (up to 25%) and increased serum insulin levels (up to 75%) as compared with the diabetic control. This can be related to the observed protection on pancreatic ?-cells. Furthermore, 0.5 and 2 mM SA-treated peppermint infusions decreased LDL (24 and 47%, respectively) and increased HDL levels (18 and 37%, respectively). In addition, all groups treated with peppermint infusions had lower serum and liver triglyceride contents, where 2 mM SA peppermint infusion showed the highest effect (44% and 56%, respectively). This is probably caused by its higher capacity to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity and lipid absorption. Moreover, SA-treated peppermint infusions improved the steatosis score in diabetic rat liver and decreased serum transaminase levels, probably as a result of the increase in steroidal saponins and alkaloids, such as trigonellin. Therefore, the application of 2 mM SA during cultivation of peppermint could be used to improve the anti-diabetic properties of peppermint infusions. PMID:25940690

  15. Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Omulokoli; B. Khan; S. C. Chhabra

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary antiplasmodial and phytochemical screening of four Kenyan medicinal plants was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (K67) and chloroquine-resistant (ENT36) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Out of 16 extracts, 12 were active against ENT36 strain while seven were active against K67 strain, that is, IC50 ? 50 ?g\\/ml. The

  16. Umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone ?-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P?antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect on the STZ induced diabetic rat. Hence it could be the better choice to cure the diabetes. PMID:24138888

  17. Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

    1999-01-01

    The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

  18. Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10??g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10??g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

  19. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, Ramesh R.; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The whole plant of T. procumbens was collected in different regions of Madurai districts, Tamil Nadu. The air dried whole plant of T. procumbens was extracted with ethanol (95%) in a Soxhlet apparatus for 72 h. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (50 mg/jk, i.p.) and nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p) injection. The dry mass of the extract was used for preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Diabetic rats were treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, p.o.) or T. procumbens extract (250 and 500 mg/k, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days. The blood samples were collected at regular intervals to access hypoglycemic effect of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens. At the end of the experiment, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes levels were analyzed for all the experimental animals and compared with diabetic control. Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg has significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The diabetic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals. T. procumbens inhibited streptozotocin-induced weight loss and significantly alter the lipid levels. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens showed significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:24808679

  20. The effects of traditional antidiabetic plants on in vitro glucose diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M Gallagher; P. R Flatt; G Duffy; Y. H. A Abdel-Wahab

    2003-01-01

    Plants represent a vast source of potentially useful dietary supplements for improving blood glucose control and preventing long-term complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ten aqueous plant extracts with proven antihyperglycemic properties were examined at a concentration of 50g plant extract\\/l using an in vitro method to assess their possible effects on glucose diffusion across the gastrointestinal tract. Agrimony eupatoria

  1. Medicinal Plants and Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Avni G.; Qazi, Ghulam N.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; El-Tamer, Mahmoud; Singh, Jaswant; Saxena, Ajit K.; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Taneja, Subhash C.; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although great advancements have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. A number of undesired side effects sometimes occur during chemotherapy. Natural therapies, such as the use of plant-derived products in cancer treatment, may reduce adverse side effects. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. However, a myriad of many plant products exist that have shown very promising anti-cancer properties in vitro, but have yet to be evaluated in humans. Further study is required to determine the efficacy of these plant products in treating cancers in humans. This review will focus on the various plant-derived chemical compounds that have, in recent years, shown promise as anticancer agents and will outline their potential mechanism of action. PMID:18781909

  2. Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Weenen, H; Nkunya, M H; Bray, D H; Mwasumbi, L B; Kinabo, L S; Kilimali, V A

    1990-08-01

    Tanzanian medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity, using the multidrug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Of 49 plants investigated, extracts of three plants were found to have an IC50 between 5-10 micrograms/ml, extracts of 18 other plants showed an IC50 between 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, all others were less active. The three most active extracts were obtained from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), the rootbark of Hoslundia opposita Vahl. (Labiatae), and the rootbark of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). PMID:2236289

  3. Micromorphological study of plant fragments in some powdered medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeniyi A. Jayeola

    2009-01-01

    Oven dry powdered samples of 6 medicinal plant species were studied anatomically in search of micomorphological characters to identify the original plants used in the preparation. Moistened head of the needle was used to transfer samples unto a labeled glass slide containing 1 - 2 drops of water and glycerol\\/ethanolTS; covered with cover slip and warmed gently to remove air

  4. Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity MedPlant PhD Fellowship

    E-print Network

    Zürich, Universität

    MedPlant Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity MedPlant PhD Fellowship Incense Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity, MedPlant (www.MedPlant.eu). Project description Burning of incense plants for purification and the use of smoke for medicinal purposes are ancient practices in many

  5. TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS: ANCIENT AND MODERN APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. C.; Ahmad, S. Aziz

    1992-01-01

    History of medicine and plants dates back to remote past when herbal treatment was the only answer to all kind of ailments. Nowadays, greater emphasis is again being laid to phytotherapy all over the world. Besides, cultivation-cum-setting up herbal gardens are also mooted on hills and plain areas as management of all kinds of diseases is possible through plant drugs sans toxicity. PMID:22556588

  6. Traditional medicinal plants: ancient and modern approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Ahmad, S A

    1992-07-01

    History of medicine and plants dates back to remote past when herbal treatment was the only answer to all kind of ailments. Nowadays, greater emphasis is again being laid to phytotherapy all over the world. Besides, cultivation-cum-setting up herbal gardens are also mooted on hills and plain areas as management of all kinds of diseases is possible through plant drugs sans toxicity. PMID:22556588

  7. Zulu medicinal plants with antibacterial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan E. Kelmanson; Anna K. Jäger; Johannes van Staden

    2000-01-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of 14 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine for treatment of ailments of an infectious nature were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of the activity detected was against Gram-positive bacteria. Tuber bark extracts of Dioscorea sylvatica had activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and extracts of Dioscorea dregeana, Cheilanthes viridis and Vernonia colorata were active

  8. Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Fabry; Paul O Okemo; Rainer Ansorg

    1998-01-01

    In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached

  9. [States of nervousness. Useful medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Alonso Osorio, M José

    2004-03-01

    The author analyzes the effects of diverse medicinal plants such as poppy (papaver somniferum), Hawthorn, hypericum, and hops on those moderate nervous states which provoke insomnia, anxiety, or excitement as a complementary method to aid a patient overcome those states. PMID:15125337

  10. Repertory of drugs and medicinal plants used in traditional medicine of Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Younos, C; Fleurentin, J; Notter, D; Mazars, G; Mortier, F; Pelt, J M

    1987-08-01

    The traditional uses of plants for medicine were studied in Afghanistan. To date, 215 medicinal plants have been identified and are presented in a table with the vernacular name (in Dari, Pashto and Kati), the geographical and ecological distribution, and the medicinal use. This study of traditional medicine demonstrates a close relationship between the kinds of medicinal plants used and pathology, and thus may serve as an indicator of the major health problems of the people. PMID:3682849

  11. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Alves, T M; Silva, A F; Brandão, M; Grandi, T S; Smânia, E; Smânia Júnior, A; Zani, C L

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d) antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays. PMID:10800195

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis By Daniel The knowledge of medicinal plant use by indigenous populations constitutes the most understudied medical the medicinal plants for antibiotic properties. The groups focused on were the Shipibo Indians of the Peruvian

  13. RESEARCH Open Access Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    RESEARCH Open Access Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means

  14. PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF NATURAL PLANTS PRODUCTS IN MEDICINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. GUPTA

    Summary A vast majority of population particularly those living in villages depend largely on herbal medicines. Scientific data on a good number of medicinal plants investigated has been well documented. However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulary could not adopt even a dozen of plant medicines. For this reason, a special

  15. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shereen Cynthia D'Cruz; Selvaraju Vaithinathan; Rajamanickam Jubendradass; Premendu Prakash Mathur

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions

  16. Efficacy and safety of Stephania glabra: an alkaloid-rich traditional medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers (Menispermaceae) has long been used for the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis, dysentery, hyperglycaemia, cancer, fever, intestinal complaints, sleep disturbances and inflammation in many Asian countries. It mainly contains alkaloids and, until now, over 30 alkaloids such as bisbenzylisoquinolines, hasubanalactams, berberines and aporphines have been isolated from its tuber. Most of its traditional medicinal activities are scientifically approved by various in vitro and in vivo studies. It shows remarkable anti-psychotic, anti-diabetic, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial and anti-hypertensive activities. This work includes comprehensive information on the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of S. glabra. This review also focuses on the future perspectives with main emphasis on the establishment of therapeutic index and safety index of the plant. This review concludes that S. glabra has a great potential to treat various diseases, and could be used as a source for novel healthcare products in the near future, which needs further studies. PMID:25186139

  17. Medicinal plants for renal injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that about 20% of men and 25% of women between the ages of 65 and 74 have some degrees of chronic kidney. This complication is attributed to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an important factor contributing to kidney damage by increasing production of oxidants, particularly insufficiency of endogenous antioxidant defense system. Medicinal plants antioxidants are able to ameliorate oxidative induced kidney damage by reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of scavenging ability of antioxidant defense system. Supplementation of medicinal plants antioxidants might be considered important remedies to abrogate pathology of oxidative stress induced kidney damage, however, single antioxidants do not act the same and might not be beneficial. PMID:25340130

  18. The efficacy, history, and politics of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lipp, F J

    1996-07-01

    Herbal medicine is the oldest and most widely used form of medicine in the world today. Yet medicinal herbs that formerly were held in esteem now are commonly dismissed as placebos. This article reviews the state of plant-derived drug research and discusses the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines within the context of the contemporary political and regulatory framework. The article also explores the relationship between medicinal plant use and temporally changing disease patterns. PMID:8795920

  19. Antibacterial activity of traditional Australian medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzo A Palombo; Susan J Semple

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-six ethanolic extracts of various parts of 39 plants used in traditional Australian Aboriginal medicine were investigated for their antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial species. In a plate-hole diffusion assay, 12 extracts inhibited the growth of one or

  20. Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids distribution in six Malaysian medicinal plants, where each medicinal plant belongs to different families were examined and compared. The plants used are Azadirachta indica, Centella asiatica, Emblica officinalis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Imperata cylindrica, and Moringa oleifera. Qualitative analysis carried out on each plant shows that tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids were

  1. [Research progress in medicinal plant cell suspension culture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Hui; Wei, Chang-Long

    2012-12-01

    China consumes and exports traditional Chinese medicinal resources the most in the world. However, we cannot anchor our hope on field production of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and their active ingredients, due to limited land resources. Therefore, the development of biotechnology is of great importance for China to solve the problem of traditional Chinese medicinal resources. Plant cell culture is an important approach for the sustainable development of precious medicinal resources. This essary summarizes the optimization of conditions for medicinal plant cell culture, the regulation of secondary metabolic pathways and cell bioreactor culture, and realizes that the authentic commercial production of more medicinal plants requires efforts from all aspects. PMID:23630994

  2. Biotechnology and Pharmacological Evaluation of Medicinal Plants: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hrudayanath Thatoi; Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of active principles that have been exploited for the treatment of various ailments by a majority of the world's population. In recent years, many advanced biotechnological methods are employed to select, multiply, improve, and analyze medicinal plants for their application in traditional and modern medicinal preparations and drug discovery. The purpose of the present

  3. Distribution Mapping of Medicinal Plants: A GIS assisted approach

    E-print Network

    Barve, Vijay

    2009-11-18

    Distribution Mapping of Medicinal Plants A GIS assisted approach Vijay Barve, KU Background • Over seven thousand medicinal plants in India being used in indigenous medical systems like Ayurveda, Sidhha, Unani, and Tibetian • Traditional... Knowledge regarding these plants is increasingly realized and being put to use in modern medicinePlant Populations are depleting oHabitat fragmentation oHigh volume trade oUnregulated destructive collection • Need conservation efforts Methodology...

  4. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Pieroni

    2000-01-01

    An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota

  5. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  6. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  7. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iqbal Ahmad; Zafar Mehmood; Faiz Mohammad

    1998-01-01

    A total of 82 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg\\/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity

  8. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Asma; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Shahzadi, Samar; Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Rasul, Ijaz; Rehman, Shahid-ur; Shah, Masaud; Masoud, Muhammad Shareef

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identified from neem leaf extracts showing predicted binding property with the known diabetes mellitus type 2 protein enzyme target phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). The structure data for compounds found in the leaf extract of neem was screened against PEPCK using molecular docking simulation and screening techniques. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses best binding properties with PEPCK. This observation finds application for further consideration in in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:24497731

  9. Use Piper sarmentosum as an effective antidiabetic supplement in South East Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Zar, C T; Teoh, S L; Das, S; Zaiton, Z; Farihah, H S

    2012-11-01

    Herbs with antidiabetic activity have a potential role to play. Herbal medicines have been widely used in South East Asia because of lesser side effects and cost effectiveness. The main aim of this review article was to disseminate important information regarding the use of herbal products in oxidative stress involved in diseases like diabetes mellitus. The article highlights some of the traditional medicinal plants which have been widely used in South East Asia with special emphasis on Piper sarmentosum. Piper sarmentosum have been reported to possess varying degree of hypoglycemic, antidiabetic and other additional properties. The antioxidant properties of the herbs may be effective in controlling the oxidative damage produced during diabetes mellitus. The review article highlights the positive role of traditional herbs towards diabetes mellitus and also describes its complications. PMID:23306747

  10. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  11. Medicinal plants against hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Usman A; Idrees, Sobia

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern which is responsible for most of the liver diseases. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to the high degree of strain variation. The current standard of care is a combination of pegylated interferon ? with ribavirin and boceprevir/telaprevir. This treatment was partially effective and had significant side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop new antiviral agents that interfere with different stages of the HCV life cycle. Recent advances in the understanding of both the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HCV replication have provided the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Several hundred plant species and their phyto-constituents have been isolated for screening against HCV, and some have been shown to have great medicinal value in preventing and/or ameliorating viral diseases in pre-clinical and clinical trials. This review summarizes medicinal plants and their phytochemicals which inhibit different stages of HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. PMID:24659884

  12. MAPS Database: Medicinal plant Activities, Phytochemical and Structural Database

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Mumtaz, Arooj; Qamar, Tahir ul; Fatima, Tabeer

    2013-01-01

    Drug development from natural sources is an important and fast developing area. Natural sources (plants) have been used to cure a range of diseases for Thousands of years. Different online medicinal plant databases provide information about classifications, activities, phytochemicals and structure of phytochemicals in different formats. These databases do not cover all aspects of medicinal plants. MAPS (Medicinal plant Activities, Phytochemicals & structural database) has been constructed with uniqueness that it combines all information in one web resource and additionally provides test targets on which particular plant found to be effective with reference to the original paper as well. MAPS database is user friendly information resource, including the data of > 500 medicinal plants. This database includes phytochemical constituents, their structure in mol format, different activities possessed by the medicinal plant with the targets reported in literature. Availability http://www.mapsdatabase.com PMID:24391364

  13. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  14. Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines. Linking Plant Biochemistry and Physiology to Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald P. Briskin

    2000-01-01

    phytomedicinal compounds. Horticultural research on medicinal plants has focused on developing the capacity for optimal growth in cultivation. This has been especially pertinent as many medicinal plants are still harvested in the wild, and conditions for growth in cultivation have not been optimized. Wild harvesting of medicinal plants can be problematic in terms of biodiversity loss, potential variation in me-

  15. Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Srinivasan; Sangeetha Nathan; T. Suresh; P. Lakshmana Perumalsamy

    2001-01-01

    Fifty medicinal plants belonging to 26 families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among 50 plants tested, 72% showed antimicrobial activity. About 22 plant extracts from 15 families exhibited activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fourteen plants belonging to 11 families did not show activity against any of the bacteria tested. Only nine plant extracts showed antifungal activity. The

  16. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. PMID:24594211

  17. Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Al-Mustafa, Ahmed H; Al-Thunibat, Osama Y

    2008-02-01

    Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC < 20 mg g(-1)), (i.e., Matricaria aurea shoot, Artemisia judaica shoot, Teucrium polium shoot, Pinus halepenss pollen grains, Sarcopoterium spinosum root, Crataegus azarolus fruit, Inula viscose shoot and Achillea fragrantissima shoot). The antioxidant activity of these plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents. PMID:18817155

  18. Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Heinrich; Anita Ankli; Barbara Frei; Claudia Weimann; Otto Sticher

    1998-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and – for comparative purposes – Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct

  19. MEDICINAL PLANTS (Course: 11:776:312 -Index: 06693)

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    ), assessment of dried botanicals; and quality assessment of essential oils. A greenhouse demonstrationMEDICINAL PLANTS (Course: 11:776:312 - Index: 06693) SYLLABUS, FALL 2010 INSTRUCTORS: Professors will introduce you to medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) and to some of the ongoing research that focuses

  20. Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izefri Caniago; F. Siebert Stephen

    1998-01-01

    This study documents the abundance, distribution and knowledge of medicinal plant species in a Ransa Dayak village and adjoining\\u000a forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over 250 medicinal plant species from 165 genera and 75 families are utilized by the\\u000a local healer. Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of locally-utilized medicinal\\u000a species and the greatest number

  1. Phyto diab care: Phytoremedial database for antidiabetics

    PubMed Central

    Luhach, Shruti; Goel, Anshita; Taj, Gohar; Goyal, Peyush; Kumar, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes, a chronic disease debilitating to normal healthy lifestyle, onsets due to insufficient amount of insulin production or ineffective utilization of the amount produced. Although, pharmaceutical research has brought up remedial drugs and numerous candidates in various phases of clinical trials, off-target effects and unwanted physiological actions are a constant source of concern and contra indicatory in case of diabetic patients. Here we present a phytoremedial database, Phyto Diab Care, broadly applicable to any known anti-diabetic medicinal plant and phytochemicals sourced from them. Utilization of the traditional medicine knowledge for combating diabetes without creating unwanted physiological actions is our major emphasis. Data collected from peer-reviewed publications and phytochemicals were added to the customizable database by means of an extended relational design. The strength of this resource is in providing rapid retrieval of data from large volumes of text at a high degree of accuracy. Enhanced web interface allows multi-criteria based information filtering. Furthermore, the availability of 2D and 3D structures from molecular docking studies with any efficacy on the insulin signaling pathway makes the resource searchable and comparable in an intuitive manner. Phyto Diab Care compendium is publicly available and can be found in online. Availability http://www.gbpuat-cbsh.ac.in/departments/bi/database/phytodiabcare/HOME%20PAGE/Home%20page.html PMID:23750083

  2. Medicinal plants used in K?rklareli Province (Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?ükran Kültür

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from K?rklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica,

  3. Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leslie Main

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region. PMID:16790066

  4. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

  5. Antidiabetic compounds from Sarracenia purpurea used traditionally by the Eeyou Istchee Cree First Nation.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Asim; Guerrero-Analco, Jose A; Martineau, Louis C; Musallam, Lina; Madiraju, Padma; Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre S; Arnason, John T

    2012-07-27

    Through ethnobotanical surveys, the CIHR Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines identified 17 boreal forest plants stemming from the pharmacopeia of the Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (James Bay region of Northern Quebec) that were used traditionally against diabetes symptoms. The leaves of Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant), one of the identified Cree plants, exhibited marked antidiabetic activity in vitro by stimulating glucose uptake in C2C12 mouse muscle cells and by reducing glucose production in H4IIE rat liver cells. Fractionation guided by glucose uptake in C2C12 cells resulted in the isolation of 11 compounds from this plant extract, including a new phenolic glycoside, flavonoid glycosides, and iridoids. Compounds 6 (isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside), 8 [kaempferol-3-O-(6?-caffeoylglucoside], and 11 (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) potentiated glucose uptake in vitro, which suggests they represent active principles of S. purpurea (EC(50) values of 18.5, 13.8, and 60.5 ?M, respectively). This is the first report of potentiation of glucose uptake by compounds 6 and 8, while compound 11 (isolated from Vaccinium vitis) was previously shown to enhance glucose uptake. Treatment of H4IIE liver cells with the new compound 1, 6'-O-caffeoylgoodyeroside, decreased hepatic glucose production by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase enzymatic activity (IC(50) = 13.6 ?M), which would contribute to lowering glycemia and to the antidiabetic potential of S. purpurea. PMID:22738356

  6. Principles of classification of medicinal plants as hyperaccumulators or excluders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Masarovi?ová; Katarína Krá?ová; Marie Kummerová

    2010-01-01

    Strategies of plants, known as metallophytes, in response to metal excess are explored. Specific features of medicinal plants\\u000a related to metal exposition are discussed. Different parameters used for metallophyte classification are discussed. Bioaccumulation\\u000a and translocation factors are characterized. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), one of the most important medicinal plants, is presented as a case history. Based on actual knowledge of

  7. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines. PMID:25066923

  8. AN INDEX OF THE AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS, USED IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine and its distribution in Jammu and Kashmir has been categorized systematically here. The paper deals with 246 medicinal plants and has to off-set an index which is not there so far. Out of 246 medicinal plants 12 plants are considered to be controversial. Substitutes, Adulterants of these plants which are being used in various parts of India were also recorded separately in this study. PMID:22557549

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

  10. Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies. PMID:22589384

  11. Drying of medicinal plants with solar energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, G. [Inst. for Building, Mechanisation and Electrification of Agriculture, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a potential of solar energy for drying of medicinal plants in Polish conditions is estimated and development of solar drying technologies is presented. The results of economic assessment of flat-plate solar collectors applied for drying of medicinal plants on a farm are promising. In some specific conditions, e.g. drying of wild grown medicinal plants in remote areas, even application of photovoltaic modules for driving of a fan of a solar dryer is a profitable option and enables easy control of the drying air temperature.

  12. Medicinal plants of the Pilagá of central Chaco.

    PubMed

    Filipov, A

    1994-12-01

    Medicinal remedies of vegetal origin employed by the Pilagá in Central Chaco were studied through collections of plant specimens and interviews with local informants from several villages. Pilagá traditional medicine was mainly of a shamanic nature, yet plants were not completely excluded from the treatment of ailments; medicinal uses of 85 plants were recorded. Their local names, the parts employed, the manner of preparation and administration, and their uses for different illnesses are presented. Some of these remedies appear to be a part of the Pilagá traditional heritage. The employment of other remedies is due to contact with 'Criollo' settlers in the area. PMID:7898125

  13. Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122

  14. Antimycobacterial agents from selected Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Acevedo, Laura; Guerrero, José A; Martínez, Sergio; Bye, Robert; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Franzblau, Scott; Timmermann, Barbara N; Mata, Rachel

    2005-09-01

    As part of the ICBG program Bioactive Agents from Dryland Biodiversity of Latin America, the present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible antimycobacterial potential of compounds derived from selected Mexican medicinal plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus (Polygonaceae), Larrea divaricata (Zygophyllaceae), Phoradendron robinsonii (Loranthaceae) and Amphipteryngium adstringens (Julianiaceae) led to the isolation of several antimycobacterial compounds. Four stilbenoids, two flavan-3-ols and three anthraquinones were isolated from R. hymenosepalus. Two flavonols and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were obtained from L. divaricata. Sakuranetin was the antimycobacterial agent isolated from P. robinsonii. Two known triterpenoids and the novel natural product 3-dodecyl-1,8-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were obtained from A. adstringens. In general, the isolates were identified by spectral means. The antimycobacterial activity of the secondary compounds isolated from the analysed species, as well as that of nine pure compounds previously isolated in our laboratories, was investigated; the MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 microg mL-1. Among the tested compounds, the glycolipids, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids showed the best antimycobacterial activity. The antimycobacterial property of the glycolipids is reported for the first time. Although the tested compounds showed moderate antimycobacterial activity, their presence in the analysed species provides the rationale for their traditional use in the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:16105233

  15. Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Okpekon; S Yolou; C Gleye; F Roblot; P Loiseau; C Bories; P Grellier; F Frappier; A Laurens; R Hocquemiller

    2004-01-01

    During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against

  16. Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Essawi; M Srour

    2000-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most

  17. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

    2004-01-01

    In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205

  18. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Al-Qura’n

    2009-01-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of

  19. Antiparasitic properties of medicinal plants and other naturally occurring products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senyo Tagboto; Simon Townson

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases remain a major public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people, particularly in tropical developing countries. The limited availability and affordability of pharmaceutical medicines means that the majority of the world's population depends on traditional medical remedies, and it is estimated that some 20 000 species of higher plant are used medicinally throughout the world. Many well-known

  20. SOME RARE HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SOUTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S.

