Sample records for antifungals myclobutanil propiconazole

  1. COMPARATIVE LIVER P450 ENZYME ACTIVITY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY IN MICE TREATED WITH THE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES: MYCLOBUTANIL, PROPICONAZOLE AND TRIADIMETON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles used in agriculture and pharmaceutical products comprise a class of chemicals which inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis to act as fungicides. Both propiconazole and triadimefon are hepatotoxic and hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not a mouse liver tumorigen....

  2. TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILES IN LIVER FROM RATS TREATED WITH TUMORIGENIC AND NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES: PROPICONAZOLE, TRIADIMEFON, AND MYCLOBUTANIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are a class of fungicides used as pharmaceutical and agricultural agents. In chronic bioassays in rats, triadimefon was hepatotoxic and induced follicular cell adenomas in the thyroid gland, whereas, propiconazole and myclobutanil were hepatotoxic but had no effect on t...

  3. Inhibition of Rat and Human Steroidogenesis by Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemicals that alter steroid production could interfere with male reproductive development and function. Three agricultural antifungal triazoles (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) that are known to modulate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and e...

  4. TOXICITY PROFILES IN RATS TREATED WITH TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES: PROPICONAZOLE, TRIADIMEFON, AND MYCLOBUTANIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are a class of azole based fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceutical products. They have a common mode of antifungal action through inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Some members of this class have been shown to be hepatotoxic and will induce mouse hepa...

  5. Toxicogenomic Effects Common to Triazole Antifungals and Conserved Between Rats and Humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple time-points and various study d...

  6. TOXICITY PROFILES IN MICE TREATED WITH HEPATOTUMORIGENIC AND NON-HEPATOTUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES: PROPICONAZOLE, TRIADIMEFON, AND MYCLOBUTANIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles comprise a class of fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceutical products. The fungicidal properties of conazoles are due to their inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Certain conazoles are tumorigenic in rodents; both propiconazole and triadimefon are hepatot...

  7. Development of a difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA.

    PubMed

    Leng, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yunsong; Zhao, Maojun; Pan, Guangtang

    2012-06-01

    According to its physical and chemical properties, the composition of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was as follows: xylene as solvent, emulsifier HSH as surfactant and methanol as cosurfactant. The optimal formulation of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was oil/SAA/water = 1/2/5 (w/w), in which the SAA consisted of emulsifier HSH and methanol with ratio of 3/2 (w/w). The cloud point of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 70 degrees C and its effective ingredient content was 2.5% measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Its heat storage stability was studied according to the standards. The decomposition rates of the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion were merely 2.45%, 2.63% respectively and met the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standards of pesticide microemulsion. Investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) the particle size of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 90-140 nm and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA were tested and compared with that of Meiyu. We found that the inhibition rates in the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion treatment group were significantly higher than that of the emulsion group with the same content of effective ingredients and the study also revealed that its inhibiting ability on the formation and germination of sclerotia was significant. PMID:22822543

  8. CAR and PXR-dependent transcriptional changes in the mouse liver after exposure to propiconazole

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to the conazoles propiconazole and triadimefon but not myclobutanilled to tumors in mice after 2 years. Transcript profiling studies in the livers ofwild-type mice after short-term exposure to the conazoles revealed signatures indicating the involvement ofthe nuclear rec...

  9. 77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...organ for propiconazole toxicity in animals is the liver. Increased liver weights were seen in mice after subchronic or chronic oral exposures to propiconazole. Liver lesions such as vacuolation of hepatocytes,...

  10. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS IN RAT LIVERS ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES CHEMICALS AND IDENTIFIES MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluori...

  11. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental contaminants was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to categorize chemicals and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated compounds (...

  12. Propiconazole induces alterations in the hepatic metabolome of mice: relevance to propiconazole-induced hepatocarcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide and has been the subject of recent mechanistic investigations on its carcinogenic mechanism of action. The goals of this study were: 1. To identify metabolomic changes induced in the liver by increasing doses of propiconazole i...

  13. Propiconazole induces alterations in the hepatic metabolome of mice: relevance to propiconazole-induced hepatocarcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide and has been the subject of recent investigations into its carcinogenic mechanism of action. The goals of this study were: 1. To identify metabolomic changes induced in the liver by increasing doses of propiconazole in mice; 2...

  14. Theoretical study on ?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes with propiconazole and protonated propiconazole

    PubMed Central

    Fifere, Adrian; Marangoci, Narcisa; Maier, Stelian; Coroaba, Adina; Maftei, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of the ?-cyclodextrin/propiconazole nitrate inclusion complex and the advantages of the encapsulation of this drug were recently reported, but the experimental data only partially revealed the structure of the supramolecular complex due to the limitations in understanding the intermolecular association mechanism. The present work describes the equilibrium molecular geometries of ?-cyclodextrin/propiconazole and ?-cyclodextrin/protonated propiconazole, established by the AM1 and PM3 semi-empirical methods. The affinity between different parts of the guest molecule and the cyclodextrin cavity was studied considering that propiconazole possesses three residues able to be included into the host cavity through primary or secondary hydroxyl rims. The results have revealed that the most stable complex is formed when the azole residue of the propiconazole enters the cavity of the cyclodextrin through the narrow hydroxyl’s rim. PMID:23365629

  15. 76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...Ertman, Registration Division (7505P), Office of...Propiconazole produced liver tumors in male mice only at...shortened and absent renal papillae and increased cleft...Some induce thyroid tumors in rats. Some induce...Director, Registration Division, Office of...

  16. Toxicogenomic effects common to triazole antifungals and conserved between rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, Amber K. [National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Dix, David J. [National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 (United States)], E-mail: dix.david@epa.gov

    2009-07-01

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple timepoints and various study designs, gene expression profiling was conducted on rat livers from three separate studies with triazole treatment groups ranging from 6 h after a single oral gavage exposure, to prenatal to adult exposures via feed. To explore conservation of responses across species, gene expression from the rat liver studies were compared to in vitro data from rat and human primary hepatocytes exposed to the triazoles. Toxicogenomic data on triazoles from 33 different treatment groups and 135 samples (microarrays) identified thousands of probe sets and dozens of pathways differentially expressed across time, dose, and species - many of these were common to all three triazoles, or conserved between rodents and humans. Common and conserved pathways included androgen and estrogen metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism signaling through CAR and PXR, and CYP mediated metabolism. Differentially expressed genes included the Phase I xenobiotic, fatty acid, sterol and steroid metabolism genes Cyp2b2 and CYP2B6, Cyp3a1 and CYP3A4, and Cyp4a22 and CYP4A11; Phase II conjugation enzyme genes Ugt1a1 and UGT1A1; and Phase III ABC transporter genes Abcb1 and ABCB1. Gene expression changes caused by all three triazoles in liver and hepatocytes were concentrated in biological pathways regulating lipid, sterol and steroid homeostasis, identifying a potential common mode of action conserved between rodents and humans. Modulation of hepatic sterol and steroid metabolism is a plausible mode of action for changes in serum testosterone and adverse reproductive outcomes observed in rat studies, and may be relevant to human risk assessment.

  17. TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILES IN LIVER FROM MICE TREATED WITH HEPATOTUMORIGENIC AND NON-HEPATOTUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES: PROPICONAZOLE, TRIADIMEFON, AND MYCLOBUTANIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are environmental and pharmaceutical fungicides. The present study relates the toxicological effects of conazoles to alterations of gene and pathway transcription and identifies potential modes of tumorigenic action. In a companion study (Allen et al. 2006) under...

  18. Enantioselectivity in tebuconazole and myclobutanil non-target toxicity and degradation in soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanbo; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Han, Yongtao; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    Tebuconazole and myclobutanil are two widely used triazole fungicides, both comprising two enantiomers with different fungicidal activity. However, their non-target toxicity and environmental behavior with respect to enantioselectivity have received limited attention. In the present study, tebuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers were isolated and used to evaluate the occurrence of enantioselectivity in their acute toxicity to three non-target organisms (Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio). Significant differences were found: R-(-)-tebuconazole was about 1.4-5.9 times more toxic than S-(+)-tebuconazole; rac-myclobutanil was about 1.3-6.1 and 1.4-7.3 more toxic than (-)-myclobutanil and (+)-myclobutanil, respectively. Enantioselectivity was further investigated in terms of fungicide degradation in seven soil samples, which were selected to cover a broad range of soil properties. In aerobic or anaerobic soils, the S-(+)-tebuconazole degraded faster than R-(-)-tebuconazole, and the enantioselectivity showed a correlation with soil organic carbon content. (+)-Myclobutanil was preferentially degraded than (-)-myclobutanil in aerobic soils, whereas both enantiomers degraded at similar rates in anaerobic soils. Apparent correlations of enantioselectivity with soil pH and soil texture were observed for myclobutanil under aerobic conditions. In addition, both fungicides were configurationally stable in soils, i.e., no enantiomerization was found. Enantioselectivity may be a common phenomenon in both aquatic toxicity and biodegradation of chiral triazole fungicides, and this should be considered when assessing ecotoxicological risks of these compounds in the environment. PMID:25475972

  19. Bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure under laboratory conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. The wheat bran fed to Tenebrio molitor larvae was spiked with racemic myclobutanil at two dose levels of 20?mg/kg and 2?mg/kg (dry weight). The results showed that there was a significant trend of enantioselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-myclobutanil in 20?mg/kg dose exposure, but it was not obviously observed in the 2?mg/kg dose group. A kinetic model considering enantiomerization between the two enantiomers based on first-order reactions was built and the rate constants were estimated to discuss the kinetic reason for the different concentrations of individual enantiomers in the larvae. The approximations implied an inversion between the two enantiomers with a relatively higher rate of the inversion from (-)-myclobutanil to (+)-myclobutanil. Meanwhile, analysis of data of excretion samples suggested the active excretion is probably an important pathway for the insect to eliminate myclobutanil rapidly with nonenantioselectivity as a passive transport process, which was consistent with the low accumulation efficiency of myclobutanil measured by BAF (bioaccumulation factor). PMID:24014248

  20. Interaction of propiconazole in the peanut leafspot disease complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C)-Propiconazole exhibited characteristics of an apoplastic xenobiotic being acropetally translocated via the transpiration stream to the foliage following root exposure in peanut (Arachis hypogeaea). When applied to leaves, radioactivity was detected distal to the point of application and accumulated along the margins of treated leaves. Redistribution to untreated plant parts was not observed. (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole rapidly penetrated the cuticle of leaves. However, leaves treated with a mixture of (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole and Penetrator 3 exhibited significantly greater foliar uptake of radioactivity than leaves treated with (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole alone. In replicated experiments, leafspot infection (caused by Cercospora arachidicola or Cercosporidium personatum) decreased quadratically with increasing application rate of Tilt 3.6EC (propiconazole) or Vangard 1.0EC (etaconazole). Combinations of fungicide and penetrator 3 gave slightly greater reductions of infection relative to fungicide alone but had no effect on yield. Propiconazole had no effect on the uptake or incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-acetate into the total lipid (TL) of peanut leaf tissue. (/sup 14/C) in the total fatty acids and non-saponifiable lipids was 10 to 20% greater, respectively, in treated tissue relative to the untreated control. Radioactivity of 4-demethyl sterols was up to 57% lower in treated leaves but no differences in radioactivity were detected in 4-methyl and 4,14-dimethyl sterols.

  1. Protein Carbonyl Formation in Response to Propiconazole-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole, a widely used fungicide, is hepatotoxic and hepatotumorigenic in mice. Previous genomic analysis of liver tissues from propiconazole-treated mice identified genes and pathways involved in oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress may play a role in propico...

  2. Acute toxicity, bioactivity, and enantioselective behavior with tissue distribution in rabbits of myclobutanil enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingjing; Liu, Donghui; Qiu, Xinxu; Zhou, Qian; Shen, Zhigang; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-12-01

    The enantioselective bioactivity against pathogens (Cercospora arachidicola, Fulvia fulva, and Phytophthora infestans) and acute toxicity to Daphnia magna of the fungicide myclobutanil enantiomers were studied. The (+)-enantiomer in an antimicrobial activity test was about 1.79-1.96 times more active than the (-)-enantiomer. In the toxicity assay, the calculated 24-h LC50 values of the (-)-form, rac-form and (+)-form were 16.88, 13.17, and 11.91?mg/L, and the 48-h LC50 values were 10.15, 9.24, and 5.48?mg/L, respectively, showing that (+)-myclobutanil was more toxic. Meanwhile, the enantioselective metabolism of myclobutanil enantiomers following a single intravenous (i.v.) administration was investigated in rabbits. Total plasma clearance value (CL) of the (+)-enantiomer was 1.68-fold higher than its antipode. Significant differences in pharmacokinetics parameters between the two enantiomers indicated that the high bioactive (+)-enantiomer was preferentially metabolized and eliminated in plasma. Consistent consequences were found in the tissues (liver, brain, heart, kidney, fat, and muscle), resulting in a relative enrichment of the low-activity (-)-myclobutanil. These systemic assessments of the stereoisomers of myclobutanil cannot be used only to investigate environmental and biological behavior, but also have human health implications because of the long persistence of triazole fungicide and enantiomeric enrichment in mammals and humans. PMID:25043148

  3. Occurrence of azoxystrobin, propiconazole, and selected other fungicides in US streams, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Fungicides are used to prevent foliar diseases on a wide range of vegetable, field, fruit, and ornamental crops. They are generally more effective as protective rather than curative treatments, and hence tend to be applied before infections take place. Less than 1% of US soybeans were treated with a fungicide in 2002 but by 2006, 4% were treated. Like other pesticides, fungicides can move-off of fields after application and subsequently contaminate surface water, groundwater, and associated sediments. Due to the constant pressure from fungal diseases such as the recent Asian soybean rust outbreak, and the always-present desire to increase crop yields, there is the potential for a significant increase in the amount of fungicides used on US farms. Increased fungicide use could lead to increased environmental concentrations of these compounds. This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select US streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the US and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 states in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as five fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from 0.002 to 1.15 ?/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams. Fungicide occurrence appears to be related to fungicide use in the associated drainage basins; however, current use information is generally lacking and more detailed occurrence data are needed to accurately quantify such a relation. Maximum concentrations of fungicides were typically one or more orders of magnitude less than current toxicity estimates for freshwater aquatic organisms or humans; however, gaps in current toxicological understandings of the effects of fungicides in the environment limit these interpretations.

  4. Cytotoxic effects of propiconazole and its metabolites in mouse and human hepatoma cells and primary mouse hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Propiconazole is a triazole-containing fungicide that is used agriculturally on grasses, fruits, grains, seeds, hardwoods, and conifers. Propiconazole is a mouse liver hepatotoxicant and a hepatocarcinogen and has adverse reproductive and developmental toxicities in exp...

  5. Inclusion complex of a new propiconazole derivative with ?-cyclodextrin: NMR, ESI–MS and preliminary pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Marangoci, Narcisa; Mares, Mihai; Silion, Mihaela; Fifere, Adrian; Varganici, Cristian; Nicolescu, Alina; Deleanu, Calin; Coroaba, Adina; Pinteala, Mariana; Simionescu, Bogdan C.

    2011-01-01

    A novel inclusion complex of the propiconazole nitrate (NO3PCZ) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was prepared by treatment of propiconazole (PCZ) with an acidic nitrating agent. The formation of NO3PCZ and its inclusion complex with ?-CD has been studied by NMR, ESI–MS, TGA, DSC methods. Using the undecoupled signal in the HMBC correlation spectra, almost identical coupling constants of CH from trizolic ring of PCZ and NO3PCZ compounds (1J(HC)3=207 Hz, 1J(CH)5=214 Hz, for PCZ; 1J(HC)3=208 Hz and 1J(CH)5=215 Hz, for NO3PCZ) were determined, confirming that the geometry of the heterocyclic skeleton is identical in both the forms. The 1:1 stoichiometry of the complex was determined by ESI–MS and was confirmed using Scott's equation in DMSO and Higuchi and Connors equation in water. The solubility curve obtained for NO3PCZ in presence of ?-CD in distilled water was constructed, resulting in a solubility diagram of AL type. Solubility of NO3PCZ in water was determined by DLS studies. The results showed that NO3PCZ was encapsulated within the ?-CD cavity with a binding constant of 330 M-1 in DMSO and 975 M-1 in water. Preliminary pharmacological studies showed higher antifungal activities for NO3PCZ and its inclusion complex, compared with its PCZ analog. The acute toxicity of the complex is smaller than the pure or modified drug, recommending the inclusion complex as future promising therapeutic agents.

  6. A microRNA signature for tumorigenic conazoles in mouse liver.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon, propiconazole and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural and therapeutic fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. As part of a coordinated study to understand the molecular determinants o...

  7. A potential microRNA signature for tumorigenic conazoles in mouse liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon, propiconazole and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. As part of a coordinated study to understand the molecular determinants of conazole tumor...

  8. IN VIVO MUTAGENICITY OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES CORRELATES WITH TUMORIGENICITY-JOURNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural and therapeutic fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. All three conazoles are generally inactive in short-term genotoxicity t...

  9. In vivo mutagenicity of conazole fungicides correlates with tumorigenicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural and therapeutic fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. All three conazoles are generally inactive in short-term genotoxicity te...

  10. Altered microRNA expression induced by tumorigenic conazoles in mouse liver.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural and therapeutic fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. As part of a coordinated study to understand the molecular determinants ...

  11. Propiconazole inhibits steroidogenesis and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed effects of the conazole-fungicide propiconazole on endocrine function and reproductive success of the fathead minnow, using an experimental approach based on previously defined adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that inhibit steroidogenesis in fish...

  12. Propiconazole increases reactive oxygen species levels in mouse hepatic cells in culture and in mouse liver by a cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated process

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole induces hepatocarcinomas and hepatoadenomas in mice and is a rat liver tumor promoter. Transcriptional, proteomic, metabolomic and biochemical studies of hepatic tissues from mice treated with propiconazole under the conditions of the chronic bioassay indicate that ...

  13. [Determination of myclobutanil 25% WG degradation dynamics in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil by HPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Chun-Wei; Gao, Jie; Cui, Li-Li; Xu, Yun-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determining degradation dynamics and final residues of myclobutanil 25% WG in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned-up with primary secondary amine (PSA) solid phase extraction cartridge, separated by Kromasil Eternity-5-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) column with a gradient of acetonitrile and 0.1% formate in water as mobile phases, and analyzed with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode by employing the external standard method. The average recoveries and the relative standard derivations (RSDs) of myclobutanil at the spiked level of 0.01-0.20 mg x kg(-1) were 80.9%-90.7% and 5.54%-9.29%, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.005 mg x kg(-1). The method with good reproducible, high precision and low detection limit could meet the requirements of residual analysis on ginseng production. The half-lives of myclobutanil were from 6.25 days to 9.94 days in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil at spraying dosage of 1 152 g x hm(-2) The final residues were below 0.060 1 mg x kg(-1) in root, below 0.081 7 mg x kg(-1) in stem, 0.006 0-0.102 2 mg x kg(-1) in leaf and below 0.037 6 mg x kg(-1) in soil at spraying dosage range from 576 to 1 152 g x hm(-2). It is recommended that the MRLs of myclobutanil in dried ginseng may be suggested to be 0.10 mg x kg(-1) temporarily, and the preharvest interval was set at 35 days. PMID:25276964

  14. Proteomic analysis of propiconazole responses in mouse liver: comparison of genomic and proteomic profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of soluble proteins in livers from mice treated with the mouse liver tumorigen, propiconazole, to uncover the pathways and networks altered by this fungicide. Utilizing twodimensional ...

  15. Use of Adverse Outcome Pathways for Assessing Effects of the Fungicide Propiconazole on Fish Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOP) are used to describe the linkage of biological events from a molecular initiating point, to individual-level-endpoints relevant to risk assessment. This study was done to assess toxicity outcomes for the conazole fungicide propiconazole based on a p...

  16. Defining Adverse Outcome Pathways for Effects of the Fungicide Propiconazole of Fish Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are used to describe the linkage of chemical interactions in terms of molecular initiating events to whole organism responses suitable for risk assessment. This study was conducted to develop AOPs for the model fungicide propiconazole relative to r...

  17. Survey of wheat growers using restricted fungicides, propiconazole and triadimefon, Ontario, Canada, 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Frank; L. Poff; B. D. Ripley

    1993-01-01

    Bayleton R and Tilt R are the respective trade names for the two fungicides triadimefon and propiconazole discussed in this paper. Both are broad-spectrum systemic fungicides with activity against foliar stem diseases on cereal crops (Buttler, 1983; Anonymous 1987 a, b). Both inhibit the sterol, ergosterol, in sensitive fungal diseases attacking cereals (Anonymous 1987, a,b). During 1987 both were given

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Propiconazole Responses in Mouse Liver-Comparison of Genomic and Proteomic Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of soluble proteins in livers from mice treated with the mouse liver tumorigen, propiconazole, to uncover the pathways and networks altered by this commonly used fungicide. Utilizing t...

  19. Propiconazole inhibits the sterol 14?-demethylase in Glomus irregulare like in phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Calonne, Maryline; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounčs-Hadj; Campagnac, Estelle; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Fontaine, Joël

    2012-04-01

    The increasing concentrations impact (0.02, 0.2 and 2 mg L(-1)) of a Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitor (SBI) fungicide, propiconazole, was evaluated on development and sterol metabolism of two non-target organisms: mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal transformed chicory roots and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus irregulare using monoxenic cultures. In this work, we provide the first evidence of a direct impact of propiconazole on the AMF by disturbing its sterol metabolism. A significant decrease in end-products sterols contents (24-methylcholesterol and in 24-ethylcholesterol) was observed concomitantly to a 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol accumulation indicating the inhibition of a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis pathway, the sterol 14?-demethylase like in phytopathogenic fungi. A decrease in end-product sterol contents in propiconazole-treated roots was also observed suggesting a slowing down of the sterol metabolism in plant. Taken together, our findings suggest that the inhibition of the both AM symbiotic partners development by propiconazole results from their sterol metabolism alterations. PMID:22239944

  20. Short-term effects of propiconazole on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in the fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole is an ergosterol inhibitor commonly used in agriculture and has been detected in aquatic environments. Ergosterol inhibitors decrease fungal growth through effects on 14á-demethylase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP), isoform important for ergosterol biosynthesis. In higher ...

  1. Proteomic analysis of propiconazole responses in mouse liver: comparison of genomic and proteomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro A; Bruno, Maribel E; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen; Winnik, Witold; Ge, Yue

    2010-03-01

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of soluble proteins in livers from mice treated with the mouse liver tumorigen, propiconazole, to uncover the pathways and networks altered by this fungicide. Utilizing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), we identified 62 proteins that were altered. Several of these protein changes detected by 2-DE/MS were verified by Western blot analyses. These differentially expressed proteins were mapped using Ingenuity Pathway Analyses (IPA) canonical pathways and IPA tox lists. Forty-four pathways/lists were identified. IPA was also used to create networks of interacting protein clusters. The protein-generated IPA canonical pathways and IPA tox lists were compared to those pathways and lists previously generated from genomic analyses from livers of mice treated with propiconazole under the same experimental conditions. There was a significant overlap in the specific pathways and lists generated from the proteomic and the genomic data with 27 pathways common to both proteomic and genomic analyses. However, there were also 17 pathways/lists identified only by proteomics analysis and 21 pathways/lists only identified by genomic analysis. The protein network analysis produced interacting subnetworks centered around hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4 alpha), MYC, proteasome subunit type 4 alpha, and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The HNF4 alpha network hub was also identified by genomic analysis. Five GST isoforms were identified by proteomic analysis and GSTs were present in 10 of the 44 protein-based pathways/lists. Hepatic GST activities were compared between mice treated with propiconazole and 2 additional conazoles and higher GST activities were found to be associated with the tumorigenic conazoles. Overall, this comparative proteomic and genomic study has revealed a series of alterations in livers induced by propiconazole: nuclear receptor activation, metabolism of xenobiotics, metabolism of biochemical intermediates, biosynthesis of biochemical intermediates, and oxidative stress in mouse liver. The present study provides novel insights into toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action of propiconazole which are required for human health risk assessment of this environmental chemical. PMID:20095644

  2. Propiconazole enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras famesylation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic ...

  3. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  4. Residues and dissipation kinetics of triazole fungicides difenoconazole and propiconazole in wheat and soil in Chinese fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wayne; Jian, Qiu; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Zuntao; Wang, Donglan; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-02-01

    An analytical method for simultaneously determining the residues of difenoconazole and propiconazole in wheat straw, wheat grain and soil was developed. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations in all samples ranged 86.2-101.3% and 3.1-12.1% for propiconazole and difenoconazole. The half-lives of difenoconazole and propiconazole were 3.6-5.5days and 5.1-6.9days in wheat straws, and 4.9-5.8days and 6.1-8.4days in soil, respectively. The residues in wheat grain were found to be <0.01mg/kg, based on the application rate (135g a.i./ha) and the pre-harvest interval (PHI=28days) recommended by the manufacturer. The results suggest that the use of difenoconazole and propiconazole on wheat is considered to be safe under the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in the Chinese fields, and the main factors for pesticide residue in crops are application times, rates and pre-harvest intervals. PMID:25172726

  5. Antifungal nanoparticles and surfaces.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Cristiana S O; Vidal, Maria; Ferreira, Lino S

    2010-10-11

    Nosocomial fungal infections, an increasing healthcare concern worldwide, are often associated with medical devices. We have developed antifungal nanoparticle conjugates that can act in suspension or attach to a surface, efficiently killing fungi. For that purpose, we immobilized covalently amphotericin B (AmB), a potent antifungal agent approved by the FDA, widely used in clinical practice and effective against a large spectrum of fungi, into silica nanoparticles. These antifungal nanoparticle conjugates are fungicidal against several strains of Candida sp., mainly by contact. In addition, they can be reused up to 5 cycles without losing their activity. Our results show that the antifungal nanoparticle conjugates are more fungistatic and fungicidal than 10 nm colloidal silver. The antifungal activity of the antifungal nanoparticle conjugates is maintained when they are immobilized on a surface using a chemical adhesive formed by polydopamine. The antifungal nanocoatings have no hemolytic or cytotoxic effect against red blood cells and blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Surfaces coated with these antifungal nanoparticle conjugates can be very useful to render medical devices with antifungal properties. PMID:20845938

  6. Overcoming antifungal resistance

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections have become one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Despite increased awareness and improved treatment strategies, the frequent development of resistance to the antifungal drugs used in clinical settings contributes to the increasing toll of mycoses. Although a natural phenomenon, antifungal drug resistance can compromise advances in the development of effective diagnostic techniques and novel antifungals. In this review, we will discuss the advent of cellular-microarrays, microfluidics, genomics, proteomics and other state-of-the art technologies in conquering antifungal drug resistance. PMID:24847655

  7. Effect of different organic amendments on the dissipation of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil in an agricultural soil incubated for different time periods.

    PubMed

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia

    2014-04-01

    Dissipation kinetics of pesticides belonging to three chemical groups (linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil) was studied in an unamended agricultural soil and in this soil amended with three organic residues: sewage sludge (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS). The soils were incubated with the residues outdoors for one and 12 months. Mineralized, extracted and non-extractable fractions were also studied for (14)C-linuron and (14)C-diazinon. The dissipation kinetics was fitted to single first-order or first-order multicompartment models. The dissipation rate (k) decreased in the order diazinon>linuron>myclobutanil, and DT50 values decreased for linuron (1.6-4.8 times) or increased for myclobutanil (1.7-2.6 times) and diazinon (1.8-2.3 times) in the amended soils relative to the unamended soil. The lowest DT50 values for the three pesticides were recorded in GM-amended soil, and the highest values in SMS-amended soil. After 12 months of soil incubation, DT50 values decreased in both the unamended and amended soils for linuron, but increased for the unamended and SMS-amended soil for diazinon and myclobutanil. A certain relationship was observed between the sorption of pesticides by the soils and DT50 values, although it was significant only for myclobutanil (p<0.05). Dissipation mechanism recorded the lowest mineralization of (14)C-pesticides in the GM-soil despite the highest dissipation rate in this soil. The extracted (14)C-residues decreased with incubation time, with increased formation of non-extractable residues, higher in amended soils relative to the unamended soil. Soil dehydrogenase activity was, in general, stimulated by the addition of the organic amendments and pesticides to the soil after one month and 12 months of incubation. The results obtained revealed that the simultaneous use of amendments and pesticides in soils requires a previous study in order to check the environmental specific persistence of these compounds and their effectiveness in amended soils. PMID:24496034

  8. Propiconazole-enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras farnesylation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Lynea A.; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen, E-mail: nesnow.stephen@epa.gov

    2012-04-15

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic cholesterol metabolites and bile acids, and transcriptomic studies revealed that genes within the cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism and bile acid biosyntheses pathways were up-regulated. Hepatic cell proliferation was also increased by propiconazole. AML12 immortalized hepatocytes were used to study propiconazole's effects on cell proliferation focusing on the dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and resulting effects on Ras farnesylation and Erk1/2 activation as a primary pathway. Mevalonate, a key intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, increases cell proliferation in several cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo and serves as the precursor for isoprenoids (e.g. farnesyl pyrophosphate) which are crucial in the farnesylation of the Ras protein by farnesyl transferase. Farnesylation targets Ras to the cell membrane where it is involved in signal transduction, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In our studies, mevalonic acid lactone (MVAL), a source of mevalonic acid, increased cell proliferation in AML12 cells which was reduced by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (L-744,832 or manumycin) or simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, indicating that this cell system responded to alterations in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Cell proliferation in AML12 cells was increased by propiconazole which was reversed by co-incubation with L-744,832 or simvastatin. Increasing concentrations of exogenous cholesterol muted the proliferative effects of propiconazole and the inhibitory effects of L-733,832, results ascribed to reduced stimulation of the endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions from control, MVAL or propiconazole-treated cells revealed increased Ras protein in the cytoplasmic fraction of L-744,832-treated cells, while propiconazole or MVAL reversed these effects. Western blot analysis indicated that phosphorylation of Erk1/2, a protein downstream of Ras, was increased by propiconazole. These data indicate that propiconazole increases cell proliferation by increasing the levels of cholesterol biosynthesis intermediates presumably through a negative feedback mechanism within the pathway, a result of CYP51 inhibition. This feedback mechanism increases Erk1/2 signaling through mevalonate-mediated Ras activation. These results provide an explanation for the observed effects of propiconazole on hepatic cholesterol pathways and on the increased hepatic cell proliferation induced by propiconazole in mice. Highlights: ? Propiconazole increases cell proliferation in AML12 mouse hepatocytes. ? Propiconazole increases Ras farnesylation and alters Ras membrane localization. ? Propiconazole increases Erk1/2 phosphorylation. ? Dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway can explain these results. ? These results can explain similar effects induced by propiconazole in mice.

  9. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders. PMID:25871291

  10. Antifungal activity of nontraditional antifungal agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Judd; Craig A. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are becoming increasingly important in the management of critically ill and immunocompromised patients.\\u000a As organ and stem cell transplantation becomes more prominent and immune therapies are employed for diseases such as rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis and plaque psoriasis, the population of patients at risk continues to grow. Many invasive fungal infections are\\u000a associated with extremely high mortality rates. Antifungal

  11. Impact of Fungicides Chlorothalonil and Propiconazole on Microbial Activities in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramudu, A. C.; Mohiddin, G. Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M.; Madakka, M.; Rangaswamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of agrochemicals (fungicides) into soil may have lasting effects on soil microbial activities and thus affect soil health. In order to determine the changes in microbial activity in a black clay and red sandy loam soils of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivated fields, a case study was conducted with propiconazole and chlorothalonil to evaluate its effects on soil enzymes (cellulase and invertase) throughout 40 days of incubation under laboratory conditions with different concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0?kg ha?1). Individual application of the two fungicides at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?kg ha?1 to the soil distinctly enhanced the activities of cellulase and invertase but at higher concentrations of 7.5 and 10?kg ha?1 was toxic or innocuous to both cellulase and invertase activities. In soil samples receiving 2.5–5.0?kg ha?1 of the fungicides, the accumulation of reducing sugar was pronounced more at 20 days, and the activity of the cellulase and invertase was drastically decreased with increasing period of incubation up to 30 and 40 days. PMID:23724306

  12. Newer antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Türel, Ozden

    2011-03-01

    The frequency and spectrum of fungal infections have been increasing steadily over the last several decades. The reason for this increase may be explained by the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients due to malignancies, AIDS, invasive surgical procedures and transplantation. In parallel with this increase, several therapeutic options have become available but problems such as intrinsic or acquired antifungal resistance have led researchers to develop new antifungal drugs with expanded effectiveness. Reduced toxicity, enhancement of bioavailability and counteraction of resistance are features desired by clinicians. The aim of this article is to summarize the studies involving isavuconazole, ravuconazole, albaconazole, aminocandin and some other investigational antifungal agents. Most data on the clinical use of ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole are mainly available as meeting abstracts or limited to animal studies or Phase I/II studies in humans. These new antifungal agents in development offer extended half-lives, possibly reduced drug interaction profiles and good tolerance. In addition to activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp., they have a broad spectrum of activity including activity against resistant and emerging pathogens. The real possibilities of these agents will only be fully understood after adequate randomized clinical trials. PMID:21417872

  13. Letter to the Editor, Response to Commentary "Re-Evaluation of the Big Blue® Mouse Assay of Propiconazole Suggests Lack of Mutagenicity"

    EPA Science Inventory

    In their commentary titled "Re-Evaluation of the Big Blue® Mouse Assay of Propiconazole Suggests Lack of Mutagenicity", Shane et 01. present an overview of portions of our previously reported work examining the potential for some conazole fungicides to induce increases in mutant ...

  14. Current Concepts in Antifungal Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Russell E.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of new antifungal agents (eg, echinocandins, second-generation triazoles) in the past decade has transformed the management of invasive mycoses to the point that drug toxicity is no longer the major limiting factor in treatment. Yet, many of these newer antifungal agents have important limitations in their spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, and unique predisposition for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions and unusual toxicities associated with long-term use. This article reviews key pharmacological aspects of systemic antifungal agents as well as evolving strategies, such as pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic optimization and therapeutic drug monitoring, to improve the safety and efficacy of systemic antifungal therapy. PMID:21803962

  15. Anidulafungin: an echinocandin antifungal.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A

    2004-09-01

    Anidulafungin (LY-303366, V-echinocandin trade mark, Vicuron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) is a new echinocandin antifungal agent with broad spectrum activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp. Anidulafungin exhibits low toxicity, concentration-dependent fungicidal activity for Candida, and a prolonged post antifungal effect (> 12h). In vitro activity demonstrates excellent potency and spectrum versus azole-susceptible and -resistant Candida spp. and a low minimum effective concentration for Aspergillus spp. In vivo anidulafungin is fungicidal against Candida in neutropenic animal models of disseminated candidiasis. Against Candida anidulafungin exhibits concentration-dependent killing and clearance of residual fungal burden in target organs (liver, lung, spleen, kidney) and plasma/tissue concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentrations of the infecting organism throughout the dosing interval. Although the activity of anidulafungin in animal models of pulmonary or disseminated aspergillosis shows increased survival and improvement in the pulmonary infarct score, the effect on residual fungal burden and Aspergillus antigenemia determination does not indicate in vivo fungicidal activity. It seems that the major effect of anidulafungin and other echinocandins in vivo against Aspergillus spp. is the decrease in the angioinvasive potential of the organisms. Clinically, anidulafungin has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of oesophageal candidiasis and candidemia. Further clinical application of this new antifungal agent is warranted. PMID:15330749

  16. Antifungal Lock Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of intravascular devices, such as central venous and hemodialysis catheters, in the past 2 decades has paralleled the increasing incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). Candida albicans is the fourth leading cause of hospital-associated BSIs. The propensity of C. albicans to form biofilms on these catheters has made these infections difficult to treat due to multiple factors, including increased resistance to antifungal agents. Thus, curing CR-BSIs caused by Candida species usually requires catheter removal in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Alternatively, antimicrobial lock therapy has received significant interest and shown promise as a strategy to treat CR-BSIs due to Candida species. The existing in vitro, animal, and patient data for treatment of Candida-related CR-BSIs are reviewed. The most promising antifungal lock therapy (AfLT) strategies include use of amphotericin, ethanol, or echinocandins. Clinical trials are needed to further define the safety and efficacy of AfLT. PMID:23070153

  17. Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Arthur W.; Avants, Jimmy K.; Miller, Rebecca D.

    2011-01-01

    Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil. PMID:21909317

  18. Tissue Penetration of Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

  19. Effects of exposure to sublethal propiconazole on the antioxidant defense system and Na +–K +ATPase activity in brain of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Hua Li; Vladimir Zlabek; Roman Grabic; Ping Li; Jana Machova; Josef Velisek; Tomas Randak

    2010-01-01

    Propiconazole (PCZ), a triazole fungicide, is widely present in the aquatic environment, but little is known regarding its chronic toxicity in the fish brain. This study assessed the effects of long-term exposure to PCZ on the antioxidant defense system and Na+–K+-ATPase activity of rainbow trout brain. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of PCZ (0.2, 50, and 500?g\\/l) for 7,

  20. Antifungal therapy with an emphasis on biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Christopher G; Srinivasan, Anand; Uppuluri, Priya; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; López-Ribot, José L

    2013-10-01

    Fungal infections are on the rise as advances in modern medicine prolong the lives of severely ill patients. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and there are a limited number of targets for antifungal drug development; as a result the antifungal arsenal is exceedingly limited. Azoles, polyenes and echinocandins constitute the mainstay of antifungal therapy for patients with life-threatening mycoses. One of the main factors complicating antifungal therapy is the formation of fungal biofilms, microbial communities displaying resistance to most antifungal agents. A better understanding of fungal biofilms provides for new opportunities for the development of urgently needed novel antifungal agents and strategies. PMID:24011516

  1. COMPARISON OF GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES FROM RATS FED THREE TOXICOLOGICALLY DIFFERENT CONAZOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles arc a class of fungicides used as pharmaceutical and agricultural products. In chronic bioassays, triadimefon was hepatotoxic and induced transitional cell adenomas in the thyroid gland. Both propiconazole and myclobutanil were hepatotoxic but had no effect on the thyro...

  2. ALTERATIONS IN A11 TRANS RETINOIC ACID METABOLISM IN LIVER MICROSOMES FROM MICE TREATED WITH HEPATOTUMORIGENIC AND NON-HEPATOTUMORIGENIC CONAZOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in crop protection and as pharmaceuticals. Triadimefon and propiconazole are hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not. Previous toxicogenomic studies suggest that alteration of the retinoic acid metabolism pathway may be a key event in co...

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF RETINOIC ACID BIOSYNTHETIC AND METABOLISM GENES IN LIVERS FROM MICE TREATED WITH HEPATOTUMORIGENIC AND NON-HEPATOTUMORIGENIC CONAZOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in crop protection and as pharmaceuticals. Triadimefon and propiconazole are hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not. Previous toxicogenomic studies suggest that alteration of the retinoic acid metabolism pathway may play a key event in ...

  4. COMPARISON OF HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES FROM MICE EXPOSED TO THREE TOXICOLOGICALLY DIFFERENT CONAZOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles comprise a chemical class of fungicides used as agricultural and pham-taceutical products. Both propiconazole and triadimefon are hepatotoxic and hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not a mouse liver tumorigen. The tumorigenic activities of these conazoles ...

  5. Quantitative changes in endogenous DNA damage correlate with conazole mutagenicity and tumorigenicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mouse liver tumorigenic conazolefungicides triadimefon and propiconazole have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the nontumorigenic conazole myclobutanil w...

  6. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF CYPS IN THE METABOLISM OF ALL TRANS RETINOIC ACID BY LIVER MICROSOMES FROM MICE TREATED WITH CONAZOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in crop protection and as pharmaceuticals. Triadimefon and propiconazole are hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not. Previous toxicogenomic studies suggest that alteration of the retinoic acid metabolism pathway may involve in conazole-...

  8. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN LIVER AND TESTIS OF RATS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  9. Gene Expression Profiling in Liver and Testis of Rats to Characterize the Toxicity of Triazole Fungicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  10. Haloprogin: a Topical Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, E. F.; Zwadyk, P.; Bequette, R. J.; Hamlow, E. E.; Tavormina, P. A.; Zygmunt, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Haloprogin was shown to be a highly effective agent for the treatment of experimentally induced topical mycotic infections in guinea pigs. Its in vitro spectrum of activity also includes yeasts, yeastlike fungi (Candida species), and certain gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of haloprogin against dermatophytes was equal to that observed with tolnaftate. The striking differences between the two agents were the marked antimonilial and selective antibacterial activities shown by haloprogin, contrasted with the negligible activities found with tolnaftate. Addition of serum decreased the in vitro antifungal activity of haloprogin to a greater extent than that of tolnaftate; however, diminished antifungal activity was not observed when haloprogin was applied topically to experimental dermatophytic infections. Based on its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, haloprogin may prove to be a superior topical agent in the treatment of dermatophytic and monilial infections in man. PMID:5422306

  11. Comparison of echinocandin antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Eschenauer, Gregory; DePestel, Daryl D; Carver, Peggy L

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections, especially those due to Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp., continues to increase. Despite advances in medical practice, the associated mortality from these infections continues to be substantial. The echinocandin antifungals provide clinicians with another treatment option for serious fungal infections. These agents possess a completely novel mechanism of action, are relatively well-tolerated, and have a low potential for serious drug–drug interactions. At the present time, the echinocandins are an option for the treatment of infections due Candida spp (such as esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, and candidemia). In addition, caspofungin is a viable option for the treatment of refractory aspergillosis. Although micafungin is not Food and Drug Administration-approved for this indication, recent data suggests that it may also be effective. Finally, caspofungin- or micafungin-containing combination therapy should be a consideration for the treatment of severe infections due to Aspergillus spp. Although the echinocandins share many common properties, data regarding their differences are emerging at a rapid pace. Anidulafungin exhibits a unique pharmacokinetic profile, and limited cases have shown a potential far activity in isolates with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to caspofungin and micafungin. Caspofungin appears to have a slightly higher incidence of side effects and potential for drug–drug interactions. This, combined with some evidence of decreasing susceptibility among some strains of Candida, may lessen its future utility. However, one must take these findings in the context of substantially more data and use with caspofungin compared with the other agents. Micafungin appears to be very similar to caspofungin, with very few obvious differences between the two agents. PMID:18360617

  12. Use of antifungal drugs in hematology

    PubMed Central

    Nucci, Marcio

    2012-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used. PMID:23125547

  13. Antifungal Application of Nonantifungal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, Marios; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Lopes, José Pedro; Granlund, Margareta; Wennerberg, Krister

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the cause of 60% of all mycoses in immunosuppressed individuals, leading to ?150,000 deaths annually due to systemic infections, whereas the current antifungal therapies either have toxic side effects or are insufficiently efficient. We performed a screening of two compound libraries, the Enzo and the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM) oncology collection library, for anti-Candida activity based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines. From a total of 844 drugs, 26 agents showed activity against Candida albicans. Of those, 12 were standard antifungal drugs (SADs) and 7 were off-target drugs previously reported to be active against Candida spp. The remaining 7 off-target drugs, amonafide, tosedostat, megestrol acetate, melengestrol acetate, stanozolol, trifluperidol, and haloperidol, were identified with this screen. The anti-Candida activities of the new agents were investigated by three individual assays using optical density, ATP levels, and microscopy. The antifungal activities of these drugs were comparable to those of the SADs found in the screen. The aminopeptidase inhibitor tosedostat, which is currently in a clinical trial phase for anticancer therapy, displayed a broad antifungal activity against different Candida spp., including Candida glabrata. Thus, this screen reveals agents that were previously unknown to be anti-Candida agents, which allows for the design of novel therapies against invasive candidiasis. PMID:24277040

  14. New antifungal and antiviral dosing.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kelly C; Monk, Heather M

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal fungal and viral infections are associated with mortality and neurologic impairment among survivors. Advances in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobial medications have led to improved dosing guidance for neonates. This article discusses the basic PK/PD properties and dosing of the most common antifungal and antiviral medications used in neonates. PMID:25678004

  15. Antifungal Tradecraft by Cholesterol Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Natasha M.; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Aparicio and coworkers report that secreted bacterial cholesterol oxidase is required for the biosynthesis of the antifungal polyene pimaricin by Streptomyces natalensis [1]. Their discovery expands the inventory of tasks this biotechnologically important enzyme performs. PMID:17379137

  16. The synergistic potential of the azole fungicides prochloraz and propiconazole toward a short ?-cypermethrin pulse increases over time in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kretschmann, Andreas; Gottardi, Michele; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Cedergreen, Nina

    2015-05-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are highly toxic to non-target aquatic invertebrates. Their high toxicity is synergized when co-occurring with azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. Little is known about the importance of synergy, when pyrethroids only occur during a short pulse of a few hours, as it is likely to happen in the environment, nor about the persistence of synergy over time. This study analyzed the synergistic potential of the fungicides propiconazole and prochloraz toward Daphnia magna, when exposed to a pulse (7.2h) of ?-cypermethrin at different concentrations (average pulse concentrations 0.07-11nM). Immobilization was monitored during exposure and a subsequent recovery period (87.5h) with and without continuous co-exposure to the azoles (1.4 and 1.7?M, respectively). EC50 values for immobilization decreased exponentially over time with a higher rate in the presence of the azoles. EC50 values for ?-cypermethrin determined at the end of the experiment were 3.3±0.5nM in the absence of azoles and 0.26±0.04, and 0.08±0.01nM in the presence of propiconazole and prochloraz, respectively. The synergistic potential of the azoles was strongly dependent on time: no synergism could be detected during the pulse, but with azole co-exposure EC50 values decreased during the recovery period by a factor of up to 13 (propiconazole) and 61 (prochloraz) compared to values without azole exposure. Such high synergistic ratios have not been reported for pesticide mixtures in literature before. Our findings highlight that a pulse of the pyrethroid ?-cypermethrin is synergized far beyond the actual pulse and beyond standardized test durations. Long post-exposure times are therefore mandatory in order to capture full synergism. PMID:25797530

  17. Antifungal Susceptibility Tests of Aspergillus Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnaldo Lopes Colombo; Viviane Reis; Patricio Godoy

    \\u000a Although different methods are now available to assess the susceptibility of Aspergillus species to antifungal agents, there are still limited data correlating in vitro resistance with meaningful clinical endpoints.\\u000a Moreover, there is no consensus on the breakpoints to define resistance\\/susceptibility to different antifungal agents. This\\u000a chapter reviews the technical issues related to antifungal susceptibility tests for Aspergillus species, including the

  18. A Prototype Antifungal Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ciolino, Joseph B.; Hudson, Sarah P.; Mobbs, Ashley N.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Fink, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To design a contact lens to treat and prevent fungal ocular infections. Methods. Curved contact lenses were created by encapsulating econazole-impregnated poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films in poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) by ultraviolet photopolymerization. Release studies were conducted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C with continuous shaking. The contact lenses and their release media were tested in an antifungal assay against Candida albicans. Cross sections of the pre- and postrelease contact lenses were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy. Results. Econazole-eluting contact lenses provided extended antifungal activity against Candida albicans fungi. Fungicidal activity varied in duration and effectiveness depending on the mass of the econazole-PLGA film encapsulated in the contact lens. Conclusions. An econazole-eluting contact lens could be used as a treatment for fungal ocular infections. PMID:21527380

  19. Antifungal activity of rhizospheric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mezaache, S; Guechi, A; Zerroug, M M; Strange, R N; Nicklin, J

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonad spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of potato plants (Algeria) by serial dilutions of rhizosphere soils on Kings B medium and were tested for their antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of the Pseudomonas isolated from Potatoes rhizosphere was tested against Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum in dual culture with bacteria on PDA. The Petri dish was divided into tow, on one the bacteria was spread and on the opposite side fungal plugs were inoculated and incubated for one week. Fourteen bacteria were isolated; only one isolate inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani; Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici with inhibition zones of 39.9, 33.7, 30.8, 19.9 and 22.5 mm respectively. PMID:21534477

  20. Antifungal anthraquinones from Saprosma fragrans.

    PubMed

    Singh, D N; Verma, N; Raghuwanshi, S; Shukla, P K; Kulshreshtha, D K

    2006-09-01

    A new 3,4-dihydroxy-1-methoxy anthraquinone-2-corboxaldehyde (1) together with a known anthraquinone, damnacanthal (2), were isolated from the chloroform fraction of the aerial part (whole plant without root) of Saprosma fragrans. The isolated anthraquinones (1) and (2) were found to exhibit antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Sporitrichum schenckii. Their structures were established by chemical and spectral analysis. PMID:16824761

  1. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia M.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Santos, Nuno C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been the focus of intense research toward the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components) are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity, and cytotoxicity are also reviewed. PMID:24688483

  2. Antifungal serum concentration monitoring: an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan L. Goodwin; Richard H. Drew

    2008-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are occurring with increasing incidence and are associated with sig- nificant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the relationship between the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of antifungals is essential to optimize the potential for favourable clinical and microbiological outcomes while minimizing risks of treatment-related toxicity. Antifungal serum concentrations may aid in the determination of appropriate dosing in select

  3. Antifungal Activity of Citrus Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Jing, Li; Lei, Zhentian; Li, Ligai; Xie, Rangjin; Xi, Wanpeng; Guan, Yu; Sumner, Lloyd W; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-03-27

    Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are a mixture of volatile compounds consisting mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons and are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of their antifungal activities. To face the challenge of growing public awareness and concern about food and health safety, studies concerning natural biopreservatives have become the focus of multidisciplinary research efforts. In the past decades, a large amount of literature has been published on the antifungal activity of CEOs. This paper reviews the advances of research on CEOs and focuses on their in vitro and food antifungal activities, chemical compositions of CEOs, and the methods used in antifungal assessment. Furthermore, the antifungal bioactive components in CEOs and their potential mechanism of action are summarized. Finally, the applications of CEOs in the food industry are discussed in an attempt to provide new information for future utilization of CEOs in modern industries. PMID:24628448

  4. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  5. [Positive interaction between immunosuppressive and antifungal drugs].