    1993-01-01

    This present study describes 11 species under 11 generate and 10 families of rare Homoeopathic Medicinal Plants introduced and cultivated in the Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, South India. The original citation, description, distribution and their medicinal uses are given. PMID:22556647

  1. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities. PMID:26093915

  2. Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

  3. Potential medicinal plants for CNS disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas

    2006-12-01

    Although very few drugs are currently approved by regulatory authorities for treating multi-factorial ailments and disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease, certain plant-derived agents, including, for example, galantamine and rivastigmine (a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) are finding an application in modern medicine. However, in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine which is more than 5000 years old, selected plants have long been classified as 'medhya rasayanas', from the Sanskrit words 'medhya', meaning intellect or cognition, and 'rasayana', meaning 'rejuvenation'. These plants are used both in herbal and conventional medicine and offer benefits that pharmaceutical drugs lack. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian, Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders. PMID:16909441

  4. Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si Eun Lee; Hyun Jin Hwang; Jung-Sun Ha; Han-Seung Jeong; Jeong Hee Kim

    2003-01-01

    The methanol extracts of nine medicinal plants traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [Toxicol. Lett. 102 (1998) 5]. Most of the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. The extracts of Areca catechu var.

  5. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nomita Devi; H. Nandakumar Sarma

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4

  6. PIXE–PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nomita Devi; H. Nandakumar Sarma

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4MeV

  7. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Patil, Ravindra Y

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity. PMID:23569804

  8. Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna K. Jäger; Anne Hutchings; Johannes van Staden

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic

  9. Antibacterial efficacy of elite medicinal plants on urolithiasis inducing flora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reena Laikangbam; M. Damayanti Devi; S. Rajendra Singh

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal plants are valuable sources of novel antibacterials which are associated with the prevention and control of urolithiasis. Seventeen plant species, namely Allium odorum (Linnaeus), Asparagus racemosus (Willdenow), Averrhoa carambola (Linnaeus), Bonnaya brachiata (Bentham), Cissus adnata (Roxburgh), Cissus discolor (Blume), Coix lachryma jobi (Linnaeus), Cuminum cyminum (Linnaeus), Eupatorium birmanicum (De Candolle), Hedychium marginatum (Charles Baron Clarke), Hibiscus sabdariffa (Linnaeus), Mimosa

  10. Mineral Compositions of Datura: A Traditional Tropical Medicinal Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bhattacharjee; S. Kar; S. Chakravarty

    2004-01-01

    Mineral compositions of leaf, seed, and flower of Datura metel, a tropical medicinal plant, have been ascertained in detail. Datura metel leaves have been found to be minerally richer than its seeds or flowers. The studied datura variety has been found to be a cobalt- and nickel-tolerant plant and a probable phytomonitor for these elements in soil.

  11. Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonia Rabe; Johannes van Staden

    1997-01-01

    Crude extracts from 21 South African medicinal plants, traditionally used for ailments of an infectious or septic nature, were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion and dilution methods. Almost all the activity exhibited was against Gram-positive bacteria, with 12 of the 21 plant species tested showing some activity against Bacillus subtilis. Only the Warburgia salutaris methanol

  12. Review: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1

    E-print Network

    Qin, Wensheng

    's wort and evergreens). Skullcaps and St. John's wort are model plants with documented anticancer for species of skullcaps (Scutellaria galericulata, S. parvula and S. lateriflora) and St. John's wort constituents, medicinal properties, and analysis of four promising plants (skullcaps, devil's club, St. John

  13. Selenium concentrations of selected medicinal and aromatic plants in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkutlu, Faruk; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Koca, Ufuk; Yazici, Gizem

    2011-10-01

    Recent scientific studies have proven the importance of trace elements on human health. The main food supplies are plants and animals, which are significant sources of these minerals. Studies on determining mineral compositions of herbs, spices and some other crops have increased all over the world. Published works revealed that spices, herbs and medicinal plants should be consumed to obtain beneficial trace elements. Selenium (Se), one of the most vital trace elements, has a significant role in human diet acting as a preventative agent against some serious illnesses. Despite numerous scientific works on mineral compositions of medicinal and aromatic plants, investigations of selenium content in these foods could not be successfully studied until recently due to the lack of suitable analytical methods for selenium analysis. Thus, publications on selenium concentrations of foods are recent. In this regard, selenium contents of some medicinal and aromatic plants commonly used as spices, herbal teas and traditional medicines in Turkey were studied in the present research. Selenium contents of the most used parts of these plants were analyzed by ICP-OES (Varian Vista-Pro, Australia). Of the analyzed 26 medicinal and aromatic plants, the highest Se concentration (1133 microg kg-1) was found in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and the lowest in sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits (11 microg kg(-1)). PMID:22164785

  14. Traditional uses of medicinal plants for respiratory diseases in Transylvania.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Bartha, Sámuel; Boris, Gyöngyvér; Balogh, Lajos

    2011-10-01

    Inhabitants of some Transylvanian farms in Romania have a valuable archaic knowledge of medicinal plants because of their isolation and the insufficiency of official medical treatment. In this work we present ethnobotanical data about the use of medicinal plant taxa for various respiratory diseases in the villages Lövéte and Nagybacon. Altogether 34 plant taxa were documented in Lövéte and 26 species in Nagybacon with 15 concordant data of the villages. This information plays an important role in the documentation of the disappearing indigenous medical information of the villages. PMID:22164782

  15. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  16. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies. PMID:23148504

  17. Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal ?-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression

    PubMed Central

    Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg?1) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal ?-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg?1 bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg?1 bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg?1 bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg?1 bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of ?-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage. PMID:24250646

  18. Phytochemical study and anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and free radical scavenger evaluations of Krameria pauciflora methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Cisneros, M Ángeles; Rios, María Yolanda; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Aguilar-Guadarrama, A Berenice

    2012-01-01

    The plant Krameria pauciflora MOC et. Sessé ex DC. is used as an anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of a methanol extract from the roots of K. pauciflora. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts obtained by partitioning the methanol extract were also evaluated. Complete methanol and dichloromethane extracts showed anti-inflammatory effects at 3 mg/kg. An anti-inflammatory effect similar to indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was observed when the methanol and dichloromethane extracts, which contain a cycloartane-type triterpene and an sterol, were administered orally at several doses (3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg), whereas no anti-inflammatory effect was observed at any dose for the ethyl acetate extract, which contains catechin-type flavonoids. The antidiabetic effect of each extract was also determined. An antihyperglycaemic effect was observed in diabetic rats, but no effect in normoglycaemic animals was observed when the methanol extract was administrated at 30 mg/kg. All of the extracts exhibited radical scavenger activity. Additionally, constituents from all of the extracts were identified by NMR. This article supports the use of K. pauciflora as an anti-inflammatory because it exhibits a similar effect to indomethacin. However, its antidiabetic effect is not completely clear, although it could be useful for preventing diabetic complications. PMID:22252502

  19. Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Hernández, L; Muñoz, R A; Miró, G; Martínez, M; Silva-Parra, J; Chávez, P I

    1984-10-01

    The use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in Puerto Rico was evaluated. Medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). Respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. Patients 65 years or older tended to use herbal remedies more often. Seven of the 11 most commonly used plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Other medicinal uses given were for sedation, sleep disorders, elevated blood pressure, kidney disorders, and respiratory ailments. The most frequently used plant was Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange), which was used as a sedative by 39% of the patients and for gastrointestinal disorders by 17%. Two potentially toxic plants, Solanum americanum and Annona muricata, were among the most commonly used plants. Medicinal plants were used widely by the outpatient population studied. Most herbs were used to treat self-limiting conditions but some were used to treat potentially serious medical problems, such as hypertension. PMID:6496496

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ROOTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Sini, S.; Malathy, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada– kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method. PMID:22557193

  1. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

  2. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100?mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  3. Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah

    2006-02-01

    Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of medicines are the African and Australian, Central and South American amongst others. The search for new molecules, nowadays, has taken a slightly different route where the science of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used as guide to lead the chemist towards different sources and classes of compounds. It is in this context that the flora of the tropics by virtue of its diversity has a significant role to play in being able to provide new leads. Nonetheless the issue of sovereignty and property rights should also be addressed in line with the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD). This paper highlights the above, provides an overview of the classes of molecules present in plants and gives some examples of the types of molecules and secondary metabolites that have led to the development of these pharmacologically active extracts. The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functional foods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications. PMID:16105678

  4. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  5. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd Allah, E F; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  6. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd_Allah, E. F.; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  7. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tona; K. Kambu; N. Ngimbi; K. Cimanga; A. J. Vlietinck

    1998-01-01

    Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC<100 ?g\\/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia

  8. Screening of selected medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Taylor; N. P. Manandhar; G. H. N. Towers

    1995-01-01

    In an ethnopharmacological screening of selected medicinal plants used in Nepal, methanol extracts from 21 plant species were assayed for activity against 8 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. All 21 of the extracts showed activity against at least 2

  9. FURTHER NOMENCLATURAL CHANGES IN INDIAN HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S.S

    1992-01-01

    Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of Southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by earlier collectors. Moreover, many exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine have not been collected and preserved. The present paper lists 34 species of plants used in homeopathy belonging to 31 genera under 23 families. PMID:22556573

  10. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p?medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development. PMID:24885586

  11. Perilla frutescens: interesting new medicinal and melliferous plant in Italy.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Cinzia; Ferrazzi, Paola

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this study is to inform those potentially interested (researchers, farmers, industry and public bodies) in the medicinal and aromatic properties, and profitability of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton (Lamiaceae). Perilla, a medicinal and edible plant of Asian origin, was recently introduced to the Piedmont Region in the north-west of Italy. P. frutescens is commonly known for its anti-allergic, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties. It is also widely used as human food. We collected a variety of data on Perilla crops in the Piedmont Region, including: agricultural practices, crop profitability, and its value as a bee plant. Our results suggest that ease of cultivation, approximate break-even economics, medicinal claims, and value for bees all contribute to make Perilla of economic interest in Italy. PMID:22164783

  12. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20). PMID:17032450

  13. Stratified medicine for the use of antidiabetic medication in treatment of type II diabetes and cancer: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Emami-Riedmaier, A; Schaeffeler, E; Nies, A T; Mörike, K; Schwab, M

    2015-02-01

    At present, the global diabetes epidemic is affecting 347 million individuals, 90% of whom are diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is commonly treated with more than one type of therapy, including oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) and agents used in the treatment of diabetic complications. Several pharmacological classes of OADs are currently available for the treatment of T2DM, of which insulin secretagogues (i.e. sulphonylureas and meglitinides), insulin sensitizers [thiazolidinediones (TZDs)] and biguanides are the most commonly prescribed. Although many of these OADs have been used for more than half a century in the treatment of T2DM, the pharmacogenomic characteristics of these compounds have only recently been investigated, primarily in retrospective studies. Recent advances in pharmacogenomics have led to the identification of polymorphisms that affect the expression and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, as well as drug targets and receptors. These polymorphisms have been shown to affect the therapeutic response to and side effects associated with OADs. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date summary of some of the pharmacogenomic data obtained from studies of T2DM treatment, with a focus on polymorphisms in genes affecting pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and treatment outcome of the most commonly prescribed OADs. In addition, the implications of pharmacogenomics in the use of the OAD metformin in cancer will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will focus on recent advances in novel 'omics' technologies and discuss how these might aid in the personalized management of T2DM. PMID:25418285

  14. Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arzu Ucar Turker; N. D Camper

    2002-01-01

    Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays—brine shrimp

  15. New strategy may save the medicinal plant, Goldenseal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catling, P. M.

    Three research posters have recently been placed online at the Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC) Website. This one, by A. Sinclair and P.M. Catling, proposes a recovery method for the native medicinal plant Goldenseal, threatened in Canada. All three posters are available in .pdf format.

  16. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  17. Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Martínez; J. Betancourt; N. Alonso-González; A. Jauregui

    1996-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine

  18. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

  19. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Bethwell O; Kisangau, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo). Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. PMID:16451723

  20. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants. PMID:24595608

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Some Indian Medicinal Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    The preliminary phytochemical study and in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of three plants having ethnomedicinal uses collected from tribal belt of Orissa, India, viz. Litsea glutinosa L.: Lauraceae (LG), Vitex peduncularis W.: Verbenaceae (VP), Elephantopus scaber L.: Asteraceae (ES) were investigated. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid in LG,

  2. PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE BY THE KOTAS OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.

    1991-01-01

    The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented. PMID:22556537

  3. Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described. PMID:24278070

  4. Antiprotease activity of selected Slovak medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jedinak, A; Valachova, M; Maliar, T; Sturdik, E

    2010-02-01

    Fifty-six methanol extracts obtained from the barks, flowers, leaves and stems of 30 Slovak trees, bushes and herbs used in the traditional medicine of the Small Carpathians, Slovakia, have been screened for antiprotease (trypsin, thrombin and urokinase) activity using chromogenic bioassay. In this study, 14 extracts showed the strong inhibition activity to protease trypsin with IC50 values below 10 microg/mL. The highest inhibition activities were observed for methanol extracts of Acer platanoides IC50 = 1.8 microg/mL, Rhus typhina IC50 = 1.2 microg/mL and Tamarix gallica IC50 = 1.7 microg/mL. However, the results of extracts tested on thrombin were generally different from those observed for trypsin. The most marked inhibition activity to thrombin were estimated for extracts of Castanea sativa IC50 = 73.2 microg/mL, Larix decidua IC50 = 96.9 microg/mL and Rhus typhina IC50 = 20.5 microg/mL. In addition, Acer platanoides and Rhus typhina were the only extracts which showed inhibition activity to urokinase with IC50 = 171.1 microg/mL and IC50 = 38.3 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, Rhus typhina showed the broadest spectrum of inhibition activity to all tested serine proteases and seems to be a prospective new source of natural products as inhibitors of serine proteases. PMID:20225660

  5. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P J; Perry, N S

    1999-05-01

    The use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal. Old European reference books, such as those on medicinal herbs, document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory-improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activity in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically-based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer' s disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their amnesia- and dementia-inducing properties. PMID:10411211

  6. Quantification of Gallic Acidin Fruits of Three Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2011-01-01

    Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala’s pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex’s absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These differences can possibly be due to the source of plant preparation, storage condition and period of Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid. PMID:24250348

  7. REVIEW Open Access Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    REVIEW Open Access Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have

  8. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders Maan B. Rokaya a,b,n,1

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    Review Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal Maan B. Rokaya a October 2014 Available online 18 October 2014 Keywords: Medicinal plants Principal component analysis sanitation is deficient. A large part of the human population relies on medicinal plants for treating various

  9. Plant-Derived Anticancer Agents Used in Western and Oriental Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ah-Reum Han; Ye Deng; Yulin Ren; Li Pan; A. Douglas Kinghorn

    \\u000a Cancer chemotherapeutic agents derived from higher plants are used in Western medicine. Secondary metabolites from plants\\u000a are used in oriental medicine are utilized in anticancer therapy. Immunomodulatory small organic molecules from plant species\\u000a are employed in Chinese traditional medicine are renewed.

  10. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

    1984-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

  11. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

  13. Potential anti-dengue medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Abd Kadir, Siti Latifah; Yaakob, Harisun; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden

    2013-10-01

    Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control. PMID:23591999

  14. Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.

    PubMed

    Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain, cardiovascular function, microbial infection, inflammation, pain, and many more. PMID:25001990

  15. In vitro antioxidant properties and characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals of six medicinal plants from the Portuguese folk medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lillian Barros; Sónia Oliveira; Ana Maria Carvalho; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Traditional ethnomedical use of plants is recognized as an important potential source of compounds used in mainstream medicine. Herein, the in vitro antioxidant properties, nutrients and phytochemical composition of six medicinal plants widely used in the north-eastern Portuguese region were evaluated. The antioxidant activity was screened through: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates.

  16. Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shakhawoat; Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 µg/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent. PMID:23569881

  17. Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2012-08-01

    Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC?? value of 1.6 ?g/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC?? 13.0 ?g/ml). PMID:22683318

  18. A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

  19. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rajbhandari; R. Mentel; P. K. Jha; R. P. Chaudhary; S. Bhattarai; M. B. Gewali; N. Karmacharya; M. Hipper; U. Lindequist

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1\\/Vero cells and influenza virus A\\/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and

  20. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc. PMID:17048673

  1. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TAMARINDUS INDICA L. MEDICINAL PLANT IN SINDH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMINA KABIR KHANZADA; W. SHAIKH; SHAHZADI SOFIA; T. G. KAZI; K. USMANGHANI; AMINA KABIR; T. H. SHEERAZI

    2008-01-01

    Thirty two fatty acids, two other compounds 9ß, 19-Cyclo-4 ß4, 4, 14, ?-trimethyl-5?-cholestan- 3ß-ol, 24R-Ethyl cholest-5-en, 3?-ol and 12 essential elements viz., Arsenic, Calcium, Cadmium, Copper, Iron, Sodium, Manganese, Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphorus, Lead, and Zinc were isolated from Tamarindus indica medicinal Plant. Accumulation of Copper was the lowest in T. indica while Potassium present with highest accumulation. Total protein in

  2. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In Gyu Kim; Se Chan Kang; Kug Chan Kim; Eui Su Choung; Ok Pyo Zee

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10?3; RP of 17?-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10?3). Next potent were a group consisting of

  3. Micropropagation of a medicinal plant, Plantago major L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mederos; C. Martin; E. Navarro; M. J. Ayuso

    1997-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for an important medicinal plant, Plantago major L. For this purpose,\\u000a it is recommended to culture shoot-tips on modified MS medium [412.5 mg dm-3 NH4NO3 and 340 mg dm-3 KH2PO4] supplemented with\\u000a 50 g dm-3 glucose and 0.5 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine. Maximum rooting frequency was obtained at 1 ?M naphthaleneacetic acid.

  4. The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Atta; K. Abo EL-Sooud

    2004-01-01

    The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400mgkg?1 methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5–61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis

  5. Regeneration of the Egyptian medicinal plant Artemisia judaica L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Z. Liu; S. J. Murch; M. EL-Demerdash; P. K. Saxena

    2003-01-01

    An in vitro propagation system for Artemisia judaica L., a traditional Egyptian medicinal plant, has been developed. De novo shoot organogenesis was induced by culturing etiolated hypocotyls and intact seedlings on medium supplemented with thidiazuron [N-phenyl-N'-(1,2,3-thidiazol-yl) urea] via callusing at the cotyledonary notch region. Up to 16 shoots formed per seedling cultured on a medium containing 1 µmol lу thidiazuron

  6. Indigenous Traditional Medicine: Plants for the Treatment of Diarrhea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli; Raquel Brandt Giordani; Alexandre José Macedo; Geraldo Attilio De Carli; Tiana Tasca

    \\u000a Ethnopharmacology can contribute to the exploration of phytotherapeutical resources for use in local contexts and countries\\u000a of origin. Indigenous people living on their traditional territory largely rely on medicinal plants for healthcare and they\\u000a are therefore rich in ethnopharmacological knowledge. For public health professionals, such knowledge can help to create the\\u000a basis for a health system that is more respectful

  7. Screening of Korean medicinal plants for lipase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Kang, Mun Hui

    2005-04-01

    The pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of the aqueous ethanol extracts obtained from 19 medicinal plants was evaluated in vitro by a continuous-monitoring pH-Stat technique using tributyrin as a substrate. Of the extracts tested, those of Juniperus communis (bark) and Illicium religiosum (wood) exhibited the strongest activity with an IC50 value of 20.4 and 21.9 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16041737

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  9. Biophytum sensitivum: Ancient medicine, modern targets

    PubMed Central

    Sakthivel, K. M.; Guruvayoorappan, C.

    2012-01-01

    Research on medicinal plants began to focus on discovery of natural products as potential active principles against various diseases. Medicinal plants are very interesting, have the ability to produce remarkable chemical structures with diverse biological activities. Biophytum sensitivum is used as traditional medicine to cure variety of diseases. During the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out to elucidate the chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal applications of B. sensitivum. Phytochemical analysis have shown that the plant parts are rich in various beneficial compounds which include amentoflavone, cupressuflavone, and isoorientin. Extracts and its bioactive compounds have been known to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, radioprotective, chemoprotective, antimetastatic, antiangiogenesis, wound-healing, immunomodulation, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective activity. The present review has been carried out to shed light on the diverse role of this plant in the management of various ailments facing us. PMID:22837955

  10. Biophytum sensitivum: Ancient medicine, modern targets.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, K M; Guruvayoorappan, C

    2012-04-01

    Research on medicinal plants began to focus on discovery of natural products as potential active principles against various diseases. Medicinal plants are very interesting, have the ability to produce remarkable chemical structures with diverse biological activities. Biophytum sensitivum is used as traditional medicine to cure variety of diseases. During the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out to elucidate the chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal applications of B. sensitivum. Phytochemical analysis have shown that the plant parts are rich in various beneficial compounds which include amentoflavone, cupressuflavone, and isoorientin. Extracts and its bioactive compounds have been known to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, radioprotective, chemoprotective, antimetastatic, antiangiogenesis, wound-healing, immunomodulation, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective activity. The present review has been carried out to shed light on the diverse role of this plant in the management of various ailments facing us. PMID:22837955

  11. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  12. Anticancer principles from medicinal piper ( hú ji?o) plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper ( Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  13. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

    2010-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  14. Unraveling the commercial market for medicinal plants and plant parts on the witwatersrand, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivienne L. Williams; Kevin Balkwill; Edward T. F. Witkowski

    2000-01-01

    To unravel the market for commercial medicinal plants on the Witwatersrand in South Africa, a semiquantitative approach was\\u000a taken. A stratified random sample of 50 herb-traders was surveyed, and an inventory of all plants and parts sold was compiled.\\u000a Research participants were questioned on the scarcity and popularity of the plants traded, as well as suppliers and origins.\\u000a The rarefaction

  15. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

  16. Physiological Effect Of Auxins On Growth Characteristics And Productive Potential Of Verbascum thapsus - A Medicinal Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snehlata Bhandari; Mamta Sajwan; N. S. Bisht

    Due to current revival of interest in herbal drugs and pharmaceuticals, demand for medicinal plants is increasing day by day leading to destructive harvesting which ultimately has resulted into reduction and even extinction of many rare medicinal plants. Plant growth regulators like auxins have proved to increase the productivity and growth characteristics of many plants. They have proved their importance

  17. A survey of traditional medicinal plants from the Callejón de Huaylas, Department of Ancash, Perú.

    PubMed

    Hammond, G B; Fernández, I D; Villegas, L F; Vaisberg, A J

    1998-05-01

    The medicinal uses of local flora from the Callejón de Huaylas, Department of Ancash, northeastern Perú, are reported. This geographical area has an old tradition of herbal healing. A total of 33 species have been documented through interactions with village elders, traditional doctors and herbalists. Of the 33 medicinal plant species surveyed in the Callejón de Huaylas, six have not been previously reported, seven have received only minor phytochemical coverage in the literature, and the medicinal uses of seven other plants have not been corroborated with traditional medicinal reports from around the world. The traditional medicinal uses of six medicinal plants have been corroborated with previously published reports but their biological activities have yet to be confirmed in the laboratory. The medicinal uses of four other plants have been corroborated with previously published reports and their biological activities have been confirmed in the laboratory. The purported medicinal use of three plant species could not be confirmed in the laboratory. PMID:9687078

  18. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. Methods Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Results In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. Conclusion Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources. PMID:23837693

  19. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

    2004-01-01

    Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

  20. Antibacterial Property of Different Medicinal Plants: Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Xanthoxylum armatum and Origanum majorana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Lekhak; Anuja Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Countries like Nepal and India have been using crude plants as medicine since Vedic period. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources (Farnsworth 1994). With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of worlds population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their

  1. Rapid Identification and Verification of Indirubin-Containing Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhigang; Tu, Yuan; Xia, Ye; Cheng, Peipei; Sun, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Guo, Licheng; He, Haibo; Xiong, Chao; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Xiuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Indirubin, one of the key components of medicinal plants including Isatis tinctoria, Polygonum tinctorium, and Strobilanthes cusia, possesses great medicinal efficacy in the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). Due to misidentification and similar name, materials containing indirubin and their close relatives frequently fall prey to adulteration. In this study, we selected an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) for distinguishing these indirubin-containing species from five of their usual adulterants, after assessing identification efficiency of matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2 among these species. The results of genetic distances and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree indicated that ITS2 region is a powerful DNA barcode to accurately identify these indirubin-containing species and discriminate them from their adulterants. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to verify indirubin in different organs of the above species. The results showed that indirubin had been detected in the leaves of Is. tinctoria, P. tinctorium, S. cusia, and Indigo Naturalis (made from their mixture), but not in their roots, or in the leaves of their adulterants. Therefore, this study provides a novel and rapid method to identify and verify indirubin-containing medicinal plants for effective natural treatment of CML. PMID:26089942

  2. Rapid Identification and Verification of Indirubin-Containing Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhigang; Tu, Yuan; Xia, Ye; Cheng, Peipei; Sun, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Guo, Licheng; He, Haibo; Xiong, Chao; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Xiuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Indirubin, one of the key components of medicinal plants including Isatis tinctoria, Polygonum tinctorium, and Strobilanthes cusia, possesses great medicinal efficacy in the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). Due to misidentification and similar name, materials containing indirubin and their close relatives frequently fall prey to adulteration. In this study, we selected an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) for distinguishing these indirubin-containing species from five of their usual adulterants, after assessing identification efficiency of matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2 among these species. The results of genetic distances and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree indicated that ITS2 region is a powerful DNA barcode to accurately identify these indirubin-containing species and discriminate them from their adulterants. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to verify indirubin in different organs of the above species. The results showed that indirubin had been detected in the leaves of Is. tinctoria, P. tinctorium, S. cusia, and Indigo Naturalis (made from their mixture), but not in their roots, or in the leaves of their adulterants. Therefore, this study provides a novel and rapid method to identify and verify indirubin-containing medicinal plants for effective natural treatment of CML. PMID:26089942

  3. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

    2011-04-01

    The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

  4. [Tobacco--once a medicinal plant. Does it contain substances with medicinal properties?].