    PubMed

    Rammaert, Blandine; Lortholary, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Immunosuppressive and antifungal drugs are frequently associated to treat solid organ transplant patients or patients with hematological malignancies. To cure invasive fungal infection (IFI), immunosuppression has to be reduced. However, immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus (rapamycin) or mycophenolate mofetil possess antifungal properties. Indeed fungi and humans have in common calcineurin and TOR signalization pathways which are inhibited by these molecules. In vitro experiences suggest a positive interaction between immunosuppressive and antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B, azole and echinocandins. These results are confirmed by clinical findings and thus offer further therapeutic possibilities in the context of solid organ transplantation. double dagger. PMID:20819713

  6. Antifungal proteins: More than antimicrobials?

    PubMed Central

    Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Marx, Florentine

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are widely distributed in nature. In higher eukaryotes, AMPs provide the host with an important defence mechanism against invading pathogens. AMPs of lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes may support successful competition for nutrients with other microorganisms of the same ecological niche. AMPs show a vast variety in structure, function, antimicrobial spectrum and mechanism of action. Most interestingly, there is growing evidence that AMPs also fulfil important biological functions other than antimicrobial activity. The present review focuses on the mechanistic function of small, cationic, cysteine-rich AMPs of mammals, insects, plants and fungi with antifungal activity and specifically aims at summarizing current knowledge concerning additional biological properties which opens novel aspects for their future use in medicine, agriculture and biotechnology. PMID:23412850

  7. Chemogenomic profiling predicts antifungal synergies

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Gregor; Lee, Anna Y; Epp, Elias; Fredette, Amélie; Surprenant, Jamie; Harcus, Doreen; Scott, Michelle; Tan, Elaine; Nishimura, Tamiko; Whiteway, Malcolm; Hallett, Michael; Thomas, David Y

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapies, HIV infections, and treatments to block organ transplant rejection are creating a population of immunocompromised individuals at serious risk of systemic fungal infections. Since single-agent therapies are susceptible to failure due to either inherent or acquired resistance, alternative therapeutic approaches such as multi-agent therapies are needed. We have developed a bioinformatics-driven approach that efficiently predicts compound synergy for such combinatorial therapies. The approach uses chemogenomic profiles in order to identify compound profiles that have a statistically significant degree of similarity to a fluconazole profile. The compounds identified were then experimentally verified to be synergistic with fluconazole and with each other, in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Our method is therefore capable of accurately predicting compound synergy to aid the development of combinatorial antifungal therapies. PMID:20029371

  8. Interactions between naturally occurring antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Viktória; Szilágyi, Melinda; Anton, Fruzsina; Leiter, Eva; Pócsi, I; Emri, T

    2013-12-01

    Pairwise interactions between four antifungal compounds were studied. The ?-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor echinocandin B (ECB) showed synergistic effect with the cell wall hydrolase ChiB chitinase and EngA ?-1,3-glucanase on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus rugulosus and A. fumigatus. The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) did not influence the antifungal activity of ChiB or EngA, but showed antagonistic effect with ECB on A. nidulans, A. rugulosus and A. fumigatus. PAF had no significant effect on the growth of the tested yeasts as it was expected and did not influence significantly the antifungal activity of ECB, ChiB or EngA against yeasts. PMID:24275596

  9. Antifungal activity of five species of Polygala

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Susana; Mendes, Beatriz G.; Missau, Fabiana C.; de Resende, Maria A.; Pizzolatti, Moacir G.

    2011-01-01

    Crude extracts and fractions of five species of Polygala – P. campestris, P. cyparissias, P. paniculata, P. pulchella and P. sabulosa – were investigated for their in vitro antifungal activity against opportunistic Candida species, Cryptococcus gattii and Sporothrix schenckii with bioautographic and microdilution assays. In the bioautographic assays, the major extracts were active against the fungi tested. In the minimal concentration inhibitory (MIC) assay, the hexane extract of P. paniculata and EtOAc fraction of P. sabulosa showed the best antifungal activity, with MIC values of 60 and 30 ?g/mL, respectively, against C. tropicalis, C. gattii and S. schenckii. The compounds isolated from P. sabulosa prenyloxycoumarin and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol displayed antifungal activity against S. schenckii (with MICs of 125 ?g/mL and 250 ?g/mL, respectively) and C. gattii (both with MICs of 250 ?g/mL). Rutin and aurapten isolated from P. paniculata showed antifungal activity against C. gattii with MIC values of 60 and 250 ?g/mL, respectively. In the antifungal screening, few of the isolated compounds showed good antifungal inhibition. The compound ?-spinasterol showed broad activity against the species tested, while rutin had the best activity with the lowest MIC values for the microorganisms tested. These two compounds may be chemically modified by the introduction of a substitute group that would alter several physico-chemical properties of the molecule, such as hydrophobicity, electronic density and steric strain. PMID:24031724

  10. Antifungal activity of limonoids from Khaya ivorensis.

    PubMed

    Abdelgaleil, Samir A M; Hashinaga, Fumio; Nakatani, Munehiro

    2005-02-01

    Chemical investigation of the diethyl ether extract of the stem bark of Khaya ivorensis A Chev (Meliaceae) afforded ten limonoids of angolensates, ring D-opened limonoids and mexicanolides. The structures of the limonoids isolated were determined by comparison of their (1)H and (13)C NMR data with those reported in the literature. These compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. Methyl 6-hydroxyangolensate and 3,7-dideacetylkhivorin were also tested for their antifungal and antibacterial activities on several fungal and bacterial species. Methyl angolensate and 1,3,7-trideacetylkhivorin displayed the highest antifungal activity against B. cinerea, with respectively 62.8 and 64.0% mycelial growth inhibition at 1000 mg litre(-1), and 73.3 and 68.6% mycelial growth inhibition at 1500 mg litre(-1). 3,7-Dideacetylkhivorin showed stronger antifungal and antibacterial activities than methyl 6-hydroxyangolensate against all of the test fungi and bacteria except Penicillium expansum Link. This is the first report on the antifungal and antibacterial effects of these limonoids. Structure-antifungal activity relationships of the limonoids isolated are discussed. PMID:15619711

  11. Mutation Spectrum Induced by Conazole Fungicides in LacI Transgenic C57BL/6 Mouse Liver.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are antifungal agents used in both agricultural and pharmaceutical settings. Some conazoles, including propiconazole and triadimefon, induce hepatocellular tumors in mice, while other conazoles do not. We reported in a previous study that both propiconazole and triadime...

  12. [Recent advances in the study of new antifungal lead compounds].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-zheng; Sheng, Chun-quan; Zhang, Wan-nian

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, the incidence and mortality rate of invasive fungal infection have increased dramatically, and it is of great significance to develop novel antifungal agents with new chemical structure and new mode of action. In this review, novel antifungal lead compounds reported from 2007 to 2009 are reviewed. Moreover, their chemical structures, antifungal activities and structure-activity relationships have been summarized, which can provide useful information for future study of antifungal agents. PMID:21351583

  13. ASDCD: Antifungal Synergistic Drug Combination Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Ming-Xi; Ren, Wei; Wang, Quan-Xin; Zhang, Li-Xin; Yan, Gui-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Finding effective drugs to treat fungal infections has important clinical significance based on high mortality rates, especially in an immunodeficient population. Traditional antifungal drugs with single targets have been reported to cause serious side effects and drug resistance. Nowadays, however, drug combinations, particularly with respect to synergistic interaction, have attracted the attention of researchers. In fact, synergistic drug combinations could simultaneously affect multiple subpopulations, targets, and diseases. Therefore, a strategy that employs synergistic antifungal drug combinations could eliminate the limitations noted above and offer the opportunity to explore this emerging bioactive chemical space. However, it is first necessary to build a powerful database in order to facilitate the analysis of drug combinations. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have built the first Antifungal Synergistic Drug Combination Database (ASDCD), including previously published synergistic antifungal drug combinations, chemical structures, targets, target-related signaling pathways, indications, and other pertinent data. Its current version includes 210 antifungal synergistic drug combinations and 1225 drug-target interactions, involving 105 individual drugs from more than 12,000 references. ASDCD is freely available at http://ASDCD.amss.ac.cn. PMID:24475134

  14. Synthesis, Antifungal Activities and Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship of Carabrone Hydrazone Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Ren, Shuang-Xi; He, Ze-Yu; Wang, De-Long; Yan, Xiao-Nan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents. PMID:24619221

  15. Synthesis, antifungal activities and qualitative structure activity relationship of carabrone hydrazone derivatives as potential antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Ren, Shuang-Xi; He, Ze-Yu; Wang, De-Long; Yan, Xiao-Nan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents. PMID:24619221

  16. Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Z.; Sun, X.; Yeh, C.-K.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be “washed out” by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions. PMID:20940361

  17. Antifungal drugs during pregnancy: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Pilmis, Benoît; Jullien, Vincent; Sobel, Jack; Lecuit, Marc; Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal prescription remains a challenge in pregnant women because of uncertainties regarding fetal toxicity and altered maternal pharmacokinetic parameters that may affect efficacy or increase maternal and fetal toxicity. We present updated data reviewing the available knowledge and current recommendations regarding antifungal prescription in pregnancy. Amphotericin B remains the first-choice parenteral drug in spite of its well-established toxicity. Topical drugs are used throughout pregnancy because of limited absorption. Recent data have clarified the teratogenic effect of high-dose fluconazole during the first trimester and provided reassuring cumulative data regarding its use at a single low dose in this key period. Recent data have also provided additional safety data on itraconazole and lipidic derivatives of amphotericin B. Regarding newer antifungal drugs, including posaconazole and echinocandins, clinical data are critically needed before considering prescription in pregnancy. PMID:25204341

  18. Pharmacodynamic implications for use of antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell E

    2007-10-01

    In the last decade, the relationship between drug dosing and treatment efficacy for life-threatening fungal infections has been clarified by application of pharmacodynamic principles to the study of antifungal agents. Similar to antibacterials, antifungal agents can display static or cidal patterns of activity against pathogenic fungi that can be broadly classified as either concentration-dependent or concentration-independent. The differences between these pharmacodynamic patterns can play an important role in the selection and dosing of antifungal therapy, especially in the treatment of uncommon or resistant mycoses. Knowledge of these pharmacodynamic characteristics may also guide an exploration of unconventional dosing strategies that could prove to be as effective, safe, and more convenient in critically ill or persistently immunosuppressed patients. PMID:17616480

  19. Borrelidin, a potent antifungal agent: insight into the antifungal mechanism against Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya-Mei; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Zhang, Ji; Li, Ming; Liu, Chong-Xi; An, Jing; Jiang, Ling; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Borrelidin has high and specific antifungal activity against Phytophthora sojae . To explore the antifungal mechanism of borrelidin against P. sojae , the relationship between the antifungal activity of borrelidin and the concentration of threonine was evaluated. The results demonstrated that the growth-inhibitory effect of borrelidin on the growth of P. sojae was antagonized by threonine in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) may be the potential target of borrelidin. Subsequently, the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of ThrRS by borrelidin in vitro was confirmed. Furthermore, the detailed interaction between ThrRS and borrelidin was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD), implying a tight binding of borrelidin to ThrRS. Taken together, these results suggest that the antifungal activity of borrelidin against P. sojae was mediated by inhibition of ThrRS via the formation of the ThrRS-borrelidin complex. PMID:22967236

  20. Antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Boyraz, Nuh; Ozcan, Musa

    2005-12-01

    The antifungal effects of rosemary, cumin, sater (savory), basil and pickling herb hydrosols were investigated against Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tulipae, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria citri. Hydrosols of sater and pickling herb showed the most relevant fungicidal activity. PMID:16243447

  1. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF THIOPHENES FROM ECHINOPS RITRO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracts from thirty plants of the Greek flora were evaluated for their antifungal activity using direct-bioautography assays with three Colletotrichum species. Among the bioactive extracts, the dichloromethane extract of the radix of Echinops ritro was the most potent. Bioassay-guided fractionation...

  2. Antifungal resistance in non- albicans Candida species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berjan Collin; Cornelius J. Clancy; M. Hong Nguyen

    1999-01-01

    Non- Candida albicans species have emerged as important bloodstream pathogens. They tend to have decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents in vitro and cause infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. Fluconazole resistance can emerge in any Candida spp., but is most commonly seen with Candida krusei, for which resistance is universal, and with Candida glabrata. Amphotericin B resistance has also

  3. Antifungal coating by biofunctionalized polyelectrolyte multilayered films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Etienne; Claire Gasnier; Corinne Taddei; Jean-Claude Voegel; Dominique Aunis; Pierre Schaaf; Marie-Helčne Metz-Boutigue; Anne-Laure Bolcato-Bellemin; Christophe Egles

    2005-01-01

    The surface of medical devices is a common site of bacterial and fungal adhesion, first step to the constitution of a resistant biofilm leading frequently to chronic infections. In order to prevent such complications, several physical and chemical modifications of the device surface have been proposed. Here, we experiment a new type of topical antifungal coating using the layer-by-layer technique.

  4. Antifungal Properties of Some Mexican Medicinal Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Maria Damian-Badillo; Rafael Salgado-Garciglia; Rosa Elisa Martinez-Munoz; Mauro Manuel Martinez-Pacheco

    2008-01-01

    The antifungal properties of some extracts from Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., Heliopsis longipes 'A. Gray' Blake., Satureja macrostema Benth. and Tagetes lucida Cav. were analyzed, using the agar disc diffusion method. After 72 h incubation, the plant extracts inhibited the growth of fungi, but the ethyl acetate and methanol-chloroform extracts from A. ludoviciana, H. longipes and T. lucida inhibited all the

  5. Synthetic multivalent antifungal peptides effective against fungi.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Liu, Shouping; Li, Jianguo; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Aung, Thet Tun; Goh, Eunice; Chang, Jamie Ya Ting; Saraswathi, Padhmanaban; Tang, Charles; Safie, Siti Radiah Binte; Lin, Lim Yih; Riezman, Howard; Lei, Zhou; Verma, Chandra S; Beuerman, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of the cluster effect observed in multivalent peptides, this work describes antifungal activity and possible mechanism of action of tetravalent peptide (B4010) which carries 4 copies of the sequence RGRKVVRR through a branched lysine core. B4010 displayed better antifungal properties than natamycin and amphotericin B. The peptide retained significant activity in the presence of monovalent/divalent cations, trypsin and serum and tear fluid. Moreover, B4010 is non-haemolytic and non-toxic to mice by intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg) or intravenous (100 mg/kg) routes. S. cerevisiae mutant strains with altered membrane sterol structures and composition showed hyper senstivity to B4010. The peptide had no affinity for cell wall polysaccharides and caused rapid dissipation of membrane potential and release of vital ions and ATP when treated with C. albicans. We demonstrate that additives which alter the membrane potential or membrane rigidity protect C. albicans from B4010-induced lethality. Calcein release assay and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the peptide preferentially binds to mixed bilayer containing ergosterol over phophotidylcholine-cholesterol bilayers. The studies further suggested that the first arginine is important for mediating peptide-bilayer interactions. Replacing the first arginine led to a 2-4 fold decrease in antifungal activities and reduced membrane disruption properties. The combined in silico and in vitro approach should facilitate rational design of new tetravalent antifungal peptides. PMID:24498363

  6. Synthetic Multivalent Antifungal Peptides Effective against Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianguo; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Aung, Thet Tun; Goh, Eunice; Chang, Jamie Ya Ting; Saraswathi, Padhmanaban; Tang, Charles; Safie, Siti Radiah Binte; Lin, Lim Yih; Riezman, Howard; Lei, Zhou; Verma, Chandra S.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of the cluster effect observed in multivalent peptides, this work describes antifungal activity and possible mechanism of action of tetravalent peptide (B4010) which carries 4 copies of the sequence RGRKVVRR through a branched lysine core. B4010 displayed better antifungal properties than natamycin and amphotericin B. The peptide retained significant activity in the presence of monovalent/divalent cations, trypsin and serum and tear fluid. Moreover, B4010 is non-haemolytic and non-toxic to mice by intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg) or intravenous (100 mg/kg) routes. S. cerevisiae mutant strains with altered membrane sterol structures and composition showed hyper senstivity to B4010. The peptide had no affinity for cell wall polysaccharides and caused rapid dissipation of membrane potential and release of vital ions and ATP when treated with C. albicans. We demonstrate that additives which alter the membrane potential or membrane rigidity protect C. albicans from B4010-induced lethality. Calcein release assay and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the peptide preferentially binds to mixed bilayer containing ergosterol over phophotidylcholine-cholesterol bilayers. The studies further suggested that the first arginine is important for mediating peptide-bilayer interactions. Replacing the first arginine led to a 2–4 fold decrease in antifungal activities and reduced membrane disruption properties. The combined in silico and in vitro approach should facilitate rational design of new tetravalent antifungal peptides. PMID:24498363

  7. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylactic strategies have been extensively developed. However, only a few well-designed studies involving strict criteria have been performed, mostly in patients with hematological malignancies or AIDS. In these situations, the best dose and duration of administration of the antifungal drug often remain to be determined. In high-risk neutropenic or bone marrow transplant patients, fluconazole is effective for the prevention of superficial and/or systemic candidal infections but is not always able to prolong overall survival and potentially selects less susceptible or resistant Candida spp. Primary prophylaxis against aspergillosis remains investigative. At present, no standard general recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis can be proposed for AIDS patients or transplant recipients. However, for persistently immunocompromised patients who previously experienced a noncandidal systemic fungal infection, prolonged suppressive antifungal therapy is often indicated to prevent a relapse. Better strategies for controlling immune deficiencies should also help to avoid some potentially life-threatening deep mycoses. When prescribing antifungal prophylaxis, physicians should be aware of the potential emergence of resistant strains, drug-drug interactions, and the cost. Well-designed, randomized, multicenter clinical trials in high-risk immunocompromised hosts are urgently needed to better define how to prevent severe invasive mycoses. PMID:9227863

  8. IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

    E-print Network

    Ray, David

    IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS 2006 #12;IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS: IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS RESISTANT

  9. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of coelomycete agents of black grain eumycetoma to eight antifungals.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sarah Abdalla; de Hoog, G Sybren; Stevens, David A; Fahal, Ahmed H; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2015-04-01

    Fungal mycetoma (eumycetoma) represents one of the most difficult infections to appropriately manage. The current recommended treatment is based on extensive surgical debridement combined with prolonged antifungal therapy with ketoconazole or itraconazole. Despite the different phylogenetic positions of black-grain eumycetoma species, they are all treated with the same antifungal agents. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of coelomycetous eumycetoma agents in the order of Pleosporales presently is largely unknown. Here we determined the in vitro activity of eight antifungal agents against seven species causing human eumycetoma using the Sensititre YeastOne method. High minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were found with fluconazole, caspofungin, flucytosine, and amphotericin B. Voriconazole and posaconazole were found to be active against all species tested. Of the species included in the investigation, MICs of Medicopsis romeroi differed from the rest of the mycetoma causative agents belonging to the order of the Pleosporales. We found significantly lower MICs for amphotericin B and significantly higher MICs for fluconazole, ketoconazole, and itraconazole against this species. Our results emphasised that identification of black grain mycetoma agent is important as well as performing susceptibility testing before starting of antifungal treatment. PMID:25631481

  10. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    PubMed

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

  11. Efflux pump proteins in antifungal resistance

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajendra; Rawal, Manpreet K.

    2014-01-01

    It is now well-known that the enhanced expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) proteins contribute to the development of tolerance to antifungals in yeasts. For example, the azole resistant clinical isolates of the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans show an overexpression of Cdr1p and/or CaMdr1p belonging to ABC and MFS superfamilies, respectively. Hence, azole resistant isolates display reduced accumulation of therapeutic drug due to its rapid extrusion and that facilitates its survival. Considering the importance of major antifungal transporters, the focus of recent research has been to understand the structure and function of these proteins to design inhibitors/modulators to block the pump protein activity so that the drug already in use could again sensitize resistant yeast cells. The review focuses on the structure and function of ABC and MFS transporters of Candida to highlight the recent advancement in the field. PMID:25221515

  12. [Drug-drug interaction of antifungal drugs].

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshiro; Shiraga, Toshifumi; Takagi, Akira

    2005-10-01

    This article reviews the in vitro metabolic and the in vivo pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with antifungal drugs, including fluconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, miconazole, and voriconazole. In the in vitro interaction studies, the effects of antifungal drugs on specific activities of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), including CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes are compared to predict the possibility of drug interactions in vivo. Fluconazole, micafungin, and voriconazole have lower inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 activities than itraconazole and miconazole, and IC(50) and/or K(i) values against CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities are the lowest for miconazole, followed by voriconazole and fluconazole. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, it is well known that itraconazole is a potent clinically important inhibitor of the clearance of CYP3A4 substrates, and fluconazole and voriconazole are reported to increase the blood or plasma concentrations of not only midazolam and cyclosporine (CYP3A4 substrates) but also of phenytoin (CYP2C9 substrate) and/or omeprazole (CYP2C19/CYP3A4 substrate). On the other hand, no inhibition of CYP activities except for CYP3A4 activity by micafungin is observed in vitro, and the blood concentrations of cyclosporine and tacrolimus are not affected by coadministration of micafungin in vivo, suggesting that micafungin would not cause clinically significant interactions with drugs that are metabolized by CYPs via the inhibition of metabolism. Miconazole is a potent inhibitor of all CYPs investigated in vitro, although there are few detailed studies on the clinical significance of this except for CYP2C9. Therefore the differential effects of these antifungal drugs on CYP activities must be considered in the choice of antifungal drugs in patients receiving other drugs. PMID:16205037

  13. Using Antifungal Pharmacodynamics to Improve Patient Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan P. Wiederhold

    2010-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies of available and investigational antifungals have broadened our understanding of the pharmacodynamics\\u000a of these agents as well as the pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic characteristics that are associated with efficacy. These data\\u000a are increasingly being used as surrogate means to answer questions about dosing and administration of antimicrobial agents\\u000a in order to improve outcomes in patients with invasive

  14. Ergosterol biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus: its relevance as an antifungal target and role in antifungal drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Mellado, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Ergosterol, the major sterol of fungal membranes, is essential for developmental growth and the main target of antifungals that are currently used to treat fatal fungal infections. Emergence of resistance to existing antifungals is a current problem and several secondary resistance mechanisms have been described in Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates. A full understanding of ergosterol biosynthetic control therefore appears to be essential for improvement of antifungal efficacy and to prevent antifungal resistance. An ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in A. fumigatus has been proposed with 14 sterol intermediates resulting in ergosterol and another secondary final compound C-24 ethyl sterol. Transcriptomic analysis of the A. fumigatus response to host-imposed stresses or antifungal agents is expanding our understanding of both sterol biosynthesis and the modes of action of antifungal drugs. Ultimately, the identification of new targets for novel drug design, or the study of combinatorial effects of targeting sterol biosynthesis together with other metabolic pathways, is warranted. PMID:23335918

  15. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Fernanda P.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Pitangui, Nayla S.; Rossi, Suélen A.; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Soares, Luciana A.; Silva, Julhiany F.; Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Furlan, Maysa; Silva, Dulce H. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa). It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125?mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250?mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:22675379

  16. Current and Emerging Azole Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Daniel J.; Hitchcock, Christopher A.; Sibley, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Major developments in research into the azole class of antifungal agents during the 1990s have provided expanded options for the treatment of many opportunistic and endemic fungal infections. Fluconazole and itraconazole have proved to be safer than both amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Despite these advances, serious fungal infections remain difficult to treat, and resistance to the available drugs is emerging. This review describes present and future uses of the currently available azole antifungal agents in the treatment of systemic and superficial fungal infections and provides a brief overview of the current status of in vitro susceptibility testing and the growing problem of clinical resistance to the azoles. Use of the currently available azoles in combination with other antifungal agents with different mechanisms of action is likely to provide enhanced efficacy. Detailed information on some of the second-generation triazoles being developed to provide extended coverage of opportunistic, endemic, and emerging fungal pathogens, as well as those in which resistance to older agents is becoming problematic, is provided. PMID:9880474

  17. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    PubMed Central

    Ascacio-Valdés, Juan; Burboa, Edgardo; Aguilera-Carbo, Antonio F; Aparicio, Mario; Pérez-Schmidt, Ramón; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica (E. antisyphilitica) Zucc in the wax extraction process. Methods An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16, until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder. An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography (Q XL) and gel permeation chromatography (G 25). The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated (TGA and DTA) to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid (monomeric unit). Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and, also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion. Results The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined, the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol; and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated. Conclusions It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin (860.7 g/mol) isolated from E. antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxyzporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani. PMID:23570015

  18. Impact of New Antifungal Breakpoints on Antifungal Resistance in Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, Annette W.; Sutton, Deanna A.; McCarthy, Dora I.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed our antifungal susceptibility data for micafungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole against Candida species and compared resistance rates determined by the previous and recently revised CLSI antifungal breakpoints. With the new breakpoints, resistance was significantly increased for micafungin (from 0.8% to 7.6%), anidulafungin (from 0.9% to 7.3%), and voriconazole (from 6.1% to 18.4%) against Candida glabrata. Resistance was also increased for fluconazole against Candida albicans (from 2.1% to 5.7%). PMID:24403302

  19. Cysticidal Activity of Antifungals against Different Genotypes of Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Darlene; Ledee, Dolena R.; Alfonso, Eduardo C.

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal drugs have been proposed as a novel treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis. The cysticidal activity of several antifungal compounds was tested against different genotypes of culture collection and clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba. Only voriconazole and posaconazole were found to be cysticidal, with no differences in activity observed between clinical and culture collection isolates. PMID:25001304

  20. Advances in synthetic approach to and antifungal activity of triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Drabu, Sushma; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Summary Several five membered ring systems, e.g., triazole, oxadiazole dithiazole and thiadiazole with three heteroatoms at symmetrical or asymmetrical positions have been studied because of their interesting pharmacological properties. In this article our emphasis is on synthetic development and pharmacological activity of the triazole moiety which exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer etc. Triazoles have increased our ability to treat many fungal infections, for example, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, aspergillosis etc. However, mortality due to these infections even with antifungal therapy is still unacceptably high. Therefore, the development of new antifungal agents targeting specific fungal structures or functions is being actively pursued. Rapid developments in molecular mycology have led to a concentrated search for more target antifungals. Although we are entering a new era of antifungal therapy in which we will continue to be challenged by systemic fungal diseases, the options for treatment will have greatly expanded. PMID:21804864

  1. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Ye, Xiu Juan; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (-)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (-)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper ?-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the aforementioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The prospects of employing them in clinical practice are promising in view of the wealth of these compounds from marine organisms. The compounds may also be used in agriculture and the food industry. PMID:24562325

  2. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovieva, S. E.; Olsufyeva, E. N.; Preobrazhenskaya, M. N.

    2011-02-01

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  3. Antifungal Diketopiperazines from Symbiotic Fungus of Fungus-Growing Ant Cyphomyrmex minutus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Wang; Ulrich G. Mueller; Jon Clardy

    1999-01-01

    The attine fungus Tyridiomyces formicarum, the symbiont of the fungus-growing ant Cyphomyrmex minutus, produces several antifungal diketopiperazines. This represents the first identification of antifungal compounds from an attine symbiont and contradicts previous suggestions that attine fungi do not produce metabolites with antifungal activity. T. formicarum probably produces antifungal compounds in defense (1) against other fungi that invade the gardens and

  4. Antifungal Th Immunity: Growing up in Family

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Monica; Renga, Giorgia; Puccetti, Matteo; Oikonomou, Vasileios; Palmieri, Melissa; Galosi, Claudia; Bartoli, Andrea; Romani, Luigina

    2014-01-01

    Fungal diseases represent an important paradigm in immunology since they can result from either the lack of recognition or over-activation of the inflammatory response. Current understanding of the pathophysiology underlying fungal infections and diseases highlights the multiple cell populations and cell-signaling pathways involved in these conditions. A systems biology approach that integrates investigations of immunity at the systems-level is required to generate novel insights into this complexity and to decipher the dynamics of the host–fungus interaction. It is becoming clear that a three-way interaction between the host, microbiota, and fungi dictates the types of host–fungus relationship. Tryptophan metabolism helps support this interaction, being exploited by the mammalian host and commensals to increase fitness in response to fungi via resistance and tolerance mechanisms of antifungal immunity. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that provide immune homeostasis with the fungal biota and its possible rupture in fungal infections and diseases will be discussed within the expanding role of antifungal Th cell responses. PMID:25360137

  5. Synergistic Antifungal Effect of Glabridin and Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Li, Li Ping; Zhang, Jun Dong; Li, Qun; Shen, Hui; Chen, Si Min; He, Li Juan; Yan, Lan; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections is increasing in recent years. The present study mainly investigated glabridin (Gla) alone and especially in combination with fluconazole (FLC) against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida Glabratas) by different methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) indicated that Gla possessed a broad-spectrum antifungal activity at relatively high concentrations. After combining with FLC, Gla exerted a potent synergistic effect against drug-resistant C. albicans and C. tropicalis at lower concentrations when interpreted by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). Disk diffusion test and time-killing test confirming the synergistic fungicidal effect. Cell growth tests suggested that the synergistic effect of the two drugs depended more on the concentration of Gla. The cell envelop damage including a significant decrease of cell size and membrane permeability increasing were found after Gla treatment. Together, our results suggested that Gla possessed a synergistic effect with FLC and the cell envelope damage maybe contributed to the synergistic effect, which providing new information for developing novel antifungal agents. PMID:25058485

  6. Resistance to antifungals that target CYP51.

    PubMed

    Parker, Josie E; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Price, Claire L; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Fungal diseases are an increasing global burden. Fungi are now recognised to kill more people annually than malaria, whilst in agriculture, fungi threaten crop yields and food security. Azole resistance, mediated by several mechanisms including point mutations in the target enzyme (CYP51), is increasing through selection pressure as a result of widespread use of triazole fungicides in agriculture and triazole antifungal drugs in the clinic. Mutations similar to those seen in clinical isolates as long ago as the 1990s in Candida albicans and later in Aspergillus fumigatus have been identified in agriculturally important fungal species and also wider combinations of point mutations. Recently, evidence that mutations originate in the field and now appear in clinical infections has been suggested. This situation is likely to increase in prevalence as triazole fungicide use continues to rise. Here, we review the progress made in understanding azole resistance found amongst clinically and agriculturally important fungal species focussing on resistance mechanisms associated with CYP51. Biochemical characterisation of wild-type and mutant CYP51 enzymes through ligand binding studies and azole IC50 determinations is an important tool for understanding azole susceptibility and can be used in conjunction with microbiological methods (MIC50 values), molecular biological studies (site-directed mutagenesis) and protein modelling studies to inform future antifungal development with increased specificity for the target enzyme over the host homologue. PMID:25320648

  7. Potentiation of Azole Antifungals by 2-Adamantanamine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lingmei; Lister, Ida; Keating, John; Nantel, Andre; Long, Lisa; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; North, Jeffrey; Lee, Richard E.; Coleman, Ken; Dahl, Thomas; Lewis, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Azoles are among the most successful classes of antifungals. They act by inhibiting ?-14 lanosterol demethylase in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) occurs in about 90% of HIV-infected individuals, and 4 to 5% are refractory to current therapies, including azoles, due to the formation of resistant biofilms produced in the course of OPC. We reasoned that compounds affecting a different target may potentiate azoles to produce increased killing and an antibiofilm therapeutic. 2-Adamantanamine (AC17) was identified in a screen for compounds potentiating the action of miconazole against biofilms of Candida albicans. AC17, a close structural analog to the antiviral amantadine, did not affect the viability of C. albicans but caused the normally fungistatic azoles to become fungicidal. Transcriptome analysis of cells treated with AC17 revealed that the ergosterol and filamentation pathways were affected. Indeed, cells exposed to AC17 had decreased ergosterol contents and were unable to invade agar. In vivo, the combination of AC17 and fluconazole produced a significant reduction in fungal tissue burden in a guinea pig model of cutaneous candidiasis, while each treatment alone did not have a significant effect. The combination of fluconazole and AC17 also showed improved efficacy (P value of 0.018) compared to fluconazole alone when fungal lesions were evaluated. AC17 is a promising lead in the search for more effective antifungal therapeutics. PMID:23689724

  8. 60 FR 40500 - Myclobutanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-08-09

    ...and meat to 0.1 ppm, meat byproducts (except liver) to 0.2 ppm and liver to 1.0 ppm for cattle, goats, hogs, horses...tolerances for milk, meat, meat byproducts, and liver based on the additional residues in or on...

  9. ALTERATIONS IN mRNA GENE EXPRESSION ASSOCIATED WITH CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM, CELL CYCLE, AND OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCED BY TRIAZOLE CONTAINING CONAZOLES IN RAT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used as pharmaceuticals and in agriculture. Triadimefon was hepatotoxic and induced follicular cell adenomas in the thyroid gland. In contrast,propiconazole and myclobutanil were hepatotoxic but had no effect on the thyroid gland. It was proposed that tri...

  10. EFFECT OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES ON REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN THE FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three triazole fungicides were evaluated for effects on female rat reproductive development. Rats were exposed via feed to propiconazole (P) (100, 500, or 2500 ppm), myclobutanil (M) (100, 500, or 2000 ppm), or triadimefon (T) (100, 500, or 1800 ppm) from gestation day 6 to postn...

  11. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    PubMed

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  12. Sarcoidosis Treatment with Antifungal Medication: A Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Ter?elj, Marjeta; Salobir, Barbara; Zupancic, Mirjana; Rylander, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare treatment of sarcoidosis with antifungal or corticosteroid medication. Methods. In patients with sarcoidosis antifungal medication (n = 29), corticosteroids (n = 21) or a combination (n = 27) was given. Nine patients allotted to antifungal medication were later given corticosteroids because of the lack of regression of the disease. X-ray scores for the severity of granuloma infiltration were determined. Chitotriosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme were determined. The time in months till remission was observed as well as the number of recurrences. PMID:25548666

  13. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Bloodstream Isolates of Candida Species from Nine Hospitals in Korea: Application of New Antifungal Breakpoints and Relationship to Antifungal Usage

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Shin, Jong Hee; Choi, Min Ji; Lee, Wee Gyo; Park, Yeon-Joon; Uh, Young; Kim, Shine-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    We applied the new clinical breakpoints (CBPs) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to a multicenter study to determine the antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream infection (BSI) isolates of Candida species in Korea, and determined the relationship between the frequency of antifungal-resistant Candida BSI isolates and antifungal use at hospitals. Four hundred and fifty BSI isolates of Candida species were collected over a 1-year period in 2011 from nine hospitals. The susceptibilities of the isolates to four antifungal agents were determined using the CLSI M27 broth microdilution method. By applying the species-specific CBPs, non-susceptibility to fluconazole was found in 16.4% (70/428) of isolates, comprising 2.6% resistant and 13.8% susceptible-dose dependent isolates. However, non-susceptibility to voriconazole, caspofungin, or micafungin was found in 0% (0/370), 0% (0/437), or 0.5% (2/437) of the Candida BSI isolates, respectively. Of the 450 isolates, 72 (16.0%) showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ?4 ?g/ml]. The total usage of systemic antifungals varied considerably among the hospitals, ranging from 190.0 to 7.7 defined daily dose per 1,000 patient days, and fluconazole was the most commonly prescribed agent (46.3%). By Spearman’s correlation analysis, fluconazole usage did not show a significant correlation with the percentage of fluconazole resistant isolates at hospitals. However, fluconazole usage was significantly correlated with the percentage of fluconazole non-susceptible isolates (r = 0.733; P = 0.025) or the percentage of isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole (MIC ?4 ?g/ml) (r = 0.700; P = 0.036) at hospitals. Our work represents the first South Korean multicenter study demonstrating an association between antifungal use and antifungal resistance among BSI isolates of Candida at hospitals using the new CBPs of the CLSI. PMID:25706866

  14. Epithelial Cells and Innate Antifungal Defense

    PubMed Central

    Weindl, G.; Wagener, J.; Schaller, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. Clinical observations indicate that mucocutaneous Candida infections are commonly associated with defective cell-mediated immune responses. The importance of the innate immune system as a first-line defense against pathogenic challenge has long been recognized. Over the last decade, many key molecules mediating innate host defense have been identified. Central to these developments is the discovery of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and C-type lectin-receptors that induce innate immune responses and also modulate cellular and humoral adaptive immunity during Candida infections. Although a large amount of information is now available in systemic infections, little is known about localized infections. We address the most relevant pattern recognition receptors and their signaling mechanisms in oral epithelial cells, to gain a better understanding of their contributions to antifungal innate immunity. PMID:20395411

  15. Posaconazole: a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal.

    PubMed

    Torres, Harrys A; Hachem, Ray Y; Chemaly, Roy F; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Raad, Issam I

    2005-12-01

    Posaconazale is a new triazole drug being investigated in phase III clinical trials for the treatment and prevention of invasive fungal infections. In-vitro and in-vivo studies showed that posaconazole has broad-spectrum activity against most Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, Fusarium species, zygomycetes, and endemic fungi. Posaconazole is given orally two to four times daily. This triazole is widely distributed in the body, metabolised mainly by the liver, and is well tolerated, even in long-term courses. Adverse events are generally mild and include headache and gastrointestinal complaints. Posaconazole has shown promising clinical efficacy against life-threatening fungal infections that are often refractory to the currently available antifungal therapies-eg, invasive aspergillosis, fusariosis, and the emerging zygomycosis. PMID:16310149

  16. Antifungal activity of anthraquinone derivatives from Rheum emodi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K Agarwal; Sudhir S Singh; Sushma Verma; Sushil Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Rhein, physcion, aloe-emodin and chrysophanol isolated from Rheum emodi rhizomes exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC 25–250 ?g\\/ml).

  17. Dendritic Cells in Anti-Fungal Immunity and Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    Life-threatening fungal infections have increased in recent years while treatment options remain limited. The development of vaccines against fungal pathogens represents a key advance sorely needed to combat the increasing fungal disease threat. Dendritic cells (DC) are uniquely able to shape anti-fungal immunity by initiating and modulating naive T cell responses. Targeting DC may allow for the generation of potent vaccines against fungal pathogens. In the context of anti-fungal vaccine design, we describe the characteristics of the varied DC subsets, how DC recognize fungi, their function in immunity against fungal pathogens, and how DC can be targeted in order to create new anti-fungal vaccines. Ongoing studies continue to highlight the critical role of DC in anti-fungal immunity and will help guide DC-based vaccine strategies. PMID:22607797

  18. Role of micafungin in the antifungal armamentarium.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Shigeki; Ohki, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Satoru; Maki, Katsuyuki; Katashima, Masataka; Barrett, David; Aoki, Yoshiyasu

    2007-01-01

    Serious infections caused by opportunistic molds remain a major problem for public health. Immune deficiency following organ transplantation and aggressive cancer treatment has greatly increased the incidence of systemic mycoses, and invasive aspergillosis in patients with AIDS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Amphotericin B is the first-line therapy for systemic infection because of its broad-spectrum and fungicidal activity. However, considerable side effects limit its clinical utility. The echinocandins are large lipopeptide molecules that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-beta-D-glucan, a key component of the fungal cell wall. Three echinocandins have reached the market, and some others are in early clinical development. Caspofungin was the first echinocandin to be licensed for clinical use in most countries. Micafungin is licensed for clinical use in Japan, China, Taiwan, Jordan, Korea, Hong-Kong and the US, and anidulafungin is currently licensed in the US. The novel class of echinocandins represents a milestone in antifungal drug research that has further expanded our therapeutic options. Studies to date have shown that micafungin exhibits extremely potent antifungal activity against clinically important fungi, including Aspergillus and azole-resistant strains of Candida. In animal studies, micafungin is as efficacious as amphotericin B with respect to improvement of survival rate. Micafungin is also characterized by a linear pharmacokinetic profile and substantially fewer toxic effects. Micafungin is a poor substrate for the cytochrome P450 enzymes, and compared to azoles, fewer drug interactions are described. No dose adjustments of the drug are required in the presence of mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporin, tacrolimus, prednisolone, or sirolimus. Strategies using this new echinocandin agent will benefit a large number of patients with severe immune dysfunction. PMID:17504145

  19. Antifungal activity of polymer-based copper nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioffi, Nicola; Torsi, Luisa; Ditaranto, Nicoletta; Sabbatini, Luigia; Zambonin, Pier Giorgio; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Ghibelli, Lina; D'Alessio, Maria; Bleve-Zacheo, Teresa; Traversa, Enrico

    2004-09-01

    Eukaryotes, such as fungi, can be harmful pathogen agents, and the control of their bioactivity is critical as humans are eukaryote organisms, too. Here, copper/polymer nanocomposites are proposed as antifungal spinnable coatings with controlled copper-releasing properties. The tests of the bioactivity show that fungal growth is inhibited on the nanocomposite-coated plates, and the antifungal activity can be modulated by controlling the Cu nanoparticle loading.

  20. Potent Heterologous Antifungal Proteins from Cheeseweed ( Malva parviflora)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing Wang; Greg J. Bunkers

    2000-01-01

    Two novel antifungal proteins were purified and characterized from cheeseweed (Malva parviflora). Both proteins, designated CW-1 and CW-2, are composed of two different subunits of 5000 and 3000 Da, respectively. These proteins possess very potent antifungal activities, and more interestingly the inhibition is fungicidal instead of fungistatic. At low salt condition, the IC50 of CW-1 and CW-2 against Fusarium graminearum

  1. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Verbena officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Casanova, E; García-Mina, J M; Calvo, M I

    2008-09-01

    The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform, ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered as excellent and readily available sources of natural antifungal and antioxidant compounds. PMID:18498054

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Indonesian ethnomedical plants.

    PubMed

    Goun, E; Cunningham, G; Chu, D; Nguyen, C; Miles, D

    2003-09-01

    Methylene chloride and methanol extracts of 20 Indonesian plants with ethnomedical uses have been assessed for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties by disk diffusion method. Extracts of the six plants: Terminalia catappa, Swietenia mahagoni Jacq., Phyllanthus acuminatus, Ipomoea spp., Tylophora asthmatica and Hyptis brevipes demonstrated high activity in this bioassay system. These findings should stimulate the search for novel, natural product such as new antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:12946723

  3. Antibacterial, antifungal and antitumoral activities of Micromycetes. I. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Steiman, R; Bartoli, M H; Seigle-Murandi, F; Boitard, M; Beriel, H; Villard, J

    1989-10-01

    The ability of 211 strains of Micromycetes to produce antibiotic, antifungal and antitumoral compounds has been investigated in vitro using test strains and P 388 leukemia cells. Cytotoxicity was determined on Vero cells. Convenient activities were obtained depending on the taxonomic group. Finally, 17 strains of Micromycetes were selected for their antibacterial or antifungal activities and 12 for their antitumoral properties. Investigations are in progress concerning these activities. PMID:2586333

  4. Human salivary histatins: promising anti-fungal therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H; Bobek, L A

    1998-01-01

    Histatins constitute a group of small, cationic multifunctional proteins present in the saliva of human and some non-human primates. The most significant function of histatins may be their anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Histatins have been extensively studied at both the protein and gene levels. The structure-function relationship of histatins with respect to their candidacidal activity has also been studied by means of recombinant histatin variants, as well as by chemically synthesized histatin fragments. The mechanism of histatins' action on Candida albicans is not clear, but it appears to be different from that of azole-based anti-fungal drugs which interrupt ergosterol synthesis. During the past 20 years, fungal infections have become more prevalent as a result of the emergence of AIDS, as well as, paradoxically, modern medical advances. The toxicity of current anti-fungal medicine, the emergence of drug-resistant strains, and the availability of only a few types of anti-fungal agents are the major disadvantages of current anti-fungal therapy. Therefore, the importance of the search for new, broad-spectrum anti-fungals with little or no toxicity cannot be overemphasized. The following properties make histatins promising anti-fungal therapeutic agents: (1) They have little or no toxicity; (2) they possess high cidal activities against azole-resistant fungal species and most of the fungal species tested; and (3) their candidacidal activity is similar to that of azole-based antifungals. Current research efforts focus on the development of improved histatins with enhanced cidal activity and stability, and of suitable and effective histatin delivery systems. These and other approaches may help to outpace the growing list of drug-resistant and opportunistic fungi causing life-threatening, disseminating diseases. The histatins with improved protective properties may also be used as components of artificial saliva for patients with salivary dysfunction. PMID:9825223

  5. Chemosensitization as a Means to Augment Commercial Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Bruce C.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Kim, Jong H.

    2012-01-01

    Antimycotic chemosensitization and its mode of action are of growing interest. Currently, use of antifungal agents in agriculture and medicine has a number of obstacles. Foremost of these is development of resistance or cross-resistance to one or more antifungal agents. The generally high expense and negative impact, or side effects, associated with antifungal agents are two further issues of concern. Collectively, these problems are exacerbated by efforts to control resistant strains, which can evolve into a treadmill of higher dosages for longer periods. This cycle in turn, inflates cost of treatment, dramatically. A further problem is stagnation in development of new and effective antifungal agents, especially for treatment of human mycoses. Efforts to overcome some of these issues have involved using combinations of available antimycotics (e.g., combination therapy for invasive mycoses). However, this approach has had inconsistent success and is often associated with a marked increase in negative side effects. Chemosensitization by natural compounds to increase effectiveness of commercial antimycotics is a somewhat new approach to dealing with the aforementioned problems. The potential for safe natural products to improve antifungal activity has been observed for over three decades. Chemosensitizing agents possess antifungal activity, but at insufficient levels to serve as antimycotics, alone. Their main function is to disrupt fungal stress response, destabilize the structural integrity of cellular and vacuolar membranes or stimulate production of reactive oxygen species, augmenting oxidative stress and apoptosis. Use of safe chemosensitizing agents has potential benefit to both agriculture and medicine. When co-applied with a commercial antifungal agent, an additive or synergistic interaction may occur, augmenting antifungal efficacy. This augmentation, in turn, lowers effective dosages, costs, negative side effects and, in some cases, countermands resistance. PMID:22393330

  6. Chemosensitization as a means to augment commercial antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce C; Chan, Kathleen L; Kim, Jong H

    2012-01-01

    Antimycotic chemosensitization and its mode of action are of growing interest. Currently, use of antifungal agents in agriculture and medicine has a number of obstacles. Foremost of these is development of resistance or cross-resistance to one or more antifungal agents. The generally high expense and negative impact, or side effects, associated with antifungal agents are two further issues of concern. Collectively, these problems are exacerbated by efforts to control resistant strains, which can evolve into a treadmill of higher dosages for longer periods. This cycle in turn, inflates cost of treatment, dramatically. A further problem is stagnation in development of new and effective antifungal agents, especially for treatment of human mycoses. Efforts to overcome some of these issues have involved using combinations of available antimycotics (e.g., combination therapy for invasive mycoses). However, this approach has had inconsistent success and is often associated with a marked increase in negative side effects. Chemosensitization by natural compounds to increase effectiveness of commercial antimycotics is a somewhat new approach to dealing with the aforementioned problems. The potential for safe natural products to improve antifungal activity has been observed for over three decades. Chemosensitizing agents possess antifungal activity, but at insufficient levels to serve as antimycotics, alone. Their main function is to disrupt fungal stress response, destabilize the structural integrity of cellular and vacuolar membranes or stimulate production of reactive oxygen species, augmenting oxidative stress and apoptosis. Use of safe chemosensitizing agents has potential benefit to both agriculture and medicine. When co-applied with a commercial antifungal agent, an additive or synergistic interaction may occur, augmenting antifungal efficacy. This augmentation, in turn, lowers effective dosages, costs, negative side effects and, in some cases, countermands resistance. PMID:22393330

  7. Potent heterologous antifungal proteins from cheeseweed (Malva parviflora).

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Bunkers, G J

    2000-12-20

    Two novel antifungal proteins were purified and characterized from cheeseweed (Malva parviflora). Both proteins, designated CW-1 and CW-2, are composed of two different subunits of 5000 and 3000 Da, respectively. These proteins possess very potent antifungal activities, and more interestingly the inhibition is fungicidal instead of fungistatic. At low salt condition, the IC(50) of CW-1 and CW-2 against Fusarium graminearum (Fg) is 2.5 ppm. At high salt condition which diminishes the antifungal activity of many antifungal proteins, both CW-1 and CW-2 still maintain potent activity against Fg with IC(50) of 10 ppm. The two subunits could be separated by gel filtration in the presence of 6 M urea, but their antifungal activity cannot be recovered after the removal of urea. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that both subunits of CW-1 show homology to 2S albumin, whereas the two subunits of CW-2 have homology to vicilin protein from cotton. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and characterization of heterologous antifungal proteins from any source. PMID:11118343

  8. Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Chamilos, G; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2005-12-01

    Although the arsenal of agents with anti-Aspergillus activity has expanded over the last decade, mortality due to invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unacceptably high. Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for the majority of cases of IA; however less susceptible to antifungals non-fumigatus aspergilli began to emerge. Antifungal drug resistance of Aspergillus might partially account for treatment failures. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of antifungal drug action in Aspergillus, along with the standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing methods, has brought resistance testing to the forefront of clinical mycology. In addition, molecular biology has started to shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of A. fumigatus to azoles and the echinocandins, while genome-based assays show promise for high-throughput screening for genotypic antifungal resistance. Several problems remain, however, in the study of this complex area. Large multicenter clinical studies--point prevalence or longitudinal--to capture the incidence and prevalence of antifungal resistance in A. fumigatus isolates are lacking. Correlation of in vitro susceptibility with clinical outcome and susceptibility breakpoints has not been established. In addition, the issue of cross-resistance between the newer triazoles is of concern. Furthermore, in vitro resistance testing for polyenes and echinocandins is difficult, and their mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:16488654

  9. Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strains with Antifungal Activities from Meju

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwang A; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Bacilli with fibrinolytic activities were isolated from traditionally-prepared Meju and some of these strains showed strong antifungal activities. One isolate, MJ1-4, showed the strongest antifungal activity. MJ1-4 and other isolates were identified as B. amyloliquefaciens strains by recA gene sequencing and RAPD-PCR results. B. amyloliqufaciens MJ1-4 efficiently inhibited an Aspergillus spp.-producing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and a Penicillium spp.-producing ochratoxin (OTA) in addition to other fungi. Antifungal activity of B. amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 culture reached its maximum (40 AU/mg protein) in LB or TSB medium around 48 hr at 37°C. Antifungal activity of the concentrated culture supernatant was not decreased significantly by protease treatments, implying that the antifungal substance might not be a simple peptide or protein. Considering its antifungal and fibrinolytic activities together, B. amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 can serve as a starter for fermented soyfoods such as Cheonggukjang and Doenjang. PMID:24471064

  10. Antifungal activity of plant and bacterial ureases.

    PubMed

    Becker-Ritt, A B; Martinelli, A H S; Mitidieri, S; Feder, V; Wassermann, G E; Santi, L; Vainstein, M H; Oliveira, J T A; Fiuza, L M; Pasquali, G; Carlini, C R

    2007-12-01

    Ureases (EC 3.5.1.5) are nickel-dependent metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Produced by plants, fungi and bacteria, but not by animals, ureases share significant homology and similar mechanisms of catalysis, although differing in quaternary structures. While fungal and plant ureases are homo-oligomeric proteins of 90 kDa subunits, bacterial ureases are multimers of two (e.g. Helicobacter pylori) or three subunit complexes. It has been proposed that in plants these enzymes are involved in nitrogen bioavailability and in protection against pathogens. Previous studies by our group have shown that plant ureases, but not a bacterial (Bacillus pasteurii) urease, display insecticidal activity. Herein we demonstrate that (Glycine max) embryo-specific soybean urease, jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) major urease and a recombinant H. pylori urease impair growth of selected phytopathogenic fungi at sub-micromolar concentrations. This antifungal property of ureases is not affected by treatment of the proteins with an irreversible inhibitor of the ureolytic activity. Scanning electron microscopy of urease-treated fungi suggests plasmolysis and cell wall injuries. Altogether, our data indicate that ureases probably contribute to the plant arsenal of defense compounds against predators and phytopathogens and that the urease defense mechanism is independent of ammonia release from urea. PMID:17825863

  11. Antifungal Hydrolases in Pea Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, Felix; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Boller, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase purified from pea pods acted synergistically in the degradation of fungal cell walls. The antifungal potential of the two enzymes was studied directly by adding protein preparations to paper discs placed on agar plates containing germinated fungal spores. Protein extracts from pea pods infected with Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, which contained high activities of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, inhibited growth of 15 out of 18 fungi tested. Protein extracts from uninfected pea pods, which contained low activities of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, did not inhibit fungal growth. Purified chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, tested individually, did not inhibit growth of most of the test fungi. Only Trichoderma viride was inhibited by chitinase alone, and only Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi was inhibited by ?-1,3-glucanase alone. However, combinations of purified chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase inhibited all fungi tested as effectively as crude protein extracts containing the same enzyme activities. The pea pathogen, Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi, and the nonpathogen of peas, Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, were similarly strongly inhibited by chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, indicating that the differential pathogenicity of the two fungi is not due to differential sensitivity to the pea enzymes. Inhibition of fungal growth was caused by the lysis of the hyphal tips. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16666407

  12. Saponins from Allium minutiflorum with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Barile, Elisa; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Antignani, Vincenzo; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Sajjadi, S Ebrahim; Scala, Felice; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2007-03-01

    Three saponins, named minutoside A (1), minutoside B (2), minutoside C (3), and two known sapogenins, alliogenin and neoagigenin, were isolated from the bulbs of Allium minutiflorum Regel. Elucidation of their structure was carried out by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The structures of the new compounds were identified as (25R)-furost-2alpha,3beta,6beta,22alpha,26-pentaol 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl] 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-spirostan-2alpha,3beta,6beta-triol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), and (25R)-furost-2alpha,3beta,5alpha,6beta,22alpha,26-esaol 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl] 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. All the novel saponins showed a significant antifungal activity depending on their concentration and with the following rank: minutoside B>minutoside C>minutoside A. No appreciable antibacterial activity was recorded. The possible role of these saponins in plant-microbe interactions is discussed. PMID:17118413

  13. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

  14. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-03-01

    In order to explore marine microorganisms with pharmaceutical potential, marine bacteria, collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, were previously isolated from seawater, sediment, marine invertebrates and seaweeds. The antimicrobial activities of these microorganisms were investigated against the pathogens involved in human pathologies. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antimicrobial activities using the method of agar diffusion against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and against yeast. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 28 (82%) strains have antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen studied, 11 (32%) strains have antifungal activity and 24 (76%) strains are active against Gram-positive bacteria, while 21 (62%) strains are active against Gram-negative bacteria. Among isolates having antimicrobial activity, 14 were identified and were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms can produce antibiotic substance; therefore, these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural antibiotic products. PMID:24630312

  15. New generation azole antifungals in clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Girmenia, Corrado

    2009-09-01

    Considerable progress in treating systemic mycoses has been achieved in the past years through development of new drugs in association with more advanced diagnostic procedures. Here, we review the pharmacological, microbiological and clinical development progress with the so-called 'second generation' triazoles: voriconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole. All these drugs exhibit a favourable pharmacokinetic and toxicity profile and possess high activity against resistant and emerging pathogens. However, only voriconazole and posaconazole have been adequately investigated in Phase III studies and have been approved by the regulatory agencies in the treatment and prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections, respectively. On the contrary, ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole have not been investigated in adequate clinical trials and, in the absence of proper data, the real possibilities of these agents as competitors for the treatment and prevention of invasive mycoses in the clinical setting are still unknown. The drug interactions and the variability in the absorption and/or metabolism of the triazoles, in particular voriconazole and posaconazole, may determine an unpredictable exposure of the pathogens to the antifungal treatments. Literature evidences strongly support the use of therapeutic drug monitoring for these triazoles which may be crucial for the proper management of severe invasive fungal infections. PMID:19678798

  16. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    PubMed

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  17. Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

    PubMed Central

    Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter?1. Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter?1. L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter?1 (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  18. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe 3O 4) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 ?g/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients.

  19. In Search of the Holy Grail of Antifungal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Stanley W.; Sullivan, Donna C.; Cleary, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The ideal antifungal agent remains an elusive goal for treatment of life-threatening systemic fungal infections. Such an agent would have broad antifungal activity, low rates of resistance, flexible routes of administration, few associated adverse events, and limited drug-drug interactions. Only three of the seven classes of antifungal agents currently available are suitable for treatment of systemic infection: the polyenes, the azoles, and the echinocandins. None match all the characteristics of an ideal agent, the Holy Grail of antifungal therapy. Academia and industry need to collaborate in the search for new lead antifungal compounds using traditional screening methods as well as the new pharmacogenomics methods. Enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity of the currently available therapeutic agents is also another important avenue of study. As an example, the Mycosis Research Center at the University of Mississippi Medical Center has identified pyogenic polyenes in commercial preparations of amphotericin B deoxycholate which correlate with infusion related toxicities. A highly purified formulation of amphotericin B appears promising, with a better therapeutic index compared to its parent compound as evidenced by results of in vitro and in vivo studies reviewed in this presentation. PMID:18596853

  20. Systemic antifungals to treat onychomycosis in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Paquet, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Because of the low prevalence of onychomycosis in children, little is known about the efficacy and safety of systemic antifungals in this population. PubMed and Embase databases and the references of related publications were searched in March 2012 for clinical trials (CTs), retrospective analyses (RAs), and case reports (CRs) on the use of systemic antifungals for onychomycosis in children (<18 years). Twenty-six studies (5 CTs, 3 RAs, and 18 CRs) were published between 1976 and 2011. Most of these studies reported the use of systemic terbinafine and itraconazole for the treatment of onychomycosis in children. Therapy with systemic antifungals alone in children ages 1 to 17 years resulted in a complete cure rate of 70.8% (n = 151), whereas combined systemic and topical antifungal therapy in one infant and 19 children age 8 and older resulted in a complete cure rate of 80.0% (n = 20). The efficacy and safety profiles of terbinafine, itraconazole, griseofulvin, and fluconazole in children were similar to those previously reported for adults. In conclusion, based on the little information available on onychomycosis in children, systemic antifungal therapies in children are safe and cure rates are similar to the rates achieved in adults. PMID:23278514

  1. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    PubMed

    Felšöciová, So?a; Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovi?, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stri?ík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-02-24

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

  2. Chloroquine sensitizes biofilms of Candida albicans to antifungal azoles.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ravikumar Bapurao; Raut, Jayant Shankar; Chauhan, Nitin Mahendra; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Candida albicans, a human pathogen, are known to be resistant to different antifungal agents. Novel strategies to combat the biofilm associated Candida infections like multiple drug therapy are being explored. In this study, potential of chloroquine to be a partner drug in combination with four antifungal agents, namely fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, was explored against biofilms of C. albicans. Activity of various concentrations of chloroquine in combination with a particular antifungal drug was analyzed in a checkerboard format. Growth of biofilm in presence of drugs was analyzed by XTT-assay, in terms of relative metabolic activity compared to that of drug free control. Results obtained by XTT-metabolic assay were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The interactions between chloroquine and four antifungal drugs were determined by calculating fractional inhibitory concentration indices. Azole resistance in biofilms was reverted significantly (p<0.05) in presence of 250?g/mL of chloroquine, which resulted in inhibition of biofilms at very low concentrations of antifungal drugs. No significant alteration in the sensitivity of biofilms to caspofungin and amphotericin B was evident in combination with chloroquine. This study for the first time indicates that chloroquine potentiates anti-biofilm activity of fluconazole and voriconazole. PMID:23602464

  3. Update on antifungal resistance in Aspergillus and Candida.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, M C

    2014-06-01

    Antifungal resistance in Candida and Aspergillus may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug-naďve patient. Prior antifungal treatment confers a selection pressure and notoriously raises the awareness of possible resistance in patients failing therapy, thus calling for susceptibility testing. On the contrary, antifungal resistance in the drug-naďve patient is less expected and therefore more challenging. This is particularly true when it concerns pathogens with acquired resistance which cannot be predicted from the species identification itself. This scenario is particularly relevant for A. fumigatus infections due to the increasing prevalence of azole-resistant isolates in the environment. For Candida, infections resistance is most common in the context of increasing prevalence of species with intrinsic resistance. Candida glabrata which has intrinsically reduced susceptibility to fluconazole is increasingly common particularly among the adult and elderly population on the Northern Hemisphere where it may be responsible for as many as 30% of the blood stream infections in population-based surveillance programmes. Candida parapsilosis is prevalent in the paediatric setting, at centres with increasing echinocandin use and at the southern or pacific parts of the world. In the following, the prevalence and drivers of intrinsic and acquired resistance in Aspergillus and Candida will be reviewed. PMID:24372701

  4. An antifungal defensin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Cloud Bean'.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangli; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-01-15

    An antifungal peptide with a defensin-like sequence and exhibiting a molecular mass of 7.3kDa was purified from dried seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris 'Cloud Bean'. The isolation procedure entailed anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography an Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. Although the antifungal peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, it was adsorbed on both Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose. The antifungal peptide exerted antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola with an IC(50) value of 1.8 ?M. It was also active against Fusarium oxysporum with an IC(50) value of 2.2 ?M. It had no inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase when tested up to 100 ?M. Proliferation of L1210 mouse leukemia cells and MBL2 lymphoma cells was inhibited by the antifungal peptide with an IC(50) of 10 ?M and 40 ?M, respectively. PMID:20729048

  5. Peptide-based Antifungal Therapies against Emerging Infections

    PubMed Central

    Matejuk, A.; Leng, Q.; Begum, M.D.; Woodle, M.C.; Scaria, P.; Chou, S-T; Mixson, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Acquired drug resistance to mycotic infections is rapidly emerging as a major medical problem. Opportunistic fungal infections create therapeutic challenges, particularly in high risk immunocompromised patients with AIDS, cancer, and those undergoing transplantation. Higher mortality and/or morbidity rates due to invasive mycosis have been increasing over the last 20 years, and in light of growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics, novel antifungal drugs and approaches are required. Currently there is considerable interest in antifungal peptides that are ubiquitous in plant and animal kingdoms. These small cationic peptides may have specific targets or may be multifunctional in their mechanism of action. On the basis of recent advances in protein engineering and solid phase syntheses, the utility and potential of selected peptides as efficient antifungal drugs with acceptable toxicity profiles are being realized. This review will discuss recent advances in peptide therapy for opportunistic fungal infections. PMID:20495663

  6. Antifungal screening of medicinal plants of British Columbian native peoples.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, A R; Ellis, S M; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

    1994-12-01

    One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antifungal activity against 9 fungal species. Eighty-one were found to have some antifungal activity and 30 extracts showed activity against 4 or more of the fungi assayed. The extracts with the greatest fungal inhibition were prepared from Alnus rubra catkins, Artemisia ludoviciana aerial parts, Artemisia tridentata aerial parts, Geum macrophyllum roots, Mahonia aquifolium roots and Moneses uniflora aerial parts. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants also exhibited antifungal activity against all 9 fungi: Asarum caudatum whole plant, Balsamorhiza sagittata roots, Empetrum nigrum branches, Fragaria chiloensis leaves, Gilia aggregata aerial parts and roots, Glehnia littoralis roots, Heracleum lanatum roots, Heuchera cylindrica roots and Rhus glabra branches. PMID:7898123

  7. Antifungal resistance does not necessarily affect Candida glabrata fitness.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Elisa; Andreoni, Stefano; Cirasola, Daniela; Ricucci, Valentina; Sciota, Rita; Morace, Giulia

    2014-02-01

    Although there has been an overall good coverage of Candida glabrata infections by the echinocandins, emergence of antifungal resistance during therapy has been reported. We investigated, by using an invertebrate host model, the fitness of sequential C. glabrata isolates with different echinocandins susceptibility patterns. The studied strains were isolated from a case of recurrent fungemia with a fatal outcome due to C. glabrata that developed cross-resistance to echinocandins during caspofungin therapy. The sequential strains isolated post-therapy showed a S663P mutation in the Fks2p hot spot 1. In vivo study in the invertebrate host Galleria mellonella did not suggest a fitness cost related to the acquired antifungal resistance, the three isolates displayed a similar rate of killing (P ?=? 0.54). We observed a clear correlation between emergence of antifungal resistance and persistence of the causal agent, probably aided by the unchanged fitness and unresponsiveness in vivo to the adopted therapy. PMID:24091025

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of novel azoles as potent antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangjing; Ding, Hao; Wang, Baogang; Yu, Shichong; Zou, Yan; Chai, Xiaoyun; Wu, Qiuye

    2014-01-01

    Using a rational approach to the design of antifungal agents, a series of azole agents with 1,3,4-oxadiazole side chains were designed and synthesized. The results of preliminary in vitro antifungal tests with eight human pathogenic compounds showed that all of the title compounds exhibited excellent activities against all of the tested fungi except Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 11e and 11f were found to be the most effective, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.0039?g/mL, followed by voriconazole, which has a MIC of 0.0625?g/mL. The 1,3,4-oxadiazole side chain is not the major contributor but plays a role in eliciting the observed antifungal activity. PMID:24332489

  9. Antifungal and Antibacterial Metabolites from a French Poplar Type Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Boisard, Séverine; Le Ray, Anne-Marie; Landreau, Anne; Kempf, Marie; Cassisa, Viviane; Flurin, Catherine; Richomme, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    During this study, the in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of different extracts (aqueous and organic) obtained from a French propolis batch were evaluated. Antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution on three pathogenic strains: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Antibacterial activity was assayed using agar dilution method on 36 Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains including Staphylococcus aureus. Organic extracts showed a significant antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata (MIC80 between 16 and 31?µg/mL) but only a weak activity towards A. fumigatus (MIC80 = 250?µg/mL). DCM based extracts exhibited a selective Gram-positive antibacterial activity, especially against S. aureus (SA) and several of its methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) strains (MIC100 30–97?µg/mL). A new and active derivative of catechin was also identified whereas a synergistic antimicrobial effect was noticed during this study.

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans-based Model Systems for Antifungal Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Anastassopoulou, Cleo G.; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections constitute undisputed tokens of their severity. The continued expansion of susceptible population groups (such as immunocompromised individuals, patients undergoing extensive surgery, and those hospitalized with serious underlying diseases especially in the intensive care unit) and the limitations of current antifungal agents due to toxicity issues or to the development of resistance, mandate the development of novel antifungal drugs. Currently, drug discovery is transitioning from the traditional in vitro large-scale screens of chemical libraries to more complex bioassays, including in vivo studies on whole animals; invertebrates, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, are thus gaining momentum as screening tools. Key pathogenesis features of fungal infections, including filament formation, are expressed in certain invertebrate and mammalian hosts; among the various potential hosts, C. elegans provides an attractive platform both for the study of host-pathogen interactions and the identification of new antifungal agents. Advantages of compound screening in this facile, relatively inexpensive and not as ethically challenged whole-animal context, include the simultaneous assessment of antifungal efficacy and toxicity that could result in the identification of compounds with distinct mechanisms of action, for example by promoting host immune responses or by impeding fungal virulence factors. With the recent advent of using predictive models to screen for compounds with improved chances of bioavailability in the nematode a priori, high-throughput screening of chemical libraries using the C. elegans-c. albicans antifungal discovery assay holds even greater promise for the identification of novel antifungal agents in the near future. PMID:21470110

  11. In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Y. H.; Ye, J.; Yau, J. Y. Y.; Cheung, B. P. K.; Samaranayake, L. P.

    2005-01-01

    Antimycotic perfusion through Candida biofilms was demonstrated by a modification of a simple in vitro diffusion cell bioassay system. Using this model, the perfusion of three commonly used antifungal agents, amphotericin B, fluconazole, and flucytosine, was investigated in biofilms of three different Candida species (i.e., Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei) that were developed on microporous filters. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that C. albicans formed a contiguous biofilm with tightly packed blastospores and occasional hyphae compared with C. parapsilosis and C. krusei, which developed confluent biofilms displaying structural heterogeneity and a lesser cell density, after 48 h of incubation on nutrient agar. Minor structural changes were also perceptible on the superficial layers of the biofilm after antifungal perfusion. The transport of antifungals to the distal biofilm-substratum interface was most impeded by C. albicans biofilms in comparison to C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. Fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated similar levels of perfusion, while amphotericin B was the least penetrant through all three biofilms, although the latter appeared to cause the most structural damage to the superficial cells of the biofilm compared with the other antifungals. These results suggest that the antifungal perfusion through biofilm mode of growth in Candida is dependent both on the antimycotic and the Candida species in question, and in clinical terms, these phenomena could contribute to the failure of Candida biofilm-associated infections. Finally, the in vitro model we have described should serve as a useful system to investigate the complex interactions that appear to operate in vivo within the biofilm-antifungal interphase. PMID:15695686

  12. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu [Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Peking Univ. 1st Hospital and Research Center for Medical Mycology, Peking Univ., Beijing 100034 (China); Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L. [Department of Applied Science and Technology and Center for Microplasma Science and Technology, Saint Peter's College, Jersey City, New Jersey 07306 (United States); Zhang Jue; Fang Jing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-01-10

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  13. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Sun, Yi; Wu, Haiyan; Zhu, Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Li, Ruoyu; Fang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  14. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imelda J. Galván; Nadereh Mir-Rashed; Matthew Jessulat; Monica Atanya; Ashkan Golshani; Tony Durst; Philippe Petit; Virginie Treyvaud Amiguet; Teun Boekhout; Richard Summerbell; Isabel Cruz; John T. Arnason; Myron L. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol extracts led to the identification of 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (chimaphilin) as the principal antifungal component. The structure of chimaphilin was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activity of chimaphilin was evaluated using the microdilution method with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.05mg\\/mL) and the dandruff-associated fungi Malassezia globosa (0.39mg\\/mL) and Malassezia restricta

  15. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Isavuconazole against Madurella mycetomatis

    PubMed Central

    Meis, Jacques F.; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Fahal, Ahmed H.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, therapy of black-grain mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis consists of extensive debridement of the infected tissue combined with prolonged antifungal therapy with ketoconazole or itraconazole. In the present study, the in vitro activity of the new triazole isavuconazole toward M. mycetomatis was evaluated. Isavuconazole appeared to have high activity against M. mycetomatis, with MICs ranging from ?0.016 to 0.125 ?g/ml. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetics, isavuconazole could be a promising antifungal agent in the treatment of mycetoma. PMID:22964246

  16. In vitro antifungal activity of isavuconazole against Madurella mycetomatis.

    PubMed

    Kloezen, Wendy; Meis, Jacques F; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Fahal, Ahmed H; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2012-11-01

    Currently, therapy of black-grain mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis consists of extensive debridement of the infected tissue combined with prolonged antifungal therapy with ketoconazole or itraconazole. In the present study, the in vitro activity of the new triazole isavuconazole toward M. mycetomatis was evaluated. Isavuconazole appeared to have high activity against M. mycetomatis, with MICs ranging from ?0.016 to 0.125 ?g/ml. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetics, isavuconazole could be a promising antifungal agent in the treatment of mycetoma. PMID:22964246

  17. Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses--in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abirami, C P; Venugopal, Pankajalakshmi V

    2005-01-01

    Mouthrinses are nowadays routinely included in the home care oral hygiene maintenance besides dentifrice/tooth paste. Mouthrinses prevent bacterial attachment and prevent or slow down bacterial proliferation. Fungal organisms have now gained more importance due to increased incidence of AIDS/HIV. This has necessitated for mouthrinses to possess antifungal activity also. The mouthrinses used were Povidone iodine ( Wokadine), Thymol with Eucalyptol and Benzoic acid (Listerine) and fluoride with Triclosan (Colgate Plax), which were tested against oral isolates of different species of Candida. The agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the mouthrinses and all of them exhibited antifungal activity especially against Candida albicans. PMID:16758789

  18. Antifungal prophylaxis in the haematological patient: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Lourdes; Carreras, Enric; Serrano, David; Jarque, Isidro; Mensa, José; Barberán, José

    2012-12-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis in the haematological patient is currently regarded as the gold standard in situations with a high risk of infection, such as acute leukaemias, myelodysplastic syndromes and autologous or allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Over the years, different scientific societies have established a series of recommendations on antifungal prophylaxis based on prospective studies performed with different drugs. However, the prescription of each one of the agents must be personalised, adapted to the characteristics of each patient and to possible interactions with concomitant medication. PMID:23303265

  19. Combination Antifungal Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jeremy N.; Chau, Tran T.H.; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Pham P.; Dung, Nguyen T.; Mai, Nguyen H.; Phu, Nguyen H.; Nghia, Ho D.; Phong, Nguyen D.; Thai, Cao Q.; Thai, Le H.; Chuong, Ly V.; Sinh, Dinh X.; Duong, Van A.; Hoang, Thu N.; Diep, Pham T.; Campbell, James I.; Sieu, Tran P.M.; Baker, Stephen G.; Chau, Nguyen V.V.; Hien, Tran T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Combination antifungal therapy (amphotericin B deoxycholate and flucytosine) is the recommended treatment for cryptococcal meningitis but has not been shown to reduce mortality, as compared with amphotericin B alone. We performed a randomized, controlled trial to determine whether combining flucytosine or high-dose fluconazole with high-dose amphotericin B improved survival at 14 and 70 days. METHODS We conducted a randomized, three-group, open-label trial of induction therapy for cryptococcal meningitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. All patients received amphotericin B at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight per day; patients in group 1 were treated for 4 weeks, and those in groups 2 and 3 for 2 weeks. Patients in group 2 concurrently received flucytosine at a dose of 100 mg per kilogram per day for 2 weeks, and those in group 3 concurrently received fluconazole at a dose of 400 mg twice daily for 2 weeks. RESULTS A total of 299 patients were enrolled. Fewer deaths occurred by days 14 and 70 among patients receiving amphotericin B and flucytosine than among those receiving amphotericin B alone (15 vs. 25 deaths by day 14; hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 1.08; unadjusted P = 0.08; and 30 vs. 44 deaths by day 70; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.97; unadjusted P = 0.04). Combination therapy with fluconazole had no significant effect on survival, as compared with monotherapy (hazard ratio for death by 14 days, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.41; P = 0.42; hazard ratio for death by 70 days, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.11; P = 0.13). amphotericin B plus flucytosine was associated with significantly increased rates of yeast clearance from cerebrospinal fluid (?0.42 log10 colony-forming units [CFU] per milliliter per day vs. ?0.31 and ?0.32 log10 CFU per milliliter per day in groups 1 and 3, respectively; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Rates of adverse events were similar in all groups, although neutropenia was more frequent in patients receiving a combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS Amphotericin B plus flucytosine, as compared with amphotericin B alone, is associated with improved survival among patients with cryptococcal meningitis. A survival benefit of amphotericin B plus fluconazole was not found. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and the British Infection Society; Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN95123928.) PMID:23550668

  20. Antifungal defenses of seagrasses from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff Ross; Melany P. Puglisi; Valerie J. Paul

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal chemical defenses and physiological responses of five seagrasses collected from nearshore seagrass beds from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, against a panel of co-occurring marine fungi isolated from nearby coastal communities. Whole plant tissues from Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme prevented overgrowth by three of the seven fungi used in this study. Organic extracts

  1. Determination of antifungal, biochemical and physiological features of Trichoderma koningiopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichoderma koningiopsis is a species that has been recently identified and has not yet been published, but is in press. Due to the absence of reported data on this species, antifungal, biochemical and physiological features were analyzed for the Trichoderma koningiopsis strain isolated from root se...

  2. The bacteriome-mycobiome interaction and antifungal host defense.

    PubMed

    Oever, Jaap Ten; Netea, Mihai G

    2014-11-01

    Large communities of microorganisms, collectively termed the microbiome, inhabit our body surfaces. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the diversity and abundance of these communities are being unravelled. Besides an imporant role in metabolic processes, the microbiome is essential for proper functioning of our immune system, including the defense against fungi. Despite the progress of the past years, studies aimed at characterizing our fungal colonizers (the mycobiome) are limited; nevertheless fungi are important players of the microbiome, either as a cofactor in disease or as potential pathogens. In this review, we describe the role of the bacterial microbiome in antifungal host defense. On the one hand, bacteria provide colonization resistance to fungi, inhibit Candida virulence by preventing yeast-hyphal transition and contribute to epithelial integrity, all factors are important for the pathogenesis of invasive fungal disease. On the other hand, several bacterial species modulate mucosal (antifungal) immune responses. Murine studies demonstrate important effects of the microbiome on the antifungal responses of T-helper 17 cells, regulatory T cells and innate lymphoid cells. Inferred from these studies, perturbation of the healthy microbiome should be avoided and microbiome manipulation and interventions based on bacteria-derived pathways involved in immunomodulation are attractive options for modulating antifungal host defense. PMID:25256886

  3. Enhancement of commercial antifungal agents by kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kojic acid (KA), a natural by-product of fungal fermentation, is a commonly used food and cosmetic additive. We show that KA increases activity of amphotericin B and strobilurin, medical and agricultural antifungal agents, respectively, possibly targeting the fungal antioxidative system. KA shows pr...

  4. Using Aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shengnan; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2014-02-01

    Systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. Most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). Antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. Identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. We used Aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tractable sexual cycle and calcofluor white as a model antifungal agent to cross-reference our results with other studies. Within 2 weeks from inoculation on sublethal doses of calcofluor white, we isolated 24 A. nidulans adaptive strains from sectoring colonies. Meiotic analysis showed that these strains had single-gene mutations. In each case, the resistance was specific to calcofluor white, since there was no cross-resistance to caspofungin (echinocandin). Mutation sites were identified in two mutants by next-generation sequencing. These were confirmed by reengineering the mutation in a wild-type strain using a gene replacement strategy. One of these mutated genes was related to cell wall synthesis, and the other one was related to drug metabolism. Our strategy has wide application for many fungal species, for antifungal compounds used in agriculture as well as health care, and potentially during protracted drug therapy once drug resistance arises. We suggest that our strategy will be useful for keeping ahead in the drug resistance arms race. PMID:24363365

  5. Antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Warr; Ken Thompson; Martin Kent

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Allium ursinum, Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. Four species of fungi were investigated. The growth of three of these (Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. The growth of

  6. Emerging targets for the development of novel antifungal therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas H Groll; Anthony J De Lucca; Thomas J Walsh

    1998-01-01

    Invasive mycoses have become important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. New approaches for antifungal therapy are required to meet the challenges imposed by these life-threatening infections. Such approaches are being developed through identification of novel biochemical and molecular targets of pathogenic fungi.

  7. Antifungal property of quaternized chitosan and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sajomsang, Warayuth; Gonil, Pattarapond; Saesoo, Somsak; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai

    2012-01-01

    Five water-soluble chitosan derivatives were carried out by quaternizing either iodomethane or N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (Quat188) as a quaternizing agent under basic condition. The degree of quaternization (DQ) ranged between 28±2% and 90±2%. The antifungal activity was evaluated by using disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) methods against Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Trichophyton mentagrophyte (T. mentagrophyte), and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) at pH 7.2. All quaternized chitosans and its derivatives showed more effective against T. rubrum than M. gypseum and T. mentagrophyte. The MIC and MFC values were found to range between 125-1000 ?g/mL and 500-4000 ?g/mL, respectively against all fungi. Our results indicated that the quaternized N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminocinnamyl) chitosan chloride showed highest antifungal activity against T. rubrum and M. gypseum compared to other quaternized chitosan derivatives. The antifungal activity tended to increase with an increase in molecular weight, degree of quaternization and hydrophobic moiety against T. rubrum. However, the antifungal activity was depended on type of fungal as well as chemical structure of the quaternized chitosan derivatives. PMID:22100980

  8. Resistance of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hawser, S P; Douglas, L J

    1995-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Candida albicans on small discs of catheter material were resistant to the action of five clinically important antifungal agents as determined by [3H]leucine incorporation and tetrazolium reduction assays. Fluconazole showed the greatest activity, and amphotericin B showed the least activity against biofilm cells. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy of the biofilms. PMID:8540729

  9. Antifungal activities of origanum oil against Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijaya Manohar; Cass Ingram; Judy Gray; Nadeem A. Talpur; Bobby W. Echard; Debasis Bagchi; Harry G. Preuss

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of volatile aromatic oils from medicinal as well as other edible plants has been recognized since antiquity. Origanum oil, which is used as a food flavoring agent, possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activities attributed to the high content of phenolic derivatives such as carvacrol and thymol. In the present study, antifungal properties of origanum

  10. Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Serbian Cryptococcus neoformans isolates.

    PubMed

    Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina; Pekmezovic, Marina G; Meis, Jacques F; Hagen, Ferry

    2014-06-01

    Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility testing of 34 clinical Serbian Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from 25 patients was retrospectively performed. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting was used for genotyping, whereas a novel real-time PCR was used to determine the mating- and serotype. The antifungals amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole were used to determine the antifungal susceptibility profiles. The majority of isolates belonged to genotype AFLP1/VNI (n = 20; 58.8%), followed by AFLP2/VNIV (n = 10; 29.4%), AFLP3/VNIII (n = 3; 8.8%) and AFLP1B/VNII (n = 1; 2.9%). All AFLP1/VNI isolates were mating-serotype ?A, the sole AFLP1B/VNII isolate was found to be aA, whereas AFLP2/VNIV harboured serotype D isolates with either the a (n = 2; 5.9%) or ? (n = 8; 23.5%) mating-type allele. The isolates (n = 3; 8.8%) that were found to be genotype AFLP3/VNIII had the hybrid mating- and serotype combination aA-?D. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing showed that all isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, voriconazole and posaconazole. Low resistance level was observed for fluconazole (n = 1; 2.9%) and 5-fluorocytosine. (n = 2; 5.8%). A large percentage of isolates was found to be susceptible dose dependent to itraconazole (n = 16; 47.1%). AFLP1/VNI was the most common genotype among clinical C. neoformans isolates from immunocompromised patients in Serbia. C. neoformans from HIV-negative patients were significantly less susceptible to 5-fluorocytosine (P < 0.01). Correlation between genotypes and antifungal susceptibility was not observed. PMID:24438323

  11. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel leguminous defense peptide with antifungal and antiproliferative potency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaoyun Wang; Pingfan Rao; Xiuyun Ye

    2009-01-01

    Leguminous plants have formed a popular subject of research owing to the abundance of proteins and peptides with important\\u000a biological activities that they produce. The antifungal proteins and peptides have been purified from a number of leguminous\\u000a species. However, research continues to discover novel antifungal plant-produced peptides and proteins are being needed, specially\\u000a those novel ones with both antifungal activity

  12. Synthesis, antifungal activity, and QSAR study of novel trichodermin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Li; Zheng, Min; Yao, Ting-Ting; Li, Xiao-Liang; Zhao, Jin-Hao; Xia, Min; Zhu, Guo-Nian

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to discover more potential antifungal agents, in this study, 21 novel trichodermin derivatives containing conjugated oxime ester (5a-5u) were designed and synthesized and were screened for in vitro antifungal activity. The bioassay tests showed that some of them exhibited good inhibitory activity against the tested pathogenic fungi. Compound 5a exhibited better activity against Pyricularia oryzae and Sclerotonia sclerotiorum than trichodermin, and compound 5j showed particular activity against P.oryzae and Botrytis cinerea. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) indicated that log P and hardness were two critical parameters for the biological activities. The result suggested that these would be potential lead compounds for the development of fungicides with further structure modification. PMID:25290081

  13. How does antifungal pharmacology differ for mucormycosis versus aspergillosis?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell E; Lortholary, Olivier; Spellberg, Brad; Roilides, Emmanuel; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Walsh, Thomas J

    2012-02-01

    Over the last decade, advances in diagnostic systems and the introduction of new antifungal agents have significantly improved outcomes in immunocompromised patients who develop invasive aspergillosis. However, mortality rates remain relatively unchanged for less common, but highly aggressive, mold infections such as mucormycosis. Recent genome sequencing of Rhizopus oryzae revealed evidence of a whole-genome duplication event during the evolution of this pathogen. Consequently, R. oryzae has a 2- to 10-fold enrichment in gene families associated with ergosterol and cell wall biosynthesis, cell growth, iron uptake, and known fungal virulence factors compared with sequenced Aspergillus fumigatus strains. This genetic plasticity may explain the remarkable capability of this pathogen for rapid growth in hostile environments, such as the inflammatory milieu, as well as its relative resistance to multiple antifungal classes. Herein, we examine how pharmacological aspects of treating mucormycosis may differ from those of the more commonly encountered invasive aspergillosis. PMID:22247448

  14. A review of the new antifungals: posaconazole, micafungin, and anidulafungin.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2007-12-01

    This column reviews 3 new systemic antifungal agents (posaconazole, micafungin, and anidulafungin) from the standpoint of dermatology. Posaconazole, approved to treat invasive Aspergillus and Candida infections, is available in an oral suspension and resembles fluconazole, but seems to have a broader spectrum of activity. Posaconazole is effective against yeasts and molds and could be effective in treating rare fungal infections involving Zygomycetes, Mucor necrotizing fasciitis, rhinocerebral mucormycosis, some Fusarium species, Penicillium, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Paracoccidioides, and sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, mycetoma, and phaeohyphomycosis, including Scedosporium apiospermum and Exophiala, Alternaria, and Bipolaris species. Posaconazole may abate onychomycosis and dermatophytes, but clinical trial data is lacking. Micafungin and anidulafungin are echinocandins like caspofungin and are useful salvage therapy for invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. The exciting new agents have extended the armamentarium against antifungal pathogens, but have yet to find their place in the dermatologic practice. PMID:18189069

  15. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Janaina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; de Carvalho Moraes, Julianna Joanna; Höfling, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis. PMID:24031562

  16. Purification of angularin, a novel antifungal peptide from adzuki beans.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Ng, T B

    2002-03-01

    An antifungal peptide was isolated from the adzuki bean with a procedure involving affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose. The protein designated angularin was adsorbed on both types of chromatographic media and possessed a molecular weight of 8 kDa. Angularin exhibited antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species including Mycospharella arachidiocola and Botrytis cinerea. It inhibited mycelial growth in B. cinerea with an IC50 of 14.3 microM. Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were not inhibited. Angularin demonstrated inhibitory activity on translation in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system (IC50 = 8.0 microM) but did not affect proliferation of splenocytes. The activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was inhibited in the presence of angularin. Its N-terminal sequence was GEPGQKE. PMID:11931582

  17. Synthesis of chitosan derivative with diethyldithiocarbamate and its antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yukun; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Kecheng; Hu, Linfeng; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-04-01

    With an aim to discover novel chitosan derivatives with enhanced antifungal properties compared with chitosan. Diethyl dithiocarbamate chitosan (EtDTCCS) was investigated and its structure was well identified. The antifungal activity of EtDTCCS against Alternaria porri (A. porri), Gloeosporium theae sinensis Miyake (G. theae sinensis), and Stemphylium solani Weber (S. solani) was tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. Compared with plain chitosan, EtDTCCS shows better inhibitory effect with 93.2% inhibitory index on G. theae sinensis at 1.0 mg/mL, even stronger than for polyoxin (82.5%). It was inferred derivatives of this kind may find potential applications for the treatment of various crop-threatening diseases. PMID:24530333

  18. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL EFFECTS OF SOFT CONTACT LENS DISINFECTION SOLUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Cano-Parra; Inmaculada Bueno-Gimeno; Robert Mont

    Absia'act -- A\\/ms: To study the antibacterial and antifungal effects of soft contact lens disinfection solutions. Methods: Eight contact lens disinfection solutions containing hydrogen peroxide or biguanides or polyquad compounds were evaluated with respect to their ability to disinfect a saline solution experimentally contaminated with different bacteria and with a fungus. We used cultures in blood Agar, MueUer-Hinton agar and

  19. Foliar epicuticular wax of Arrabidaea brachypoda: flavonoids and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Alcerito; Fausto E. Barbo; Giuseppina Negri; Deborah Y. A. C. Santos; Christiane I. Meda; Maria Cláudia M. Young; Daniel Chávez; Cec??lia T. T. Blatt

    2002-01-01

    The epicuticular wax of the leaves of Arrabidaea brachypoda was analyzed for its flavonoid content and four compounds (1–4) were isolated. They are known flavonoids and showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. They were identified by mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) as 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), cirsiliol (2), cirsimaritin (3) and hispidulin (4). Two

  20. Antifungal compounds from induced Conium maculatum L.plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma M. Al-Barwani; Elsadig A. Eltayeb

    2004-01-01

    The study has shown that furanocoumarins are the predominant antifungal compounds in Conium maculatum. These are found constitutively in the healthy plant but the amounts of these compounds in induced tissue may increase markedly in some cases, e.g. the concentration of isopimpinellin increased by 103-fold in the CuCl2 induced leaves compared with that in the control. Since these compounds increase

  1. Antifungal amphiphilic aminoglycoside K20: bioactivities and mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sanjib K.; Chang, Cheng-Wei T.; Meissner, Nicole; Oblad, John; Shrestha, Jaya P.; Sorensen, Kevin N.; Grilley, Michelle M.; Takemoto, Jon Y.

    2014-01-01

    K20 is a novel amphiphilic antifungal aminoglycoside that is synthetically derived from the antibiotic kanamycin A. Reported here are investigations of K20?s antimicrobial activities, cytotoxicity, and fungicidal mechanism of action. In vitro growth inhibitory activities against a variety of human and plant pathogenic yeasts, filamentous fungi, and bacteria were determined using microbroth dilution assays and time-kill curve analyses, and hemolytic and animal cell cytotoxic activities were determined. Effects on Cryptococcus neoformans H-99 infectivity were determined with a preventive murine lung infection model. The antifungal mechanism of action was studied using intact fungal cells, yeast lipid mutants, and small unilamellar lipid vesicles. K20 exhibited broad-spectrum in vitro antifungal activities but not antibacterial activities. Pulmonary, single dose-administration of K20 reduced C. neoformans lung infection rates 4-fold compared to controls. Hemolysis and half-maximal cytotoxicities of mammalian cells occurred at concentrations that were 10 to 32-fold higher than fungicidal MICs. With fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), 20–25 mg/L K20 caused staining of >95% of C. neoformans and Fusarium graminearum cells and at 31.3 mg/L caused rapid leakage (30–80% in 15 min) of calcein from preloaded small unilamellar lipid vesicles. K20 appears to be a broad-spectrum fungicide, capable of reducing the infectivity of C. neoformans, and exhibits low hemolytic activity and mammalian cell toxicity. It perturbs the plasma membrane by mechanisms that are lipid modulated. K20 is a novel amphiphilic aminoglycoside amenable to scalable production and a potential lead antifungal for therapeutic and crop protection applications. PMID:25538692

  2. Efficacy of some natural compounds as antifungal agents

    PubMed Central

    Vengurlekar, Sudha; Sharma, Rajesh; Trivedi, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Natural sources have been important for the development of new active molecules for many years. Various small molecules with unique chemical skeleton and potent bioactivities were discovered through various sources like plants, marine products, and microorganisms, etc., which are considered as very important part of the nature. A number of potent antifungals have been originated from various natural sources. This account describes structure and activities of selected agents isolated from various natural sources. PMID:23055634

  3. Antifungal Textiles Formed Using Silver Deposition in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun D. Gittard; Daisuke Hojo; G. Kevin Hyde; Giovanna Scarel; Roger J. Narayan; Gregory N. Parsons

    2010-01-01

    The antifungal properties of two silver-coated natural cotton fiber structures prepared using a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) solvent were examined. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the scCO2 process may be used to produce cotton fiber textiles with uniform silver nanoparticle coatings. A version of the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test was used to assess the ability of these textiles to inhibit

  4. Antifungal Textiles Formed Using Silver Deposition in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun D. Gittard; Daisuke Hojo; G. Kevin Hyde; Giovanna Scarel; Roger J. Narayan; Gregory N. Parsons

    2010-01-01

    The antifungal properties of two silver-coated natural cotton fiber structures prepared using a supercritical carbon dioxide\\u000a (scCO2) solvent were examined. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the scCO2 process may be used to produce cotton fiber textiles with uniform silver nanoparticle coatings. A version of the Kirby-Bauer\\u000a disk diffusion test was used to assess the ability of these textiles to inhibit

  5. Cordymin, an antifungal peptide from the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack H. Wong; Tzi Bun Ng; Hexiang Wang; Stephen Cho Wing Sze; Kalin Yanbo Zhang; Qi Li; Xiaoxu Lu

    2011-01-01

    Cordymin, an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 10,906Da and an N-terminal amino acid sequence distinct from those of previously reported proteins, was purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. The isolation protocol comprised ion exchange chromatography of the aqueous extract on SP-Sepharose and Mono S and gel filtration on Superdex 75 by a fast protein liquid chromatography system.