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco and its use was discovered by Christopher Columbus in parallel with the discovery of America. Soon after, tobacco became a known medicinal plant in Europe. Its harmful effects were gradually discovered, especially those of tobacco smoke, and now it is considered a toxic plant. Tobacco leaf has a monograph in German "Hagers Enzyklopädie derArzneistoffe und Drogen", which describes its old, already not valid, medicinal use and clearly shows the toxic effects. Epidemiological studies indicate about 50% lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers than in non-smokers. In turn, studies of the brains of smokers using positron emission tomography showed significantly decreased level of monoamine oxidase B--an enzyme which degrades dopamine--the neurotransmitter which the significant insufficiency of about 80-85%, is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. From the tobacco leaves there were isolated MAO-B inhibitors--naphthoquinone--2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and diterpenoid -trans,trans-farnesol, which occur also in tobacco smoke. In the last decade many papers have appeared on the neuroprotective activity of nicotine, the best known component of tobacco. through the effect of this compound on specific nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs), which interacts with nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as well as the possibility of using nicotine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, tobacco was also found to contain inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Tobacco cannot be considered a medicinal plant, but some compounds occurring in that plant may find therapeutic use. PMID:24501813

  5. Screening of Thai medicinal plants for anticandidal activity.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Shim, Jae-Seok; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-07-01

    Medicinal plants are often used in the treatment of various ailments. In this study, 23 of Thai medicinal plants were screened for their anticandidal activity against six pathogenic Candida species: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. fruit, Trigonostemon reidioides (Kurz) Craib root, Usnea siamensis Vain whole plant, Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. rhizome, and Albizia myriophylla Benth. stem showed anticandidal activity against one or more species of Candida. Among them, A. myriophylla Benth. showed broad anticandidal activity. The susceptibility tests of A. myriophylla Benth. extract, in terms of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), were performed by the broth microdilution techniques as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. MICs of A. myriophylla Benth. extract to all Candida species was ranged 100-500 mug ml(-1). The killing activity of A. myriophylla Benth. extract was fast acting against all Candida tested; the reduction in the number of CFU ml(-1) was >3 log(10) units (99.9%) in 2 h. This study indicates that A. myriophylla Benth. extract has considerable anticandidal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications for the treatment of candidiasis. PMID:18331446

  6. Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Jun Yuan; Zhi-Yong Zhang; Juan Hu; Lan-Ping Guo; Ai-Juan Shao; Lu-Qi Huang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of

  7. Comparison of relative antioxidant activities of British medicinal plant species in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mantle; Fadel Eddeb; Anne T. Pickering

    2000-01-01

    We have determined the relative levels of endogenous antioxidant activity in a range of British medicinal plant species (representative of a variety of plant families, selected on the basis of their widespread use in traditional herbal medicine), via competitive scavenging of the ABTS+ or O2? radicals in vitro. A number of plant species with appreciable levels (i.e. greater than or

  8. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iqbal Ahmad; Arina Z. Beg

    2001-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed

  9. Medicinal Plants in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil): Knowledge, Use, and Conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alpina Begossi; Natalia Hanazaki; Jorge Y. Tamashiro

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on knowledge of medicinal plants among the Caiçaras (rural inhabitants of the Atlantic Forest coast, Brazil). In particular, we examine the use of medicinal plants according to sex and age to reveal general patterns of Caiçara knowledge and use of plant resources. Data collected through 449 interviews at 12 Caiçara communities (Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo

  10. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Erik Grønhaug; Silje Glæserud; Mona Skogsrud; Ngolo Ballo; Sekou Bah; Drissa Diallo; Berit Smestad Paulsen

    2008-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently

  11. Market potential and research in cultivation of some endangered medicinal plants Literature survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertalan Galambosi; Kirsi Jokela

    2002-01-01

    Due to the uncontrolled exploitation of wild plants several medicinal plant species are endangered in some countries in Europe and efforts have been made to encourage their cultivation (Lange 1998). Some of these medicinal plants originate from the cooler parts of Europe and they seem to be climati- cally suitable for cultivation in the southern part of Finland. This review

  12. [Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte].

    PubMed

    Durasnel, P; Vanhuffel, L; Blondé, R; Lion, F; Galas, T; Mousset-Hovaere, M; Balaÿ, I; Viscardi, G; Valyi, L

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined. PMID:25301110

  13. [Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan. PMID:22073760

  14. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  15. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  16. OBSERVATIONS ON WILD PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF THE KOLHAPUR DISTRICT

    PubMed Central

    Upadhye, Anuradha; Kumbhojkar, M. S.; Vartak, V. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the wild medicinal plants used by rural population of south-western part of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra State. The authors gathered data on 34 species of locally available wild plants used in curing common human ailments. The plants are arranged according to the type of ailment. Vernacular name of each species followed by its botanical name, relevant plant family and known use of the plant in local medicine are given. PMID:22557559

  17. Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs. Conclusion These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine PMID:21867554

  18. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Gary M.; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants. PMID:22500074

  19. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17?-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy. PMID:21783839

  20. Medicinal Plant Use and Health Sovereignty: Findings from the Tajik and Afghan Pamirs

    PubMed Central

    Karamkhudoeva, Munira; Ruelle, Morgan; Baumflek, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants are indicators of indigenous knowledge in the context of political volatility and sociocultural and ecological change in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Medicinal plants are the primary health care option in this region of Central Asia. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that medicinal plants contribute to health security and sovereignty in a time of instability. We illustrate the nutritional as well as medicinal significance of plants in the daily lives of villagers. Based on over a decade and half of research related to resilience and livelihood security, we present plant uses in the context of mountain communities. Villagers identified over 58 cultivated and noncultivated plants and described 310 distinct uses within 63 categories of treatment and prevention. Presence of knowledge about medicinal plants is directly connected to their use. PMID:21258436

  1. Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24856756

  2. Pharmacogenetics of Anti-Diabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Johanna K.; Watanabe, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of treatment modalities exist for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). In addition to dietary and physical activity interventions, T2D is also treated pharmacologically with nine major classes of approved drugs. These medications include insulin and its analogues, sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), meglitinides, ?-glucosidase inhibitors, amylin analogues, incretin hormone mimetics, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors. Pharmacological treatment strategies for T2D are typically based on efficacy, yet favorable responses to such therapeutics are oftentimes variable and difficult to predict. Characterization of drug response is expected to substantially enhance our ability to provide patients with the most effective treatment strategy given their individual backgrounds, yet pharmacogenetic study of diabetes medications is still in its infancy. To date, major pharmacogenetic studies have focused on response to sulfonylureas, biguanides, and TZDs. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of pharmacogenetics investigations of these specific anti-diabetes medications. We focus not only on the results of these studies, but also on how experimental design, study sample issues, and definition of ‘response’ can significantly impact our interpretation of findings. Understanding the pharmacogenetics of anti-diabetes medications will provide critical baseline information for the development and implementation of genetic screening into therapeutic decision making, and lay the foundation for “individualized medicine” for patients with T2D. PMID:20936101

  3. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

    2012-07-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  4. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  5. Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mekhfi, Hassane; El Haouari, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bnouham, Mohammed; Aziz, Mohammed; Atmani, Fouad; Remmal, Adnane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2004-10-01

    It is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental Morocco: Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae), Urtica dioïca (Urticaceae), and Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae). The two other plants were Cistus ladaniferus (Cistaceae) and Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae). The results obtained showed that all extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation. The calculated IC50 (half-maximal inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation) was found to be identical in all plant extracts while Urtica dioïca had a higher IC50 value. The effect of plants could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in their extracts suggesting their involvement in the treatment or prevention of platelet aggregation complications linked to cardiovascular diseases. Phytochemical separation must be carried out to identify the active principles responsible for the anti-aggregant effect and elucidate their mechanisms of action. PMID:15325737

  6. Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. II. Aldose reductase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Brazilian natural medicine, the leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC. (Myrtaceae): structures of myrciacitrins I and II and myrciaphenones A and B.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Shimada, H; Nishida, N; Li, Y; Toguchida, I; Yamahara, J; Matsuda, H

    1998-01-01

    The methanolic extract and ethyl acetate-soluble portion from a Brazilian natural medicine, the leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC., which has been used as a specific medicine against diabetes, were found to show inhibitory activities on aldose reductase and alpha-glucosidase and on the increase of serum glucose level in sucrose-loaded rats and in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. From the ethyl acetate-soluble portion, new flavanone glucosides, myrciacitrins I and II, and new acetophenone glucosides, myrciaphenones A and B, were isolated together with several known compounds such as five flavonol glycosides, myricitrin, mearnsitrin, quercitrin, desmanthin-1, and guaijaverin. The structures of new compounds were determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. The principal components of this natural medicine including new glucosides, myrciacitrin I and myrciaphenone B, were found to show potent inhibitory activities on aldose reductase and alpha-glucosidase. PMID:9468642

  7. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

  8. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  9. LESS KNOWN USES OF WEEDS AS MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the author presents medicinal or otherwise useful weed species with details of family, vernacular name and its medicinal utility. Information on other general economic importance of medicinal weeds is also described here. PMID:22557414

  10. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2009-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. PMID:19821994

  11. Metal uptake by medicinal plant species grown in soils contaminated by a smelter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valcho D. Zheljazkov; Ekaterina A. Jeliazkova; Natasha Kovacheva; Anatoli Dzhurmanski

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was if medicinal plants could be grown as alternative crops in heavy metal polluted soils without contamination of the final marketable produce. Furthermore, medicinal crops may offer a phytoremediation option for mildly heavy metal polluted agricultural soils. The effect of metal-enriched soils was evaluated in five medicinal species (Bidens tripartita L., Leonurus cardiaca L.,

  12. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajit Kar; B. K Choudhary; N. G Bandyopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values

  13. Medicinal Plant Knowledge Among Lay People in Five Eastern Tibet Villages

    E-print Network

    Law, Wayne

    and women. Most of the reported knowledge focused on a small number of commercial plants and their uses remedies. Many people collected medicinal plants for their own use as well as for sale, but also obtained

  14. Development of Transcriptomic Resources for Interrogating the Biosynthesis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Medicinal Plant Species

    E-print Network

    Gongora-Castillo, Elsa

    The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the ...

  15. Ethno medicinal information on collation and identification of some medicinal plants in Research Institutes of South-west Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. O. Lawal; N. E. Uzokwe; A. B. I. Igboanugo; A. F. Adio; E. A. Awosan; J. O. Nwogwugwu; B. Faloye; B. P. Olatunji; A. A. Adesoga

    An arboretum is a collection of trees. Related collections include a fruticetum (from the Latin frutex, meaning shrub), and a viticetum, a collection of vines. More commonly today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study. Distribution of medicinal plants information were investigated in International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

  16. [Effects of mineral nutrition on metabolism of flavonoids in medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dahui; Guo, Lanping; Huang, Luqi; Jin, Hang; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Duanwei

    2010-09-01

    Flavonoids are an important effective component of traditional Chinese medicine, which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. The biosynthesis of flavonoid in plants is affected and regulated by various environmental factors. For a necessary environmental factor to plant growth and development, mineral nutrients are paid more and more attention on the regulation to the metabolism of flavonoids in medicinal plants. In this paper, an overview of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway, and the macroelements, microelements and rare earth elements on the metabolism of flavonoids in medicinal plants are presented. And the regulation mechanism of them are also analyzed and discussed. PMID:21141479

  17. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Zaleya decandra in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, Periasamy; Bhuvaneshwari, Rajendran; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Guravaiah, Dugganaboyana Chinna; Jiji, Muthedath Janardhanan; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder that disturbs the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Medicinal plants play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Zaleya decandra roots on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of the root (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days restored the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, urea, creatinine, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidant enzymes significantly in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed significant changes like necrosis and degeneration in the liver and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Also these histopathological abnormalities were found to be normalized after treatment with Z. decandra extract. The efficacy of the root extract was found to be equivalent when compared to the standard hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide (1.25 mg/kg body weight/day, orally) in diabetic rats. PMID:19957208

  18. Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:21718504

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C

    2001-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11677867

  20. Newer antidiabetic drugs in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Sarita

    2015-05-01

    The management of diabetes in the month of Ramadan can be very challenging. On one hand there is the issue of fasting associated hypoglycaemia, and on the other, fasting as well as post prandial hyperglycaemia. Under such circumstances, a planned regimen needs to be followed to keep the blood glucose levels under control. The same oral antidiabetic agents that were used prior to the fast are used during Ramadan with modification in dosage and timing. With the advent of newer anti-diabetic agents, there is a good scope for better control and reduced complications. PMID:26013784

  1. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Zay people in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Giday, Mirutse; Asfaw, Zemede; Elmqvist, Thomas; Woldu, Zerihun

    2003-03-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the Zay people who live on islands as well as shore areas of Lake Ziway in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. A total of 33 medicinal plants were reported as being used locally for the treatment and/or control of human and livestock ailments. Results of the survey showed that leaf materials form the major component of plant parts harvested. The majority of the remedies are prepared in the form of juice from freshly collected plant parts. Most of the remedies are prepared from a single species, and are mainly taken orally. Most of the medicinal plants are collected from the wild. Of the total claimed medicinal plants, 10 were reported scarce locally. Environmental degradation and intense deforestation have been reported as the main causes for the depletion of medicinal plants in the area. As the Zay people are still partly dependent on medicinal plants, loss of these plants will, to a certain extent, hamper the existing health care system in the area. Measures for conservation of medicinal plants of the Zay people are urgently needed. PMID:12576201

  2. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  3. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  4. Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 ?g/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

  5. Antioxidant activity of some algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Djeridane; M. Yousfi; B. Nadjemi; D. Boutassouna; P. Stocker; N. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemicals are extensively found at different levels in many medicinal plants. This work had two objectives: the first, to evaluate the total phenolic or flavonoid contents of 11 Algerian medicinal plants and second, to determine whether these compounds have an antioxidant capacity toward free radical propagation. The polyphenolic extractions of the dried powdered samples have been performed using 70% ethanol.

  6. Pressurized liquid extraction of berberine and aristolochic acids in medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eng-Shi Ong; Soo-On Woo; Yuk-Lin Yong

    2000-01-01

    Berberine and aristolochic acids I and II present naturally in medicinal plants were extracted using a laboratory-made pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) system in the dynamic mode. As the target analytes were present naturally in the medicinal plants, spiking was not done and comparison with ultrasonic extraction and Soxhlet extraction was performed to assess the method accuracy. The effect of temperature,

  7. Phytophagous mites – a potential threat to medicinal plants in Kerala, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinathi Sheela; Niravath Ramani

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a brief survey of mites infesting medicinal plants in the Kannur district of Kerala state in south India. Six species, damaging five species of important medicinal plants, were found. These species included Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae), Brevipalpus phoenicis Geij. 1939 (Tenuipalpidae) and four Eriophyid species, Paratetra murrayae ChannaBasavanna 1966, Anthocoptes vitexae Mohanasundaram 1981, Aceriasp.

  8. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kr Uniyal; KN Singh; Pankaj Jamwal; Brij Lal

    2006-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study

  9. Fertilization-Induced Changes in Growth Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Arab Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinal plants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinal plants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth and antioxidant activity. Wild seedlings were collected and fertilized with either 100% Hoagland solution, 50% Hoagland solution, 20% Hoagland solution or irrigated with tap water. Plant height was measured and the number of green leaves and branches counted weekly. Thereafter, the aboveground parts of plants were harvested for preparing a water-soluble powder extracts of which antioxidant activity was measured by their ability to suppress the oxidation of ?-carotene. Of the fertilization regimes, we found either 20 or 50% Hoagland solution produced the most consistent response of the plant growth parameters. All powders prepared from the four wild growing plants inhibited oxidation of ?-carotene. Increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant activity of the cultivated T. polium compared with the wild type. In contrast, increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the antioxidant activity of powders prepared from the cultivated E. creticum when compared with wild plants. Our results showed that cultivation success should not rely solely on parameters of growth but should incorporate assessment related to indices of therapeutic potential. PMID:16322813

  10. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  11. Induction of hairy roots and plant regeneration from the medicinal plant Pogostemon Cablin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi He-PingLong; Long Yong-Yue; Sun Tie-Shan; Tsang Po Keung Eric

    An efficient transformation system for the medicinal and aromatic plant, Pogostemon cablin Benth was developed by using agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. Hairy roots formed directly from the cut edges of leaf explants or via callus stage 8 days after inoculation with\\u000a the bacterium. The highest frequency of leaf explant transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 was about 80% after infection for 25 days.

  12. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

    2005-01-01

    Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants. PMID:15588663

  13. Medicinal and useful plants in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. PMID:23522331

  14. Ethnobotanical appraisal and medicinal use of plants in Patriata, New Murree, evidence from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reflects the empirical findings of an ethnobotanical survey which was undertaken in Patriata (New Murree) of district Rawalpindi in Pakistan. The aims and objectives of the study were to document indigenous knowledge of plants particularly of medicinal, veterinary, fruit, vegetable, fodder, fuel etc. Methods For this purpose, the whole area was surveyed for documenting folk knowledge using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 93 plants species belonging to 80 genera and 56 families were found in a variety of uses by the local people for the accomplishment of their basic needs. The study further employs binary logit regression model of medicinal uses of these plants so as to identify the probability of occurrence of medicinal use of woody or non-woody plants keeping other plant characteristics in view. Results Ethnobotanical data shows that most plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes (27.93% each), followed by fuel (16.90%), fruit (6.55%), vegetable (5.52%) and ethno-veterinary (3.79%). There is also an established association of medicinal use of plants to the fruits use. Non-woody plants have high tendency towards medicinal use of the plants as compared to woody plants. Annual plants are less likely to be directly associated with medicinal use of plants in the surveyed vegetation. Underground plant parts are more likely to be used for medicinal purposes as revealed from the Logit expressions. Conclusions The study revealed that most of the plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes. The results of Logit Model showed that the probabilities of plant species for their medicinal use are associated to the woody or non-woody, aerial or underground, perennial or annual characteristics of plants. One should be careful in completely generalizing the results as the survey findings are sensitive to the plant species and the vegetation under consideration. But it can be specified that there exists either some positive or negative association of medicinal use of plants to the various characteristics of plant species. PMID:23445756

  15. Tissue culture of medicinal plants: Micropropagation, transformation and production of useful secondary metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayo Yoshimatsu

    2008-01-01

    Plant tissue culture studies were carried out for the preservation of medicinal plant resources and efficient production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. Micropropagation methods for Cephaelis ipecacuanha were established and these methods enabled much more efficient propagation of plants than the conventional methods using seedling or layering. The C. ipecacuanha plants propagated through tissue culture grew uniformly in the field

  16. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

    2014-04-01

    Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 ?g/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root. PMID:23835832

  17. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade. PMID:20102631

  18. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew

    PubMed Central

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; ?avar, Sanja; Qayum, Mughal; Imran, Imran; de Feo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms. PMID:22272107

  19. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  20. Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities in Zimbabwe. The local people have a long history of traditional plant usage for medicinal purposes. Despite the increasing acceptance of traditional medicine in Zimbabwe, this rich indigenous knowledge is not adequately documented. Documentation of plants used as traditional medicines is needed so that the knowledge can be preserved and the utilized plants conserved and used sustainably. The primary objective of this paper is to summarize information on traditional uses of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe, identifying research gaps and suggesting perspectives for future research. Methods This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials. Results A total of 93 medicinal plant species representing 41 families and 77 genera are used in south-central Zimbabwe. These plant species are used to treat 18 diseases and disorder categories, with the highest number of species used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by sexually transmitted infections, cold, cough and sore throat and gynaecological problems. Shrubs and trees (38% each) were the primary sources of medicinal plants, followed by herbs (21%) and climbers (3%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants documented in south-central Zimbabwe are well supported by literature, with 82.8% of the plant species having similar applications in other regions of Zimbabwe as well as other parts of the world and 89.2% having documented biological and pharmacological properties. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments in south-central Zimbabwe. Traditional medicines still play an important role in meeting basic health care of local communities in Zimbabwe. PMID:23642285

  1. In vitro anticancer screening of 24 locally used Nigerian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinal plants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity. Methods The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human cancer cell lines. Results Results obtained from the plants screened indicate that 18 plant extracts of folk medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan was found to demonstrate potent anti-cancer activity in this study exhibiting IC50 = 0.2-1.3 ?g/ml. Conclusions Based on the significantly potent activity of some plants extracts reported here, further studies aimed at mechanism elucidation and bio-guided isolation of active anticancer compounds is currently underway. PMID:23565862

  2. Food, medicinal and other plants from the 15th century drains of Paisley Abbey, Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilla Dickson

    1996-01-01

    Plant remains from the 15th century drains at Paisley Abbey, Scotland include medicinal plants which may have grown in the\\u000a abbey's physic garden. They are Chelidonium majus, Conium maculatum, Euphorbia lathyris, and Papaver somniferum. Plants with both medicinal and culinary uses are Rumex pseudoalpinus and cf Armoracia rusticana. Other vegetables are represented by Allium sp. and Brassica spp. Malus domestica

  3. The use of medicinal plants by the Yanomami Indians of Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Milliken; Bruce Albert

    1996-01-01

    The results of the first detailed study of the use of medicinal plants by a group of Yanomami Indians are presented. Contrary\\u000a to previous assumptions, they are shown to possess a substantial pharmacopoeia, including at least 113 species of plants and\\u000a fungi. The changes in their use and knowledge of plant medicine are discussed in the context of the past

  4. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. - how a traditional Taiwanese medicinal plant found its way to the West.