  6. The role of primary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Pagano, L; Caira, M

    2014-06-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent important complications in patients with haematological malignancies. Chemoprevention of IFIs may play an important role in this setting, but in the past decades the majority of antifungal drugs utilized demonstrated poor efficacy, particularly in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis. The new triazoles are very useful antifungal drugs, more suitable for prophylaxis of IFIs than amphotericin B and echinocandins. In this review, the main clinical data about antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole are analysed. At present, posaconazole appears to be the most efficacious azole in antifungal prophylaxis, particularly in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. PMID:24372659

  7. Identification and Characterization of the Antifungal Substances of a Novel Streptomyces cavourensis NA4.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Yu, Su-Ya; Song, Chun-Feng; Wang, Nan; Hua, Hui-Ming; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Wang, Shu-Jin

    2015-03-28

    A new actinomycete strain NA4 was isolated from a deep-sea sediment collected from the South China Sea and showed promising antifungal activities against soilborne fungal pathogens. It was identified as Streptomyces cavourensis by morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic analyses based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The main antifungal components were isolated and identified from the fermentation culture as bafilomycins B1 and C1. These compounds exhibited significant antifungal activities and a broad antifungal spectrum. The results suggest that the Streptomyces cavourensis NA4 and bafilomycins B1 and C1 could be used as potential biocontrol agents for soilborne fungal diseases of plants. PMID:25269816

  8. Polyglycolic acid microneedles modified with inkjet-deposited antifungal coatings.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ryan D; Daniels, Justin; Stafslien, Shane; Nasir, Adnan; Lefebvre, Joe; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius?=?25?±?3??m) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9?±?0.3?GPa) and hardness (588.2?±?33.8?MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices. Voriconazole was deposited onto the polyglycolic acid microneedles by means of piezoelectric inkjet printing. It should be noted that voriconazole has poor solubility in water; however, it is readily soluble in many organic solvents. Optical imaging, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to examine the microneedle geometries and inkjet-deposited surface coatings. Furthermore, an in vitro agar plating study was performed on the unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles. Unlike the unmodified and vehicle-modified microneedles, the voriconazole-modified microneedles showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles did not show activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that piezoelectric inkjet printing may be useful for loading transdermal drug delivery devices such as polyglycolic acid microneedles with antifungal pharmacologic agents and other pharmacologic agents with poor solubility in aqueous solutions. PMID:25732934

  9. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Ariane F.; Vasconcelos, Érico A. R.; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term “plant defensin,” after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 ?M and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins. PMID:24765086

  10. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    PubMed Central

    Guimarăes, Geovani Pereira; de Freitas Araújo Reis, Mysrayn Yargo; da Silva, Dayanne Tomaz Casimiro; Junior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça; Converti, Attílio; Pessoa, Adalberto; de Lima Damasceno, Bolívar Ponciano Goulart; da Silva, José Alexsandro

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05) embedded in a microemulsion (ME). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05) showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270–540 ?g.mL?1) and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 ?g.mL?1). Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70–140 ?g.mL?1), but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 ?g.mL?1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans. PMID:25242940

  11. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Chekem, Marie Stéphanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were ?-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-dične (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  12. Antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytic agents isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Zafer; Kiraz, Nuri; Karaca, Semsettin; Kulac, Mustafa; Ciftci, Ihsan H; Aktepe, Orhan C; Altindis, Mustafa; Kiyildi, Nilay; Piyade, Meltem

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to four antifungal agents: ketoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole, of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 128 specimens were collected from toe nail, foot, inguinal region, trunk, hands and head. The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 108 (84.4%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 11 (8.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 5 (3.9%), Microsporum canis 2 (1.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans 2 (1.5%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the five species of dermatophytes ranged between 0.09-1.12 microg/mL for ketoconazole, 0.04-0.27 microg/mL for terbinafine, 0.08-0.43 microg/mL for itraconazole and 16.18-24.0 microg/mL for fluconazole. In vitro analysis of antifungal activity of these agents would also allow for the comparison between different systemic antifungals, which in turn may clarify the reasons for the lack of clinical response or serve as an effective therapy for patients with chronic infection. PMID:16048753

  13. Synthesis and antifungal activity of thiadiazole-functionalized chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Ren, Jianming; Dong, Fang; Feng, Yan; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong

    2013-05-24

    A groups of novel water soluble chitosan derivatives containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole group were synthesized including 1,3,4-thiadiazole (TPCTS), 2-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MTPCTS), and 2-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (PTPCTS). Their antifungal activity against three kinds of phytopathogens was estimated by hypha measurement in vitro, and the fungicidal assessment shows that the synthesized chitosan derivatives have excellent activity against tested fungi. Of all the synthesized chitosan derivatives, MTPCTS inhibited the growth of the tested phytopathogens most effectively with inhibitory indices of 75.3%, 82.5%, and 65.8% against Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass) Ell.et halst, Phomopsis asparagi (Sacc.) Bubak, and Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey respectively at 1.0 mg/mL. These indices are higher than those of chitosan. These data also demonstrate that the hydrophobic moiety (alkyl and phenyl) and the length of alkyl substituent in thiadiazole tend to affect the antifungal activity of chitosan derivatives. It is hypothesized that thiadiazole groups enable the synthesized chitosan to possess obviously better antifungal activity and good solubility in water. PMID:23624516

  14. Cytocompatible antifungal acrylic resin containing silver nanoparticles for dentures

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Mendieta, Irasema; Nuńez-Anita, Rosa Elvira; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Castańo, Víctor M

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhibition of Candida albicans on denture resins could play a significant role in preventing the development of denture stomatitis. The safety of a new dental material with antifungal properties was analyzed in this work. Methods Poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] discs and PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs were formulated, with the commercial acrylic resin, Nature-CrylTM, used as a control. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dispersive Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antifungal effect was assessed using a luminescent microbial cell viability assay. Biocompatibility tests were carried out using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and a Jurkat human lymphocyte cell line. Cells were cultured for 24 or 72 hours in the presence or absence of the polymer formulations and analyzed using three different tests, ie, cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell proliferation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay BrdU, and genomic DNA damage (Comet assay). Finally, the samples were evaluated mechanically, and the polymer-bearing silver nanoparticles were analyzed microscopically to evaluate dispersion of the nanoparticles. Results The results show that PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs significantly reduce adherence of C. albicans and do not affect metabolism or proliferation. They also appear not to cause genotoxic damage to cells. Conclusion The present work has developed a new biocompatible antifungal PMMA denture base material. PMID:22969297

  15. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ariane F; Vasconcelos, Erico A R; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term "plant defensin," after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 ?M and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins. PMID:24765086

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from Barringtonia racemosa L. (Lecythidaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Hussin; R. Muse; S. Ahmad; J. Ramli; M. Mahmood; M. R. Sulaiman; M. Y. A. Shukor; M. F. A. Rahman; K. N. K. Aziz

    The antifungal activity of methanolic, ethanolic and boiling water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa leaves, sticks and barks were investigate against Fusarium sp., Tricoderma koningii, Penicillium sp., Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma lucidum, Aspergillus sp. and Rhizopus sp. at concentration of 50 mg\\/ml. Better antifungal activity was observed with the methanolic extracts in all aerial parts of B. racemosa that showed excellent inhibitory

  17. A Chitin-Binding Lectin from Stinging Nettle Rhizomes with Antifungal Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem F. Broekaert; Jan van Parijs; Frederik Leyns; Henk Joos; Willy J. Peumans

    1989-01-01

    Rhizomes of stinging nettle contain a small-sized lectin that exhibits binding specificity toward chitin. This lectin inhibits growth of several phytopathogenic and saprophytic chitin-containing fungi in vitro. The antifungal action of the nettle lectin differs from the action of chitinases, which are a ubiquitous class of antifungal plant proteins. Moreover, the nettle lectin acts synergistically with chitinase in inhibiting fungal

  18. Optimization of Spore and Antifungal Lipopeptide Production during the Solid State Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus subtilis strain TrigoCor 1448 was grown on wheat middlings in 0.5-liter solid state fermentation (SSF) bioreactors for the production of an antifungal biological control agent. Total antifungal activity was quantified using a 96-well microplate bioassay against the plant pathogen Fusarium ...

  19. [Bio-guided isolation of an antifungal from Haliclona enamela collected from Jorf Lasfar port, Morocco].

    PubMed

    El-Wahidi, M; El-Amraoui, B; Fassouane, A; Bamhaoud, T

    2013-06-01

    In the context of our search for new biologically active secondary metabolites from marine invertebrates, we have isolated an antifungal from Haliclona enamela collected from Jorf Lasfar Port, El Jadida, Morocco. This has a strong antifungal activity against three yeasts (two Candida spp. and one Cryptococcus spp.) involved in human mycology and especially against Candida tropicalis resistant to nystatin and amphotericin B. PMID:23726234

  20. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  1. An insight into the antifungal pipeline: selected new molecules and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo Casadevall; John N. Galgiani; Frank C. Odds; John H. Rex; Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner

    2010-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are increasing in incidence and are associated with substantial mortality. Improved diagnostics and the availability of new antifungals have revolutionized the field of medical mycology in the past decades. This Review focuses on recent developments in the antifungal pipeline, concentrating on promising candidates such as new azoles, polyenes and echinocandins, as well as agents such as nikkomycin

  2. Antifungal, mosquito deterrent, and larvicidal activity of N-(benzylidene)-3-cyclohexylpropionic acid hydrazide derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrazone derivatives possess good antifungal and insecticidal activities and their structure are used in pesticide design. In the present study, ten hydrazone derivatives (2a-j) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Colletotrichum, Botrytis, Fusarium and Phomopsis species and for the...

  3. Evaluation of in vitro Resistance in Patients with Onychomycosis Who Fail Antifungal Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Yatika Kohli

    2003-01-01

    Background: With the increased awareness of onychomycosis and the increasing use of antifungals for this indication, it is prudent to be concerned about the possible emergence of resistant strains. There has been substantial work on the development of standardized methods for testing the in vitro resistance of various fungi and yeasts to the currently available antifungal agents. However, relatively little

  4. In Vitro Activities of Isavuconazole and Other Antifungal Agents against Candida Bloodstream Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Seifert; U. Aurbach; D. Stefanik; O. Cornely

    2007-01-01

    Received 27 September 2006\\/Returned for modification 22 December 2006\\/Accepted 11 February 2007 Isavuconazole is the active component of the new azole antifungal agent BAL8557, which is entering phase III clinical development. This study was conducted to compare the in vitro activities of isavuconazole and five other antifungal agents against 296 Candida isolates that were recovered consecutively from blood cultures between

  5. No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil Fauna

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract The cultivation of genetically modified (GM: Duc C, Nentwig W, Lindfeld A (2011) No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat

  6. Development of a novel in vitro onychomycosis model for the evaluation of topical antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sleven, Reindert; Lanckacker, Ellen; Boulet, Gaëlle; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2015-05-01

    A novel in vitro onychomycosis model was developed to easily predict the topical activity potential of novel antifungal drugs. The model encompasses drug activity and diffusion through bovine hoof slices in a single experimental set-up. Results correspond well with the antifungal susceptibility assay and Franz cell diffusion test. PMID:25772040

  7. Augmenting antifungal activity of oxidizing agent with kojic acid: Control of Penicillium strains infecting crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative treatment is a strategy for preventing Penicillium contamination in foods or crops. Antifungal efficacy of oxidant [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], biotic effector [kojic acid (KA)] and abiotic stress (heat), alone or in combination, was investigated in Penicillium. The levels of antifungal int...

  8. Activities of amphotericin B and antifungal azoles alone and in combination against Pseudallescheria boydii.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, T J; Peter, J; McGough, D A; Fothergill, A W; Rinaldi, M G; Pizzo, P A

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop new approaches to treatment of infections due to Pseudallescheria boydii, the in vitro antifungal activity of amphotericin B alone and in combination with miconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole was studied. Combinations of amphotericin B and antifungal azoles were synergistic, additive, or indifferent in their interaction against P. boydii. Antagonism was not observed. PMID:7574531

  9. Antifungal leaf-surface metabolites correlate with fungal abundance in sagebrush populations.

    PubMed

    Talley, Sharon M; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2002-11-01

    A central component in understanding plant-enemy interactions is to determine whether plant enemies, such as herbivores and pathogens, mediate the evolution of plant secondary metabolites. Using 26 populations of a broadly distributed plant species, sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), we examined whether sagebrush populations in habitats with a greater prevalence of fungi contained antifungal secondary metabolites on leaf surfaces that were more active and diverse than sagebrush populations in habitats less favorable to fungi. Because moisture and temperature play a key role in the epidemiology of most plant-pathogen interactions, we also examined the relationship between the antifungal activity of secondary metabolites and the climate of a site. We evaluated the antifungal activity of sagebrush secondary metabolites against two fungi, a wild Penicillium sp. and a laboratory yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a filter-paper disk assay and bioautography. Comparing the 26 sagebrush populations, we found that fungal abundance was a good predictor of both the activity (r2 = 0.36 for Saccharomyces, r2 = 0.37 for Penicillium) and number (r2 = 0.34 for Saccharomyces) of antifungal secondary metabolites. This suggests that selection imposed by fungal pathogens has led to more effective antifungal secondary metabolites. We found that the antifungal activity of sagebrush secondary metabolites was negatively related to average vapor pressure deficit of the habitat (r2 = 0.60 for Saccharomyces, r2 = 0.61 for Penicillium). Differences in antifungal activity among populations were not due to the amount of secondary metabolites, but rather to qualitative differences in the composition of antifungal compounds. Although all populations in habitats with high fungal prevalence had secondary metabolites with high antifungal activity, different suites of compounds were responsible for this activity, suggesting independent outcomes of selection on plants by fungal pathogens. The location of antifungal secondary metabolites on the leaf surface is consistent with their putative defense role, and we found no evidence supporting other functions, such as protection from ultraviolet light or oxidation. That the antifungal activity of sagebrush secondary metabolites was similar for two different fungi provides support for broad antifungal defenses. The incidence and severity of fungal disease in the field (caused by Puccinia tanaceti) were similar in moist and dry habitats, possibly reflecting an equilibrium between plant defense and fungal attack, as sites with greater fungal abundance compensated with more effective secondary metabolites. The geographic correlation between fungal abundance and antifungal secondary metabolites of sagebrush, coupled with our other data showing heritable variation in these metabolites, suggests that pathogenic fungi have selected for antifungal secondary metabolites in sagebrush. PMID:12523559

  10. Heterologous expression of new antifungal chitinase from wheat.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arpita; Kirubakaran, S Isaac; Sakthivel, N

    2007-11-01

    Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) have been grouped into seven classes (class I-VII) on the basis of their structural properties. Chitinases expressed during plant-microbe interaction are involved in defense responses of host plant against pathogens. In the present investigation, chitinase gene from wheat has been subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE3). Molecular phylogeny analyses of wheat chitinase indicated that it belongs to an acidic form of class VII chitinase (glycosyl hydrolase family 19) and shows 77% identity with other wheat chitinase of class IV and low level identity to other plant chitinases. The three-dimensional structural model of wheat chitinase showed the presence of 10 alpha-helices, 3 beta-strands, 21 loop turns and the presence of 6 cysteine residues that are responsible for the formation of 3 disulphide bridges. The active site residues (Glu94 and Glu103) may be suggested for its antifungal activity. Expression of chitinase (33 kDa) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western hybridization analyses. The yield of purified chitinase was 20 mg/L with chitinase activity of 1.9 U/mg. Purified chitinase exerted a broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Colletotrichum falcatum (red rot of sugarcane) Pestalotia theae (leaf spot of tea), Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight of rice), Sarocladium oryzae (sheath rot of rice) Alternaria sp. (grain discoloration of rice) and Fusarium sp. (scab of rye). Due to its innate antifungal potential wheat chitinase can be used to enhance fungal-resistance in crop plants. PMID:17697785

  11. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)] [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)] [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)] [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ? Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ? Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ? Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  12. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiahui; Brosnan, Brid; Furey, Ambrose; Arendt, Elke; Murphy, Padraigin; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes. Cell-free culture supernatants of Lb. reuteri ee1p and of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 were freeze-dried and used to access and compare antifungal activity in agar plate assays and microtiter plate assays. Addition of the Lb. reuteri ee1p freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder into the agar medium at concentrations greater than 2% inhibited all fungal colony growth. Addition of the powder at 5% to liquid cultures caused complete inhibition of fungal growth on the basis of turbidity. Freeze-dried supernatant of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 at the same concentrations had a much lesser effect. As Lb. reuteri M13 is very similar to the antifungal strain ee1p in terms of growth rate and final pH in liquid culture, and as it has little antifungal activity, it is clear that other antifungal compounds must be specifically produced (or produced at higher levels) by the anti-dermatophyte strain Lb. reuteri ee1p. Reuterin was undetectable in all four antifungal strains. The cell free supernatant of Lb. reuteri ee1p was analyzed by LC-FTMS using an Accela LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy spectrum produced by compounds in the Lb. reuteri ee1p strain was compared with both a multianalyte chromatogram and individual spectra of standard anti-fungal compounds, which are known to be produced by lactic acid bacteria. Ten antifungal metabolites were detected. PMID:22539027

  13. Secoiridoid glycosides and an antifungal anthranilate derivative from Gentiana tibetica.

    PubMed

    Tan, R X; Kong, L D; Wei, H X

    1998-04-01

    Repetitive chromatography of the methanol extract of the roots of Gentiana tibetica afforded two new secoiridoid glycosides and a novel antifungal anthranilic acid derivative, together with beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, oleanolic acid, loganic acid, gentiopicroside, sweroside, 2'-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)sweroside, trifloroside, rindoside and macrophylloside A. The structures of the new products were determined mainly by spectroscopic methods as 8-hydroxy-10-hydrosweroside, isomacrophylloside and ethyl N-docosanoylanthranilate. Ethyl N-docosanoylanthranilate inhibited the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The taxonomic significance of the constituent is discussed briefly. PMID:9611826

  14. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of Pyrrolidone Thiosemicarbazone Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2012-01-01

    Metal complexes of (Z)-2-(pyrrolidin-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (L) with Cu(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) chlorides were tested against selected types of fungi and were found to have significant antifungal activities. The free-radical-scavenging ability of the metal complexes was determined by their interaction with the stable free radical 2,2??-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and all the compounds showed encouraging antioxidant activities. DFT calculations of the Cu complex were performed using molecular structures with optimized geometries. Molecular orbital calculations provide a detailed description of the orbitals, including spatial characteristics, nodal patterns, and the contributions of individual atoms. PMID:22400016

  15. Butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase inhibiting and antifungal alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat

    2008-06-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6. Compounds 3, 2 were found to be potent butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) values 16.3 +/- 0.06 and 19.7 +/- 0.03 microM against BChE and 30.6 +/- 0.02 and 33.7 +/- 0.05 microM against LOX, respectively. The compounds (1-6) showed significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton schoen leinii, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton simii, and Macrophomina phaseolina. PMID:18569333

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of lanoconazole, a topical antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Uratsuji, Hideya; Nakamura, Aki; Yamada, Yoshihito; Hashimoto, Kei; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Ishii, Ritsuko

    2015-04-01

    Topical antifungal agents which have anti-inflammatory effects have the potential to provide additional clinical benefits. Therefore, an anti-inflammatory activity of lanoconazole (LCZ), a topical antifungal agent, was investigated against in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. The release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human epidermal keratinocytes stimulated by the addition of 100 ?g ml(-1) ?-glucan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was significantly inhibited by LCZ at the concentration of 10(-5)  mol l(-1) . The release of interferon-? and IL-2 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by the addition of 30 and 100 ?g ml(-1) phytohemagglutinin was significantly inhibited by LCZ at the concentrations of 10(-7) and 10(-6)  mol l(-1) , respectively. The increase in the ear thickness induced by topical application of 0.01% 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate and 1% 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) after sensitisation with 3% TNCB were established as the mouse models of irritant and contact dermatitis, respectively. Application of 1% and 3% LCZ showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity against both the irritant and contact dermatitis models. These findings suggest that LCZ possesses an anti-inflammatory activity, which may be partially helpful in the treatment of dermatomycoses. PMID:25675966

  17. Lipidome analysis reveals antifungal polyphenol curcumin affects membrane lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monika; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni; Singh, Ashutosh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that antifungal curcumin (CUR), significantly depletes ergosterol levels in Candida albicans. CUR while displaying synergy with fluconazole (FLC) lowers ergosterol. However, CUR alone at its synergistic concentration (lower than MIC50), could not affect ergosterol contents. For deeper insight of CUR effects on lipids, we performed high throughput mass spectroscopy (MS) based lipid profiling of C. albicans cells. The lipidome analysis revealed that there were no major changes in PGLs composition following CUR treatment of Candida, however, significant differences in molecular species of PGLs were detected. Among major SPLs, CUR treatment resulted in the reduction of ceramide and accumulation of IPCs levels. The lipidome of CUR treated cells confirmed a dramatic drop in the ergosterol levels with a simultaneous accumulation of its biosynthetic precursors. This was further supported by the fact that the mutants defective in ergosterol biosynthesis (ERG2 and ERG11) and those lacking the transcription factor regulating ergosterol biosynthesis, UPC2, were highly susceptible to CUR. Our study first time shows that CUR, for its antifungal activity, targets and down regulates ?5, 6 desaturase (ERG3) resulting in depletion of ergosterol. This results in parallel accumulation of ergosterol biosynthetic precursors, generation of ROS and cell death. PMID:22201946

  18. The impact of antifungals on toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mihu, Mircea R.; Pattabhi, Rodney; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are increasingly recognized as major pathogens in immunocompromised individuals. With the increase in the number of fungal infections each year and the development of resistance to current therapy, new approaches to treatment including stimulation of the immune response in addition to concurrent pharmacotherapy is ongoing. The most common invasive fungal infections are caused by Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Cryptococcus spp. Amphotericin B (AmB) has remained the cornerstone of therapy against many fulminant fungal infections but its use is limited by its multitude of side effects. Echinocandins are a newer class of antifungal drugs with activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. and constitutes an alternative to AmB due to superior patient tolerability and fewer side effects. Due to their oral delivery, azoles continue to be heavily used for simple and complex diseases, such as fluconazole for candidal vaginitis and voriconazole for aspergillosis. The objective of this paper is to present current knowledge regarding the multiple interactions between the broad spectrum antifungals and the innate immune response, primarily focusing on the toll-like receptors. PMID:24672516

  19. The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

  20. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata.

    PubMed

    Galván, Imelda J; Mir-Rashed, Nadereh; Jessulat, Matthew; Atanya, Monica; Golshani, Ashkan; Durst, Tony; Petit, Philippe; Amiguet, Virginie Treyvaud; Boekhout, Teun; Summerbell, Richard; Cruz, Isabel; Arnason, John T; Smith, Myron L

    2008-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol extracts led to the identification of 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (chimaphilin) as the principal antifungal component. The structure of chimaphilin was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activity of chimaphilin was evaluated using the microdilution method with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.05mg/mL) and the dandruff-associated fungi Malassezia globosa (0.39mg/mL) and Malassezia restricta (0.55mg/mL). Pronounced antioxidant activity of C. umbellata crude extract was also identified using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, suggesting this phytomedicine has an antioxidant function in wound healing. A chemical-genetic profile was completed with chimaphilin using approximately 4700 S. cerevisiae gene deletion mutants. Cellular roles of deleted genes in the most susceptible mutants and secondary assays indicate that the targets for chimaphilin include pathways involved in cell wall biogenesis and transcription. PMID:17950387

  1. The impact of antifungals on toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Mihu, Mircea R; Pattabhi, Rodney; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are increasingly recognized as major pathogens in immunocompromised individuals. With the increase in the number of fungal infections each year and the development of resistance to current therapy, new approaches to treatment including stimulation of the immune response in addition to concurrent pharmacotherapy is ongoing. The most common invasive fungal infections are caused by Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Cryptococcus spp. Amphotericin B (AmB) has remained the cornerstone of therapy against many fulminant fungal infections but its use is limited by its multitude of side effects. Echinocandins are a newer class of antifungal drugs with activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. and constitutes an alternative to AmB due to superior patient tolerability and fewer side effects. Due to their oral delivery, azoles continue to be heavily used for simple and complex diseases, such as fluconazole for candidal vaginitis and voriconazole for aspergillosis. The objective of this paper is to present current knowledge regarding the multiple interactions between the broad spectrum antifungals and the innate immune response, primarily focusing on the toll-like receptors. PMID:24672516

  2. Glycerol Enhances the Antifungal Activity of Dairy Propionibacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Helena; Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Jonsson, Hans; Schnürer, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Dairy propionibacteria are widely used in starter cultures for Swiss type cheese. These bacteria can ferment glucose, lactic acid, and glycerol into propionic acid, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide. This research examined the antifungal effect of dairy propionibacteria when glycerol was used as carbon source for bacterial growth. Five type strains of propionibacteria were tested against the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and the molds Penicillium commune and Penicillium roqueforti. The conversion of 13C glycerol by Propionibacterium jensenii was followed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In a dual culture assay, the degree of inhibition of the molds was strongly enhanced by an increase in glycerol concentrations, while the yeast was less affected. In broth cultures, decreased pH in glycerol medium was probably responsible for the complete inhibition of the indicator fungi. NMR spectra of the glycerol conversion confirmed that propionic acid was the dominant metabolite. Based on the results obtained, the increased antifungal effect seen by glycerol addition to cultures of propionibacteria is due to the production of propionic acid and pH reduction of the medium. PMID:21331381

  3. Evaluation of the antifungal potential of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Melo e Silva, Fernanda; de Paula, José Elias; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2009-11-01

    Therapeutic limitations, development of fungal drug resistance, drug-related toxicity, drug interactions and insufficient bioavailability of the currently available antifungal drugs have made the development of drugs necessary that would be able to treat the emerging fungal infections. The Cerrado is the second greater biome of Brazil and it was identified as one of the most distinguished biomes of South America, becoming an important source of innovative vegetal molecules to treat several conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal potential of Cerrado plants, mainly those used to treat infections and wounds. A total of 57 extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion technique against Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum. The most promising extracts were tested in smaller concentrations and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by microdilution method. Results were analysed statistically by anova tests. Extracts of Kielmeyera coriacea, Renealmia alpinia, Stryphnodendron adstringens and Tabebuia caraiba were very active against T. rubrum, presented geometric means of the MIC values between 170.39 and 23.23 microg ml(-1). Extracts of Cerrado plants are of particular interest as source of new agents for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. PMID:19207849

  4. Structural Basis of Human CYP51 Inhibition by Antifungal Azoles

    SciTech Connect

    Strushkevich, Natallia; Usanov, Sergey A.; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto); (IBC-Belarus)

    2010-09-22

    The obligatory step in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes is demethylation of sterol precursors at the C14-position, which is catalyzed by CYP51 (sterol 14-alpha demethylase) in three sequential reactions. In mammals, the final product of the pathway is cholesterol, while important intermediates, meiosis-activating sterols, are produced by CYP51. Three crystal structures of human CYP51, ligand-free and complexed with antifungal drugs ketoconazole and econazole, were determined, allowing analysis of the molecular basis for functional conservation within the CYP51 family. Azole binding occurs mostly through hydrophobic interactions with conservative residues of the active site. The substantial conformational changes in the B{prime} helix and F-G loop regions are induced upon ligand binding, consistent with the membrane nature of the protein and its substrate. The access channel is typical for mammalian sterol-metabolizing P450 enzymes, but is different from that observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP51. Comparison of the azole-bound structures provides insight into the relative binding affinities of human and bacterial P450 enzymes to ketoconazole and fluconazole, which can be useful for the rational design of antifungal compounds and specific modulators of human CYP51.

  5. Antifungal Properties of Haem Peroxidase from Acorus calamus

    PubMed Central

    GHOSH, MODHUMITA

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants have evolved a number of inducible defence mechanisms against pathogen attack, including synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins. The aim of the study was to purify and characterize antifungal protein from leaves of Acorus calamus. • Methods Leaf proteins from A. calamus were fractionated by cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration and the fraction inhibiting the hyphal extension of phytopathogens was characterized. The temperature stability and pH optima of the protein were determined and its presence was localized in the leaf tissues. • Key Results The purified protein was identified as a class III haem peroxidase with a molecular weight of approx. 32?kDa and pI of 7·93. The temperature stability of the enzyme was observed from 5?°C to 60?°C with a temperature optimum of 36?°C. Maximum enzyme activity was registered at pH?5·5. The pH and temperature optima were corroborated with the antifungal activity of the enzyme. The enzyme was localized in the leaf epidermal cells and lumen tissues of xylem, characteristic of class III peroxidases. The toxic nature of the enzyme which inhibited hyphal growth was demonstrated against phytopathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Trichosporium vesiculosum. Microscopic observations revealed distortion in the hyphal structure with stunted growth, increased volume and extensive hyphal branching. • Conclusions This study indicates that peroxidases may have a role to play in host defence by inhibiting the hyphal extension of invading pathogens. PMID:17056613

  6. Inflammatory Monocytes Orchestrate Innate Antifungal Immunity in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Orchi; Kasahara, Shinji; Donnelly, Robert; Du, Peicheng; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Leiner, Ingrid; Chen, Chiann-Chyi; Ron, Yacov; Hohl, Tobias M.; Rivera, Amariliz

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental fungus that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Although -CC-chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes (CCR2+Mo) and their derivatives initiate adaptive pulmonary immune responses, their role in coordinating innate immune responses in the lung remain poorly defined. Using conditional and antibody-mediated cell ablation strategies, we found that CCR2+Mo and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) are essential for innate defense against inhaled conidia. By harnessing fluorescent Aspergillus reporter (FLARE) conidia that report fungal cell association and viability in vivo, we identify two mechanisms by which CCR2+Mo and Mo-DCs exert innate antifungal activity. First, CCR2+Mo and Mo-DCs condition the lung inflammatory milieu to augment neutrophil conidiacidal activity. Second, conidial uptake by CCR2+Mo temporally coincided with their differentiation into Mo-DCs, a process that resulted in direct conidial killing. Our findings illustrate both indirect and direct functions for CCR2+Mo and their derivatives in innate antifungal immunity in the lung. PMID:24586155

  7. Antifungal saponins from bulbs of white onion, Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Lanzotti, Virginia; Romano, Adriana; Lanzuise, Stefania; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Scala, Felice

    2012-02-01

    Three saponins, named ceposide A, ceposide B, and ceposide C were isolated from the bulbs of white onion, Allium cepa L. Elucidation of their structure was carried out by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and chemical evidences. The structures of the compounds were identified as (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1?,3?,22?,26-tetraol 1-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl 26-O-?-D-rhamnoyranosyl-(1?2)-O-?-D-galactopyranoside (ceposide A), (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1?,3?,22?,26-tetraol 1-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl 26-O-?-D-rhamnoyranosyl-(1?2)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (ceposide B), and (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1?,3?,22?,26-tetraol 1-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl 26-O-?-D-rhamnoyranosyl-(1?2)-O-?-D-galactopyranoside (ceposide C). The isolated compounds, alone and in combinations, were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity on ten fungal species. Antifungal activity of all three saponins increased with their concentration and varied with the following rank: ceposide B>ceposide A-ceposide C. We found a significant synergism in the antifungal activity of the three ceposides against Botrytis cinerea and Trichoderma atroviride, because growth of these fungi was strongly inhibited when the three saponins were applied in combination. In contrast, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Sclerotium cepivorum and Rhizoctonia solani were very little affected by saponins. PMID:22169018

  8. Antifungal treatment in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with and without cystic fibrosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moreira, A S; Silva, D; Ferreira, A Reis; Delgado, L

    2014-10-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a rare disease that affects patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Its debilitating course has led to the search for new treatments, including antifungals and monoclonal antibodies. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments in patients with ABPA and either asthma or cystic fibrosis, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the effects of antifungal agents in ABPA using three biomedical databases. Quality assessment was performed using the GRADE methodology and, where appropriate, studies with comparable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Thirty-eight studies - four randomized controlled trials and 34 observational studies - met the eligibility criteria. The antifungal interventions described were itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, ketoconazole, natamycin, nystatin and amphotericin B. An improvement in symptoms, frequency of exacerbations and lung function was reported in most of the studies and was more common with oral azoles. Antifungals also had a positive impact on biomarkers and radiological pulmonary infiltrates, but adverse effects were also common. The quality of the evidence supporting these results was low or very low due to a shortage of controlled studies, heterogeneity between studies and potential bias. Antifungal interventions in ABPA improved patient and disease outcomes in both asthma and cystic fibrosis. However, the recommendation for their use is weak and clinicians should therefore weigh up desirable and undesirable effects on a case-by-case basis. More studies with a better methodology are needed, especially in cystic fibrosis, to increase confidence in the effects of antifungal treatments in ABPA. PMID:24809846

  9. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Aunsbjerg, S D; Honoré, A H; Marcussen, J; Ebrahimi, P; Vogensen, F K; Benfeldt, C; Skov, T; Knřchel, S

    2015-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl, and the antifungal activity towards two strains of Penicillium spp. When adding diacetyl to CDIM or yogurt without L. paracasei DGCC 2132, marked inhibition was observed. Besides diacetyl, the antifungal properties of acetoin were examined, but no antifungal activity was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate the contribution of diacetyl in the antifungal effect of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 and indicate that the importance of volatiles may have been previously underestimated. PMID:25461608

  10. The calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A exhibits synergism with antifungals against Candida parapsilosis species complex.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Macedo, Ramila de Brito; Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2014-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis complex comprises three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. In the last decade, antifungal resistance to azoles and caspofungin among C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains has been considered a matter of concern worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic potential of antifungals and the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A (Cys) against planktonic and biofilms of C. parapsilosis complex from clinical sources. Susceptibility assays with amphotericin, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and Cys were performed by microdilution in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Synergy testing against planktonic cells of C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains was assessed by the chequerboard method. Combinations formed by antifungals with Cys were evaluated against mature biofilms in microtitre plates. No differences in the antifungal susceptibility pattern among species were observed, but C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were more susceptible to Cys than C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Synergism between antifungals and Cys was observed in C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains. Combinations formed by antifungals and Cys were able to prevent biofilm formation and showed an inhibitory effect against mature biofilms of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. These results strengthen the potential of calcineurin inhibition as a promising approach to enhance the efficiency of antifungal drugs. PMID:24722799

  11. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sarah Sze Wah; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun; Yuen, Kwok Yong; Wang, Yu; Yang, Dan; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath

    2014-01-01

    Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.2-1.6 µg/ml). In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use. PMID:24465737

  12. The effect of time to antifungal therapy on mortality in Candidemia associated septic shock.

    PubMed

    Patel, Gourang P; Simon, David; Scheetz, Marc; Crank, Christopher W; Lodise, Thomas; Patel, Nimish

    2009-01-01

    The timely administration of appropriate antifungal therapy for Candida bloodstream infections (CBSI) improves clinical outcomes. However, little data exist on the effect of antifungal therapy in patients with septic shock and candidemia. We describe antifungal treatment of patients with septic shock due to CBSI and its impact on in-hospital mortality. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of hospitalized patients identified with at least one positive blood culture for Candida between January 2003 and June 2007. All septic shock patients received vasopressor therapy and had candidemia within 72 hours of refractory shock. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, antibiotic exposure, in-hospital mortality, and intensive care-related factors. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were calculated. Time to antifungal therapy was defined as the interval between time of collection of the first positive Candida blood culture and the time when appropriate antifungal therapy was initiated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables associated with in-patient mortality. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify the mortality breakpoint between early and late antifungal therapy. Septic shock developed in 23% (31 of 135) patients with CBSI. In-hospital mortality was 68%. Nonalbicans Candida spp. accounted for 48% of blood isolates. Appropriate antifungal therapy was administered to 24 patients; 15 (63%) of these patients died. Classification and regression tree analysis revealed that patients who received appropriate antifungal therapy within 15 hours of collecting the first positive Candida blood culture had improved survival (P = 0.03). Early, appropriate antifungal therapy improves survival among patients with septic shock due to CBSI. PMID:19531934

  13. Synthesis, in vitro antifungal evaluation and in silico study of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The currently available antifungal drugs suffer from toxicity, greatest potential drug interactions with other drugs, insufficient pharmacokinetics properties, and development of resistance. Thus, development of new antifungal agents with optimum pharmacokinetics and less toxicity is urgent task. In the search for new azole antifungals, we have been previously described azolylchromanone oxime ethers as rigid analogs of oxiconazole. In continuation of our work, we incorporated phenylhydrazone moiety instead of oxime ether fragment in azolylchromanone derivatives. Methods The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones were synthesized via ring closure of 2-azolyl-2'-hydroxyacetophenones and subsequent reaction with phenylhydrazine. The biological activity of title compounds was evaluated against different pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Microsporum gypseum. Docking study, in silico toxicity risks and drug-likeness predictions were used to better define of title compounds as antifungal agents. Results The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds based on MIC values revealed that all compounds showed good antifungal activity against C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and M. gypseum at concentrations less than 16 ?g/mL. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3-imidazolyl derivative 3b showed the highest values of drug-likeness and drug-score. Conclusion The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones considered as analogs of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone oxime ethers basically designed as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of title compounds was comparable to that of standard drug fluconazole. The drug-likeness data of synthesized compounds make them promising leads for future development of antifungal agents. PMID:23351328

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of a Novel Antifungal Small Molecule against Candida Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Kwok Yong; Wang, Yu; Yang, Dan; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2014-01-01

    Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.2 – 1.6 µg/ml). In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use. PMID:24465737

  15. 78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...infants and children to the pesticide...assess the hazards of and to...class of chemicals (e.g...available hazard and exposure information...acute dietary food exposure...exposure of children as......

  16. Clauraila E from the roots of Clausena harmandiana and antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    Sriphana, Uraiwan; Thongsri, Yordhathai; Prariyachatigul, Chularut; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Yenjai, Chavi

    2013-09-01

    A new carbazole alkaloid named clauraila E (1) together with 8 known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Clausena harmandiana. All compounds were evaluated for antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum using disc diffusion assay. Pythium insidiosum is a fungus-like microorganism, for which antifungals available now are not effective. It was found that compounds 3, 6, 7 and 9 could inhibit the mycelia growth of P. insidiosum. The results show convincingly that they may be lead to compounds for the development of probiotic or novel antifungal drugs. PMID:23595552

  17. Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Antimicrobial Drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Karla K.A.; Matias, Edinardo F.F.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Souza, Celestina E.S.; Braga, Maria F.B.M.; Guedes, Gláucia M.M.; Costa, José G.M.; Menezes, Irwin R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity. PMID:23819641

  18. Combinatorial synthesis of benzimidazole-azo-phenol derivatives as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yazhen; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Xiang; Ding, Guodong; Yang, Chun; Xu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A chemically diverse library of benzimidazole-azo-phenol derivatives was efficiently prepared and screened for their antifungal activities against five phytopathogenic fungi. Some compounds exhibited potent antifungal activities. As compared with a commercially available agricultural fungicide, hymexazol, especially compound V-5 showed the most promising broad-spectrum antifungal activities against five phytopathogenic fungi. The EC50 values of V-5 against F. graminearum, A. solani, V. mali, B. cinerea, and C. lunata were 0.09, 0.08, 0.06, 0.07, and 0.11 ?mol/mL, respectively. PMID:24152176

  19. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing: Practical Aspects and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rex, John H.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Gosey, Linda L.; Odds, Frank C.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Sheehan, Daniel J.; Warnock, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Development of standardized antifungal susceptibility testing methods has been the focus of intensive research for the last 15 years. Reference methods for yeasts (NCCLS M27-A) and molds (M38-P) are now available. The development of these methods provides researchers not only with standardized methods for testing but also with an understanding of the variables that affect interlaboratory reproducibility. With this knowledge, we have now moved into the phase of (i) demonstrating the clinical value (or lack thereof) of standardized methods, (ii) developing modifications to these reference methods that address specific problems, and (iii) developing reliable commercial test kits. Clinically relevant testing is now available for selected fungi and drugs: Candida spp. against fluconazole, itraconazole, flucytosine, and (perhaps) amphotericin B; Cryptococcus neoformans against (perhaps) fluconazole and amphotericin B; and Aspergillus spp. against (perhaps) itraconazole. Expanding the range of useful testing procedures is the current focus of research in this area. PMID:11585779

  20. Partial identification of antifungal compounds from Punica granatum peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Ira; Masaphy, Segula; Marciano, Prosper; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Holland, Doron; Kerem, Zohar; Amir, Rachel

    2012-05-16

    Aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels were assayed in vitro for their antifungal activity against six rot fungi that cause fruit and vegetable decay during storage. The growth rates of Alternaria alternata , Stemphylium botryosum , and Fusarium spp. were significantly inhibited by the extracts. The growth rates were negatively correlated with the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in the extract and particularly with punicalagins, the major ellagitannins in pomegranate peels. Ellagitannins were also found to be the main compounds in the bioactive fractions using bioautograms, and punicalagins were identified as the main bioactive compounds using chromatographic separation. These results suggest that ellagitannins, and more specifically punicalagins, which are the dominant compounds in pomegranate peels, may be used as a control agent of storage diseases and to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides. PMID:22533815

  1. Phytogrowth-inhibitory and antifungal constituents of Helianthella quinquenervis.

    PubMed

    Castańeda, P; Gómez, L; Mata, R; Lotina-Hennsen, B; Anaya, A L; Bye, R

    1996-03-01

    Investigation on the roots of Helianthella quinquenervis (Hook.) A. Gray (Asteraceae), led to the isolation of one new benzofuran (6-methoxy-tremetone (1)) and a new prenylacetophenone (4-beta-D-(glucopyranosyloxy)-3-[3-methoxy-trans-isopenten-1 -yl] acetophenone (3)). In addition, 6-hydroxy-3-methoxytremetone (2), encecalin (6), euparin (5), demethylencecalin (4), and angelic acid were obtained. Structural assignments of the isolated compounds were based on spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Natural products 1-4 showed marginal cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines [MCF-7, A-549, and HT-29]. Compounds 4 and 6 inhibited the radicle growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Echinochloa crusgalli. Furthermore, substances 4-6 exhibited antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. PMID:8882437

  2. The antifungal constituents from the seeds of Itoa orientalis.

    PubMed

    Tang, WenWei; Xu, HanHong; Zeng, DongQiang; Yu, LiJia

    2012-04-01

    Three new phenolic constituents, itolide A (1), itolide B (2), itoside P (3), and 1D-3-deoxy-3-hydroxymethyl-myo-inositol (4), which is described herein for the first time as a natural product, were isolated along with four other known compounds (5 to 8) from the methanol extract of the seeds of Itoa orientalis Hemsl by the activity-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1 to 8 exhibited antifungal activities against Sclerotium rolfsii with IC?? values ranging from 60.12 to 240.00 ?M and against Rhizoctonia solani with IC?? values ranging from 45.34 to 233.14 ?M, respectively, and compounds 1, 2, 5 exhibited cytotoxic activity against Tn5B1-4 insect cell line with EC?? values of 203.68, 93.41 and 40.37 ?M, respectively. PMID:22233862

  3. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel streptochlorin analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Chen, Qiong; Xie, Cai-Hong; Mulholland, Nick; Turner, Sarah; Irwin, Dianne; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Guang-Fu; Clough, John

    2015-03-01

    Streptochlorin, first isolated as a new antibiotic in 1988 from the lipophilic extracts of the mycelium of a Streptomyces sp, is an indole natural products with a variety of biological activities. Based on the methods developed for the synthesis of pimprinine in our laboratory, we have synthesized a series of indole-modified streptochlorin analogues and measured their activities against seven phytopathogenic fungi. Some of the analogues displayed good activity in the primary assays, and the seven compounds 10b, 10c, 11e, 13e, 21, 22c and 22e (shown in Figure 1) were identified as the most promising candidates for further study. Structural optimization is still ongoing with the aim of discovering synthetic analogues with improved antifungal activity. PMID:25633493

  4. A lectin with antifungal activity from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus.

    PubMed

    Chikalovets, Irina V; Chernikov, Oleg V; Pivkin, Mikhail V; Molchanova, Valentina I; Litovchenko, Alina P; Li, Wei; Lukyanov, Pavel A

    2015-02-01

    Lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) are well known to actively participate in the defense functions of vertebrates and invertebrates where they play an important role in the recognition of foreign particles. In this study, we investigated of in vitro antifungal activity of lectin from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (CGL). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that CGL was predominantly detectable in tissues of mantle and to a lesser degree in the tissues of muscle, hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes. After challenged by Pichia pastoris the level of CGL was upregulated and reached the maximum level at 12 h post challenge and recovered to the original level at 24 h. The lectin was capable of inhibiting the germination of spores and hyphal growth in the fungi. All these results indicated that CGL is involved in the innate immune response in mollusc animals. PMID:25482060

  5. Study on Mutagenic Breeding of Bacillus Subtilis and Properties of Its Antifungal Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Yao, Jianming

    2004-08-01

    Bacillus subtitles JA isolated by our laboratory produced a large amount of antifungal substances, which had strong inhibitory activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum and so on. Ion beam implantation as a new mutagenic methods was applied in our studay. After B. subtitles JA was implanted by N+ ions, a strain designated as B. subtitles JA-026 was screened and obtained, which had a higher ability to produce those antifungal substances. A series of experiments indicated that the antifungal substances were thermostable and partially sensitive to proteinases K and tryproteinase. When the fermentating broth was fractionated with ammonium sulphate of a final saturation of 70%, the precipitate-enhanced inhibitory activity while the supernatant lost this activity. It appeared that the antifungal substances were likely to be protein.

  6. A case of fungal keratitis caused by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis: treatment with antifungal agents and penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Ragge, N K; Hart, J C; Easty, D L; Tyers, A G

    1990-01-01

    A case of fungal keratitis caused by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis following a penetrating eye injury is described. Treatment with antifungal agents and keratoplasty resulted in a favourable outcome. Images PMID:2168203

  7. Mode of Action for Reproductive and Hepatic Toxicity Inferred from a Genomic Study of Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole antifungals have been previously characterized by an observed increased in serum testosterone, hepatotoxicity, and reduced insemination and fertility indices. In order to refine our mechanistic understanding of these m...

  8. A Comparative Study of Antifungal Activity of Endodontic Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the antifungal activity of final canal rinse with either three concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (0.5, 2.6 and 6%), two concentrations of chlorhexidine (CHX) (2% and 0.2%), MTAD, Tetraclean, Hypoclean and Chlor-Xtra on Candida albicans (C. albicans) in a human tooth model. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and thirty five extracted human maxillary central and lateral incisors were used in this study. Teeth were randomly divided into nine test groups (n=25) and positive and a negative control groups (n=5). After cleaning and shaping, teeth were contaminated with C. albicans and incubated for 72 h. The irrigation solution in nine experimental groups included: 6% NaOCl, 2.6% NaOCl, 0.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, 0.2% CHX, MTAD, Tetraclean, Hypoclean and Chlor-Xtra. After culturing on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar, colony-forming units (CFU) were counted. Results: 6% NaOCl, 2% CHX and Chlor-Xtra were equally effective (P>0.05) and significantly superior to MTAD and Tetraclean (P<0.05). In addition, the effectiveness of Tetraclean and MTAD was significantly less than Hypoclean, NaOCl at all concentrations (6% 2.6% and 0.5%), MTAD and 0.2% CHX (P<0.05). Furthermore, Tetraclean was significantly more effective than MTAD (P<0.05). Conclusion: Antifungal activity of 6% NaOCl, Chlor-Xtra and 2% CHX was significantly greater than 2.6% NaOCl, 0.5% NaOCl, MTAD, 0.2% CHX and Tetraclean.

  9. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia furfur from bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Iatta, Roberta; Figueredo, Luciana A; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Fungaemia caused by Malassezia spp. in hospitalized patients requires prompt and appropriate therapy, but standard methods for the definition of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility have not been established yet. In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of Malassezia furfur from bloodstream infections (BSIs) to amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (POS) and voriconazole (VRC) was assessed using the broth microdilution (BMD) method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) with different media such as modified Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), RPMI and Christensen's urea broth (CUB). Optimal broth media that allow sufficient growth of M. furfur, and produce reliable and reproducible MICs using the CLSI BMD protocol were assessed. Thirty-six M. furfur isolates collected from BSIs of patients before and during AMB therapy, and receiving FLC prophylaxis, were tested. A good growth of M. furfur was observed in RPMI, CUB and SDB at 32 °C for 48 and 72 h. No statistically significant differences were detected between the MIC values registered after 48 and 72 h incubation. ITC, POS and VRC displayed lower MICs than FLC and AMB. These last two antifungal drugs showed higher and lower MICs, respectively, when the isolates were tested in SDB. SDB is the only medium in which it is possible to detect isolates with high FLC MICs in patients receiving FLC prophylaxis. A large number of isolates showed high AMB MIC values regardless of the media used. In conclusion, SDB might be suitable to determine triazole susceptibility. However, the media, the drug formulation or the breakpoints herein applied might not be useful for assessing the AMB susceptibility of M. furfur from BSIs. PMID:25168965

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel anti-fungal protein from Gastrodia elata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Xu; Ying Liu; Xiaochen Wang; Hongya Gu; Zhangliang Chen

    1998-01-01

    An anti-fungal protein GAFP-1 (Gastrodia anti-fungal protein, also called gastrodianin) was purified from Gastrodia elata B1. f. flavida S. Chow (Orchidaceae), a parasitic plant on the fungus Armillaria mellea. It can inhibit the hyphal growth of some phytopathogenic fungi such as Valsa ambiens, Rhizoctonia solani, Gibberella zeae, Ganoderma lucidum and Botrytis cinerea in vitro. GAFP-1 is a monomer with a

  11. In vitro antifungal activity of the berberine and its synergism with fluconazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata Sayuri Iwazaki; Eliana Harue Endo; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Lourdes Botelho Garcia; Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2010-01-01

    Berberine with and without fluconazole was tested by an agar disk diffusion assay in which clinical isolates of Candida albicans were applied onto yeast extract-peptone-dextrose agar plate. Berberine, which had no intrinsic antifungal activity at the\\u000a concentration tested, exerted a powerful antifungal activity in combination of fluzonazole. Combinations of berberine and\\u000a fluconazole were also tested by the checkerboard assay to

  12. Occidiofungin, a Unique Antifungal Glycopeptide Produced by a strain of Burkholderia contaminans

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shi-En; Novak, Jan; Austin, Frank W.; Gu, Ganyu; Ellis, Dayna; Kirk, Marion; Wilson-Stanford, Shawanda; Tonelli, Marco; Smith, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial strain Burkholderia contaminans MS14 was isolated from soil that suppressed brown patch disease of lawn grass. An antifungal compound was purified from the liquid culture of this bacterium. In this study, complete covalent structures of two purified closely related antifungal compounds were determined by the experiments of TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, 13C HSQC 2D NMR, and ESI-MS and GC. The analysis of monoisotopic masses of the purified preparation indicated presence of two related compounds with masses determined to be 1199.543 Da and 1215.518 Da; the difference corresponds to the mass of an oxygen atom. GC analysis identified a xylose sugar attached to the antifungal compound. NMR experiments revealed that the compound is cyclic and composed of eight amino acids, two of which are ?-hydroxy derivatives of Tyr and Asn, and one being a novel amino acid. The novel amino acid serves as the scaffold for the attachment of the xylose and a short acyl chain. The spectrum and concentration of antifungal activity was determined using a microtiter plate assay. The antifungal compound demonstrated potent antifungal activities against a broad panel of fungal plant and animal pathogens, as well as two Pythium spp. Microscopic observations showed that the antifungal compound disrupts normal membrane morphology. The cells fill with large inclusion bodies and the membrane becomes irregularly shaped and swollen following the exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of the antifungal compound. Our data support the identification of a novel fungicide and the compound has been named occidiofungin, meaning fungal killer. PMID:19673482

  13. A Novel Antifungal Pseudomonas fluorescens Isolated from Potato Soils in Greenland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Frydenlund Michelsen; Peter Stougaard

    2011-01-01

    A rhizobacterium with high antifungal activity was isolated from a potato field at Inneruulalik, South Greenland. Phylogenetic\\u000a analysis based on multi locus sequence typing showed that the bacterium was affiliated with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacterium, denoted as Pseudomonas\\u000a fluorescens In5, inhibited in vitro a broad range of phytopathogenic fungi, and the antifungal activity increased with decreasing temperature.\\u000a Microcosm

  14. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole compounds containing piperazine moiety.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwei; Xu, Kehan; Bai, Guojing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuye; Pan, Weihua; Yu, Shichong

    2014-01-01

    Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. PMID:25090121

  15. Primary or secondary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with hematological maligancies: efficacy and damage

    PubMed Central

    Gedik, Habip; ?im?ek, Funda; Y?ld?rmak, Taner; Kantürk, Arzu; Ar?ca, Deniz; Ayd?n, Demet; Demirel, Naciye; Yoku?, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with hematological malignancies often develop febrile neutropenia (FN) as a complication of cancer chemotherapy. Primary or secondary antifungal prophylaxis is recommended for patients with hematological malignancies to reduce the risk of invasive fungal infection (IFI). This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and potential harm of administration of primary and secondary antifungal prophylaxis to patients with hematological malignancies at one hospital. Methods All patients with hematological malignancies older than 14 years of age who had experienced at least one FN attack during chemotherapy while being treated at one hospital between November 2010 and November 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of 282 FN episodes in 126 consecutive patients were examined during a 2-year study period. The mean patient age was 51.73±14.4 years (range: 17–82 years), and 66 patients were male. Primary prophylaxis with posaconazole was administered to 13 patients and systemic antifungal treatment under induction or consolidation chemotherapy to seven patients. Of 26 patients who received secondary antifungal prophylaxis with either oral voriconazole (n=17) or posaconazole (n=6) during 46 FN episodes, systemic antifungal therapy was administered in 16 of 38 episodes and three of eight episodes, respectively. Secondary antifungal prophylaxis with caspofungin was found effective in treating six FN episodes in three patients who had experienced at least two persistent candidemia attacks. The mortality rates associated with IFI were 9% in the first year, 2% in the second year, and 6% overall. The mortality rates associated with candidemia were 33% in the first year, 22% in the second year, and 27% overall. Conclusion Primary antifungal prophylaxis should be administered to selected patients on the basis of consideration of efficacy, cost, and potential harm. Use of secondary prophylaxis may reduce systemic antifungal use and IFI frequency but may increase risk of colonization and infection with azole-resistant fungal strains. PMID:24855365

  16. A small protein that fights fungi: AFP as a new promising antifungal agent of biotechnological value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Meyer

    2008-01-01

    As fungal infections are becoming more prevalent in the medical or agricultural fields, novel and more efficient antifungal\\u000a agents are badly needed. Within the scope of developing new strategies for the management of fungal infections, antifungal\\u000a compounds that target essential fungal cell wall components are highly preferable. Ideally, newly developed antimycotics should\\u000a also combine major aspects such as sustainability, high

  17. Cyanobacteria, Lyngbya aestuarii and Aphanothece bullosa as antifungal and antileishmanial drug resources

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Maheep; Tripathi, Manoj Kumar; Srivastava, Akanksha; Gour, Jalaj Kumar; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Tilak, Ragini; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate two cyanobacteria isolated from different origins i.e. Lyngbya aestuarii (L. aestuarii) from brackish water and Aphanothece bullosa (A. bullosa) from fresh water paddy fields for antifungal and antileishmanila activity taking Candida albicans and Leishmania donovain as targets. Methods Biomass of L. aestuarii and A. bullosa were harvested after 40 and 60 d respectively and lyophilized twice in methanol (100%) and redissolved in methanol (5%) for bioassay. Antifungal bioassay was done by agar well diffusion method while antileishmanial, by counting cell numbers and flageller motility observation of promastigotes and amastigotes from L. donovani. Fluconazole and 5% methanol were used as control. Results Both the cyanobacteria were found to be potent source of antifungal activity keeping fluconazole as positive control, however, methanolic crude extract (15 mg/mL) of A. bullosa was found more potent (larger inhibition zone) over that of methanolic crude extract of L. aestuarii. Similarly antileishmanial activity of crude extract (24.0 mg/mL) of A. bullosa was superior over that of methanolic crude extract of L. aestuarii (25.6 mg/mL). Conclusions Antifungal and antileishmanial drugs are still limited in the market. Screening of microbes possessing antifungal and antileishmanial activity drug is of prime importance. Cyanobacteria are little explored in this context because most of the drugs in human therapy are derived from microorganisms, mainly bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes. Thus in the present study two cyanobacterial strains from different origins showed potent source of antifungal and antileishmanial biomolecules. PMID:23730558

  18. Candida tropicalis antifungal cross-resistance is related to different azole target (Erg11p) modifications.

    PubMed

    Forastiero, A; Mesa-Arango, A C; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Alcazar-Fuoli, L; Bernal-Martinez, L; Pelaez, T; Lopez, J F; Grimalt, J O; Gomez-Lopez, A; Cuesta, I; Zaragoza, O; Mellado, E

    2013-10-01

    Candida tropicalis ranks between third and fourth among Candida species most commonly isolated from clinical specimens. Invasive candidiasis and candidemia are treated with amphotericin B or echinocandins as first-line therapy, with extended-spectrum triazoles as acceptable alternatives. Candida tropicalis is usually susceptible to all antifungal agents, although several azole drug-resistant clinical isolates are being reported. However, C. tropicalis resistant to amphotericin B is uncommon, and only a few strains have reliably demonstrated a high level of resistance to this agent. The resistance mechanisms operating in C. tropicalis strains isolated from clinical samples showing resistance to azole drugs alone or with amphotericin B cross-resistance were elucidated. Antifungal drug resistance was related to mutations of the azole target (Erg11p) with or without alterations of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. The antifungal drug resistance shown in vitro correlated very well with the results obtained in vivo using the model host Galleria mellonella. Using this panel of strains, the G. mellonella model system was validated as a simple, nonmammalian minihost model that can be used to study in vitro-in vivo correlation of antifungals in C. tropicalis. The development in C. tropicalis of antifungal drug resistance with different mechanisms during antifungal treatment has potential clinical impact and deserves specific prospective studies. PMID:23877676

  19. Establishment of a Novel Model of Onychomycosis in Rabbits for Evaluation of Antifungal Agents ?

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Nagasaka, Saori; Suzuki, Taku; Mukai, Hideki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    We developed a novel model of onychomycosis in which we observed fungi in the deep layer of the nail, and we used the model to evaluate the efficacy of two topical antifungal drugs. To establish an experimental, in vivo model of onychomycosis, we applied Trichophyton mentagrophytes TIMM2789 to the nails of the hind limbs of rabbits that underwent steroid treatment. The nails were taken from the rabbits' feet at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after a 2-week infection. The localization of the fungi was evaluated histopathologically. Some fungi were seen to penetrate to the nail bed, and the infection rate in the sample at 0, 2, and 6 weeks after infection was 57, 87, and 93%, respectively. In addition, fungi proliferated and moved proximally into the nail plate in a manner that depended on the duration of infection. Second, using this model we evaluated antifungal efficacy both by the culture recovery method and histopathological examination. Two topical antifungal drugs, 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer and 5% amorolfine nail lacquer, were applied to the nail for 4 weeks in each group. On histopathological examination, two antifungal treatment groups showed no significant difference against the nontreated control group. However, there were a significantly low fungus-positive rate and intensity of the recovery of fungi on culture between antifungal treatment and nontreated control groups. We therefore suggest that we have established an in vivo model of onychomycosis that is useful for the evaluation of the efficacy of antifungal agents. PMID:21555762

  20. In vitro antifungal activity and probable fungicidal mechanism of aqueous extract of barleria grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Suman; Jain, Preeti; Sharma, Bhawana; Kadyan, Preeti; Dabur, Rajesh

    2015-04-01

    Barleria grandiflora Dalz. (Acanthaceae) is being used in India to treat different types of disorders including skin infections. Therefore, there are good possibilities to find antifungal compounds in its extracts with novel mechanism of action. The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of plant extracts and to study its effects on metabolic pathways of A. fumigatus. The microbroth dilution assay was used to explore antifungal activity and MIC of various extracts. Metabolic profiles of control and treated cultures were collected from Q-TOF-MS interfaced with HPLC. Affected metabolic pathways of A. fumigatus after the treatment were analyzed by discrimination analysis of mass data. Antifungal activities were observed in hot and cold water extracts of the plant. Hot water extract of B. grandiflora showed significant activity against tested fungi in the range 0.625-1.25 mg/mL. Partial least discrimination analysis revealed that the hot water plant extract downregulated amino acid, glyoxylate pathway, and methylcitrate pathways at the same time due to the synergistic effects of secondary metabolites. Hot water extract also downregulated several other metabolic pathways unique to fungi indicating its specific activity toward fungi. B. grandiflora showed promising antifungal activity which can further be exploited by identification of active compounds, to inhibit the specific fungal pathways and development of novel therapeutic antifungal drugs. PMID:25672323

  1. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

  2. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 0.03 Grain, cereal, group 15 0.03 Vegetable, brassica, leafy, group 5 0.03 Vegetable, foliage of legume...Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 0.03 Vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group 4 0.03 Vegetable, leaves of root and...

  3. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.1 Almond, hulls 2.0 Apple 0.5 Apple, dry pomace 5.0 Apple, wet pomace 5.0 Artichoke, globe 0.90 Asparagus 0.02 Banana, postharvest...

  4. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.1 Almond, hulls 2.0 Apple 0.5 Apple, dry pomace 5.0 Apple, wet pomace 5.0 Artichoke, globe 0.90 Asparagus 0.02 Banana, postharvest...

  5. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.1 Almond, hulls 2.0 Apple 0.5 Apple, dry pomace 5.0 Apple, wet pomace 5.0 Artichoke, globe 0.90 Asparagus 0.02 Banana, postharvest...

  6. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strains using agar diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery. PMID:21682097

  7. Isolation and characterization of potent antifungal strains of the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade active against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min J; Strap, Janice L; Crawford, Donald L

    2010-01-01

    Streptomyces strains were isolated from a sagebrush rhizosphere soil sample on humic acid vitamin (HV) agar and water yeast extract (WYE) agar supplemented with 1.5% (w/w) phenol as a selective medium. Acidic, neutral and alkaline pH conditions were also used in the isolation procedures. The phenol treatment reduced the numbers of both actinomycetes and non-actinomycetes on plates under all three pH conditions. From phenol-amended HV and WYE agar, 16 strains were isolated in pure culture; 14 from the HV agar and two from the WYE agar. All the isolates were tested for their antifungal activities against Pythium ultimum P8 and five yeast strains, including two antifungal drug-resistant Candida albicans strains. HV isolates that showed broad-spectrum antifungal antibiotic activities were all found to be members of the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade, while those that did not were non-clade members. The phenol treatment was not selective for S. violaceusniger clade members. Therefore, we tested the spores of both S. violaceusniger clade and non-clade members using two biocides, phenol and hydrogen peroxide, as selection agents. Spores of non-clade members, such as S. coelicolor M145 and S. lividans TK 21, survived these two biocides just as well as S. violaceusniger clade members. Thus, in our hands, biocide resistance was not S. violaceusniger clade specific as previously reported. However, isolates showing broad-spectrum antifungal and antiyeast activity were all members of the clade. We conclude that screening of isolates for broad-spectrum antifungal/antiyeast activity is the preferred method of isolating S. violaceusniger clade strains rather than biocide-based selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the phenol-resistant isolates revealed that the HV isolates that exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal antibiotic activity were all clustered and closely related to the S. violaceusniger clade, while the isolates that did not exhibit antifungal antibiotic activity were all non-clade members. PMID:19784681

  8. Training should be the first step toward an antifungal stewardship program.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Maricela; Muńoz, Patricia; Rodríguez-González, Carmen; Sanjurjo, María; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2014-07-24

    The frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly in most tertiary centers. However, antifungal stewardship has received very little attention. The objective of this article was to assess the knowledge of prescribing physicians in our institution as a first step in the development of an antifungal stewardship program. Attending physicians from the departments that prescribe most antifungals were invited to complete a questionnaire based on current guidelines on diagnosis and therapy of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis (IA). The survey was completed by 60.8% (200/329) of the physicians who were invited to participate. The physicians belonged to the following departments: medical (60%), pediatric (19%), intensive care (15.5%), and surgical (5.5%). The mean (±SD) score of correct responses was 5.16±1.73. In the case of candidiasis, only 55% of the physicians clearly distinguished between colonization and infection, and 17.5% knew the local rate of fluconazole resistance. Thirty-three percent knew the accepted indications for antifungal prophylaxis, and 23% the indications for empirical therapy. However, most physicians knew which antifungals to choose when starting empirical therapy (73.5%). As for aspergillosis, most physicians (67%) could differentiate between colonization and infection, and 34.5% knew the diagnostic value of galactomannan. The radiological features of IA were well recognized by 64%, but only 31.5% were aware of the first line of treatment for IA, and 36% of the recommended duration of therapy. The usefulness of antifungal levels was known by 67%. This simple, easily completed questionnaire enabled us to identify which areas of our training strategy could be improved. PMID:25066382

  9. Forest soil metagenome gene cluster involved in antifungal activity expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eu Jin; Lim, He Kyoung; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Choi, Gyung Ja; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Myung Hwan; Chung, Young Ryun; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2008-02-01

    Using two forest soils, we previously constructed two fosmid libraries containing 113,700 members in total. The libraries were screened to select active antifungal clones using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a target fungus. One clone from the Yuseong pine tree rhizosphere soil library, pEAF66, showed S. cerevisiae growth inhibition. Despite an intensive effort, active chemicals were not isolated. DNA sequence analysis and transposon mutagenesis of pEAF66 revealed 39 open reading frames (ORFs) and indicated that eight ORFs, probably in one transcriptional unit, might be directly involved in the expression of antifungal activity in Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequences of eight ORFs were similar to those of the core genes encoding type II family polyketide synthases, such as the acyl carrier protein (ACP), ACP synthases, aminotransferase, and ACP reductase. The gene cluster involved in antifungal activity was similar in organization to the putative antibiotic production locus of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, although we could not select a similar active clone from the KT2440 genomic DNA library in E. coli. ORFs encoding ATP binding cassette transporters and membrane proteins were located at both ends of the antifungal gene cluster. Upstream ORFs encoding an IclR family response regulator and a LysR family response regulator were involved in the positive regulation of antifungal gene expression. Our results suggested the metagenomic approach as an alternative to search for novel antifungal antibiotics from unculturable soil bacteria. This is the first report of an antifungal gene cluster obtained from a soil metagenome using S. cerevisiae as a target fungus. PMID:18065615

  10. Novel antifungal mechanism of resveratrol: apoptosis inducer in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-03-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a well-known natural polyphenolic compound that has garnered considerable interest because of its bioavailability and pharmacokinetics in humans. Although the antimicrobial activity of resveratrol has recently been focused, however, the antifungal activity and its mechanism are still largely unknown. Here, we report for the first time the potential of resveratrol as an apoptosis inducer in the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The results showed that resveratrol exerted its effects from the early to the late stages of apoptosis and involved the activity of reactive oxygen species, particularly hydroxyl radicals ((?)OH). DiOC6(3) and JC-1 staining indicated that loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m) is a key event in resveratrol-induced apoptosis. Finally, we investigated metacaspase activation resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction. The result showed that resveratrol strongly activated metacaspase and promoted cytochrome c release. In summary, resveratrol induces fungal apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway and is a potential agent for treating human fungal diseases. PMID:25413604

  11. Mono- and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Tan, R X; Lu, H; Wolfender, J L; Yu, T T; Zheng, W F; Yang, L; Gafner, S; Hostettmann, K

    1999-02-01

    In addition to beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin detected in all the investigated species, the extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii var. giraldii gave stigmasterol, daucosterol, sesamine, luteolin, eupafolin, hispidulin, eupatilin, belamcanidin, pinitol, artemin, ridentin, and a new antifungal monoterpene (named santolinylol) while that of the aerial parts of A. mongolica afforded sesamine, eupafolin, eupatilin, matricarin, and a new germacranolide (3-oxo-11 alpha H-germacra-1(10)E,4Z-dien-12,6 alpha-olide), and that of the aerial parts of A. vestita yielded stigmasterol, daucosterol, umbelliferone, scopolin, scoparone, and isoscopoletin-O-glucoside. Pinitol, first reisolated from Artemisia genus, was shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Geotrichun candidum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Umbelliferone was also active against Candida tropicalis, A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. The flavones hispidulin and belamcanidin were almost equally inhibitory to the growth of A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum, and santolinylol to C. albicans, A. flavus, A. niger, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. In addition, ridentin was active against the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:10083848

  12. Antifungal, phytotoxic and toxic metabolites produced by Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Wei, Jing; Pan, Shi-Yin; Gao, Jin-Ming; Tian, Jun-Mian

    2014-01-01

    Nine known metabolites, 6,8,1'-tri-O-methyl averantin (1), 6,8-di-O-methyl averufnin (2), 6,8-di-O-methyl averufanin (3), aversin (4), 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methyl versiconol (7), 5-methyoxysterigmatocystin (8) and (S)-ornidazole (9), were isolated from the extracts of Penicillium purpurogenum, and their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. The brine shrimp toxicity, anti-phytopathogenic and phytotoxic effects of these compounds were evaluated. Among them, compounds 1 and 8 exhibited the strongest toxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina), with lethality rates of 100% at a low concentration of 10 ?M, comparable to the positive control toosendanin. Compounds 1, 4 and 7 moderately inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea. Moreover, 4 displayed moderate antifungal effects on Gibberella saubinettii. In addition, compounds 6, 7 and 9 produced the phytotoxic effects on radish seedlings at 100 ?M. This is the first report on the isolation of these metabolites from this organism. PMID:25103412

  13. Synthesis and antifungal activities of novel polyheterocyclic spirooxindole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Shou; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Ying-Lao; Xie, Jian-Wu

    2015-04-22

    A series of spirooxindole tetrahydrofuran derivatives were obtained in moderate to good yields via oxindole derivatives and ?-arylacrylonitrile derivatives via base-mediated cascade [3 + 2] double Michael reactions under mild conditions and the application of this method in the synthesis of bioactive analogues, such as functionalized spirooxindole octahydrofuro[3,4-c]pyridine derivatives which contain two new heterocyclic rings and two quaternary carbon centers, has also been developed. Subsequently, antifungal activities of all of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against five phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium semitectum, Alternaria solani, Valsa mali and Fusarium graminearum) using the mycelium growth rate method. The preliminary results showed that the spirooxindole octahydrofuro[3,4-c]pyridine derivative showed higher growth inhibition of Valsa mali and Fusarium graminearum, than spirooxindole tetrahydrofuran derivatives . For example, spirooxindole octahydrofuro[3,4-c]pyridine derivative , having a bromine atom at the meta position of the benzene ring, was the best compound in inhibiting F. g. with an IC50 value of 3.31, in particular with inhibition of on F. g. being similar to that of the control cycloheximide (IC50 = 3.3 ?g mL(-1)). PMID:25820179

  14. Antifungal and antioxidant pyrrole derivative from Piper pedicellatum.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Dutta, Partha P; Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Bora, Jayanta

    2013-10-01

    In continuation of our search for efficient pest control natural products from the flora of the South Eastern Sub-Himalayan biodiversity region, we have investigated wild edible Piper pedicellatum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India against five important plant pathogenic fungi through an activity guided method, and a new compound, pedicellamide, was isolated. The structure was determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic studies and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The compound exhibited antifungal activities against the phytopathogenic fungal organisms Rhizoctonia solani (MIC 38.4 +/- 1.6 microg/mL), Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 29.7 +/- 0.8 microg/mL), Aspergillus niger (MIC 48.6 +/- 0.7 microg/mL), Puccinia gramini (MIC 46.8 +/- 1.4 microg/mL) and Curvularia lunata (MIC 49.1 +/- 0.1 microg/mL). Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the compound was estimated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay and found to be 2.87 +/- 0.20, 2.19 +/- 0.13 and 3.96 +/- 0.17 VCEAC (microM/g), respectively. PMID:24354199

  15. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant ?-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  16. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1?, sod2?, glr1?) and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants of A. fumigatus (sakA?, mpkC?), indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Effective inhibition of fungal growth can also be achieved using combinations of these benzaldehydes. Conclusions Natural benzaldehydes targeting cellular antioxidation components of fungi, such as superoxide dismutases, glutathione reductase, etc., effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess antifungal or chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional antifungal agents. Chemosensitization can reduce costs, abate resistance, and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal treatments. PMID:21627838

  17. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections. PMID:24920895

  18. Antifungal activity of borrelidin produced by a Streptomyces strain isolated from soybean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong-Xi; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Qian, Ping-Ting; Wang, Ji-Dong; Gao, Ya-Mei; Yan, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Zhen; Xu, Peng-Fei; Li, Wen-Bin; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    In this study, an endophytic Streptomyces sp. neau-D50 with strong antifungal activity against Phytophthora sojae was isolated from healthy soybean root, using an in vitro screening technique. A bioactivity-guided approach was then employed to isolate and determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents with antifungal activity from strain neau-D50. The structure of the antifungal metabolite was elucidated as borrelidin on the basis of spectral analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report that borrelidin has strong antifungal activity against dominant race 1 of P. sojae with EC(50) and EC(95) of 0.0056 and 0.026 mg/L, respectively. The values were respectively 62.5- and 262.3-fold lower than those of the commercial fungicide metalaxyl, which has been used to treat soybean seed for the control of P. sojae . The in situ bioassays demonstrated that borrelidin at 10 mg/L reduced P. sojae race 1 lesions on soybean seedlings by 94.72% without affecting root growth. Thus, borrelidin might be a promising candidate for new antifungal agents against P. sojae. PMID:22242825

  19. Gastrodianin-like mannose-binding proteins: a novel class of plant proteins with antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Bauw, G; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Chen, Z L; Van Montagu, M; Angenon, G; Dillen, W

    2001-03-01

    The orchid Gastrodia elata depends on the fungus Armillaria mellea to complete its life cycle. In the interaction, fungal hyphae penetrate older, nutritive corms but not newly formed corms. From these corms, a protein fraction with in vitro activity against plant-pathogenic fungi has previously been purified. Here, the sequence of gastrodianin, the main constituent of the antifungal fraction, is reported. Four isoforms that encoded two different mature proteins were identified at the cDNA level. Another isoform was detected in sequenced peptides. Because the antifungal activity of gastrodianins produced in and purified from Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum was comparable to that of gastrodianin purified from the orchid, gastrodianins are the active component of the antifungal fractions. Gastrodianin accumulation is probably an important part of the mechanism by which the orchid controls Armillaria penetration. Gastrodianin was found to be homologous to monomeric mannose-binding proteins of other orchids, of which at least one (Epipactis helleborine mannose-binding protein) also displayed in vitro antifungal activity. This establishes the gastrodianin-like proteins (GLIPs) as a novel class of antifungal proteins. PMID:11319032

  20. Antifungal prophylaxis in lung transplantation--a world-wide survey.

    PubMed

    Neoh, C F; Snell, G I; Kotsimbos, T; Levvey, B; Morrissey, C O; Slavin, M A; Stewart, K; Kong, D C M

    2011-02-01

    While variations in antifungal prophylaxis have been previously reported in lung transplant (LTx) recipients, recent clinical practice is unknown. Our aim was to determine current antifungal prophylactic practice in LTx centers world-wide. One nominated LTx clinician from each active center was invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey between September 2009 and January 2010. Fifty-seven percent (58/102) responded. The majority of responses were from medical directors of LTx centers (72.4%), and from the United States (44.8%). Within the first 6 months post-LTx, most centers (58.6%) employed universal prophylaxis, with 97.1% targeting Aspergillus species. Voriconazole alone, and in combination with inhaled amphotericin B (AmB), were the preferred first-line agents. Intolerance to side effects of voriconazole (69.2%) was the main reason for switching to alternatives. Beyond 6 months post-LTx, most (51.8%) did not employ antifungal prophylaxis. Fifteen centers (26.0%) conducted routine antifungal therapeutic drug monitoring during prophylactic period. There are differences in strategies employed between U.S. and European centers. Most respondents indicated a need for antifungal prophylactic guidelines. In comparison to earlier findings, there was a major shift toward prophylaxis with voriconazole and an increased use of echinocandins, posaconazole and inhaled lipid formulation AmB. PMID:21272239

  1. Expression in Escherichia coli, purification, refolding and antifungal activity of an osmotin from Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Magnólia de A; Silva, Marilia S; Magalhăes, Cláudio P; Ribeiro, Simone G; Sarto, Rafael PD; Vieira, Eduardo A; Grossi de Sá, Maria F

    2008-01-01

    Background Heterologous protein expression in microorganisms may contribute to identify and demonstrate antifungal activity of novel proteins. The Solanum nigrum osmotin-like protein (SnOLP) gene encodes a member of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, from the PR-5 sub-group, the last comprising several proteins with different functions, including antifungal activity. Based on deduced amino acid sequence of SnOLP, computer modeling produced a tertiary structure which is indicative of antifungal activity. Results To validate the potential antifungal activity of SnOLP, a hexahistidine-tagged mature SnOLP form was overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 strain carried out by a pQE30 vector construction. The urea solubilized His6-tagged mature SnOLP protein was affinity-purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. As SnOLP requires the correct formation of eight disulfide bonds, not correctly formed in bacterial cells, we adapted an in vitro method to refold the E. coli expressed SnOLP by using reduced:oxidized gluthatione redox buffer. This method generated biologically active conformations of the recombinant mature SnOLP, which exerted antifungal action towards plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium solani f. sp.glycines, Colletotrichum spp., Macrophomina phaseolina) and oomycete (Phytophthora nicotiana var. parasitica) under in vitro conditions. Conclusion Since SnOLP displays activity against economically important plant pathogenic fungi and oomycete, it represents a novel PR-5 protein with promising utility for biotechnological applications. PMID:18334031

  2. Antifungal Activities of Peptides Derived from Domain 5 of High-Molecular-Weight Kininogen

    PubMed Central

    Sonesson, Andreas; Nordahl, Emma Andersson; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2011-01-01

    In both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, Candida and Malassezia are causing or triggering clinical manifestations such as cutaneous infections and atopic eczema. The innate immune system provides rapid responses to microbial invaders, without requiring prior stimulation, through a sophisticated system of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). High molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and components of the contact system have previously been reported to bind to Candida and other pathogens, leading to activation of the contact system. A cutaneous Candida infection is characterized by an accumulation of neutrophils, leading to an inflammatory response and release of enzymatically active substances. In the present study we demonstrate that antifungal peptide fragments are generated through proteolytic degradation of HMWK. The recombinant domain 5 (rD5) of HMWK, D5-derived peptides, as well as hydrophobically modified D5-derived peptides efficiently killed Candida and Malassezia. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of modified peptides was studied at physiological conditions. Binding of a D5-derived peptide, HKH20 (His479-His498), to the fungal cell membrane was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Our data disclose a novel antifungal activity of D5-derived peptides and also show that proteolytic cleavage of HMWK results in fragments exerting antifungal activity. Of therapeutic interest is that structurally modified peptides show an enhanced antifungal activity. PMID:21941573

  3. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90): A novel antifungal target against Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Steinbach, William J

    2014-09-22

    Abstract Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening and difficult to treat infection in immunosuppressed patients. The efficacy of current anti-Aspergillus therapies, targeting the cell wall or membrane, is limited by toxicity (polyenes), fungistatic activity and some level of basal resistance (echinocandins), or the emergence of acquired resistance (triazoles). The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a conserved molecular chaperone involved in the rapid development of antifungal resistance in the yeast Candida albicans. Few studies have addressed its role in filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, in which mechanisms of resistance may differ substantially. Hsp90 is at the center of a complex network involving calcineurin, lysine deacetylases (KDAC) and other client proteins, which orchestrate compensatory repair mechanisms of the cell wall in response to the stress induced by antifungals. In A. fumigatus, Hsp90 is a trigger for resistance to high concentrations of caspofungin, known as the paradoxical effect. Disrupting Hsp90 circuitry by different means (Hsp90 inhibitors, KDAC inhibitors and anti-calcineurin drugs) potentiates the antifungal activity of caspofungin, thus representing a promising novel antifungal approach. This review will discuss the specific features of A. fumigatus Hsp90 and the potential for antifungal strategies of invasive aspergillosis targeting this essential chaperone. PMID:25243616

  4. Antifungal potential of triphala churna ingredients against Aspergillus species associated with them during storage.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Ajay K; Avasthi, Shubhi; Sharma, Anu; Bhadauria, Rekha

    2012-03-01

    The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredients of triphala churna, i.e. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (Harada), collected from the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i.e. very low to very high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96 +/- 7.59%) was observed to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95 +/- 7.59%) and powder (25.07 +/- 6.05%). Terminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active against the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective against the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were observed to be ineffective against the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relationship between antifungal potential of herbal drugs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage. PMID:24199459

  5. INJECTABLE IN SITU CROSS-LINKING HYDROGELS FOR LOCAL ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sarah; Langer, Robert; Fink, Gerald R.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections can be devastating, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and difficult to treat with systemic drugs. Furthermore, systemic administration of those medications can have severe side effects. We have developed an injectable local antifungal treatment for direct administration into existing or potential sites of fungal infection. Amphotericin B (AmB), a hydrophobic, potent, and broad-spectrum antifungal agent, was rendered water-soluble by conjugation to a dextran-aldehyde polymer. The dextran-aldehyde-AmB conjugate retained antifungal efficacy against C. albicans. Mixing carboxymethylcellulose-hydrazide with dextran-aldehyde formed a gel that cross-linked in situ by formation of hydrazone bonds. The gel provided in vitro release of antifungal activity for 11 days, and contact with the gel killed Candida for three weeks. There was no apparent tissue toxicity in the murine peritoneum and the gel caused no adhesions. Gels produced by entrapment of a suspension of AmB in CMC-dextran without conjugation of drug to polymers did not release fungicidal activity, but did kill on contact. Injectable systems of these types, containing soluble or insoluble drug formulations, could be useful for treatment of local antifungal infections, with or without concurrent systemic therapy. PMID:19942285

  6. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections. PMID:24920895

  7. An antifungal compound involved in symbiotic germination of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hanako; Matsuura, Mayumi; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2007-05-01

    Germination of orchid seeds fully depends on a symbiotic association with soil-borne fungi, usually Rhizoctonia spp. In contrast to the peaceful symbiotic associations between many other terrestrial plants and mycorrhizal fungi, this association is a life-and-death struggle. The fungi always try to invade the cytoplasm of orchid cells to obtain nutritional compounds. On the other hand, the orchid cells restrict the growth of the infecting hyphae and obtain nutrition by digesting them. It is likely that antifungal compounds are involved in the restriction of fungal growth. Two antifungal compounds, lusianthrin and chrysin, were isolated from the seedlings of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense that had developed shoots. The former had a slightly stronger antifungal activity than the latter, and the antifungal spectra of these compounds were relatively specific to the nonpathogenic Rhizoctonia spp. The level of lusianthrin, which was very low in aseptic protocorm-like bodies, dramatically increased following infection with the symbiotic fungus. In contrast, chrysin was not detected in infected protocorm-like bodies. These results suggest that orchid plants equip multiple antifungal compounds and use them at specific developmental stages; lusianthrin maintains the perilous symbiotic association for germination and chrysin helps to protect adult plants. PMID:17445846

  8. Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of major constituents of the Himalayan lichen Parmelia reticulata Tayl.

    PubMed

    Goel, Mayurika; Dureja, Prem; Rani, Archna; Uniyal, Prem L; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-03-23

    Antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Parmelia reticulata was evaluated against soilborne pathogenic fungi, namely, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, R. bataticola, Fusarium udum, Pythium aphanidermatum and P. debaryanum by poisoned food technique. Maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by hexane and ethyl acetate extracts against most of the test pathogens. Secondary metabolites, namely, (±)-isousnic acid, (±)-protolichesterinic acid, atranorin, evernyl, ethyl hematommate, ethyl orsellinate, methyl hematommate (3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid methyl ester), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, 1-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-xanthen-9-one, baeomycesic acid and salazinic acid, were isolated from the above extracts and identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. When these metabolites were tested for antifungal activity against test pathogens, maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by (±)-protolichesterinic acid against R. solani (ED50=23.09 ?g mL(-1)) and P. debaryanum (ED50=16.07 ?g mL(-1)) and by atranorin against S. rolfsii (ED50=39.70 ?g mL(-1)). The antifungal activity of protolichesterinic acid was found to be comparable to that of hexaconazole, a commercial fungicide. PMID:21351753

  9. Antifungal potential of extracellular metabolites produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kuekulvong, Chutima; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils were assessed for in vitro antagonism against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Sclerotium rolfsii. A potent antagonist against both plant pathogenic fungi, designated SRA14, was selected and identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The strain SRA14 highly produced extracellular chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. Culture filtrates collected from the exponential and stationary phases inhibited the growth of both the fungi tested, indicating that growth suppression was due to extracellular antifungal metabolites present in culture filtrates. The percentage of growth inhibition by the stationary culture filtrate was significantly higher than that of exponential culture filtrate. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and abnormal shapes were observed in fungi grown on potato dextrose agar that contained the culture filtrates. However, the antifungal activity of exponential culture filtrates against both the experimental fungi was significantly reduced after boiling or treatment with proteinase K. There was no significant decrease in the percentage of fungal growth inhibition by the stationary culture filtrate that was treated as above. These data indicated that the antifungal potential of the exponential culture filtrate was mainly due to the presence of extracellular chitinase enzyme, whereas the antifungal activity of the stationary culture filtrate involved the action of unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s). PMID:18825279

  10. Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica

    2005-12-01

    Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (p<0.01). Anise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively. PMID:16375827

  11. The use of sourdough fermented by antifungal LAB to reduce the amount of calcium propionate in bread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. M. Ryan; F. Dal Bello; E. K. Arendt

    2008-01-01

    Addition of sourdough is a common practice in the bakery industry to improve, among other quality parameters, the shelf life of bread. In this study, sourdough fermented by antifungal Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of common bread spoilage fungi. In both in vitro and sourdough wheat bread system, the antifungal sourdoughs significantly affected the

  12. Antifungal Susceptibilities, Varieties, and Electrophoretic Karyotypes of Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Belinda M.; Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Fischman, Olga; Santiago, A.; Thompson, L.; Lazera, Marcia; Telles, Flavio; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Kazuko; Tanaka, Reiko; Myiajy, Makoto; Moretti-Branchini, M. Luiza

    2001-01-01

    One hundred clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected patients from Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela were separated according to varieties and tested for antifungal susceptibility. A high susceptibility to antifungal agents was observed among all the isolates. The electrophoretic karyotyping of 51 strains revealed good discrimination among Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans strains. PMID:11376089

  13. Genotyping and Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Dipodascus capitatus Isolates Causing Disseminated Infection in Seven Hematological Patients of a Tertiary Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio Gadea; Manuel Cuenca-Estrella; Elena Prieto; Teresa M. Diaz-Guerra; Jose I. Garcia-Cia; Emilia Mellado; Jose F. Tomas; Juan L. Rodriguez-Tudela

    2004-01-01

    Seven cases of disseminated infection due to Dipodascus capitatus are reported. Infections occurred in a hematological unit of a tertiary hospital during a period of 5 years. Five cases were refractory to antifungal therapy. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven isolates was performed, and strains were typed by PCR fingerprinting with the core sequence of phage M13 and by random amplification

  14. Augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several benzoic acid analogs showed antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus, causative agents of human aspergillosis. Structure-activity analysis revealed that antifungal activities of benzoic and gallic acids increased by addition of a methyl, methoxyl...

  15. Functional aspects of the solution structure and dynamics of PAF - a highly-stable antifungal protein from Penicillium chrysogenum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyula Batta; Teréz Barna; Zoltán Gáspári; Szabolcs Sándor; Katalin E. Kövér; Ulrike Binder; Bettina Sarg; Lydia Kaiserer; Anil K. Chhillar; Andrea Eigentler; Éva Leiter; Nikoletta Hegedüs; István Pócsi; Herbert Lindner; Florentine Marx

    2009-01-01

    Penicillium antifungal protein (PAF) is a promising antimycotic without toxic effects on mammalian cells and therefore may represent a drug candi- date against the often lethal Aspergillus infections that occur in humans. The pathogenesis of PAF on sensitive fungi involves G-protein coupled sig- nalling followed by apoptosis. In the present study, the solution structure of this small, cationic, antifungal protein

  16. Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae-Seok; Koo, Han-Mo; Yoon, Hei-Ryeo; Jeong, Nam-Su; Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Ho

    2015-03-01

    From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight. PMID:25774111

  17. Analysis Of Volatile Fingerprints: A Rapid Screening Method For Antifungal Agents For Efficacy Against Dermatophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraghi, Kamran; Sahgal, Natasha; Adriaans, Beverley; Barr, Hugh; Magan, Naresh

    2009-05-01

    The potential of using an electronic nose (E. nose) for rapid screening dermatophytes to antifungal agents was studied. In vitro, the 50 and 90% effective concentration (EC) values of five antifungal agents for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were obtained by mycelial growth assays. Then, the qualitative volatile production patterns of the growth responses of these fungi to these values were incorporated into solid medium were analysed after 96-120 hrs incubation at 25° C using headspace analyses. Overall, results, using PCA and CA demonstrated that it is possible to differentiate between various treatments within 96-120 hrs. This study showed that potential exists for using qualitative volatile patterns as a rapid screening method for antifungal agents for microorganism. This approach could also facilitate the monitoring of antimicrobial drug activities and infection control programmes and perhaps drug resistance build up in microbial species.