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, A

    2013-07-01

    Tripterygium wilfordii is regarded as a promising traditional medicinal plant showing several, mainly antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities. It contains unusal natural products currently under investigation as lead compounds. The species has been well known in Traditional Chinese Medicine but was recognized in Western science as an insecticide not before the 1930's and as a promising medicinal plant in the 1960's. The name refers to Charles Wilford, employed as a botanical collector at Kew Botanical Gardens, London from 1857-1860. He collected the plant on the island of Taiwan, formerly called Formosa, in June 1858, unfortunately without reporting its medicinal use in the country of origin. The plant was named according to the Linnaean system before 1862 what initially concealed its medicinal properties which had to be re-discovered in the second half of the 20th century. PMID:23923652

  5. Plant extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants strongly inhibit hepatitis C virus infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Galani, Borris R T; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Njayou, Frederic N; Deloison, Gaspard; Mkounga, Pierre; Feudjou, William F; Brodin, Priscille; Rouillé, Yves; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Séron, Karin

    2015-01-01

    According to some recent studies, Cameroon is one of the sub-Saharan African countries most affected by hepatitis C, with low access to the standard therapy based on the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. A first ethnobotanical survey, conducted in the Western region of Cameroon, reported the use of several medicinal plants in traditional medicine for the healing of liver-related disorders. Crude organic extracts of five plants surveyed were prepared and their effect against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection investigated. The HCV JFH1 strain cell culture system HCVcc was used. The antiviral activity was quantified by immunofluorescent labeling of HCV E1 envelope protein at 30 h post-infection in the presence of the plant extracts. Active compounds were then tested in time course infection experiments. Dose-response and cellular toxicity assays were also determined. Three extracts, methanol extracts from roots of Trichilia dregeana, stems of Detarium microcarpum and leaves of Phragmanthera capitata, showed anti-HCV activity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 16.16, 1.42, and 13.17 ?g/mL, respectively. Huh-7 cells were incubated with the extracts for 72 h and it appears that T. dregeana extract is not toxic up to 200 ?g/mL, D. microcarpum up to 100 ?g/mL and P. capitata up to 800 ?g/mL. All the three extracts showed a strong inhibition of HCV entry and no effect on replication or secretion. Taken together, these results showed that extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants are promising sources of anti-HCV agents. PMID:26029203

  6. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the potential sources for the isolation of new oral anti hypoglycemic agent(s). PMID:23414307

  7. Identification of PPARgamma Partial Agonists of Natural Origin (II): In Silico Prediction in Natural Extracts with Known Antidiabetic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. Methodology/Principal Findings From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally), we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPAR? partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus) to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPAR? partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPAR? partial agonists obtained from the literature. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPAR? partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused towards the prevention/treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:23405231

  8. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameh F AbouZid; Abdelhalim A Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Background  This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their\\u000a botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use. Methods This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Results Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic”) the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented. Conclusions Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This effort promotes integration of effective and accessible traditional practices with Western protocols. The Traditional Medicine surveys are particularly important because, in the absence of the clinical validation, the documentation of the consistent use of a given plant for specific indication by a large number of herbalists, across a wide range of ethnic traditions, maybe considered as a positive criterion for the promulgation of said use amongst PNG’s recently formed traditional healer associations. PMID:23249544

  10. Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Roselli, Carla

    2010-09-01

    Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha ((238)U, (210)Po) and gamma ((214)Pb-Bi, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs) spectrometry. (238)U ranged between <0.1 and 7.32 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (210)Po between <0.1 and 30.3 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (214)Pb-(214)Bi between <0.3 and 16.6 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (210)Pb between <3 and 58.3 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (40)K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (137)Cs between <0.3 and 10.7 Bq kg(dry)(-1). The percentage of (210)Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of (210)Po extraction resulted 20.7+/-7.5. PMID:20537772

  11. Toxicity studies on dermal application of plant extract of Plumbago zeylanica used in Ethiopian traditional medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kefale Teshome; Tsige Gebre-Mariam; Kaleab Asres; Franklin Perry; Ephrem Engidawork

    2008-01-01

    Plant-based therapeutic preparations are cyclically returning to complement dermatologic therapy, however, data on the toxicity profile of such plants are lacking. In the present study, Plumbago zeylanica, a medicinal plant commonly used in Ethiopia for skin diseases was subjected to a systematic dermatotoxicity study. To this effect, the dermatotoxicity of 80% methanol extract of the root part of Plumbago zeylanica

  12. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz; Greisiele Lorena Pessini; Neviton Rogério Sanches; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2002-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the world, and espe- cially in South America, contributes significantly to pri- mary health care. Many plants are used in Brazil in the form of crude extracts, infusions or plasters to treat com- mon infections without any scientific evidence of effi- cacy. Pharmacological studies done with essential oils from 15 species of aromatic plants

  13. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yadav Uprety; Hugo Asselin; Emmanuel K Boon; Saroj Yadav; Krishna K Shrestha

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. METHODS: Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district

  14. Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Popularly Used in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lie-Fen Shyur; Jieh-Hen Tsung; Je-Hsin Chen; Chih-Yang Chiu; Chiu-Ping Lo

    We have examined antioxidant activities of twenty-six medicinal herbal extracts that have been popularly used as folk medicines in Taiwan. The results of scavenging DPPH radical activity show that, among the 26 tested medicinal plants, Ludwigia octovalvis, Vitis thunbergii, Rubus parvifolius, Lindernia anagallis, and Zanthoxylum nitidum exhibited strong activities and their IC50 values for DPPH radicals were 4.6, 24, 27,

  15. Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Estomba, Diego; Ladio, Ana; Lozada, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. Ecological variables, such as distance to the gathering site and biogeographical origin were also analyzed. Our results showed that the Curruhuinca dwellers cited 89 plant species for medicinal purposes, both of native and exotic origin. They know about 47 native plants, of which they use 40, and they know of 42 exotic medicinal plants of which they use 34. A differential pattern was observed given that only native species, relevant for the traditional Mapuche medicine, were collected at more distant gathering sites. The interviewees mentioned 268 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating digestive ailments (33%), as analgesic/anti-inflammatory (25%) and antitusive (13%). Native species were mainly cited as analgesics, and for gynecological, urinary and "cultural syndrome" effects, whereas exotic species were mainly cited for digestive ailments. The total number of medicinal plants known and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generations. PMID:16157460

  16. Advanced development in analysis of phytochemicals from medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Zhao; Guang-Ping Lv; Yi-Wen Chen; Shao-Ping Li

    2011-01-01

    The concept of “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food” was widely accepted for thousand years. It is now well known that some foods and food components have beneficial physiological and psychological effects. In China, the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China announced 87 items of materials, including 81 plants, could be used as

  17. Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke

    2006-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

  18. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID, ELEMENTAL AND TOTAL PROTEIN OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA MEDICINAL PLANT FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMINA KABIR KHANZADA; W. SHAIKH; T. G. KAZI; S. SOFIA; AMINA KABIR; K. USMANGHANI; AFTAB A. KANDHRO

    2008-01-01

    Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) is a well known medicinal plant with leaves, roots and bark being exported as popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. It is locally known as AKK with English name as Milk Weed, grows abundantly in Sindh province of Pakistan. The isolated fatty acid composition in the extract of C.procera has 7 saturated fatty acid

  19. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some medicinal and spice plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cvijovic; D. Djukic; L. Mandic; G. Acamovic-Djokovic; M. Pesakovic

    2010-01-01

    An examination was made on the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of four medicinal plants Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Hyssopus officinalis, and Eucalyptus globulus, the first three of which are also used as culinary spice herbs. Carum carvi L. and Coriandrum sativum L. belong to the Apiacea family. In traditional medicine, Carum carvi is used in the form of a

  20. Inhibitory and Killing Activities of Medicinal Plants against Multiple Antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai; Hazel Mitchellb

    2008-01-01

    Multiple antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), one of the major causes of gastric can- cer, is now increasingly reported. The aim of this study was to screen medicinal plants widely used in Thailand as possible sources of medicines that can be used to treat H. pylori infection. Twenty-four extracts from 13 kinds of Thai herbs were tested for their antibacterial

  1. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:24579376

  2. Screening for Antifungal Activities of Some Medicinal Plants used Traditionally in Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda M. Aly; Samira O. Bafeel

    2010-01-01

    Aly, M.M. and Bafeel, S.O. 2010. Screening for antifungal activities of some medicinal plants used traditionally in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 39–44.The antimicrobial activities of water and organic crude extracts of 6 medicinal plants (Azadirachta Indica (neem), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Lepidium sativum and Rosmarinus officinalis) were detected against different pathogenic yeasts and fungi

  3. A regression analysis of q’eqchi’ Maya medicinal plants from southern Belize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginie Treyvaud Amiguet; John Thor Arnason; Pedro Maquin; Victor Cal; SÁnchez-Vindas Pablo; Poveda Alvarez Luis

    2006-01-01

    A previous study provided a general quantitative analysis of 169 collected medicinal plants used by the Q’eqchi’ Maya healers\\u000a of southern Belize. This paper is focused on a statistical analysis of this ethnobotanical information using the method developed\\u000a by Moerman (1991). The residual values obtained from the regression analysis of the Q’eqchi’ medicinal plant species versus\\u000a the species listed in

  4. Assessment of alpha radioactivity and dose estimation in widely used medicinal plants environmental monitoring of afforestation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dipakj; Deb, Argha; Sengupta, Rosalima; Maiti, Sunil; Mazumder, Asis; Harh, Sadananda

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the presence of alpha radioactivity in a few medicinal plants, which form the main components of some hebal drugs. Assessment of effective dose has also. been done. The total alpha radio activity in medicinal plants has been found within 47 - 245 Bq/Kg and the effective dose found in the range 2.8 - 4.7 ?Sv. This data is required for environmental monitoring. PMID:25509948

  5. Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants used in Brazil against epec and etec Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Delarmelina; G. M. Figueira

    Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants used in brazil against epec and etec escherichia coli . Essential oils obtained from leaves of 28 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against anti- enteropathogenic (EPEC) and anti-enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Escherichia coli. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined. Among

  6. Cameroonian medicinal plants: a bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey and chemotaxonomic classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cameroon herbs are traditionally used to meet health care needs and plans are on the way to integrate traditional medicine in the health care system, even though the plans have not been put into action yet. The country however has a rich biodiversity, with ~8,620 plant species, some of which are commonly used in the treatment of several microbial infections and a range of diseases (malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, diabetes and tuberculosis). Methods Our survey consisted in collecting published data from the literature sources, mainly from PhD theses in Cameroonian university libraries and also using the author queries in major natural product and medicinal chemistry journals. The collected data includes plant sources, uses of plant material in traditional medicine, plant families, region of collection of plant material, isolated metabolites and type (e.g. flavonoid, terpenoid, etc.), measured biological activities of isolated compounds, and any comments on significance of isolated metabolites on the chemotaxonomic classification of the plant species. This data was compiled on a excel sheet and analysed. Results In this study, a literature survey led to the collection of data on 2,700 secondary metabolites, which have been previously isolated or derived from Cameroonian medicinal plants. This represents distinct phytochemicals derived from 312 plant species belonging to 67 plant families. The plant species are investigated in terms of chemical composition with respect to the various plant families. A correlation between the known biological activities of isolated compounds and the ethnobotanical uses of the plants is also attempted. Insight into future direction for natural product search within the Cameroonian forest and Savanna is provided. Conclusions It can be verified that a phytochemical search of active secondary metabolites, which is inspired by knowledge from the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants could be very vital in a drug discovery program from plant-derived bioactive compounds. PMID:23802859

  7. Assessment of the importance of medicinal plants among communities around Khiat Ngong of southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Bethany G; Phiapalath, Phaivanh; Sydara, Kongmany; Somsamouth, Vongtakoune; Goodsmith, Nichole I; Soejarto, D Doel

    2014-07-01

    A field survey was launched to identify medicinal plants growing in the Khiat Ngong wetlands and surrounding forested areas of Pathoumphone District, Champasak Province in southern Laos. In this area, 418 plants representing approximately 250 species, belonging to at least 200 genera in 93 families of vascular plants, are used by traditional healers to treat more than 95 symptoms. A large number of species are used for treating fever. At least 14 plant species have not been previously reported for having medicinal properties. At least 10 have previously been investigated and have shown interesting biological activity by other researchers, signaling promising candidates for income-generating activities. PMID:25004742

  8. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300?mg/kg b.?w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300?mg/kg b.?w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:26018915

  9. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  10. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  11. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

  12. World Trade in Medicinal Plants from Spanish America, 1717–1815

    PubMed Central

    Gänger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global ‘spread’ of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their ‘exotic’ charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

  13. Magic and medicinal plants of the Ayoreos of the Chaco Boreal (Paraguay).

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G

    1993-06-01

    The Ayoreo is a hunter-gatherer tribe of Amerindians which occupy the central-northern part of the Paraguayan Chaco. The whole Ayoreo culture cannot be disassociated from religious beliefs. Disease is considered of supernatural origin and as the result of breaking or disobeying the tabu which regulates existence. A description of the shamanic practices is given to understand better the position of health practices in the Ayoreo culture, particularly the use of medicinal and hallucinogenic plants. Fragments of the Asojna ritual and the methods for becoming shaman; the initiation of the last living shaman, as well as references to the magic powers of the shaman are presented. Diagnosis and treatment included invocations to plant and animal spirits and the use of a few medicinal plants. The plants used as medicine or invoked for healing are presented for the first time. Of particular interest is the identification of two Euphorbiaceae as ritual plants by the Ayoreo. PMID:8412243

  14. World trade in medicinal plants from Spanish America, 1717-1815.

    PubMed

    Gänger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global 'spread' of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their 'exotic' charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

  15. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested. PMID:21707967

  16. Local knowledge in community-based approaches to medicinal plant conservation: lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shailesh; Gardner, James

    2006-01-01

    Background Community-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, in particular medicinal plants, have attracted attention of governments, non governmental organizations and international funding agencies. This paper highlights the community-based approaches used by an Indian NGO, the Rural Communes Medicinal Plant Conservation Centre (RCMPCC). The RCMPCC recognized and legitimized the role of local medicinal knowledge along with other knowledge systems to a wider audience, i.e. higher levels of government. Methods Besides a review of relevant literature, the research used a variety of qualitative techniques, such as semi-structured, in-depth interviews and participant observations in one of the project sites of RCMPCC. Results The review of local medicinal plant knowledge systems reveals that even though medicinal plants and associated knowledge systems (particularly local knowledge) are gaining wider recognition at the global level, the efforts to recognize and promote the un-codified folk systems of medicinal knowledge are still inadequate. In country like India, such neglect is evident through the lack of legal recognition and supporting policies. On the other hand, community-based approaches like local healers' workshops or village biologist programs implemented by RCMPCC are useful in combining both local (folk and codified) and formal systems of medicine. Conclusion Despite the high reliance on the local medicinal knowledge systems for health needs in India, the formal policies and national support structures are inadequate for traditional systems of medicine and almost absent for folk medicine. On the other hand, NGOs like the RCMPCC have demonstrated that community-based and local approaches such as local healer's workshops and village biologist program can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge with the formal sciences (in this case botany and ecology) and generate positive impacts at various levels. PMID:16603082

  17. Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL) value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major threat to the continuation of the traditional medical practice in the study area. Awareness should, therefore, be created among the Bench community, especially the young ones, by concerned organizations and individuals regarding the usefulness of the practice. PMID:19912633

  18. Medicinal Plants and Ethnomedicine in Peril: A Case Study from Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ripu M.; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change. PMID:24734114

  19. Effects of crude aqueous medicinal plant extracts on growth and invasion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Van Slambrouck, Severine; Daniels, Amber L; Hooten, Carla J; Brock, Steven L; Jenkins, Aaron R; Ogasawara, Marcia A; Baker, Joann M; Adkins, Glen; Elias, Eerik M; Agustin, Vincent J; Constantine, Sarah R; Pullin, Michael J; Shors, Scott T; Kornienko, Alexander; Steelant, Wim F A

    2007-06-01

    Plants used in folklore medicine continue to be an important source of discovery and development of novel therapeutic agents. In the present study, we determined the effects of crude aqueous extracts of a panel of medicinal plants on the growth and invasion of cancer cells. Our results showed that extracts of L. tridentata (Creosote Bush) and J. communis L. (Juniper Berry) significantly decreased the growth of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells. The latter as well as A. californica (Yerba Mansa) inhibited invasion into the collagen type I gel layer. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) decreased when the cells were exposed to aqueous extracts of L. tridentata, J. communis L. and A. californica. This study provides original scientific data on the anticancer activity of selected aqueous medicinal plant extracts used in traditional medicine. PMID:17487409

  20. Plant pigments (antioxidants) of medicinal plants Malva silvestris L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Redzi?, Sulejman; Hodzi?, Nizama; Tuka, Mijat

    2005-05-01

    Qualitative-quantitative structure of plant pigments in wild plants Malva silvestrs L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae), which were collected in 20 locations in Sarajevo area and surroundings, was tested during spring and summer in 2003. Acetone extracts of both categories were made and rising paper-chromatography done for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis was done by spectrophotometry. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophylls presence was confirmed by separation of pigments from acetone extract of these plant species. Spectrophotometric analysis of acetone extracts showed these results (given in mg/L): chlorophyll a 2,386, chlorophyll b 0,332 and carrotenoides 1,037. Data given in mg/g dry substance are: chlorophyll a 1,193x10(-2), chlorophyll b 1,66x10(-3), and carrotenoides 5,185x10(-3). Pigments structure (in mg/L) in species Malva moschata is 1,6 for chlorophyll; 1,419 for chlorophyll b; and 0,364 for carrotenoides. Data given in mg/g are: chlorophyll a 8x10(-3), chlorophyll b 7,09x10(-3), and carrotenoides 1,82x10(-3). Considering that species Malva moschata L. grows on ecologically clear soils as opposed to well-known medicinal species Malva sylvestris L., and considering the production of phytomass, phytochemical structure and pharmacological influence it can be considered very medical and be given advantage over this wider spread category. PMID:16053456

  1. Azadirachta indica (neem): a plant of multiple biological and pharmacological activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunday E. Atawodi; Joy C. Atawodi

    2009-01-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly called neem or ‘dogonyaro’ in Nigeria, is a plant that has found varied use in ecological, medicinal and agricultural\\u000a sectors. Biological and pharmacological activities attributed to different parts and extracts of these plants include antiplasmodial,\\u000a antitrypanosomal, antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, larvicidal and fungicidal activities. Others include\\u000a antiulcer, spermicidal, anthelminthic, antidiabetic, anti-implantation, immunomodulating, molluscicidal, nematicidal, immunocontraceptive,\\u000a insecticidal, antifeedant

  2. Antibacterial efficacy of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) an indigenous medicinal plant against experimental murine salmonellosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Owais; K. S. Sharad; A. Shehbaz; M. Saleemuddin

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of ashwagandha [Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae; root and leaves)], an Indian traditional medicinal plant against pathogenic bacteria. Both aqueous as well as alcoholic extracts of the plant (root as well as leaves) were found to possess strong antibacterial activity against a range of bacteria, as revealed by in vitro Agar

  3. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  4. Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gracilene Schmourlo; Ricardo R. Mendonça-Filho; Celuta Sales Alviano; Sônia S. Costa

    2005-01-01

    In the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. Thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population. The agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were

  5. Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Vlietinck; L. Van Hoof; J. Totté; A. Lasure; D. Vanden Berghe; P. C. Rwangabo; J. Mvukiyumwami

    1995-01-01

    A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not

  6. Antifungal activity of several medicinal plants extracts against the early blight pathogen (Alternaria solani)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saba J. Goussous; Firas M. Abu el-Samen; Ragheb A. Tahhan

    2010-01-01

    The antifungal activity for several medicinal plants against the early blight fungus (Alternaria solani) has been investigated. These plants were Syrian marjoram (Majorana syriaca), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus). The inhibitory effect of these extracts on the radial mycelial growth as well as on spore germination was measured in vitro

  7. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

  8. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  9. Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gulcan Avc?; Esra Kupeli; Abdullah Eryavuz; Erdem Yesilada; Ismail Kucukkurt

    2006-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from five plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities: Agrostemma githago L., Potentilla reptans L., Thymbra spicata var. spicata L., Urtica dioica L. and Viscum album var. album L. We assayed the effects of the administration of plant extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose,

  10. Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation. PMID:21241484

  11. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development. PMID:25183132

  12. Medicinal Plants: A Potential Source of Compounds for Targeting Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Zulkipli, Ihsan N; David, Sheba R; Rajabalaya, Rajan; Idris, Adi

    2015-01-01

    Modern medicinal plant drug discovery has provided pharmacologically active compounds targeted against a multitude of conditions and diseases, such as infection, inflammation, and cancer. To date, natural products from medicinal plants remain a solid niche as a source from which cancer therapies can be derived. Among other properties, one favorable characteristic of an anticancer drug is its ability to block the uncontrollable process of cell division, as cancer cells are notorious for their abnormal cell division. There are numerous other documented works on the potential anticancer activity of drugs derived from medicinal plants, and their effects on cell division are an attractive and growing therapeutic target. Despite this, there remains a vast number of unidentified natural products that are potentially promising sources for medical applications. This mini review aims to revise the current knowledge of the effects of natural plant products on cell division.

  13. Medicinal Plants: A Potential Source of Compounds for Targeting Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Zulkipli, Ihsan N; David, Sheba R; Rajabalaya, Rajan; Idris, Adi

    2015-01-01

    Modern medicinal plant drug discovery has provided pharmacologically active compounds targeted against a multitude of conditions and diseases, such as infection, inflammation, and cancer. To date, natural products from medicinal plants remain a solid niche as a source from which cancer therapies can be derived. Among other properties, one favorable characteristic of an anticancer drug is its ability to block the uncontrollable process of cell division, as cancer cells are notorious for their abnormal cell division. There are numerous other documented works on the potential anticancer activity of drugs derived from medicinal plants, and their effects on cell division are an attractive and growing therapeutic target. Despite this, there remains a vast number of unidentified natural products that are potentially promising sources for medical applications. This mini review aims to revise the current knowledge of the effects of natural plant products on cell division. PMID:26106261

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey of different uses of seven medicinal plants from Mali, (West Africa) in the regions Doila, Kolokani and Siby

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adiaratou Togola; Drissa Diallo; Seydou Dembélé; Hilde Barsett; Berit Smestad Paulsen

    2005-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information on the use of seven medicinal plants in rural areas in the nearby regions of Bamako, Mali. The plants were Opilia celtidifolia, Anthocleista djalonensis, Erythrina senegalensis, Heliotropium indicum, Trichilia emetica, Piliostigma thonningii and Cochlospermum tinctorium About 50 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The

  15. Conservation strategies for threatened medicinal plant – Barleria prionitis L. – using in vitro and ex vitro propagation techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shabir A. Lone; A. S. Yadav; A. Bajaj; Ajit K. Sharma; Yogesh Badkhane; D. K. Raghuwanshi

    2012-01-01

    Over-utilisation and continuous depletion of medicinal plants have affected their supply and loss of genetic diversity. Hence the current study is based on conservation strategies for threatened medicinal plants with special reference to Barleria prionitis L. using in vitro and ex vitro propagation techniques. We have developed here a protocol for plant regeneration of Barleria prionitis L. We have also

  16. Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and the Lawa in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many ecosystem services provided by forests are important for the livelihoods of indigenous people. Sacred forests are used for traditional practices by the ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and they protect these forests that are important for their culture and daily life. Swidden fallow fields are a dominant feature of the agricultural farming landscapes in the region. In this study we evaluate and compare the importance of swidden fallow fields and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern Thailand. Methods We made plant inventories in swidden fallow fields of three different ages (1–2, 3–4, 5–6 years old) and in sacred forests around two villages using a replicated stratified design of vegetation plots. Subsequently we interviewed the villagers, using semi-structured questionnaires, to assess the medicinal use of the species encountered in the vegetation survey. Results We registered a total of 365 species in 244 genera and 82 families. Of these 72(19%) species in 60(24%) genera and 32(39%) families had medicinal uses. Although the sacred forest overall housed more species than the swidden fallow fields, about equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means that a higher proportion (48% and 34%) of the species in the relatively species poor fallows were used for medicinal purposes than the proportion of medicinal plants from the sacred forest which accounted for 17–22%. Of the 32 medicinal plant families Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae had most used species in the Karen and Lawa villages respectively. Conclusion Sacred forest are important for providing medicinal plant species to the Karen and Lawa communities in northern Thailand, but the swidden fallows around the villages are equally important in terms of absolute numbers of medicinal plant species, and more important if counted as proportion of the total number of species in a habitat. This points to the importance of secondary vegetation as provider of medicinal plants around rural villages as seen elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:23800255

  17. Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to organize a database of medicinal plants including their applications and associated procedures in Canhane village, district of Massingir, province of Gaza, Mozambique. Methods In order to gather information about indigenous medicinal plants and to maximize the collection of local knowledge, eleven informants were selected taking into account the dimension of the site and the fact that the vegetation presents a great homogeneity. The data were collected through intensive structured and semi-structured interviews performed during field research. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on field observations and herbarium collections. Results A total of 53 plant species have been reported, which were used to treat 50 different human health problems. More than half of the species were used for stomach and intestine related disturbances (including major diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery). Additionally, four species with therapeutic applications were reported for the first time, whose potential can further be exploited. The great majority of the identified species was also associated with beliefs and myths and/or used as food. In general, the community was conscientious and motivated about conservational issues and has adopted measures for the rational use of medicinal plants. Conclusions The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the Canhane village. The local community had a rich ethnobotanical knowledge and adopted sound management conservation practices. The data compiled in this study show the social importance of the surveyed plants being a contribution to the documentation of PGR at the national and regional level. PMID:21129187

  18. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge. PMID:19857257

  19. Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ficus deltoidea fruit extracts and fractions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A number of studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress, leading to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The use of F. deltoidea as an alternative medicinal herb is increasingly gaining popularity with the sale of F. deltoidea tea bags and capsules in the local market. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruits from different varieties of F. deltoidea, employing in vitro methods. Method Two fruit varieties of F. deltoidea (var. angustifolia (SF) and var. kunstleri (BF)) were extracted separately using double-distilled water. The resulting aqueous extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate to obtain the ethyl acetate and water fractions. The crude aqueous extracts and the corresponding fractions were evaluated for their phenolic, flavonoid, sugar and protein contents. Protein profiling of the extracts and fractions were also carried out by means of SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF MS. Antidiabetic activities were assessed based on the ability of the samples to inhibit yeast and mammalian ?-glucosidase as well as ?-amylase. Antioxidant capacities were examined by measuring the ability of the samples to reduce ferric ions and to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals. Results The crude extracts and fractions of SF and BF inhibited both yeast and rat intestinal ?-glucosidases in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit porcine pancreatic ?-amylase. The water fraction of BF showed the highest percentage of ?-glucosidase inhibition while having the highest amount of protein (73.33?±?4.99 ?g/mg fraction). All the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities, with SF crude extract showing the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic content (121.62?±?4.86 mg/g extract). Fractionation of the crude extracts resulted in loss of antioxidant activities. There was no positive correlation between phenolic and flavonoid content with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. However, phenolic content correlated well with antioxidant activities of the crude extracts but not with the fractions. Conclusions The antioxidant activities of the fruits of F. deltoidea might be asserted by the phenolic content but other polar plant components were possibly involved in the antidiabetic properties. The study of these compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:23718315

  20. Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yineger, Haile; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%). The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit). No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinal plant species abundance in the study area. PMID:17547765

  1. Resprouting of Echinacea angustifolia Augments Sustainability of Wild Medicinal Plant Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Kindscher; Dana M. Price; Lisa Castle

    2008-01-01

    Resprouting of\\u000a Echinacea angustifolia\\u000a Augments Sustainability of Wild Medicinal Plant Populations. Overharvest of wild Echinacea species root has been a significant concern to the herbal industry. Harvesters of wild Echinacea angustifolia showed us that even after harvesting the top 15 to 20 cm of root, some plants resprout. We marked locations of harvested\\u000a plants at sites in Kansas and Montana and

  2. [Application of hyperspectral remote sensing in field of medicinal plants monitoring research].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Ma, Wei-Feng

    2013-05-01

    The paper introduces the basic concept and characteristics of hyperspectral remote sensing, and analyzed the application of hyperspectral remote sensing in the field of plants research. On the basis of the research advances of hyperspectral plant study, paper also analyzed the key facts that effects the application of hyperspectral remote sensing on the some researches which include distinguishing species,monitoring growth and quality etc. It proposed a new ideas and methods for people to research medicinal plants. PMID:23944052

  3. Antibiotic properties of extracts derived from medicinal plants with liquid carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Khanin; A. I. Korotyaev; A. F. Prokopchuk; T. V. Perova; O. F. Vyazemskii

    1968-01-01

    UDC 615.779 We have studied the antimicrobial properties of substances extracted from spice-aromatic and medicinal plants. For evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of preparations isolated from plants, essential and extractive oils, alcohol-water extracts, freshly prepared slurry, and also tissue juices of the original raw material are used in general practice [1-3]. Substances isolated from plants that possess antimicrobial characteristics are

  4. Evaluation of fungal burden and aflatoxin presence in packed medicinal plants treated by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-05-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage. PMID:20501045

  5. A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet Community in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The medicinal plants used by herbalists in Kenya have not been well documented, despite their widespread use. The threat of complete disappearance of the knowledge on herbal medicine from factors such as deforestation, lack of proper regulation, overexploitation and sociocultural issues warrants an urgent need to document the information. The purpose of the study was to document information on medicinal plants used by herbalists in Marakwet District towards the utilization of indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge for the advancement of biomedical research and development. Methods Semi- structured oral interviews were conducted with 112 practicing herbalists. The types of plants used were identified and the conditions treated recorded. Results Herbal practice is still common in the district, and 111 plants were identified to have medicinal or related uses. Different herbal preparations including fruits and healing vegetables are employed in the treatment of various medical conditions. Veterinary uses and pesticides were also recorded. Conclusion The study provides comprehensive ethnobotanical information about herbal medicine and healing methods among the Marakwet community. The identification of the active ingredients of the plants used by the herbalists may provide some useful leads for the development of new drugs. PMID:24555424

  6. Natural plant chemicals: source of industrial and medicinal materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balandrin, M.F.; Klocke, J.A.; Wurtele, E.S.; Bollinger, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. However, most species of higher plants have never been described, much less surveyed for chemical or biologically active constituents, and new sources of commercially valuable materials remain to be discovered. Advances in biotechnology, particularly methods for culturing plants cells and tissues, should provide new means for the commercial processing of even rare plants and the chemicals they produce. These new technologies will extend and enhance the usefulness of plants as renewable resources of valuable chemicals. In the future, biologically active plant-derived chemicals can be expected to play an increasingly significant role in the commercial development of new products for regulating plant growth and for insect and weed control. 65 references.

  7. Evaluation of the in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of medicinal plants used in saudi and yemeni traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinal plants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10? ? g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8? ? g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2? ? g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1? ? g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3? ? g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinal plants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents. PMID:24963330

  8. Aronia plants: a review of traditional use, biological activities, and perspectives for modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Jaremicz, Zbigniew; Luczkiewicz, Maria

    2010-04-01

    The Aronia genus (Rosaceae family, Maloideae subfamily) includes two species of native North American shrubs: Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell. (black chokeberry) and Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers. (red chokeberry). The fruits of A. melanocarpa have been traditionally used by Potawatomi Native Americans to cure colds. In the first half of the 20(th) century, cultivars of black chokeberry were introduced to the Soviet Union and other European countries, providing fruits used by food industry. At present, it is used mainly for juice, jam, and wine production, as well as an ornamental plant. Among other substances, the berries of A. melanocarpa contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, possessing strong antioxidative potential. Numerous health-promoting activities-namely, antioxidative, antimutagenic, anticancer, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory-have been demonstrated for black chokeberry extracts by both in vitro and in in vivo studies. The presented review summarizes the information concerning botany, cultivation, chemical composition, and pharmacological activities of Aronia plants. PMID:20170359

  9. Cytotoxicity of Fusarium species mycotoxins and culture filtrates of Fusarium species isolated from the medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris to mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishanthi Abeywickrama; G. A. Bean

    1992-01-01

    Ayurvedic medicine, which uses decoctions made of medicinal plants, is used to cure diseases in many Asian countries including Sri Lanka. Although proper storage facilities for medicinal plants are unavailable in Sri Lanka, neither the potential for growth of toxigenic fungi nor their ability to produce mycotoxins in stored medicinal plants has been investigated. We isolated three Fusarium species, F.

  10. Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supayang Voravuthikunchai; Amornrat Lortheeranuwat; Wanpen Jeeju; Trechada Sririrak; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Thanomjit Supawita

    2004-01-01

    The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure

  11. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: A potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Atiar; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. This article provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to the pharmacological effects of the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata in this review so that the potential use of this plant either in pharmaceutics or as an agricultural resource can be evaluated. PMID:26009694

  12. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  13. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lulekal, Ermias; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Bekele, Tamrat; Yineger, Haile

    2008-01-01

    This study documents indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and the threats affecting them. The study was carried out in Mana Angetu district between January 2003 and December 2004. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. The ethnomedicinal use of 230 plant species was documented in the study area. Most of the plants (78.7%) were reportedly used to treat human diseases. The most frequently used plant part were roots (33.9%), followed by leaves (25.6%). Most of the medicinal species (90.4%) were collected from the wild. Direct matrix analysis showed that Olea europaea L. Subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) was the most important species followed by Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne (120) indicating high utility value of these species for the local community. The principal threatening factors reported were deforestation (90%), agricultural expansion (85%) and fire (53%). Documenting the eroding plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area. PMID:18442379

  14. Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Nickson Erick

    2012-01-01

    Kakamega forest is Kenya’s only rainforest and is distinguishably rich in biodiversity but threatened by agricultural encroachment and other forms of human activity. It is also one of Kenya’s Important Bird Areas and a significant source of natural products to neighboring rural communities, such as medicinal plants, food, wood and other fibers. By using structured questionnaires for direct interviews, local indigenous knowledge was tapped through involvement of a focal group of elderly key informants in three blocks of the forest. Forty key species of medicinal plants used by local people were identified and recorded. Fifty-five percent of these were shrubs, thirty-two percent trees, seven-and-a-half percent lower plants such as herbs or forbs while five percent were climbers. About seventy percent of the medicinal plants occurred inside the forest itself and thirty percent around the edge and the immediate surroundings outside the forest. Thirty-eight (95%) of the plants were indigenous to Kenya and two (5%) exotic. Such extensive indigenous knowledge of the medicinal uses of the plants, including their distribution trends in the forest, may be tapped for decision support in rural health service planning, policy formulation for conserving the forest, tracking and mitigation of climate change impacts. PMID:24701341

  15. Prospecting for bioactive constituents from traditional medicinal plants through ethnobotanical approaches.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ronghui; Wang, Yuehu; Long, Bo; Kennelly, Edward; Wu, Shibiao; Liu, Bo; Li, Ping; Long, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologically active constituents from traditional medicinal plants have received great attention as sources of novel agents, pharmaceutical intermediates, and chemical entities for synthetic or semisynthetic drugs due to their potent pharmacological activities, low toxicity, and economic viability. Numerous components have been isolated from traditional medicinal plants, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, and clinical and experimental studies suggested that these components have useful pharmacological properties such as antiinfectious, antioxidative, and antiinflammatory effects. In this review, modern ethnobotanical approaches to explore folk medicinal plants as candidates for drug discovery with the greatest possibility of success are discussed. Determining the bioactive mechanisms and tracing structure-activity relationships will promote the discovery of new drugs and pharmacological agents. PMID:24882403

  16. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

  17. Application of the ITS2 Region for Barcoding Medicinal Plants of Selaginellaceae in Pteridophyta

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Song, Jingyuan; Cao, Yuan; Sun, Qingwen; Yao, Hui; Wu, Qinan; Chao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juanjuan; Xue, Wenda; Duan, Jinao

    2013-01-01

    Background Selaginellaceae is a family of nonseed plants with special evolutionary significance. Plants of the family Selaginellaceae are similarly shaped and easily confused, complicating identification via traditional methods. This study explored, for the first time, the use of the DNA barcode ITS2 to identify medicinal plants of the Selaginellaceae family. Methodology/Principal Findings In our study, 103 samples were collected from the main distribution areas in China; these samples represented 34 species and contained almost all of the medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. The ITS2 region of the genome was amplified from these samples and sequenced using universal primers and reaction conditions. The success rates of the PCR amplification and sequencing were 100%. There was significant divergence between the interspecific and intraspecific genetic distances of the ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Using the BLAST1 and nearest distance methods, our results proved that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of all Selaginellaceae samples examined. In addition, the secondary structures of ITS2 in the helical regions displayed clear differences in stem loop number, size, position, and screw angle among the medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. Furthermore, cluster analysis using the ITS2 barcode supported the relationship between the species of Selaginellaceae established by traditional morphological methods. Conclusion The ITS2 barcode can effectively identify medicinal plants of Selaginellaceae. The results provide a scientific basis for the precise identification of plants of the family Selaginellaceae and the reasonable development of these resources. This study may broaden the application of DNA barcoding in the medicinal plant field and benefit phylogenetic investigations. PMID:23826345

  18. Medicinal plant use in the practice of midwifery in rural Honduras.

    PubMed

    Ticktin, Tamara; Dalle, Sarah Paule

    2005-01-01

    Midwives in rural communities across the globe play an important role as primary health care providers, but few studies have documented the medicinal plants employed in this age-old practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 midwives in seven rural communities near La Ceiba, Honduras, regarding the plants they employ during the birthing process as well as their associated beliefs. Seventy-nine different plant species used to treat 15 conditions occurring during the pregnancy, birth and postpartum stages were recorded. Most plants and uses were reported by only one or two midwives, reflecting the fact that most midwives in this region had immigrated from different parts of the country. Almost all the midwives used or knew of plant remedies for treatment of miscarriages, postpartum abdominal pain and hemorrhages, retained placenta, and for speeding up contractions during labor. The most frequently cited plants as well as those for which there was greatest consensus tended to be widespread cultivated or weedy species. Although use of medicinal plants by midwives has decreased as a result of retraining programs by government health centers, midwives' knowledge of medicinal plants may provide an important resource for improving maternal-infant health in Honduras and elsewhere. Suggestions for future ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies on this topic are provided. PMID:15588676

  19. Efficient plant regeneration from cell suspension protoplasts of the woody medicinal plant Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet, woody nightshade)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Chand; M. R. Davey; J. B. Power

    1990-01-01

    Large populations of viable protoplasts were released from suspension cultured cells of the woody medicinal plant Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet, woody nightshade) when the cells were harvested 3 to 7 months after culture initiation and 4 to 5 days after transfer to fresh medium. A Bio-Gel p6 purified enzyme mixture enhanced the protoplast plating efficiency 6 fold compared to the unpurified

  20. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ivanova; D. Gerova; T. Chervenkov; T. Yankova

    2005-01-01

    Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate,

  1. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhusita Wannissorn; Siripen Jarikasem; Thammathad Siriwangchai; Sirinun Thubthimthed

    2005-01-01

    By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha

  2. Medicinal plant diversity of Sitamata wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Jain; S. S. Katewa; P. K. Galav; Pallavi Sharma

    2005-01-01

    The present study has been carried out in Sitamata wildlife sanctuary of Chittorgarh and Udaipur district located in south-west region of Rajasthan. A field survey of the study area was carried out during 2002–2004 to document the medicinal utility of herbs occurring in this area. Two hundred fourty-three genera belonging to 76 families have been reported which are used by

  3. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl Lans; Tisha Harper; Karla Georges; Elmo Bridgewater

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians,

  4. [Oral anticoagulants and medicinal plants. An emerging interaction].

    PubMed

    Argento, A; Tiraferri, E; Marzaloni, M

    2000-01-01

    The consumption of herbal medicines is increasing steadily throughout the world, although to our knowledge there are neither studies on their effectiveness nor controls over the quality and safety of these preparations. Considered "food integrators", these preparations are marketed without restriction. It is a common notion that natural therapy has neither side nor toxic effects: allergic reactions, direct toxic effects or those due to contamination, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and heavy metal toxicity have been reported as adverse events caused by herbs. Rather than replacing traditional therapy, most herbal medical treatment is used in conjunction with it. Also, the attending physician is generally not informed that the patient is using herbs. Because Passionflower, hydroalcoholic extracts, Juniper and Verbena officinalis supply variable quantities of vitamin K, they can lessen the effect of oral anticoagulant therapy. Ganoderma Japonicum, Papaw, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Ginseng, Devil's claw, Garlic, Quinine, Ginkgo, Ginger, Red Clover and Horse-Chestnut reinforce warfarin action by heterogeneous mechanisms. They should thus not be used in patients on oral anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. The scientific community must take into account the adverse events caused by interaction between herbal medicine and conventional therapy, and patients must be informed of the dangers of these preparations. If a bleeding event occurs or the quality of anticoagulant therapy is poor, the clinician should consider the possibility of interaction between conventional therapy and herbal medicine that the patient has neglected to mention he is taking. PMID:10920504

  5. In vitro inhibitory effect of West African medicinal and food plants on human cytochrome P450 3A subfamily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amegnona Agbonon; Kwashie Eklu-Gadegbeku; Kodjo Aklikokou; Messanvi Gbeassor; Koffi Akpagana; Teresa W. Tam; John Thor Arnason; Brian C. Foster

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the studyIn Africa, medicinal plants are used intensively and concomitantly with allopathic medicines in the treatment of opportunity diseases by many patients or by healthy person to prevent diseases. However, there is little information about the interactions between medicines and botanical products used currently in West Africa area. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation is to study

  6. TRAMIL Ethnopharmacological Survey: Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plant Use in the Southeast Region of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    ALVARADO-GUZMÁN, JOSÉ A.; GAVILLÁN-SUÁREZ, JANNETTE; GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU, LIONEL

    2014-01-01

    Background TRAMIL network aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. Objectives The purpose of this study was to document both the medicinal plants that are frequently used to treat health conditions prevalent in the southeastern region of the archipelago of Puerto Rico and the trends in their use among the study population. Methods An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in the study region. The results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Overall, 118 medicinal plants were recorded as being used to treat depression, nervousness, chronic sinusitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, allergic rhinitis, rhinofaryngitis, asthma, arthritis and migraine. The plant species with significant use were Citrus aurantium L., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don in Sweet, and Mentha piperita L. The use of medicinal plants is more frequent among single women with a high educational level, a trend similar to the use of CAM in the US. Conclusion Ethnopharmacological knowledge and the use of medicinal plants is decreasing in the study region due to an increase in the use of conventional medical care and to self-medication with over-the-counter pharmaceutical products. Four botanical species with significant uses that were not previously recorded in the Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia have been identified. This report will be followed by the scientific validation and toxicity studies of these plant species and the TRADIF activities in the study region. PMID:19999241

  7. Identifying effective medicinal plants for cold in lorestan province, west of iran.

    PubMed

    Delfan, Bahram; Kazemeini, Hamidreza; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    Cold is a kind of mild and self-limiting viral illness that is considered as a prevalent disease with global occurrence and is caused by more than 200 types of viruses. Ethnobotanical studies and the use traditional experiences have increased the probability of detecting effective medicinal substances for cold by 40%. This study aimed to identify effective medicinal plants for cold in Lorestan province. Traditional medical information of this work was obtained from information from indigenous people in 8 cities of Lorestan province. A previously prepared questionnaire was given to trained health liaisons to record the people's beliefs about the plants. The results showed that 23 medicinal plants were used in Lorestan province for treating cold and its symptoms (cough, sore throat, sneezing, runny nose, etc). Plants studied in this article contained bioactive substances that are recommended as the most popular traditional treatments. More research studies should be done on the efficacy and the potential harms of medicinal plants used by people, and in the case of their positive pharmacological impacts, they can be used to produce natural and effective drugs for cold. PMID:25613328

  8. Medicinal plants popularly used in the Xingó region – a semi-arid location in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Cecília de Fátima CBR; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Maia, Maria Bernadete S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI) of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinal plant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species) were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark. PMID:16556305

  9. Medicinal Plants Used by Various Tribes of Bangladesh for Treatment of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Hossan, Shahadat; Khatun, Afsana; Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Rownak

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further scientific research towards possible discovery of novel compounds that can be used to successfully treat malaria with less undesirable sideeffects. PMID:22315700

  10. Comparison of the total antioxidant content of 30 widely used medicinal plants of New Mexico.

    PubMed

    VanderJagt, T J; Ghattas, R; VanderJagt, D J; Crossey, M; Glew, R H

    2002-01-18

    Teas made from medicinal plants are commonly used by a majority of the inhabitants of New Mexico and Mexico to treat various ailments including infections, arthritis, heart disorders, headaches, fever, asthma and menstrual pain. However, little is known about the identity or chemical nature of the bioactive substances and compounds responsible for the therapeutic effects of the teas made from the leaves, seeds, flowers stems, and roots of these medicinal plants. Some of the beneficial effects of these teas may be attributable to antioxidants contained in the medicinal plants from which they are brewed. In the present study we collected 30 medicinal plants that are widely used in the Rio Grande Valley and, using a two-stage Trolox based assay, analyzed the total antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from these plants. The antioxidant content of the aqueous extracts was substantial, ranging from 27 to 972 micromol Trolox equivalent per gram dry weight. An extract of the leaves of the plant Ilex paraguensis (Mate leaf) contained the highest amount of antioxidant, followed by the flowers of the Rosa sp. (Rosa de Castillo, 804 micromol/g), the bark of Chinchona sp. (Copalquin, 692 micromol/g), Rumex hymenosepalus stems (Cana Agria, 672 micromol/g) and the leaves of Marrubium vulgare (Mastranzo, 560 micromol/g). The plants that had the lowest antioxidant capacity were the seeds of Linum lewissii (Linasa, 29 micromol/g) and Yucca sp. plant root (Amole, 27 micromol/g). It will be useful to further analyze those plants that contain the most antioxidant activity in order to identify the active principles. PMID:11860152

  11. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  12. Proceedings of the Global Summit on Medicinal Plants, Vol. 1: 112-118 (2004). Genetic Diversity and DNA Fingerprinting of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Kent E.

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings of the Global Summit on Medicinal Plants, Vol. 1: 112-118 (2004). 112 Genetic Diversity Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458, USA. Dept. of Plant and Soil Sciences, Medicinal Plant Program, and may have implications #12;Proceedings of the Global Summit on Medicinal Plants, Vol. 1: 112-118 (2004

  13. The potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males

    PubMed Central

    Ogbuewu, Ifeanyi Princewill; Unamba-Oparah, Ihemdirim Chukwuma; Odoemenam, Victor Udodirim; Etuk, Idorenyin Friday; Okoli, Ifeanyi Charles

    2011-01-01

    Rising human population throughout the world especially in developing and underdeveloped countries has detrimental effects on life supporting system on earth. Traditionally, plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments. The growing importance of phytochemicals in males has been reported. Contraceptive ability of plants has been reported in several animal models. The reversibility of the anti-fertility effects of plants and its active compounds are of potential clinical relevance in the development of male contraceptive. This review attempts to discuss the latest reports on the potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males. PMID:22540095

  14. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shabir; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

  15. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared) (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality), Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest); the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities), and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses). Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for medicinal purposes were found to be leaves (123 species), stems (55), fruits (28), roots (17), and bark (14). No differences were noted in the number of medicinal plant species identified among people, but differences were significant in their knowledge with respect to the number of uses among people of the three municipalities studied; people from both, scrublands and oak-pine forest know similar number of species and number of uses. Men and women of the three different municipalities knew statistically the same number of species and number of uses. There was no correlation between resident’s age and number of species known and resident’s age and number of uses either in Galeana or in Aramberri, but, there was high correlation among these variables in Zaragoza. Conclusion In southern Nuevo León people use at least 5% of the total State flora as medicinal plants, and most of these species are included in few plant families. Most of medicinal species are wild and indigenous to the region. The two most important major plant communities, scrublands and oak-pine forest provide almost the same number of medicinal species. A third of the medicinal flora recorded are used in all three municipalities, most of them are wild. Leaves, stems and fruits are the plant parts most commonly used for healing, and boiling is the most common method used for this purpose. Men and women from the three municipalities are familiar with nearly the same number of species; however, their knowledge of the number of uses varies significantly. In Galeana and Aramberri there was no correlation between a person’s age and number of species recognized, however, in Zaragoza, there existed a high correlation between these two factors. PMID:23231862

  16. CMKb: a web-based prototype for integrating Australian Aboriginal customary medicinal plant knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Jitendra; Khanna, Varun; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Jamie, Joanne; Kohen, Jim; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background The customary medicinal plant knowledge possessed by the Australian Aboriginal people is a significant resource. Published information on it is scattered throughout the literature, in heterogeneous data formats, and is scattered among various Aboriginal communities across Australia, due to a multiplicity of languages. This ancient knowledge is at risk due to loss of biodiversity, cultural impact and the demise of many of its custodians. We have developed the Customary Medicinal Knowledgebase (CMKb), an integrated multidisciplinary resource, to document, conserve and disseminate this knowledge. Description CMKb is an online relational database for collating, disseminating, visualising and analysing initially public domain data on customary medicinal plants. The database stores information related to taxonomy, phytochemistry, biogeography, biological activities of customary medicinal plant species as well as images of individual species. The database can be accessed at . Known bioactive molecules are characterized within the chemoinformatics module of CMKb, with functions available for molecular editing and visualization. Conclusion CMKb has been developed as a prototype data resource for documenting, integrating, disseminating, analysing multidisciplinary customary medicinal plant data from Australia and to facilitate user-defined complex querying. Each species in CMKb is linked to online resources such as the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), NCBI Taxonomy, Australia's SpeciesLinks-Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) and Google images. The bioactive compounds are linked to the PubChem database. Overall, CMKb serves as a single knowledgebase for holistic plant-derived therapeutics and can be used as an information resource for biodiversity conservation, to lead discovery and conservation of customary medicinal knowledge. PMID:19091025

  17. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:18371206

  18. Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60 years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families. PMID:24188563

  19. Hairy root induction and plant regeneration of medicinal plant Dracocephalum kotschyi.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Ali; Sohi, Haleh Hashemi; Azadi, Pejman; Sharafi, Ata Allah

    2014-04-01

    An efficient hairy root induction system for an important endangered medicinal plant, Dracocephalum kotschyi, was developed through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation by modifying the co-cultivation medium using five bacterial strains, A4, ATCC15834, LBA9402, MSU440, and A13 (MAFF-02-10266). A drastic increase in transformation frequency was observed when a Murashige and Skoog medium lacking NH4NO3 KH2PO4, KNO3 and CaCl2 was used, resulting in hairy root induction frequencies of 52.3 %, 69.6 %, 48.6 %, 89.0 %, and 80.0 % by A4, A13, LBA9402, MSU440, and ATCC15834 strains, respectively. For shoot induction, hairy roots and unorganized tumors induced by strain ATCC15834 were placed on an MS media supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/l BA plus 0.1 mg/l NAA. The high frequency of shoot regeneration and number of shoot were obtained in the medium containing 0.25 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA. Root induction occurred from the base of regenerated shoots on the MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA after 10 days. PMID:24757330

  20. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery.

    PubMed Central

    Fabricant, D S; Farnsworth, N R

    2001-01-01

    In this review we describe and discuss several approaches to selecting higher plants as candidates for drug development with the greatest possibility of success. We emphasize the role of information derived from various systems of traditional medicine (ethnomedicine) and its utility for drug discovery purposes. We have identified 122 compounds of defined structure, obtained from only 94 species of plants, that are used globally as drugs and demonstrate that 80% of these have had an ethnomedical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant. We identify and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using plants as starting points for drug development, specifically those used in traditional medicine. PMID:11250806

  1. Estimation of essential and trace elements in some medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, K. Nomita; Sarma, H. Nandakumar; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2008-04-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques are employed for the determination of essential and trace elements in some commonly used medicinal plants of north east India. Light elements such as Na, Mg, Al and P are determined by PIGE while medium Z elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr are determined by PIXE. Analysis is performed on pellets (thick targets) prepared using powders of the specimens which, in turn, are obtained following a series of processing steps. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants, with the contents of Mn and Zn being notably large in certain specimens. Medicinal properties possessed by these plants have been correlated with their elemental distribution.

  2. Endangered Uyghur Medicinal Plant Ferula Identification through the Second Internal Transcribed Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Congzhao; Li, Xiaojin; Zhu, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Ferula has been widely used in Asian medicine, especially in Uyghur medicine in Xinjiang, China. Given that various substitutes and closely related species have similar morphological characteristics, Ferula is difficult to distinguish based on morphology alone, thereby causing confusion and threatening the safe use of Ferula. In this study, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences were analyzed and assessed for the accurate identification of two salable Ferula species (Ferula sinkiangensis and Ferula fukangensis) and eight substitutes or closely related species. Results showed that the sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 451?bp to 45?bp, whereas guanine and cytosine contents (GC) were from 53.6% to 56.2%. A total of 77 variation sites were detected, including 63 base mutations and 14 insertion/deletion mutations. The ITS2 sequence correctly identified 100% of the samples at the species level using the basic local alignment search tool 1 and nearest-distance method. Furthermore, neighbor-joining tree successfully identified the genuine plants F. sinkiangensis and F. fukangensis from their succedaneum and closely related species. These results indicated that ITS2 sequence could be used as a valuable barcode to distinguish Uyghur medicine Ferula from counterfeits and closely related species. This study may broaden DNA barcoding application in the Uyghur medicinal plant field. PMID:26120347

  3. Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Auddy; M Ferreira; F Blasina; L Lafon; F Arredondo; F Dajas; P. C Tripathi; T Seal; B Mukherjee

    2003-01-01

    A number of Indian medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years in the traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda). Amongst these are plants used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, loss of memory, degeneration of nerves and other neuronal disorders by the Ayurvedic practitioners. Though the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases remains enigmatic, there is evidence,

  4. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosangela de Oliveira Teixeira; Marjori Leiva Camparoto; Mário Sérgio Mantovani; Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini

    2003-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic,

  5. Occurrence of taraxerol and taraxasterol in medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kiran; Zafar, Rasheeduz

    2015-01-01

    Indian soil germinates thousands of medicinal drugs that are cultivated with a purpose to obtain a novel drug. As it is a well-established fact that the structural analogs with greater pharmacological activity and fewer side-effects may be generated by the molecular modification of the functional groups of such lead compounds. This review throws light on two natural triterpenes - Taraxerol and Taraxasterol which have many important pharmacological actions including anti-cancer activity, their chemistry, biosynthesis aspects, and possible use of these compounds as drugs in treatment of cancer. A silent crisis persists in cancer treatment in developing countries, and it is intensifying every year. Although at least 50-60% of cancer victims can benefit from radiotherapy that destroys cancerous tumors, but search for the paramount therapy which will prove to be inexpensive with minimal side effects still persists. Various treatment modalities have been prescribed, along with conventional and non-conventional medicine but due to their adverse effects and dissatisfaction among users, these treatments are not satisfactory enough to give relief to patients. Hence, this review sparks the occurrence of Taraxerol (VI) and Taraxasterol (VII) in nature, so that the natural godowns may be harvested to obtain these potent compounds for novel drug development as well as discusses limitations of these lead compounds progressing clinical trials. PMID:26009688

  6. Occurrence of taraxerol and taraxasterol in medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kiran; Zafar, Rasheeduz

    2015-01-01

    Indian soil germinates thousands of medicinal drugs that are cultivated with a purpose to obtain a novel drug. As it is a well-established fact that the structural analogs with greater pharmacological activity and fewer side-effects may be generated by the molecular modification of the functional groups of such lead compounds. This review throws light on two natural triterpenes - Taraxerol and Taraxasterol which have many important pharmacological actions including anti-cancer activity, their chemistry, biosynthesis aspects, and possible use of these compounds as drugs in treatment of cancer. A silent crisis persists in cancer treatment in developing countries, and it is intensifying every year. Although at least 50-60% of cancer victims can benefit from radiotherapy that destroys cancerous tumors, but search for the paramount therapy which will prove to be inexpensive with minimal side effects still persists. Various treatment modalities have been prescribed, along with conventional and non-conventional medicine but due to their adverse effects and dissatisfaction among users, these treatments are not satisfactory enough to give relief to patients. Hence, this review sparks the occurrence of Taraxerol (VI) and Taraxasterol (VII) in nature, so that the natural godowns may be harvested to obtain these potent compounds for novel drug development as well as discusses limitations of these lead compounds progressing clinical trials. PMID:26009688

  7. Regeneration of Plants Through Somatic Embryogenesis in Emilia zeylanica C. B. Clarke a Potential Medicinal Herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayachandran Philip Robinson; S. John Britto; V. Balakrishnan

    Tissue culture techniques are useful for ex situ conservation of rare, endemic or threatened plant species. This report describes a protocol for somatic embryogenesis of Emilia zeylanica (Asteraceae) a rare medicinal plant species, using stem explants. Highest frequency of embryogenic callus formation obtained from stem explants on MS media supplemented with KIN (0.50 mg\\/l) and 2, 4- D (0.10 mg\\/l).

  8. Medicinal plants popularly used in the Xingó region – a semi-arid location in Northeastern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    deFátima CBR Cecília Almeida; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim; Paulino Ulysses de Albuquerque; Bernadete S Maria Maia

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in\\u000a the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured\\u000a questionnaires were applied. The species cited

  9. Insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae of some medicinal South American plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Ciccia; J Coussio; E Mongelli

    2000-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of 11 extracts from nine South American medicinal plants has been studied using the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. Eight of the 11 plant extracts studied showed toxicity against the A. aegypti larvae (LC50<500 ?g\\/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Abuta grandifolia and Minthostachys setosa demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the dichloromethane extract of A. grandifolia,

  10. Screening antiacne potency of Indonesian medicinal plants: antibacterial, lipase inhibition, and antioxidant activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irmanida Batubara; Tohru Mitsunaga; Hideo Ohashi

    2009-01-01

    Indonesian medicinal plants were screened as potential sources of antiacne agents. The screening methods were performed using\\u000a antibacterial assay against Propionibacterium acnes, lipase inhibitor assay, and antioxidant assay. The results showed that from 40 plant materials extracted with methanol and\\u000a 50% ethanol in water, Caesalpinia sappan was the best extract based on the combined activities: antibacterial (minimum inhibitory concentration 0.13

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity of some Iranian medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hajimahmoodi; M. Shams-Ardakani; P. Saniee; F. Siavoshi; M. Mehrabani; H. Hosseinzadeh; P. Foroumadi; M. Safavi; M. Khanavi; T. Akbarzadeh; A. Shafiee; A. Foroumadi

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancer. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of some selected medicinal plants on clinical isolates of H.

  12. Medicinal plants used by latino healers for women’s health conditions in New York City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Balick; Fredi Kronenberg; Andreana L. Ososki; Marian Reiff; Adriane Fugh-Berman; O’Connor Bonnie; Maria Roble; Patricia Lohr; Daniel Atha

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the use of medicinal plants by Latino healers in New York City to treat various women’s illnesses. Eight\\u000a Latino healers collaborated on the study through consultations with female patients who had one of the following conditions\\u000a as diagnosed by biomedically trained physicians: uterine fibroids, hot flashes, menorrhagia, or endometriosis. The study identified\\u000a a total of 67 plant

  13. In vitro clonal propagation of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon (barangi): a rare and threatened medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sharma; S. K. Rai; D. K. Purshottam; M. Jain; D. Chakrabarty; A. Awasthi; K. N. Nair; Ashok Kumar Sharma

    2009-01-01

    An in vitro process for rapid clonal propagation of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon, a rare and threatened medicinal shrub, has been developed. Nodal stem segments having axillary bud, taken from\\u000a field-grown plant, showed bud-break within 15 days of culture on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) (Physiol Plant 15:473–497,\\u000a 1962) medium supplemented with 0.25 mg\\/l each of 6-benzylaminopurine and indole-3-acetic acid along with

  14. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants against growth of phytopathogenic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vasinauskien?; J. Radušien?; I. Zitikait?

    In search for alternative ways of plant disease control, essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants were studied for their antibacterial properties. In a preliminary evaluation, steam-distilled essential oils from oregano, sweet-flag, caraway, peppermint, common, fern leaf and willow-leaved yarrow field accessions were investigated against growth of phytopathogenic bacteria. The disc-diffusion method was used for the assessment of inhibitory effects

  15. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2007-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of ailments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 ailments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific ailment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of ailments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana). PMID:17355645

  16. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2007-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 aliments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific aliment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of aliments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana). PMID:17355645

  17. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

  18. In vitro antidiabetic potential of the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S S; Islam, M N; Jung, H A; Choi, J S

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to develop alternative medicine for the treatment of diabetes and related complications, the antidiabetic potential of the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida was evaluated. The antidiabetic potential of the methanol (MeOH) extract as well as different solvent soluble fractions of the fruits of C. pinnatifida was evaluated via ?-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory assays. The MeOH extract showed potent inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, and AGEs formation with IC50 values of 122.11, 3.66 and 65.83 ?g/ml respectively, while it showed moderate inhibitory activity against RLAR with the IC50 value of 160.54 ?g/ml. Among different fractions, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) fractions were found as active fractions exhibiting potential ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, RLAR inhibitory, and AGEs formation inhibitory activities. Seven compounds including hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, 3-epicorosolic acid, ?-sitosterol, ?-sitosterol glucoside were isolated from these two fractions. 3-Epicorosolic acid showed both potent ?-glucosidase and PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 30.18 and 4.08 ?g/ml respectively. Moreover, kinetic study revealed that 3-epicorosolic acid showed mixed type inhibition against PTP1B, while it showed uncompetitive inhibition against ?-glucosidase. Therefore, these results suggest that the fruits of C. pinnatifida and its constituents have potential antidiabetic activity which might be used as a functional food for the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. PMID:25598795

  19. In vitro antidiabetic potential of the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, S.S.; Islam, M.N.; Jung, H.A.; Choi, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to develop alternative medicine for the treatment of diabetes and related complications, the antidiabetic potential of the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida was evaluated. The antidiabetic potential of the methanol (MeOH) extract as well as different solvent soluble fractions of the fruits of C. pinnatifida was evaluated via ?-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory assays. The MeOH extract showed potent inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, and AGEs formation with IC50 values of 122.11, 3.66 and 65.83 ?g/ml respectively, while it showed moderate inhibitory activity against RLAR with the IC50 value of 160.54 ?g/ml. Among different fractions, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) fractions were found as active fractions exhibiting potential ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, RLAR inhibitory, and AGEs formation inhibitory activities. Seven compounds including hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, 3-epicorosolic acid, ?-sitosterol, ?-sitosterol glucoside were isolated from these two fractions. 3-Epicorosolic acid showed both potent ?-glucosidase and PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 30.18 and 4.08 ?g/ml respectively. Moreover, kinetic study revealed that 3-epicorosolic acid showed mixed type inhibition against PTP1B, while it showed uncompetitive inhibition against ?-glucosidase. Therefore, these results suggest that the fruits of C. pinnatifida and its constituents have potential antidiabetic activity which might be used as a functional food for the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. PMID:25598795

  20. Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gyan Chand; Jangir, Ram Niwas

    2014-07-01

    Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models. PMID:25125884

  1. Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gyan Chand; Jangir, Ram Niwas

    2014-01-01

    Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models. PMID:25125884

  2. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    PubMed Central

    Runyoro, Deborah KB; Matee, Mecky IN; Ngassapa, Olipa D; Joseph, Cosam C; Mbwambo, Zakaria H

    2006-01-01

    Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay method, using a standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Results Twenty- seven (48%) out of the 56 plants were found to be active. Extracts of the root barks of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca, and roots of Plectranthus barbatus showed strong activity. Conclusion The extracts that showed strong anti-Candida activity are worth of further investigation in order to isolate and identify the active compounds. PMID:16571139

  3. Antifungal screening of medicinal plants of British Columbian native peoples.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, A R; Ellis, S M; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

    1994-12-01

    One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antifungal activity against 9 fungal species. Eighty-one were found to have some antifungal activity and 30 extracts showed activity against 4 or more of the fungi assayed. The extracts with the greatest fungal inhibition were prepared from Alnus rubra catkins, Artemisia ludoviciana aerial parts, Artemisia tridentata aerial parts, Geum macrophyllum roots, Mahonia aquifolium roots and Moneses uniflora aerial parts. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants also exhibited antifungal activity against all 9 fungi: Asarum caudatum whole plant, Balsamorhiza sagittata roots, Empetrum nigrum branches, Fragaria chiloensis leaves, Gilia aggregata aerial parts and roots, Glehnia littoralis roots, Heracleum lanatum roots, Heuchera cylindrica roots and Rhus glabra branches. PMID:7898123

  4. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  5. A Simple Electrochemical Method for the Rapid Estimation of Antioxidant Potentials of Some Selected Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. Cyclic Voltammetry of methanolic extracts of seven medicinal plants: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  6. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  7. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, KN; Jamwal, Pankaj; Lal, Brij

    2006-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to illicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 35 plant species are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (45%) under ground part of the plant was used. New medicinal uses of Ranunculus hirtellus and Anemone rupicola are reported from this area. Similarly, preparation of "sik" a traditional recipe served as a nutritious diet to pregnant women is also not documented elsewhere. Implication of developmental activities and changing socio-economic conditions on the traditional knowledge are also discussed. PMID:16545146

  8. Screening of medicinal plants from Iranian traditional medicine for acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Farsam, Hassan; Krenn, Liselotte

    2011-08-01

    To find new herbal compounds with an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effect, this study focused on herbal drugs and resins which have been used in Iranian traditional medicine for the treatment of cognitive disorders. Forty drugs were selected from authoritative written documents of Iranian traditional medicine. Each drug was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction using dichloromethane followed by methanol. The 80 extracts were screened for AChE inhibitory activity by a TLC bioautography method. The inhibiting effect of the 32 most active extracts was measured by a microplate colorimetric assay. Due to the best activity, the seeds of Peganum harmala L. were investigated in detail. From the TLC bioautography assay the alkaloids harmaline and harmine were identified as active compounds. This result was confirmed by means of HPLC-DAD. The IC(50) values were 41.2??g/mL for the methanol extract, 95.5??g/mL for the dichloromethane extract, 8.4??g/mL for harmaline and 10.9??g/mL for harmine. The concentrations of active compounds in the extracts were determined by a fast and precise HPLC method. As the amounts of harmaline and harmine in the extracts were correlated with the IC(50) values of the extracts, it can be concluded that these two alkaloids are responsible for the AChE inhibitory activity of P. harmala. PMID:21287652

  9. Further molecular characterisation of potyviruses infecting aroid plants for medicinal use in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-H. Shi; X.-Y. Hong; J. Chen; M. J. Adams; H.-Y. Zheng; L. Lin; B.-X. Qin; J.-P. Chen

    2005-01-01

    Summary. Degenerate primers were used to detect and amplify 3?-terminal genome fragments of potyviruses from medicinal aroid plants growing at 16 sites in China. Virus was detected in 7 samples of which six, all of Pinellia ternata, contained a strain of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) similar to that previously reported from this host in China. The complete sequence of one

  10. The potential of South African plants in the development of new medicinal products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-E. Van Wyk

    Southern Africa is an important focal point of botanical and cultural diversity but only a few plant species have hitherto become fully commercialised as medicinal products. In recent years there has been an upsurge in research and development activity, resulting in several new products and new crops. In this review, more than 90 of the best-known and most promising indigenous

  11. CYCLEA BARBATA MIERS (MENISPERMACEAE): A NEW RECORD OF A MEDICINAL PLANT FROM SOUTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Manilal, K.S.; Sabu, T.

    1985-01-01

    Cyclea barbata Miers is reported for the first time from south India (Silent Valley forests, Kerala). This is commonly used as a medicinal plant in Java, for stomach troubles and as a prophylactic against fever. Nomenclature, description ad other relevant notes are provided. PMID:22557485

  12. Cultivation of Medicinal Plants from the Wild Flora in Bulgaria-Possibilities and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siya Angelova; Kana Varbanova; Ivanka Peeva; Yana Guteva; Dimitriya Dimitrova

    1994-01-01

    Research on the preservation and conservation of wild, medicinal plants in natural habitats has been used to select species for collections (ex situ and in situ) and cultivation. After 2 years study, the species could be grouped as those selections being widely distributed with adequate population size and suitable for in situ conservation (such as Clinopodium vulgare, Origanum vulgare, and

  13. Collection and Management of Selected Medicinal Plants in Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Zashim Uddin; Snigdha Roy

    This paper explores linkages between two selected medicinal plants, menda (Litsea glutinosa) and bohera (Terminalia bellerica), and the livelihoods of local people living in the vicinity of the Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary. We conducted four field trips to the study area and collected data from collectors and middlemen between February and June 2006. We interviewed a total of 67 people using

  14. Allelopathic Effects of Medicinal Plants on Food Crops in Garhwal, Himalaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohan Basotra; Shashi Chauhan; N. P. Todaria

    2005-01-01

    An aqueous leaf and root\\/tuber extracts of three important medicinal plant species (e.g., Bergenia ciliata, Hedychium spicatum and Potentilla fulgens) were tested for their allelopathic effects on germination, radicle and plumule elongation of Amaranthus caudatus, Eleusine coracana, Fagopyrum esculantum, Phaseolus mungoo, Phaseolus vulgaris and Triticum aestivum. The results revealed that: the allelopathic effects increased with increasing concentration of leachats from

  15. The trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Dold; M. L. Cocks

    A study of the trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape Prov- ince of South Africa undertook to document the species traded, to determine the quantities harvested annually, and to assess the economic value of the trade. All the participants involved at the different levels of the trade were included in the survey, that is, informal street hawkers, owners

  16. Status and conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants in the Indian trans-Himalaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandra Prakash Kala

    2000-01-01

    I studied the distribution pattern, population structure and conservation status of rare and endangered medicinal plant species in Spiti sub-division of Himachal Pradesh in the Indian trans-Himalaya. The entire study area was stratified into six zones based on geomorphological and phytogeographical variations. In each zone different habitat types for rare and endangered species were identified and sampled using quadrats. A

  17. Pressurized hot water extraction of bioactive or marker compounds in botanicals and medicinal plant materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eng Shi Ong; Jane Si Han Cheong; David Goh

    2006-01-01

    To reduce the use of organic solvent, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) has been shown to be a feasible option for the extraction of bioactive and marker compounds in botanicals and medicinal plants. The parameters that may affect the extraction efficiencies in PHWE include temperature, extraction time and addition of small percentage of organic solvent or surfactants. Currently, applications of

  18. In Vitro Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Four Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moni Rani Saha; Rumana Jahangir; Israt Jahan Biv

    2008-01-01

    The ethanol leaf extracts of four medicinal plants named Hibiscus mutabilis, Leucas aspera, Ixora coccinea and Polyalthia longifolia were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as a NO donor in vitro. Most of the extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity and the potency of scavenging activity was

  19. Quantity estimation of some contaminants in commonly used medicinal plants in the Egyptian market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. K Abou-Arab; M Soliman Kawther; M. E El Tantawy; R. Ismail Badeaa; Naguib Khayria

    1999-01-01

    Pesticide residues, heavy metal contents and aflatoxins were estimated in five medicinal plants frequently used by both infants and adults (peppermint, chamomile, anise, caraway and tilio). Samples were collected from different sources in the Egyptian market. Results showed that malathion, dimethoate and profenofos predominated in most of the analysed samples. On the other hand, the lowest mean levels were detected

  20. Ethnoveterinary medicines for cattle ( Bos indicus) in Bulamogi county, Uganda: plant species and mode of use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. S Tabuti; Shivcharn S Dhillion; Kaare A Lye

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present an inventory and the mode of use of plants to treat cattle. This study was carried out in Bulamogi county of Uganda, using methods consisting of semi-structured interviews employing a checklist of questions, questionnaires, direct observations, and biological inventories. Farmers employ both traditional and western medicine to treat their animals. The local people identified 33

  1. Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants of the pantanal region (mato grosso, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF??=??0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF??=??0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  2. 29-Norcucurbitacin derivatives isolated from the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Dikdik; Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo

    2008-02-01

    The new 29-norcucurbitacin, desacetylfevicordin A (1), together with three known 29-norcucurbitacin derivatives (2-4) were isolated from seeds of the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical transformation. These compounds exhibited toxicity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). PMID:18256498

  3. Natural Phenolic Compounds From Medicinal Herbs and Dietary Plants: Potential Use for Cancer Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Yanbo Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and also contribute to their inducing apoptosis by arresting

  4. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  5. In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of six Jordanian medicinal plants against three Mycoplasma species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Al-Momani; E. Abu-Basha; S. Janakat; R. A. J. Nicholas; R. D. Ayling

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro effect of six Jordanian traditional medicine plant methanolic extracts were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions in Jordan. All Mycoplasma species showed susceptibility to Artemisia herba-alba

  6. Evaluation of the activity of 16 medicinal plants against Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Shokeen; M. Bala; V. Tandon

    2009-01-01

    50% Ethanolic extracts of various parts of 16 medicinal plants were evaluated for potential activity against clinical isolates and WHO strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Activity was calculated as percentage inhibition in comparison with penicillin and ciprofloxacin and strains were categorised as less sensitive, sensitive or highly sensitive to the extracts. The extracts caused differential inhibition of

  7. Medicinal plants for insomnia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wheatley

    2005-01-01

    A number of medicinal plants are traditionally endowed with anxiolytic or sedative properties and, in the context of this revue, both indications are considered since the former may induce a mood conducive to the latter. For any sleep-inducing drug to be effective, a tranquil ambience needs to be established a priori. Thus, physical ailments (i.e. pain), factors interfering with sleep

  8. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M Soliman; R. I Badeaa

    2002-01-01

    Essential oils of 12 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme and cinnamon (?500 ppm), marigold (?2000 ppm), spearmint, basil, quyssum (3000 ppm) completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway was inhibitory at 2000 ppm against A. flavus, A. parasiticus and 3000 ppm against A. ochraceaus

  9. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF??=??0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF??=??0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  10. Assessment of Antimalarial Activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Phytochemical Screening of Some Yemeni Medicinal Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed A. Alshawsh; Ramzi A. Mothana; Hassan A. Al-shamahy; Salah F. Alsllami; Ulrike Lindequist

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as

  11. Screening of anti- Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Chuen Wang; Tung-Liang Huang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF CRUDE ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eze E A; Oruche N E; Onuora V. C; Eze C N

    2013-01-01

    Agar well diffusion techniques and macrobroth dilution methods were used to screen the ethanolic leaf extracts of four medicinal plants (Picralima nitida, Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana and Hyptis suaveolens) for antibacterial activity against the following bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. nitida ranged from 1.56 mg\\/ml

  13. Distribution pattern and conservation of threatened medicinal and aromatic plants of Central Himalaya, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Kandari; K. S. Rao; R. K. Maikhuri; G. Kharkwal; K. Chauhan; C. P. Kala

    A study was conducted to examine the distribution pattern of four rhizomatous medicinal and aromatic plant species (MAPs)\\u000a viz., Angelica glauca, Pleurospermum angelicoides, Rheum emodi and Arnebia benthamii in different forest stands in Central Himalaya. Results show that A. glauca and P. angelicoides had a higher (50%) frequency at Chipkoan, Garpak and Phagati forest, R. emodi had a higher (60%)

  14. Cytological effect of some medicinal plants used in the control of fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Schvartaman; D. B. Krimer; R. Moreno Azorero

    1977-01-01

    Summary The effects induced upon the cell cycle of Allium cepa meristems by 2 medicinal plants used in the control of fertility were studied. Infusions of Aristolochia triangularis induces typical c-mitotic figures. On the other hand, Stevia rebaudiana have no specific toxicological effects upon the cell cycle.

  15. Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Katalinic; M. Milos; T. Kulisic; M. Jukic

    2006-01-01

    The total phenolic content and related total antioxidant capacity of 70 medicinal plant infusions was analyzed. Infusions were prepared in common way in which teas are prepared for human consumption. The total phenolics were measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by Ferric Reducing\\/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. To make practical comparison of relative antioxidant potential of phenolics

  16. Comparison of the total antioxidant content of 30 widely used medicinal plants of New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. VanderJagt; R. Ghattas; D. J VanderJagt; M. Crossey; R. H Glew

    2002-01-01

    Teas made from medicinal plants are commonly used by a majority of the inhabitants of New Mexico and Mexico to treat various ailments including infections, arthritis, heart disorders, headaches, fever, asthma and menstrual pain. However, little is known about the identity or chemical nature of the bioactive substances and compounds responsible for the therapeutic effects of the teas made from

  17. Inhibitory effects of selected Thai medicinal plants on Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Manakit, Srinual; Pornpakakul, Surachai; Petsom, Amorn

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of ten Thai indigenous medicinal plants having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were tested for their Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity. The hexane extracts of Cyperus rotundus and Orthosiphon aristatus showed high potent inhibitory activity on crude enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase from rat brain. PMID:16860494

  18. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activity of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kawther F. Abed

    The antibacterial and anticandidal properties of essential oils obtained from 7 plant species used in traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries were evaluated for activity against test bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using an agar dilution method. Our results showed that oils from Azadirachta indica, Ziziphus spine, Matricaria chamomilla,

  19. Neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties of Salvia Reuterana: A mini review

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Elham; Andalib, Sasan; Abed, Alireza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Vaseghi, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Materials and Methods: The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Results: Salvia Reuterana possesses neurological, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties. Conclusions: Salvia Reuterana can be used as an alternative for treatment of several disorders. PMID:25767752

  20. Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  1. Hypoglycaemic activity of four plants used in Chilean popular medicine.

    PubMed

    Lemus, I; García, R; Delvillar, E; Knop, G

    1999-03-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of a 20% dried leaf infusion of Bauhinia candicans Benth. (Leguminosae), Galega officinalis L. (Leguminosae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), used for diabetes in Chilean popular medicine, was evaluated in alloxan and streptozotocin induced hyperglycaemic rats. In normal rats the different infusions did not modify significantly the glycaemia in the period studied, but in diabetic rats different results were observed, depending on the diabetogenic drug used. B. candicans and R. ulmifolius infusions elicited remarkable hypoglycaemic effects in both experimental models. B. candicans presented a greater decrease of glycaemia in alloxan diabetic rats (39%) and R. ulmifolius showed a similar activity in both alloxan and streptozotocin diabetic rats (28% and 29%). Activity-guided fractionation of R. ulmifolius showed that petroleum ether extracts elicited a marked hypoglycaemic effect (35%) in the streptozotocin induced model. PMID:10190178

  2. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Orhan; B ?ener; M. I Choudhary; A Khalid

    2004-01-01

    The chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida and Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. H. Rudolph (Papaveraceae), Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum and Rhododendron luteum Sweet. (Ericaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Caeselpiniaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae),

  3. Quality control of medicinal plants with an electronic nose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Baby; M. Cabezas; E. Castro; R. Filip; N. E. Walsöe de Reca

    2005-01-01

    In the last decades, a new interest in active components of phytodrugs as well as in the control of their quality has pointed out new ways to identify and characterize natural plants which, till present, did not fulfill the claimed specifications—Valerians among them. Valerians exhibit numerous and traditional medical uses. In this paper, the use of an electronic nose to

  4. MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY TRIBALS OF PANCHMAHALS DISTRICT, GUJARAT

    PubMed Central

    Painuli, R.M.; Maheshwari, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conduction in 20 tribal villages of Panchamahals district of Gujarat, inhabited by various tribal groups. The present communication records 36 plant species belongings to 34 genera and 27 families used by them in the treatment of various diseases and ailments. PMID:22556656

  5. Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Awadh Ali; W.-D Jülich; C Kusnick; U Lindequist

    2001-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by Yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. Fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. The active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation.

  6. In vitro manipulation and propagation of medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Rout; S. Samantaray; P. Das

    2000-01-01

    Well developed techniques are currently available to help growers meet the demand of the pharmaceutical industry in the next century. These protocols are designed to provide optimal levels of carbohydrates, organic compounds (vitamins), mineral nutrients, environmental factors (e.g. light, gaseous environment, temperature, and humidity) and growth regulators required to obtain high regeneration rates of many plant species in vitro and

  7. Identification of vibriocidal compounds from medicinal plants using chromatographic fingerprinting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anjana Sharma; Virendra Kumar Patel; Padmini Ramteke

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the vibriocidal activity of bark of Syzygium cumini, leaves of Lawsonia inermis, fruits of Terminalia bellerica and identify the bioactive compounds. The vibriocidal activity of plant extracts was determined in aqueous and organic solvents,\\u000a and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio spp. using the disk diffusion method was established. The

  8. Antithrombin activity of medicinal plants from central Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalya Chistokhodova; Chi Nguyen; Tony Calvino; Ioulia Kachirskaia; Glenn Cunningham; D Howard Miles

    2002-01-01

    A chromogenic bioassay was utilized to determine the antithrombin activity of methylene chloride and methanol extracts prepared from 30 plants of central Florida. Extracts of Ardisia crenata, Tetrapanax papyriferus, Lagerstroemia indica, Callistemon lanceolatus, Antigonon Leptopus, Magnolia virginiana, and Myrica cerifera demonstrated activity of 80% or higher in this bioassay system.

  9. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from Plectranthus tenuiflorus medicinal plant in Saudi Arabia desert and their antimicrobial activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahig El-Deeb; Khalaf Fayez; Youssuf Gherbawy

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and beneficial characteristics of endophytic microorganisms have been studied in Plectranthus tenuiflorus medicinal plant. However, information regarding naturally occurring P. tenuiflorus plant associated endophytes among different organs of host is limited. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stem, and leaves of P. tenuiflorus plant. Among 28 endophytic bacterial isolates from different organs of P. tenuiflorus plant, 8 isolates

  10. Effect of Plant Density on Yield, Yield Components and Effective Medicine Ingredients of Blond Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk.) Accessions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SABAGH NEKONAM; K. H. RAZMJOO

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant density on yield, yield components and effective medicine ingredients of eight blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk.) accessions. Eight accessions were grown in the field at three plant densities (80, 120 & 160 plants m-2). As plant density increased, biological yield increased from 797 to 1430 kg ha-1 and

  11. Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malakand valley of District Dir (Lower) is endowed with a diverse plant wealth. Ethnoveterinary knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible. Methods The present study was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Malakand valley, District Dir (Lower). Data was collected from February 2012 to January 2013 by interviewing 120 inhabitants through semi-structured questionnaires. Different questions were asked to collect appropriate data regarding the use of plants for livestock treatment. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) was carried out to find out the use diversity of medicinal plants. Findings A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were collected and identified for the treatment of livestock in the study area. Majority of the plants were collected from wild (68%) habitat and very few from cultivated sources. The leaves (28%) were identified as the major plant part for herbal preparations. The most frequent ailments of livestocks in the study area were stomach disorders and Charmaikh (local disease name). Various ingredients were used along with ethnoveterinary medicines i.e. sugar, flour, milk etc. The elder people of the village had a rich knowledge as compared to the young generation. According to DMR output, Monotheca buxifolia ranked first and Dalbergia sisso and Melia azedarach ranked second due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened in the study area. Conclusion It has been concluded that the native of the region heavily dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of variety of livestock ailments. Traditional knowledge always provides a baseline for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The documentation of the ethnoveterinary practices in study area was necessary before this precious knowledge is lost forever due to rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological changes. PMID:24580769

  12. Medicinal plants used by the Tamang community in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Materials and methods This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation. Results A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies. Conclusions The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use. PMID:24410808

  13. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Grønhaug, Tom Erik; Glæserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2008-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants. PMID:19111068

  14. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

    PubMed Central

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

  15. In vitro micropropagation of Gymnema sylvestre – A multipurpose medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Komalavalli; M. V. Rao

    2000-01-01

    The nature of the explant, seedling age, medium type, plant growth regulators, complex extracts (casein hydrolysate, coconut\\u000a milk, malt extract and yeast extract) and antioxidants (activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, citric acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone)\\u000a markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Gymnema sylvestre. A maximum number of shoots (57.2) were induced from 30 day old seedling axillary node explants on Murashige and

  16. Abortifacient activity of a medicinal plant "moringa oleifera" in rats.

    PubMed

    Sethi, N; Nath, D; Shukla, S C; Dyal, R

    1988-01-01

    Dried powder of leaf extract of common Indian plant Moringa Oleifera of Moringaceae family was tested experimentally in albino rats in our laboratory for its antifertility activity. Cant per cent abortifacient activity was found when administered orally in aqueous solution at dose of 175 mg/kg body weight daily to Charles foster strain albino rats from days 5-10 post mated. PMID:22557610

  17. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Anita Mahapatra; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed\\u000a attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species\\u000a including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent,\\u000a and larvicidal activity of crude hexane,

  18. A chemometric approach to distribution of selenium in medicinal plants cultivated in poland.

    PubMed

    Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata; Wesolowski, Marek

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of selenium (Se) in common raw plant materials (herbs, leaves, flowers, fruits, and roots) obtained from medicinal plants cultivated in Poland. Furthermore, the relationship between the morphological part of a plant and its species was examined, and the concentration of Se in it was measured. Spectrofluorimetric determination of Se in 148 samples of 44 plant species revealed that the majority of the plants contained Se at a level from several to several tens of ?g/kg dry weight (d.w.). A relatively high Se concentration, in the order of 50 ?g/kg d.w., was found in Majoranae herba, Crataegi fructus, and Lini semen. An especially high Se level, >100 ?g/kg d.w., was found in only three plants-Equiseti herba, Farfarae folium, and Cichorii radix. Application of a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test indicates that the morphological variable influences the level of Se in the studied groups of raw plant materials. The mean concentration of Se in fruits differs significantly from that found in flowers and roots. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the Se content in herbs and leaves and its levels in fruits, flowers, and roots. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis calculations show that it is possible to relate the Se concentration in plant material to the plant species and botanical family of the medicinal plant in only a few cases. Analysis of average Se levels in the plant species showed that the plants belonging to the Apiaceae and Labiatae botanical families are more Se-rich than those belonging to Rosaceae. PMID:23631496

  19. Inhibitory effects of Indonesian medicinal plants on the infection of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nawawi, A; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kurokawa, M; Shiraki, K

    1999-02-01

    Water and methanol extracts of 30 traditional medicinal plants, collected in Indonesia, were tested for their anti HSV-1 activity. The extracts of eight plant species showed potent activity on the plaque assay at a concentration of 100 micrograms/mL. The therapeutic efficacy of seven selected plants was demonstrated by using a mouse HSV-1 infection assay, both the methanol extracts of the fruit of Melaleuca leucadendron (Myrtaceae) and the pericarp of Nephelium lappaceum (Sapindaceae) significantly prolonged the development of skin lesions and reduced the mortality. PMID:10189948

  20. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of selected chinese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Lin; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xiao, Qin; Kuang, Lei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20640157

  1. Metabolic engineering of medicinal plants: transgenic Atropa belladonna with an improved alkaloid composition.

    PubMed

    Yun, D J; Hashimoto, T; Yamada, Y

    1992-12-15

    The tropane alkaloid scopolamine is a medicinally important anticholinergic drug present in several solanaceous plants. Hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.11) catalyzes the oxidative reactions in the biosynthetic pathway leading from hyoscyamine to scopolamine. We introduced the hydroxylase gene from Hyoscyamus niger under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into hyoscyamine-rich Atropa belladonna by the use of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. A transgenic plant that constitutively and strongly expressed the transgene was selected, first by screening for kanamycin resistance and then by immunoscreening leaf samples with an antibody specific for the hydroxylase. In the primary transformant and its selfed progeny that inherited the transgene, the alkaloid contents of the leaf and stem were almost exclusively scopolamine. Such metabolically engineered plants should prove useful as breeding materials for obtaining improved medicinal components. PMID:1465402

  2. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2005-06-01

    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  3. Complementary Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu with Medicinal Plants – Results from Two Samples of Pharmacy Customers in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable. PMID:23484045

  4. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, R.W.; Malca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Nilsen, B.; Parris, B.; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D.; Saleda, J.; Martinez, M.; Carillo, L.; Walker, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. Materials and methods The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay. Results Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Conclusions Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. PMID:21575699

  5. Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kabir O Akinyemi; Olukayode Oladapo; Chidi E Okwara; Christopher C Ibe; Kehinde A Fasure

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Six Nigerian medicinal plants Terminalia avicennioides, Phylantus discoideus, Bridella ferruginea, Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum gratissimum and Acalypha wilkesiana used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for in vitro anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. METHODS: Fresh plant materials were collected from the users. Water and ethanol extracts of the

  6. Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plant use by traditional healers in Oshikoto region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish a regional profile of the indigenous knowledge system (IKS) for medicinal plant use and cultural practices associated with the healing process of these plants by traditional healers in the Oshikoto region, Namibia. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers during September and October 2008. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips in the ten constituencies of the Oshikoto region. A total of 47 respondents were interviewed with most of them aged 66 and above. Results The traditional healers in Oshikoto region use 61 medicinal plant species that belong to 25 families for the treatment of various diseases and disorders with the highest number of species being used for mental diseases followed by skin infection and external injuries. Trees (28 species) were found to be the most used plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (10 species) and climbers (4 species). The average of the informant consensus factor (FIC) value for all ailment categories was 0.75. High FIC values were obtained for Pergularia daemia, and Tragia okanyua, which were reported to treat weakness and dizziness problems, snake bite, swelling and cardiovascular problems indicating that these species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth examining for bioactive compounds. Conclusions The traditional healers in Oshikoto possess rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. This study allows for identifying many high value medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection of these medicinal plants. PMID:21388534

  7. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  8. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  9. In vitro 5Lipoxygenase and Anti-Oxidant Activities of South African Medicinal Plants Commonly Used Topically for Skin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Frum; A. M. Viljoen

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the possible mechanisms of action of medicinal plants used for dermatological pathologies. A total of 14 plant species were selected from the readily available ethnobotanical literature. 5-Lipoxygenase and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays were used to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and the anti-oxidant activity of selected medicinal plants, respectively. Both aqueous and methanol extracts were tested.

  10. Medicinal plants in a Middle Paleolithic grave Shanidar IV?

    PubMed

    Lietava, J

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with phytopharmacological evaluation of the therapeutic potential of the plants found in the Neanderthal grave of a Shanidar IV individual (Iraq), where the palynological analysis of some other authors discovered the following flowers: Achillea-type, Centaurea solstitialis, Senecio-type, Muscari-type, Ephedra altissima, Althea-type. The purpose of our theoretical analysis was to evaluate the objective healing activity of the flowers. The result of the research revealed that Shanidar IV flowers possess considerable therapeutic effects with marked medical activity, which could be an intentional reason for the selection of the flowers in Middle Paleolithic Shanidar Neanderthals. PMID:1548898

  11. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

  12. Determination of some toxic and essential metal ions in medicinal and edible plants from Mali.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Ababacar; Diallo, Drissa; Bye, Ragnar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2005-03-23

    Plants are used in different ways in Mali, among those as medicine and as food. The monitoring of metals in the plants is of great importance for protecting the public from the hazards of possible toxic effects and also for informing the population about the nutritional value of the plants. The concentrations of some toxic and essential metal ions were surveyed in seven medicinal and edible plants from Mali. Dry ashing of the plant material and subsequent use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry were the analytical methodologies used. Iron, manganese, and zinc were found in high concentrations in some of the plants, i.e., 1.4 and 1.5 mg/g iron in Cuminum cyminum and Bombax costatum, respectively, 243 microg/g manganese in Hibiscus sabdariffa, and 62.8 and 67.1 microg/g zinc in Spilanthes oleracaea and B. costatum, respectively, whereas cobalt and cadmium were not detected in any of the plant material studied. The other ions detected, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cu, were present in minor amounts, in the ranges of 2.2-17.2 microg/g for Cr, 1.6-8.1 microg/g for Ni, 0.7-5.2 microg/g for Pb, and 2.4-17.1 microg/g for Cu. From a toxicological point of view, none of these plants would be harmful for the user by taking in the plant material in the traditional manner, which is preparing an infusion of the plant using amounts not adding up to those necessary to reach a harmful level of the metal ions detected. The plants B. costatum and C. cyminum could be of interest as sources for iron for humans in the case of too low of a level of hemoglobin. PMID:15769174

  13. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  14. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C.E.; Oladeinde, F. O.; Kinyua, A.M.; Michelin, R.; Makinde, J.M.; Jaiyesimi, A.A.; Mbiti, W.N.; Kamau, G.N.; Kofi-Tsekpo, W.M.; Pramanik, S.; Williams, A.; Kennedy, A.; Bronner, Y.; Clarke, K.; Fofonoff, P.; Nemerson, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  15. Assay method for quality control and stability studies of a new anti-diabetic and anti-dyslipidemic flavone (S002-853)*

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Arshi; Pandey, Anuja; Gupta, Varsha; Malasoni, Richa; Srivastava, Akansha; Pandey, Rishi Ranjan; Satyanarayana, M.; Pratap, Ram; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Flavonoid-rich extract of the plant is long known for its anti-diabetic activities in traditional medicine. S002-853, a new flavone derivative synthesized by Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) has been used for the present study. Objectives: The present study aimed at development of an assay method for quality control (QC) and stability studies of a new anti-diabetic and anti-dyslipidemic agent CDRI compound S002-853. Materials and Methods: A validated high-performance liquid chromatography analysis method for S002-853 was developed for in process QC and stability studies. The separation was achieved on a RP-C18 (25 cm × 0.4 cm, 5 ?m, Phenomenex) at 240 nm with flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. This method was applied successfully in establishing forced degradation and drug-excipient testing protocols as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The result of estimation and stress testing studies indicated a high degree of selectivity of this method. S002-853 was most stable at pH 7 and under photolytic conditions. The temperature degradation pattern of S002-853 was found to follow the zero order degradation. Conclusion: The method described is easy and simple hence can be easily reproduced. This method can be very useful for bulk manufacture QC, and drug development process.

  16. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22301818

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  18. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  19. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  20. [Study on species and distribution of flora of national rare and endangered medicinal plant in the Three Gorges area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    According to the China Plant Red Data Book and National Key Protected Wild Plants, the distribution of the rare and endangered plants and national conservative plants in the Three Gorges area were investigated and statistically analyzed. Its floristic composition and characteristics of geographical distribution were explored. As a result, a total of 97 species of medicinal flora belonging to rare and endangered national protection plants were found in the Three Gorges area. They come from 81 genera of 46 families. Their vertical distribution is obvious and horizontal distribution has discontinuous overlap. There are many ancient relict medicinal plants in the Three Gorges area. These medicinal plants have obvious temperate characteristics, and are easily found at warm and moist ravines and hillsides; The proportion of tree is much higher than that of herb, vine, shrub and fern. Most of them belong to specific and monotypic genera. PMID:24133994

  1. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol Extracts from 8 Traditional Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-Geun; Hah, Dae-Sik; Kim, Chung-Hui; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-01-01

    The methanol extract of 12 medicinal plants were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (5 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (10 strains) by assay for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) . The antibacterial activity was determined by an agar dilution method (according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) . All the compounds (12 extracts) of the 8 medicinal plants (leaf or root) were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative showed a more potent action than Gram positive bacteria. The MIC concentrations were various ranged from 0.6 ?g/ml to 5000 ?g/ml. The lowest MIC (0.6 ?g/ml) and MBC (1.22 ?g/ml) values were obtained with extract on 4 and 3 of the 15 microorganisms tested, respectively. PMID:24278548

  2. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Hezar Mountain Allocated in South East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Peyman; Mohamadi, Neda

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is the result of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology survey on the Hezar Mountain in SE of Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this region. The plants were collected in and around Hezar mountain from 2008-2010. The authors have conducted an interview of total 75 informants; The traditional uses of 92 species belonging to 35 vascular plant families and 78 genera have been recorded. The largest number of medicinal species came from Lamiaceae (15.2%). The most common preparations were decoction and infusion. These species are utilized to treat several ailments which the most common of them are digestive disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, (25.4%), renal and genital disorders (13%), respiratory tract system disorders (11.8%), and heart-blood circulatory system disorders (10.2%) respectively. PMID:24250549

  3. Screening of Korean medicinal plants for possible osteoclastogenesis effects in vitro.

    PubMed

    Youn, Yu Na; Lim, Erang; Lee, Nari; Kim, Young Seop; Koo, Min Seon; Choi, Soon Young

    2008-02-01

    Bone undergoes continuous remodeling through bone formation and resorption, and maintaining the balance for skeletal rigidity. Bone resorption and loss are generally attributed to osteoclasts. Differentiation of osteoclasts is regulated by receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-kB ligand (RANKL), a member of tumor necrosis factor family. When the balance is disturbed, pathological bone abnormality ensues. Through the screening of traditional Korean medicinal plants, the effective molecules for inhibition and stimulation of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages were identified. Among 222 methanol extracts, of medicinal plants, 10 samples exhibited ability to induce osteoclast differentiation. These include Dryobalanops aromatica, Euphoria longana, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Prunus mume, Prunus nakaii, and Polygonatum odoratum. In contrast, Ailanthus altissima, Curcuma longa, Solanum nigrum, Taraxacum platycarpa, Trichosanthes kirilowii, and Daphne genkwa showed inhibitory effects in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. PMID:18850234

  4. Screening of Korean medicinal plants for possible osteoclastogenesis effects in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Yu Na; Lim, Erang; Lee, Nari; Kim, Young Seop; Koo, Min Seon

    2007-01-01

    Bone undergoes continuous remodeling through bone formation and resorption, and maintaining the balance for skeletal rigidity. Bone resorption and loss are generally attributed to osteoclasts. Differentiation of osteoclasts is regulated by receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-kB ligand (RANKL), a member of tumor necrosis factor family. When the balance is disturbed, pathological bone abnormality ensues. Through the screening of traditional Korean medicinal plants, the effective molecules for inhibition and stimulation of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages were identified. Among 222 methanol extracts, of medicinal plants, 10 samples exhibited ability to induce osteoclast differentiation. These include Dryobalanops aromatica, Euphoria longana, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Prunus mume, Prunus nakaii, and Polygonatum odoratum. In contrast, Ailanthus altissima, Curcuma longa, Solanum nigrum, Taraxacum platycarpa, Trichosanthes kirilowii, and Daphne genkwa showed inhibitory effects in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. PMID:18850234

  5. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150?g/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. PMID:24742906

  6. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

    2010-05-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol of R. nasutus, the seed methanol of S. torvum, and the seed acetone of T. chebula were tested against the adult of P. cervi (LC(50) = 180.54, 168.59, 200.89, and 87.08 ppm; LC(90) = 597.51, 558.65, 690.37, and 433.85 ppm), respectively. Therefore, this study provides first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20306205

  7. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Orhan, I; Sener, B; Choudhary, M I; Khalid, A

    2004-03-01

    The chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida and Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. H. Rudolph (Papaveraceae), Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum and Rhododendron luteum Sweet. (Ericaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Caeselpiniaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae), Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae), Fumaria vaillantii Lois., Fumaria capreolata L., Fumaria kralikii Jordan, Fumaria asepala Boiss., Fumaria densiflora DC., Fumaria flabellata L., Fumaria petteri Reichb. subsp. thuretii (Boiss.) Pugsley, Fumaria macrocarpa Boiss. ex Hausskn., Fumaria cilicica Hauskkn., Fumaria parviflora Lam. and Fumaria judaica Boiss. (Fumariaceae) were screened for their anticholinesterase activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes by in vitro Ellman method at 10 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations. The extracts did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity against both of the enzymes at 10 microg/ml. The extracts of Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Rhododendron luteum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida, Glaucium corniculatum, and Buxus sempervirens showed remarkable inhibitory activity above 50% inhibition rate on AChE at 1 mg/ml. Among them, Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida and Buxus sempervirens were the most active extracts against BChE having 95.46 +/- 1.03%, 93.08 +/- 0.97%, and 93.45 +/- 0.88% inhibition rates, respectively. Among the extracts screened, all of the Fumaria extracts displayed highly potent inhibition against both of the enzymes at 1 mg/ml concentration compared to the standard. PMID:15036468

  8. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  9. Data Mining Methods for Omics and Knowledge of Crude Medicinal Plants toward Big Data Biology

    PubMed Central

    Afendi, Farit M.; Ono, Naoaki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Darusman, Latifah K.; Kibinge, Nelson; Morita, Aki Hirai; Tanaka, Ken; Horai, Hisayuki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md.; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu) as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology. PMID:24688691

  10. Data Mining Methods for Omics and Knowledge of Crude Medicinal Plants toward Big Data Biology.

    PubMed

    Afendi, Farit M; Ono, Naoaki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Darusman, Latifah K; Kibinge, Nelson; Morita, Aki Hirai; Tanaka, Ken; Horai, Hisayuki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu) as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology. PMID:24688691

  11. In vitro flowering of Withania somnifera Dunal.—An important antitumor medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Saritha; C. V. Naidu

    2007-01-01

    In vitro flowering, in vitro fruiting and effective micropropagation protocol were studied in Withania somnifera, an antitumor medicinal plant using axillary bud explants. The Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) supplemented with N6-benzyl adenine (BA) 2.0mgl?1 and ?-naphthalene acetic acid 0.1mgl?1 was found optimum for production of multiple shoots. The regenerated plantlets were found to form tiny green floral buds after

  12. L-Asparaginase production by actinomycetes isolated from some Thai medicinal plant rhizosphere soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sutthinan Khamna; Akira Yokota; Saisamorn Lumyong

    The actinomycetes (445 strains), isolated from 16 Thai medicinal plant rhizosphere soils were examined for their L-asparaginase activity. It was found that thirty strains showed enzyme activity. The range of enzyme production was 0.03-1.50 ?mol ammonia\\/ml\\/hour. Strain CMU-H002 isolated from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) rhizosphere soil showed highest enzyme activity. Based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain was most

  13. Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata , in rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuusuke Sekiguchi; Hiroshi Mano; Sachie Nakatani; Jun Shimizu; Masahiro Wada

    2010-01-01

    Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated,\\u000a both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as

  14. Cytotoxicity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts on pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Our study focuses upon pancreatic cancer, due to its high mortality rate, that is attributed in part to the lack of an effective chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports on the use of medicinal plant extracts either alone or alongside conventional anticancer agents in the treatment of this cancer have shown promising results. This work aims to investigate the therapeutic properties of a library of medicinal plants from Bangladesh. Methods 56 extracts of 44 unique medicinal plants were studied. The extracts were screened for cytotoxicity against the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1, using a label-free biosensor assay. The top cytotoxic extracts identified in this screen were tested on two additional pancreatic cancer cell lines (Mia-Paca2 and Capan-1) and a fibroblast cell line (Hs68) using an MTT proliferation assay. Finally, one of the most promising extracts was studied using a caspase-3 colorimetric assay to identify induction of apoptosis. Results Crude extracts of Petunia punctata, Alternanthera sessilis, and Amoora chittagonga showed cytotoxicity to three cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 20.3 - 31.4 ?g/mL, 13.08 - 34.9 ?g/mL, and 42.8 - 49.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of Panc-1 cells with Petunia punctata was shown to increase caspase-3 activity, indicating that the observed cytotoxicity was mediated via apoptosis. Only Amoora chittagonga showed low cytotoxicity to fibroblast cells with an IC50 value > 100 ?g/mL. Conclusion Based upon the initial screening work reported here, further studies aimed at the identification of active components of these three extracts and the elucidation of their mechanisms as cancer therapeutics are warranted. PMID:20849608

  15. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activities of Indonesian medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Usia; H. Iwata; A. Hiratsuka; T. Watabe; S. Kadota; Y. Tezuka

    2006-01-01

    Thirty samples of Indonesian medicinal plants were analyzed for their capacity to inhibit in vitro metabolism by human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and CYP2D6 with a radiometric assay. The MeOH-soluble fractions of 25 samples, prepared from water extracts, demonstrated inhibitory activity more than 50% on the metabolism mediated by CYP3A4, and 21 samples on the metabolism mediated by CYP2D6. Among

  16. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramanyam Ragupathy; Newmaster G Steven; Murugesan Maruthakkutti; Balasubramaniam Velusamy; Muneer M Ul-Huda

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian\\u000a Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional\\u000a healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their

  17. Ethnobotany of Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): Plants used in veterinary medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Àngels Bonet; Joan Vallès

    2007-01-01

    The present paper deals with plants used in veterinary medicine in Montseny. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Montseny massif, which is situated in north-east Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), covers 826km2 and has a population of 80,000. The information was obtained through 120 ethnobotanical interviews to 180 informants. Out of 584 species reported, 351 are claimed to be used

  18. Genome screening for reducing type I polyketide synthase genes in tropical fungi associated with medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juangjun Jumpathong; Yasuyo Seshime; Isao Fujii; John Peberdy; Saisamorn Lumyong

    The aim of this work was to employ primers, which encode ketosynthase (KS) domains designed to detect Lovastatin-type PKSs\\u000a (highly reduced molecules), to identify fungal species that have the potential for polyketide production. Using this strategy\\u000a we have identified twenty-three KS sequences from twenty different fungal strains associated with medicinal plants found in\\u000a Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis based on these sequences

  19. The use of medicinal plants by the Yanomami Indians of Brazil, Part II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Milliken; Bruce Albert

    1997-01-01

    The results of ethnobotanical fieldwork among two Yanomami communities are presented, and the knowledge of medicinal plants\\u000a and fungi among those communities is discussed in the light of recent evidence that the Yanomami possess, contrary to previous\\u000a assumptions, an extensive pharmacopoeia. In addition to the 113 species already known to be used by the group, a further 85\\u000a species are

  20. Determination of quinolizidine alkaloids in Sophora medicinal plants by capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunqiu Yu; Peilan Ding; Daofeng Chen

    2004-01-01

    A new capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of quinolizidine alkaloids in Sophora medicinal plants was developed. A total of seven alkaloid components (cytisine, sophocarpine, matrine, lehmannine, sophoranol, oxymatrine and oxysophocarpine) were separated within 15min. The running buffer was a 50mM phosphate buffer containing 1%HP-?-CD and 3.3% isopropanol. The linear calibration ranges were 5.50–88.0?gml?1 for cytisine and lehmannine, 5.00–88.0?gml?1

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants from Rwanda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ancilla Muhayimana; Jean-Claude Chalchat; Raymond-Philippe Garry

    1998-01-01

    We report the chemical compositions of the essential oils of five medicinal plants from Rwanda belonging to the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae): Leonitis nepetifolia, Leucas martinicensis, Plectranthus sylvestris, Plectranthus harbatus and Satureja pseudosimensis. Only the oil of Plectanthus harbatus had been studied previously. The main components of Leonitis nepetifolia leaf and flower oils were linalool (0.5% and 10.5%), ?-caryophyllene (10.3% and

  2. Activity of essential oils from Brazilian medicinal plants on Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Cristina Teixeira Duarte; Ewerton Eduardo Leme; Camila Delarmelina; Andressa Almeida Soares; Glyn Mara Figueira; Adilson Sartoratto

    2007-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from leaves of 29 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against 13 different Escherichia coli serotypes. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by microdilution method. Essential oil from Cymbopogon martinii exhibited a broad inhibition spectrum, presenting strong activity (MIC between 100 and 500?g\\/mL)

  3. Antihyperglycemic activity and antidiabetic effect of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Sasikumar, Ponnusamy

    2011-11-30

    Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternatives to treat diabetes mellitus. Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit is widely used in the traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes. In the present study methyl caffeate, isolated from S. torvum fruit, was screened for its efficacy in controlling diabetes in animal models. Antihyperglycemic effect of methyl caffeate was studied in normal glucose-fed rats. The effects of oral administration of methyl caffeate (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) for 28 days on body weight, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, total protein, hepatic glycogen and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were investigated. Histological observations in the pancreas and GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscles were also studied. Methyl caffeate at 40 mg/kg significantly prevented the increase in blood glucose level after glucose administration at 60 min in comparison to the hyperglycemic control group. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, methyl caffeate produced significant reduction in blood glucose and increased body weight. The levels and/or activities of other biochemical parameters were near normal due to treatment with methyl caffeate. Methyl caffeate treated diabetic rats showed upregulation of GLUT4 and regeneration of ?-cells in the pancreas. These results substantiated that methyl caffeate possessed hypoglycemic effect, and it could be developed into a potent oral antidiabetic drug. PMID:21963451

  4. Integrative approach to analyze biodiversity and anti-inflammatory bioactivity of wedelia medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Ching; Wen, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Ching-I; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2015-01-01

    For the development of "medical foods" and/or botanical drugs as defined USA FDA, clear and systemic characterizations of the taxonomy, index phytochemical components, and the functional or medicinal bioactivities of the reputed or candidate medicinal plant are needed. In this study, we used an integrative approach, including macroscopic and microscopic examination, marker gene analysis, and chemical fingerprinting, to authenticate and validate various species/varieties of Wedelia, a reputed medicinal plant that grows naturally and commonly used in Asian countries. The anti-inflammatory bioactivities of Wedelia extracts were then evaluated in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. Different species/varieties of Wedelia exhibited distinguishable morphology and histological structures. Analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed significant differences among these plants. Chemical profiling of test Wedelia species demonstrated candidate index compounds and distinguishable secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, which may serve as phytochemical markers or index for quality control and identification of specific Wedelia species. In assessing their effect on treating DSS induced-murine colitis, we observed that only the phytoextract from W. chinensis species exhibited significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity on DSS-induced murine colitis among the various Wedelia species commonly found in Taiwan. Our results provide a translational research approach that may serve as a useful reference platform for biotechnological applications of traditional phytomedicines. Our findings indicate that specific Wedelia species warrant further investigation for potential treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26042672

  5. In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ?-glucosidase and ?-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase, while most had no effect on ?-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway. PMID:24741398

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    PubMed Central

    Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13?µL/mL, 6.25?µL/mL and 12.5?µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3?hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10??g/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ?1.57??L/mL, ?3??L/mL, and ?12.7??L/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ?0.78??L/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200?mg/mL within 24?h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked. PMID:24649357

  7. Micellar liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Thogchai, W; Liawruangrath, B

    2013-06-01

    A simple micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) procedure for simultaneous determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products was proposed. This method was developed and validated. The chromatographic conditions were also optimized. All analyses were performed at room temperature in an isocratic mode, using a mixture of 1% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.006 mol L?¹ Brij 35 (pH 6.0) as a mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL min?¹. The analytical column was a 150 × 3.9 mm Nova-Pak C-18 column. The effluent from the analytical column was monitored by UV detection at 280 nm. Under the optimum conditions, arbutin and hydroquinone could be determined within a concentration range of 2-50 ?g mL?¹ of arbutin, and hydroquinone was obtained with the regression equations; y = 0.045x + 0.042 (r² = 0.9923) and y = 0.091x + 0.050 (r² = 0.9930) respectively. The limits of detection were found to be 0.51 ?g mL?¹ and 0.37 ?g mL?¹ for arbutin and hydroquinone respectively. The proposed MLC method was applied for the determination of arbutin and hydroquinone contents in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products. This proposed MLC method is thus suitable for routine analysis of arbutin and hydroquinone in the pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetic products and raw medicinal plant extracts. PMID:23347059

  8. Integrative Approach to Analyze Biodiversity and Anti-Inflammatory Bioactivity of Wedelia Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Ching-I; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2015-01-01

    For the development of “medical foods” and/or botanical drugs as defined USA FDA, clear and systemic characterizations of the taxonomy, index phytochemical components, and the functional or medicinal bioactivities of the reputed or candidate medicinal plant are needed. In this study, we used an integrative approach, including macroscopic and microscopic examination, marker gene analysis, and chemical fingerprinting, to authenticate and validate various species/varieties of Wedelia, a reputed medicinal plant that grows naturally and commonly used in Asian countries. The anti-inflammatory bioactivities of Wedelia extracts were then evaluated in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. Different species/varieties of Wedelia exhibited distinguishable morphology and histological structures. Analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed significant differences among these plants. Chemical profiling of test Wedelia species demonstrated candidate index compounds and distinguishable secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, which may serve as phytochemical markers or index for quality control and identification of specific Wedelia species. In assessing their effect on treating DSS induced-murine colitis, we observed that only the phytoextract from W. chinensis species exhibited significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity on DSS-induced murine colitis among the various Wedelia species commonly found in Taiwan. Our results provide a translational research approach that may serve as a useful reference platform for biotechnological applications of traditional phytomedicines. Our findings indicate that specific Wedelia species warrant further investigation for potential treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26042672

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13?µL/mL, 6.25?µL/mL and 12.5?µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3?hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10? ? g/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ?1.57? ? L/mL, ?3? ? L/mL, and ?12.7? ? L/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ?0.78? ? L/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200?mg/mL within 24?h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked. PMID:24649357

  10. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Leandro J.; Viloria-Bernal, María; Vicente, Francisca; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ruiz-Larrea, Maria Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera). Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte) contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin). By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. PMID:22754307

  11. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties Evaluation of 10 Iranian Medicinal Plants by Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Khoshnoud, Mohammad Javad; Kalanteri, Tahereh

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an interest in finding new and safe antioxidants from natural sources such as medicinal plants. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ten Iranian medicinal plants extracts. Materials and Methods For antioxidant activity, the radical scavenging activity, reducing power and phenolic contents of ethanol plant extracts were determined. Gallic acid was used as standard reference with well-documented antioxidant activity. Results The highest antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging was found in Verbascum sinuatum L. Var (VS) with an IC50 equal to 263.52 ± 5.981 ?g/ml and Rosa damascena Mill (RD) with and IC50 equal to 287.9 ± 5.675 ?g/ml that are higher than gallic acid (IC50 = 25.32 ± 5.593 ?g/ml). The highest antioxidant activity in terms of ferric reducing capacity was also found in Verbascum sinuatum L. Var extracts (in 85.08 ± 8.66 ?g/ml concentration with absorbance 0.5). Also, this extract contains the highest phenolic compounds (8.53 ± 0.11 mg/g). Conclusion In this study, Verbascum sinuatum L. Var contains the highest level of phenolic compounds may be contribute to higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power in comparison to the other plant extracts. Therefore this plant is a good candidate as natural antioxidant. PMID:23482923

  12. Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used to Cure Jaundice by Traditional Healers of Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; TaghavizadehYazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

  13. Medicinal plants use in central Togo (Africa) with an emphasis on the timing

    PubMed Central

    Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice D.; Agban, Amégninou; Bako, Mamouda; Batawila, Komlan; Bawa, Moctar L.; Gbeassor, Mensavi; de Souza, Comlan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plant-based remedies continue to play a key role in the health care of people in Togo; however, there is a lack of published data in medicinal plants and medical practices of the people in the country. Objective: This study was aimed at documenting the plant utilization in the Tem folk medicine in the central region of Togo. Materials and Methods: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted with traditional healers in the central region of Togo using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: This study demonstrated that local specialists in the central region of Togo tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat diabetes (ICF = 0.38), infertility, and abdominal pains (ICF = 0.33), but cite a much more diverse groups of plants to treat problems related to arterial hypertension, sickle cell disease, and abscess. They use 144 herbal concoctions made of 72 plants, distributed among 36 botanical families. The Euphorbiaceae family with eight species was best represented in terms of the number of species. The species with the highest use value were Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. (Meliaceae) (UV = 0.36), Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev. (Gentianaceae) (UV = 0.27), Trichilia emetica Vahl (Meliaceae) (UV = 0.25), and Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E. A. Bruce (Rubiaceae) (UV = 0.21). They also rely on the timing in the plant processing and the administration of herbal remedies. Conclusion: All these findings are based on empirical observations; laboratory screenings are needed to check the effectiveness of these plants. PMID:22518081

  14. A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study. Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article. In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for interpretation. Although there was no report for side effect in these trials, we believe that safety of these plants still remains to be elucidated by further long-term studies. PMID:23777875

  15. Antidiabetic and toxic effects of vanadium compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok K. Srivastava

    2000-01-01

    Compounds of the trace element vanadium have been shown to mimic insulin in in vitro and in vivo systems. These compounds have been found to exert anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in a limited number of studies in human diabetic subjects. Thus, vanadium compounds have emerged as agents for

  16. Progress in medicinal plant Rehmannia glutinosa : Metabolite profiling, tissue culture, growth and its regulation, and functional genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ling; R. R. Liu

    2009-01-01

    As an important medicinal plant, Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. is widely spread in East Asian countries, and its root, possessing multiple pharmacological values, is used as traditional\\u000a Chinese medicine in clinics. Recently, much progress in R. glutinosa has been made. Tissue culture and micropropagation have been applied to generate virus-free germs or homogeneous plants.\\u000a In vitro culture and generation of transgenic

  17. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  18. Antioxidant Activity and Glucose Diffusion Relationship of Traditional Medicinal Antihyperglycemic Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

    2013-01-01

    Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion. PMID:24551809

  19. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

  20. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-01-01

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants. PMID:21064026