  18. Antifungal activity of Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa in rice cakes.

    PubMed

    Baek, Eunjong; Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Hyejung; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Jeongho

    2012-10-01

    The antifungal activity of organic acids greatly improves the shelf life of bread and bakery products. However, little is known about the effect of lactic acid fermentation on fungal contamination in rice cakes. Here, we show that lactic acid fermentation in rice dough can greatly retard the growth of three fungal species when present in rice cakes, namely Cladosporium sp. YS1, Neurospora sp. YS3, and Penicillium crustosum YS2. The antifungal activity of the lactic acid bacteria against these fungi was much better than that of 0.3% calcium propionate. We found that organic acids including lactic and acetic acid, which are byproducts of lactic fermentation or can be artificially added, were the main antifungal substances. We also found that some Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa strains could be good starter species for rice dough fermentation. These results imply that these lactic acid bacteria can be applicable to improve the preservation of rice cakes. PMID:23124754

  19. Alocasin, an anti-fungal protein from rhizomes of the giant taro Alocasia macrorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-03-01

    An anti-fungal protein designated alocasin was isolated from the rhizomes of the giant taro Alocasia macrorrhiza. The isolation protocol involved ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, ion exchange chromatography on sulfopropyl (SP)-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Alocasin, which was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sepharose, possessed the N-terminal sequence APEGEV, which exhibited some similarity to that of the miraculin-like anti-fungal protein from Pisum sativum legumes. It demonstrated a molecular mass of 11kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration, and displayed anti-fungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. Alocasin reduced the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. It exhibited weak hemagglutinating activity, only at a concentration of 1mg/ml. PMID:12651101

  20. Chemical composition, phytotoxic and antifungal properties of Ruta chalepensis L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bouabidi, Wafa; Hanana, Mohsen; Gargouri, Samia; Amri, Ismail; Fezzani, Tarek; Ksontini, Mustapha; Jamoussi, Bassem; Hamrouni, Lamia

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition, and phytotoxic and antifungal activities of the essential oils isolated by using hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Tunisian rue were evaluated. Significant variations were observed among harvest periods. The analysis of the chemical composition by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that 2-undecanone (33.4-49.8%), 2-heptanol acetate (13.5-15.4%) and ?-pinene (9.8-11.9%) were the main components. The antifungal ability of rue essential oils was tested by using disc agar diffusion against ten plant pathogenic fungi. A high antifungal activity was observed for the essential oil isolated at flowering developmental phase. Furthermore, rue essential oils showed high level of herbicidal activity against several weeds. PMID:25553803

  1. Triterpenoid glycosides from Medicago sativa as antifungal agents against Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Abbruscato, Pamela; Tosi, Solveig; Crispino, Laura; Biazzi, Elisa; Menin, Barbara; Picco, Anna M; Pecetti, Luciano; Avato, Pinarosa; Tava, Aldo

    2014-11-19

    The antifungal properties of saponin mixtures from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) tops and roots, the corresponding mixtures of prosapogenins from tops, and purified saponins and sapogenins against the causal agent of rice blast Pyricularia oryzae isolates are presented. In vitro experiments highlighted a range of activities, depending upon the assayed metabolite. The antifungal effects of the most promising prosapogenin mixture from alfalfa tops were confirmed by means of in planta tests using three different Italian cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), known to possess high, medium, and low blast resistance. The evidenced antifungal properties of the tested metabolites allowed some considerations on their structure-activity relationship. Results indicate that prosapogenins are active compounds to prevent the fungal attack of P. oryzae on different rice cultivars. Therefore, if properly formulated, these substances could represent a promising and environmentally friendly treatment to control rice blast. PMID:25361378

  2. Candida Infections, Causes, Targets, and Resistance Mechanisms: Traditional and Alternative Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The genus Candida includes about 200 different species, but only a few species are human opportunistic pathogens and cause infections when the host becomes debilitated or immunocompromised. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes and can be treated successfully with topical antifungal drugs. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening, probably due to inefficient diagnostic methods and inappropriate initial antifungal therapies. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of pathogenic species of the genus Candida and yeast infection causes and then focus on current antifungal drugs and resistance mechanisms. An overview of new therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of Candida infections is also provided. PMID:23878798

  3. Haliscosamine: a new antifungal sphingosine derivative from the Moroccan marine sponge Haliclona viscosa.

    PubMed

    El-Amraoui, Belkassem; Biard, Jean-Fançois; Fassouane, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    In the aim of searching for new antifungal products from marine origin, we have isolated a sphingosine derivative, (9Z)-2-amino-docos-9-ene-1,3,13,14-tetraol (Haliscosamine) from the Moroccan sea sponge Haliclona viscosa using bio-guided (antifungal) HPLC methods. The molecular structure of this compound was elucidated by spectrometric techniques IR, UV, MS and NMR. The isolated metabolite showed a significant antifungal activity against Cryptococcus and Candida species and a weak general toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality test. Further research is needed to study its in vivo activity, as well as to elucidate the mechanism underlying its activity in the hope of a future use in medical mycology. PMID:23961377

  4. Global antifungal profile optimization of chlorophenyl derivatives against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Urra, Liane; Bustillo Pérez, Antonio J; Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Pinedo-Rivilla, Cristina; Aleu, Josefina; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Collado, Isidro G

    2009-06-10

    Twenty-two aromatic derivatives bearing a chlorine atom and a different chain in the para or meta position were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The results showed that maximum inhibition of the growth of these fungi was exhibited for enantiomers S and R of 1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-phenylethanol (3 and 4). Furthermore, their antifungal activity showed a clear structure-activity relationship (SAR) trend confirming the importance of the benzyl hydroxyl group in the inhibitory mechanism of the compounds studied. Additionally, a multiobjective optimization study of the global antifungal profile of chlorophenyl derivatives was conducted in order to establish a rational strategy for the filtering of new fungicide candidates from combinatorial libraries. The MOOP-DESIRE methodology was used for this purpose providing reliable ranking models that can be used later. PMID:19489624

  5. Antifungal activity of CHE-23C, a dimeric sesquiterpene from Chloranthus henryi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Mi; Moon, Jae Sun; Yun, Bong-Sik; Park, Ki Duk; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Sang Han; Kim, Sung Uk

    2009-07-01

    An antifungal compound was isolated from methanol extracts of stems and roots of Chloranthus henryi Hemsl. using ethyl acetate extraction and various chromatographic techniques. On the basis of spectroscopic analyses including mass and various NMR, the structure of the compound was identified as a dimeric sesquiterpene, CHE-23C. The compound showed potent antifungal activities (MICs = 1-32 microg/mL) in vitro against various phytopathogenic fungi such as Alternaria kikuchiana , Botrytis cinerea , Colletotrichum lagenarium , Magnaporthe grisea , Pythium ultimum , and Phytophthora infestans . In particular, it exhibited 91 and 100% disease-control activity in vivo against tomato late blight (P. infestans) and wheat leaf rust ( Puccinia recondita ) at concentrations of 33 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. The disease-control activity of this compound was stronger than that of the commercially available fungicide chlorothalonil, but weaker than that of dimethomorph. Therefore, the compound might serve as an interesting lead to develop effective antifungal agents. PMID:19566082

  6. Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae-Seok; Koo, Han-Mo; Yoon, Hei-Ryeo; Jeong, Nam-Su; Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight.

  7. Synthesis and antifungal properties of (4-tolyloxy)-pyrimidyl-?-aminophosphonates chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yukun; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Hu, Linfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-02-01

    A novel class of ?-aminophosphonate chitosan derivatives was investigated. These chitosan derivatives consist of (4-tolyloxy)-pyrimidyl-dimethyl-?-amino-phosphonate chitosan (?-ATPMCS) and (4-tolyloxy)-pyrimidyl-diethyl-?-aminophosphonate chitosan (?-ATPECS). Their structures were well defined. Antifungal activity of them against some crop-threatening pathogenic fungi was tested in vitro. The derivatives were found to have a broad-spectrum antifungal activity that was obviously enhanced compared with chitosan. At 250 mg/L, both ?-ATPMCS and ?-ATPECS even inhibited growth of Phomopsis asparagi (Sacc.) (P. asparagi) and Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) at 100%, which was even stronger than polyoxin whose antifungal index was 37.2% and 32.1%, respectively. Additionally, the initial mechanism of the chitosan derivatives in F. oxysporum model was studied. It was found that the derivatives may have an effect on membrane permeability of the fungi. The results demonstrated the derivatives may serve as attractive candidates in crop protection. PMID:24183805

  8. Silver and gold nanostructures: antifungal property of different shapes of these nanostructures on Candida species.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Hajjar, Farzaneh Haji Esmaeil; Pourdanesh, Fereydoun; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Kazemi, Bahram; Masoudi, Alireza; Daliri, Karim; Sedighi, Najme

    2014-01-01

    The shape of nanoparticles is an important determinant of their physical and chemical properties, possibly including the little-explored area of their use as antifungal agents. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of three different shapes of silver and gold nanostructures, including nanocubes, nanospheres, and nanowires, on Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, using the microdilution and disk diffusion methods as per the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. We found that silver and gold nanocubes had higher antifungal properties against the test species than nanospheres and nanowires. While some isolates were resistant to silver and gold nanospheres and nanowires, none of the isolates were resistant to silver and gold nanocubes. The occurrence of resistance is a new finding which should be further explored. PMID:23968285

  9. Enhanced production of antifungal lipopeptides by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for biocontrol of postharvest disease.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, D; van Rooyen, J; Clarke, K G

    2015-03-25

    Food security to sustain increasing populations is a global concern. A major factor threatening food security is crop spoilage during postharvest storage. Reduction of postharvest spoilage has mainly been addressed by the application of synthetic chemicals. Bacillus lipopeptides, specifically lipopeptide homologues exhibiting antifungal efficacy, offer an alternative environmentally benign protocol for reduction of postharvest phytopathogens. This work is directed towards Bacillus lipopeptide production for biocontrol of postharvest phytopathogens in general and fungal phytopathogens in particular. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 23117 was identified as an organism with superior potential for lipopeptide production, via screening of 4 Bacillus candidates, in terms of antifungal lipopeptide concentration, yield, productivity and preferred homologue ratio. Efficacy of B. amyloliquefaciens lipopeptides against Botrytis cinerea substantiated appropriateness of this Bacillus species. Subsequent process modification of B. amyloliquefaciens cultures demonstrated that the concentration and ratio of the lipopeptides were significantly influenced by process conditions and further, distinguished nitrate and oxygen availability as key parameters defining optimal lipopeptide production. Discrete B. amyloliquefaciens cultures supplied with 4, 8, 10 and 12g/L NH4NO3 demonstrated optimal lipopeptide concentration, yield and productivity, with respect to both total and antifungal lipopeptides, in the culture containing 8g/L NH4NO3. Enhancement of total and antifungal lipopeptide kinetics similar to those quantified on increasing the nitrate from 4 to 8g/L NH4NO3 were exhibited in B. amyloliquefaciens cultures when the oxygen in the sparge gas was increased from 21 to 30mol%. The enhancement of lipopeptide production under conditions of increased nitrate and increased oxygen supply is explained in terms of increased availability of nitrogen for synthesis. This work has highlighted key parameters for maximisation of Bacillus lipopeptide production and manipulation of antifungal/surfactin ratios for optimum efficacy and informs on future development of process strategies towards production optimisation of antifungal lipopeptides as a green alternative to synthetic chemicals. PMID:25541516

  10. Susceptibility of clinically important dermatophytes against statins and different statin-antifungal combinations.

    PubMed

    Nyilasi, Ildikó; Kocsubé, Sándor; Krizsán, Krisztina; Galgóczy, László; Papp, Tamás; Pesti, Miklós; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2014-02-01

    The investigation of the antifungal activities of drugs whose primary activities are not related to their antimicrobial potential is in the current forefront of research. Statin compounds, which are routinely used as cholesterol-lowering drugs, may also exert direct antimicrobial effects. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activities of various statins (lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and pravastatin) were examined against one isolate each of four dermatophyte species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum). Basically, statins were effective in inhibiting all dermatophyte studied, but were particularly active against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. Fluvastatin and simvastatin were active against all of the tested fungi causing a complete inhibition of their growth at very low concentrations (6.25-12.5 ?g/ml). Lovastatin and rosuvastatin had inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (25-128 ?g/ml), while atorvastatin and pravastatin proved the less effective. The in vitro interactions between statins and different antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, griseofulvin, terbinafine and primycin) were also investigated using a standard chequerboard broth microdilution method. Synergetic interactions were observed in several cases, most of them were noticed when statins were combined with terbinafine and the different azoles. Some combinations were particularly active (ketoconazole-simvastatin or terbinafine-simvastatin), as they were found to exert synergistic effect against all of the investigated isolates. The other antifungals showed synergistic interactions with statins in only certain cases. These results suggest that statins exert substantial antifungal effects against dermatophyte fungi and they should be promising components in a combination therapy as they can act synergistically with a number of clinically used antifungal agents. PMID:24004389

  11. Cell Density and Cell Aging as Factors Modulating Antifungal Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms ?

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, C. J.; Jin, L. J.; Samaranayake, Y. H.; Samaranayake, L. P.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a major virulence attribute of Candida pathogenicity which contributes to higher antifungal resistance. We investigated the roles of cell density and cellular aging on the relative antifungal susceptibility of planktonic, biofilm, and biofilm-derived planktonic modes of Candida. A reference and a wild-type strain of Candida albicans were used to evaluate the MICs of caspofungin (CAS), amphotericin B (AMB), nystatin (NYT), ketoconazole (KTC), and flucytosine (5FC). Standard, NCCLS, and European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing methods were used for planktonic MIC determination. Candida biofilms were then developed on polystyrene wells, and MICs were determined with a standard 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay. Subsequently, antifungal susceptibility testing was performed for greater inoculum concentrations and 24- and 48-h-old cultures of planktonic Candida. Furthermore, Candida biofilm-derived planktonic cells (BDPC) were also subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing. The MICs for both C. albicans strains in the planktonic mode were low, although on increasing the inoculum concentration (up to 1 × 108 cells/ml), a variable MIC was noted. On the contrary, for Candida biofilms, the MICs of antifungals were 15- to >1,000-fold higher. Interestingly, the MICs for BDPC were lower and were similar to those for planktonic-mode cells, particularly those of CAS and AMB. Our data indicate that higher antifungal resistance of Candida biofilms is an intrinsic feature possibly related to the biofilm architecture rather than cellular density or cellular aging. PMID:18625775

  12. Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.

    PubMed

    Schmourlo, Gracilene; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-01-15

    In the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. Thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population. The agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to assess the activity against three fungi: Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results, evaluated by the diameter of the inhibition zone of fungal growth, indicate that six plant species, among the 16 investigated, showed significant antifungal activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on plant extracts that showed high efficacy against the tested microorganisms. The most susceptible yeast was Trichophyton rubrum and the best antifungal activity was shown by Xanthosoma sagittifolium supernatant. The bioautography was performed only for the aqueous extracts and supernatants of those plants that showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, using n-butanol/acetic acid/water (BAW) 8:1:1 to develop silica gel TLC plates. Clear inhibition zones were observed for aqueous extracts of Schinus molle (R(f) 0.89) and Schinus terebinthifolius (R(f) 0.80) against Candida albicans, as for supernatant of Anacardium occidentale (R(f) 0.31) against Cryptococcus neoformans. The separation of macromolecules from metabolites, as in the case of Anacardium occidentale, Solanum sp. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium, enhances antifungal activity. In other cases, the antifungal activity is destroyed, as observed for Momordica charantia, Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolius. PMID:15619579

  13. Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  14. Antifungal drug resistance evokedvia RNAi-dependent epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Calo, Silvia; Shertz-Wall, Cecelia; Lee, Soo Chan; Bastidas, Robert J.; Nicolás, Francisco E.; Granek, Joshua A.; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M.; Cardenas, Maria E.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms evolve via mechanisms spanning sexual/parasexual reproduction, mutators, aneuploidy, Hsp90, and even prions. Mechanisms that may seem detrimental can be repurposed to generate diversity. Here we show the human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides develops spontaneous resistance to the antifungal drug FK506 (tacrolimus) via two distinct mechanisms. One involves Mendelian mutations that confer stable drug resistance; the other occurs via an epigenetic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated pathway resulting in unstable drug resistance. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase FKBP12 interacts with FK506 forming a complex that inhibits the protein phosphatase calcineurin1. Calcineurin inhibition by FK506 blocks M. circinelloides transition to hyphae and enforces yeast growth2. Mutations in the fkbA gene encoding FKBP12 or the calcineurin cnbR or cnaA genes confer FK506 resistance (FK506R) and restore hyphal growth. In parallel, RNAi is spontaneously triggered to silence the FKBP12 fkbA gene, giving rise to drug-resistant epimutants. FK506R epimutants readily reverted to the drug-sensitive wild-type (WT) phenotype when grown without drug. The establishment of these epimutants is accompanied by generation of abundant fkbA small RNA (sRNA) and requires the RNAi pathway as well as other factors that constrain or reverse the epimutant state. Silencing involves generation of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger intermediate from the fkbA mature mRNA to produce antisense fkbA RNA. This study uncovers a novel epigenetic RNAi-based epimutation mechanism controlling phenotypic plasticity, with possible implications for antimicrobial drug resistance and RNAi-regulatory mechanisms in fungi and other eukaryotes. PMID:25079329

  15. Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  16. Thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety: synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samir Y; El-Sharief, Marwa A M Sh; Basyouni, Wahid M; Fakhr, Issa M I; El-Gammal, Eman W

    2013-06-01

    New series of thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety have been synthesized through the reaction of 4-hippuric acid isothiocyanate with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, sulfa drugs, aminopyrazoles, phenylhydrazine and hydrazides. The synthesized compounds were tested against bacterial and fungal strains. Most of compounds, such as 2-(4-(3-(3-bromophenyl)thioureido)benzamido)acetic acid and 2-(4-(3-(4-(N-pyrimidin-2-ylsulfamoyl)phenyl)thioureido)benzamido)acetic acid, showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. These compounds comprise a new class of promising broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23644194

  17. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

    2008-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay. PMID:18077044

  18. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others.

  19. Antifungal Activity of Decyl Gallate against Several Species of Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Rossi, Suélen Andrea; Benaducci, Tatiane; Wolf, Vanessa Gonçalves; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Petrônio, Maicon Segalla; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to demonstrate that the gallic acid structure modification to the decyl gallate (G14) compound contributed to increase the antifungal activity against several species of pathogenic fungi, mainly, Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Paracoccidioides spp., and Histoplasma capsulatum, according to standardized microdilution method described by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) documents. Moreover this compound has a particularly good selectivity index value, which makes it an excellent candidate for broad-spectrum antifungal prototype and encourages the continuation of subsequent studies for the discovery of its mechanism of action. PMID:25505923

  20. New lignan esters from Alyxia schlechteri and antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    Sriphana, Uraiwan; Thongsri, Yordhathai; Ardwichai, Pispong; Poopasit, Kitisak; Prariyachatigul, Chularut; Simasathiansophon, Sontaya; Yenjai, Chavi

    2013-12-01

    Three new lignan esters, alyterinates A-C (1-3), as well as 10 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Alyxia schlechteri. Antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum of all lignan derivatives was evaluated using disk diffusion assay. P. insidiosum is not a true fungus since its cell walls do not contain ergosterol as usual fungi, so the antifungals available now are not effective. From activity testing, it was found that compounds 3, 4 and 5 could inhibit the mycelia growth of P. insidiosum. PMID:23994626

  1. Antifungal suscepitibility profile of candida spp. oral isolates obtained from denture wearers

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, J.P.; Moreira, L.M.; Cardoso, M.A.G.; Saade, J.; Resende, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition that occurs in denture wearers and is frequently associated with Candida yeasts. Antifungal susceptibility profiles have been extensively evaluated for candidiasis patients or immunosupressed individuals, but not for healthy Candida carriers. In the present study, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and 5-flucytosin were tested against 109 oral Candida spp. isolates. All antifungal agents were effective against the samples tested except for terbinafine. This work might provide epidemiological information about Candida spp. drug susceptibility in oral healthy individuals. PMID:24031286

  2. Designing and Synthesis of Antifungal Active Macrocyclic Ligand and Its Complexes Derived from Diethylphthalate and Benzidine

    PubMed Central

    Parameswari, S.

    2007-01-01

    Three novel complexes of Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) using a macrocyclic ligand derived by the condensation of diethylphthalate and benzidine have been designed,synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis.,IR,Mass and Elemental analyses data in order to find out their antifungal activities. The stoichiometry of the complexes has been found to be 1 : 1 (Metal : Ligand). The analytical data indicate that the complexes exhibit square-planar geometry. The antifungal activity of the macrocyclic ligand and its metal complexes has been screened in vitro against fungi such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma harizanum, T. viridae and Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:24015072

  3. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a-r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  4. Experimental and theoretical approach of nanocrystalline TiO2 with antifungal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Valeria M.; Picon, Francini C.; Zamperini, Camila; Albuquerque, Anderson R.; Sambrano, Julio R.; Vergani, Carlos E.; Machado, Ana L.; Andrés, Juan; Hernandes, Antônio C.; Varela, José A.; Longo, Elson

    2013-07-01

    Using a solvothermal method for this research we synthesized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (nc-TiO2) anatase particles with a mean diameter of 5.4 nm and evaluated their potential antifungal effect against planktonic cells of Candida albicans without UV radiation. To complement experimental data, we analyzed structural and electronic properties of both the bulk and the (1 0 1) surface of anatase by first-principles calculations. Based on experimental and theoretical results, a reactive O2H and OH species formation mechanism was proposed to explain the key factor which facilitates the antifungal activity.

  5. The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Simi?, A; Sokovi?, M D; Risti?, M; Gruji?-Jovanovi?, S; Vukojevi?, J; Marin, P D

    2004-09-01

    The antifungal activity of Aniba rosaeodora, Laurus nobilis, Sassafras albidum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils were investigated against 17 micromycetes. Among the tested fungal species were food poisoning, spoilage fungi, plant and animal pathogens. In order to determine fungistatic and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC) macrodilution and microdilution tests were used. Linalool was the main component in the essential oil of A. rosaeodora, while 1.8-cineole was dominant in L. nobilis. In sassafras essential oil safrole was the major component and in the oil of C. zeylanicum the main component was trans-cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil of cinnamon showed the strongest antifungal activity. PMID:15478207

  6. Interlaboratory Evaluation of Etest Method for Testing Antifungal Susceptibilities of Pathogenic Yeasts to Five Antifungal Agents by Using Casitone Agar and Solidified RPMI 1640 Medium with 2% Glucose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. ESPINEL-INGROFF; M. PFALLER; M. E. ERWIN; N. JONES

    1996-01-01

    An interlaboratory evaluation (two centers) of the Etest method was conducted for testing the antifungal susceptibilities of yeasts. The MICs of amphotericin B,fluconazole,flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were determined for 83 isolates ofCandidaspp.,Cryptococcus neoformans, andTorulopsis glabrata. Two buffered (phosphate buffer) culture media were evaluated: solidified RPMI 1640 medium with 2% glucose and Casitone agar. MIC endpoints were determined after both 24

  7. Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Mikaďl, C; Abou, L; Portugal, H

    2004-12-01

    The antifungal effect of the essential oil from Satureja montana L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lavandula hybrida Reverchon, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Perry, Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and six chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. on Candida albicans growth were studied. The most efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (MIC 80% = 0.016 microL/mL and Kaff = 296 microL/mL). The presence in the culture medium of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 microg/mL) and amphotericin B involved a decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B. In contrast, the combination of amphotericin B and low concentrations (0.00031-0.0025 microg/mL) of essential oil was antagonistic. The strongest decrease (48%) of the MIC 80% was obtained with medium containing 0.2 microL/mL of essential oil. These results signify that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype potentiates the antifungal action of amphotericin B suggesting a possible utilization of this essential oil in addition to antifungal drugs for the treatment of mycoses. PMID:15742351

  8. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a monoterpene: evaluation of antifungal potential by DNA microarray analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meher Parveen; Kamrul Hasan; Junko Takahashi; Yoshinori Murata; Emiko Kitagawa; Osamu Kodama; Hitoshi Iwahashi

    2004-01-01

    Plant-derived essential oils with monoterpenoids have been used as antifungal drugs since ancient times, but the mode of action of these natural hydrocarbons at the molecular level is not understood. In order to understand the mechanisms of toxicity of ?-terpinene (a cyclic monoterpene), a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was exposed to 0.02% ?-terpinene for 2 h and transcript profiles were

  9. Antifungal activities of anise oil, lime oil, and tangerine oil against molds on rubberwood ( Hevea brasiliensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narumol Matan; Nirundorn Matan

    2008-01-01

    The antifungal activities of anise oil, lime oil, and tangerine oil against molds identified from rubberwood surfaces (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium sp.) were investigated. The broth dilution method was employed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) using the concentration of essential oils between 20 and 200?lml?1. Inhibitory effects of the essential oils

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel antifungal protein secreted by Penicillium chrysogenum from an Arctic sediment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiteng; Ao, Jingqun; Yang, Wenchuan; Jiao, Liping; Zheng, Tianling; Chen, Xinhua

    2013-12-01

    A fungal strain, Penicillium chrysogenum A096, was isolated from an Arctic sediment sample. Its culture supernatant inhibited mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. chrysogenum A096 culture supernatant with ammonium sulfate and ion exchange chromatography, a novel antifungal protein (Pc-Arctin) was purified and identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). The gene encoding for Pc-Arctin consisting of 195 nucleotides was cloned from P. chrysogenum A096 to confirm the mass spectrometry result. Pc-Arctin displays antifungal activity against Paecilomyces variotii, Alternaria longipes, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 24, 48, and 192 ng/disc, respectively. Pc-Arctin was most sensitive to proteinase K and then to trypsin but insensitive to papain. Pc-Arctin possesses high thermostability and cannot be antagonized by common surfactants, except for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Divalent ions, such as Mn(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), inhibited the antifungal activity of Pc-Arctin. Hemagglutination assays showed that Pc-Arctin had no hemagglutinating or hemolytic activity against red blood cells (RBC) from rabbits, rats, and guinea pigs. Therefore, Pc-Arctin from Arctic P. chrysogenum may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential for application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection. PMID:23474616

  11. Marine-derived Penicillium in Korea: diversity, enzyme activity, and antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Sohn, Jae Hak; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-08-01

    The diversity of marine-derived Penicillium from Korea was investigated using morphological and multigene phylogenetic approaches, analyzing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, ?-tubulin gene, and RNA polymerase subunit II gene. In addition, the biological activity of all isolated strains was evaluated. We tested for the extracellular enzyme activity of alginase, endoglucanase, and ?-glucosidase, and antifungal activity against two plant pathogens (Colletotrichum acutatum and Fusarium oxysporum). A total of 184 strains of 36 Penicillium species were isolated, with 27 species being identified. The most common species were Penicillium polonicum (19.6 %), P. rubens (11.4 %), P. chrysogenum (11.4 %), and P. crustosum (10.9 %). The diversity of Penicillium strains isolated from soil (foreshore soil and sand) and marine macroorganisms was higher than the diversity of strains isolated from seawater. While many of the isolated strains showed alginase and ?-glucosidase activity, no endoglucanase activity was found. More than half the strains (50.5 %) showed antifungal activity against at least one of the plant pathogens tested. Compared with other strains in this study, P. citrinum (strain SFC20140101-M662) showed high antifungal activity against both plant pathogens. The results reported here expand our knowledge of marine-derived Penicillium diversity. The relatively high proportion of strains that showed antifungal and enzyme activity demonstrates that marine-derived Penicillium have great potential to be used in the production of natural bioactive products for pharmaceutical and/or industrial use. PMID:24908060

  12. Application of antifungal CFB to increase the durability of cement mortar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Myong; Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Wha-Jung; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2012-07-01

    Antifungal cement mortar or microbiological calcium carbonate precipitation on cement surface has been investigated as functional concrete research. However, these research concepts have never been fused with each other. In this study, we introduced the antifungal calciteforming bacteria (CFB) Bacillus aryabhattai KNUC205, isolated from an urban tunnel (Daegu, South Korea). The major fungal deteriogens in urban tunnel, Cladosporium sphaerospermum KNUC253, was used as a sensitive fungal strain. B. aryabhattai KNUC205 showed CaCO3 precipitation on B4 medium. Cracked cement mortar pastes were made and neutralized by modified methods. Subsequently, the mixture of B. aryabhattai KNUC205, conidiospore of C. sphaerospermum KNUC253, and B4 agar was applied to cement cracks and incubated at 18 degrees C for 16 days. B. aryabhattai KNUC205 showed fungal growth inhibition against C. sphaerospermum. Furthermore, B. aryabhattai KNUC205 showed crack remediation ability and water permeability reduction of cement mortar pastes. Taken together, these results suggest that the CaCO3 precipitation and antifungal properties of B. aryabhattai KNUC205 could be used as an effective sealing or coating material that can also prevent deteriorative fungal growth. This study is the first application and evaluation research that incorporates calcite formation with antifungal capabilities of microorganisms for an environment-friendly and more effective protection of cement materials. In this research, the conception of microbial construction materials was expanded. PMID:22580322

  13. Antifungal Activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 Volatile Compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 produces volatile compounds (VOCs) that inhibit the growth and spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Among the total of 36 volatile compounds detected, 11 compounds completely inhibited fungal growth. The antifungal activity of these compounds suggested that VOCs can play important roles over short and long distances in the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:22685147

  14. Effectiveness of antifungal treatments during artificial incubation of the signal crayfish eggs ( Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana. Astacidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Melendre; J. D. Celada; J. M. Carral; M. Sáez-Royuela; A. Aguilera

    2006-01-01

    In artificial incubation of astacid crayfish eggs, the use of effective antifungal treatments is advisable for controlling the spread of fungi from dead to healthy eggs and increasing final efficiency rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of formaldehyde, malachite green, hydrogen peroxide, isopropyl alcohol, copper sulfate, potassium permanganate and iodine (as polyvidone iodine) on signal

  15. Effects of different antifungal treatments on artificial incubation of the astacid crayfish ( Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana) eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Celada; J. M. Carral; M. Sáez-Royuela; P. M. Melendre; A. Aguilera

    2004-01-01

    During the artificial incubation, fungi can grow over nonviable eggs and invade the healthy ones causing a decrease of efficiency rates. Thus, the use of antifungal substances must be considered. Different doses and treatment frequencies of formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and malachite green were tested on eggs of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana). Eggs were incubated at two densities:

  16. Medicinal plants from Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Part 2: antibacterial and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Grosvenor; Agus Supriono; David O. Gray

    1995-01-01

    Antibacterial assays of 114 species listed in Part 1 showed that 82% of the extracts tested were active against Staphylococcus aureus, while 35% were active against Escherichia coli. Antifungal activity was less dramatic: 19% of the extracts inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while 20% inhibited Fusarium oxysporum. Our survey of relevant literature indicates that less than 30% of these Angiosperm species have

  17. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginitis and Epidemiology of Recurrent Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra S. Richter; Rudolph P. Galask; Shawn A. Messer; Richard J. Hollis; Daniel J. Diekema; Michael A. Pfaller

    2005-01-01

    There are limited data regarding the antifungal susceptibility of yeast causing vulvovaginal candidiasis, since cultures are rarely performed. Susceptibility testing was performed on vaginal yeast isolates collected from January 1998 to March 2001 from 429 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis. The charts of 84 patients with multiple positive cultures were reviewed. The 593 yeast isolates were Candida albicans (n 420),

  18. Adverse interactions between antifungal azoles and vincristine: review and analysis of cases.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A; Leung, Janice; Falade-Nwulia, Oluwaseun; Jarosinski, Paul; Penzak, Scott R; Walsh, Thomas J

    2012-07-01

    Triazole and imidazole antifungal agents inhibit metabolism of vincristine, leading to excess vinca alkaloid exposure and severe neurotoxicity. Recent reports of debilitating interactions between vincristine and itraconazole, as well as posaconazole, voriconazole and ketoconazole underscore the need to improve medical awareness of this adverse combination. We, therefore, undertook a comprehensive analysis of reports of adverse drug interactions (ADIs) with the combination of vincristine and azole antifungal agents, established a new classification, and provided a detailed summary of these toxicities. In patients who had sufficient data for analysis, 47 individuals were identified who had an ADI with the combination of vincristine and antifungal azoles. Median age was 8?years (1.3-68?years) with 33(70%) having a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Median time to ADI with vincristine was 9.5?days with itraconazole, 13.5?days posaconazole and 30?days voriconazole. The median number of vincristine doses preceding the ADI was 2 doses with itraconazole, 3 doses posaconazole and 2 doses voriconazole. The most common severe ADIs included gastrointestinal toxicity, peripheral neuropathy, hyponatremia/SIADH, autonomic neuropathy and seizures. Recovery from these ADIs occurred in 80.6% of patients. We recommend using alternative antifungal agents if possible in patients receiving vincristine to avoid this serious and potentially life-threatening drug interaction. PMID:22126626

  19. Antifungal activities of actinomycete strains associated with high-altitude sagebrush rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Esquilín, A E; Roane, T M

    2005-08-01

    The antifungal-producing potential of actinomycete populations from the rhizosphere of low-altitude sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata, has been examined. In a continued investigation of new sources of antifungal-producing microorganisms, this study examined the antifungal-producing potential of actinomycetes from the rhizosphere of high-altitude A. tridentata. With high-altitude sagebrush, rhizosphere soil actinomycete numbers were one to four orders of magnitude higher than those found in nonrhizosphere bulk soils and different from those found with the low-altitude plants. A total of 122 actinomycete isolates was screened against nine fungal species and six bacterial species for the production of antimicrobial compounds. Four rhizosphere isolates, Streptomyces amakusaensis, S. coeruleorubidus, S. hawaiiensis and S. scabies, showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against three or more fungal species in plate assays. In liquid antagonism assays, mycelium production by Aspergillus niger was reduced by up to 50% by two of the actinomycete isolates. These results demonstrate the potential of rhizosphere microbiology in the search for new antimicrobials. PMID:16044290

  20. Spice-Derived Essential Oils: Effective Antifungal and Possible Therapeutic Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vilas A. Kamble; Sahadeo D. Patil

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils derived from 20 spices were investigated for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida blanki, Candida cylindracea, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the disc diffusion method. The sensitivity of fungi to various essential oils was compared with standard ketoconazole and an activity index (AI) was determined. Inhibitory patterns varied with the

  1. Genome Sequence of Fungal Species No.11243, Which Produces the Antifungal Antibiotic FR901469

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Nemoto, Kaoru; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Terai, Goro; Arita, Masanori; Machida, Masayuki; Shibata, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Fungal species No.11243 was originally isolated from a decayed leaf sample collected in Kyoto, Japan. It produces FR901469, a 1,3-beta-glucan synthase inhibitor. The genome sequence of No.11243 was determined and annotated to obtain useful information for improving productivity of the effective antifungal agent FR901469. PMID:25838475

  2. Antifungal activity and pore-forming mechanism of astacidin 1 against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun

    2014-10-01

    In a previous report, a novel antibacterial peptide astacidin 1 (FKVQNQHGQVVKIFHH) was isolated from hemocyanin of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In this study, the antifungal activity and mechanism of astacidin 1 were evaluated. Astacidin 1 exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Trichosporon beigelii, Malassezia furfur, and Trichophyton rubrum. Also, astacidin 1 had fungal cell selectivity in human erythrocytes without causing hemolysis. To understand the antifungal mechanism, membrane studies were done against C. albicans and T. beigelii. Flow cytometric analysis and K(+) measurement showed membrane damage, resulting in membrane permeabilization and K(+) release-induced membrane depolarization. Furthermore, the calcein leakage from liposomes mimicking C. albicans membrane demonstrated that the membrane-active action was driven by pore-forming mechanism. Live cell imaging using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans of various sizes suggested that the radii of pores formed in the C. albicans membrane were 1.4-2.3 nm. Therefore, the present study suggests that astacidin 1 exerts its antifungal effect by damaging the fungal membrane via pore formation. PMID:24955933

  3. Modeling Production of Antifungal Compounds and their Role in Biocontrol Inhibitory Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression modeling was used to relate the antifungal activity of B. subtilis solid-state fermentation extracts to the individual HPLC peaks from those extracts. A model was developed that predicted bioassay inhibition based on extract HPLC profile (R2 = 0.99). Concentr...

  4. Modified Colorimetric Assay for Susceptibility Testing of Azole Antifungal Drugs against Candida Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chen; Zhe Wan; Ruoyu Li

    2004-01-01

    We modified a rapid susceptibility assay (RSA) for antifungal susceptibility testing of azoles based upon glucose utilization. This modified RSA method provides quantitative endpoint readings in 6 h. In this study, the modified RSA and the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A methods were used to determine the MICs of fluconazole and itraconazole for 118 Candida isolates. Yeast nitrogen

  5. Antifungal activity of sourdough fermented wheat germ used as an ingredient for bread making.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cassone, Angela; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of sourdough fermented (Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5) wheat germ (SFWG). Preliminarily, methanol and water/salt-soluble extracts from SFWG were assayed by agar diffusion towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the water/salt-soluble extract showed the inhibition of various fungi isolated from bakeries. The antifungal activity was attributed to a mixture of organic acids and peptides which were synthesized during fermentation. Formic (24.7mM) acid showed the highest antifungal activity. Four peptides, having similarities with well known antifungal sequences, were identified and chemically synthesized. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 2.5-15.2mg/ml. Slices of bread made by addition of 4% (wt/wt) of freeze dried SFWG were packed in polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature. Slices did not show contamination by fungi until at least 28days of storage and behaved as the calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25214083

  6. An antifungal peptide from passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis) seeds with similarities to 2S albumin proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Pelegrini; E. F. Noronha; M. A. R. Muniz; I. M. Vasconcelos; M. D. Chiarello; J. T. A. Oliveira; O. L. Franco

    2006-01-01

    An actual worldwide problem consists of an expressive increase of economic losses and health problems caused by fungi. In order to solve this problem, several studies have been concentrating on the screening of novel plant defence peptides with antifungal activities. These peptides are commonly characterized by having low molecular masses and cationic charges. This present work reports on the purification

  7. Antifungal activity of some Himalayan medicinal plants and cultivated ornamental species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhey Shyam Sharma; Vandana Mishra; Ram Singh; Nidhi Seth; C. R. Babu

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of roots of Rumex nepalensis, Berberis aristata, Arnebia benthamii, bark of Taxus wallichiana, Juglans regia and petals of Jacquinia ruscifolia were tested for their antifungal activity against twelve different fungal pathogens. Ethanolic extracts of R. nepalensis and J. ruscifolia extracts showed a broad spectrum of activity.

  8. Antifungal activity of some Himalayan medicinal plants and cultivated ornamental species.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Radhey Shyam; Mishra, Vandana; Singh, Ram; Seth, Nidhi; Babu, C R

    2008-12-01

    Extracts of roots of Rumex nepalensis, Berberis aristata, Arnebia benthamii, bark of Taxus wallichiana, Juglans regia and petals of Jacquinia ruscifolia were tested for their antifungal activity against twelve different fungal pathogens. Ethanolic extracts of R. nepalensis and J. ruscifolia extracts showed a broad spectrum of activity. PMID:18672040

  9. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse

    PubMed Central

    Mehrara, Mina; Halakoo, Mehri; Hakemi-Vala, Mojdeh; Hashemi, Seyyde Jamal; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method. Results: The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction. Conclusions: Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended.

  10. Grafting ?-Cyclodextrins to Silicone, Formulation of Emulsions and Encapsulation of Antifungal Drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noomen, Ahlem; Penciu, Alexandra; Hbaieb, Souhaira; Parrot-Lopez, Hélčne; Amdouni, Noureddine; Chevalier, Yves; Kalfat, Rafik

    Emulsions of silicone polymers having ?-cyclodextrin units as lateral chains have been prepared and used for the encapsulation of the antifungal drug griseofulvin. Such technology enables the formulation of active substances that are not soluble in water as dosage forms for topical administration.

  11. The Petasis Reaction: Microscale Synthesis of a Tertiary Amine Antifungal Analog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroluk, Katherine J.; Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Students prepare a tertiary amine antifungal analog in an upper-level undergraduate organic laboratory. A microscale Petasis reaction is performed to generate a liquid compound readily characterized via IR and proton NMR spectroscopy. The biological relevance of the product is highlighted, with the tertiary amine scaffold being an important…

  12. Antifungal effects of root canal irrigants and medicaments. An update review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Fungi, especially Candida albicans, play an important role in persistent/secondary endodontic infections. There are several irrigants and medicaments in the field of endodontics. The purpose of this paper is to review the antifungal activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, MTAD, Tetraclean, EDTA, calcium hydroxide and MTA. PMID:25672081

  13. Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

  14. Short Communication Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medi- cines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagro- phytes, Epidermophyton Xoccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44

  15. Identification of medicinal species and antifungal property of a Dong ethnic drug

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhirong; Du, Yuan; Cheng, Lili; Zhu, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the medicinal species in the Zi Hua Di Ding (ZHDD) prescription commonly used by the Dong ethnic people, and investigate the potential mechanism involved with the anti-fungal properties on Trichophyton rubrum. Methods: DNA barcode technique was used to identify the species in the ZHDD prescription. In vitro study was performed to investigate the antifungal properties of the identified Viola philippica on the T. rubrum. Microscopy was used to observe the growth of the T. rubrum. Results: The ZHDD prescription is a mixture of V. philippica and V. inconspicua, and its antifungal properties was superior to the single component. V. philippica could affect the surface and flexibility of hypha, and contribute to the generation of branches. In addition, it could damage the biofilm. Conclusions: Using the DNA barcode technique, we identify the ZHDD prescription is a mixture of V. philippica and V. inconspicua, and its antifungal properties was superior to the single component. V. philippica could affect the growth and biofilm formation of T. rubrum. PMID:25663999

  16. Antifungal activity of different plant extracts against Drechslera bicolor causing leaf blight of bell pepper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuldeep Singh Jadon; Rakesh Shah

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of 48 plants belonging to six different major groups of the plant kingdom, two commercially available botanicals and different fungicides were screened for antifungal activity against Drechslera bicolor causing leaf blight of bell pepper. The test fungi were isolated from bell pepper leaves collected from Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. Among several botanicals, maximum inhibition of fungal growth was

  17. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

  18. Investigating the antifungal activity and mechanism(s) of geraniol against Candida albicans strains.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Clerya Alvino; de Brito Bezerra, André Parente; de Sousa, Janiere Pereira; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2015-04-01

    Candida albicans can be a yeast that is a commensal on the human body but can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Candida infections may create serious health problems and as a result has initiated a search for new drugs with an antifungal action. Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with known pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity and mechanism(s) of geraniol against C. albicans strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined through broth microdilution techniques. We investigated possible geraniol activity on the fungal cell wall (sorbitol protect effect), cell membrane (geraniol to ergosterol binding), the time-kill curve, and its biological activity on the yeast's morphology. Amphotericin B was used as control, and all tests were performed in duplicate. The MIC of geraniol was 16 ?g/ml (for 90% of isolates) but its probable mechanism of action did not involve the cell wall and ergosterol binding. In the morphological interference assay, we observed that the product inhibited pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia formation. Time-dependent kill curve assay demonstrated that the fungicidal activity for MIC × 2 started at 2 h for the ATCC 76485 strain, and at 4 h for the LM-70 strain. Geraniol showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans but did not involve action on the cell wall or ergosterol. This study contributes to the development of new antifungal drugs, especially against Candida spp. PMID:25480017

  19. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Angelica sinensis Essential Oil Against Three Colletotrichum Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical fungicides are an important component in disease management for most crops. As part of a program to discover natural product-based fungicides, several sensitive assay systems have been developed for the evaluation of naturally occurring antifungal agents. In this study, we focused on the di...

  20. Purification, characterization, and molecular gene cloning of an antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Yoriko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Tanokura, Masaru; Hatano, Ken-ichi

    2007-03-01

    A novel basic protein with antifungal activity was isolated from the seeds of Ginkgo biloba and purified to homogeneity. The protein inhibited the growth of some fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Trichoderma reesei, and Candida albicans) but did not exhibit antibacterial action against Escherichia coli. Furthermore, this protein showed weak inhibitory activity against the aspartic protease pepsin. To design primers for gene amplification, the NH(2)-terminal and partial internal amino acid sequences were determined using peptides obtained from a tryptic digest of the oxidized protein. The full-length cDNA of the antifungal protein was cloned and sequenced by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA contained a 402-bp open reading frame encoding a 134-aa protein with a potential signal peptide (26 residues), suggesting that this protein is synthesized as a preprotein and secreted outside the cells. The antifungal protein shows approximately 85% identity with embryo-abundant proteins from Picea abies and Picea glauca at the amino acid level; however, there is no homology between this protein and other plant antifungal proteins, such as defensin, and cyclophilin-, miraculin- and thaumatin-like proteins. PMID:17338634

  1. The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

  2. Coniochaetones A and B: New antifungal benzopyranones from the coprophilous fungus Coniochaeta saccardoi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Scott; David Malloch

    1995-01-01

    Two new antifungal cyclopentabenzopyran-4-ones, coniochaetones A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from liquid cultures of the coprophilous fungus Coniochaeta saccardoi (JS 223). The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of 2D-NMR and HRMS data.

  3. Identification of Novel Pharmacological Activities of an Antifungal Agent, Nystatin, to Promote Dendritic Cell Maturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Ogawa; Norikatsu Mizumoto; Hiroaki Tanaka; Hironori Matsushima; Akira Takashima

    2006-01-01

    As an unbiased functional screen to identify agents activating dendritic cells (DCs), we recently developed a DC-based biosensor system, in which a stable murine DC line XS106 was engineered to express the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) gene under the control of the IL-1? promoter. Here we report that nystatin (NYT), an antifungal drug of the family of polyene macrolide antibiotics,

  4. Plant latex: a promising antifungal agent for post harvest disease control.

    PubMed

    Sibi, G; Wadhavan, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Shukla, Abhilasha; Dhananjaya, K; Ravikumar, K R; Mallesha, H

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds from plant latex are potential source of antifungic against post harvest pathogens. Latex from a total of seven plant species was investigated for its phytochemical and antifungal properties. Six fungi namely Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, F. solani, P. digitatum and R. arrhizus were isolated from infected fruits and vegetables and tested against various solvent extracts of latex. Analysis of latex extracts with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antifungal assay revealed the potential inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extracts against the postharvest fungal isolates. Various degree of sensitivity was observed irrespective of plant species studied with A. terreus and P. digitatum as the most susceptible ones. F. solani and A. fumigatus were moderately sensitive to the latex extracts tested. Among the plants, latex of Thevetia peruviana (75.2%) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (64.8%) were having potential antifungal activity against the isolates followed by Manilkara zapota (51.1%). In conclusion, use of plant latex makes interest to control postharvest fungal diseases and is fitting well with the concept of safety for human health and environment. PMID:24506041

  5. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  6. Voriconazole versus itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis following allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marks, David I; Pagliuca, Antonio; Kibbler, Christopher C; Glasmacher, Axel; Heussel, Claus-Peter; Kantecki, Michal; Miller, Paul J S; Ribaud, Patricia; Schlamm, Haran T; Solano, Carlos; Cook, Gordon

    2011-11-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis for allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplant (alloHCT) recipients should prevent invasive mould and yeast infections (IFIs) and be well tolerated. This prospective, randomized, open-label, multicentre study compared the efficacy and safety of voriconazole (234 patients) versus itraconazole (255 patients) in alloHCT recipients. The primary composite endpoint, success of prophylaxis, incorporated ability to tolerate study drug for ? 100 d (with ? 14 d interruption) with survival to day 180 without proven/probable IFI. Success of prophylaxis was significantly higher with voriconazole than itraconazole (48·7% vs. 33·2%, P < 0·01); more voriconazole patients tolerated prophylaxis for 100 d (53·6% vs. 39·0%, P < 0·01; median total duration 96 vs. 68 d). The most common (>10%) treatment-related adverse events were vomiting (16·6%), nausea (15·8%) and diarrhoea (10·4%) for itraconazole, and hepatotoxicity/liver function abnormality (12·9%) for voriconazole. More itraconazole patients received other systemic antifungals (41·9% vs. 29·9%, P < 0·01). There was no difference in incidence of proven/probable IFI (1·3% vs. 2·1%) or survival to day 180 (81·9% vs. 80·9%) for voriconazole and itraconazole respectively. Voriconazole was superior to itraconazole as antifungal prophylaxis after alloHCT, based on differences in the primary composite endpoint. Voriconazole could be given for significantly longer durations, with less need for other systemic antifungals. PMID:21880032

  7. “In vitro” antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Guerrer, L.V.; Cunha, K. C.; Nogueira, M. C. L.; Cardoso, C. C.; Soares, M. M. C. N.; Almeida, M. T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The “in vitro” antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil®) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporon asahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii. PMID:24031958

  8. Antiradical activity of natural honeys and antifungal effect against Penicillium genera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslava Kacániová; Katarína Fatrcová-Sramková; Janka Nozková; Martin Melich; Miriam Kadasi-Horáková; Vladimíra Knazovická; Sona Felsöciová; Simona Kunová; Magda Máriássyová

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the antiradical activity of 11 natural honeys and to evaluate the antifungal properties of honey. Honey samples (10) were collected from different locations of Slovak Republic. Honeys were native to different plant species of Robinia pseudoacaccia, Brassica napus subs. napus, Castanea sativa Mill. Thymus serpyllum vulgaris and the other samples had multifloral

  9. In vitro antifungal activity of phenylheptatriyne from Bidens cernua L. against yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Rybalchenko; V. A. Prykhodko; S. S. Nagorna; N. N. Volynets; A. N. Ostapchuk; V. V. Klochko; T. V. Rybalchenko; L. V. Avdeeva

    2010-01-01

    In vitro antifungal activity of phenylheptatriyne from Bidens cernua L. (Asteraceae) was studied using broth macrodilution method against 125 strains of yeasts including 104 clinical and other isolates of Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. inconspicua), 16 strains of basidiomycetous yeasts (Cryptococcus neoformans, C. albidus, Trichosporon cutaneum, Rhodotorula glutinis) and five

  10. Antibiofilm activity and post antifungal effect of lemongrass oil on clinical Candida dubliniensis isolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Taweechaisupapong; P. Ngaonee; P. Patsuk; W. Pitiphat; W. Khunkitti

    Candidal infections are often difficult to eradicate due to the resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents. This study aimed at determining the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC) oil against Candida dubliniensis in both planktonic and biofilms form. The results from broth microdilution method revealed that the minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentration of lemongrass oil on C. dubliniensis were

  11. Anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus antifungal produced by marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to search for antifungal from biological origin, we performed a screening of marine microorganisms isolated from seawater, seaweed, sediment and marine invertebrates collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean. The antifungal activities of these isolates were investigated against the pathogenic yeasts involved in medical mycology. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antifungal activities using the method of agar diffusion against four yeasts. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 13 (38%) strains have antifungal activity against at least one out of four yeast species, 11 isolates have anti-Candida albicans CIP 48.72 activity, 12 isolates have anti-C. albicans CIP 884.65 activity, 13 isolates have anti-Cryptococcus neoformans activity and only 6 isolates are actives against Candida tropicalis R2 resistant to nystatin and amphotericin B. Nine isolates showed strong fungicidal activity. Fourteen microorganisms were identified and assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea, and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms could produce more antimicrobials; therefore these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural products such as those we research: anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus fungicides. PMID:25442916

  12. In vitro antifungal oral drug and drug-combination activity against onychomycosis causative dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Santos, D A; Hamdan, J S

    2006-06-01

    We present the results of studies of the in vitro susceptibility of 52 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and 40 of Trichophyton mentagrophytes to griseofulvin, terbinafine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole and cyclopiroxolamine. All test strains were recovered from patients with toe nail onychomycosis and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antifungal against both species was individually assessed. In addition, we investigated the MIC of the combination of cyclopiroxolamine and itraconazole and cyclopiroxolamine and ketoconazole. The NCCLS approved procedure M38-A as modified by Santos and Hamdan was employed. The studies of the two drug combinations were conducted with a checkerboard design. Analysis of the data revealed that terbinafine was the most effective in vitro against all isolates, followed in order by itraconazole, cyclopiroxolamine, ketoconazole and fluconazole. We observed no significant difference in the in vitro susceptibility profiles between either species to any of the antifungals (P<0.05). Our in vitro results confirm that terbinafine is the most effective of the antifungals included in this study. Furthermore, synergistic interactions were found in the two drug combinations with all of the dermatophyte test isolates. The latter results are in agreement with clinical data that show synergism between oral and topical antifungals in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:16772230

  13. In Vitro Activities of Eight Antifungal Drugs against 104 Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans

    PubMed Central

    Najafzadeh, M. Javad; Sutton, Deanna A.; Keisari, M. Saradeghi; Zarrinfar, H.; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans is an unusual agent of phaeohyphomycosis. The in vitro activities of antifungals against 104 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans var. pullulans and A. pullulans var. melanigenum revealed low MIC90s of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole. However, they were resistant to fluconazole (?64 ?g/ml) and had high MICs of voriconazole, isavuconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin. PMID:25001309

  14. In vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against 104 environmental and clinical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, M Javad; Sutton, Deanna A; Keisari, M Saradeghi; Zarrinfar, H; de Hoog, G Sybren; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Meis, Jacques F

    2014-09-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans is an unusual agent of phaeohyphomycosis. The in vitro activities of antifungals against 104 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans var. pullulans and A. pullulans var. melanigenum revealed low MIC90s of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole. However, they were resistant to fluconazole (?64 ?g/ml) and had high MICs of voriconazole, isavuconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin. PMID:25001309

  15. Chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques used in the analysis of triazole antifungal agents—a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Ekiert; J. Krzek; P. Talik

    2010-01-01

    Systematic review of literature coupled with integrative research of published data for triazole antifungal agents was done. The investigated literature covered chromatographic and electrophoretic methods developed in the last 10 years (2000–2009). The aim of this review was to compare different methodologies, assess preferences in the selection of analytical methods and to find still existing analytical problems. Last decade is

  16. Antifungal susceptibilities among different serotypes of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, George R; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Vallor, Ana C; Wickes, Brian L; Patterson, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    We measured antifungal activity against 128 cryptococcal isolates (86 of C. neoformans and 42 of C. gattii) to determine if differences in serotype susceptibility exist. Contrary to previous results, we found no serotype susceptibility differences. Isavuconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole demonstrated excellent potency against each isolate and serotype, including isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibilities. PMID:18955539

  17. Enhanced activity of antifungal drugs using natural phenolics against yeast strains of Candida and Cryptococcus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidiasis and cryptococcosis are diseases of widening global incidence as a result of increasing immunosuppressive disorders, such as AIDS. An enduring problem for treatment of these mycoses is recurrent development of resistance to introduced antifungal drugs. We examined the potential for enhan...

  18. Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles by Gelidiella acerosa Extract and their Antifungal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, Marimuthu; Kumar, Palanisamy Senthil; Steffi, Sesurajan; Sudha, Sellappa

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials are an important aspect in nanotechnology. The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using the aqueous extract of red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa as the reducing agent to study the antifungal activity. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The synthesized Ag-NPs was predominately spherical in shape and polydispersed. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized nano-Ag was capped with bimolecular compounds which are responsible for reduction of silver ions. The antifungal effects of these nanoparticles were studied against Humicola insolens (MTCC 4520), Fusarium dimerum (MTCC 6583), Mucor indicus (MTCC 3318) and Trichoderma reesei (MTCC 3929). The present study indicates that Ag-NPs have considerable antifungal activity in comparison with standard antifungal drug, and hence further investigation for clinical applications is necessary. PMID:23408653

  19. Analysis of protein structural elements, cations and sugars as modulators of osmotin's antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Allan Salzman

    1999-01-01

    Antifungal activities of plant defense proteins are profoundly altered in the presence of sugars and inorganic cations such as calcium and potassium. Little is known at the molecular level of how these effects are mediated, but they have substantial biological implications for plant-pathogen interactions. These solute and cation effects are the subject of the present investigation. Sugars accumulating in ripening

  20. Synthetic molecular mimics of naturally occurring cyclopentenones exhibit antifungal activity towards pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Behrendt, Jonathan; Sutherland, Andrew J; Griffiths, Gareth

    2011-12-01

    The naturally occurring reactive electrophilic species 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-oxo-PDA) is a potent antifungal agent, whereas the plant growth regulator jasmonic acid, which is synthesized from 12-oxo-PDA, is ineffective. To address what structural features of the molecule endow it with antifungal activity, we synthesized a series of molecular mimics of 12-oxo-PDA varying in the length of the alkyl chain at its C-4 ring position. The octyl analogue (4-octyl cyclopentenone) was the most effective at suppressing spore germination and subsequent mycelial growth of a range of fungal pathogens and was particularly effective against Cladosporium herbarum and Botrytis cinerea, with minimum fungicidal concentrations in the range 100-200 µM. Introduction of a carboxyl group to the end of the chain, mimicking natural fatty acids, markedly reduced antifungal efficacy. Electrolyte leakage, indicative of membrane perturbation, was evident in both C. herbarum and B. cinerea exposed to 4-octyl cyclopentenone. Lipid composition analysis of the fungal spores revealed that those species with a high oil content, namely Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola, were less sensitive to 4-octyl cyclopentenone. The comparable hydrophobicity of 4-octyl cyclopentenone and 12-oxo-PDA accounts for the similar spore suppression activity of these two compounds. The relative ease of synthesis of 4-octyl cyclopentenone makes it an attractive compound for potential use as an antifungal agent. PMID:21921102

  1. Crystal structures and antifungal activities of fluorine-containing thioureido complexes with nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Yang, Wen; Liu, Huanhuan; Li, Mengying; Zhou, Weiqun; Xie, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Ni(II) complexes with N-2-fluorobenzoylpiperidine-1-carbothioimidate (L2-), N-4-fluorobenzoylpiperidine-1-carbothioimidate (L3-), N-2-fluorobenzoylmorpholine- 1-carbothioimidate (L5-) and N-4-fluorobenzoylmorpholine-1-carbothioimidate (L6-)  have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and 1H-NMR. The crystal structures of three ligands (HL2, HL3 and HL6) and the corresponding Ni(II) complexes ([Ni(L2)2], [Ni(L3)2] and [Ni(L6)2]) have been determined by X-ray diffraction. The antifungal activities of the Ni(II) complexes together and the corresponding ligands against the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma spp., Myrothecium and Verticillium spp. have been investigated. The experimental results showed that the ligands and their complexes have antifungal abilities. When the fluorine was substituted on the para-benzoyl moiety, the antifungal activity of the ligands was obviously increased. Moreover, the ligands were stronger than their complexes in inhibiting fungal activities. The antifungal ability of HL6 is especially strong, and similar to that of the commercial fungicide fluconazole. PMID:24352026

  2. Antifungal agents against Aspergillus niger for rearing rice leaffolder larvae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianya; Wang, Ye-Cheng; Zhang, Shu-Kun; Ren, Xiu-Bei

    2014-06-01

    Mold contamination is an important issue in insect mass rearing. Frequently used antifungal agents such as sorbic acid and methylparaben have negative impact on many lepidopteran larvae, which might be one of the reasons for the difficulty in rearing rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Güenée). In this study, 19 antifungal agents, including 7 food preservatives, 6 antifungal drugs, and 6 agricultural fungicides, were screened for their inhibitory activities on Aspergillus niger in diets. The results demonstrated that most of the tested chemicals are unsuitable as mold inhibitors in the diets of the rice leaffolder, and the rice leaffolder neonate is sensitive to sorbic acid and methylparaben. These two mold inhibitors at commonly used concentrations were shown to impact the survival of rice leaffolder larvae fed on artificial diets. Among the tested mold inhibitors, natamycin was the safest for the rice leaffolder larvae. Much higher larva survival was observed for the larvae fed on diets containing natamycin as an antifungal agent (59 and 72% at 200 and 400 ppm, respectively). Two agricultural fungicides, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin, are also potent as mold inhibitors when used in insect diets. The mixed use of natamycin and sorbic acid, or methylparaben, and the mixed use of sorbic acid and azoxystrobin resulted in significantly higher larva survival than sorbic acid + methylparaben. Natamycin + azoxystrobin and sorbic acid + tebuconazole resulted in larva survival similar to that of sorbic acid + methylparaben. The ternary combination of natamycin, sorbic acid, and methylparaben was the best combination for the rearing of rice leaffolder. PMID:25026669

  3. Genome Sequence of Fungal Species No.11243, Which Produces the Antifungal Antibiotic FR901469.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Makoto; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Nemoto, Kaoru; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Terai, Goro; Arita, Masanori; Machida, Masayuki; Shibata, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Fungal species No.11243 was originally isolated from a decayed leaf sample collected in Kyoto, Japan. It produces FR901469, a 1,3-beta-glucan synthase inhibitor. The genome sequence of No.11243 was determined and annotated to obtain useful information for improving productivity of the effective antifungal agent FR901469. PMID:25838475

  4. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of (1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl nicotinate chitosan.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yukun; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Li, Kecheng; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-10-01

    With an aim to discover novel chitosan derivatives with significant activities against crop-threatening fungi, (1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl nicotinate chitosan (TAMNCS) was prepared via azide-alkyne click reaction. Its structure was characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis, DSC, and SEM. In vitro antifungal properties of TAMNCS against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (R. solani), Stemphylium solani weber (S. solani), and Alternaria porri (A. porri) were studied at the concentrations ranged from 0.25 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL. Experiments conducted displayed the derivative had obviously enhanced antifungal activity after chemical modification compared with original chitosan. Moreover, it was shown that TAMNCS can 94.2% inhibit growth of A. porri at 1.0 mg/mL, while dose at which the fungicide triadimefon had lower inhibitory index (62.2%). The primary antifungal results described here indicate this derivative may be a promising candidate as an antifungal agent. PMID:23732332

  5. A C. elegans-based, whole animal, in vivo screen for the identification of antifungal compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanouil Tampakakis; Ikechukwu Okoli; Eleftherios Mylonakis

    2008-01-01

    Traditional antimicrobial screens focus on compounds that block the growth of microbial organisms. A new Caenorhabditis elegans-based bioassay can be used for the identification of antifungal compounds that are effective against Candida albicans. According to the protocol, adult nematodes are infected with C. albicans and moved to 96-well plates containing the tested compounds. In the presence of compounds with no

  6. Comparing anti-HIV, antibacterial, antifungal, micellar, and cytotoxic properties of tricarboxylato dendritic amphiphiles

    E-print Network

    Falkinham, Joseph

    Comparing anti-HIV, antibacterial, antifungal, micellar, and cytotoxic properties of tricarboxylato homologous series had modest anti-HIV activity (EC50 = 110­130 lM). Amphiphile 2(18) had the best anti, United States b Department of Physical Chemistry of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University

  7. Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

  8. Addressing current medical needs in invasive fungal infection prevention and treatment with new antifungal agents, strategies and formulations.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Stuart K; Drew, Richard H; Perfect, John R

    2011-08-17

    Introduction: Morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) remains unacceptably high. Such diseases represent a substantial burden to the healthcare system. New options are needed to address antifungal resistance in existing and emerging pathogens and improve treatment outcomes while minimizing drug-related toxicities and interactions. Awareness of new and potential future options is of great value for those healthcare professionals who care for patients with IFIs. Areas covered: A search of PubMed, infectious diseases conference abstracts and reference lists from relevant publications was conducted and relevant information abstracted. This review describes the limitations of existing systemic antifungal therapies (e.g., resistance, drug-drug interactions, drug-related toxicities) and summarizes data regarding several emerging antifungal compounds including (but not limited to) new triazoles (e.g. isavuconazole, ravuconazole), echinocandins (e.g., aminocandin) and nikkomycin Z. Agents in clinical trials such as (but not limited to) new triazoles (e.g., isavuconazole, ravuconazole), echinocandins (e.g., aminocandin) and nikkomycin are included. New formulations of existing drugs including reformulations of miconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B are also reviewed. Finally, new or novel administration strategies for existing drugs such as combination antifungal therapy, antifungal dose escalation, adjunctive use of iron chelators and preemptive therapy are discussed. Expert opinion: All present antifungal agents have some deficiencies in antifungal spectra, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and/or drug-drug interactions, making them less than ideal for some fungal infections. Therefore, there remains an urgent need to find safe, effective, rapidly fungicidal, broad-spectrum antifungal agents with excellent pharmacodynamics to effectively eliminate the fungus from the body with short antifungal courses. PMID:21846302

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors for enhancing activity of antifungal agent: a patent evaluation of WO2014041424(A1).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Wenfang

    2015-02-01

    Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors have been developed for the antifungal therapy. Molecule 8 exhibited potent antifungal activities with MIC values of 0.25/0.25, 0.12/0.25, 0.12/0.12 µg/ml against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata after 24/48 h incubation, respectively. Most of the synthesized compound showed significantly synergistic effects with fluconazole in the biological assay. The discovery of these molecules makes positive contributions to the development of potent and safe antifungal drugs. PMID:25381141

  10. A study to evaluate the price control of antifungal medicines and its practical applicability

    PubMed Central

    Sil, Amrita; Das, Nilay Kanti; Ghosh, Pramit; Datta, Pijush Kanti; Islam, Chowdhury Nazrul; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Superficial fungal infections are common and treatment imposes economic burden on the patients. Government of India had introduced price control over griseofulvin and tolnaftate in 1995; however, this measure can only benefit the needy if the policy is harmonized with the health-care service provider, that is, dermatologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing Government mechanisms over price control of antifungal medications and its reach to the people-in-need. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 6 months. Questionnaire was mailed to members of a state branch of Indian Association of Dermatologists, Venereologists, and Leprologists. Responses reaching investigators within 2 months from the date of mailing were finally analyzed. Results: Among 93 (41.33%) respondents, only 6 (6.5%) were aware of existing price control over griseofulvin but none about tolnaftate. Thirty-nine (41.9%) respondents were in favor of introducing price control on terbinafine and 42 (45.2%) for itraconazole. The topically preferred antifungals were primarily azoles and terbinafine, while among systemic antifungals, dermatologists mostly preferred fluconazole and terbinafine. The choice of antifungals by the dermatologists matched with the evidence-based dermatology data. Conclusion: Currently, price-controlled antifungal drugs are less commonly used by practitioners. Although the dermatologists favor price control, the initiative undertaken by the Government has not reached them. This shows the need to bridge the gap between policy makers and health-care service providers to help the ailing population. PMID:23248398

  11. Antifungal efficacy of itraconazole-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lixin; Hu, Bicheng; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Yuqian; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xinxing

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to formulate biodegradable itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(e-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) (TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA); TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) (designed as ITZ-loaded TPP NPs) to improve antifungal efficacy. ITZ-loaded TPP NPs were prepared by a modified double-emulsion method, and their size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug-release profile, and antifungal effects were characterized. The cytotoxicity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs on HeLa cells and fibroblasts was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The in vivo antifungal activity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs was examined in mice by administrating 5×10(5) colony forming units of Candida albicans through the tail vein. The survival rate and survival time of the mice was observed. The fungal count and pathology of lung tissue was analyzed. The data showed that ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs have size of 265±5.8 nm, zeta potential of -31±0.5 mV, high encapsulation efficiency (95%), and extended drug-release profile. ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs at a high concentration of 25 mg/mL had no cytotoxicity on HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs achieved a higher level of antifungal activity both in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate and duration was higher in mice treated by ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs than in the other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs significantly improved ITZ bioavailability by increasing its aqueous dispersibility and extending the duration of drug release, thereby improving the antifungal efficacy of the ITZ agent. PMID:25733833

  12. Antifungal efficacy of itraconazole-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lixin; Hu, Bicheng; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Yuqian; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xinxing

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to formulate biodegradable itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(e-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) (TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA); TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) (designed as ITZ-loaded TPP NPs) to improve antifungal efficacy. ITZ-loaded TPP NPs were prepared by a modified double-emulsion method, and their size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug-release profile, and antifungal effects were characterized. The cytotoxicity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs on HeLa cells and fibroblasts was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The in vivo antifungal activity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs was examined in mice by administrating 5×105 colony forming units of Candida albicans through the tail vein. The survival rate and survival time of the mice was observed. The fungal count and pathology of lung tissue was analyzed. The data showed that ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs have size of 265±5.8 nm, zeta potential of ?31±0.5 mV, high encapsulation efficiency (95%), and extended drug-release profile. ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs at a high concentration of 25 mg/mL had no cytotoxicity on HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs achieved a higher level of antifungal activity both in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate and duration was higher in mice treated by ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs than in the other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs significantly improved ITZ bioavailability by increasing its aqueous dispersibility and extending the duration of drug release, thereby improving the antifungal efficacy of the ITZ agent. PMID:25733833

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Transporter Mdr1p-Mediated Uptake of a Novel Antifungal Compound

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nuo; Li, Dongmei; Fonzi, William; Li, Xin; Zhang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    The activity of many anti-infectious drugs has been compromised by the evolution of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. For life-threatening fungal infections, such as those caused by Candida albicans, overexpression of MDR1, which encodes an MDR efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), often confers resistance to chemically unrelated substances, including the most commonly used azole antifungals. As the development of new and efficacious antifungals has lagged far behind the growing emergence of resistant strains, it is imperative to develop strategies to overcome multidrug resistance. Previous advances have been mainly to deploy combinational therapy to restore azole susceptibility, which, however, requires coordination of two or more compounds. We observed a unique phenotype in which Mdr1p facilitates the uptake of a specific class of compounds. Among them, we describe a novel antifungal small molecule, bis[1,6-a:5?,6?-g]quinolizinium 8-methyl-salt (BQM) (U.S. patent application no. 61/793,090,2013), that has potent and broad antifungal activity. Notably, BQM exploits the MDR phenotype in C. albicans to promote the inhibitory effect. Rather than causing an antagonism of MDR strains, it exhibits a highly potentiated activity against a collection of clinical isolates and lab strains that overexpress MDR1. The activity of BQM against MDR1-overexpressing isolates is due to its facilitated intracellular accumulation. Microarray comparisons showed an extensive upregulation of MDR1 as well as polyamine transporter genes in a fluconazole-resistant strain. We then demonstrated that the polyamine transporters augment the accumulation of BQM. Importantly, BQM had greater activity than fluconazole and itraconazole against various fungal pathogens, including MDR Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, our findings offer a paradigm shift to overcome MDR and the promise of improving antifungal treatment, especially in MDR pathogens. PMID:24041896

  14. Species-specific antifungal susceptibility patterns of Scedosporium and Pseudallescheria species.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Michaela; de Hoog, G Sybren; Verweij, Paul E; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Klaassen, Corné H; Meis, Jacques F

    2012-05-01

    Since the separation of Pseudallescheria boydii and P. apiosperma in 2010, limited data on species-specific susceptibility patterns of these and other species of Pseudallescheria and its anamorph Scedosporium have been reported. This study presents the antifungal susceptibility patterns of members affiliated with both entities. Clinical and environmental isolates (n = 332) from a wide range of sources and origins were identified down to species level and tested according to CLSI M38-A2 against eight antifungal compounds. Whereas P. apiosperma (geometric mean MIC/minimal effective concentration [MEC] values of 0.9, 2.4, 7.4, 16.2, 0.2, 0.8, 1.5, and 6.8 ?g/ml for voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and amphotericin B, respectively) and P. boydii (geometric mean MIC/MEC values of 0.7, 1.3, 5.7, 13.8, 0.5, 1.4, 2.3, and 11.8 ?g/ml for voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and amphotericin B, respectively) had similar susceptibility patterns, those for S. aurantiacum, S. prolificans, and S. dehoogii were different from each other. Voriconazole was the only drug with significant activity against S. aurantiacum isolates. The MIC distributions of all drugs except voriconazole did not show a normal distribution and often showed two subpopulations, making a species-based prediction of antifungal susceptibility difficult. Therefore, antifungal susceptibility testing of all clinical isolates remains essential for targeted antifungal therapy. Voriconazole was the only compound with low MIC values (MIC(90) of ? 2 ?g/ml) for P. apiosperma and P. boydii. Micafungin and posaconazole showed moderate activity against the majority of Scedosporium strains. PMID:22290955

  15. Species-Specific Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Scedosporium and Pseudallescheria Species

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Michaela; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Verweij, Paul E.; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J.; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Klaassen, Corné H.

    2012-01-01

    Since the separation of Pseudallescheria boydii and P. apiosperma in 2010, limited data on species-specific susceptibility patterns of these and other species of Pseudallescheria and its anamorph Scedosporium have been reported. This study presents the antifungal susceptibility patterns of members affiliated with both entities. Clinical and environmental isolates (n = 332) from a wide range of sources and origins were identified down to species level and tested according to CLSI M38-A2 against eight antifungal compounds. Whereas P. apiosperma (geometric mean MIC/minimal effective concentration [MEC] values of 0.9, 2.4, 7.4, 16.2, 0.2, 0.8, 1.5, and 6.8 ?g/ml for voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and amphotericin B, respectively) and P. boydii (geometric mean MIC/MEC values of 0.7, 1.3, 5.7, 13.8, 0.5, 1.4, 2.3, and 11.8 ?g/ml for voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and amphotericin B, respectively) had similar susceptibility patterns, those for S. aurantiacum, S. prolificans, and S. dehoogii were different from each other. Voriconazole was the only drug with significant activity against S. aurantiacum isolates. The MIC distributions of all drugs except voriconazole did not show a normal distribution and often showed two subpopulations, making a species-based prediction of antifungal susceptibility difficult. Therefore, antifungal susceptibility testing of all clinical isolates remains essential for targeted antifungal therapy. Voriconazole was the only compound with low MIC values (MIC90 of ?2 ?g/ml) for P. apiosperma and P. boydii. Micafungin and posaconazole showed moderate activity against the majority of Scedosporium strains. PMID:22290955

  16. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Miszti-Blasius, Kornél [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona [Department of Pathology, Kenézy Hospital LTD, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István [Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre of Arts, Humanities and Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Cs?sz, Éva; Kalló, Gerg? [Proteomics Core Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Heged?s, Csaba; Virág, László [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csernoch, László [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szentesi, Péter, E-mail: szentesi.peter@med.unideb.hu [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 ?g·kg{sup ?1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  17. Mitigation of human-pathogenic fungi that exhibit resistance to medical agents: can clinical antifungal stewardship help?

    PubMed

    Hull, Claire M; Purdy, Nicola J; Moody, Suzy C

    2014-01-01

    Reducing indiscriminate antimicrobial usage to combat the expansion of multidrug-resistant human-pathogenic bacteria is fundamental to clinical antibiotic stewardship. In contrast to bacteria, fungal resistance traits are not understood to be propagated via mobile genetic elements, and it has been proposed that a global explosion of resistance to medical antifungals is therefore unlikely. Clinical antifungal stewardship has focused instead on reducing the drug toxicity and high costs associated with medical agents. Mitigating the problem of human-pathogenic fungi that exhibit resistance to antimicrobials is an emergent issue. This article addresses the extent to which clinical antifungal stewardship could influence the scale and epidemiology of resistance to medical antifungals both now and in the future. The importance of uncharted selection pressure exerted by agents outside the clinical setting (agricultural pesticides, industrial xenobiotics, biocides, pharmaceutical waste and others) on environmentally ubiquitous spore-forming molds that are lesserstudied but increasingly responsible for drug-refractory infections is considered. PMID:24762306

  18. Syntheses of new rare earth complexes with carboxymethylated polysaccharides and evaluation of their in vitro antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobo; Jin, Xiaozhe; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping

    2014-11-26

    In the present paper, La, Eu and Yb were selected to represent light, middle and heavy rare earths to form complexes with polysaccharides through chelating coordination of carboxyl groups, which were added into polysaccharide chains by means of carboxymethylation. Their antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated using growth rate method. These rare earth complexes exhibited various antifungal activities against the tested fungi, depending on rare earth elements, polysaccharide types and fungal species. Among these three metal elements (i.e. La, Eu and Yb), Yb formed the complexes with the most effective antifungal properties. Furthermore, the results showed that ligands of carboxymethylated polysaccharides played a key role in promoting cytotoxicity of the rare earth complexes. Carboxymethylated Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide (CGAP) was found to be the most effective ligand to form complexes with antifungal activities, followed by carboxymethylated lentinan (CLNT) and carboxymethylated Momordica charantia polysaccharide (CMCP). PMID:25256475

  19. Characterization of an antifungal compound produced by Bacillus sp. strain A(5) F that inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ankit; Saini, Sandeep; Wray, Victor; Nimtz, Manfred; Prakash, Anil; Johri, B N

    2012-12-01

    A potential antagonist, Bacillus sp. strain A(5) F was isolated from soybean rhizosphere following in vitro dual plate screening. The bacterium displayed strong inhibitory activity in vitro against soybean stem rot pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The culture supernatant of strain A(5) F completely suppressed the mycelial growth of the pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of antifungal compounds in the culture filtrate. The culture filtrate also suppressed other phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina, in vitro suggesting a broad spectrum antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens. Chemical extraction followed by chromatographic analysis resulted in two antifungal fractions. The high resolution-electron spin ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1D and 2D(1) H) spectra of these antifungal fractions revealed the presence of antifungal compounds, one of which showed similarity to bacillomycin D. PMID:22359152

  20. Novel macrocyclic molecules based on 12a-N substituted 16-membered azalides and azalactams as potential antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shun; Pang, Yanlong; Yuan, Huihui; Liang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Daoquan; Wang, Mingan; Dong, Yanhong

    2014-02-12

    Novel macrocyclic molecules comprising sulfonyl and acyl moiety at the position N-12a of 16-membered azalides (6a-n) and azalactams (10a-r) scaffold were synthesized from cyclododecanone 1 as starting material via 5 steps and 4 steps, respectively. The antifungal activity of these compounds against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Pyricularia oryzae, Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora capsici were evaluated and found that compounds possessing ?-exomethylene (6c, 6d, 6e and 6g) showed antifungal activity comparable to commercial fungicide Chlorothalonil against P. oryzae and compounds possessing p-chlorobenzoyl exhibited enhanced antifungal activity than those with other substituents against S. sclerotiorum, P. oryzae, and B. cinerea. These findings suggested that the ?-exomethylene and p-chlorobenzoyl may be two potential pharmacological active groups with antifungal activities. PMID:24469079

  1. Abstract. The inuence of the anti-fungal agent phosphonate (Phi) on the response of oilseed rape

    E-print Network

    Plaxton, William

    Abstract. The inÂŻuence of the anti-fungal agent phosphonate (Phi) on the response of oilseed rape rape suspension cells by the fungicide phosphonate M. Christian Carswell1 , Bruce R. Grant2 , William C

  2. Antifungal thiopeptide cyclothiazomycin B1 exhibits growth inhibition accompanying morphological changes via binding to fungal cell wall chitin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Mizuhara; Manabu Kuroda; Akira Ogita; Toshio Tanaka; Yoshinosuke Usuki; Ken-ichi Fujita

    2011-01-01

    Cyclothiazomycin B1 (CTB1) is an antifungal cyclic thiopeptide isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. HA 125-40. CTB1 inhibited the growth of several filamentous fungi including plant pathogens along with swelling of hyphae and spores. The antifungal activity of CTB1 was weakened by hyperosmotic conditions, and hyphae treated with CTB1 burst under hypoosmotic conditions, indicating increased cell wall fragility.

  3. The In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sudanese Medicinal Plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the Eumycetoma Major Causative Agent.

    PubMed

    Elfadil, Hassabelrasoul; Fahal, Ahmed; Kloezen, Wendy; Ahmed, Elhadi M; van de Sande, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml) and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 ?g/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging. PMID:25768115

  4. Determination of the changes of antifungal properties of Satureja hortensis, Thymus vulgaris and Thymbra spicata exposed to gamma irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuncay Gumus

    2010-01-01

    In this research, changes in the antifungal activity of the extract of Satureja hortensis, Thymus vulgaris and Thymbra spicata exposed to gamma irradiation against two aflatoxigenic moulds Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and 465 were investigated. The samples of dry plant leaf powder were irradiated with doses of 1.2, 3.0, 5.1kGy. While the antifungal activity of S. hortensis with 0 and

  5. The In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sudanese Medicinal Plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the Eumycetoma Major Causative Agent

    PubMed Central

    Elfadil, Hassabelrasoul; Fahal, Ahmed; Kloezen, Wendy; Ahmed, Elhadi M.; van de Sande, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml) and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 ?g/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging. PMID:25768115

  6. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Profile and Correlation of Mycelial and Yeast Forms of Molecularly Characterized Histoplasma capsulatum Strains from India

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep K.; Meis, Jacques F.

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of the mycelial and yeast forms of 23 Histoplasma capsulatum strains from pulmonary and disseminated histoplasmosis patients in India are reported here. The MIC data of this dimorphic fungus had good agreement between both forms for azoles, amphotericin B, and caspofungin. Therefore, the use of mycelial inocula for H. capsulatum antifungal susceptibility testing is suggested, which is less time-consuming vis-ŕ-vis the yeast form, which requires 6 to 8 weeks for conversion. PMID:24982084

  7. Subtyping and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. in the intensive care unit of a Greek general hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Kanellopoulou; George Stamos; Irene Petinnelli; Marianna Savala; Aleka Tzimogianni; Nicholas J Legakis; Maria Foustoukou; Evangelos Papafragas; Aristea Velegraki

    2001-01-01

    This study identified the Candida spp., susceptibility to antifungal agents and the prevailing Candida albicans subtypes responsible for infections or colonization of 42 patients in the ICU over a 6-month period. Most isolates were C. albicans (66.1%) and Candida tropicalis (28.3%) all of which were susceptible in vitro to antifungal agents. Subtypes of the C. albicans isolates were identified by

  8. Microscopic Evaluation, Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Clinical Outcomes in Fusarium, Aspergillus and, Dematiaceous Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Devarshi U.; Pal, Anuradha K.; Ghodadra, Bharat K.; Vasavada, Abhay R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous are the most common fungal species causing keratitis in tropical countries. Herein we report a prospective study on fungal keratitis caused by these three fungal species. Methodology. A prospective investigation was undertaken to evaluate eyes with presumed fungal keratitis. All the fungal isolates (n = 73) obtained from keratitis infections were identified using morphological and microscopic characters. Molecular identification using sequencing of the ITS region and antifungal susceptibility tests using microdilution method were done. The final clinical outcome was evaluated in terms of the time taken for resolution of keratitis and the final visual outcome. The results were analyzed after segregating the cases into three groups, namely, Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Dematiaceous keratitis. Results. Diagnosis of fungal keratitis was established in 73 (35.9%) cases out of 208 cases. The spectra of fungi isolated were Fusarium spp. (26.6%), Aspergillus spp. (21.6%), and Dematiaceous fungi (11.6%). The sequence of the ITS region could identify the Fusarium and Aspergillus species at the species complex level, and the Dematiaceous isolates were accurately identified. Using antifungal agents such as fluconazole, natamycin, amphotericin B, and itraconazole, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Fusarium spp. were >32??g/mL, 4–8??g/mL, 0.5–1??g/mL, and >32??g/mL, respectively. Antifungal susceptibility data showed that Curvularia spp. was highly resistant to all the antifungal agents. Overall, natamycin and amphotericin B were found to be the most effective antifungal agents. The comparative clinical outcomes in all cases showed that the healing response in terms of visual acuity of the Dematiaceous group was significantly good when compared with the Fusarium and Aspergillus groups (P < 0.05). The time required for healing in the Fusarium group was statistically significantly less when compared with the Aspergillus and Dematiaceous groups. Conclusion. This study demonstrates important differences in microscopic features of scraping material and antifungal susceptibility between the three groups. Early and accurate identification coupled with the MIC data, and thereby appropriate treatment is crucial for complete recovery. PMID:24260740

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antifungals in children and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Chris; Constance, Jonathan E; Roberts, Jessica K; Olson, Jared; Doby, Elizabeth H; Ampofo, Krow; Stiers, Justin; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2014-05-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Successful management of these systemic infections requires identification of the causative pathogen, appropriate antifungal selection, and optimisation of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties to maximise its antifungal activity and minimise toxicity and the emergence of resistance. This review highlights salient scientific advancements in paediatric antifungal pharmacotherapies and focuses on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies that underpin current clinical decision making. Four classes of drugs are widely used in the treatment of invasive fungal infections in children, including the polyenes, triazoles, pyrimidine analogues and echinocandins. Several lipidic formulations of the polyene amphotericin B have substantially reduced the toxicity associated with the traditional amphotericin B formulation. Monotherapy with the pyrimidine analogue flucytosine rapidly promotes the emergence of resistance and cannot be recommended. However, when used in combination with other antifungal agents, therapeutic drug monitoring of flucytosine has been shown to reduce high peak flucytosine concentrations, which are strongly associated with toxicity. The triazoles feature large inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability, although this pattern is less pronounced with fluconazole. In clinical trials, posaconazole was associated with fewer adverse effects than other members of the triazole family, though both posaconazole and itraconazole display erratic absorption that is influenced by gastric pH and the gastric emptying rate. Limited data suggest that the clinical response to therapy may be improved with higher plasma posaconazole and itraconazole concentrations. For voriconazole, pharmacokinetic studies among children have revealed that children require twice the recommended adult dose to achieve comparable blood concentrations. Voriconazole clearance is also affected by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype and hepatic impairment. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended as voriconazole pharmacokinetics are highly variable and small dose increases can result in marked changes in plasma concentrations. For the echinocandins, the primary source of pharmacokinetic variability stems from an age-dependent decrease in clearance with increasing age. Consequently, young children require larger doses per kilogram of body weight than older children and adults. Routine therapeutic drug monitoring for the echinocandins is not recommended. The effectiveness of many systemic antifungal agents has been correlated with pharmacodynamic targets in in vitro and in murine models of invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Further study is needed to translate these findings into optimal dosing regimens for children and to understand how these agents interact when multiple antifungal agents are used in combination. PMID:24595533

  10. Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (?) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319?±?0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141?±?0.001 to 0.265?±?0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the ?- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the ?-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (??antifungal activity against seven oral Candida species. The fungistatic and growth inhibiting effects of B. javanica extract have shown that it has potential to be considered as a promising candidate for the development of antifungal agent in oral health products. PMID:24305010

  11. The use of sourdough fermented by antifungal LAB to reduce the amount of calcium propionate in bread.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L A M; Dal Bello, F; Arendt, E K

    2008-07-31

    Addition of sourdough is a common practice in the bakery industry to improve, among other quality parameters, the shelf life of bread. In this study, sourdough fermented by antifungal Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of common bread spoilage fungi. In both in vitro and sourdough wheat bread system, the antifungal sourdoughs significantly affected the outgrowth of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum, or Penicillium expansum spores, however on wheat bread outgrowth of Penicillium roqueforti spores was not affected. In an attempt to reduce the amounts of chemical additives in bread, the antifungal sourdoughs were used in combination with calcium propionate (CAP) and possible synergistic effects were evaluated. Presence of 3000 ppm CAP in the bread did not affect the outgrowth of P. roqueforti, whereas outgrowth of the other fungi was retarded. A strong synergistic effect was observed when CAP and antifungal sourdoughs were combined into the bread formulation, and outgrowth of P. roqueforti was affected. The use of reduced CAP amount (1000 ppm) showed significant inhibition only when antifungal sourdough was added. Remarkably, the increase in shelf life achieved was higher than that obtained using 3000 ppm of CAP alone. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly show that the addition of antifungal sourdough has the potential to reduce the levels of chemical additives needed in the bakery industry to ensure the microbiological safety of bread. PMID:18541323

  12. An Observational Study on Early Empiric versus Culture-Directed Antifungal Therapy in Critically Ill with Intra-Abdominal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Winnie; Liew, Yixin; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr; Ong, Sharon; Lee, Pang; Kwa, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare early empiric antifungal treatment with culture-directed treatment in critically ill patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. Methods. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted between August 2010 and July 2011, on SICU patients admitted after surgery for gastrointestinal perforation, bowel obstruction or ischemia, malignancy and anastomotic leakages. Patients who received antifungal treatment within two days of sepsis onset were compared to patients who received culture-directed antifungal treatment in terms of mortality rate and clinical improvement. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, severity-of-illness scores, and laboratory results were systematically collected and analysed. Results. Thirty-three patients received early empiric and 19 received culture-directed therapy. Of these, 30 from the early empiric group and 18 from culture-directed group were evaluable and analysed. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics and illness severity. Patients on empiric antifungal use had significantly lower 30-day mortality (P = 0.03) as well as shorter median time to clinical improvement (P = 0.025). Early empiric antifungal therapy was independently associated with survival beyond 30 days (OR 0.131, 95% CI: 0.018 to 0.966; P = 0.046). Conclusion. Early empiric antifungal therapy in surgical patients with intra-abdominal sepsis was associated with reduced mortality and warrants further evaluation in randomised controlled trials. PMID:24959349

  13. Isolation and identification of 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid from Actinoplanes sp. HBDN08 with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Yan, Yi-Jun; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Ji-Dong; Li, Bao-Ju; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    A bioactivity-guided approach was employed to isolate and determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents with antifungal activity from Actinoplanes sp. HBDN08. The structure of the antifungal metabolite was elucidated as 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid on the basis of spectral analysis. This compound showed strong in vitro antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cucumerinum and Corynespora cassiicola, with an IC(50) of 32.45, 27.17, and 30.66 mg/L, respectively; however, it only moderately inhibited hyphal growth of Rhizoctonia solani with an IC(50) of 61.64 mg/L. The in vivo antifungal activity under greenhouse conditions demonstrated that 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid could effectively control the diseases caused by B. cinerea, C. cucumerinum and C. cassiicola with 71.42%, 78.63% and 65.13% control values at 350 mg/L, respectively. This strong antifungal activity suggests that 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid might be a promising candidate for new antifungal agents. PMID:20584599

  14. Antifungal activity, biofilm-controlling effect, and biocompatibility of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-grafted denture materials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinbo; Cao, Zhengbing; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Sun, Yuyu

    2013-01-01

    Colonization and biofilm-formation of Candida species on denture surfaces cause Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS), a common, recurring disease affecting up to 67% of denture wearers. We developed poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-grafted denture materials that can be repeatedly recharged with various antifungal drugs to achieve long-term antifungal and biofilm-controlling effects. The monomer, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP), was grafted onto poly(methyl methacrylate) denture resins through plasma-initiated grafting polymerization. The physical properties and biocompatibility of the resulting resins were not negatively affected by the presence of up to 7.92% of grafted poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) (PNVP). Miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CD) were used as model antifungal drugs. PNVP grafting significantly increased the drug absorption capability of the resulting denture materials. Further, the new materials showed sustained drug release and provided antifungal effects for weeks (in the case of CD) to months (in the case of miconazole). The drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of antifungal drug to further extend antifungal duration. If needed, drugs on the PNVP-grafted denture materials could be “washed out” (quenched) by treating with PNVP aqueous solutions to stop drug release. These results point to great potentials of the new materials in controlling biofilm-formation in a wide range of device-related applications. PMID:23708753

  15. Antifungal Activity of Selected Indigenous Pseudomonas and Bacillus from the Soybean Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    León, M.; Yaryura, P. M.; Montecchia, M. S.; Hernández, A. I.; Correa, O. S.; Pucheu, N. L.; Kerber, N. L.; García, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and select indigenous soil Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria capable of developing multiple mechanisms of action related to the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean crops. The screening procedure consisted of antagonism tests against a panel of phytopathogenic fungi, taxonomic identification, detection by PCR of several genes related to antifungal activity, in vitro detection of the antifungal products, and root colonization assays. Two isolates, identified and designated as Pseudomonas fluorescens BNM296 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM340, were selected for further studies. These isolates protected plants against the damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum and were able to increase the seedling emergence rate after inoculation of soybean seeds with each bacterium. Also, the shoot nitrogen content was higher in plants when seeds were inoculated with BNM296. The polyphasic approach of this work allowed us to select two indigenous bacterial strains that promoted the early development of soybean plants. PMID:20016811

  16. Diversity of Bipolaris Species in Clinical Samples in the United States and Their Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, K. C.; Sutton, D. A.; Fothergill, A. W.; Cano, J.; Madrid, H.; De Hoog, S.; Crous, P. W.; Guarro, J.

    2012-01-01

    A set of 104 isolates from human clinical samples from the United States, morphologically compatible with Bipolaris, were morphologically and molecularly identified through the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed space (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The predominant species was Bipolaris spicifera (67.3%), followed by B. hawaiiensis (18.2%), B. cynodontis (8.6%), B. micropus (2.9%), B. australiensis (2%), and B. setariae (1%). Bipolaris cynodontis, B. micropus, and B. setariae represent new records from clinical samples. The most common anatomical sites where isolates were recovered were the nasal region (30.7%), skin (19.2%), lungs (14.4%), and eyes (12.5%). The antifungal susceptibilities of 5 species of Bipolaris to 9 drugs are provided. With the exception of fluconazole and flucytosine, the antifungals tested showed good activity. PMID:23052310

  17. Antibiotics Against Plant Disease: VIII. Screening for Nonpolyenic Antifungal Antibiotics Produced by Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Lindenfelser, L A; Shotwell, O L; Bachler, M J; Shannon, G M; Pridham, T G

    1964-11-01

    In a survey of Streptomyces species, methods were designed and followed that would specifically select strains capable of producing heat-stable, nonpolyenic, antifungal antibiotics. Of 500 strains grown in shaken flasks, 240 of the culture liquors contained active factors as demonstrated by paper-disc assay against Mucor ramannianus. Culture filtrates and mycelial extracts of the active strains were examined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry; 166 were nonpolyenic as determined by absorption spectra. Heat-stability tests of the nonpolyenic antibiotics over a broad pH range revealed that 15 were stable under all test conditions, 70 moderately stable, and 81 unstable. Culture liquors containing stable, nonpolyenic antifungal agents were chromatographed with eight solvent systems in an attempt to identify the antibiotics. The producing cultures were studied by cross-antagonism tests to discover similarities with producers of known antibacterial antibiotics. Two of the antibiotics produced by promising strains were identified as cycloheximide and musarin. Six antibiotics, presumably new, were detected. PMID:16349649

  18. Synthesis and antifungal activity of the derivatives of novel pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jialong; Zhou, Yuanming

    2015-01-01

    A series of pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate derivatives were designed and synthesized in this study. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectral data (infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Then, all of the compounds were bioassayed in vitro against four types of phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria porri, Marssonina coronaria, Cercospora petroselini and Rhizoctonia solani) using the mycelium growth inhibition method. The results showed that some of the synthesized pyrazole carboxamides displayed notable antifungal activity. The isoxazole pyrazole carboxylate 7ai exhibited significant antifungal activity against R. solani, with an EC50 value of 0.37 ?g/mL. Nonetheless, this value was lower than that of the commercial fungicide, carbendazol. PMID:25759955

  19. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of antifungal activity of rosin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hien; Li, Shujun; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Jian

    2015-01-15

    To develop new rosin-based wood preservatives with good antifungal activity, 24 rosin derivatives were synthesized, bioassay tested with Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum, and subjected to analysis of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). A QSAR analysis using Ampac 9.2.1 and Codessa 2.7.16 software built two QSAR models of antifungal ratio for T. versicolor and G. trabeum with values of R(2)=0.9740 and 0.9692, respectively. Based on the models, tri-N-(3-hydroabietoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride was designed and the bioassay test result proved its better inhibitory effect against the two selected fungi as expected. PMID:25466709

  20. Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Antifungal Activity, and DFT Study of Some Novel Triazolinone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Na-Bo; Jin, Jian-Zhong; He, Fang-Yue

    2015-01-01

    A series of some novel 1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesized under microwave irradiation via multistep reaction. The structures of 1,2,4-triazoles were confirmed by 1H NMR, MS, FTIR, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities of 1,2,4-triazoles were determined. The antifungal activity results indicated that the compounds 5c, 5f, and 5h exhibited good activity against Pythium ultimum, and the compounds 5b and 5c displayed good activity against Corynespora cassiicola. Theoretical calculation of the compound 5c was carried out with B3LYP/6-31G (d). The full geometry optimization was carried out using 6-31G(d) basis set, and the frontier orbital energy and electrostatic potential were discussed, and the structure-activity relationship was also studied.

  1. Triazole derivatives with improved in vitro antifungal activity over azole drugs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shichong; Chai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yanwei; Cao, Yongbing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Qiuye; Zhang, Dazhi; Jiang, Yuanying; Yan, Tianhua; Sun, Qingyan

    2014-01-01

    A series of triazole antifungal agents with piperidine side chains was designed and synthesized. The results of antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the compounds exhibited moderate-to-excellent activities. Molecular docking between 8d and the active site of Candida albicans CYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results. The triazole interacts with the iron of the heme group. The difluorophenyl group is located in the S3 subsite and its fluorine atom (2-F) can form H-bonds with Gly307. The side chain is oriented into the S4 subsite and formed hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions with the amino residues. Moreover, the phenyl group in the side chain interacts with the phenol group of Phe380 through the formation of ?–? face-to-edge interactions. PMID:24748772

  2. Antipodal Crambescin A2 Homologues from the Marine Sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata. Antifungal Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Matthew T; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2015-03-27

    Investigation of antifungal natural products from the marine sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata from the Bahamas led to the discovery of new crambescin homologues (1, 2) and enantiomers (3, 4) of known natural products. The cyclic-guanidine structures were solved through analysis of 2D NMR, MS-MS, and CD data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established as 13R-opposite of known homologues reported from Crambe crambe obtained from the Mediterranean Sea-by comparison of their CD spectra with predicted Cotton effects obtained from DFT calculations. Antifungal activities of 1-4 against the pathogenic strains Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp. were observed to correlate potency (MIC50 and MIC90) with the length of the alkyl side chain. PMID:25738226

  3. Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Nikhil, Kumar; Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Roy, Partha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-06-13

    The plant 2S albumins exhibit a spectrum of biotechnologically exploitable functions. Among them, pumpkin 2S albumin has been shown to possess RNase and cell-free translational inhibitory activities. The present study investigated the anticancer, DNase and antifungal activities of pumpkin 2S albumin. The protein exhibited a strong anticancer activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1), prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation studies indicated that cytotoxic effect of pumpkin 2S albumin is mediated through induction of apoptosis. Pumpkin 2S albumin showed DNase activity against both supercoiled and linear DNA and exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Secondary structure analysis by CD showed that protein is highly stable up to 90°C and retains its alpha helical structure. These results demonstrated that pumpkin 2S albumin is a multifunctional protein with host of potential biotechnology applications. PMID:24814706

  4. The effect of biomaterials and antifungals on biofilm formation by Candida species: a review.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar-Cruz, M; Vega-González, A; Mendoza-Novelo, B; López-Romero, E; Ruiz-Baca, E; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; Villagómez-Castro, J C

    2012-10-01

    Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis are able to form biofilms on virtually any biomaterial implanted in a human host. Biofilms are a primary cause of mortality in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients, as they cause recurrent and invasive candidiasis, which is difficult to eradicate. This is due to the fact that the biofilm cells show high resistance to antifungal treatments and the host defense mechanisms, and exhibit an excellent ability to adhere to biomaterials. Elucidation of the mechanisms of antifungal resistance in Candida biofilms is of unquestionable importance; therefore, this review analyzes both the chemical composition of biomaterials used to fabricate the medical devices, as well as the Candida genes and proteins that confer drug resistance. PMID:22581304

  5. Processing of ?-chitin nanofibers by dynamic high pressure homogenization: characterization and antifungal activity against A. niger.

    PubMed

    Salaberria, Asier M; Fernandes, Susana C M; Diaz, Rene Herrera; Labidi, Jalel

    2015-02-13

    Chitin nano-objects become more interesting and attractive material than native chitin because of their usable form, low density, high surface area and promising mechanical properties. This work suggests a straightforward and environmentally friendly method for processing chitin nanofibers using dynamic high pressure homogenization. This technique proved to be a remarkably simple way to get ?-chitin into ?-chitin nanofibers from yellow lobster wastes with a uniform width (bellow 100 nm) and high aspect ratio; and may contributes to a major breakthrough in chitin applications. Moreover, the resulting ?-chitin nanofibers were characterized and compared with native ?-chitin in terms of chemical and crystal structure, thermal degradation and antifungal activity. The biological assays highlighted that the nano nature of chitin nanofibers plays an important role in the antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. PMID:25458302

  6. [The role of chitinase in antifungal activity of Bacillus sp. 739].

    PubMed

    Melen'tiev, A I; Aktuganov, G E; Galimzianova, N F

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of the crude extracellular chitinase of Bacillus sp. 739, an antagonist of phytopathogenic fungi, discerned a relationship between the chitinase and antifungal activities of this bacterium. Purified chitinase lost its ability to inhibit the growth of micromycetes. The antagonistic (antifungal) activity of crude chitinase was found to be located in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the enzyme, which does not possess chitinase activity. Both crude and purified chitinase were able to lyse the cell walls of intact mycelium. Accordingly, it may be inferred that the antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. 739 against micromycetes is largely determined by low-molecular-weight nonenzymatic substances whereas the role of chitinase is to utilize chitin, which is ubiquitously present in soil. PMID:11763782

  7. Cloning and overexpression of antifungal barley chitinase gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, S Isaac; Sakthivel, N

    2007-03-01

    Plant chitinases are pathogenesis-related proteins, which are believed to be involved in plant defense responses to pathogen infection. In this study, chitinase gene from barley was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chitinase (35 kDa) was isolated and purified. Since the protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies, the protein was solubilized and refolded. Purified chitinase exerted broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea (blight of tobacco), Pestalotia theae (leaf spot of tea), Bipolaris oryzae (brown spot of rice), Alternaria sp. (grain discoloration of rice), Curvularia lunata (leaf spot of clover) and Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight of rice). Due to the potential of broad-spectrum antifungal activity barley chitinase gene can be used to enhance fungal-resistance in crop plants such as rice, tobacco, tea and clover. PMID:17029984

  8. Antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Wang, Zhifang; Qiao, Xi; Li, Zhenjing; Li, Fengjuan; Chen, Mianhua; Wang, Yurong; Huang, Yufang; Cui, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    Streptomyces sp. TD-1 was identified as Streptomyces alboflavus based on its morphological characteristics, physiological properties, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The antifungal activity of the volatile-producing S. alboflavus TD-1 was investigated. Results showed that volatiles generated by S. alboflavus TD-1 inhibited storage fungi Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillum citrinum in vitro. GC/MS analysis revealed that 27 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified from the volatiles of S. alboflavus TD-1 mycelia, among which the most abundant compound was 2-methylisoborneol. Dimethyl disulfide was proved to have antifungal activity against F. moniliforme by fumigation in vitro. PMID:23351181

  9. A new furoquinoline alkaloid with antifungal activity from the leaves of Ruta chalepensis L.

    PubMed

    Emam, A; Eweis, M; Elbadry, M

    2010-12-01

    Bioassay-guided separation with an eye toward antifungal activity led to the isolation of the new alkaloid 5-(1?,1?-dimethylallyl)-8-hydroxyfuro[2-3-b] quinoline (1) and the known biscoumarin daphnoretin (2) as the active constituents of the chloroform extract obtained from the leaves of Ruta chalepensis. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectral characteristics (NMR, UV, and MS) and were compared with the literature. The antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium solani, which cause root-rot and wilt diseases in several economically important food crops such as potato, sugar beet, and tomato. PMID:22491304

  10. In vitro susceptibility of Conidiobolus lamprauges recovered from sheep to antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Tondolo, Juliana Simoni Moraes; de Loreto, Érico Silva; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2013-10-25

    Data regarding the susceptibility of Conidiobolus lamprauges is limited and there is no consensus about the optimal treatment for infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of six C. lamprauges strains isolated from sheep conidiobolomycosis to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, flucytosine, and terbinafine using the CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique. Terbinafine was the most active (MIC range <0.06-0.5 ?g/mL). Resistance or reduced susceptibility was observed for amphotericin B and azole and echinocandin antifungals. Additional studies are necessary to determine the therapeutic potential of terbinafine as monotherapy or in combination therapy with other antifungals. PMID:23958402

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of fluconazole analogs with triazole-modified scaffold as potent antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Badali, Hamid; Irannejad, Hamid; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Emami, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    In order to find new azole antifungals, we have recently designed a series of triazole alcohols in which one of the 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl group in fluconazole structure has been replaced with 4-amino-5-aryl-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole motif. In this paper, we focused on the structural refinement of the primary lead, by removing the amino group from the structure to achieve 5-aryl-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole derivatives 10a-i and 11a-i. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of title compounds demonstrated that most compounds had potent inhibitory activity against Candida species. Among them, 5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)triazole analogs 10h and 11h with MIC values of <0.01 to 0.5?g/mL were 4-256 times more potent than fluconazole against Candida species. PMID:25740636

  12. New synthesis and biological evaluation of benzothiazole derivates as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Herrera Cano, Natividad; Ballari, María S; López, Abel G; Santiago, Ana N

    2015-04-15

    In search of new antifungal agrochemicals that could replace commercially available, aryl-2-mercaptobenzothiazoles were synthesized. They were prepared by two methodologies, using both photostimulated reaction and microwave assisted reaction. These reactions took place without the use of metallic catalyst by a one-pot procedure with excellent yields (70-98%). Synthesized compounds were evaluated for fungal growth inhibition against Botrytis cinerea. Most of the compounds have an excellent antifungal activity, and three of these showed a superior inhibitory effect to commercial fungicide Triadimefon. IC50 values observed for 2-(phenylthio)benzothiazole, 2-(2-chlorophenylthio)benzothiazole, and 2-(3-chlorophenyl thio)benzothiazole were 0.75, 0.69, and 0.65 ?g mL(-1), respectively. PMID:25797910

  13. Antifungal activity of hypothemycin against Peronophythora litchii in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liangxiong; Xue, Jinghua; Wu, Ping; Wang, Duoduo; Lin, Lijing; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi

    2013-10-23

    The antifungal activity of a natural resorcylic acid lactone, hypothemycin (HPM), against Peronophythora litchii in vitro and in vivo was investigated. HPM treatment substantially suppressed spore germination of P. litchi, with the inhibition rate of 100% when 0.78 ?g/mL HPM was applied. Similarly, mycelial growth of P. litchii was efficiently inhibited. Furthermore, HPM caused the ultrastructural modifications of P. litchii, including the disruption of the cell wall and the endomembrane system, especially the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and vacuoles, which led to the destruction of the cellular integrity. Moreover, application of HPM significantly reduced decay and suppressed peel browning of postharvest litchi fruit inoculated with P. litchii during storage at 28 °C. Overall, these findings suggested that HPM exhibited excellent antifungal activity against P. litchii both in vitro and in vivo, which could be helpful for the storage of harvest litchi fruit. PMID:24106914

  14. Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

    2014-06-15

    The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, ?-pinene, linalool, and ?-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, ?-terpinene, linalool, and ?-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. PMID:24491729

  15. Endophytic fungi diversity of aquatic/riparian plants and their antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Chun-An; Liu, Chen-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Fei

    2010-02-01

    Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and 44 (21%) were sterile mycelia. There were significant differences in the colonization frequency of endophytes between the five plant species (X~2=51.128, P<0.001, Chi-square test). The riparian plants harboured more endophytes than the submerged plants. The antifungal activity of these isolates against Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae in vitro were tested and 28 (13.1%) isolates showed antifungal activities with more than 30% growth inhibition rate against the two pathogens. PMID:20221722

  16. Triazole derivatives with improved in vitro antifungal activity over azole drugs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shichong; Chai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yanwei; Cao, Yongbing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Qiuye; Zhang, Dazhi; Jiang, Yuanying; Yan, Tianhua; Sun, Qingyan

    2014-01-01

    A series of triazole antifungal agents with piperidine side chains was designed and synthesized. The results of antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the compounds exhibited moderate-to-excellent activities. Molecular docking between 8d and the active site of Candida albicans CYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results. The triazole interacts with the iron of the heme group. The difluorophenyl group is located in the S3 subsite and its fluorine atom (2-F) can form H-bonds with Gly307. The side chain is oriented into the S4 subsite and formed hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions with the amino residues. Moreover, the phenyl group in the side chain interacts with the phenol group of Phe380 through the formation of ?-? face-to-edge interactions. PMID:24748772

  17. Chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques used in the analysis of triazole antifungal agents-a review.

    PubMed

    Ekiert, R J; Krzek, J; Talik, P

    2010-09-15

    Systematic review of literature coupled with integrative research of published data for triazole antifungal agents was done. The investigated literature covered chromatographic and electrophoretic methods developed in the last 10 years (2000-2009). The aim of this review was to compare different methodologies, assess preferences in the selection of analytical methods and to find still existing analytical problems. Last decade is characterized by dynamic development of instrumental methods, that results in advance and diversity of applied analytical procedures. The main focus was given to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the technique of choice in the analysis of most of pharmaceuticals. The review includes literature on 8 triazole antifungal drugs: fluconazole, itraconazole and terconazole from the first generation and posaconazole, voriconazole, ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole classified in second generation. Investigations of pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples were considered. PMID:20801303

  18. Supramolecular effects on the antifungal activity of cyclodextrin/di-n-decyldimethylammonium chloride mixtures.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Loďc; Lubart, Quentin; Dewilde, Anny; Aubry, Jean-Marie; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2012-08-15

    Candidiasis infections are growing problem worldwide especially for the immunocompromised individuals. Di-n-decyldimethylammonium chloride is one of the most common antifungal agents used to clean medical devices. The current study examines the antifungal mechanism of di-n-decyldimethylammonium cation and its cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. Depending on the type of cyclodextrin (?-, ?- or ?-CD), inclusion complexes can be as active as ammonium alone in terms of microorganism death (fungicidal activity). Moreover, with ?-CD inclusion complexes, synergism is observed against fungus growth (fungistatic activity). Based on molecular dynamics, we propose a mechanism supported by cell number, selective electrode and ?-potential measurements as a function of time. The mechanism involves four steps: (i) the positively-charged complex diffuses through the solution, (ii) it adsorbs onto the fungus membrane surface by electrostatic interaction, (iii) then it dissociates and the ammonium inserts in the microorganism membrane, and (iv) the change of the cell surface charge induces cell lysis. PMID:22406295

  19. Cyclic Colisporifungin and Linear Cavinafungins, Antifungal Lipopeptides Isolated from Colispora cavincola.

    PubMed

    Ortíz-López, Francisco Javier; Monteiro, Maria Cândida; González-Menéndez, Víctor; Tormo, José R; Genilloud, Olga; Bills, Gerald F; Vicente, Francisca; Zhang, Chaowei; Roemer, Terry; Singh, Sheo B; Reyes, Fernando

    2015-03-27

    Colisporifungin (1), a cyclic depsilipopeptide structurally related to the aselacins, and cavinafungins A and B, two linear peptides, were isolated from liquid culture broths of the hitherto unstudied fungus Colispora cavincola using a Candida albicans whole-cell assay as well as a bioassay to detect compounds potentiating the antifungal activity of caspofungin. The structural elucidation, including the absolute configuration of the new molecules, was accomplished using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and Marfey's analysis. The cyclic peptide colisporifungin displayed a strong potentiation of the growth inhibitory effect of caspofungin against Aspergillus fumigatus and, to a lesser extent, against Candida albicans. The linear peptides displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activities inhibiting growth of Candida species (MIC values 0.5-4 ?g/mL) as well as A. fumigatus with a prominent inhibition of 8 ?g/mL. PMID:25636062

  20. Effect of chitosan and its derivatives as antifungal and preservative agents on postharvest green asparagus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miao; Wu, Chu; Ren, Gerui; Liang, Xinle; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-07-15

    The antifungal activity and effect of high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) and carboxymethyl chitosan (C-chitosan) coatings on postharvest green asparagus were evaluated. L-chitosan and H-chitosan efficiently inhibited the radial growth of Fusarium concentricum separated from postharvest green asparagus at 4 mg/ml, which appeared to be more effective in inhibiting spore germination and germ tube elongation than that of C-chitosan. Notably, spore germination was totally inhibited by L-chitosan and H-chitosan at 0.05 mg/ml. Coated asparagus did not show any apparent sign of phytotoxicity and maintained good quality over 28 days of cold storage, according to the weight loss and general quality aspects. Present results inferred that chitosan could act as an attractive preservative agent for postharvest green asparagus owing to its antifungal activity and its ability to stimulate some defense responses during storage. PMID:24594161

  1. Isolation of cicadin, a novel and potent antifungal peptide from dried juvenile cicadas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2002-01-01

    A single-chained antifungal protein with a molecular weight of 6.5 kDa and displaying a novel N-terminal sequence was isolated from dried juvenile cicadas which are used in traditional Chinese medicine, by using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose and then gel filtration on a Superdex peptide column. The peptide, designated cicadin, exerted potent antifungal activity with IC(50) values at nonomolar concentrations against a variety of fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Coprinus comatus. Cicadin suppressed the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and stimulated the proliferation of murine splenocytes. PMID:11814612

  2. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Yong-Fei; Zhang, Mao; Li, Sheng-Kun; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shen, Li; Wang, Jian-Xin; Qian, Shao-Song; Zhu, Hai-Liang; Ye, Yong-Hao

    2015-01-14

    A series of 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone derivatives were designed and synthesized as antifungal agents. Their structures were determined based on (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, MS, elemental analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The antifungal activities were evaluated against four phytopathogenic fungi including Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium graminearum and Phytophthora capsici, by the mycelium growth inhibition method in vitro. Compound 5p exhibited significant anti-phytopathogenic activity, with the EC50 values of 0.18, 2.28, 1.01, and 1.85 ?g mL(-1), respectively. In vivo testing demonstrated that 5p was effective in the control of rice sheath blight, rape sclerotinia rot and fusarium head blight. A 3D-QSAR model was built for a systematic SAR profile to explore more potent 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone analogs as novel fungicides. PMID:25374053

  3. Antifungal Activity of Denture Soft Lining Material Modified by Silver Nanoparticles—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chladek, Grzegorz; Mertas, Anna; Barszczewska-Rybarek, Izabela; Nalewajek, Teresa; ?mudzki, Jaros?aw; Król, Wojciech; ?ukaszczyk, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Soft liner materials in oral cavity environments are easily colonized both by fungi and dental plaque. These factors are the cause of mucosal infections. The microorganism that most frequently colonizes soft liner materials is Candida albicans. Colonization occurs on the surface of materials and within materials. A solution to this problem might involve modification of soft liner materials with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this article, we present results showing the antifungal efficacy of silicone soft lining materials modified with AgNPs. The modification process was conducted by dissolving both material components (base and catalyst) in a colloidal solution of AgNPs and evaporating the solvent. Composites with various AgNP concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, 120 and 200 ppm) were examined. The in vitro antifungal efficacy (AFE) of composite samples was 16.3% to 52.5%. PMID:21845108

  4. Additive potential of ginger starch on antifungal potency of honey against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Ahmed; Noureddine, Djebli; SM, Hammoudi; Saad, Aissat; Bourabeh, Akila; Houari, Hemida

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the additive action of ginger starch on the antifungal activity of honey against Candida albicans (C. albicans). Methods C. albicans was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four varieties of Algerian honey. Lower concentrations of honey than the MIC were incubated with a set of concentrations of starch and then added to media to determine the minimum additive inhibitory concentration (MAIC). Results The MIC for the four varieties of honey without starch against C. albicans ranged between 38% and 42% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a MIC drop was noticed with each variety. MAIC of the four varieties ranged between 32% honey (v/v) with 4% starch and 36% honey (v/v) with 2% starch. Conclusions The use of ginger starch allows honey benefit and will constitute an alternative way against the resistance to antifungal agents. PMID:23569909

  5. Antifungal Activity of Black Tea Polyphenols (Catechins and Theaflavins) against Candida Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. M. Sitheeque; G. J. Panagoda; J. Yau; A. M. T. Amarakoon; U. R. N. Udagama; L. P. Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The polyphenols catechins and theaflavins in black tea have been shown to possess many medicinal properties, including anticancer activity and some antifungal characteristics, but there have been few studies of their anti-Candida activity. In this paper we report the results of our study of the anti-Candida activity of tea polyphenols. Methods: The effects of 4 different concentrations of catechins

  6. Roles of calcineurin and Crz1 in antifungal susceptibility and virulence of Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Taiga; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Inamine, Tatsuo; Nagayoshi, Yosuke; Saijo, Tomomi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Seki, Masafumi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2010-04-01

    A Candida glabrata calcineurin mutant exhibited increased susceptibility to both azole antifungal and cell wall-damaging agents and was also attenuated in virulence. Although a mutant lacking the downstream transcription factor Crz1 displayed a cell wall-associated phenotype intermediate to that of the calcineurin mutant and was modestly attenuated in virulence, it did not show increased azole susceptibility. These results suggest that calcineurin regulates both Crz1-dependent and -independent pathways depending on the type of stress. PMID:20100876

  7. The effects of antifungal substances on some zoosporic fungi (Kingdom Fungi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. Gleason; A. V. Marano

    2011-01-01

    Zoosporic fungi constitute a large group of true fungi which inhabit freshwater, brackish, marine and soil ecosystems. In\\u000a general, very little is known about the effects of antifungal substances on the growth and survival of most species. This\\u000a review focuses on experimental research with those isolates which have been studied, especially in some species of Synchytrium, Olpidium, Batrachochytrium, Allomyces, Blastocladiella,

  8. Increased antifungal antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, M; Paulovicova, E; Paulovicova, L; Majer, I; Tedlova, E; Novosadova, H; Tibenska, E; Tedla, M; Bucova, M

    2015-04-01

    The recent studies suggest a role of fungi in development of sarcoidosis. Moreover, the immune response in sarcoidosis and fungal infection shows a striking similarity. We formulated a hypothesis of the possible increase in antifungal antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum in pulmonary sarcoidosis. BALF and serum levels of IgG-, IgM- and IgA-specific antibodies against the cell wall ?-D-glucan and mannan of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested in 47 patients (29 pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and 18 patients with other interstitial lung diseases (ILD - control group)) and 170 healthy controls. Our results proved: (1) an increase in IgG-, IgM- and IgA-specific antifungal antibodies in BALF in pulmonary sarcoidosis compared with the control group (C. albicans: IgG: P = 0.0329, IgM: P = 0.0076, IgA: P = 0.0156; S. cerevisiae: IgG: P = 0.0062, IgM: P = 0.0367, IgA: P = 0.0095) and (2) elevated levels of serum antifungal antibodies in pulmonary sarcoidosis compared with healthy controls (C. albicans: IgG: P = 0.0329, IgM: P = 0.0076, IgA: P = 0.0156; S. cerevisiae: IgG: P > 0.05, IgM: P < 0.05, IgA: P < 0.001). The study showed increased serum and BALF levels of antifungal antibodies in pulmonary sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that fungal infection is one of the possible aetiologic agents of sarcoidosis is interesting and deserves further attention. PMID:25641379

  9. Facile preparation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on chitin nanofiber surfaces to endow antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Tsukiyama, Yui; Yukawa, Taisuke; Egusa, Mayumi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles were prepared on chitin nanofiber surfaces by UV light reduction of silver ions. The chitin nanofibers could be efficient substrates to immobilize silver nanoparticles with stable dispersion states. The dispersion and the nanocomposite film with acrylic resin showed characteristic absorption property in the visible light region due to the effect of the silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles endowed strong antifungal activity to chitin nanofibers. PMID:25498704

  10. Modulation of histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation as an antifungal therapeutic strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Wurtele; Sarah Tsao; Guylaine Lépine; Alaka Mullick; Jessy Tremblay; Paul Drogaris; Eun-Hye Lee; Pierre Thibault; Alain Verreault; Martine Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen that causes serious systemic and mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. In yeast, histone H3 Lys56 acetylation (H3K56ac) is an abundant modification regulated by enzymes that have fungal-specific properties, making them appealing targets for antifungal therapy. Here we demonstrate that H3K56ac in C. albicans is regulated by the RTT109 and HST3 genes, which respectively

  11. Fluorescence imaging of human cells with a novel conjugate of the antifungal nystatin.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Sumbla; Sturzu, Alexander; Kalbacher, Hubert; Nagele, Thomas; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Horger, Marius; Ernemann, Ulrike; Heckl, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    The antitumor activity of antibacterial and antifungal compounds has been of interest in the past. In several investigations glycopeptide antibiotics like bleomycin and antifungal agents like itraconazole have shown direct positive results whereas antifungal polyenes such as amphotericin B have been shown to potentiate the effects of antitumor agents. After having investigated the fluorescence-marked antibacterial glycopeptides vancomycin and ramoplanin on various malignant and healthy human cells in previous studies, the present work is focused on the antifungal polyene nystatin. We coupled nystatin to the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). After confirming the correct mass by mass spectrometry the effect of the conjugate on nine different human cell lines (two benign and seven tumor cell lines) was examined. The character of the uptake was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the uptake was quantified by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The addition of propidium iodide (PI) allowed for detection and quantification of cell membrane disruption caused by the fluorescein-nystatin conjugate. Uptake of the conjugate was found to vary among the nine cell lines investigated. Conjugate uptake was strongest after 6 hours in most cell lines. Only the two prostate carcinoma cell lines PC3 and LNCaP showed further increase in uptake after long-time (24h) incubation. PI staining in general correlated well with the conjugate FITC staining values. The Colo205 colon carcinoma cell line and the U373 and LN18 glioblastoma cell lines exhibited very low conjugate uptake and PI staining. The results indicate that this conjugate shows potential for future imaging studies on certain human cancer cells. PMID:24725140

  12. Population-Based Survey of Filamentous Fungi and Antifungal Resistance in Spain (FILPOP Study)

    PubMed Central

    Mellado, E.; Peláez, T.; Pemán, J.; Zapico, S.; Alvarez, M.; Rodríguez-Tudela, J. L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2013-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of and antifungal resistance in Spanish clinical strains of filamentous fungi isolated from deep tissue samples, blood cultures, and respiratory samples. The study was conducted in two different periods (October 2010 and May 2011) to analyze seasonal variations. A total of 325 strains were isolated in 29 different hospitals. The average prevalence was 0.0016/1,000 inhabitants. Strains were identified by sequencing of DNA targets and susceptibility testing by the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing reference procedure. The most frequently isolated genus was Aspergillus, accounting for 86.3% of the isolates, followed by Scedosporium at 4.7%; the order Mucorales at 2.5%; Penicillium at 2.2%, and Fusarium at 1.2%. The most frequent species was Aspergillus fumigatus (48.5%), followed by A. flavus (8.4%), A. terreus (8.1%), A. tubingensis (6.8%), and A. niger (6.5%). Cryptic/sibling Aspergillus species accounted for 12% of the cases. Resistance to amphotericin B was found in 10.8% of the isolates tested, while extended-spectrum triazole resistance ranged from 10 to 12.7%, depending on the azole tested. Antifungal resistance was more common among emerging species such as those of Scedosporium and Mucorales and also among cryptic species of Aspergillus, with 40% of these isolates showing resistance to all of the antifungal compounds tested. Cryptic Aspergillus species seem to be underestimated, and their correct classification could be clinically relevant. The performance of antifungal susceptibility testing of the strains implicated in deep infections and multicentric studies is recommended to evaluate the incidence of these cryptic species in other geographic areas. PMID:23669377

  13. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  14. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  15. Syk kinase signalling couples to the Nlrp3 inflammasome for anti-fungal host defence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Gross; Hendrik Poeck; Michael Bscheider; Catherine Dostert; Nicole Hannesschläger; Stefan Endres; Gunther Hartmann; Aubry Tardivel; Edina Schweighoffer; Victor Tybulewicz; Attila Mocsai; Jürg Tschopp; Jürgen Ruland

    2009-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a serious threat, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a key pro-inflammatory factor in innate antifungal immunity. The mechanism by which the mammalian immune system regulates IL-1beta production after fungal recognition is unclear. Two signals are generally required for IL-1beta production: an NF-kappaB-dependent signal that induces the synthesis of pro-IL-1beta (p35), and a second signal that

  16. Caspofungin as antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) often receive intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) as antifungal prophylaxis. There are no guidelines for antifungal prophylaxis in children in this situation. Caspofungin (CAS), a broad-spectrum echinocandin, could be an effective alternative with lower nephrotoxicity than L-AmB. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of CAS in our center, and compared the results with L-AmB as antifungal monoprophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. 60 pediatric patients received L-AmB (1 or 3?mg/kg bw/day) and another 60 patients received CAS (50?mg/m2/day) as antifungal monoprophylaxis starting on day one after HSCT. The median ages of patients receiving L-AmB and CAS were 7.5?years and 9.5?years, respectively. Results No proven breakthrough fungal infection occurred in either group during the median treatment period of 23?days in the L-AmB group and 24?days in the CAS group. One patient receiving CAS developed probable invasive aspergillosis. During L-AmB treatment, potassium levels significantly decreased below normal values. Patients treated with L-AmB had more drug-related side effects and an increased need for oral supplementation with potassium, sodium bicarbonate and calcium upon discharge as compared with the CAS group. CAS was well-tolerated and safe in this cohort of immunocompromised pediatric patients, who underwent high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT. Conclusion Prophylactic CAS and L-AmB showed similar efficacy in this biggest cohort of pediatric patients after allogeneic HSCT reported, so far. A prospective randomized trial in children is warranted to allow for standardized guidelines. PMID:22747637

  17. Essential oil compounds from Agastache rugosa as antifungal agents against Trichophyton species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seungwon Shin

    2004-01-01

    The antifungal activities of the essential oil fromAgastache rugosa and its main component, estragole, combined with ketoconazole, one of the azole antibiotics commonly used to treat infections\\u000a caused byTrichophyton species, were evaluated in this study. The combined effects were measured by the checkerboard microtiter and the disk diffusion\\u000a tests, againstT. erinacei, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. schoenleinii andT. soudanense. Susceptibility

  18. Alocasin, an anti-fungal protein from rhizomes of the giant taro Alocasia macrorrhiza

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. X Wang; T. B Ng

    2003-01-01

    An anti-fungal protein designated alocasin was isolated from the rhizomes of the giant taro Alocasia macrorrhiza. The isolation protocol involved ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)–cellulose, ion exchange chromatography on sulfopropyl (SP)–Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Alocasin, which was unadsorbed on DEAE–cellulose and SP–Sepharose, possessed the N-terminal sequence APEGEV, which exhibited some similarity to that of the miraculin-like

  19. Antifungal activity of Syzygium cumini against Ascochyta rabiei–the cause of chickpea blight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khajista Jabeen; Arshad Javaid

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane extracts from leaves, fruit, root-bark and stem-bark of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels were tested for their antifungal activity against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of blight disease of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Different concentrations, namely 1, 2, …, 5% of both aqueous and the two organic solvent extracts were used in this study. Aqueous

  20. Prokaryotic expression of a constitutively expressed Tephrosia villosa defensin and its potent antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vijayan; Lalitha Guruprasad; P. B. Kirti

    2008-01-01

    Plant defensins are small, highly stable, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides produced by the plants for inhibiting a broad-spectrum\\u000a of microbial pathogens. Some of the well-characterized plant defensins exhibit potent antifungal activity on certain pathogenic\\u000a fungal species only. We characterized a defensin, TvD1 from a weedy leguminous herb, Tephrosia villosa. The open reading frame of the cDNA was 228 bp, which codes for

  1. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms on titanium discs with different surface roughness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. P. Tsang; H. Ng; A. S. McMillan

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that fungal biofilms have increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, limited information is available\\u000a on the formation of candidal biofilms on implant surfaces with different surface roughness and their resistance to conventional\\u000a antifungal therapy. In the current study, the effect of increasing the surface roughness of titanium discs on the susceptibility\\u000a of Candida albicans biofilms to

  2. Effect of reduced oxygen on the antifungal susceptibility of clinically relevant aspergilli.

    PubMed

    Binder, Ulrike; Maurer, Elisabeth; Lackner, Michaela; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2015-03-01

    The influence of hypoxia on the in vitro activities of amphotericin B, azoles, and echinocandins against Aspergillus spp. was evaluated by comparing MICs, minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), and epidemiological cutoffs (ECOFFs). Changes of MIC distributions due to hypoxia largely depend on the method, the species, and the growth ability under hypoxia. The activities of antifungals were not significantly altered under hypoxia, except for Aspergillus terreus, for which the activity changed from fungicidal to fungistatic. PMID:25547350

  3. Disseminated mucormycosis in a paediatric patient: Lichthemia corymbifera successfully treated with combination antifungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anita; Cooper, Celia; Davis, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a severe fungal infection that largely affects immunocompromised individuals. It carries a high morbidity and mortality rate and is characterised by extensive angioinvasion and necrosis of host tissue. This case report details success in treating disseminated mucormycosis in a paediatric patient with an underlying haematological malignancy. Treatment included institution of combination antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin, aggressive surgical debridement of infected tissue and reversal of underlying immunosuppression. PMID:25379392

  4. Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 as a novel food-grade antifungal agent for bakery products.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Liam A M; Zannini, Emanuele; Dal Bello, Fabio; Pawlowska, Agata; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2011-04-29

    Mould spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in bakery industry and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. The reduction of mould growth in bakery products is thus of crucial importance and there is great interest to develop safe and efficient strategies for this purpose. In this study Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of antifungal compounds active against common bread spoilage fungi. Among the indicator moulds, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium culmorum were the most sensitive organisms. Several antifungal compounds were found to be present in synthetic medium inoculated with L. amylovorus DSM19280 strain, some of them being reported here for the first time. Wheat doughs fermented with L. amylovorus DSM19280 had good rheological properties and the breads thereof were of high quality as shown by rheofermentometer and texture analyser measurements. The results were compared with those obtained with a control non-antifungal L. amylovorus DSM20531(T) strain, a non-acidified and a chemically acidified dough. The quality of sourdough and bread fermented with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 was comparable to that obtained by using L. amylovorus DSM20531 (T). Additionally, breads were evaluated for the ability to retard the growth of Fusarium culmorum FST 4.05, Aspergillus niger FST4.21, Penicillium expansum FST 4.22, Penicillium roqueforti FST 4.11 and fungal flora from the bakery environment. The biological preservation of bread with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 was also compared to the most commonly used antifungal agent Calcium propionate. Breads containing sourdough fermented with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 were more effective in extending the shelf life of bread than the calcium propionate. PMID:21429613

  5. Fungicidal Action of Aureobasidin A, a Cyclic Depsipeptide Antifungal Antibiotic, againstSaccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MASAHIRO ENDO; KAZUTOH TAKESAKO; IKUNOSHIN KATO; ANDHIDEYO YAMAGUCHI

    1997-01-01

    Aureobasidin A, an antifungal antibiotic inhibiting a wide range of pathogenic fungi, is lethal for growing cells of susceptible fungi. We did cytological studies on the mechanism of its fungicidal action against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When cultures were treated with 5.0 mg of aureobasidin A per ml, the numbers of viablecellsstartedtodecreaseafter2to3hofincubation,andmostcellshadlostviabilityafter5to6h.When cell death in the treated cultures began, amino acids released

  6. Ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hexiang Wang; T. B. Ng

    2006-01-01

    A 15-kDa antifungal protein, designated ganodermin, was isolated from the medical mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. The isolation procedure utilized chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel, CM-Sepharose and Superdex 75. Ganodermin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose. Ganodermin inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Physalospora piricola with an IC50 value of 15.2?M,

  7. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Opportunistic Fungi in the Genera Verruconis and Ochroconis

    PubMed Central

    Samerpitak, K.; Rijs, A. J. M. M.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Mouton, J. W.; Verweij, P. E.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Species of Verruconis and species of Ochroconis are dematiaceous fungi generally found in the environment but having the ability to infect humans, dogs, cats, poultry, and fish. This study presents the antifungal susceptibility patterns of these fungi at the species level. Forty strains originating from clinical and environmental sources were phylogenetically identified at the species level by using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS). In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against eight antifungals, using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. The geometric mean MICs for amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), and posaconazole (POS) and minimum effective concentrations (MECs) for caspofungin (CAS) and anidulafungin (AFG) across the Ochroconis and Verruconis species were as follows, in increasing order. For Verruconis species, the values (?g/ml) were as follows: AFG, 0.04; POS, 0.25; ITC, 0.37; AMB, 0.50; CAS, 0.65; VRC, 0.96; 5FC, 10.45; and FLC, 47.25. For Ochroconis species, the values (?g/ml) were as follows: AFG, 0.06; POS, 0.11; CAS, 0.67; VRC, 2.76; ITC, 3.94; AMB, 5.68; 5FC, 34.48; and FLC, 61.33. Antifungal susceptibility of Ochroconis and Verruconis was linked with phylogenetic distance and thermotolerance. Echinocandins and POS showed the greatest in vitro activity, providing possible treatment options for Ochroconis and Verruconis infections. PMID:24687495

  8. Antifungal susceptibility patterns of opportunistic fungi in the genera Verruconis and Ochroconis.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, S; Samerpitak, K; Rijs, A J M M; Melchers, W J G; Mouton, J W; Verweij, P E; de Hoog, G S

    2014-06-01

    Species of Verruconis and species of Ochroconis are dematiaceous fungi generally found in the environment but having the ability to infect humans, dogs, cats, poultry, and fish. This study presents the antifungal susceptibility patterns of these fungi at the species level. Forty strains originating from clinical and environmental sources were phylogenetically identified at the species level by using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS). In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against eight antifungals, using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. The geometric mean MICs for amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), and posaconazole (POS) and minimum effective concentrations (MECs) for caspofungin (CAS) and anidulafungin (AFG) across the Ochroconis and Verruconis species were as follows, in increasing order. For Verruconis species, the values (?g/ml) were as follows: AFG, 0.04; POS, 0.25; ITC, 0.37; AMB, 0.50; CAS, 0.65; VRC, 0.96; 5FC, 10.45; and FLC, 47.25. For Ochroconis species, the values (?g/ml) were as follows: AFG, 0.06; POS, 0.11; CAS, 0.67; VRC, 2.76; ITC, 3.94; AMB, 5.68; 5FC, 34.48; and FLC, 61.33. Antifungal susceptibility of Ochroconis and Verruconis was linked with phylogenetic distance and thermotolerance. Echinocandins and POS showed the greatest in vitro activity, providing possible treatment options for Ochroconis and Verruconis infections. PMID:24687495

  9. Antifungal activity of lemongrass ( Cympopogon citratus L.) essential oil against key postharvest pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos G. Tzortzakis; Costas D. Economakis

    2007-01-01

    Lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus L.) oil (ranging between 25 and 500 ppm) was tested for antifungal activity against Colletotrichum coccodes, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium herbarum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in vitro. Oil-enrichment resulted in significant (P<0.05) reduction on subsequent colony development for the examined pathogens. Fungal spore production inhibited up to 70% at 25 ppm of lemongrass oil concentration when compared with equivalent

  10. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Cladophialophora carrionii, an Agent of Human Chromoblastomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, S.; de Hoog, G. S.; Badali, H.; Yang, L.; Najafzadeh, M. J.; Pan, B.; Curfs-Breuker, I.; Meis, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    A global collection of Cladophialophora carrionii strains (n = 81) was tested against nine antifungal drugs. MIC90s of all strains were as follows in increasing order: itraconazole and posaconazole, 0.063 ?g/ml; terbinafine, 0.125 ?g/ml; isavuconazole and voriconazole, 0.25 ?g/ml; caspofungin, 2 ?g/ml; micafungin, 4 ?g/ml; amphotericin B, 8 ?g/ml; and fluconazole, 64 ?g/ml. PMID:23380718

  11. Antifungal Azoles: Structural Insights into Undesired Tight Binding to Cholesterol-Metabolizing CYP46A1

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Natalia; Zheng, Wenchao; Stout, C. David

    2013-01-01

    Although there are currently three generations of antifungal azoles on the market, even the third-generation agents show undesirable interactions with human cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. CYP46A1 is a cholesterol-metabolizing P450 in the brain that tightly binds a number of structurally distinct azoles. Previously, we determined the crystal structures of CYP46A1 in complex with voriconazole and clotrimazole, and in the present work we cocrystallized the P450 with posaconazole at 2.5 Ĺ resolution. This long antifungal drug coordinates the P450 heme iron with the nitrogen atom of its terminal azole ring and adopts a linear configuration occupying the whole length of the substrate access channel and extending beyond the protein surface. Numerous drug-protein interactions determine the submicromolar Kd of posaconazole for CYP46A1. We compared the crystal structure of posaconazole-bound CYP46A1 with those of the P450 in complex with other drugs, including the antifungal voriconazole and clotrimazole. We also analyzed the accommodation of posaconazole in the active site of the target enzymes, CYPs 51, from several pathogenic species. These and the solution studies with different marketed azoles, collectively, allowed us to identify the determinants of tight azole binding to CYP46A1 and generate an overall picture of azole binding to this important P450. The data obtained suggest that development of CYP51-specific antifungal agents will continue to be a challenge. Therefore, structural understanding of the azole binding not only to CYPs 51 from the pathogenic species but also to different human P450s is required to deal efficiently with this challenge. PMID:23604141

  12. In vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against 55 clinical isolates of Fonsecaea spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Najafzadeh; H. Badali; M. T. Illnait-Zaragozi; Hoog de G. S; J. F. Meis

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against clinical isolates of Fonsecaea pedrosoi (n = 21), Fonsecaea monophora (n = 25), and Fonsecaea nubica (n = 9) were tested. The resulting MIC90s for all strains (n = 55) were as follows, in increasing order: posaconazole, 0.063 µg\\/ml; itraconazole, 0.125 µg\\/ml; isavuconazole, 0.25 µg\\/ml; voriconazole, 0.5 µg\\/ml; amphotericin B, 2

  13. Pharmacology, in vitro activity, and in vivo efficacy of new antifungal agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan P. Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain significant clinical challenges and are associated with high morbidity and mortality in\\u000a immunocompromised patients. Despite the availability of new antifungal agents, response rates against many of these infections\\u000a remain suboptimal. In addition, many of the clinically available agents have limited oral bioavailability, are associated\\u000a with adverse effects due to similarities between fungal and mammalian cells, or

  14. Microdilution in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala dermatitidis, a systemic opportunist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Badali; Hoog de G. S; M. Sudhadham; J. F. Meis

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro activities of eight antifungal agents were determined against clinical (n = 63 genotype A, n = 3 genotype B) and environmental (n = 2 genotype A, n = 13 genotype B) strains of Exophiala dermatitidis. The resulting MIC90s for all strains (N = 81) were, in increasing order, as follows: posaconazole, 0.125 ?g\\/ml; itraconazole, 0.25 ?g\\/ml; voriconazole,

  15. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Cladophialophora carrionii, an agent of human chromoblastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, S; de Hoog, G S; Badali, H; Yang, L; Najafzadeh, M J; Pan, B; Curfs-Breuker, I; Meis, J F; Liao, W

    2013-04-01

    A global collection of Cladophialophora carrionii strains (n = 81) was tested against nine antifungal drugs. MIC90s of all strains were as follows in increasing order: itraconazole and posaconazole, 0.063 ?g/ml; terbinafine, 0.125 ?g/ml; isavuconazole and voriconazole, 0.25 ?g/ml; caspofungin, 2 ?g/ml; micafungin, 4 ?g/ml; amphotericin B, 8 ?g/ml; and fluconazole, 64 ?g/ml. PMID:23380718

  16. Population-based survey of filamentous fungi and antifungal resistance in Spain (FILPOP Study).

    PubMed

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Mellado, E; Peláez, T; Pemán, J; Zapico, S; Alvarez, M; Rodríguez-Tudela, J L; Cuenca-Estrella, M

    2013-07-01

    A population-based survey was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of and antifungal resistance in Spanish clinical strains of filamentous fungi isolated from deep tissue samples, blood cultures, and respiratory samples. The study was conducted in two different periods (October 2010 and May 2011) to analyze seasonal variations. A total of 325 strains were isolated in 29 different hospitals. The average prevalence was 0.016/1,000 inhabitants [corrected]. Strains were identified by sequencing of DNA targets and susceptibility testing by the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing reference procedure. The most frequently isolated genus was Aspergillus, accounting for 86.3% of the isolates, followed by Scedosporium at 4.7%; the order Mucorales at 2.5%; Penicillium at 2.2%, and Fusarium at 1.2%. The most frequent species was Aspergillus fumigatus (48.5%), followed by A. flavus (8.4%), A. terreus (8.1%), A. tubingensis (6.8%), and A. niger (6.5%). Cryptic/sibling Aspergillus species accounted for 12% of the cases. Resistance to amphotericin B was found in 10.8% of the isolates tested, while extended-spectrum triazole resistance ranged from 10 to 12.7%, depending on the azole tested. Antifungal resistance was more common among emerging species such as those of Scedosporium and Mucorales and also among cryptic species of Aspergillus, with 40% of these isolates showing resistance to all of the antifungal compounds tested. Cryptic Aspergillus species seem to be underestimated, and their correct classification could be clinically relevant. The performance of antifungal susceptibility testing of the strains implicated in deep infections and multicentric studies is recommended to evaluate the incidence of these cryptic species in other geographic areas. PMID:23669377

  17. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? In vitro Antifungal Activity of some Well-Known Spices against Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Greger; S. Shangchote

    The bioautography of lipophilic extracts of some well-known spices showed clear inhibition zones indicating the presence of antifungal compounds. The extracts of Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Syzygium aromaticum (flower), Pimenta dioica (flower), and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (stem bark) showed the highest activities of inhibit spore germination with EC50 values between 30-112 ?g\\/mL against B. cinerea. The rhizome of Alpinia galanga with a

  18. Isolation of an antifungal thaumatin-like protein from kiwi fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hexiang Wang; Tzi Bun Ng

    2002-01-01

    A single-chain 21 kDa protein exhibiting antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and some suppressive effects on Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Coprinus comatus was isolated from kiwi fruits. The protein, designated kiwi fruit thaumatin-like protein, did not inhibit translation in the cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system but inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. It was purified to apparent homogeneity using a procedure involving saline

  19. Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms: Unique Efficacy of Amphotericin B Lipid Formulations and Echinocandins

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, D. M.; George, T.; Chandra, J.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Ghannoum, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilms, likely the predominant mode of device-related microbial infection, exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We examined antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms grown on a bioprosthetic model. In addition to conventional agents, we determined if new antifungal agents (triazoles, amphotericin B lipid formulations, and echinocandins) have activities against Candida biofilms. We also explored effects of preincubation of C. albicans cells with subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of drugs to see if they could modify subsequent biofilm formation. Finally, we used confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) to image planktonic- and biofilm-exposed blastospores to examine drug effects on cell structure. Candida biofilms were formed on silicone elastomer and quantified by tetrazolium and dry weight (DW) assays. Susceptibility testing of fluconazole, nystatin, chlorhexidine, terbenafine, amphotericin B (AMB), and the triazoles voriconazole (VRC) and ravuconazole revealed resistance in all Candida isolates examined when grown as biofilms, compared to planktonic forms. In contrast, lipid formulations of AMB (liposomal AMB and AMB lipid complex [ABLC]) and echinocandins (caspofungin [Casp] and micafungin) showed activity against Candida biofilms. Preincubation of C. albicans cells with sub-MIC levels of antifungals decreased the ability of cells to subsequently form biofilm (measured by DW; P < 0.0005). CSLM analysis of planktonic and biofilm-associated blastospores showed treatment with VRC, Casp, and ABLC resulted in morphological alterations, which differed with each agent. In conclusion, our data show that Candida biofilms show unique susceptibilities to echinocandins and AMB lipid formulations. PMID:12019089

  20. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest