Sample records for antifungals myclobutanil propiconazole

  1. COMPARATIVE LIVER P450 ENZYME ACTIVITY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY IN MICE TREATED WITH THE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES: MYCLOBUTANIL, PROPICONAZOLE AND TRIADIMETON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles used in agriculture and pharmaceutical products comprise a class of chemicals which inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis to act as fungicides. Both propiconazole and triadimefon are hepatotoxic and hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not a mouse liver tumorigen....

  2. Toxicity profiles in rats treated with tumorigenic and nontumorigenic triazole conazole fungicides: Propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Douglas C; Allen, James W; George, Michael H; Hester, Susan D; Sun, Guobin; Moore, Tanya; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Delker, Don; Winkfield, Ernest; Leavitt, Sharon; Nelson, Gail; Roop, Barbara C; Jones, Carlton; Thibodeaux, Julie; Nesnow, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Conazoles are a class of azole based fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceutical products. They have a common mode of antifungal action through inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Some members of this class have been shown to be hepatotoxic and will induce mouse hepatocellular tumors and/or rat thyroid follicular cell tumors. The particular mode of toxic and tumorigenic action for these compounds is not known, however it has been proposed that triadimefon-induced rat thyroid tumors arise through the specific mechanism of increased TSH. The present study was designed to identify commonalities of effects across the different conazoles and to determine unique features of the tissue responses that suggest a toxicity pathway and a mode of action for the observed thyroid response for triadimefon. Male Wistar/Han rats were treated with triadimefon (100, 500, 1800 ppm), propiconazole (100, 500, 2500 ppm), or myclobutanil (100, 500, 2000 ppm) in feed for 4, 30, or 90 days. The rats were evaluated for clinical signs, body and liver weight, histopathology of thyroid and liver, hepatic metabolizing enzyme activity, and serum T3, T4, TSH, and cholesterol levels. There was a dose-dependent increase in liver weight but not body weight for all treatments. The indication of cytochrome induction, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD) activity, had a dose-related increase at all time points for all conazoles. Uridine diphopho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT), the T4 metabolizing enzyme measured as glucuronidation of 1-naphthol, was induced to the same extent after 30 and 90 days for all three conazoles. Livers from all high dose treated rats had centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy after 4 days, while only triadimefon and propiconazole treated rats had hepatocyte hypertrophy after 30 days, and only triadimefon treated rats had hepatocyte hypertrophy after 90 days. Thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy, increased follicular cell proliferation, and colloid depletion were present only after 30 days in rats treated with the high dose of triadimefon. A dose-dependent decrease in T4 was present after 4 days with all 3 compounds but only the high doses of propiconazole and triadimefon produced decreased T4 after 30 days. T3 was decreased after high-dose triadimefon after 4 days and in a dose-dependent manner for all compounds after 30 days. Thyroid hormone levels did not differ from control values after 90 days and TSH was not increased in any exposure group. A unique pattern of toxic responses was not identified for each conazole and the hypothesized mode of action for triadimefon-induced thyroid gland tumors was not supported by the data. PMID:17178690

  3. Transcriptional Profiles in Liver from Mice Treated with Hepatotumorigenic and Nonhepatotumorigenic Triazole Conazole Fungicides: Propiconazole, Triadimefon, and Myclobutanil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM O. WARD; Don Delker; Susan Hester; Sheau-Fung Thai; Douglas Wolf; James Allen; Stephen Nesnow

    2006-01-01

    Conazoles are environmental and pharmaceutical fungicides. The present study relates the toxicological effects of conazoles to alterations of gene and pathway transcription and identifies potential modes of tumorigenic action. In a companion study employing conventional toxicological bioassays (Allen et al., 2006), male CD-1 mice were fed triadimefon, propiconazole, or myclobutanil in a continuous oral-dose regimen for 4, 30, or 90

  4. Transcriptional Profiles in Liver from Rats Treated with Tumorigenic and Non-tumorigenic Triazole Conazole Fungicides: Propiconazole, Triadimefon, and Myclobutanil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSAN D. HESTER; Douglas Wolf; Stephen Nesnow; Sheau-Fung Thai

    2006-01-01

    Conazoles are a class of fungicides used as pharmaceutical and agricultural agents. In chronic bioassays in rats, triadimefon was hepatotoxic and induced follicular cell adenomas in the thyroid gland, whereas, propiconazole and myclobutanil were hepatotoxic but had no effect on the thyroid gland. These conazoles administered in the feed to male Wistar\\/Han rats were found to induce hepatomegaly, induce high

  5. Toxicity profiles in mice treated with hepatotumorigenic and non-hepatotumorigenic triazole conazole fungicides: Propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil.

    PubMed

    Allen, James W; Wolf, Douglas C; George, Michael H; Hester, Susan D; Sun, Guobin; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Delker, Don A; Moore, Tanya; Jones, Carlton; Nelson, Gail; Roop, Barbara C; Leavitt, Sharon; Winkfield, Ernest; Ward, William O; Nesnow, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Conazoles comprise a class of fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceutical products. The fungicidal properties of conazoles are due to their inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Certain conazoles are tumorigenic in rodents; both propiconazole and triadimefon are hepatotoxic and hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not a mouse liver tumorigen. As a component of a large-scale study aimed at determining the mode(s) of action for tumorigenic conazoles, we report the results from comparative evaluations of liver and body weights, liver histopathology, cell proliferation, cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, and serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels after exposure to propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil. Male CD-1 mice were treated in the feed for 4, 30, or 90 days with triadimefon (0, 100, 500, or 1800 ppm), propiconazole (0, 100, 500, or 2500 ppm) or myclobutanil (0, 100, 500, or 2000 ppm). Alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (AROD) assays indicated that all 3 chemicals induced similar patterns of dose-related increases in metabolizing enzyme activity. PROD activities exceeded those of MROD, and EROD with propiconazole inducing the highest activities of PROD. Mice had similar patterns of dose-dependent increases in hepatocyte hypertrophy after exposure to the 3 conazoles. High-dose exposures to propiconazole and myclobutanil, but not triadimefon, were associated with early (4 days) increases in cell proliferation. All the chemicals at high doses reduced serum cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 30 days of treatment, while only triadimefon had this effect at 4 days of treatment and only myclobutanil and propiconazole at 90 days of treatment. Overall, the tumorigenic and nontumorigenic conazoles induced similar effects on mouse liver CYP enzyme activities and pathology. There was no specific pattern of tissue responses that could consistently be used to differentiate the tumorigenic conazoles, propiconazole, and triadimefon, from the nontumorigenic myclobutanil. These findings serve to anchor other transcriptional profiling studies aimed at probing differences in key events and modes of action for tumorigenic and nontumorigenic conazoles. PMID:17178687

  6. Transcriptional profiles in liver from rats treated with tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic triazole conazole fungicides: Propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil.

    PubMed

    Hester, Susan D; Wolf, Douglas C; Nesnow, Stephen; Thai, Sheau-Fung

    2006-01-01

    Conazoles are a class of fungicides used as pharmaceutical and agricultural agents. In chronic bioassays in rats, triadimefon was hepatotoxic and induced follicular cell adenomas in the thyroid gland, whereas, propiconazole and myclobutanil were hepatotoxic but had no effect on the thyroid gland. These conazoles administered in the feed to male Wistar/Han rats were found to induce hepatomegaly, induce high levels of pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, increase cell proliferation in the liver, increase serum cholesterol, decrease serum T3 and T4, and increase hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase activity. The goal of the present study was to define pathways that explain the biologic outcomes. Male Wistar/Han rats (3 per group), were exposed to the 3 conazoles in the feed for 4, 30, or 90 days of treatment at tumorigenic and nontumorigenic doses. Hepatic gene expression was determined using high-density Affymetrix GeneChips (Rat 230_2). Differential gene expression was assessed at the probe level using Robust Multichip Average analysis. Principal component analysis by treatment and time showed within group sample similarity and that the treatment groups were distinct from each other. The number of altered genes varied by treatment, dose, and time. The greatest number of altered genes was induced by triadimefon and propiconazole after 90 days of treatment, while myclobutanil had minimal effects at that time point. Pathway level analyses revealed that after 90 days of treatment the most significant numbers of altered pathways were related to cell signaling, growth, and metabolism. Pathway level analysis for triadimefon and propiconazole resulted in 71 altered pathways common to both chemicals. These pathways controlled cholesterol metabolism, activation of nuclear receptors, and N-ras and K-ras signaling. There were 37 pathways uniquely changed by propiconazole, and triadimefon uniquely altered 34 pathways. Pathway level analysis of altered gene expression resulted in a more complete description of the associated toxicological effects that can distinguish triadimefon from propiconazole and myclobutanil. PMID:17178689

  7. Transcriptional profiles in liver from mice treated with hepatotumorigenic and nonhepatotumorigenic triazole conazole fungicides: Propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil.

    PubMed

    Ward, William O; Delker, Don A; Hester, Susan D; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Wolf, Douglas C; Allen, James W; Nesnow, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Conazoles are environmental and pharmaceutical fungicides. The present study relates the toxicological effects of conazoles to alterations of gene and pathway transcription and identifies potential modes of tumorigenic action. In a companion study employing conventional toxicological bioassays (Allen et al., 2006), male CD-1 mice were fed triadimefon, propiconazole, or myclobutanil in a continuous oral-dose regimen for 4, 30, or 90 days. These conazoles were found to induce hepatomegaly, to induce high levels of hepatic pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, to increase hepatic cell proliferation, to decrease serum cholesterol, and to increase serum triglycerides. Differentially expressed genes and pathways were identified using Affymetrix GeneChips. Gene-pathway associations were obtained from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Biocarta, and MetaCore compendia. The pathway profiles of each conazole were different at each time point. In general, the number of altered metabolism, signaling, and growth pathways increased with time and dose and were greatest with propiconazole. All conazoles had effects on nuclear receptors as evidenced by increased expression and enzymatic activities of a series of related cytochrome P450s (CYP). A subset of altered genes and pathways distinguished the three conazoles from each other. Triadimefon and propiconazole both altered apoptosis, cell cycle, adherens junction, calcium signaling, and EGFR signaling pathways. Triadimefon produced greater changes in cholesterol biosynthesis and retinoic acid metabolism genes and in selected signaling pathways. Propiconazole had greater effects on genes responding to oxidative stress and on the IGF/P13K/AKt/PTEN/mTor and Wnt-beta-catenin pathways. In conclusion, while triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil had similar effects in mouse liver on hepatomegaly, histology, CYP activities, cell proliferation, and serum cholesterol, genomic analyses revealed major differences in their gene expression profiles. PMID:17178688

  8. Inhibition of Rat and Human Steroidogenesis by Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemicals that alter steroid production could interfere with male reproductive development and function. Three agricultural antifungal triazoles (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) that are known to modulate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and e...

  9. Toxicogenomic Effects Common to Triazole Antifungals and Conserved Between Rats and Humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple time-points and various study d...

  10. TOXICITY PROFILES IN MICE TREATED WITH HEPATOTUMORIGENIC AND NON-HEPATOTUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES: PROPICONAZOLE, TRIADIMEFON, AND MYCLOBUTANIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles comprise a class of fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceutical products. The fungicidal properties of conazoles are due to their inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Certain conazoles are tumorigenic in rodents; both propiconazole and triadimefon are hepatot...

  11. Toxicogenomic effects common to triazole antifungals and conserved between rats and humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber K. Goetz; David J. Dix

    2009-01-01

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple timepoints and various study designs, gene expression profiling was conducted on rat livers from three separate studies with triazole treatment groups ranging from 6 h after a single oral gavage

  12. Inhibition of rat and human steroidogenesis by triazole antifungals.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Amber K; Rockett, John C; Ren, Hongzu; Thillainadarajah, Inthirany; Dix, David J

    2009-12-01

    Environmental chemicals that alter steroid production could interfere with male reproductive development and function. Three agricultural antifungal triazoles that are known to modulate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and enzymatic activities were tested for effects on steroidogenesis using rat in vivo (triadimefon), rat in vitro (myclobutanil and triadimefon), and human in vitro (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) model systems. Hormone production was measured in testis organ cultures from untreated adult and neonatal rats, following in vitro exposure to 1, 10, or 100 muM of myclobutanil or triadimefon. Myclobutanil and triadimefon reduced media levels of testosterone by 40-68% in the adult and neonatal testis culture, and altered steroid production in a manner that indicated CYP17-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (CYP17A1) inhibition at the highest concentration tested. Rat to human comparison was explored using the H295R (human adrenal adenocarcinoma) cell line. Following 48 h exposure to myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon at 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 muM, there was an overall decrease in estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone by all three triazoles. These data indicate that myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon are weak inhibitors of testosterone production in vitro. However, in vivo exposure of rats to triazoles resulted in increased serum and intra-testicular testosterone levels. This discordance could be due to higher concentrations of triazoles tested in vitro, and differences within an in vitro model system lacking hepatic metabolism and neuroendocrine control. PMID:19938956

  13. Interactions between the antifungal drug myclobutanil and gold and silver nanoparticles in Penicillium digitatum investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Min; Singh, Dheeraj K; Ganbold, Erdene-Ochir; Dembereldorj, Uuriintuya; Jang, Seok-Won; Kim, Doseok; Choo, Jaebum; Kim, Sehun; Lee, Cheol Min; Yang, Sung Ik; Joo, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of an antifungal reagent, myclobutanil (MCB), was performed on Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) to estimate the drug-release behaviors in fungal cells. A density functional theory (DFT) calculation was introduced to predict a favorable binding site of MCB to either the Ag or Au atom. Myclobutanil was presumed to bind more strongly to Au than to Ag in their most stable, optimized geometries of the N4 atom in its 1,2,4-triazole unit binding to the metal atom. Strong intensities were observed in the Ag SERS spectra only at acidic pH values, whereas the most prominent peaks in the Au SERS spectra of MCB matched quite well with those of 1,2,4-triazole regardless of pH conditions. The Raman spectral intensities of the MCB-assembled Ag and Au NPs decreased after treatment with either potato dextrose agar (PDA) or glutathione (GSH). Darkfield microscopy and confocal SERS were performed to analyze the MCB-assembled metal NPs inside Penicillium digitatum fungal cells. The results suggested that MCB was released from the metal NPs in the intracellular GSH in the fungi because we observed only fungal cell peaks. PMID:24666947

  14. METABOLISM OF MYCLOBUTANIL AND TRIADIMEFON BY HUMAN AND RAT CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES AND LIVER MICROSOMES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism of two triazole-containing antifungal azoles was studied using expressed human and rat cytochrome P450s (CYP) and liver microsomes. Substrate depletion methods were used due to the complex array of metabolites produced from myclobutanil and triadimefon. Myclobutanil wa...

  15. CAR and PXR-dependent transcriptional changes in the mouse liver after exposure to propiconazole

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to the conazoles propiconazole and triadimefon but not myclobutanilled to tumors in mice after 2 years. Transcript profiling studies in the livers ofwild-type mice after short-term exposure to the conazoles revealed signatures indicating the involvement ofthe nuclear rec...

  16. 77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...classified propiconazole as possible human carcinogen used the reference dose (RfD) approach...indicates that propiconazole is a threshold carcinogen. Propiconazole produced liver...Propiconazole is classified as a possible human carcinogen with risk quantitated using a...

  17. INDUCTION OF CYTOCHROME P450 ISOFORMS IN RAT LIVER BY TWO CONAZOLES, TRIADIMEFON AND MYCLOBUTANIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. This study was undertaken to examine the inductive effects of two triazole antifungal agents, myclobutanil and triadimefon on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and on the activities of CYP enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were dosed by gavage for 1...

  18. Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat liver by two conazoles, myclobutanil and triadimefon.

    PubMed

    Sun, G; Grindstaff, R D; Thai, S F; Lambert, G R; Tully, D B; Dix, D J; Nesnow, S

    2007-02-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the inductive effects of two triazole antifungal agents, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and on the activities of CYP enzymes in male Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were dosed with the conazoles at three dose levels by gavage for 14 days: myclobutanil (150, 75, and 10mgkg(-1) body weight day(-1); triadimefon (115, 50, and 10 mg kg(-1) body weight day-'), which included their maximum tolerated dose levels (MTD). Both myclobutanil and triadimefon significantly induced pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase activities at their MTD levels: myclobutanil, 8.1-fold at 150mgkg(-1) body weight day- ; and triadimefon, 18.5-fold at 115mgkg(-1) body weight day-'. Benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase activities were similarly increased: myclobutanil, 13.3-fold; triadimefon, 27.7-fold. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were used to characterize the mRNA expression of specific CYP genes induced by these two conazoles. Myclobutanil and triadimefon treatment at their MTD levels significantly increased rat hepatic mRNA expression of CYP2B1 (14.3- and 54.6-fold), CYP3A23/3A1 (2.2- and 7.3-fold), and CYP3A2 (1.5- and 1.7-fold). Western immunoblots of rat hepatic microsomal proteins identified significantly increased levels of CYP isoforms after myclobutanil or triadimefon treatment at their MTD levels: CYP2BI/2 (4.8- and 5.3-fold), and CYP3A1 (2.2- and 2.9-fold). Triadimefon also increased CYP3A2 immunoreactive protein levels 1.8-fold. These results indicate that triadimefon and myclobutanil, like other triazole-containing conazoles, induced CYP2B and CYP3A families of cytochromes in rat liver. PMID:17484520

  19. 76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...propiconazole as Group C possible human carcinogen and recommended that for the purpose...indicate that propiconazole is a threshold carcinogen. Propiconazole produced liver tumors...Classification: Group C, possible human carcinogen, RfD approach for risk...

  20. Dissipation and residue of myclobutanil in lychee.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Sun, Haibin; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Siwei

    2012-06-01

    The dissipation and residue of myclobutanil in lychee under field conditions were studied. To determine myclobutanil residue in samples, an analytical method with a florisil column clean-up and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed. Recoveries were found in the range of 83.24 %-89.00 % with relative standard deviations of 2.67 %-9.88 %. This method was successfully applied to analyze the dissipation and residue of myclobutanil in lychee in Guangdong and Guangxi Province, China. The half lives in lychee were from 2.2 to 3.4 days. The residues of myclobutanil in lychee flesh were all below the limit of quantification (LOQ) value (0.01 mg/kg), and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The terminal residues of myclobutanil were all bellow the maximum residue limit (MRL) value set by European Union (EU) (0.02 mg/kg). Hence it was safe for the use of this pesticide and the results also could give a reference for MRL setting of myclobutanil in lychee in China. PMID:22526985

  1. Stereoselective degradation of chiral fungicide myclobutanil in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Xinru; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Myclobutanil, (RS)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)hexanenitrile is a broad-spectrum systemic triazole fungicide which consists of a pair of enantiomers. The stereoselective degradation of myclobutanil was investigated in rat liver microsomes. The concentrations of myclobutanil enantiomers were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a cellulose-tris-(3,5-dimethyl-phenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase (CDMPC-CSP) under reversed phase condition. The t(1/2) of (+)-myclobutanil is 8.49 min, while the t(1/2) of (-)-myclobutanil is 96.27 min. Such consequences clearly indicated that the degradation of myclobutanil in rat liver microsomes was stereoselective and the degradation rate of (+)-myclobutanil was much faster than (-)-myclobutanil. In addition, significant differences between two enantiomers were also observed in enzyme kinetic parameters. The V(max) of (+)-myclobutanil was about 4-fold of (-)-myclobutanil and the CL(int) of (+)-myclobutanil was three times as much as (-)-myclobutanil after incubation in rat liver microsomes. Corresponding consequences may shed light on the environmental and ecological risk assessment for myclobutanil and may improve human health. PMID:24249205

  2. Mode of action for reproductive and hepatic toxicity inferred from a genomic study of triazole antifungals.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Amber K; Dix, David J

    2009-08-01

    The mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of some triazole antifungals has been characterized as an increase in serum testosterone and hepatic response, and reduced insemination and fertility indices. In order to refine our mechanistic understanding of these potential modes of action, gene expression profiling was conducted on liver and testis from male Wistar Han IGS rats exposed to myclobutanil (500, 2000 ppm), propiconazole (500, 2500 ppm), or triadimefon (500, 1800 ppm) from gestation day six to postnatal day 92. Gene expression profiles indicated that all three triazoles significantly perturbed the fatty acid, steroid, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways in the male rat liver. In addition, triadimefon modulated expression of genes in the liver from the sterol biosynthesis pathway. Although expression of individual genes were affected, there were no common pathways modulated by all three triazoles in the testis. The pathways identified in the liver included numerous genes involved in phase I-III metabolism (Aldh1a1, Cyp1a1, Cyp2b2, Cyp3a1, Cyp3a2, Slco1a4, Udpgtr2), fatty acid metabolism (Cyp4a10, Pcx, Ppap2b), and steroid metabolism (Ugt1a1, Ugt2a1) for which expression was altered by the triazoles. These differentially expressed genes form part of a network involving lipid, sterol, and steroid homeostatic pathways regulated by the constitutive androstane (CAR), pregnane X (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated alpha, and other nuclear receptors in liver. These relatively high dose and long-term exposures to triazole antifungals appeared to perturb fatty acid and steroid metabolism in the male rat liver predominantly through the CAR and PXR signaling pathways. These toxicogenomic effects describe a plausible series of key events contributing to the disruption in steroid homeostasis and reproductive toxicity of select triazole antifungals. PMID:19423681

  3. Metabolism of myclobutanil and triadimefon by human and rat cytochrome P450 enzymes and liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Barton, H A; Tang, J; Sey, Y M; Stanko, J P; Murrell, R N; Rockett, J C; Dix, D J

    2006-09-01

    Metabolism of two triazole-containing antifungal azoles was studied using expressed human and rat cytochrome P450s (CYP) and liver microsomes. Substrate depletion methods were used due to the complex array of metabolites produced from myclobutanil and triadimefon. Myclobutanil was metabolized more rapidly than triadimefon, which is consistent with metabolism of the n-butyl side-chain in the former and the t-butyl group in the latter compound. Human and rat CYP2C and CYP3A enzymes were the most active. Metabolism was similar in microsomes prepared from livers of control and low-dose rats. High-dose (115 mg kg-1 day-1 of triadimefon or 150 mg kg-1 day-1 of myclobutanil) rats showed increased liver weight, induction of total CYP, and increased metabolism of the two triazoles, though the apparent Km appeared unchanged relative to the control. These data identify CYP enzymes important for the metabolization of these two triazoles. Estimated hepatic clearances suggest that CYP induction may have limited impact in vivo. PMID:16971344

  4. 40 CFR 180.434 - Propiconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Propiconazole; tolerances for residues. 180.434 Section 180.434...EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances ...Propiconazole; tolerances for residues. (a) General ....

  5. Are insensitivities of Venturia inaequalis to myclobutanil and fenbuconazole correlated?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-M. Xu; L.-Q. Gao; J.-R. Yang

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, two demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides, myclobutanil and fenbuconazole, are recommended for controlling apple scab. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the sensitivity of V. inaequalis to myclobutanil was correlated with that to fenbuconazole. There was a marked reduction in the sensitivity of V. inaequalis to myclobutanil; averaged ED50 values increased from 0.338mg L?1 in the baseline population

  6. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental contaminants was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to categorize chemicals and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated compounds (...

  7. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS IN RAT LIVERS ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES CHEMICALS AND IDENTIFIES MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluori...

  8. Bioavailability of butachlor and myclobutanil residues in soil to earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Yu; X. M. Wu; S. N. Li; H. Fang; Y. J. Tan; J. Q. Yu

    2005-01-01

    To establish chemical extraction procedures for predicting bioavailability of butachlor and myclobutanil in soil, several solvent systems, including methanol, methanol–water (9:1), methanol–water (1:1), acetone–water (5:3), petroleum ether and water, were assessed for their feasibility in determining extractability of the target compounds from soil samples. Experimental data showed that the extractability of butachlor and myclobutanil by the solvents was well linearly

  9. Toxicogenomic effects common to triazole antifungals and conserved between rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Amber K; Dix, David J

    2009-07-01

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple timepoints and various study designs, gene expression profiling was conducted on rat livers from three separate studies with triazole treatment groups ranging from 6 h after a single oral gavage exposure, to prenatal to adult exposures via feed. To explore conservation of responses across species, gene expression from the rat liver studies were compared to in vitro data from rat and human primary hepatocytes exposed to the triazoles. Toxicogenomic data on triazoles from 33 different treatment groups and 135 samples (microarrays) identified thousands of probe sets and dozens of pathways differentially expressed across time, dose, and species--many of these were common to all three triazoles, or conserved between rodents and humans. Common and conserved pathways included androgen and estrogen metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism signaling through CAR and PXR, and CYP mediated metabolism. Differentially expressed genes included the Phase I xenobiotic, fatty acid, sterol and steroid metabolism genes Cyp2b2 and CYP2B6, Cyp3a1 and CYP3A4, and Cyp4a22 and CYP4A11; Phase II conjugation enzyme genes Ugt1a1 and UGT1A1; and Phase III ABC transporter genes Abcb1 and ABCB1. Gene expression changes caused by all three triazoles in liver and hepatocytes were concentrated in biological pathways regulating lipid, sterol and steroid homeostasis, identifying a potential common mode of action conserved between rodents and humans. Modulation of hepatic sterol and steroid metabolism is a plausible mode of action for changes in serum testosterone and adverse reproductive outcomes observed in rat studies, and may be relevant to human risk assessment. PMID:19409404

  10. Toxicogenomic effects common to triazole antifungals and conserved between rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, Amber K. [National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Dix, David J. [National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 (United States)], E-mail: dix.david@epa.gov

    2009-07-01

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple timepoints and various study designs, gene expression profiling was conducted on rat livers from three separate studies with triazole treatment groups ranging from 6 h after a single oral gavage exposure, to prenatal to adult exposures via feed. To explore conservation of responses across species, gene expression from the rat liver studies were compared to in vitro data from rat and human primary hepatocytes exposed to the triazoles. Toxicogenomic data on triazoles from 33 different treatment groups and 135 samples (microarrays) identified thousands of probe sets and dozens of pathways differentially expressed across time, dose, and species - many of these were common to all three triazoles, or conserved between rodents and humans. Common and conserved pathways included androgen and estrogen metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism signaling through CAR and PXR, and CYP mediated metabolism. Differentially expressed genes included the Phase I xenobiotic, fatty acid, sterol and steroid metabolism genes Cyp2b2 and CYP2B6, Cyp3a1 and CYP3A4, and Cyp4a22 and CYP4A11; Phase II conjugation enzyme genes Ugt1a1 and UGT1A1; and Phase III ABC transporter genes Abcb1 and ABCB1. Gene expression changes caused by all three triazoles in liver and hepatocytes were concentrated in biological pathways regulating lipid, sterol and steroid homeostasis, identifying a potential common mode of action conserved between rodents and humans. Modulation of hepatic sterol and steroid metabolism is a plausible mode of action for changes in serum testosterone and adverse reproductive outcomes observed in rat studies, and may be relevant to human risk assessment.

  11. Enantioselective toxic effects and degradation of myclobutanil enantiomers in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Huang, Ledan; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2013-12-01

    Research on the enantioselective environmental behavior of chiral pesticides has been a hot spot of environmental chemistry recently. In this study, the acute toxicity of myclobutanil enantiomers was investigated with the aquatic algae Scendesmus obliquus. After exposure for 96?h, the EC50 values for (-)-myclobutanil, rac-myclobutanil and (+)-myclobutanil were 3.951, 2.760, and 2.128?mg/L, respectively. The photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) and antioxidant enzyme activities catalase (CAT) were determined to evaluate the different toxic effects when S. obliquus were exposed to 1.5, 5 and 15?mg/L of rac-myclobutanil, (-)-myclobutanil, and (+)-myclobutanil for 96?h, respectively. In addition, the degradation of myclobutanil enantiomers in S. obliquus was also studied. Myclobutanil in the medium inoculated with algae degraded faster than in the uninoculated medium. The degradation of (-)-myclobutanil was faster than that of (+)-myclobutanil at a concentration of 3?mg/L. On the basis of these data, the acute toxicity and toxic effects of myclobutanil against S. obliquus were concluded to be enantioselective, and such enantiomeric differences should be taken into consideration in pesticide risk assessment. PMID:23939881

  12. Antifungal polypeptides

    DOEpatents

    Altier, Daniel J. (Waukee, IA); Ellanskaya, Irina (Kyiv, UA); Ellanskaya, legal representative, Natalia (Kyiv, UA); Gilliam, Jacob T. (Norwalk, IA); Hunter-Cevera, Jennie (Elliott City, MD); Presnail, James K. (Avondale, PA); Schepers, Eric (Port Deposit, MD); Simmons, Carl R. (Des Moines, IA); Torok, Tamas (Richmond, CA); Yalpani, Nasser (Johnston, IA)

    2009-09-15

    The invention relates to antifungal compositions and methods for protecting a plant from a fungal pathogen. Compositions including antifungal polypeptides isolated from a fungal fermentation broth are provided.

  13. Bioavailability of butachlor and myclobutanil residues in soil to earthworms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y L; Wu, X M; Li, S N; Fang, H; Tan, Y J; Yu, J Q

    2005-05-01

    To establish chemical extraction procedures for predicting bioavailability of butachlor and myclobutanil in soil, several solvent systems, including methanol, methanol-water (9:1), methanol-water (1:1), acetone-water (5:3), petroleum ether and water, were assessed for their feasibility in determining extractability of the target compounds from soil samples. Experimental data showed that the extractability of butachlor and myclobutanil by the solvents was well linearly correlated with their bioavailability to Eisenia foetida and Allolobophora caliginosa, indicating that these extraction procedures may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of the two pesticides. The concentrations of the pesticides accumulated in E. foetida and A. caliginosa varied with species, suggesting that the availability of the soil-sequestered pesticide is a species-dependent process. PMID:15823329

  14. Within-season distribution of myclobutanil resistance in populations of Venturia inaequalis in Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasha C. Marine; David G. Schmale; Keith S. Yoder

    Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis (Vi), is a devastating disease of apple worldwide. Myclobutanil, a sterol-inhibiting (SI) fungicide, is commonly used to control apple scab in the eastern U.S. Populations of Vi in commercial apple orchards in Virginia have demonstrated resistance to myclobutanil and other SI fungicides, yet little is known about the nature and distribution of fungicide resistance

  15. Study on Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme Induced by Myclobutanil in Danio rerio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Ding; Wenhua Song; Zhen Li; Jing Guo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant responses induced by myclobutanil in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were analyzed. Changes in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) in the liver of fish were determined. The results showed that as myclobutanil concentration increased, significant changes in SOD and CAT activities and MDA level were found, suggesting that activities of enzymes mentioned

  16. Detection and management of myclobutanil-resistant grapevine powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) in Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Northover; C. A. Homeyer

    2001-01-01

    Myclobutanil-resistant Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill was present in western New York State in 1995. In a vineyard in neighboring Ontario, myclobutanil gave poor control of powdery mildew during 1999. In 2000, mildew prevention was assessed with four management programs on three cultivars using small plot, randomized complete block designs. Programs received six fungicide applications between immediate prebloom and early ripening.

  17. Enantioselectivity in tebuconazole and myclobutanil non-target toxicity and degradation in soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanbo; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Han, Yongtao; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    Tebuconazole and myclobutanil are two widely used triazole fungicides, both comprising two enantiomers with different fungicidal activity. However, their non-target toxicity and environmental behavior with respect to enantioselectivity have received limited attention. In the present study, tebuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers were isolated and used to evaluate the occurrence of enantioselectivity in their acute toxicity to three non-target organisms (Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio). Significant differences were found: R-(-)-tebuconazole was about 1.4-5.9 times more toxic than S-(+)-tebuconazole; rac-myclobutanil was about 1.3-6.1 and 1.4-7.3 more toxic than (-)-myclobutanil and (+)-myclobutanil, respectively. Enantioselectivity was further investigated in terms of fungicide degradation in seven soil samples, which were selected to cover a broad range of soil properties. In aerobic or anaerobic soils, the S-(+)-tebuconazole degraded faster than R-(-)-tebuconazole, and the enantioselectivity showed a correlation with soil organic carbon content. (+)-Myclobutanil was preferentially degraded than (-)-myclobutanil in aerobic soils, whereas both enantiomers degraded at similar rates in anaerobic soils. Apparent correlations of enantioselectivity with soil pH and soil texture were observed for myclobutanil under aerobic conditions. In addition, both fungicides were configurationally stable in soils, i.e., no enantiomerization was found. Enantioselectivity may be a common phenomenon in both aquatic toxicity and biodegradation of chiral triazole fungicides, and this should be considered when assessing ecotoxicological risks of these compounds in the environment. PMID:25475972

  18. Decomposition of myclobutanil and triadimefon in grapes on the vines and during refrigerated storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis E Athanasopoulos; Christos J Pappas; Nikolaos V Kyriakidis

    2003-01-01

    Decompositions of the triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, in table grapes, of a Greek variety, on the vines and during refrigerated storage, were studied. Vines of the Greek variety, Opsimo Edessas, were separately sprayed onto the vines with trade preparations of myclobutanil and triadimefon. Samples were collected from the vines after 1, 5, 11, 25, 35 and 46 days. Also,

  19. Bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure under laboratory conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. The wheat bran fed to Tenebrio molitor larvae was spiked with racemic myclobutanil at two dose levels of 20?mg/kg and 2?mg/kg (dry weight). The results showed that there was a significant trend of enantioselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-myclobutanil in 20?mg/kg dose exposure, but it was not obviously observed in the 2?mg/kg dose group. A kinetic model considering enantiomerization between the two enantiomers based on first-order reactions was built and the rate constants were estimated to discuss the kinetic reason for the different concentrations of individual enantiomers in the larvae. The approximations implied an inversion between the two enantiomers with a relatively higher rate of the inversion from (-)-myclobutanil to (+)-myclobutanil. Meanwhile, analysis of data of excretion samples suggested the active excretion is probably an important pathway for the insect to eliminate myclobutanil rapidly with nonenantioselectivity as a passive transport process, which was consistent with the low accumulation efficiency of myclobutanil measured by BAF (bioaccumulation factor). PMID:24014248

  20. Occurrence of azoxystrobin, propiconazole, and selected other fungicides in US streams, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Fungicides are used to prevent foliar diseases on a wide range of vegetable, field, fruit, and ornamental crops. They are generally more effective as protective rather than curative treatments, and hence tend to be applied before infections take place. Less than 1% of US soybeans were treated with a fungicide in 2002 but by 2006, 4% were treated. Like other pesticides, fungicides can move-off of fields after application and subsequently contaminate surface water, groundwater, and associated sediments. Due to the constant pressure from fungal diseases such as the recent Asian soybean rust outbreak, and the always-present desire to increase crop yields, there is the potential for a significant increase in the amount of fungicides used on US farms. Increased fungicide use could lead to increased environmental concentrations of these compounds. This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select US streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the US and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 states in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as five fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from 0.002 to 1.15 ?/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams. Fungicide occurrence appears to be related to fungicide use in the associated drainage basins; however, current use information is generally lacking and more detailed occurrence data are needed to accurately quantify such a relation. Maximum concentrations of fungicides were typically one or more orders of magnitude less than current toxicity estimates for freshwater aquatic organisms or humans; however, gaps in current toxicological understandings of the effects of fungicides in the environment limit these interpretations.

  1. Acute toxicity, bioactivity, and enantioselective behavior with tissue distribution in rabbits of myclobutanil enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingjing; Liu, Donghui; Qiu, Xinxu; Zhou, Qian; Shen, Zhigang; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-12-01

    The enantioselective bioactivity against pathogens (Cercospora arachidicola, Fulvia fulva, and Phytophthora infestans) and acute toxicity to Daphnia magna of the fungicide myclobutanil enantiomers were studied. The (+)-enantiomer in an antimicrobial activity test was about 1.79-1.96 times more active than the (-)-enantiomer. In the toxicity assay, the calculated 24-h LC50 values of the (-)-form, rac-form and (+)-form were 16.88, 13.17, and 11.91?mg/L, and the 48-h LC50 values were 10.15, 9.24, and 5.48?mg/L, respectively, showing that (+)-myclobutanil was more toxic. Meanwhile, the enantioselective metabolism of myclobutanil enantiomers following a single intravenous (i.v.) administration was investigated in rabbits. Total plasma clearance value (CL) of the (+)-enantiomer was 1.68-fold higher than its antipode. Significant differences in pharmacokinetics parameters between the two enantiomers indicated that the high bioactive (+)-enantiomer was preferentially metabolized and eliminated in plasma. Consistent consequences were found in the tissues (liver, brain, heart, kidney, fat, and muscle), resulting in a relative enrichment of the low-activity (-)-myclobutanil. These systemic assessments of the stereoisomers of myclobutanil cannot be used only to investigate environmental and biological behavior, but also have human health implications because of the long persistence of triazole fungicide and enantiomeric enrichment in mammals and humans. PMID:25043148

  2. Dissipation and residues of myclobutanil in tobacco and soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuguo; Li, Yiqiang; Xu, Guangjun; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, JinLi; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Fenglong

    2012-05-01

    Field experiments were conducted in two different locations to determine the dissipation pattern and residue levels of myclobutanil in tobacco leaves and soil. Myclobutanil 12.5 % microemulsion (ME) formulation was sprayed once at 3.0 mL/ha, and the residues in green tobacco leaves dissipated to more than 50 % of the initial deposits 5 days after application and up to above 90 % after 21 days. The dissipation rate of myclobutanil in soil was lower than that in green tobacco leaves. The residues dissipated above 50 % of the initial deposits 7 days after treatment and dissipated about 90 % after 42 days. The calculated half-life values (T (1/2)) were found to be 4.89-6.77 days in green tobacco leaves and 12.88-19.20 days in soil, respectively. The ultimate residues of myclobutanil in flue-cured tobacco leaves and soil were determined after the third and fourth applications at levels of 2.0 and 3.0 mL/ha. Myclobutanil residues in cured tobacco leaves 21 days after the last treatment ranged from 0.85 to 3.27 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the residues detected in soil reached below 0.045 mg/kg 21 days after the last treatment. PMID:22415649

  3. Cytotoxic effects of propiconazole and its metabolites in mouse and human hepatoma cells and primary mouse hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Propiconazole is a triazole-containing fungicide that is used agriculturally on grasses, fruits, grains, seeds, hardwoods, and conifers. Propiconazole is a mouse liver hepatotoxicant and a hepatocarcinogen and has adverse reproductive and developmental toxicities in exp...

  4. Myclobutanil resistance in an isolate of Venturia inaequalis from New South Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Hetherington; D. A. Gunning

    2003-01-01

    An isolate of Venturia inaequalis from the Orange region of New South Wales had an ED50 of 0.97 ?g\\/mL for the fungicide myclobutanil. The ED50 indicative of resistance to this fungicide is ? 0.1 ?g\\/mL. This is the first record in Australia of V. inaequalis resistant to a Demethylation Inhibitor (DMI) fungicide.

  5. Resistance to Myclobutanil in Populations of Venturia inaequalis in Winchester, Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasha C. Marine; David G. Schmale; Keith S. Yoder

    2007-01-01

    Sterol-inhibiting (SI) fungicides are widely used to manage apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis. However, recent observations indicate that populations of V. inaequalis in orchards in Virginia have developed resistance to myclobutanil and other SI fungicides. Little is known about the frequency and distribution of fungicide resistance in apple scab populations in Virginia. Isolates of V. inaequalis were collected from

  6. Residue analysis and degradation studies of fenbuconazole and myclobutanil in strawberry by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Wang, Xinquan; Qian, Mingrong; Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Hao; Xu, Mingfei; Wang, Qiang

    2011-11-23

    A simple and sensitive enantioselective method for the determination of fenbuconazole and myclobutanil in strawberry was developed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Fenbuconazole and myclobutanil residues in strawberry were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid, and an aliquot was cleaned up with PSA (primary and secondary amine) and C(18) sorbent. The direct resolution of fenbuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers was performed on a cellulose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) column using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves, and the limits of quantification for fenbuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers in strawberry were both 2 ?g/kg. The method was successfully utilized to investigate the probable enantioselective degradation of fenbuconazole and myclobutanil in strawberry. The results showed that the degradation of the fenbuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers in strawberry followed pseudofirst-order kinetics (R(2) > 0.97). The results from this study revealed that the degradation of fenbuconazole in strawberry was not enantioselective, while the degradation of myclobutanil was enantioselective, and the (+)-myclobutanil showed a faster degradation than (-)-myclobutanil in strawberry, resulting in the relative enrichment of (-)-myclobutanil in residue. The results could provide a reference to fully evaluate the risks of these two fungicides. PMID:21967215

  7. The dissipation rates of myclobutanil and residue analysis in wheat and soil using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingang Liu; Fengshou Dong; Xu Wang; Yongquan Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The dissipation of myclobutanil (triazole fungicide) in wheat plant, grain and soil under the local weather and soil conditions was studied and fungicide residues were determined by GC-ITMS. Myclobutanil (25% EC) was applied at two dosages, 60 g a.i. ha (recommended) and 120 g a.i. ha (2 times of the recommended dosage) in the experimental fields in Shandong, Beijing and

  8. Influence of lysozyme, yeast, azoxystrobin, and myclobutanil on fungal diseases of cucumbers grown hydroponically

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Utkhede; C. Bogdanoff

    2003-01-01

    The influence of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) on root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, and of HEWL, yeast, azoxystrobin, and myclobutanil on stem canker caused by Botrytis cinerea and gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae in cucumber grown under near-commercial greenhouse conditions was studied. HEWL treatments applied as a root drench at 5g\\/l every 3 weeks gave a

  9. A potential microRNA signature for tumorigenic conazoles in mouse liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon, propiconazole and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. As part of a coordinated study to understand the molecular determinants of conazole tumor...

  10. A microRNA signature for tumorigenic conazoles in mouse liver.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon, propiconazole and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural and therapeutic fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. As part of a coordinated study to understand the molecular determinants o...

  11. Development of a selective myclobutanil agar (MBA) medium for the isolation of Fusarium species from asparagus fields.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Vladimir; Hamel, Chantal; Jabaji-Hare, Suha; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2002-09-01

    A new selective myclobutanil agar medium for the detection of Fusarium, species is proposed. Ten media formulations based on various selective agents (pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), Rose Bengal, malachite green, sodium hypochlorite, captan, benomyl, chlorotalonil, myclobutanil, thiram, and cupric sulfate) were compared. First, mycelium growth and colony appearance of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium sp., Fuisarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, Penicillium sp., and Trichoderma viride isolates were compared. Second, the ability of the different media to isolate and enumerate fusaria from asparagus fields was evaluated. The myclobutanil-based medium showed the highest selectivity to Fusarium spp. growth but required a slightly longer incubation time (>5 d) than peptone-pentachloronitrobenzene-based agar (PPA) (< 5 d). PPA allowed a faster fusaria growth but also permited the growth of other moulds. The other media were less selective and did not allow to isolate fusaria or to differenciate them from other growing fungi. PMID:12455616

  12. Propiconazole increases reactive oxygen species levels in mouse hepatic cells in culture and in mouse liver by a cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated process

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole induces hepatocarcinomas and hepatoadenomas in mice and is a rat liver tumor promoter. Transcriptional, proteomic, metabolomic and biochemical studies of hepatic tissues from mice treated with propiconazole under the conditions of the chronic bioassay indicate that ...

  13. Stacking and Sweeping in Cyclodextrin-Modified MEKC for Chiral Separation of Hexaconazole, Penconazole and Myclobutanil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Dadan Hermawan; M. Marsin Sanagi; Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein

    2010-01-01

    A CD-MEKC method for the on-line preconcentration and chiral separation of three chiral triazole fungicides, namely hexaconazole,\\u000a penconazole and myclobutanil is reported. Simultaneous enantioseparation of the three triazole fungicides was successfully\\u000a achieved by the CD-MEKC system containing 40 mM HP-?-CD + 50 mM SDS in 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) solution. Stacking\\u000a with a reverse migrating micelle (SRMM) and sweeping were then used in this

  14. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  15. Overcoming antifungal resistance

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections have become one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Despite increased awareness and improved treatment strategies, the frequent development of resistance to the antifungal drugs used in clinical settings contributes to the increasing toll of mycoses. Although a natural phenomenon, antifungal drug resistance can compromise advances in the development of effective diagnostic techniques and novel antifungals. In this review, we will discuss the advent of cellular-microarrays, microfluidics, genomics, proteomics and other state-of-the art technologies in conquering antifungal drug resistance. PMID:24847655

  16. Changes in antioxidant metabolism of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. by propiconazole under water deficit stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Manivannan; C. Abdul Jaleel; A. Kishorekumar; B. Sankar; R. Somasundaram; R. Sridharan; R. Panneerselvam

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, a pot culture experiment was conducted to estimate the ameliorating effect of propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) plants. From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 3, 6 and 9 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought stress with PCZ at 15 and 15mgl?1 PCZ alone and

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Propiconazole Responses in Mouse Liver-Comparison of Genomic and Proteomic Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of soluble proteins in livers from mice treated with the mouse liver tumorigen, propiconazole, to uncover the pathways and networks altered by this commonly used fungicide. Utilizing t...

  18. Cyclodextrin-modified MEKC for enantioseparation of hexaconazole, penconazole, and myclobutanil.

    PubMed

    Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Hermawan, Dadan; Sanagi, M Marsin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2009-02-01

    A CD-modified micellar EKC (CD-MEKC) method with 2-hydroxypropyl-gamma-CD (HP-gamma-CD) as chiral selector for the enantioseparation of three chiral triazole fungicides, namely hexaconazole, penconazole, and myclobutanil, is reported for the first time. Simultaneous enantioseparation of the three triazole fungicides was successfully achieved using a CD-MEKC system containing 40 mM HP-gamma-CD and 50 mM SDS in 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) solution with resolutions (R(s)) greater than 1.60, peak efficiencies (N) greater than 200,000 for all enantiomers and an analysis time within 15 min compared to 36 min as previously reported using sulfated-beta-CD. PMID:19142910

  19. Evaluation of solid sorbents for the determination of fenhexamid, metalaxyl-M, pyrimethanil, malathion and myclobutanil residues in air samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos G. Tsiropoulos; Evangelos B. Bakeas; Vasilios Raptis; Stavroula S. Batistatou

    2006-01-01

    A methodology is described for greenhouse air analysis by sampling fenhexamid, pyrimethanil, malathion, metalaxyl-M and myclobutanil in solid sorbents. Pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with NP Detector. The trapping efficiency of XAD-2, XAD-4, Supelpak-2, Florisil and C-18 at different sampling conditions (rate, time and air humidity) and pesticides concentration levels has been evaluated. No breakthrough was observed in the

  20. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor ?1 (rar?1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment. PMID:24962053

  1. Effect of turfgrass cover and irrigation on soil mobility and dissipation of mefenoxam and propiconazole.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D S; Branham, B E

    2001-01-01

    Irrigation effects on pesticide mobility have been studied, but few direct comparisons of pesticide mobility or persistence have been conducted on turfgrass versus bare soil. The interaction of irrigation practices and the presence of turfgrass on the mobility and dissipation of mefenoxam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-D-alanine methyl ester] and propiconazole (1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole) was studied. Sampling cylinders (20-cm diam.) were placed in either creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.] or bare soil. Mefenoxam was applied at 770 g a.i. ha(-1) and propiconazole was applied at 1540 g a.i. ha(-1) on 14 June 1999. Sampling cylinders were removed 2 h after treatment and 4,8,16, 32, and 64 days after treatment (DAT) and the cores were sectioned by depth. Dissipation of mefenoxam was rapid, regardless of the amount of surface organic matter or irrigation. The half-life (t1/2) of mefenoxam was 5 to 6 d in turf and 7 to 8 d in bare soil. Most mefenoxam residues found in soil under turfgrass were in the 0- to 1-cm section at 0, 4, and 8 DAT. Residues were found in the 15- to 30-cm section at 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 DAT, regardless of turf cover or irrigation. The t1/2 of propiconazole was 12 to 15 d in turfgrass and 29 d in bare soil. Little movement of propiconazole was observed in either bare soil or turf. PMID:11577867

  2. Antifungal Amphiphilic Aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Chang, C-W T; Takemoto, J Y

    2014-08-01

    The attachment of alkyl and other hydrophobic groups to traditional antibacterial kanamycins and neomycins creates amphiphilic aminoglycosides with altered antimicrobial properties. In this review, we summarize the discovery of amphiphilic kanamycins that are antifungal, but not antibacterial, and that inhibit the growth of fungi by perturbation of plasma membrane functions. With low toxicities against plant and mammalian cells, they appear to specifically target the fungal plasma membrane. These new antifungal agents offer new options for fighting fungal pathogens and are examples of reviving old drugs to confront new therapeutic challenges. PMID:25110571

  3. Efficacy and mode of action of propiconazol against Phymatotrichum omnivorum on cotton 

    E-print Network

    Mathieson, John Todd

    1983-01-01

    -2-(dicholorphenyl)-4-propyl-1-3- dioxolan-2-yl methyl-1 H, 2, 4 triazole) is a member of the triazole class and it is thought its mode of action is similar to other com- pounds found in the same class. C I / ~ C ? C)(d ? N /X CHo CHp CH3 Compounds found... in this group are known to have the ability to inhibit the biosynthesis of sterols (59) . Other compounds in the triazole group have been shown to possess systemic activity within plants and it has been postulated that propiconazol also possess s systemic...

  4. Antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Rex, J H; Pfaller, M A; Rinaldi, M G; Polak, A; Galgiani, J N

    1993-01-01

    Unlike antibacterial susceptibility testing, reliable antifungal susceptibility testing is still largely in its infancy. Many methods have been described, but they produce widely discrepant results unless such factors as pH, inoculum size, medium formulation, incubation time, and incubation temperature are carefully controlled. Even when laboratories agree upon a common method, interlaboratory agreement may be poor. As a result of numerous collaborative projects carried out both independently and under the aegis of the Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, the effects of varying these factors have been extensively studied and a standard method which minimizes interlaboratory variability during the testing of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans has been proposed. This review summarizes this work, reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed susceptibility testing standard, and identifies directions for future work. PMID:8269392

  5. Antifungal Lock Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of intravascular devices, such as central venous and hemodialysis catheters, in the past 2 decades has paralleled the increasing incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). Candida albicans is the fourth leading cause of hospital-associated BSIs. The propensity of C. albicans to form biofilms on these catheters has made these infections difficult to treat due to multiple factors, including increased resistance to antifungal agents. Thus, curing CR-BSIs caused by Candida species usually requires catheter removal in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Alternatively, antimicrobial lock therapy has received significant interest and shown promise as a strategy to treat CR-BSIs due to Candida species. The existing in vitro, animal, and patient data for treatment of Candida-related CR-BSIs are reviewed. The most promising antifungal lock therapy (AfLT) strategies include use of amphotericin, ethanol, or echinocandins. Clinical trials are needed to further define the safety and efficacy of AfLT. PMID:23070153

  6. Current Concepts in Antifungal Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Russell E.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of new antifungal agents (eg, echinocandins, second-generation triazoles) in the past decade has transformed the management of invasive mycoses to the point that drug toxicity is no longer the major limiting factor in treatment. Yet, many of these newer antifungal agents have important limitations in their spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, and unique predisposition for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions and unusual toxicities associated with long-term use. This article reviews key pharmacological aspects of systemic antifungal agents as well as evolving strategies, such as pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic optimization and therapeutic drug monitoring, to improve the safety and efficacy of systemic antifungal therapy. PMID:21803962

  7. Effect of Turfgrass Cover and Irrigation on Soil Mobility and Dissipation of Mefenoxam and Propiconazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Gardner; B. E. Branham

    2001-01-01

    conducted on turfgrass versus bare soil. The interaction of irrigation practices and the presence of turfgrass on the mobility and dissipation (methoxyacetyl)-DL-alanine methyl ester), pendimethalin of mefenoxam (N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-D-alanine (N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine), methyl ester) and propiconazole (1-((2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-pro- chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) pyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole) was studied. Sam- phosphorothioate), and isazofos (O-5-chloro-1-isopropyl- pling cylinders (20-cm diam.) were placed in either creeping bentgrass 1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl O,O-diethylphosphorothioate) ap- (Agrostis stolonifera L.

  8. Determination of imidacloprid, metalaxyl, myclobutanil, propham, and thiabendazole in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ximo Pous; Yolanda Picó

    2001-01-01

    Imidacloprid, metalaxyl, myclobutanil, propham, and thiabendazole have been simultaneously determined in strawberries, oranges, potatoes, pears, and melons by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) in positive-ion mode. The samples were homogenized with C8 bonded silica as MSPD sorbent, placed in a glass column, and eluted with dichloromethane. Chromatographic separation of the compounds was

  9. Simultaneous Analysis of Hexaconazole, Myclobutanil, and Tebuconazole Residues in Apples and Soil by SPE Clean-Up and GC with Nitrogen–Phosphorus Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhubo Deng; Jiye Hu; Dongmei Qin; Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    A facile and sensitive method utilizing capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC–NPD) has been\\u000a developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of hexaconazole, myclobutanil, and tebuconazole, three broad-spectrum systemic\\u000a fungicides, in apples and soil. Two samples were fortified with the three pesticides and subjected to ultrasonic extraction,\\u000a followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) to remove coextractives, before analysis by GC–NPD.

  10. Effect of different organic amendments on the dissipation of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil in an agricultural soil incubated for different time periods.

    PubMed

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia

    2014-04-01

    Dissipation kinetics of pesticides belonging to three chemical groups (linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil) was studied in an unamended agricultural soil and in this soil amended with three organic residues: sewage sludge (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS). The soils were incubated with the residues outdoors for one and 12 months. Mineralized, extracted and non-extractable fractions were also studied for (14)C-linuron and (14)C-diazinon. The dissipation kinetics was fitted to single first-order or first-order multicompartment models. The dissipation rate (k) decreased in the order diazinon>linuron>myclobutanil, and DT50 values decreased for linuron (1.6-4.8 times) or increased for myclobutanil (1.7-2.6 times) and diazinon (1.8-2.3 times) in the amended soils relative to the unamended soil. The lowest DT50 values for the three pesticides were recorded in GM-amended soil, and the highest values in SMS-amended soil. After 12 months of soil incubation, DT50 values decreased in both the unamended and amended soils for linuron, but increased for the unamended and SMS-amended soil for diazinon and myclobutanil. A certain relationship was observed between the sorption of pesticides by the soils and DT50 values, although it was significant only for myclobutanil (p<0.05). Dissipation mechanism recorded the lowest mineralization of (14)C-pesticides in the GM-soil despite the highest dissipation rate in this soil. The extracted (14)C-residues decreased with incubation time, with increased formation of non-extractable residues, higher in amended soils relative to the unamended soil. Soil dehydrogenase activity was, in general, stimulated by the addition of the organic amendments and pesticides to the soil after one month and 12 months of incubation. The results obtained revealed that the simultaneous use of amendments and pesticides in soils requires a previous study in order to check the environmental specific persistence of these compounds and their effectiveness in amended soils. PMID:24496034

  11. Insight into the antifungal mechanism of Neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Máté; Marton, Annamária; Vizler, Csaba; Tóth, Liliána; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Marx, Florentine; Galgóczy, László

    2015-07-01

    Small, cysteine-rich, highly stable antifungal proteins secreted by filamentous Ascomycetes have great potential for the development of novel antifungal strategies. However, their practical application is still limited due to their not fully clarified mode of action. The aim of this work was to provide a deep insight into the antifungal mechanism of Neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (NFAP), a novel representative of this protein group. Within a short exposure time to NFAP, reduced cellular metabolism, apoptosis induction, changes in the actin distribution and chitin deposition at the hyphal tip were observed in NFAP-sensitive Aspergillus nidulans. NFAP did show neither a direct membrane disrupting-effect nor uptake by endocytosis. Investigation of A. nidulans signalling mutants revealed that NFAP activates the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway via G-protein signalling which leads to apoptosis and inhibition of polar growth. In contrast, NFAP does not have any influence on the cell wall integrity pathway, but an unknown cell wall integrity pathway-independent mitogen activated protein kinase A-activated target is assumed to be involved in the cell death induction. Taken together, it was concluded that NFAP shows similarities, but also differences in its mode of antifungal action compared to two most investigated NFAP-related proteins from Aspergillus giganteus and Penicillium chrysogenum. PMID:25994413

  12. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  13. Antifungal Compounds from Piper Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Hui; Li, Xing-Cong

    2013-01-01

    This review documents chemical structures and antifungal activities of 68 compounds isolated from 22 Piper species of the plant family Piperaceae. These compounds include amides, flavonoids, prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, lignans, phenylpropanoids, butenolides, and cyclopentendiones. Some of them may serve as leads for potential pharmaceutical or agricultural fungicide development. PMID:24307889

  14. Pharmacology of Systemic Antifungal Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth S. Dodds Ashley; Russell Lewis; James S. Lewis; Craig Martin; David Andes

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, many invasive fungal infections were associated with a poor prognosis, because effective ther- apeutic options were limited. The recent development of new antifungal agents has significantly contributed to the successful treatment of fungal diseases. These drugs offer novel mechanisms of action and expanded spectrums of activity over traditional treatment options. However, with these new agents comes the need for

  15. Antifungal Application of Nonantifungal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, Marios; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Lopes, José Pedro; Granlund, Margareta; Wennerberg, Krister

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the cause of 60% of all mycoses in immunosuppressed individuals, leading to ?150,000 deaths annually due to systemic infections, whereas the current antifungal therapies either have toxic side effects or are insufficiently efficient. We performed a screening of two compound libraries, the Enzo and the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM) oncology collection library, for anti-Candida activity based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines. From a total of 844 drugs, 26 agents showed activity against Candida albicans. Of those, 12 were standard antifungal drugs (SADs) and 7 were off-target drugs previously reported to be active against Candida spp. The remaining 7 off-target drugs, amonafide, tosedostat, megestrol acetate, melengestrol acetate, stanozolol, trifluperidol, and haloperidol, were identified with this screen. The anti-Candida activities of the new agents were investigated by three individual assays using optical density, ATP levels, and microscopy. The antifungal activities of these drugs were comparable to those of the SADs found in the screen. The aminopeptidase inhibitor tosedostat, which is currently in a clinical trial phase for anticancer therapy, displayed a broad antifungal activity against different Candida spp., including Candida glabrata. Thus, this screen reveals agents that were previously unknown to be anti-Candida agents, which allows for the design of novel therapies against invasive candidiasis. PMID:24277040

  16. Letter to the Editor, Response to Commentary "Re-Evaluation of the Big Blue® Mouse Assay of Propiconazole Suggests Lack of Mutagenicity"

    EPA Science Inventory

    In their commentary titled "Re-Evaluation of the Big Blue® Mouse Assay of Propiconazole Suggests Lack of Mutagenicity", Shane et 01. present an overview of portions of our previously reported work examining the potential for some conazole fungicides to induce increases in mutant ...

  17. A Prototype Antifungal Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ciolino, Joseph B.; Hudson, Sarah P.; Mobbs, Ashley N.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Fink, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To design a contact lens to treat and prevent fungal ocular infections. Methods. Curved contact lenses were created by encapsulating econazole-impregnated poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films in poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) by ultraviolet photopolymerization. Release studies were conducted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C with continuous shaking. The contact lenses and their release media were tested in an antifungal assay against Candida albicans. Cross sections of the pre- and postrelease contact lenses were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy. Results. Econazole-eluting contact lenses provided extended antifungal activity against Candida albicans fungi. Fungicidal activity varied in duration and effectiveness depending on the mass of the econazole-PLGA film encapsulated in the contact lens. Conclusions. An econazole-eluting contact lens could be used as a treatment for fungal ocular infections. PMID:21527380

  18. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review. PMID:26042616

  19. Antifungal Resistance Mechanisms in Dermatophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilce M. Martinez-Rossi; Nalu T. A. Peres; Antonio Rossi

    2008-01-01

    Although fungi do not cause outbreaks or pandemics, the incidence of severe systemic fungal infections has increased significantly,\\u000a mainly because of the explosive growth in the number of patients with compromised immune system. Thus, drug resistance in\\u000a pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, is gaining importance. The molecular aspects involved in the resistance of dermatophytes\\u000a to marketed antifungals and other cytotoxic drugs,

  20. In vitro antifungal effect of human milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emin Mete; Nuket Bavbek; Sabriye Dayő; Mehtap Erkmen; Fatih Andőran

    A lower incidence of infection occurs among breast-fed babies because of the presence of antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic effects, but little is known about the antifungal effects to fungi other than Candida albicans. This study was undertaken to assess the antifungal effect of human milk to the fungi in the environmental air, which also may be allergenic. Milk samples were

  1. The effects of the fungicides fenhexamid and myclobutanil on SH-SY5Y and U-251 MG human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nagel, David A; Hill, Eric J; O'Neil, John; Mireur, Alexandra; Coleman, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Mixtures of pesticides in foodstuffs and the environment are ubiquitous in the developed world and although agents are usually exhaustively tested individually, the toxicological implications of pesticide mixtures are underreported. In this study, the effects of two fungicides, fenhexamid and myclobutanil were investigated individually and in combination on two human cell lines, SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and U-251 MG glial cells. After 48h of incubation with increasing concentrations of pesticides ranging from 1 to 1000?M, gene expression profiles were studied in addition to toxicity end points, including cell viability, mitochondrial depolarisation as well as cellular glutathione maintenance. There were no significant differences between the susceptibility of the two cell lines in terms of cell viability assessment or mitochondrial membrane potential, when agents were administered either individually or in combination. By contrast, in the presence of the fungicides, the SH-SY5Y cells showed significantly greater susceptibility to oxidative stress in terms of total thiol depletion in comparison with the astrocytic cells. Treatment with the two pesticides led to significant changes in the cell lines' expression of several genes which regulate cell cycle control and growth (RB1, TIMP1) as well as responses to DNA attrition (ATM and CDA25A) and control of apoptosis (FAS). There was no evidence in this study that the combination of fenhexamid and myclobutanil was significantly more toxic than individual exposure, although gene expression changes suggested there may be differences in the sub-lethal response of both cell lines to both individual and combined exposure. PMID:25461557

  2. Studies on hydrazone derivatives as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ahmet; Turan-Zitouni, Gulhan; Kaplancikli, Zafer Asim; Demirci, Fatih; Iscan, Gokalp

    2008-08-01

    The increasing clinical importance of drug-resistant fungal pathogens has urged additional need to fungal research and new antifungal compound development. For this purpose, some N-(1-benzyl-2-phenylethylidene)-N'-[4-(aryl)thiazol-2-yl]hydrazone (1a-e) and N-(1-phenylbutylidene)-N'-[4-(aryl)thiazol-2-yl]hydrazone (2a-e) derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for antifungal activity. Their antifungal activities against standard and clinical strands of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida zeylanoides, and Candida parapsilosis were investigated. A significant level of activity was observed. PMID:18665994

  3. The triphenylethylenes, a novel class of antifungals.

    PubMed

    Odom, Audrey R

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT New antifungals are needed, particularly in the developing world, to treat life-threatening fungal infections, such as cryptococcosis. Drug repurposing is one strategy to identify new drug-like compounds, but it is often difficult to identify a mechanism of action. Here we discuss the outstanding effort by Butts et al. to identify calmodulin as an antifungal target of repurposed estrogen receptor antagonists [A. Butts, K. Koselny, Y. Chabrier-Roselló, C. P. Semighini, Y. C. S. Brown, et al., mBio 5(1):e00765-13, 2014, doi:10.1128/mBio.00765-13]. The authors show that these compounds bind to and directly inhibit fungal calmodulin and also reduce fungal burden in an animal disease model. These studies thus establish both the key preclinical efficacy and the antifungal mechanism of action, which will allow these compounds to progress toward development of novel antifungal therapies. PMID:24781746

  4. The Triphenylethylenes, a Novel Class of Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT New antifungals are needed, particularly in the developing world, to treat life-threatening fungal infections, such as cryptococcosis. Drug repurposing is one strategy to identify new drug-like compounds, but it is often difficult to identify a mechanism of action. Here we discuss the outstanding effort by Butts et al. to identify calmodulin as an antifungal target of repurposed estrogen receptor antagonists [A. Butts, K. Koselny, Y. Chabrier-Roselló, C. P. Semighini, Y. C. S. Brown, et al., mBio 5(1):e00765-13, 2014, doi:10.1128/mBio.00765-13]. The authors show that these compounds bind to and directly inhibit fungal calmodulin and also reduce fungal burden in an animal disease model. These studies thus establish both the key preclinical efficacy and the antifungal mechanism of action, which will allow these compounds to progress toward development of novel antifungal therapies. PMID:24781746

  5. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141), two bifonazole trials (N = 136) and one clotrimazole trial (N = 126) that compared the effectiveness of these treatments versus placebo or vehicle. Nine ketoconazole trials (N = 632) and one miconazole trial (N = 47) compared these treatments versus steroids. Fourteen studies (N = 1541) compared one antifungal versus another or compared different doses or schedules of administration of the same agent versus one another. Ketoconazole Topical ketoconazole 2% treatment showed a 31% lower risk of failed clearance of rashes compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.81, eight studies, low-quality evidence) at four weeks of follow-up, but the effect on side effects was uncertain because evidence was of very low quality (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.64, six studies); heterogeneity between studies was substantial (I˛ = 74%). The median proportion of those who did not have clearance in the placebo groups was 69%. Ketoconazole treatment resulted in a remission rate similar to that of steroids (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.44, six studies, low-quality evidence), but occurrence of side effects was 44% lower in the ketoconazole group than in the steroid group (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.96, eight studies, moderate-quality evidence). Ketoconozale yielded a similar remission failure rate as ciclopirox (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.26, three studies, low-quality evidence). Most comparisons between ketoconazole and other antifungals were based on single studies that showed comparability of treatment effects. Ciclopirox Ciclopirox 1% led to a lower failed remission rate than placebo at four weeks of follow-up (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.94, eight studies, moderate-quality evidence) with similar rates of side effects (RR 0.9, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.11, four studies, moderate-quality evidence). Other antifungals Clotrimazole and miconazole efficacies were comparable with those of steroids on short-term assessment in single studies. Treatment effects on individual symptoms were less clear and were inconsistent, possibly because of difficulties encounte

  6. Antifungal activities of some indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Nine indole derivatives were evaluated in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum, and Alternaria brassicae. Most of the compounds were found to possess antifungal activities. Especially compounds 2, 5, 8, and 9 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activities against the above-mentioned seven phytopathogenic fungi, and showed more potent activities than hymexazole, a commercial agricultural fungicide. PMID:20737910

  7. An antifungal peptide from the coconut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. X. Wang; T. B. Ng

    2005-01-01

    A chromatographic procedure consisting of ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast performance liquid chromatography on Supedex 75 was utilized to isolate a 10kDa antifungal peptide from coconut flesh. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. It displayed antifungal

  8. Antifungal stewardship in invasive Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, M

    2014-06-01

    Bloodstream and other invasive infections due to Candida species (invasive fungal diseases = IFD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized adults and children in many countries worldwide. The high infection-related morbidity and mortality associated with invasive Candida infection/candidaemia (IC/C), combined with suboptimal diagnostic tools, have driven the overuse of antifungal drugs. Antifungal stewardship (AFS) may be regarded as subentity of the more general term Anti-infective or Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (AIS/AMS). The high costs and high contribution of antifungal agents to the management of IFDs along with their recognized toxicities have been addressed as the principal justification for antifungal stewardship. AFS programmes should be organized by an interdisciplinary team of clinicians, pharmacists, microbiologists and infection control experts with the lead of an infectious disease specialist preferably in each large hospital/institution dealing with high-risk patients for invasive fungal infections. These programmes should consider various aspects of IC/C including (i) the local fungal epidemiology, (ii) information on antifungal resistance rates, (iii) establishing and application of therapeutic guidelines, (iv) implementation of treatment strategies for empirical, pre-emptive therapy including PK/PD data for antifungal drugs, de-escalation and 'switch and step-down strategies' (from intravenous to oral medication) in defined patient populations, (v) catheter management together with the application of routine diagnostic procedures such as ophthalmological and cardiac evaluations and (vi) the best available diagnostic tests for diagnosing IC and candidaemia. PMID:24661820

  9. Ultrashort antibacterial and antifungal lipopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Makovitzki, Arik; Avrahami, Dorit; Shai, Yechiel

    2006-01-01

    Host-defense cationic antimicrobial peptides (?12–50 aa long) play an essential protective role in the innate immune system of all organisms. Lipopeptides, however, are produced only in bacteria and fungi during cultivation, and they are composed of specific lipophilic moieties attached to anionic peptides (six to seven amino acids). Here we report the following. (i) The attachment of an aliphatic chain to otherwise inert, cationic D,L tetrapeptides endows them with potent activity against various microorganisms including antibiotic resistance strains. (ii) Cell specificity is determined by the sequence of the short peptidic chain and the length of the aliphatic moiety. (iii) Despite the fact that the peptidic chains are very short, their mode of action involves permeation and disintegration of membranes, similar to that of many long antimicrobial peptides. Besides adding important information on the parameters necessary for host-defense lipopeptides to kill microorganisms, the simple composition of these lipopeptides and their diverse specificities should make them economically available, innate immunity-mimicking antimicrobial and antifungal compounds for various applications. PMID:17038500

  10. The lack of antifungal activity by avermectin B1a.

    PubMed

    Onishi, J C; Miller, T W

    1985-11-01

    Streptomyces avermitilis produces avermectin, oligomycin and a polyene antifungal. The latter two compounds account for the antifungal activity in the methanol extracts of the fermentation broth. Pure avermectin does not inhibit fungi or affect fungal chitin metabolism. PMID:4077735

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF CYPS IN THE METABOLISM OF ALL TRANS RETINOIC ACID BY LIVER MICROSOMES FROM MICE TREATED WITH CONAZOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in crop protection and as pharmaceuticals. Triadimefon and propiconazole are hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not. Previous toxicogenomic studies suggest that alteration of the retinoic acid metabolism pathway may involve in conazole-...

  12. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF RETINOIC ACID BIOSYNTHETIC AND METABOLISM GENES IN LIVERS FROM MICE TREATED WITH HEPATOTUMORIGENIC AND NON-HEPATOTUMORIGENIC CONAZOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in crop protection and as pharmaceuticals. Triadimefon and propiconazole are hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not. Previous toxicogenomic studies suggest that alteration of the retinoic acid metabolism pathway may play a key event in ...

  13. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  14. Current status of antifungal susceptibility testing methods.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Sevtap

    2007-11-01

    Antifungal susceptibility testing is a very dynamic field of medical mycology. Standardization of in vitro susceptibility tests by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), and current availability of reference methods constituted the major remarkable steps in the field. Based on the established minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints, it is now possible to determine the susceptibilities of Candida strains to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and flucytosine. Moreover, utility of fluconazole antifungal susceptibility tests as an adjunct in optimizing treatment of candidiasis has now been validated. While the MIC breakpoints and clinical significance of susceptibility testing for the remaining fungi and antifungal drugs remain yet unclear, modifications of the available methods as well as other methodologies are being intensively studied to overcome the present drawbacks and limitations. Among the other methods under investigation are Etest, colorimetric microdilution, agar dilution, determination of fungicidal activity, flow cytometry, and ergosterol quantitation. Etest offers the advantage of practical application and favorable agreement rates with the reference methods that are frequently above acceptable limits. However, MIC breakpoints for Etest remain to be evaluated and established. Development of commercially available, standardized colorimetric panels that are based on CLSI method parameters has added more to the antifungal susceptibility testing armamentarium. Flow cytometry, on the other hand, appears to offer rapid susceptibility testing but requires specified equipment and further evaluation for reproducibility and standardization. Ergosterol quantitation is another novel approach, which appears potentially beneficial particularly in discrimination of azole-resistant isolates from heavy trailers. The method is yet investigational and requires to be further studied. Developments in methodology and applications of antifungal susceptibility testing will hopefully provide enhanced utility in clinical guidance of antifungal therapy. However, and particularly in immunosuppressed host, in vitro susceptibility is and will remain only one of several factors that influence clinical outcome. PMID:17885947

  15. Antifungal steroid glycoside from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shimada, S

    1969-03-28

    An antifungal steroid glycoside, holotoxin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (Selenka). In vitro, it exhibits high activity against various fungi, including vegetable pathogens, but has scarcely any activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria in vitro. PMID:5812983

  16. Efflux-Mediated Antifungal Drug Resistance†

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Richard D.; Lamping, Erwin; Holmes, Ann R.; Niimi, Kyoko; Baret, Philippe V.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Tanabe, Koichi; Niimi, Masakazu; Goffeau, Andre; Monk, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Fungi cause serious infections in the immunocompromised and debilitated, and the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased significantly over the last 3 decades. Slow diagnosis and the relatively few classes of antifungal drugs result in high attributable mortality for systemic fungal infections. Azole antifungals are commonly used for fungal infections, but azole resistance can be a problem for some patient groups. High-level, clinically significant azole resistance usually involves overexpression of plasma membrane efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily class of transporters. The heterologous expression of efflux pumps in model systems, such Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enabled the functional analysis of efflux pumps from a variety of fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the ABC pleiotropic drug resistance family has provided a new view of the evolution of this important class of efflux pumps. There are several ways in which the clinical significance of efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance can be mitigated. Alternative antifungal drugs, such as the echinocandins, that are not efflux pump substrates provide one option. Potential therapeutic approaches that could overcome azole resistance include targeting efflux pump transcriptional regulators and fungal stress response pathways, blockade of energy supply, and direct inhibition of efflux pumps. PMID:19366916

  17. Synthetic Multivalent Antifungal Peptides Effective against Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianguo; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Aung, Thet Tun; Goh, Eunice; Chang, Jamie Ya Ting; Saraswathi, Padhmanaban; Tang, Charles; Safie, Siti Radiah Binte; Lin, Lim Yih; Riezman, Howard; Lei, Zhou; Verma, Chandra S.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of the cluster effect observed in multivalent peptides, this work describes antifungal activity and possible mechanism of action of tetravalent peptide (B4010) which carries 4 copies of the sequence RGRKVVRR through a branched lysine core. B4010 displayed better antifungal properties than natamycin and amphotericin B. The peptide retained significant activity in the presence of monovalent/divalent cations, trypsin and serum and tear fluid. Moreover, B4010 is non-haemolytic and non-toxic to mice by intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg) or intravenous (100 mg/kg) routes. S. cerevisiae mutant strains with altered membrane sterol structures and composition showed hyper senstivity to B4010. The peptide had no affinity for cell wall polysaccharides and caused rapid dissipation of membrane potential and release of vital ions and ATP when treated with C. albicans. We demonstrate that additives which alter the membrane potential or membrane rigidity protect C. albicans from B4010-induced lethality. Calcein release assay and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the peptide preferentially binds to mixed bilayer containing ergosterol over phophotidylcholine-cholesterol bilayers. The studies further suggested that the first arginine is important for mediating peptide-bilayer interactions. Replacing the first arginine led to a 2–4 fold decrease in antifungal activities and reduced membrane disruption properties. The combined in silico and in vitro approach should facilitate rational design of new tetravalent antifungal peptides. PMID:24498363

  18. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylactic strategies have been extensively developed. However, only a few well-designed studies involving strict criteria have been performed, mostly in patients with hematological malignancies or AIDS. In these situations, the best dose and duration of administration of the antifungal drug often remain to be determined. In high-risk neutropenic or bone marrow transplant patients, fluconazole is effective for the prevention of superficial and/or systemic candidal infections but is not always able to prolong overall survival and potentially selects less susceptible or resistant Candida spp. Primary prophylaxis against aspergillosis remains investigative. At present, no standard general recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis can be proposed for AIDS patients or transplant recipients. However, for persistently immunocompromised patients who previously experienced a noncandidal systemic fungal infection, prolonged suppressive antifungal therapy is often indicated to prevent a relapse. Better strategies for controlling immune deficiencies should also help to avoid some potentially life-threatening deep mycoses. When prescribing antifungal prophylaxis, physicians should be aware of the potential emergence of resistant strains, drug-drug interactions, and the cost. Well-designed, randomized, multicenter clinical trials in high-risk immunocompromised hosts are urgently needed to better define how to prevent severe invasive mycoses. PMID:9227863

  19. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing: Current Role from the Clinical Laboratory Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Posteraro, Brunella; Torelli, Riccardo; De Carolis, Elena; Posteraro, Patrizia; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Despite availability of many antifungal agents, antifungal clinical resistance occurs, perhaps as a consequence of an infecting organism found to be resistant in vitro to one or more antifungals tested. From what derives the important current role of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST), that is to determine which agents are like to be scarcely effective for a given infection. Thus, AFST results, if timely generated by the clinical microbiology laboratory and communicated to clinicians, can aid them in the therapeutic decision making, especially for difficult-to-treat invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Although recently refined AFST methods are commercially available for allowing a close antifungal resistance surveillance in many clinical setting, novel assays such as flow cytometry or MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry are upcoming tools for AFST. Based on short-time antifungal drug exposure of fungal isolates, these assays could provide a reliable means for quicker and sensitive assessment of AFST. PMID:24804003

  20. Antifungal activity of thiophenes from Echinops ritro.

    PubMed

    Fokialakis, Nikolas; Cantrell, Charles L; Duke, Stephen O; Skaltsounis, Alexios L; Wedge, David E

    2006-03-01

    Extracts from 30 plants of the Greek flora were evaluated for their antifungal activity using direct bioautography assays with three Colletotrichum species. Among the bioactive extracts, the dichloromethane extract of the radix of Echinops ritro (Asteraceae) was the most potent. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of eight thiophenes. Antifungal activities of isolated compounds together with a previously isolated thiophene from Echinops transiliensis were first evaluated by bioautography and subsequently evaluated in greater detail using a broth microdilution assay against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Phomopsis viticola, and Phomopsis obscurans. 5'-(3-Buten-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophen (1), alpha-terthienyl (2), and 2-[pent-1,3-diynyl]-5-[4-hydroxybut-1-ynyl]thiophene (5) at 3 and 30 microM were active against all three Colletotrichum species, F. oxysporum, P. viticola, and P. obscurans. PMID:16506815

  1. An antifungal peptide from the coconut.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2005-12-01

    A chromatographic procedure consisting of ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast performance liquid chromatography on Supedex 75 was utilized to isolate a 10 kDa antifungal peptide from coconut flesh. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. It displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Physalospora piricola. The IC50 values of its inhibitory activities on mycelial growth in M. arachidicola and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity were respectively 1.2 and 52.5 microM. PMID:16308082

  2. Update in Antifungal Therapy of Dermatophytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Elizabeth A. Cooper

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of dermatophyte infection involves primarily oral and\\/or topical formulations of azoles or allylamines, particularly\\u000a itraconazole and terbinafine. Topical medications applied once or twice daily are the primary treatment indicated for tinea\\u000a corporis\\/cruris, and tinea pedis\\/manuum. Use of oral antifungals may be practical where the tinea involvement is extensive\\u000a or chronic, or where application of a topical is not feasible.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Fernanda P.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Pitangui, Nayla S.; Rossi, Suélen A.; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Soares, Luciana A.; Silva, Julhiany F.; Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Furlan, Maysa; Silva, Dulce H. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa). It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125?mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250?mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:22675379

  4. Antifungal activity of Eugenia umbelliflora against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Karina E; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruz, Rosana C B; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cruz, Alexandre Bella

    2009-09-01

    Antifungal activities of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae) were tested in vitro against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of human fungal pathogens (dermatophytes and opportunistic saprobes). Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of E. umbelliflora were separately prepared and partitioned, to yield dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions (Aq). Three compounds (1-3) were obtained from the DCM extract using chromatographic procedures. Antifungal assays were performed using agar dilution techniques. Both extracts (fruits and leaves), their DCM and EtOAc fractions, and compound 2 (betulin and betulinic acid) presented selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes), with MIC values between 200 and 1000 microg/mL, and interestingly, inhibited 4/5 species with MIC values of < or = 500 microg/mL. The aqueous fractions of fruits and leaves, and compounds 1 (alpha, beta amyrin) and 3 (taraxerol) were inactive up to the maximum concentrations tested (1000 microg/mL). PMID:19831024

  5. Current and Emerging Azole Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Daniel J.; Hitchcock, Christopher A.; Sibley, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Major developments in research into the azole class of antifungal agents during the 1990s have provided expanded options for the treatment of many opportunistic and endemic fungal infections. Fluconazole and itraconazole have proved to be safer than both amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Despite these advances, serious fungal infections remain difficult to treat, and resistance to the available drugs is emerging. This review describes present and future uses of the currently available azole antifungal agents in the treatment of systemic and superficial fungal infections and provides a brief overview of the current status of in vitro susceptibility testing and the growing problem of clinical resistance to the azoles. Use of the currently available azoles in combination with other antifungal agents with different mechanisms of action is likely to provide enhanced efficacy. Detailed information on some of the second-generation triazoles being developed to provide extended coverage of opportunistic, endemic, and emerging fungal pathogens, as well as those in which resistance to older agents is becoming problematic, is provided. PMID:9880474

  6. Antifungal immunity in selected fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak-Ryczek, Alicja; Tokarz-Deptu?a, Beata; Deptu?a, Wies?aw

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are omnipresent in the environment; hence they are frequent factors causing infections in humans and animals even if their immune system works correctly. These facts stimulated interest in and the will to understand the antifungal immunity mechanisms. It has been, however, evidenced that the immunological response to mycotic pathogens is related to the species and morphological form of the fungus. Nevertheless, it is assumed that always in the antifungal response, there are mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity that cooperate with one another to eliminate such pathogens. It has been evidenced that the main elements of antifungal immunity are physical barriers of the organism, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, and possibly trogocytosis of PMN and MN cells, as well as T-cells, and to a smaller extent B-cells, the proportion of which is principally related to their products activating the processes of PMN and MN cells. An important role in this immunity also belongs to PRR, which activate the main processes of phagocytosis and cytotoxicity of PMN, MN, NK and DC cells. PMID:25897108

  7. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

  8. Impact of New Antifungal Breakpoints on Antifungal Resistance in Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, Annette W.; Sutton, Deanna A.; McCarthy, Dora I.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed our antifungal susceptibility data for micafungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole against Candida species and compared resistance rates determined by the previous and recently revised CLSI antifungal breakpoints. With the new breakpoints, resistance was significantly increased for micafungin (from 0.8% to 7.6%), anidulafungin (from 0.9% to 7.3%), and voriconazole (from 6.1% to 18.4%) against Candida glabrata. Resistance was also increased for fluconazole against Candida albicans (from 2.1% to 5.7%). PMID:24403302

  9. Impact of new antifungal breakpoints on antifungal resistance in Candida species.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Annette W; Sutton, Deanna A; McCarthy, Dora I; Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2014-03-01

    We reviewed our antifungal susceptibility data for micafungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole against Candida species and compared resistance rates determined by the previous and recently revised CLSI antifungal breakpoints. With the new breakpoints, resistance was significantly increased for micafungin (from 0.8% to 7.6%), anidulafungin (from 0.9% to 7.3%), and voriconazole (from 6.1% to 18.4%) against Candida glabrata. Resistance was also increased for fluconazole against Candida albicans (from 2.1% to 5.7%). PMID:24403302

  10. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  11. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  12. Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Litsea cubeba Pers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranati Gogoi; Paran Baruah; Subhan C. Nath

    1997-01-01

    Investigation on the antifungal activity of naturally occurring citral containing essential oil of Litsea cubeba Pers. at various dilutions revealed the possibility of its utilization as an antifungal agent. The oil isolated from the fruits of L. cubeba was tested in vitro for its activity at different concentrations against Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The oil

  13. Cuticular antifungals in spiders: density- and condition dependence.

    PubMed

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Ruch, Jasmin; Pulpitel, Tamara; Ponton, Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Animals living in groups face a high risk of disease contagion. In many arthropod species, cuticular antimicrobials constitute the first protective barrier that prevents infections. Here we report that group-living spiders produce cuticular chemicals which inhibit fungal growth. Given that cuticular antifungals may be costly to produce, we explored whether they can be modulated according to the risk of contagion (i.e. under high densities). For this purpose, we quantified cuticular antifungal activity in the subsocial crab spider Diaea ergandros in both natural nests and experimentally manipulated nests of varying density. We quantified the body-condition of spiders to test whether antifungal activity is condition dependent, as well as the effect of spider density on body-condition. We predicted cuticular antifungal activity to increase and body-condition to decrease with high spider densities, and that antifungal activity would be inversely related to body-condition. Contrary to our predictions, antifungal activity was neither density- nor condition-dependent. However, body-condition decreased with density in natural nests, but increased in experimental nests. We suggest that pathogen pressure is so important in nature that it maintains high levels of cuticular antifungal activity in spiders, impacting negatively on individual energetic condition. Future studies should identify the chemical structure of the isolated antifungal compounds in order to understand the physiological basis of a trade-off between disease prevention and energetic condition caused by group living, and its consequences in the evolution of sociality in spiders. PMID:24637563

  14. Cysticidal Activity of Antifungals against Different Genotypes of Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Darlene; Ledee, Dolena R.; Alfonso, Eduardo C.

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal drugs have been proposed as a novel treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis. The cysticidal activity of several antifungal compounds was tested against different genotypes of culture collection and clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba. Only voriconazole and posaconazole were found to be cysticidal, with no differences in activity observed between clinical and culture collection isolates. PMID:25001304

  15. Synthesis, antifungal, and phytotoxic effects of some benzopyrone derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Mohammed Khan; Zafar S. Saify; Muhammad Zarrar Khan; Safdar Hayat; Saeedan Begum; Fatima Noor; M. Iqbal Choudhary; Shahnaz Perveen; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2004-01-01

    Syntheses of benzopyrones 1, 13, and their derivatives, as well as their phytotoxic (in vitro) and antifungal (in vitro) screening was carried out. Compounds 2, 7, 8, and 10 showed significant phytotoxic activity, whereas 3, 8, 10, and 12 exhibited significant antifungal (in vitro) activity.

  16. Antifungal stewardship in daily practice and health economic implications.

    PubMed

    Muńoz, Patricia; Valerio, Maricela; Vena, Antonio; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    During recent years, inappropriate antifungal use has contributed to the global increase in antifungal resistance and has played a role in the shift in the aetiology of invasive fungal infections. Moreover, overuse of antifungals may also lead to higher toxicity associated with unnecessary medication exposure and to increased healthcare costs. Antifungal stewardship (AFS) programmes consist of multidisciplinary interventions, led by specialists in infectious disease, microbiology and pharmacy that cooperate and communicate with the major prescribing departments in order to optimise antifungal therapies evaluating the indication, dose, streamlining and duration. Herein, we review the available evidence for the use of AFS and their impact on health economics. We also describe our AFS program, the successive steps we followed and the main difficulties we found. PMID:26033252

  17. Advances in synthetic approach to and antifungal activity of triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Drabu, Sushma; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Summary Several five membered ring systems, e.g., triazole, oxadiazole dithiazole and thiadiazole with three heteroatoms at symmetrical or asymmetrical positions have been studied because of their interesting pharmacological properties. In this article our emphasis is on synthetic development and pharmacological activity of the triazole moiety which exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer etc. Triazoles have increased our ability to treat many fungal infections, for example, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, aspergillosis etc. However, mortality due to these infections even with antifungal therapy is still unacceptably high. Therefore, the development of new antifungal agents targeting specific fungal structures or functions is being actively pursued. Rapid developments in molecular mycology have led to a concentrated search for more target antifungals. Although we are entering a new era of antifungal therapy in which we will continue to be challenged by systemic fungal diseases, the options for treatment will have greatly expanded. PMID:21804864

  18. Natural products and antifungal drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Melissa R; Walker, Larry A

    2005-01-01

    The need for new antifungal agents continues, fueled by opportunistic infections in immune-compromised patients and by the development of resistance to existing agents. Natural products offer a virtually unlimited source of unique molecules and not only serve as a reservoir for new potential drugs and drug prototypes, but also for probes of fungal biology. In this chapter, whole-cell screening methods targeted for natural products are illustrated, including general microplate-based screening, bioautography, and mode of action studies, including the use of genetically altered fungal strains now available commercially. PMID:15888937

  19. Antifungal activity of the systemic fungicide imazalil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Siegel; A. Kerkenaar; A. Kaars Sijpesteijn

    1977-01-01

    The antifungal activity of imazalil against spores of Penicillium italicum and several other fungi was found to be pH-dependent.\\u000a The fungicide was much less effective at pH 5.2 than at pH 7.0. However, related members of the imidazole class of fungicides\\u000a (miconazole and clotrimazole) did not show this pH dependency. Fungitoxicity of imazalil and miconazole at different pH’s\\u000a was correlated

  20. Antifungal amide from leaves of Piper hispidum.

    PubMed

    Alécio, A C; da Silva Bolzani, V; Young, M C; Kato, M J; Furlan, M

    1998-05-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) yielded a new pyrrolidine amide, N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine 1, in addition to two known amides N-[5-(3', 4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(E)-pentadienoyl] pyrrolidine and N-[2-(3', 4'-methylenedioxy-6'-methoxyphenyl)-2(Z)-propenoyl]pyrrolidine. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of spectral data, including ES-MS. Compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. PMID:9599264

  1. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovieva, S. E.; Olsufyeva, E. N.; Preobrazhenskaya, M. N.

    2011-02-01

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  2. Antifungal activity of magnolol and honokiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyu Ho Bang; Yoon Kwan Kim; Byung Sun Min; Min Kyun Na; Young Ha Rhee; Jong Pill Lee; Ki Hwan Bae

    2000-01-01

    Two neolignan compounds, magnolol (5,5?-diallyl-2,2?-dihydroxybiphenyl,1) and honokiol (5,5?-diallyl-2,4?-dihydroxybiphenyl,2), were isolated from the stem bark ofMagnolia obovata and evaluated for antifungal activity against various human pathogenic fungi. Compound1 and2 showed significant inhibitory activities againstTrichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporium gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Cryptococcus neoformans, andCandida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in a range of 25–100 ?g\\/ml. Therefore, compound1 and2 could be

  3. Novel antifungal peptides from Ceylon spinach seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ng, T B

    2001-11-01

    Two novel antifungal peptides, designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the Ceylon spinach Basella rubra. The purification procedure involved saline extraction, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex peptide column. alpha- and beta-basrubrins exhibited a molecular weight of 4.3 and 5 kDa, respectively. They inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte system with an IC(50) value of 400 and 100 nM, respectively. alpha- and beta-basrubrin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by (79.4 +/- 7.8)% and (54.6 +/- 3.6)%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 microM, and (10.56 +/- 0.92)% and (2.12 +/- 0.81)%, respectively, at a concentration of 40 microM. Both alpha- and beta-basrubrins exerted potent antifungal activity toward Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:11688973

  4. Synergistic Antifungal Effect of Glabridin and Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Li, Li Ping; Zhang, Jun Dong; Li, Qun; Shen, Hui; Chen, Si Min; He, Li Juan; Yan, Lan; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections is increasing in recent years. The present study mainly investigated glabridin (Gla) alone and especially in combination with fluconazole (FLC) against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida Glabratas) by different methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) indicated that Gla possessed a broad-spectrum antifungal activity at relatively high concentrations. After combining with FLC, Gla exerted a potent synergistic effect against drug-resistant C. albicans and C. tropicalis at lower concentrations when interpreted by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). Disk diffusion test and time-killing test confirming the synergistic fungicidal effect. Cell growth tests suggested that the synergistic effect of the two drugs depended more on the concentration of Gla. The cell envelop damage including a significant decrease of cell size and membrane permeability increasing were found after Gla treatment. Together, our results suggested that Gla possessed a synergistic effect with FLC and the cell envelope damage maybe contributed to the synergistic effect, which providing new information for developing novel antifungal agents. PMID:25058485

  5. Potentiation of Azole Antifungals by 2-Adamantanamine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lingmei; Lister, Ida; Keating, John; Nantel, Andre; Long, Lisa; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; North, Jeffrey; Lee, Richard E.; Coleman, Ken; Dahl, Thomas; Lewis, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Azoles are among the most successful classes of antifungals. They act by inhibiting ?-14 lanosterol demethylase in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) occurs in about 90% of HIV-infected individuals, and 4 to 5% are refractory to current therapies, including azoles, due to the formation of resistant biofilms produced in the course of OPC. We reasoned that compounds affecting a different target may potentiate azoles to produce increased killing and an antibiofilm therapeutic. 2-Adamantanamine (AC17) was identified in a screen for compounds potentiating the action of miconazole against biofilms of Candida albicans. AC17, a close structural analog to the antiviral amantadine, did not affect the viability of C. albicans but caused the normally fungistatic azoles to become fungicidal. Transcriptome analysis of cells treated with AC17 revealed that the ergosterol and filamentation pathways were affected. Indeed, cells exposed to AC17 had decreased ergosterol contents and were unable to invade agar. In vivo, the combination of AC17 and fluconazole produced a significant reduction in fungal tissue burden in a guinea pig model of cutaneous candidiasis, while each treatment alone did not have a significant effect. The combination of fluconazole and AC17 also showed improved efficacy (P value of 0.018) compared to fluconazole alone when fungal lesions were evaluated. AC17 is a promising lead in the search for more effective antifungal therapeutics. PMID:23689724

  6. Antifungal Th Immunity: Growing up in Family

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Monica; Renga, Giorgia; Puccetti, Matteo; Oikonomou, Vasileios; Palmieri, Melissa; Galosi, Claudia; Bartoli, Andrea; Romani, Luigina

    2014-01-01

    Fungal diseases represent an important paradigm in immunology since they can result from either the lack of recognition or over-activation of the inflammatory response. Current understanding of the pathophysiology underlying fungal infections and diseases highlights the multiple cell populations and cell-signaling pathways involved in these conditions. A systems biology approach that integrates investigations of immunity at the systems-level is required to generate novel insights into this complexity and to decipher the dynamics of the host–fungus interaction. It is becoming clear that a three-way interaction between the host, microbiota, and fungi dictates the types of host–fungus relationship. Tryptophan metabolism helps support this interaction, being exploited by the mammalian host and commensals to increase fitness in response to fungi via resistance and tolerance mechanisms of antifungal immunity. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that provide immune homeostasis with the fungal biota and its possible rupture in fungal infections and diseases will be discussed within the expanding role of antifungal Th cell responses. PMID:25360137

  7. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antifungals in Children: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Autmizguine, Julie; Guptill, Jeffrey T.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Capparelli, Edmund V.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) remains life-threatening in premature infants and immunocompromised children despite the recent development of new antifungal agents. Optimal dosing of antifungals is one of the few factors clinicians can control to improve outcomes of IFD. However, dosing in children cannot be extrapolated from adult data because IFD pathophysiology, immune response, and drug disposition differ from adults. We critically examined the literature on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antifungal agents and highlight recent developments in treating pediatric IFD. To match adult exposure in pediatric patients, dosing adjustment is necessary for almost all antifungals. In young infants, the maturation of renal and metabolic functions occurs rapidly and can significantly influence drug exposure. Fluconazole clearance doubles from birth to 28 days of life and, beyond the neonatal period, agents like fluconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin require higher dosing than in adults due to faster clearance in children. As a result, dosing recommendations are specific to bracketed ranges of age. Pharmacodynamics principles of antifungals mostly rely on in vitro and in vivo models but very few pharmacodynamics studies specifically address IFD in children. Exposure-response relationship may differ in younger children compared with adults, especially in infants with invasive candidiasis who are at higher risk of disseminated disease and meningoencephalitis, and by extension severe neurodevelopmental impairment. Micafungin is the only antifungal agent for which a specific target of exposure was proposed based on a neonatal hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis animal model. In this review, we found that pediatric data on drug disposition of newer triazoles and echinocandins are lacking, dosing of older antifungals such as fluconazole and amphotericin B products still need optimization in young infants, and that target PK/PD indices need to be clinically validated for almost all antifungals in children. A better understanding of age-specific PK and PD of new antifungals in infants and children will help improve clinical outcomes of IFD by informing dosing and identifying future research areas. PMID:24872147

  8. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    PubMed

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  9. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Limonene against Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Min Hee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the antifungal activities of limonene against Trichophyton rubrum were evaluated via broth microdilution and vapor contact assays. In both assays, limonene was shown to exert a potent antifungal effect against T. rubrum. The volatile vapor of limonene at concentrations above 1 µl/800 ml air space strongly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum. The MIC value was 0.5% v/v in the broth microdilution assay. The antifungal activity of limonene against T. rubrum was characterized as a fungicidal effect. PMID:23983542

  10. Antifungal Activity of Antifungal Drugs, as Well as Drug Combinations Against Exophiala dermatitidis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Sun; Wei Liu; Zhe Wan; Xiaohong Wang; Ruoyu Li

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of common antifungal drugs, as well as the interactions of caspofungin with voriconazole,\\u000a amphotericin B, or itraconazole against the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis from China, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of terbinafine, voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole,\\u000a and caspofungin against 16 strains of E. dermatitidis were determined by using CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2).

  11. Overview of medically important antifungal azole derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Fromtling, R A

    1988-01-01

    Fungal infections are a major burden to the health and welfare of modern humans. They range from simply cosmetic, non-life-threatening skin infections to severe, systemic infections that may lead to significant debilitation or death. The selection of chemotherapeutic agents useful for the treatment of fungal infections is small. In this overview, a major chemical group with antifungal activity, the azole derivatives, is examined. Included are historical and state of the art information on the in vitro activity, experimental in vivo activity, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and uses and adverse reactions of imidazoles currently marketed (clotrimazole, miconazole, econazole, ketoconazole, bifonazole, butoconazole, croconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, oxiconazole, sulconazole, and tioconazole) and under development (aliconazole and omoconazole), as well as triazoles currently marketed (terconazole) and under development (fluconazole, itraconazole, vibunazole, alteconazole, and ICI 195,739). PMID:3069196

  12. Candicidin and other polyenic antifungal antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Waksman, Selman A.; Lechevalier, Hubert A.; Schaffner, Carl P.

    1965-01-01

    About 50 polyenic antifungal antibiotics produced by actinomycetes have been isolated and described. Among these are the most effective antimonilial agents so far known. These polyenes can be classified into four broad groups depending on the number of conjugated carbon-to-carbon double bonds that are present in their chromophores. Only some of the tetraenes (four conjugated double bonds), such as nystatin and pimaricin, and a few heptaenes (seven conjugated double bonds), such as amphotericin B, Trichomycin candicidin and hamycin, have found practical application in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by fungi. Nystatin and pimaricin show the least in vitro activity against fungi, while trichomycin and candicidin are the most active. Recent clinical investigations carried out in the USA have shown that candicidin is very effective in the treatment of vaginal monilial infections. PMID:5320588

  13. 21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of antifungal drug products. 333.250 Section 333.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  14. Actinomycetes of Moroccan habitats: Isolation and screening for antifungal activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yedir Ouhdouch; Mustapha Barakate

    2001-01-01

    During a search for non-polyenic antifungal antibiotics, 320 actinomycete strains were isolated from several Moroccan habitats. Antibiotic productions of the isolates have been tested at various temperatures and production media. Thirty-two isolates showed strong activity against yeast, moulds and bacteria. The production of non-polyenic antifungal metabolites by active isolates was investigated using some of their biological activities: antibacterial activity, spheroplast regeneration

  15. Antifungal Activities of Three Supercritical Fluid Extracted Cedar Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianchuan Du; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    The antifungal activities of three supercritical CO2 (SCC) extracted cedar oils, Port-Orford-cedar (POC) (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), Alaska yellow cedar (AYC) (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and Eastern red cedar (ERC) (Juniperus virginiana L), were evaluated against two common wood decay fungi, brown-rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor). The statistical analysis showed that SCC extracted cedar oils had higher antifungal activities othan

  16. Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strains with Antifungal Activities from Meju

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwang A; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Bacilli with fibrinolytic activities were isolated from traditionally-prepared Meju and some of these strains showed strong antifungal activities. One isolate, MJ1-4, showed the strongest antifungal activity. MJ1-4 and other isolates were identified as B. amyloliquefaciens strains by recA gene sequencing and RAPD-PCR results. B. amyloliqufaciens MJ1-4 efficiently inhibited an Aspergillus spp.-producing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and a Penicillium spp.-producing ochratoxin (OTA) in addition to other fungi. Antifungal activity of B. amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 culture reached its maximum (40 AU/mg protein) in LB or TSB medium around 48 hr at 37°C. Antifungal activity of the concentrated culture supernatant was not decreased significantly by protease treatments, implying that the antifungal substance might not be a simple peptide or protein. Considering its antifungal and fibrinolytic activities together, B. amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 can serve as a starter for fermented soyfoods such as Cheonggukjang and Doenjang. PMID:24471064

  17. Antifungal effect and mechanism of garlic oil on Penicillium funiculosum.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Liang, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Chen, Yi-Ben

    2014-10-01

    Garlic oil is a kind of fungicide, but little is known about its antifungal effects and mechanism. In this study, the chemical constituents, antifungal activity, and effects of garlic oil were studied with Penicillium funiculosum as a model strain. Results showed that the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs, v/v) were 0.125 and 0.0313 % in agar medium and broth medium, respectively, suggesting that the garlic oil had a strong antifungal activity. The main ingredients of garlic oil were identified as sulfides, mainly including disulfides (36 %), trisulfides (32 %) and monosulfides (29 %) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which were estimated as the dominant antifungal factors. The observation results by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that garlic oil could firstly penetrate into hyphae cells and even their organelles, and then destroy the cellular structure, finally leading to the leakage of both cytoplasm and macromolecules. Further proteomic analysis displayed garlic oil was able to induce a stimulated or weakened expression of some key proteins for physiological metabolism. Therefore, our study proved that garlic oil can work multiple sites of the hyphae of P. funiculosum to cause their death. The high antifungal effects of garlic oil makes it a broad application prospect in antifungal industries. PMID:25012787

  18. Antifungal innate immunity: recognition and inflammatory networks.

    PubMed

    Becker, Katharina L; Ifrim, Daniela C; Quintin, Jessica; Netea, Mihai G; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-03-01

    A large variety of fungi are present in the environment, among which a proportion colonizes the human body, usually without causing any harm. However, depending on the host immune status, commensals can become opportunistic pathogens that induce diseases ranging from superficial non-harmful infection to life-threatening systemic disease. The interplay between the host and the fungal commensal flora is being orchestrated by an efficient recognition of the microorganisms, which in turn ensures a proper balance between tolerance of the normal fungal flora and induction of immune defense mechanisms when invasion occurs. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a significant role in maintaining this balance due to their capacity to sense fungi and induce host responses such as the induction of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present review, we will discuss the most recent findings regarding the recognition of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus and the different types of immune cells that play a role in antifungal host defense. PMID:25527294

  19. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

  20. Resistance to echinocandin-class antifungal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections cause morbidity and mortality in severely ill patients, and limited drug classes restrict treatment choices. The echinocandins drugs are the first new class of antifungal compounds that target the fungal cell wall by blocking ?-1,3-D-glucan synthase. Elevated MIC values with occasional treatment failure have been reported for strains of Candida. Yet, an uncertain correlation exists between clinical failure and elevated MIC values for the echinocandin drugs. Fungi display several adaptive physiological mechanisms that result in elevated MIC values. However, resistance to echinocandin drugs among clinical isolates is associated with amino acid substitutions in two “hot-spot” regions of Fks1, the major subunit of glucan synthase. The mutations, yielding highly elevated MIC values, are genetically dominant and confer cross-resistance to all echinocandin drugs. Prominent Fks1 mutations decrease the sensitivity of glucan synthase for drug by one thousand-fold or more, and strains harboring such mutations may require a concomitant increase in drug to reduce fungal organ burdens in animal infection models. The Fks1-mediated resistance mechanism is conserved in a wide variety of Candida spp. and can account for intrinsic reduced susceptibility of certain species. Fks1 mutations confer resistance in both yeasts and moulds suggesting that this mechanism is pervasive in the fungal kingdom. PMID:17569573

  1. Synthesis and antifungal activities of miltefosine analogs

    PubMed Central

    Ravu, Ranga Rao; Chen, Ying-Lien; Jacob, Melissa R.; Pan, Xuewen; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; Khan, Shabana I.; Heitman, Joseph; Clark, Alice M.; Li, Xing-Cong

    2013-01-01

    Miltefosine is an alkylphosphocholine that shows broad-spectrum in vitro antifungal activities and limited in vivo efficacy in mouse models of cryptococcosis. To further explore the potential of this class of compounds for the treatment of systemic mycoses, nine analogs (3a–3i) were synthesized by modifying the choline structural moiety and the alkyl chain length of miltefosine. In vitro testing of these compounds against the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans revealed that N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-{[(hexadecyloxy)hydroxyphosphinyl]oxy}ethanaminium inner salt (3a), N,N-dimethyl-N-(4-nitrobenzyl)-2-{[(hexadecyloxy)hydroxyphosphinyl]oxy}ethanaminium inner salt (3d), and N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N,N-dimethyl-2-{[(hexadecyloxy)hydroxyphosphinyl]oxy}ethanaminium inner salt (3e) exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 2.5–5.0 ?g/mL against all tested pathogens, when compared to miltefosine with MICs of 2.5–3.3 ?g/mL. Compound 3a showed low in vitro cytotoxicity against three mammalian cell lines similar to miltefosine. In vivo testing of 3a and miltefosine against C. albicans in a mouse model of systemic infection did not demonstrate efficacy. The results of this study indicate that further investigation will be required to determine the potential usefulness of the alkylphosphocholines in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. PMID:23891181

  2. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    PubMed

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  3. Taxonomy and Antifungal Susceptibility of Clinically Important Rasamsonia Species

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.; Bertout, S.; Frisvad, J. C.; Meis, J. F.; Bouchara, J. P.; Samson, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among a set of Rasamsonia argillacea strains, including 28 clinical strains, was studied, and antifungal susceptibility profiles were generated. Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences revealed the presence of four species in the Rasamsonia argillacea complex, two of which are newly described here: R. piperina sp. nov. and R. aegroticola sp. nov. In contrast to other related genera, all Rasamsonia species can be identified with ITS sequences. A retrospective identification was performed on recently reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole was the least active of the antifungals tested. The phenotypically similar species R. brevistipitata and R. cylindrospora had different antifungal susceptibility profiles, and this indicates that correct species identification is important to help guide appropriate antifungal therapy. PMID:23077129

  4. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    PubMed

    Felšöciová, So?a; Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovi?, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stri?ík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

  5. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe 3O 4) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 ?g/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients.

  6. Combination antifungal therapy for the treatment of invasive yeast and mold infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Baddley; Peter G. Pappas

    2007-01-01

    Combination antifungal therapy has been an area of great research and clinical interest since antifungals became available\\u000a decades ago, in part driven by the severe morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections. Because of the\\u000a availability of newer antifungal agents including echinocandins and expanded-spectrum triazoles, interest in combination antifungal\\u000a therapy for invasive mold disease, especially invasive aspergillosis, has grown.

  7. Antifungal mechanism of the Aspergillus giganteus AFP against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Beatriz Moreno; Blanca San Segundo

    The mold Aspergillus giganteus produces a basic, low molecular weight protein showing antifungal properties against economically important plant pathogens, the AFP (Antifungal Protein). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which AFP exerts its antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea. M. grisea is the causal agent of rice blast, one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated rice worldwide. AFP

  8. Antifungal activity of alkyl gallates against plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinsaku; Nakagawa, Yasutaka; Yazawa, Satoru; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke

    2014-04-01

    The antifungal activity of alkyl gallates against plant pathogenic fungi was evaluated. All of the fungi tested in this study were susceptible to some alkyl gallates, and the effect of linear alkyl gallates against plant pathogenic fungi was similar to the previously reported effects against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. We found that branched alkyl gallates showed stronger activity than did linear alkyl gallates with similar logP values. In addition, the antifungal activity of alkyl gallates was correlated with gallate-induced inhibition of the activity of mitochondrial complex II. The antifungal activity of alkyl gallates likely originates, at least in part, from their ability to inhibit the membrane respiratory chain. PMID:24618299

  9. New antifungal agents for the treatment of candidaemia.

    PubMed

    Muńoz, Patricia; Guinea, Jesus; Rojas, Loreto; Bouza, Emilio

    2010-12-01

    Suspected or proven invasive candidiasis is an important indication for antifungal drugs and a leading cause of death. Prompt initiation of effective therapy has a marked effect on survival, but the indiscriminate application of different risk-factor-based prediction models is massively increasing the number of patients treated unnecessarily. Fluconazole resistance levels are <5% in most European centres and the use of low doses is still common. Candins are fungicidal, have efficacy against device-related infections, have few interactions and are well tolerated. Accordingly, the use of newer, more expensive drugs must be carefully balanced in each case. Campaigns directed towards stewardship in antifungal drug use must take into consideration the choice of the drug, the dose and route of administration, and the length of therapy. Early microbiological information and medical education may contribute to better use of these important drugs. We review the characteristics of the new antifungals used for the treatment of candidaemia. PMID:21129925

  10. Antifungal drug resistance among Candida species: mechanisms and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2015-06-01

    The epidemiology of Candida infections has changed in recent years. Although Candida albicans is still the main cause of invasive candidiasis in most clinical settings, a substantial proportion of patients is now infected with non-albicans Candida species. The various Candida species vary in their susceptibility to the most commonly used antifungal agents, and the intrinsic resistance to antifungal therapy seen in some species, along with the development of acquired resistance during treatment in others, is becoming a major problem in the management of Candida infection. A better understanding of the mechanisms and clinical impact of antifungal drug resistance is essential for the efficient treatment of patients with Candida infection and for improving treatment outcomes. Herein, we report resistance to the azoles and echinocandins among Candida species. PMID:26033251

  11. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:22799453

  12. Antifungal screening of medicinal plants of British Columbian native peoples.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, A R; Ellis, S M; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

    1994-12-01

    One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antifungal activity against 9 fungal species. Eighty-one were found to have some antifungal activity and 30 extracts showed activity against 4 or more of the fungi assayed. The extracts with the greatest fungal inhibition were prepared from Alnus rubra catkins, Artemisia ludoviciana aerial parts, Artemisia tridentata aerial parts, Geum macrophyllum roots, Mahonia aquifolium roots and Moneses uniflora aerial parts. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants also exhibited antifungal activity against all 9 fungi: Asarum caudatum whole plant, Balsamorhiza sagittata roots, Empetrum nigrum branches, Fragaria chiloensis leaves, Gilia aggregata aerial parts and roots, Glehnia littoralis roots, Heracleum lanatum roots, Heuchera cylindrica roots and Rhus glabra branches. PMID:7898123

  13. Antifungal amides from Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum.

    PubMed

    Vasques da Silva, Renata; Navickiene, Hosana M Debonsi; Kato, Massuo J; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Méda, Christiane I; Young, Maria Claudia M; Furlan, Maysa

    2002-03-01

    In continuation of our study of the Piperaceae we have isolated several amides, mainly those bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts from leaves of Piper arboreum yielded two new amides, N-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(E),9(Z)-pentadienoyl]-pyrrolidine (1), arboreumine (2) together with the known compounds N-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(E)-pentaenoyl]-pyrrolidine (3) and N-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(E),9(E)-pentadienoyl]-pyrrolidine (4). Catalytic hydrogenation of 3 yielded the amide N-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-pentanoyl]-pyrrolidine (5). We also have isolated six amides (6-11) and two antifungal cinnamoyl derivatives (12, 13) from seeds and leaves of Piper tuberculatum. Compounds 1-11 showed antifungal activity as determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum while compounds 3-4 and 6-13 also showed antifungal activity against C. cladosporioides. PMID:11853747

  14. Antifungal and antibacterial metabolites from a French poplar type propolis.

    PubMed

    Boisard, Séverine; Le Ray, Anne-Marie; Landreau, Anne; Kempf, Marie; Cassisa, Viviane; Flurin, Catherine; Richomme, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    During this study, the in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of different extracts (aqueous and organic) obtained from a French propolis batch were evaluated. Antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution on three pathogenic strains: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Antibacterial activity was assayed using agar dilution method on 36 Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains including Staphylococcus aureus. Organic extracts showed a significant antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata (MIC80 between 16 and 31?µg/mL) but only a weak activity towards A. fumigatus (MIC80 = 250?µg/mL). DCM based extracts exhibited a selective Gram-positive antibacterial activity, especially against S. aureus (SA) and several of its methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) strains (MIC100 30-97?µg/mL). A new and active derivative of catechin was also identified whereas a synergistic antimicrobial effect was noticed during this study. PMID:25873978

  15. Antifungal active triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Yi, Yang-Hua; Li, Ling; Liu, Bao-Shu; La, Ming-Ping; Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2009-06-01

    To study the new antifungal active triterpene glycosides of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra were separated and purified by silica gel chromatography, reversed-phase silica gel chromatography and RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside A (1), echinoidea A (2) and holothurin A1 (3). Scabraside A (1) is a new triterpene glycoside, and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from Holothuria scabra for the first time. They showed antifungal activities (1 < or = MIC80 < or = 16 microg mL(-1)). PMID:19806893

  16. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Sun, Yi; Wu, Haiyan; Zhu, Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Li, Ruoyu; Fang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  17. Antifungal lignans from the arils of Virola oleifera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Sartorelli; Maria Claudia Marx Young; Massuo Jorge Kato

    1998-01-01

    Arils of Virola oleifera (Myristicaceae) contain two 2,7?-cyclolignans: galbulin, and 4-hydroxy-5,3?,4?-trimethoxy-2,7?-cyclolignan; five lignan-7-ols: oleiferin-B,3,4,3?,4?-tetramethoxylignan-7-ol, oleiferin-F, oleiferin-G, and oleiferin-H and one epoxylignan: verrucosin. Four of the isolates are new. All of the lignan-7-ols and verrucosin showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum at a minimum amount of 25 ?g, and the lignan-7-ols oleiferin-B and oleiferin-G showed antifungal activity against C. cladosporoides at

  18. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imelda J. Galván; Nadereh Mir-Rashed; Matthew Jessulat; Monica Atanya; Ashkan Golshani; Tony Durst; Philippe Petit; Virginie Treyvaud Amiguet; Teun Boekhout; Richard Summerbell; Isabel Cruz; John T. Arnason; Myron L. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol extracts led to the identification of 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (chimaphilin) as the principal antifungal component. The structure of chimaphilin was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activity of chimaphilin was evaluated using the microdilution method with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.05mg\\/mL) and the dandruff-associated fungi Malassezia globosa (0.39mg\\/mL) and Malassezia restricta

  19. Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Fabricated from Antifungal ?-Peptides: Design of Surfaces that Exhibit Antifungal Activity Against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Amy J.; Flessner, Ryan M.; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans can form biofilms on the surfaces of medical devices that are resistant to drug treatment and provide a reservoir for recurrent infections. The use of fungicidal or fungistatic materials to fabricate or coat the surfaces of medical devices has the potential to reduce or eliminate the incidence of biofilm-associated infections. Here, we report on (i) the fabrication of multilayered polyelectrolyte thin films (PEMs) that promote the surface-mediated release of an antifungal ?-peptide and (ii) the ability of these films to inhibit the growth of C. albicans on film-coated surfaces. We incorporated a fluorescently labeled antifungal ?-peptide into the structures of PEMs fabricated from poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) and poly-L-lysine (PLL) using a layer-by-layer fabrication procedure. These films remained stable when incubated in culture media at 37 °C and released ?-peptide gradually into solution for up to 400 hours. Surfaces coated with ?-peptide-containing films inhibited the growth of C. albicans, resulting in a 20% reduction of cell viability after two hours and a 74% decrease in metabolic activity after seven hours when compared to cells incubated on PGA/PLL coated surfaces. In addition, ?-peptide-containing films inhibited hyphal elongation by 55%. These results, when combined, demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate ?-peptide-containing thin films that inhibit the growth and proliferation of C. albicans and provide the basis of an approach that could be used to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms on film-coated surfaces. The layer-by-layer approach reported here could ultimately be used to coat the surfaces of catheters, surgical instruments, and other devices to inhibit drug-resistant C. albicans biofilm formation in clinical settings. PMID:20831274

  20. Antifungal Activities of SCY-078 (MK-3118) and Standard Antifungal Agents against Clinical Non-Aspergillus Mold Isolates.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Alexander, Barbara D

    2015-07-01

    The limited armamentarium of active and oral antifungal drugs against emerging non-Aspergillus molds is of particular concern. Current antifungal agents and the new orally available beta-1,3-d-glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 were tested in vitro against 135 clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates. Akin to echinocandins, SCY-078 showed no or poor activity against Mucoromycotina and Fusarium spp. However, SCY-078 was highly active against Paecilomyces variotii and was the only compound displaying some activity against notoriously panresistant Scedosporium prolificans. PMID:25896696

  1. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant. PMID:24138065

  2. Antifungal active triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAN Hua; YI Yang-hua; LI Ling; LIU Bao-shu; LA Ming-ping; ZHANG Hong-wei

    To study the new antifungal active triterpene glycosides of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra were separated and purified by silica gel chromatography, reversed-phase silica ge1 chromatography and RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside A (1), echinoside A ( 2) and holothurin

  3. Human Pharmacogenomic Variations and Their Implications for Antifungal Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Meletiadis, Joseph; Chanock, Stephen; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is defined as the study of the impacts of heritable traits on pharmacology and toxicology. Candidate genes with potential pharmacogenomic importance include drug transporters involved in absorption and excretion, phase I enzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidases) and phase II enzymes (e.g., glucuronosyltransferases) contributing to metabolism, and those molecules (e.g., albumin, A1-acid glycoprotein, and lipoproteins) involved in the distribution of antifungal compounds. By using the tools of population genetics to define interindividual differences in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, pharmacogenomic models for genetic variations in antifungal pharmacokinetics can be derived. Pharmacogenomic factors may become especially important in the treatment of immunocompromised patients or those with persistent or refractory mycoses that cannot be explained by elevated MICs and where rational dosage optimization of the antifungal agent may be particularly critical. Pharmacogenomics has the potential to shift the paradigm of therapy and to improve the selection of antifungal compounds and adjustment of dosage based upon individual variations in drug absorption, metabolism, and excretion. PMID:17041143

  4. Antifungal synergy of theaflavin and epicatechin combinations against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Betts, Jonathan W; Wareham, David W; Haswell, Stephen J; Kelly, Stephen M

    2013-09-28

    New antifungal agents are required to compensate for the increase in resistance to standard antifungal agents of Candida albicans, which is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes minor infections in many individuals but very serious infections in those who are immune-compromised. In this study, combinations of theaflavin and epicatechin are investigated as potential antifungal agents and also to establish whether antifungal synergy exists between these two readily accessible and cost-effective polyphenols isolated from black and green tea. The results of disc diffusion assays showed stronger antibacterial activity of theaflavin:epicatechin combinations against C. albicans NCTC 3255 and NCTC 3179, than that of theaflavin alone. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1,024 ?g/ml with theaflavin and 128-256 ?g/ml with theaflavin:epicatechin combinations were found. The fractional inhibitory concentration indexes were calculated, and the synergy between theaflavin and epicatechin against both isolates of C. albicans was confirmed. Theaflavin:epicatechin combinations show real potential for future use as a treatment for infections caused by C. albicans. PMID:23711519

  5. Determination of antifungal, biochemical and physiological features of Trichoderma koningiopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichoderma koningiopsis is a species that has been recently identified and has not yet been published, but is in press. Due to the absence of reported data on this species, antifungal, biochemical and physiological features were analyzed for the Trichoderma koningiopsis strain isolated from root se...

  6. Serum differentially alters the antifungal properties of echinocandin drugs.

    PubMed

    Paderu, Padmaja; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Balashov, Sergey; Delmas, Guillaume; Park, Steven; Perlin, David S

    2007-06-01

    Antifungal efficacies of the echinocandin drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin were reduced significantly in the presence of 50% human serum, which yielded nearly equivalent MICs or minimum effective concentrations against diverse Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Consistent with a direct drug interaction, serum decreased the sensitivity of glucan synthase to echinocandin drugs. PMID:17420211

  7. Serum Differentially Alters the Antifungal Properties of Echinocandin Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padmaja Paderu; Guillermo Garcia-Effron; Sergey Balashov; Guillaume Delmas; Steven Park; David S. Perlin

    2007-01-01

    The echinocandin drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin inhibit the fungal -1,3-glucan synthase enzyme, which blocks the formation of glucan polymers, thereby dis- rupting fungal cell wall integrity (2). Animal and human stud- ies indicate that echinocandin drugs are extensively bound to serum proteins (1, 4, 5, 15), and serum was shown to reduce the antifungal properties of micafungin with some

  8. Novel micelle formulations to increase cutaneous bioavailability of azole antifungals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. G. Bachhav; K. Mondon; Y. N. Kalia; R. Gurny; M. Möller

    2011-01-01

    Efficient topical drug administration for the treatment of superficial fungal infections would deliver the therapeutic agent to the target compartment and reduce the risk of systemic side effects. However, the physicochemical properties of the commonly used azole antifungals make their formulation a considerable challenge. The objective of the present investigation was to develop aqueous micelle solutions of clotrimazole (CLZ), econazole

  9. In Vitro Interactions between Antifungals and Immunosuppressive Drugs against Zygomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dannaoui; Patrick Schwarz; Olivier Lortholary

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro interaction of antifungals with immunosuppressive drugs was evaluated against zygomycetes. The combination of amphotericin B with cyclosporine, rapamycin, or tacrolimus was synergistic for 90%, 70%, and 30% of the isolates, respectively. For posaconazole, itraconazole, and ravuconazole, synergy was more frequently observed with cyclosporine than with rapamycin or tacrolimus and antagonistic interactions were rarely noted. In summary, calcineurin

  10. Antifungal activity of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis fresh aqueous juice.

    PubMed

    Sisti, M; Amagliani, G; Brandi, G

    2003-07-01

    The antifungal activity of fresh, aqueous Brassica oleracea var. botrytis juice against Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi was investigated. The juice was found to be effective both in inhibiting the growth of blastoconidia and reducing the appearance of C. albicans germ tubes. Furthermore, the juice inhibited the growth of some pathogenic, filamentous fungi. PMID:12837360

  11. Enhancement of commercial antifungal agents by kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kojic acid (KA), a natural by-product of fungal fermentation, is a commonly used food and cosmetic additive. We show that KA increases activity of amphotericin B and strobilurin, medical and agricultural antifungal agents, respectively, possibly targeting the fungal antioxidative system. KA shows pr...

  12. Antifungal activity of heartwood extracts from three Juniperus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heartwood samples from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane, ethanol and methanol and the hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These three species represent the ...

  13. Antifungal amides from Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hosana Maria D. Navickiene; Alberto Camilo Alécio; Massuo Jorge Kato; Vanderlan da S. Bolzani; Maria Claudia M. Young; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Maysa Furlan

    2000-01-01

    Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum accumulate amides bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. The isolation and characterization of several representatives including two hitherto unreported amides were performed by chromatographic techniques and by analysis of spectroscopic data. The antifungal activity of each amide was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum.

  14. Antifungal amides from Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum.

    PubMed

    Navickiene, H M; Alécio, A C; Kato, M J; Bolzani, V D; Young, M C; Cavalheiro, A J; Furlan, M

    2000-11-01

    Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum accumulate amides bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. The isolation and characterization of several representatives including two hitherto unreported amides were performed by chromatographic techniques and by analysis of spectroscopic data. The antifungal activity of each amide was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. PMID:11130674

  15. Standardization of Antifungal Susceptibility Variables for a Semiautomated Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN L. RODRIGUEZ-TUDELA; MANUEL CUENCA-ESTRELLA; TERESA M. DIAZ-GUERRA; EMILIA MELLADO

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the methodology that will serve as a basis of the standard for antifungal susceptibility testing of fermentative yeasts of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing has been described. This procedure employs a spectrophotometric method for both inoculum adjustment and endpoint determination. However, the utilization of a spectrophotometer requires studies for standardization. The present work analyzes the following parameters:

  16. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF Cassia tora (GELENGGANG KECIL) EXTRACTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassia tora Linn (family :Leguminosae) is a shrub, extensively used in traditional medicine in tropical and warm substropical countries. Cassia tora commonly found in waste grounds and secondary forest. Decoctions of parts of Cassia tora are uses as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, antipyretic, antifungal, antihelmint, diuretic, expectoran, laxatif, purgatif, treatment of glaucoma and hypertention, treatment of skin disease, ringworm and itch

  17. Prediction of antifungal activity of gemini imidazolium compounds.

    PubMed

    Pa?kowski, ?ukasz; B?aszczy?ski, Jerzy; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; B?aszczak, Jan; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Wróblewska, Joanna; Ko?uszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; S?owi?ski, Roman; Krysi?ski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The progress of antimicrobial therapy contributes to the development of strains of fungi resistant to antimicrobial drugs. Since cationic surfactants have been described as good antifungals, we present a SAR study of a novel homologous series of 140 bis-quaternary imidazolium chlorides and analyze them with respect to their biological activity against Candida albicans as one of the major opportunistic pathogens causing a wide spectrum of diseases in human beings. We characterize a set of features of these compounds, concerning their structure, molecular descriptors, and surface active properties. SAR study was conducted with the help of the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach (DRSA), which involves identification of relevant features and relevant combinations of features being in strong relationship with a high antifungal activity of the compounds. The SAR study shows, moreover, that the antifungal activity is dependent on the type of substituents and their position at the chloride moiety, as well as on the surface active properties of the compounds. We also show that molecular descriptors MlogP, HOMO-LUMO gap, total structure connectivity index, and Wiener index may be useful in prediction of antifungal activity of new chemical compounds. PMID:25961015

  18. In vivo mutagenicity of conazole fungicides correlates with tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jeffrey A; Moore, Tanya; Leavitt, Sharon A

    2009-03-01

    Triadimefon, propiconazole and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural and therapeutic fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. All three conazoles are generally inactive in short-term genotoxicity tests. We studied the in vivo mutagenicity of these three conazoles using the Big Blue mouse assay system. Groups of mice were fed either control diet or diet containing 1800 p.p.m. triadimefon, 2500 p.p.m. propiconazole or 2000 p.p.m. myclobutanil. After 4 days of feeding, mice were immediately euthanized, livers were removed, DNA isolated and lacI genes recovered into infectious bacteriophage lambda particles by in vitro packaging. Bacteriophage with mutations in the lacI gene was detected by infecting into Escherichia coli, and mutant frequencies were determined using a colorimetric plaque assay. Propiconazole induced a 1.97-fold increase in mutant frequency compared to concurrent controls (P = 0.018) and triadimefon induced a 1.94-fold increase compared to concurrent controls (P = 0.009). Myclobutanil did not induce any change in mutant frequency (P = 0.548). These results provide the first evidence that the hepatotumorigenic conazoles are capable of inducing mutations in liver in vivo while the non-tumorigen myclobutanil is not, suggesting that mutagenicity may represent a key event in conazoles tumorigenic mode of action. PMID:19028983

  19. Evaluation of the antifungal activity and modulation between Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaves and roots ethanolic extracts and conventional antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Samara A.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; da Costa, José G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The use and investigation of natural products with antimicrobial activity from vegeral source have been reported by several researchers. Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae) is a multiple use specie mainly as human food. In popular medicine, diverse parts of the plant are used as sedative and to treat cough, hepatitis, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study shows the characterization of secondary metabolites present in ehtanolic extracts from leaves and roots of Cajanus cajan by phytochemical prospection. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the microdilution method, and from the subinhibitory concentrations (MIC 1/8) the modulatory activity of antifungical (fluconazole and ketoconazole) was analyzed by the direct contact assay against C. albicans ATCC40006, Candida krusei ATCC 6538 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 40042. Results: The results showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids in both extracts as the clinically relevant antifungal activity. The modulatory potential is presented by the antifungal tested against yeasts. Conclusion: The extracts studied here have demonstrated to be a new therapeutic source to treat these microorganism-associated diseases. PMID:22701281

  20. In Vitro Screening of 10 Edible Thai Plants for Potential Antifungal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2014-01-01

    Growing rates of fungal infections and increasing resistance against standard antifungal drugs can cause serious health problems. There is, therefore, increasing interest in the potential use of medicinal plants as novel antifungal agents. This study investigates the antifungal properties of crude plant extracts from ten medicinal plant species. Crude samples were extracted using the hot water extraction process. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and diameter zone of inhibition were determined in each extract against ten fungal strains, and fluconazole was used as a positive control. The cytotoxicity of crude extracts on in vitro human skin fibroblast (HSF) cell models was determined by MTT assay. Of the ten crude extracts, Psidium guajava L. exhibited the highest antifungal activity, diameter zone of inhibition, and percentage HSF cell viability. Although all extracts exhibited antifungal activity, Psidium guajava L. had the greatest potential for developing antifungal treatments. PMID:24516502

  1. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Janaina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; de Carvalho Moraes, Julianna Joanna; Höfling, José Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis. PMID:24031562

  2. Efinaconazole solution 10%: topical antifungal therapy for toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Toenail onychomycosis is a common disease with limited treatment options, as treatment failures and relapses frequently are encountered. Many patients experience long-term disease that affects multiple toenails and causes substantial discomfort and pain. Although many patients prefer topical therapies, treatment efficacy with ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers has been disappointing. Efinaconazole solution 10% is a new triazole antifungal agent specifically developed for the treatment of onychomycosis. Efinaconazole has shown a broad spectrum of antifungal activity in vitro and is more potent than ciclopirox against common onychomycosis pathogens. It has lower keratin binding and quicker drug release from keratin than ciclopirox and amorolfine and exhibits remarkably greater in vivo activity. Efinaconazole has limited or no potential for drug interactions and a low resistance potential. Efinaconazole provides a viable alternative to oral therapy for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. PMID:24195094

  3. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Janaina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; de Carvalho Moraes, Julianna Joanna; Höfling, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis. PMID:24031562

  4. Mosquitocidal, nematicidal, and antifungal compounds from Apium graveolens L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Momin, R A; Nair, M G

    2001-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds was investigated for bioactive compounds and resulted in the isolation and characterization of mosquitocidal, nematicidal, and antifungal compounds sedanolide (1), senkyunolide-N (2), and senkyunolide-J (3). Their structures were determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectral methods. Compounds 1-3 gave 100% mortality at 25, 100, and 100 microg mL(-1), respectively, on the nematode, Panagrellus redivivus. Compound 1 showed 100% mortality at 50 microg mL(-1) on nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and fourth-instar mosquito larvae, Aedes aegyptii. Also, it inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilasis at 100 microg mL(-1). Compounds 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from A. graveolens. This is the first report of the mosquitocidal, nematicidal, and antifungal activities of compounds 1-3. PMID:11305251

  5. Synthesis and antifungal activity of new hydrazide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Turan-Zitouni, Gülhan; Alt?ntop, Mehlika Dilek; Özdemir, Ahmet; Demirci, Fatih; Abu Mohsen, Usama; Kaplanc?kl?, Zafer As?m

    2013-12-01

    In this study, nine new hydrazide derivatives were synthesized. The reaction of 2-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)oxy]acetohydrazide with various benzaldehydes or acetophenones resulted in N'-substituted-2-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)oxy]acetohydrazide derivatives. The structure elucidation of the synthesized and purified compounds was performed by using IR, (1)H-NMR, and FAB(+)-MS spectral data and elemental analyses, respectively. Furthermore, the compounds were screened and evaluated for their antifungal activity against a panel of different human pathogenic Candida strains such as C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. utilis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. zeylanoides and C. parapsilosis using agar diffusion and broth microdilution assays, respectively. Some of the tested compounds showed comparable antifungal activity (MIC = 0.0156->2 mg/mL) with ketoconazole. PMID:23009641

  6. The antifungal effect of peptides from hymenoptera venom and their analogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?ina Slaninová; Helena Putnová; Lenka Borovi?ková; Pavel Šácha; Václav ?e?ovský; Lenka Monincová; Vladimír Fu?ík

    2011-01-01

    As the occurrence of Candida species infections increases, so does resistance against commonly-used antifungal agents. It is therefore necessary to look\\u000a for new antifungal drugs. This study investigated the antifungal activity of recently isolated, synthesized and characterized\\u000a antimicrobial ?-helical amphipathic peptides (12–18 amino acids long) from the venom of hymenoptera (melectin, lasioglossins\\u000a I, II, and III, halictines I and II)

  7. Ibuprofen Potentiates the In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Murine Infection.

    PubMed

    Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Miranda, Isabel M; Silva-Dias, Ana; Silva, Ana P; Rodrigues, Acácio G; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungemia worldwide. Its ability to develop resistance in patients receiving azole antifungal therapy is well documented. In a murine model of systemic infection, we show that ibuprofen potentiates fluconazole antifungal activity against a fluconazole-resistant strain, drastically reducing the fungal burden and morbidity. The therapeutic combination of fluconazole with ibuprofen may constitute a new approach for the management of antifungal therapeutics to reverse the resistance conferred by efflux pump overexpression. PMID:25845879

  8. Structure activity relationship study of burkholdine analogues toward simple antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Konno, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kanako; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Yano, Shigekazu; Nosaka, Kazuto

    2015-08-15

    Cyclic and linear lipopeptides, burkholdine analogues, were synthesized by conventional Fmoc-SPPS and cyclisation with DIPC/HOBt in the solution phase. Synthesized peptides were evaluated for antifungal activities with MIC values against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae. As a result, the stereochemistry of the amino acid residues and sequences of burkholdine analogues exerted a significant influence on antifungal activities. In addition, we found a linear burkholdine analogue with moderate antifungal activities. PMID:26077490

  9. Antifungal agents and therapy for infants and children with invasive fungal infections: a pharmacological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lestner, Jodi M; Smith, P Brian; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K; Hope, William W

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections, although relatively rare, are life-threatening diseases in premature infants and immunocompromised children. While many advances have been made in antifungal therapeutics in the last two decades, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antifungal agents for infants and children remains incomplete. This review summarizes the pharmacology and clinical utility of currently available antifungal agents and discusses the opportunities and challenges for future research. PMID:23126319

  10. Experimental evaluation of antifungal and antiseptic agents against Rhodotorula spp.

    PubMed

    Preney, L; Théraud, M; Guiguen, C; Gangneux, J P

    2003-12-01

    We studied the susceptibility of 21 strains of Rhodotorula rubra and nine strains of R. glutinis to eight antifungals and tested eight antiseptic agents on one strain of R. rubra. The tested strains were susceptible to ketoconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, amphotericin B, and nystatin, intermediate to econazole and resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and miconazole. After 5-min contact, six of the eight antiseptic agents tested showed a fungicidal activity on the tested R. rubra strain. PMID:14641623

  11. Antifungal properties of leaf extract of Ranunculus sceleratus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Misra; S. N. Dixit

    1978-01-01

    Summary Studies on various antifungal properties of the leaf extract ofRanunculus sceleratus L. showed that it was thermostable up to 100°C, retained activity on autoclaving, and remained active up to 15 days at room temperature. It possessed quick fungicidal action, tolerance against heavy fungal inoculum, activity on broad pH range, broad fungicidal spectrum, non-phytotoxicity and non-systemic activity. The extract was

  12. Antifungal properties of leaf extract of Ranunculus sceleratus L.

    PubMed

    Misra, S B; Dixit, S N

    1978-11-15

    Studies on various antifungal properties of the leaf extraxt of Ranunculus sceleratus L. showed that it was thermostable up to 100 degrees C, retained activity on autoclaving, and remained active up to 15 days at room temperature. It possessed quick fungicidal action, tolerance against heavy fungal inoculum, activity on broad pH range, broad fungicidal spectrum, non-phytotoxicity and non-systemic activity. The extract was lethal at 1:40 dilution and its volatile vapours were also fungitoxic. PMID:720465

  13. New antifungal activity of penicillic acid against Phytophthora species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Kang; S. W. Kim

    2004-01-01

    Penicillic acid was isolated from a culture filtrate of Aspergillus sclerotiorum. It had a high in vitro antifungal activity against Phytophthora spp., which has not been previously reported. MICs of penicillic acid were from 1 to 25 µg ml-1 against Phytophthora spp. Penicillic acid induced abnormal branch formation, apical branching, and swelling in P. capsici, in P. cactorum mycelia contained irregular branching and small

  14. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration. PMID:16106389

  15. Antifungal melampolides from leaf extracts of Smallanthus sonchifolius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Inoue; Shigeru Tamogami; Hideki Kato; Yumiko Nakazato; Masaki Akiyama; Osamu Kodama; Tadami Akatsuka; Yasuyuki Hashidoko

    1995-01-01

    A new antifungal melampolide, 8-angeloyl-1(10),4,11(13)-germacuratrien-12,6-olid-14-oic acid methyl ester, named sonchifolin, as well as three known melampolides, polymatin B, uvedalin and enhydrin, were isolated from leaf extracts of Yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson]. Sonchifolin exhibited the highest fungicidal activity against Pyricularia oryzae, a fungus causing rice blast disease and the ED50 value for the spore germination was 22

  16. Antifungal compounds from induced Conium maculatum L.plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma M. Al-Barwani; Elsadig A. Eltayeb

    2004-01-01

    The study has shown that furanocoumarins are the predominant antifungal compounds in Conium maculatum. These are found constitutively in the healthy plant but the amounts of these compounds in induced tissue may increase markedly in some cases, e.g. the concentration of isopimpinellin increased by 103-fold in the CuCl2 induced leaves compared with that in the control. Since these compounds increase

  17. Antifungal flavanones and prenylated hydroquinones from Piper crassinervium Kunth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Paula Danelutte; Joăo Henrique G Lago; Maria Claudia M Young; Massuo J Kato

    2003-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from leaves of Piper crassinervium yielded three prenylated hydroquinones together with two known flavanones naringenin and sakuranetin. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic analysis (NMR, IR, UV and MS) including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments (1H–1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). The antifungal activity was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium cladosporioides and

  18. Foliar epicuticular wax of Arrabidaea brachypoda: flavonoids and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Alcerito; Fausto E. Barbo; Giuseppina Negri; Deborah Y. A. C. Santos; Christiane I. Meda; Maria Cláudia M. Young; Daniel Chávez; Cec??lia T. T. Blatt

    2002-01-01

    The epicuticular wax of the leaves of Arrabidaea brachypoda was analyzed for its flavonoid content and four compounds (1–4) were isolated. They are known flavonoids and showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. They were identified by mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) as 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), cirsiliol (2), cirsimaritin (3) and hispidulin (4). Two

  19. Antifungal flavanones and prenylated hydroquinones from Piper crassinervium Kunth.

    PubMed

    Danelutte, Ana Paula; Lago, Joăo Henrique G; Young, Maria Claudia M; Kato, Massuo J

    2003-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from leaves of Piper crassinervium yielded three prenylated hydroquinones together with two known flavanones naringenin and sakuranetin. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic analysis (NMR, IR, UV and MS) including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). The antifungal activity was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. PMID:12943774

  20. Cytotoxic, trypanocidal, and antifungal activities of Eugenia jambolana L.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is considered a public health problem. Nowadays, chemotherapy is the only available treatment for this disease, and the drugs currently used, nifurtimox and benzonidazole, present high toxicity levels. Alternatives for replacing these drugs are natural extracts from Eugenia jambolana, a plant used in traditional medicine because of its antimicrobial and biological activities. An ethanol extract from E. jambolana was prepared. To research in vitro anti-epimastigote activity, T. cruzi CL-B5 clone was used. Epimastigotes were inoculated at a concentration of 1×10(5)/mL in 200 ?L of tryptose-liver infusion. For the cytotoxicity assay J774 macrophages were used. To examine antifungal activity, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei were used. This is the first record of trypanocide activity for E. jambolana. The effective concentration capable of killing 50% of the parasites was 56.42 ?g/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration was ?1,024 ?g/mL. Metronidazole showed a potentiation of its antifungal effect when combined with the ethanol extract of E. jambolana. Thus our results indicate that E. jambolana could be a source of plant-derived natural products with anti-epimastigote and antifungal modifying activity with moderate toxicity. PMID:21877946

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of hydrazone derivatives as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Bruna B; Muniz, Mauro N; de Oliveira, Thayse; de Oliveira, Luís Flavio; Machado, Michel M; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Gosmann, Grace; Gnoatto, Simone C B

    2015-01-01

    Emerging yeasts are among the most prevalent causes of systemic infections with high mortality rates and there is an urgent need to develop specific, effective and non-toxic antifungal agents to respond to this issue. In this study 35 aldehydes, hydrazones and hydrazines were obtained and their antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida species (C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. lusitaneae) and Trichosporon asahii, in an in vitro screening. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the active compounds in the screening was determined against 10 clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis and 10 of T. asahii. The compounds 4-pyridin-2-ylbenzaldehyde] (13a) and tert-butyl-(2Z)-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzylidine)hydrazine carboxylate (7b) showed the most promising MIC values in the range of 16-32 ?g/mL and 8-16 ?g/mL, respectively. The compounds' action on the stability of the cell membrane and cell wall was evaluated, which suggested the action of the compounds on the fungal cell membrane. Cell viability of leukocytes and an alkaline comet assay were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Compound 13a was not cytotoxic at the active concentrations. These results support the discovery of promising candidates for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:26007181

  2. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Ariane F.; Vasconcelos, Érico A. R.; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term “plant defensin,” after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 ?M and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins. PMID:24765086

  3. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ariane F; Vasconcelos, Erico A R; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term "plant defensin," after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 ?M and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins. PMID:24765086

  4. Phylogenetic Relationships Matter: Antifungal Susceptibility among Clinically Relevant Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Schmalreck, A. F.; Becker, K.; Fegeler, W.; Czaika, V.; Ulmer, H.; Lass-Flörl, C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: to evaluate whether phylogenetically closely related yeasts share common antifungal susceptibility profiles (ASPs) and whether these ASPs can be predicted from phylogeny. To address this question, 9,627 yeast strains were collected and tested for their antifungal susceptibility. Isolates were reidentified by considering recent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature. A phylogenetic (PHYLO) code based on the results of multilocus sequence analyses (large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor 1?, RNA polymerase II subunits 1 and 2) and the classification of the cellular neutral sugar composition of coenzyme Q and 18S ribosomal DNA was created to group related yeasts into PHYLO groups. The ASPs were determined for fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole in each PHYLO group. The majority (95%) of the yeast strains were Ascomycetes. After reclassification, a total of 23 genera and 54 species were identified, resulting in an increase of 64% of genera and a decrease of 5% of species compared with the initial identification. These taxa were assigned to 17 distinct PHYLO groups (Ascomycota, n = 13; Basidiomycota, n = 4). ASPs for azoles were similar among members of the same PHYLO group and different between the various PHYLO groups. Yeast phylogeny may be an additional tool to significantly enhance the assessment of MIC values and to predict antifungal susceptibility, thereby more rapidly initiating appropriate patient management. PMID:24366735

  5. Polyglycolic acid microneedles modified with inkjet-deposited antifungal coatings.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ryan D; Daniels, Justin; Stafslien, Shane; Nasir, Adnan; Lefebvre, Joe; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius?=?25?±?3??m) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9?±?0.3?GPa) and hardness (588.2?±?33.8?MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices. Voriconazole was deposited onto the polyglycolic acid microneedles by means of piezoelectric inkjet printing. It should be noted that voriconazole has poor solubility in water; however, it is readily soluble in many organic solvents. Optical imaging, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to examine the microneedle geometries and inkjet-deposited surface coatings. Furthermore, an in vitro agar plating study was performed on the unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles. Unlike the unmodified and vehicle-modified microneedles, the voriconazole-modified microneedles showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles did not show activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that piezoelectric inkjet printing may be useful for loading transdermal drug delivery devices such as polyglycolic acid microneedles with antifungal pharmacologic agents and other pharmacologic agents with poor solubility in aqueous solutions. PMID:25732934

  6. Novel carboline derivatives as potent antifungal lead compounds: design, synthesis, and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengzheng; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Liu, Na; Zhang, Yongqiang; Dong, Guoqiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Zhengang; He, Xiaomeng; Miao, Zhenyuan; Yao, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2014-05-01

    A series of novel antifungal carboline derivatives was designed and synthesized, which showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Particularly, compound C38 showed comparable in vitro antifungal activity to fluconazole without toxicity to human embryonic lung cells. It also exhibited good fungicidal activity against both fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida albicans cells and had potent inhibition activity against Candida albicans biofilm formation and hyphal growth. Moreover, C38 showed good synergistic antifungal activity in combination with fluconazole (FLC) against FLC-resistant Candida species. Preliminary mechanism studies revealed that C38 might act by inhibiting the synthesis of fungal cell wall. PMID:24900870

  7. The search for antifungals from Amazonian trees: a bio-inspired screening.

    PubMed

    Basseta, Charlie; Eparvier, Véronique; Espindolab, Laila S

    2015-04-01

    The anti-fungal activity of 60 extracts from 15 tree species in the French Guiana rainforest against human and wood-rotting fungi was studied. In this way (+)-mopanol (1) was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Peltogyne sp. (Caesalpiniaceae) wood. This work demonstrated that (1) the natural durability of wood can indeed guide the search for antifungal agents, (2) that extracts selected in this bio-inspired process exhibit a broad spectrum of antifungal activity and (3) that the method allows for the isolation of strongly active antifungals. PMID:25973487

  8. Antifungal activity of antifungal drugs, as well as drug combinations against Exophiala dermatitidis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Liu, Wei; Wan, Zhe; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of common antifungal drugs, as well as the interactions of caspofungin with voriconazole, amphotericin B, or itraconazole against the pathogenic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis from China, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of terbinafine, voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, and caspofungin against 16 strains of E. dermatitidis were determined by using CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2). The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were also determined. Additionally, the interactions of caspofungin with voriconazole, amphotericin B, itraconazole or fluconazole, that of terbinafine with itraconazole, or that of fluconazole with amphotericin B were assessed by using the checkerboard technique. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was used to categorize drug interactions as following, synergy, FICI ? 0.5; indifference, FICI > 0.5 and ?4.0; or antagonism, FICI > 4.0. The MIC ranges of terbinafine, voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, and caspofungin against E. dermatitidis were 0.06-0.125 mg/l, 0.25-1.0 mg/l, 1.0-2.0 mg/l, 1.0-2.0 mg/l, 16-64 mg/l, and 32-64 mg/l, respectively. The in vitro interactions of caspofungin with voriconazole, amphotericin B, and itraconazole showed synergic effect against 10/16(62.5%), 15/16(93.75%), and 16/16(100%) isolates, while that of caspofungin with fluconazole showed indifference. Besides, the interaction of terbinafine with itraconazole as well as that of fluconazole with amphotericin B showed indifference. Terbinafine, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B have good activity against E. dermatitidis. The combinations of caspofungin with voriconazole, amphotericin B or itraconazole present synergic activity against E. dermatitidis. These results provide the basis for novel options in treating various E. dermatitidis infections. PMID:20803255

  9. Triazole induced drought tolerance in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    PubMed

    Percival, Glynn C; Noviss, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    We determined the influence of the triazole derivatives paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole and myclobutanil on the drought tolerance and post drought recovery of container-grown horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) saplings. Myclobutanil neither conferred drought resistance, as assessed by its effects on a number of physiological and biochemical parameters, nor affected growth parameters measured after recovery from drought. Chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), photosynthetic rates, total foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, foliar proline concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently higher and leaf necrosis and cellular electrolyte leakage was lower at the end of a 3-week drought in trees treated with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole or propiconazole than in control trees. Twelve weeks after drought treatment, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were greater in triazole-treated trees than in control trees with the exception of those treated with myclobutanil. In a separate study, trees were subjected to a 2-week drought and then sprayed with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole or myclobutanil. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate, foliar chlorophyll concentration and catalase activity over the following 12 weeks were 20 to 50% higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees. At the end of the 12-week recovery period, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees, with the exception of trees treated with myclobutanil. Application of triazole derivatives, with the exception of myclobutanil, enhanced tolerance to prolonged drought and, when applied after a 2-week drought, hastened recovery from drought. The magnitude of treatment effects was in the order epixiconazole approximately propiconazole > penconazole > paclobutrazol > myclobutanil. PMID:18765373

  10. Antifungal Activities of Natural and Synthetic Iron Chelators Alone and in Combination with Azole and Polyene Antibiotics against Aspergillus fumigatus?

    PubMed Central

    Zarember, Kol A.; Cruz, Anna R.; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Gallin, John I.

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal effects of iron chelators (lactoferrin, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and ciclopirox) were tested alone and in combination with antifungal drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus B5233 conidia. Lactoferrin, ciclopirox, and deferiprone inhibited whereas deferoxamine enhanced fungal growth. Antifungal synergy against conidia was observed for combinations of ketoconazole with ciclopirox or deferiprone, lactoferrin with amphotericin B, and fluconazole with deferiprone. Iron chelation alone or combined with antifungal drugs may be useful for prevention and treatment of mycosis. PMID:19307370

  11. Antifungal activities of natural and synthetic iron chelators alone and in combination with azole and polyene antibiotics against Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Zarember, Kol A; Cruz, Anna R; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Gallin, John I

    2009-06-01

    Antifungal effects of iron chelators (lactoferrin, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and ciclopirox) were tested alone and in combination with antifungal drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus B5233 conidia. Lactoferrin, ciclopirox, and deferiprone inhibited whereas deferoxamine enhanced fungal growth. Antifungal synergy against conidia was observed for combinations of ketoconazole with ciclopirox or deferiprone, lactoferrin with amphotericin B, and fluconazole with deferiprone. Iron chelation alone or combined with antifungal drugs may be useful for prevention and treatment of mycosis. PMID:19307370

  12. Antifungal Activities of Natural and Synthetic Iron Chelators Alone and in Combination with Azole and Polyene Antibiotics against Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kol A. Zarember; Anna R. Cruz; Chiung-Yu Huang; John I. Gallin

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal effects of iron chelators (lactoferrin, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and ciclopirox) were tested alone and in combination with antifungal drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus B5233 conidia. Lactoferrin, ciclopirox, and deferiprone inhibited whereas deferoxamine enhanced fungal growth. Antifungal synergy against conidia was observed for combinations of ketoconazole with ciclopirox or deferiprone, lactoferrin with amphotericin B, and fluconazole with deferiprone. Iron chelation alone or

  13. Comparison of anti-Candida activity of thyme, pennyroyal, and lemon essential oils versus antifungal drugs against Candida species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeid Mahdavi Omran; Seddighe Esmailzadeh

    Because of resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs, there have been many studies on the use of herbal antifungal essential oils. In this study, the anti-Candida activities of thyme, pennyroyal and lemon essential oils in comparison to antifungal drugs were assessed. The paper disc diffusion method was used to study the inhibitory effects of the essential oils of

  14. Optimization of Spore and Antifungal Lipopeptide Production during the Solid State Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus subtilis strain TrigoCor 1448 was grown on wheat middlings in 0.5-liter solid state fermentation (SSF) bioreactors for the production of an antifungal biological control agent. Total antifungal activity was quantified using a 96-well microplate bioassay against the plant pathogen Fusarium ...

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic separations of nystatin and their influence on the antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, B; Matusch, R

    1994-06-24

    Several efficient analytical HPLC methods for the separation and comparison of the nystatin complex have been developed. These separations have been extended to the preparative scale in order to gain sufficient quantities of the purified nystatin components for testing antifungal activity. For the first time we describe a new HPLC method which does not affect the antifungal activity of nystatin. PMID:8069397

  16. Antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: the unfinished tale of imperfect success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D P Kontoyiannis

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients is a rapidly evolving field. For this prophylaxis to be beneficial and cost-effective, the risk of a life-threatening invasive fungal infection (IFI) should outweigh the risks of toxic effects and drug interactions introduced by the antifungal agent used. Not all hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients have the same risk of IFIs. New

  17. Development of a novel in vitro onychomycosis model for the evaluation of topical antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sleven, Reindert; Lanckacker, Ellen; Boulet, Gaëlle; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2015-05-01

    A novel in vitro onychomycosis model was developed to easily predict the topical activity potential of novel antifungal drugs. The model encompasses drug activity and diffusion through bovine hoof slices in a single experimental set-up. Results correspond well with the antifungal susceptibility assay and Franz cell diffusion test. PMID:25772040

  18. Prevention of bread mould spoilage by using lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Luciana Gerez; Maria Ines Torino; Graciela Rollán

    2009-01-01

    The ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to inhibit Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, the main contaminants in bread, was evaluated. Only four strains (Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778, Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1100, and Lactobacillus brevis CRL 772 and CRL 796) from 95 strains tested displayed antifungal activity. The major antifungal compounds were acetic and phenyllactic acids. The fermentation quotient (FQ=2.0) and

  19. Activity of the Triazole Antifungal R126638 as Assessed by Corneofungimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Piérard-Franchimont; J. Ausma; L. Wouters; V. Vroome; L. Vandeplassche; M. Borgers; G. Cauwenbergh; G. E. Piérard

    2006-01-01

    Background: R126638 is a novel triazole exhibiting potent in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against fungal pathogens including dermatophytes and yeasts. Objective: To determine the antifungal activity in time in the stratum corneum of healthy volunteers after oral intake of R126638 at a daily dose of 100 or 200 mg for 1 week. Method: Sixteen male volunteers were randomly

  20. Latest developments in assessing antifungal activity using TLC-bioautography: a review.

    PubMed

    Favre-Godal, Quentin; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of TLC-bioautography in the search for antifungal compounds from natural sources. The main methods used for antifungal screening are presented, with special emphasis on bioautography. Different aspects of the technique, including the latest chromatographic developments such as HPTLC and HPLC microfractionation are presented. The present status and recent advances made in antifungal bioautography are discussed, and a comprehensive review of the applications over the last 6 years is presented. Various strategies applied in the search for antifungal compounds from natural sources are discussed, with a highlight on the challenges faced when screening complex crude mixtures. The activities of approximately 100 antifungal compounds of natural origin are presented with their minimum inhibitory quantity. The most active natural source compounds against Candida, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, and Fusarium species are highlighted, and the compound activities discussed. In addition, perspectives concerning future improvements in bioautography sensitivity and reproducibility are noted. PMID:24645492

  1. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and anti-virulence agents to fight against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jinhui; Ren, Biao; Tong, Yaojun; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-05-19

    Candida albicans, one of the pathogenic Candida species, causes high mortality rate in immunocompromised and high-risk surgical patients. In the last decade, only one new class of antifungal drug echinocandin was applied. The increased therapy failures, such as the one caused by multi-drug resistance, demand innovative strategies for new effective antifungal drugs. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and anti-virulence agents highlight the pragmatic strategy to reduce the development of drug resistant and potentially repurpose known antifungals, which bypass the costly and time-consuming pipeline of new drug development. Anti-virulence and synergistic combination provide new options for antifungal drug discovery by counteracting the difficulty or failure of traditional therapy for fungal infections. PMID:26048362

  2. The effects of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 on antifungal and crack remediation of cement paste.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Jin; Park, Seung-Hwan; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the antifungal effects of cement paste containing Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 against Aspergillus niger, a deleterious fungus commonly found in cement buildings and structures. To test the antifungal effects, cement paste containing P. polymyxa E681 was neutralized by CO2 gas, and the fungal growth inhibition was examined according to the clear zone around the cement specimen. In addition to the antifungal effects of the cement paste added with bacteria, calcium crystal precipitation of P. polymyxa E681 was examined by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The cement paste containing P. polymyxa E681 showed strong antifungal effects but fusA mutant (deficient in fusaricidin synthesis) showed no antifungal activity. Crack sealing of the cement paste treated with P. polymyxa E681 was captured by light microscope showed fungal growth inhibition and crack repairing in cement paste. PMID:24824950

  3. Activities of available and investigational antifungal agents against rhodotorula species.

    PubMed

    Diekema, D J; Petroelje, B; Messer, S A; Hollis, R J; Pfaller, M A

    2005-01-01

    Rhodotorula species are emerging pathogens in immunocompromised patients. We report the in vitro activities of eight antifungals against 64 Rhodotorula isolates collected in surveillance programs between 1987 and 2003. Rhodotorula strains are resistant in vitro to fluconazole (MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC(50)], >128 microg/ml) and caspofungin (MIC(50), >8 microg/ml). Amphotericin B (MIC(50),1 microg/ml) and flucytosine (MIC(50), 0.12 microg/ml) are both active in vitro, and the new and investigational triazoles all have some in vitro activity, with ravuconazole being the most active (MIC(50), 0.25 microg/ml). PMID:15635020

  4. Mechanism of action of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Nagashima, Maria; Shibanushi, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Atsushi; Kangawa, Yumi; Inui, Fumie; Siu, William J Jo; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nishiyama, Yayoi

    2013-05-01

    The mechanism of action of efinaconazole, a new triazole antifungal, was investigated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. Efinaconazole dose-dependently decreased ergosterol production and accumulated 4,4-dimethylsterols and 4?-methylsterols at concentrations below its MICs. Efinaconazole induced morphological and ultrastructural changes in T. mentagrophytes hyphae that became more prominent with increasing drug concentrations. In conclusion, the primary mechanism of action of efinaconazole is blockage of ergosterol biosynthesis, presumably through sterol 14?-demethylase inhibition, leading to secondary degenerative changes. PMID:23459486

  5. Mechanism of Action of Efinaconazole, a Novel Triazole Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Maria; Shibanushi, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Atsushi; Kangawa, Yumi; Inui, Fumie; Siu, William J. Jo; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nishiyama, Yayoi

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of action of efinaconazole, a new triazole antifungal, was investigated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. Efinaconazole dose-dependently decreased ergosterol production and accumulated 4,4-dimethylsterols and 4?-methylsterols at concentrations below its MICs. Efinaconazole induced morphological and ultrastructural changes in T. mentagrophytes hyphae that became more prominent with increasing drug concentrations. In conclusion, the primary mechanism of action of efinaconazole is blockage of ergosterol biosynthesis, presumably through sterol 14?-demethylase inhibition, leading to secondary degenerative changes. PMID:23459486

  6. New antifungal activity of penicillic acid against Phytophthora species.

    PubMed

    Kang, S W; Kim, S W

    2004-05-01

    Penicillic acid was isolated from a culture filtrate of Aspergillus sclerotiorum. It had a high in vitro antifungal activity against Phytophthora spp., which has not been previously reported. MICs of penicillic acid were from 1 to 25 microg ml(-1) against Phytophthora spp. Penicillic acid induced abnormal branch formation, apical branching, and swelling in P. capsici, in P. cactorum mycelia contained irregular branching and small spherical swelling at apices, in P. cambivora there was irregular branching and swelling, and in P. drechsleri there was irregular multiple spherical swelling at or near hyphal apices. PMID:15195966

  7. Collaborative Evaluation of Optimal Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Conditions for Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Torres, Belkys; Cabańes, Francisco J.; Carrillo-Muńoz, Alfonso J.; Esteban, Alexandre; Inza, Isabel; Abarca, Lourdes; Guarro, Josep

    2002-01-01

    A multicenter study was conducted to define the most suitable testing conditions for antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes. Broth microdilution MICs of clotrimazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine were determined in three centers against 60 strains of dermatophytes. The effects of inoculum density (ca. 103 and 104 CFU/ml), incubation time (3, 7, and 14 days), endpoint criteria for MIC determination (complete [MIC-0] and prominent [MIC-2] growth inhibition), and incubation temperature (28 and 37°C) on intra- and interlaboratory agreement were analyzed. The optimal testing conditions identified were an inoculum of 104 CFU/ml, a temperature of incubation of 28°C, an incubation period of 7 days, and MIC-0. PMID:12409365

  8. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiahui; Brosnan, Brid; Furey, Ambrose; Arendt, Elke; Murphy, Padraigin; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes. Cell-free culture supernatants of Lb. reuteri ee1p and of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 were freeze-dried and used to access and compare antifungal activity in agar plate assays and microtiter plate assays. Addition of the Lb. reuteri ee1p freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder into the agar medium at concentrations greater than 2% inhibited all fungal colony growth. Addition of the powder at 5% to liquid cultures caused complete inhibition of fungal growth on the basis of turbidity. Freeze-dried supernatant of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 at the same concentrations had a much lesser effect. As Lb. reuteri M13 is very similar to the antifungal strain ee1p in terms of growth rate and final pH in liquid culture, and as it has little antifungal activity, it is clear that other antifungal compounds must be specifically produced (or produced at higher levels) by the anti-dermatophyte strain Lb. reuteri ee1p. Reuterin was undetectable in all four antifungal strains. The cell free supernatant of Lb. reuteri ee1p was analyzed by LC-FTMS using an Accela LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy spectrum produced by compounds in the Lb. reuteri ee1p strain was compared with both a multianalyte chromatogram and individual spectra of standard anti-fungal compounds, which are known to be produced by lactic acid bacteria. Ten antifungal metabolites were detected. PMID:22539027

  9. Decline of pesticide residues from barley to malt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Navarro; G. Pérez; G. Navarro; N. Vela

    2007-01-01

    The fate of dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin and trifluralin), organophosphous insecticides (fenitrothion and malathion), and pyrimidine (nuarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides from barley to malt was determined. Several samples for residue analysis were taken after each stage of malting (steeping, germination and kilning). Pesticide residue analysis was carried out by GC\\/ITMS in selected ion monitoring mode. Pesticides decline along

  10. The effect of fungicides on urediniospore germination and disease development of daylily rust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W Buck; J. L Williams-Woodward

    2003-01-01

    In response to the recent introduction and rapid spread throughout the United States of daylily rust caused by Puccinia hemerocallidis, research was conducted on the relative efficacy of seven fungicides (myclobutanil, propiconazole, flutolanil, triadimefon, chlorothalonil, mancozeb, and azoxystrobin) for control of this disease. Fungicides were applied at varying rates 24h before spray–inoculation of daylilies (Hemerocallis sp. cv. Pardon Me) with

  11. Extension of the bioautograph technique for multiresidue determination of fungicide residues in plants and water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Balinova

    1995-01-01

    The inhibition effect of 17 fungicides on spores germination of different species of fungi on thin layer Chromatographie (TLC) plates has been studied in order to extend the applicability of bioautography and to increase the sensitivity of the detection. Minimum detectable amounts on TLC plates of vinclozolin, iprodione, procymidone, captan, imazalil, triadimefon, triadimenol, fenarimol, propiconazole, myclobutanil, flutriafol, flusilazole, hexaconazole, tebuconazole,

  12. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas B. Tully; Wenjun Bao; Amber K. Goetz; Chad R. Blystone; Hongzu Ren; Judith E. Schmid; Lillian F. Strader; Carmen R. Wood; Deborah S. Best; Michael G. Narotsky; Douglas C. Wolf; John C. Rockett; David J.. Dix

    2006-01-01

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected for hormone measurements, and liver and testes were collected for histology, enzyme biochemistry, or gene expression profiling. Body and testis weights were unaffected, but

  13. Evaluation of selected fungicides to control mint rust on Scotch spearmint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Edwards; F. E Bienvenu

    2000-01-01

    Mint rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia menthae, is a serious disease limiting the establishment of a viable spearmint oil industry in north east Victoria, Australia. Six fungicide-active ingredients: bitertanol, triadimenol, fluquinconazole, tebuconazole, myclobutanil and propiconazole, were evaluated for control of this disease. Bitertanol gave the most effective control resulting in higher oil yields, followed by tebuconazole. Fluquinconazole was the

  14. Effect of conazole fungicides on reproductive development in the female rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Rockett; Michael G. Narotsky; Kary E. Thompson; Inthirany Thillainadarajah; Chad R. Blystone; Amber K. Goetz; Hongzu Ren; Deborah S. Best; Rachel N. Murrell; Harriette P. Nichols; Judith E. Schmid; Douglas C. Wolf; David J. Dix

    2006-01-01

    Three triazole fungicides were evaluated for effects on female rat reproductive development. Rats were exposed via feed to propiconazole (P) (100, 500, or 2500ppm), myclobutanil (M) (100, 500, or 2000ppm), or triadimefon (T) (100, 500, or 1800ppm) from gestation day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 98. Body weight (BW) and anogenital distance (AGD) at PND 0, age and BW at

  15. Baseline sensitivity and cross-resistance to demethylation-inhibiting fungicides in Ontario isolates of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hsiang; L. Yang; W. Barton

    1997-01-01

    Four hundred and thirty-five isolates of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa from eight populations in southern Ontario were tested for sensitivity to the demethylation-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides, propiconazole, myclobutanil, fenarimol and tebuconazole. The isolates were collected in summer 1994 just prior to legal DMI fungicide use on turfgrass in Ontario. There were wide variations in sensitivities, and seven of the eight populations were very

  16. ALTERATIONS IN mRNA GENE EXPRESSION ASSOCIATED WITH CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM, CELL CYCLE, AND OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCED BY TRIAZOLE CONTAINING CONAZOLES IN RAT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used as pharmaceuticals and in agriculture. Triadimefon was hepatotoxic and induced follicular cell adenomas in the thyroid gland. In contrast,propiconazole and myclobutanil were hepatotoxic but had no effect on the thyroid gland. It was proposed that tri...

  17. Glycerol Enhances the Antifungal Activity of Dairy Propionibacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Helena; Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Jonsson, Hans; Schnürer, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Dairy propionibacteria are widely used in starter cultures for Swiss type cheese. These bacteria can ferment glucose, lactic acid, and glycerol into propionic acid, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide. This research examined the antifungal effect of dairy propionibacteria when glycerol was used as carbon source for bacterial growth. Five type strains of propionibacteria were tested against the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and the molds Penicillium commune and Penicillium roqueforti. The conversion of 13C glycerol by Propionibacterium jensenii was followed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In a dual culture assay, the degree of inhibition of the molds was strongly enhanced by an increase in glycerol concentrations, while the yeast was less affected. In broth cultures, decreased pH in glycerol medium was probably responsible for the complete inhibition of the indicator fungi. NMR spectra of the glycerol conversion confirmed that propionic acid was the dominant metabolite. Based on the results obtained, the increased antifungal effect seen by glycerol addition to cultures of propionibacteria is due to the production of propionic acid and pH reduction of the medium. PMID:21331381

  18. The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

  19. Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cássia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256?g/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health. PMID:24031889

  20. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata.

    PubMed

    Galván, Imelda J; Mir-Rashed, Nadereh; Jessulat, Matthew; Atanya, Monica; Golshani, Ashkan; Durst, Tony; Petit, Philippe; Amiguet, Virginie Treyvaud; Boekhout, Teun; Summerbell, Richard; Cruz, Isabel; Arnason, John T; Smith, Myron L

    2008-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol extracts led to the identification of 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (chimaphilin) as the principal antifungal component. The structure of chimaphilin was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activity of chimaphilin was evaluated using the microdilution method with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.05mg/mL) and the dandruff-associated fungi Malassezia globosa (0.39mg/mL) and Malassezia restricta (0.55mg/mL). Pronounced antioxidant activity of C. umbellata crude extract was also identified using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, suggesting this phytomedicine has an antioxidant function in wound healing. A chemical-genetic profile was completed with chimaphilin using approximately 4700 S. cerevisiae gene deletion mutants. Cellular roles of deleted genes in the most susceptible mutants and secondary assays indicate that the targets for chimaphilin include pathways involved in cell wall biogenesis and transcription. PMID:17950387

  1. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of some flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ozçelik, Berrin; Ozgen, Selda; Ergun, Fatma

    2010-08-20

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of six plant-derived flavonoids representing two different structural groups were evaluated against standard strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and their drug-resistant isolates, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei) using the microdilution broth method. Herpes simplex virus Type-1 and Parainfluenza-3 virus were employed for antiviral assessment of the flavonoids using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines. Ampicillin, gentamycin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, acyclovir, and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. All tested compounds (32-128 microg/ml) showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activities against isolated strains of P. aeruginosa, A. baumanni, S. aureus, and C. krusei. Rutin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-flavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.2-0.05 microg/ml) were active against PI-3, while 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.16-0.2 microg/ml) inhibited potently HSV-1. PMID:19840899

  2. Characterization of the Escherichia coli Antifungal Protein PPEBL21

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, V.; Mandhan, R.; Kumar, M.; Gupta, J.; Sharma, G. L.

    2010-01-01

    An antifungal protein isolated from Escherichia coli BL21 (PPEBL21) and predicted to be alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was subjected to biological characterization. The PPEBL21, indeed, demonstrated propionaldehyde-specific ADH activity. The Km and Vmax of PPEBL21 were found to be 644.8 ?M and 1.2?U/mg, respectively. In-gel activity assay also showed that PPEBL21 was a propionaldehyde-specific ADH. The pI of PPEBL21 was observed to be 7.8. PPEBL21 was found to be stable up to a temperature of 40°C with optimum activity at pH 7.5. The decrease in pH decreased the activity of PPEBL21. These results suggested that PPEBL21 having alcohol dehydrogenase activity and stability at significantly high temperature might be an important lead antifungal molecule. Experiments were performed to identify the possible target of PPEBL21 in the pathogen A. fumigatus. Results revealed that PPEBL21 inhibited completely the expression of a 16?kDa protein in A. fumigatus. The?16 kDa protein of A. fumigatus targeted by PPEBL21 was identified as a hypothetical protein by peptide mass fingerprinting. It is thus hypothesized that a 16?kDa factor is essentially required by A. fumigatus for survival and its impaired synthesis due to treatment with PPEBL21 may lead to the death of pathogen. PMID:20490270

  3. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Aunsbjerg, S D; Honoré, A H; Marcussen, J; Ebrahimi, P; Vogensen, F K; Benfeldt, C; Skov, T; Knřchel, S

    2015-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl, and the antifungal activity towards two strains of Penicillium spp. When adding diacetyl to CDIM or yogurt without L. paracasei DGCC 2132, marked inhibition was observed. Besides diacetyl, the antifungal properties of acetoin were examined, but no antifungal activity was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate the contribution of diacetyl in the antifungal effect of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 and indicate that the importance of volatiles may have been previously underestimated. PMID:25461608

  4. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sarah Sze Wah; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun; Yuen, Kwok Yong; Wang, Yu; Yang, Dan; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath

    2014-01-01

    Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.2-1.6 µg/ml). In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use. PMID:24465737

  5. Antifungal activity and mode of action of silver nano-particles on Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keuk-Jun Kim; Woo Sang Sung; Bo Kyoung Suh; Seok-Ki Moon; Jong-Soo Choi; Jong Guk Kim; Dong Gun Lee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the antifungal effects of silver nano-particles (nano-Ag) and their mode of action were investigated. Nano-Ag\\u000a showed antifungal effects on fungi tested with low hemolytic effects against human erythrocytes. To elucidate the antifungal\\u000a mode of action of nano-Ag, flow cytometry analysis, a glucose-release test, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the\\u000a change in membrane dynamics using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), as

  6. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel streptochlorin analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Chen, Qiong; Xie, Cai-Hong; Mulholland, Nick; Turner, Sarah; Irwin, Dianne; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Guang-Fu; Clough, John

    2015-03-01

    Streptochlorin, first isolated as a new antibiotic in 1988 from the lipophilic extracts of the mycelium of a Streptomyces sp, is an indole natural products with a variety of biological activities. Based on the methods developed for the synthesis of pimprinine in our laboratory, we have synthesized a series of indole-modified streptochlorin analogues and measured their activities against seven phytopathogenic fungi. Some of the analogues displayed good activity in the primary assays, and the seven compounds 10b, 10c, 11e, 13e, 21, 22c and 22e (shown in Figure 1) were identified as the most promising candidates for further study. Structural optimization is still ongoing with the aim of discovering synthetic analogues with improved antifungal activity. PMID:25633493

  7. Antifungal garcinia acid esters from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Mackeen, Mukram M; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2002-01-01

    Two new garcinia acid derivatives, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide and 1',1"-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate, were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis guided by TLC bioautography against the fungus Cladosporium herbarum. The structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. The former compound represents a unique beta-lactone structure and the latter compound is most likely an artefact of garcinia acid (= hydroxycitric acid). Both compounds showed selective antifungal activity comparable to that of cycloheximide (MID: 0.5 microg/spot) only against C herbarum at the MIDs of 0.4 and 0.8 microg/spot but were inactive against bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli), other fungi (Alternaria sp., Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus ochraceous) including the yeast Candida albicans. PMID:12064729

  8. Antifungal eudesmanoids from Parthenium argentatum x P. tomentosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galal T. Maatooq; David K. Stumpf; Joseph J. Hoffmann; Louis K. Hutter; Barbara N. Timmermann

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of guayule resin for antifungal activity has led to the isolation and characterization of six eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, five of which are new: 2-methoxy-eudesma-1,4,6-trien-3-one (argentone); 2-methoxy-15-nor-eudesma-1,4,6-trien-3-one (15-nor-argentone); 2-methoxy-15-hydroxy-eudesma-1,4,6-trien-3-one (15-hydroxy-argentone); 2-methoxy-eudesma-1,4,6-trien-3,8-dione (8-oxo-argentone); 2-methoxy-15-nor-eudesma-1,4,6-trien-3,8-dione (8-oxo-15-nor-argentone); and the previously identified 11-hydroxy-eudesma-4-en-3-one (carissone). Their structures were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. After 6 weeks all inhibited the growth of

  9. Molluscicidal and antifungal activity of Erigeron speciosus steam distillate.

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Wise, David; Wedge, David E

    2002-10-01

    The steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of Erigeron speciosus (Lindl) DC was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, C fragariae Brooks, C gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc, and the intermediate host snail Planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, Bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Bioautography on silica TLC plates demonstrated antifungal activity in the steam distillate. Preliminary bioassays of the steam distillate indicated the presence of phytochemicals toxic to P trivolvis. The bioactive compounds methyl 2Z, 8Z-deca-2,8-diene-4,6-diynoate and its 2E, 8E isomer were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12400444

  10. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Eduardo José J; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio; Castro, Bruno N M F; Maciel, Auberson Martins; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment. PMID:25923897

  11. Characterization of four new antifungal yanuthones from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lene M; Holm, Dorte K; Knudsen, Peter B; Nielsen, Kristian F; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Mortensen, Uffe H; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-03-01

    Four new yanuthone analogs (1-4) were isolated from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of UHPLC-DAD-HRMS data and one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Labeling studies with (13)C8-6-methylsalicylic acid identified three class I yanuthones originating from the polyketide 6-methylsalicylic acid (yanuthone K, L and M (1-3)) and a class II yanuthone, which was named yanuthone X2 (4). The four new compounds were tested toward the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans and all displayed antifungal activity. Yanuthone X2 represents the first example of a bioactive class II yanuthone, demonstrating the pharmaceutical potential of this class. PMID:25293978

  12. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Salicylanilide Benzoates

    PubMed Central

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Buchta, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    The resistance to antimicrobial agents brings a need of novel antimicrobial agents. We have synthesized and found the in vitro antibacterial activity of salicylanilide esters with benzoic acid (2-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl benzoates) in micromolar range. They were evaluated in vitro for the activity against eight fungal and eight bacterial species. All derivatives showed a significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations ?0.98??mol/L including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. The most active compounds were 5-chloro-2-(3,4-dichlorophenylcarbamoyl)phenyl benzoate and 4-chloro-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl benzoate. The antifungal activity is significantly lower. PMID:22666101

  13. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of salicylanilide benzoates.

    PubMed

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Buchta, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    The resistance to antimicrobial agents brings a need of novel antimicrobial agents. We have synthesized and found the in vitro antibacterial activity of salicylanilide esters with benzoic acid (2-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl benzoates) in micromolar range. They were evaluated in vitro for the activity against eight fungal and eight bacterial species. All derivatives showed a significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations ? 0.98??mol/L including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. The most active compounds were 5-chloro-2-(3,4-dichlorophenylcarbamoyl)phenyl benzoate and 4-chloro-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl benzoate. The antifungal activity is significantly lower. PMID:22666101

  14. A Comparative Study of Antifungal Activity of Endodontic Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the antifungal activity of final canal rinse with either three concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (0.5, 2.6 and 6%), two concentrations of chlorhexidine (CHX) (2% and 0.2%), MTAD, Tetraclean, Hypoclean and Chlor-Xtra on Candida albicans (C. albicans) in a human tooth model. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and thirty five extracted human maxillary central and lateral incisors were used in this study. Teeth were randomly divided into nine test groups (n=25) and positive and a negative control groups (n=5). After cleaning and shaping, teeth were contaminated with C. albicans and incubated for 72 h. The irrigation solution in nine experimental groups included: 6% NaOCl, 2.6% NaOCl, 0.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, 0.2% CHX, MTAD, Tetraclean, Hypoclean and Chlor-Xtra. After culturing on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar, colony-forming units (CFU) were counted. Results: 6% NaOCl, 2% CHX and Chlor-Xtra were equally effective (P>0.05) and significantly superior to MTAD and Tetraclean (P<0.05). In addition, the effectiveness of Tetraclean and MTAD was significantly less than Hypoclean, NaOCl at all concentrations (6% 2.6% and 0.5%), MTAD and 0.2% CHX (P<0.05). Furthermore, Tetraclean was significantly more effective than MTAD (P<0.05). Conclusion: Antifungal activity of 6% NaOCl, Chlor-Xtra and 2% CHX was significantly greater than 2.6% NaOCl, 0.5% NaOCl, MTAD, 0.2% CHX and Tetraclean. PMID:25834602

  15. Candida albicans Infection of Caenorhabditis elegans Induces Antifungal Immune Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Pukkila-Worley, Read

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans yeast cells are found in the intestine of most humans, yet this opportunist can invade host tissues and cause life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals. To better understand the host factors that underlie susceptibility to candidiasis, we developed a new model to study antifungal innate immunity. We demonstrate that the yeast form of C. albicans establishes an intestinal infection in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas heat-killed yeast are avirulent. Genome-wide, transcription-profiling analysis of C. elegans infected with C. albicans yeast showed that exposure to C. albicans stimulated a rapid host response involving 313 genes (124 upregulated and 189 downregulated, ?1.6% of the genome) many of which encode antimicrobial, secreted or detoxification proteins. Interestingly, the host genes affected by C. albicans exposure overlapped only to a small extent with the distinct transcriptional responses to the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that there is a high degree of immune specificity toward different bacterial species and C. albicans. Furthermore, genes induced by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were strongly over-represented among the genes downregulated during C. albicans infection, suggesting that in response to fungal pathogens, nematodes selectively repress the transcription of antibacterial immune effectors. A similar phenomenon is well known in the plant immune response, but has not been described previously in metazoans. Finally, 56% of the genes induced by live C. albicans were also upregulated by heat-killed yeast. These data suggest that a large part of the transcriptional response to C. albicans is mediated through “pattern recognition,” an ancient immune surveillance mechanism able to detect conserved microbial molecules (so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs). This study provides new information on the evolution and regulation of the innate immune response to divergent pathogens and demonstrates that nematodes selectively mount specific antifungal defenses at the expense of antibacterial responses. PMID:21731485

  16. Mode of Action for Reproductive and Hepatic Toxicity Inferred from a Genomic Study of Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole antifungals have been previously characterized by an observed increased in serum testosterone, hepatotoxicity, and reduced insemination and fertility indices. In order to refine our mechanistic understanding of these m...

  17. Study on Mutagenic Breeding of Bacillus Subtilis and Properties of Its Antifungal Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Yao, Jianming

    2004-08-01

    Bacillus subtitles JA isolated by our laboratory produced a large amount of antifungal substances, which had strong inhibitory activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum and so on. Ion beam implantation as a new mutagenic methods was applied in our studay. After B. subtitles JA was implanted by N+ ions, a strain designated as B. subtitles JA-026 was screened and obtained, which had a higher ability to produce those antifungal substances. A series of experiments indicated that the antifungal substances were thermostable and partially sensitive to proteinases K and tryproteinase. When the fermentating broth was fractionated with ammonium sulphate of a final saturation of 70%, the precipitate-enhanced inhibitory activity while the supernatant lost this activity. It appeared that the antifungal substances were likely to be protein.

  18. Analysis of the Fungal Virulence of Cryptococcus and Exploration of Novel Antifungals Against Cryptococcosis

    E-print Network

    Zhai, Bing

    2014-08-01

    . Meanwhile, we searched for novel antifungals by screening of a clinical compound library. Two hits from the screen, the antibiotic polymyxin B and the antidepressant sertraline are all potently fungicidal against Cryptococcus. Polymyxin B works...

  19. Risk-based antifungal prophylaxis in hematologic malignancy and stem cell transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Wolf; Monica A. Slavin

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancy,\\u000a prolonged neutropenia, or after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Antifungal prophylaxis prevents IFI in high-risk hematology\\u000a patients. This article discusses recent developments in antifungal prophylaxis, focusing on those expected to affect patient\\u000a management. Significant advances have occurred in understanding risk stratification and assessment of

  20. Primary or secondary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with hematological maligancies: efficacy and damage

    PubMed Central

    Gedik, Habip; ?im?ek, Funda; Y?ld?rmak, Taner; Kantürk, Arzu; Ar?ca, Deniz; Ayd?n, Demet; Demirel, Naciye; Yoku?, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with hematological malignancies often develop febrile neutropenia (FN) as a complication of cancer chemotherapy. Primary or secondary antifungal prophylaxis is recommended for patients with hematological malignancies to reduce the risk of invasive fungal infection (IFI). This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and potential harm of administration of primary and secondary antifungal prophylaxis to patients with hematological malignancies at one hospital. Methods All patients with hematological malignancies older than 14 years of age who had experienced at least one FN attack during chemotherapy while being treated at one hospital between November 2010 and November 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of 282 FN episodes in 126 consecutive patients were examined during a 2-year study period. The mean patient age was 51.73±14.4 years (range: 17–82 years), and 66 patients were male. Primary prophylaxis with posaconazole was administered to 13 patients and systemic antifungal treatment under induction or consolidation chemotherapy to seven patients. Of 26 patients who received secondary antifungal prophylaxis with either oral voriconazole (n=17) or posaconazole (n=6) during 46 FN episodes, systemic antifungal therapy was administered in 16 of 38 episodes and three of eight episodes, respectively. Secondary antifungal prophylaxis with caspofungin was found effective in treating six FN episodes in three patients who had experienced at least two persistent candidemia attacks. The mortality rates associated with IFI were 9% in the first year, 2% in the second year, and 6% overall. The mortality rates associated with candidemia were 33% in the first year, 22% in the second year, and 27% overall. Conclusion Primary antifungal prophylaxis should be administered to selected patients on the basis of consideration of efficacy, cost, and potential harm. Use of secondary prophylaxis may reduce systemic antifungal use and IFI frequency but may increase risk of colonization and infection with azole-resistant fungal strains. PMID:24855365

  1. Silver nanoparticles stabilized by tannin grafted collagen fiber: synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li He; Hao Wu; Siying Gao; Xuepin Liao; Qiang He; Bi Shi

    A novel antifungal nano-silver agent (BT-CF-AgNPs) was synthesized by using bayberry tannin (BT) grafted collagen fiber (CF)\\u000a as support, and the antifungal behaviors of the nano-silver were investigated by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a typical fungus. Bayberry tannin (BT), a kind of natural polyphenol, was grafted onto the CF surface to improve the loading\\u000a capacity and control the size of

  2. Relative antifungal efficacies of phosphoric acid and other compounds on fungi isolated from poultry feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Lin; T. C. Chen

    1995-01-01

    Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. were isolated from poultry feed. Experiments were conducted to compare the efficacy of phosphoric acid (PPA) with other antifungal compounds at 1 g kg?1 and 5 g kg?1 levels. The order of antifungal efficacies varied with fungal strain. For example, the efficacies at 1 g kg?1 level of compound on a yellow-colored Aspergillus isolate were:

  3. MUC7 20Mer: Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity, Secondary Structure, and Possible Mechanism of Antifungal Action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libuse A. Bobek; Hongsa Situ

    2003-01-01

    This study was aimed at examining the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of MUC7 20-mer (N-LAHQKP- FIRKSYKCLHKRCR-C; residues 32 to 51 of MUC7, the low-molecular-weight human salivary mucin, com- prised of 357 residues) and comparing its antifungal properties to those of salivary histatin 5 (Hsn-5). We also examined the secondary structure of the 20-mer and the possible mechanism of its antifungal

  4. Production and Characterization of Antifungal Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HaiKuan Wang; YanHua Yan; JiaMing Wang; HePing Zhang; Wei Qi

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014 was isolated from koumiss that produces a broad spectrum of antifungal compounds, all of which were active against plant pathogenic fungi in an agar plate assay. Two major antifungal compounds were extracted from the cell-free supernatant broth of L. plantarum IMAU10014. 3-phenyllactic acid and Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester were carried out by HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR analysis.

  5. Isolation, characterization and antifungal docking studies of wortmannin isolated from Penicillium radicum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineeta; Praveen, Vandana; Tripathi, Divya; Haque, Shafiul; Somvanshi, Pallavi; Katti, S. B.; Tripathi, C. K. M.

    2015-01-01

    During the search for a potent antifungal drug, a cell-permeable metabolite was isolated from a soil isolate taxonomically identified as Penicillium radicum. The strain was found to be a potent antifungal agent. Production conditions of the active compound were optimized and the active compound was isolated, purified, characterized and identified as a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, commonly known as wortmannin (Wtmn). This is very first time we are reporting the production of Wtmn from P. radicum. In addition to its previously discovered anticancer properties, the broad spectrum antifungal property of Wtmn was re-confirmed using various fungal strains. Virtual screening was performed through molecular docking studies against potential antifungal targets, and it was found that Wtmn was predicted to impede the actions of these targets more efficiently than known antifungal compounds such as voriconazole and nikkomycin i.e. 1) mevalonate-5-diphosphate decarboxylase (1FI4), responsible for sterol/isoprenoid biosynthesis; 2) exocyst complex component SEC3 (3A58) where Rho- and phosphoinositide-dependent localization is present and 3) Kre2p/Mnt1p a Golgi alpha1,2-mannosyltransferase (1S4N) involved in the biosynthesis of yeast cell wall glycoproteins). We conclude that Wtmn produced from P. radicum is a promising lead compound which could be potentially used as an efficient antifungal drug in the near future after appropriate structural modifications to reduce toxicity and improve stability. PMID:26159770

  6. Antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav.: evidence for the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Svetaz, Laura; Agüero, María Belén; Alvarez, Sandra; Luna, Lorena; Feresin, Gabriela; Derita, Marcos; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana

    2007-08-01

    Petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of fruits, aerial parts and exudate of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) showed moderate antifungal activities against the yeasts C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and C. neoformans (MICs: 62.5 - 250 microg/mL) and very strong antifungal activities against the dermatophytes M. gypseum, T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs: 8 - 16 microg/mL) thus supporting the ethnopharmacological use of this plant. Antifungal activity-directed fractionation of active extracts by using bioautography led to the isolation of 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone (1) and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (2) as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity. Second-order studies included MIC (80), MIC (50) and MFC of both chalcones in an extended panel of clinical isolates of the most sensitive fungi, and also comprised a series of targeted assays. They showed that the most active chalcone 2 is fungicidal rather than fungistatic, does not disrupt the fungal membranes up to 4 x MFC and does not act by inhibiting the fungal cell wall. So, 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone would act by a different mechanism of action than the antifungal drugs in current clinical use, such as amphotericin B, azoles or echinocandins, and thus appears to be very promising as a novel antifungal agent. PMID:17628836

  7. Antifungal agent utilization evaluation in hospitalized neutropenic cancer patients at a large teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Vazin, Afsaneh; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Ghalesoltani, Setareh

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate pattern of using of three antifungal drugs: fluconazole, amphotericin B and voriconazole, at the hematology–oncology and bone marrow transplant wards of one large teaching hospital. In a prospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the appropriateness of using antifungal drugs in patients, using Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. All the data were recorded daily by a pharmacist in a form designed by a clinical pharmacist and infectious diseases specialist, for antifungals usage, administration, and monitoring. During the study, 116 patients were enrolled. Indications of prescribing amphotericin B, fluconazole, and voriconazole were appropriate according to guidelines in 83.4%, 80.6%, and 76.9% respectively. The duration of treatments were appropriate according to guidelines in 75%, 64.5%, and 71.1% respectively. The dose of voriconazole was appropriate according to guidelines in 46.2% of patients. None of the patients received salt loading before administration of amphotericin B. The most considerable problems with the mentioned antifungals were about the indications and duration of treatment. In addition, prehydration for amphotericin B and dosage of voriconazole were not completely compatible with the mentioned guidelines. A suitable combination of controlling the use of antifungals and educational programs could be essential for improving the general process of using antifungal drugs at our hospital.

  8. Candida tropicalis Antifungal Cross-Resistance Is Related to Different Azole Target (Erg11p) Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Forastiero, A.; Mesa-Arango, A. C.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Alcazar-Fuoli, L.; Bernal-Martinez, L.; Pelaez, T.; Lopez, J. F.; Grimalt, J. O.; Gomez-Lopez, A.; Cuesta, I.; Zaragoza, O.

    2013-01-01

    Candida tropicalis ranks between third and fourth among Candida species most commonly isolated from clinical specimens. Invasive candidiasis and candidemia are treated with amphotericin B or echinocandins as first-line therapy, with extended-spectrum triazoles as acceptable alternatives. Candida tropicalis is usually susceptible to all antifungal agents, although several azole drug-resistant clinical isolates are being reported. However, C. tropicalis resistant to amphotericin B is uncommon, and only a few strains have reliably demonstrated a high level of resistance to this agent. The resistance mechanisms operating in C. tropicalis strains isolated from clinical samples showing resistance to azole drugs alone or with amphotericin B cross-resistance were elucidated. Antifungal drug resistance was related to mutations of the azole target (Erg11p) with or without alterations of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. The antifungal drug resistance shown in vitro correlated very well with the results obtained in vivo using the model host Galleria mellonella. Using this panel of strains, the G. mellonella model system was validated as a simple, nonmammalian minihost model that can be used to study in vitro-in vivo correlation of antifungals in C. tropicalis. The development in C. tropicalis of antifungal drug resistance with different mechanisms during antifungal treatment has potential clinical impact and deserves specific prospective studies. PMID:23877676

  9. Antifungal susceptibility of epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg) on clinical isolates of pathogenic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong Joo; Park, Jong-Chul; Taguchi, Hideaki; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Takatori, Kosuke

    2006-08-25

    This is the first report to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of 21 clinical isolates of seven Candida species to epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg) and to compare with six antifungal agents, amphotericin B (AMPH), fluconazole (FLCZ), flucytosin (5FC), itraconazole (ITCZ), micafungin (MCFG), and miconazole (MCZ), using a method following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-A guidelines. Among the tested species, Candida glabrata exhibited the highest susceptibility to EGCg (MIC50, 0.5-1 microg/ml and MIC90, 1-2 microg/ml) compared favorably with FLCZ, although they were slightly less susceptible than to AMPH, 5FC, MCFG, ITCZ, and MCZ. Candida guilliemondii and Candida parapsilosis (MIC50, 1-4 microg/ml and MIC90, 2-16 microg/ml) were also susceptible to EGCg, although they appear to be slightly less susceptible to EGCg than C. glabrata and the other antifungal agents tested. Moreover, the susceptibility of Candida krusei strains (MIC50, 2 microg/ml and MIC90, 4-8 microg/ml) to EGCg was approximately 2- to 8-fold higher than those of 5FC and FLCZ. Our data indicate that EGCg can inhibit clinically pathogenic Candida species, although the concentrations of EGCg for antifungal susceptibility were slightly higher than those of tested antifungal agents on the whole. Based on these results, we suggest that EGCg may be effectively used as a possible agent or adjuvant for antifungal therapy in Candidiasis. PMID:16831406

  10. Training should be the first step toward an antifungal stewardship program.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Maricela; Muńoz, Patricia; Rodríguez-González, Carmen; Sanjurjo, María; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly in most tertiary centers. However, antifungal stewardship has received very little attention. The objective of this article was to assess the knowledge of prescribing physicians in our institution as a first step in the development of an antifungal stewardship program. Attending physicians from the departments that prescribe most antifungals were invited to complete a questionnaire based on current guidelines on diagnosis and therapy of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis (IA). The survey was completed by 60.8% (200/329) of the physicians who were invited to participate. The physicians belonged to the following departments: medical (60%), pediatric (19%), intensive care (15.5%), and surgical (5.5%). The mean (±SD) score of correct responses was 5.16±1.73. In the case of candidiasis, only 55% of the physicians clearly distinguished between colonization and infection, and 17.5% knew the local rate of fluconazole resistance. Thirty-three percent knew the accepted indications for antifungal prophylaxis, and 23% the indications for empirical therapy. However, most physicians knew which antifungals to choose when starting empirical therapy (73.5%). As for aspergillosis, most physicians (67%) could differentiate between colonization and infection, and 34.5% knew the diagnostic value of galactomannan. The radiological features of IA were well recognized by 64%, but only 31.5% were aware of the first line of treatment for IA, and 36% of the recommended duration of therapy. The usefulness of antifungal levels was known by 67%. This simple, easily completed questionnaire enabled us to identify which areas of our training strategy could be improved. PMID:25066382

  11. Geographic and Temporal Trends in Isolation and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis: a Global Assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Pfaller; D. J. Diekema; D. L. Gibbs; V. A. Newell; K. P. Ng; A. Colombo; J. Finquelievich; R. Barnes; J. Wadula

    2008-01-01

    We examined data from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program to describe geographic and temporal trends in the isolation of Candida parapsilosis from clinical specimens and the in vitro susceptibilities of 9,371 isolates to fluconazole and voriconazole. We also report the in vitro susceptibility of bloodstream infection (BSI) isolates of C. parapsilosis to the echinocandins, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin. C.

  12. Copper complexes with bioactive ligands. Part II--Antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Dudová, B; Hudecová, D; Pokorný, R; Micková, M; Palicová, M; Seg?a, P; Melník, M

    2002-01-01

    Antifungal activity of new copper(II) complexes of 2-methylthionicotinate (2-MeSNic) of the composition Cu(2-MeSNic)2(MeNia)(2).4H2O (where MeNia is N-methylnicotinamide), and Cu(2-MeSNic)2(Nia)(2).2H2O (where Nia is nicotinamide) and Cu(2-MeSNic)2L2 (where L is isonicotinamide, iNia, or ethyl nicotinate, EtNic) were tested on various strains of filamentous fungi by the macrodilution method. Most sensitive against copper(II) adducts with bioactive ligands were Rhizopus oryzae and Microsporum gypseum (IC50 1.5-2.3 mmol/L). The adducts with Nia, MeNia and EtNic at 5 mmol/L induced morphological changes in growing hyphae of Botrytis cinerea, mainly their intensive branching attached to release of cytoplasm with partial growth inhibition. Inhibition of sporulation (> 90%) of Alternaria alternata by Cu(2-MeSNic)2.H2O was observed as a change in the color of the colonies. The highest resistance was marked by B. cinerea and Fusarium moniliforme (average IC50 values 4.25 and 3.13 mmol/L, respectively). The presence of all bioactive ligands in copper(II) complexes caused an increase in the inhibition effect against model fungi (except significant inhibition activity of EtNic on R. oryzae). PMID:12094729

  13. Inhibition of angiogenesis by the antifungal drug itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Chong, Curtis R; Xu, Jing; Lu, Jun; Bhat, Shridhar; Sullivan, David J; Liu, Jun O

    2007-04-24

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is implicated in a number of important human diseases, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and rheumatoid arthritis. To identify clinically useful angiogenesis inhibitors, we assembled and screened a library of mostly Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for inhibitors of human endothelial cell proliferation. One of the most promising and unexpected hits was itraconazole, a known antifungal drug. Itraconazole inhibits endothelial cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in vitro and blocks vascular endothelial growth factor/basic fibroblast growth factor-dependent angiogenesis in vivo. In attempts to delineate the mechanism of action of itraconazole, we found that human lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (14DM) is essential for endothelial cell proliferation and may partially mediate the inhibition of endothelial cells by itraconazole. Together, these findings suggest that itraconazole has the potential to serve as an antiangiogenic drug and that lanosterol 14DM is a promising new target for discovering new angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:17432820

  14. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces.

    PubMed

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S; Benson, Ryan W; Godoy, Veronica G

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant ?-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations. PMID:24271031

  15. Antiplasmodial and antifungal activities of iridal, a plant triterpenoid.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Imbert, Christine; Bonfils, Jean-Paul; Sauvaire, Yves

    2003-03-01

    Iridal, a triterpenoidic compound extracted from Iris germanica L., was previously shown to have an interesting activity on two cultured human tumor cell lines (A2780 and K562). In the present work, this same product was tested in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive strains, in vivo on P. vinckei, and on some Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis strains too. The IC(50) obtained in vitro on human malaria strain ranged from 1.8 to 26.0 microg/ml and the ED(50) in vivo is about 85 mg/kg/day by intraperitoneal route. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were higher than to 50 microg/ml, whatever the strain of yeast tested. This product presents an antiplasmodial activity similar to that obtained with extracts from the plant Azadirachta indica classically taken as reference in malaria phytomedicine. Conversely iridal shows no important antifungal activity. The specific activity of iridal on human malaria parasite and on tumor cell lines is discussed. PMID:12620327

  16. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activities of efinaconazole and currently available antifungal agents against a variety of pathogenic fungi associated with onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Jo Siu, William J; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ? 0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ? 0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses. PMID:23318803

  17. Determination of antifungal activities in serum samples from mice treated with different antifungal drugs allows detection of an active metabolite of itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Maki, Katsuyuki; Watabe, Etsuko; Iguchi, Yumi; Nakamura, Hideko; Tomishima, Masaki; Ohki, Hidenori; Yamada, Akira; Matsumoto, Satoru; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Tawara, Shuichi; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2006-01-01

    To establish an in vitro method of predicting in vivo efficacy of antifungal drugs against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, the antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined in mouse serum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each drug was measured using mouse serum as a diluent. For C. albicans, the assay endpoint of azoles was defined as inhibition of mycelial extension (mMIC) and for A. fumigatus, as no growth (MIC). The MICs of amphotericin B for both pathogens were defined as the MIC at which no mycelial growth occurred. Serum MIC or mMIC determinations were then used to estimate the concentration of the drugs in serum of mice treated with antifungal drugs by multiplying the antifungal titer of the serum samples by the serum (m)MIC. The serum drug concentrations were also determined by HPLC. The serum concentrations estimated microbiologically showed good agreement with those determined by HPLC, except for itraconazole. Analysis of the serum samples from itraconazole-treated mice by a sensitive bioautography revealed the presence of additional spots, not seen in control samples of itraconazole. The bioautography assay demonstrated that the additional material detected in serum from mice treated with itraconazole was an active metabolite of itraconazole. The data showed that the apparent reduction in the itraconazole serum concentration as determined by HPLC was the result of the formation of an active metabolite, and that the use of a microbiological method to measure serum concentrations of drugs can provide a method for prediction of in vivo efficacy of antifungal drugs. PMID:16625050

  18. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Sokovi?, Marina D; Vukojevi?, Jelena; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan D; Vajs, Vlatka; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC's and MFC's of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9%) and p-cymene (19.0%) were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%), a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%), cis-myrtanol (11.2%) and thymol (10.4%) were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%), menthyl acetate (17.4%) and menthone (12.7%) were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5%) and menthone (21.9%). Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides. PMID:19136911

  19. INJECTABLE IN SITU CROSS-LINKING HYDROGELS FOR LOCAL ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sarah; Langer, Robert; Fink, Gerald R.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections can be devastating, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and difficult to treat with systemic drugs. Furthermore, systemic administration of those medications can have severe side effects. We have developed an injectable local antifungal treatment for direct administration into existing or potential sites of fungal infection. Amphotericin B (AmB), a hydrophobic, potent, and broad-spectrum antifungal agent, was rendered water-soluble by conjugation to a dextran-aldehyde polymer. The dextran-aldehyde-AmB conjugate retained antifungal efficacy against C. albicans. Mixing carboxymethylcellulose-hydrazide with dextran-aldehyde formed a gel that cross-linked in situ by formation of hydrazone bonds. The gel provided in vitro release of antifungal activity for 11 days, and contact with the gel killed Candida for three weeks. There was no apparent tissue toxicity in the murine peritoneum and the gel caused no adhesions. Gels produced by entrapment of a suspension of AmB in CMC-dextran without conjugation of drug to polymers did not release fungicidal activity, but did kill on contact. Injectable systems of these types, containing soluble or insoluble drug formulations, could be useful for treatment of local antifungal infections, with or without concurrent systemic therapy. PMID:19942285

  20. Antifungal compounds from Melia azedarach leaves for management of Ascochyta rabiei, the cause of chickpea blight.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Khajista; Javaid, Arshad; Ahmad, Ejaz; Athar, Makshoof

    2011-02-01

    The antifungal activity of Melia azedarach L. leaves was investigated against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of destructive blight disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that the chloroform fraction of the methanolic extract of M. azedarach leaves was highly effective against A. rabiei. Six compounds, namely ?-sitosterol (1), ?-amyrin (2), ursolic acid (3), benzoic acid (4), 3,5 dimethoxybenzoic acid (5) and maesol (6) were isolated from the chloroform fraction through column chromatography. The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against A. rabiei. A commercial fungicide, mancozeb, was used as a positive control. Different concentrations of mancozeb and the isolated compounds, ranging from 0.0039 to 4 mg mL(-1), were used in the antifungal bioassay, and data regarding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after incubation. All concentrations of mancozeb inhibited the fungal spore germination at all three incubation periods. The tested compounds exhibited variable antifungal activity against the target fungal pathogens. All compounds showed their highest antifungal activity after 24 h of incubation. Compound 2 was found to be the most effective, with an MIC of 0.0156 mg mL(-1), followed by compounds 3, 4 and 5, with MIC values of 0.0312, 0.25 and 0.125 mg mL(-1), respectively. PMID:20628965

  1. Antifungal Potential of Extracellular Metabolites Produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kuekulvong, Chutima; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils were assessed for in vitro antagonism against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Sclerotium rolfsii. A potent antagonist against both plant pathogenic fungi, designated SRA14, was selected and identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The strain SRA14 highly produced extracellular chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. Culture filtrates collected from the exponential and stationary phases inhibited the growth of both the fungi tested, indicating that growth suppression was due to extracellular antifungal metabolites present in culture filtrates. The percentage of growth inhibition by the stationary culture filtrate was significantly higher than that of exponential culture filtrate. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and abnormal shapes were observed in fungi grown on potato dextrose agar that contained the culture filtrates. However, the antifungal activity of exponential culture filtrates against both the experimental fungi was significantly reduced after boiling or treatment with proteinase K. There was no significant decrease in the percentage of fungal growth inhibition by the stationary culture filtrate that was treated as above. These data indicated that the antifungal potential of the exponential culture filtrate was mainly due to the presence of extracellular chitinase enzyme, whereas the antifungal activity of the stationary culture filtrate involved the action of unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s). PMID:18825279

  2. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections. PMID:24920895

  3. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections. PMID:24920895

  4. Antifungal property of hibicuslide C and its membrane-active mechanism in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Hong; Jin, Qinglong; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Dong Gun

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the antifungal activity and mode of action(s) of hibicuslide C derived from Abutilon theophrasti were investigated. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed that hibicuslide C possessed potent activities toward various fungal strains and less hemolytic activity than amphotericin B. To understand the antifungal mechanism(s) of hibicuslide C in Candida albicans, flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide was done. The results showed that hibicuslide C perturbed the plasma membrane of the C. albicans. The analysis of the transmembrane electrical potential with 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide [DiSC3(5)] indicated that hibicuslide C induced membrane depolarization. Furthermore, model membrane studies were performed with calcein encapsulating large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and FITC-dextran (FD) loaded LUVs. These results demonstrated that the antifungal effects of hibicuslide C on the fungal plasma membrane were through the formation of pores with radii between 2.3 nm and 3.3 nm. Finally, in three dimensional flow cytometric contour plots, a reduced cell sizes by the pore-forming action of hibicuslide C were observed. Therefore, the present study suggests that hibicuslide C exerts its antifungal effect by membrane-active mechanism. PMID:23816874

  5. Determination of Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns Among the Clinical Isolates of Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Pakshir, Kayvan; Motamedi, Marjan; Ghiasi, Moosa Rahimi; Rezashah, Hasanein

    2011-01-01

    Context: Candida species are opportunistic yeasts that cause infections ranging from simple dermatosis to potentially life-threatening fungemia. The emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs has been increased in the past two decades. Aim: the present study we determined to find out the susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Candida species against four antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole. Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility testing of the yeasts was done in accordance with the proposed guidelines for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts based on the CLSI document M44-A. Results: A total of 206 yeast isolates were assessed. Among the evaluated Candida species, the highest rates of resistance to ketoconazole were seen in Candida glabrata (16.6%) and Candida albicans (3.2%). Susceptibility and intermediate response to fluconazole were seen in 96.6% and 3.4% of the Candida isolates, respectively. A total of 19 (9.2%) yeast isolates showed petite phenomenon including 11 C. glabrata, 3 C. albicans, 2 Candida dubliniensis and one isolate of each Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion: The high number of petite mutation in the isolated yeasts should be seriously considered since it may be one of the reasons of antifungal treatment failure. PMID:22223999

  6. Expression in Escherichia coli, purification, refolding and antifungal activity of an osmotin from Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Magnólia de A; Silva, Marilia S; Magalhăes, Cláudio P; Ribeiro, Simone G; Sarto, Rafael PD; Vieira, Eduardo A; Grossi de Sá, Maria F

    2008-01-01

    Background Heterologous protein expression in microorganisms may contribute to identify and demonstrate antifungal activity of novel proteins. The Solanum nigrum osmotin-like protein (SnOLP) gene encodes a member of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, from the PR-5 sub-group, the last comprising several proteins with different functions, including antifungal activity. Based on deduced amino acid sequence of SnOLP, computer modeling produced a tertiary structure which is indicative of antifungal activity. Results To validate the potential antifungal activity of SnOLP, a hexahistidine-tagged mature SnOLP form was overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 strain carried out by a pQE30 vector construction. The urea solubilized His6-tagged mature SnOLP protein was affinity-purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. As SnOLP requires the correct formation of eight disulfide bonds, not correctly formed in bacterial cells, we adapted an in vitro method to refold the E. coli expressed SnOLP by using reduced:oxidized gluthatione redox buffer. This method generated biologically active conformations of the recombinant mature SnOLP, which exerted antifungal action towards plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium solani f. sp.glycines, Colletotrichum spp., Macrophomina phaseolina) and oomycete (Phytophthora nicotiana var. parasitica) under in vitro conditions. Conclusion Since SnOLP displays activity against economically important plant pathogenic fungi and oomycete, it represents a novel PR-5 protein with promising utility for biotechnological applications. PMID:18334031

  7. Candida guilliermondii, an Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen with Decreased Susceptibility to Fluconazole: Geographic and Temporal Trends from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Pfaller; D. J. Diekema; M. Mendez; C. Kibbler; P. Erzsebet; S.-C. Chang; D. L. Gibbs; V. A. Newell

    2006-01-01

    Although a rare cause of invasive candidiasis, Candida guilliermondii has been reported to exhibit decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents. Aside from case reports and small surveys, there is little information regarding the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility profile of C. guilliermondii. We report geographic and temporal trends in the isolation and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,029 C. guilliermondii clinical isolates collected from

  8. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of the Response to Azole, Polyene, Echinocandin, and Pyrimidine Antifungal Agents in Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa T. Liu; Robin E. B. Lee; Katherine S. Barker; Richard E. Lee; Lai Wei; Ramin Homayouni; P. David Rogers

    2005-01-01

    Antifungal agents exert their activity through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are poorly understood. We examined changes in the gene expression profile of Candida albicans following exposure to representatives of the four currently available classes of antifungal agents used in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Ketoconazole exposure increased expression of genes involved in lipid, fatty acid, and

  9. Antifungal activity of a series of 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dou, Dengfeng; Alex, Deepu; Du, Bingfan; Tiew, Kok-Chuan; Aravapalli, Sridhar; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Calderone, Richard; Groutas, William C

    2011-10-01

    A series of broad-spectrum antifungal agents based on the 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one scaffold is reported. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies have established the importance of the presence of the heterocyclic ring, a methyl group, and a phenyl ring for optimal manifestation of antifungal activity. PMID:21903403

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Double and Triple Combinations of Antifungal Drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dannaoui; Olivier Lortholary; Francoise Dromer

    2004-01-01

    Microdilution broth checkerboard techniques based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methodology were used to study double and triple antifungal combinations against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. terreus. The influences of the end-point definition (partial or complete inhibition) and the mode of reading (visually or spectrophotometrically) were determined. Interactions between antifungal drugs were also evaluated by

  11. Implementation of Practice Guidelines for Antifungal Therapy in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit and Its Impact on Use and Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Swoboda; Christoph Lichtenstern; Michael Christoff Ober; Lenka Alexandra Taylor; Dominic Störzinger; André Michel; Angelika Brobeil; Markus Mieth; Stefan Hofer; Hans-Günther Sonntag; Torsten Hoppe-Tichy; Markus Alexander Weigand

    2009-01-01

    Background: Considering the complexity of diagnosis, high costs of therapy and high morbidity and mortality of systemic fungal infections, antifungal therapy of intensive care patients should follow clearly defined guidelines. We outline the impact of a standardised practice of antifungal treatment in an interdisciplinary surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Methods: Therapy was intended to be optimised by

  12. The use of sourdough fermented by antifungal LAB to reduce the amount of calcium propionate in bread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. M. Ryan; F. Dal Bello; E. K. Arendt

    2008-01-01

    Addition of sourdough is a common practice in the bakery industry to improve, among other quality parameters, the shelf life of bread. In this study, sourdough fermented by antifungal Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of common bread spoilage fungi. In both in vitro and sourdough wheat bread system, the antifungal sourdoughs significantly affected the

  13. In vitro activities of azole antifungal agents against Propionibacterium acnes isolated from patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Takashi; Miyamoto, Mayumi; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Takatori, Kazuhiko; Ikeda, Reiko; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2010-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is the causative agent of acne vulgaris. Antibiotics such as tetracycline and macrolide derivatives are used to treat this skin disease; however, the isolation frequency of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes has been increasing. The anti-P. acnes activity of imidazole antifungal agents was reported more than 20 years ago, and since then, new azole antifungal agents have been marketed. Thus, this study determined the in vitro activities of azole antifungal agents against P. acnes isolated from patients with acne vulgaris. Of the five agents tested, miconazole, ketoconazole, and itraconazole showed concentration-dependent anti-P. acnes activity, including against antibiotic-resistant isolates. Time-kill assay also showed the time-dependent activity of the drugs. Fluconazole and voriconazole showed no anti-P. acnes activity. PMID:20045949

  14. Facile fabrication of graphene oxide loaded with silver nanoparticles as antifungal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jianghu; Yang, Yunhua; Zheng, Mingtao; Liu, Yingliang; Xiao, Yong; Lei, Bingfu; Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Graphene oxide loaded silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag) were synthesized using a simple method. Our evidence showed that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully loaded on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. The antifungal property of GO-Ag composites was investigated. The results revealed that the obtained GO-Ag composites exhibit enhanced antifungal property in comparison with that of Ag NPs. The toxicity of GO-Ag and Ag NPs were systematically evaluated. The study of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis/necrosis and hemolysis revealed that GO-Ag composites have lower cytotoxicity and better blood compatibility than Ag NPs. Therefore, these findings provide nanotoxicological information regarding GO-Ag composites which may be alternative antifungal materials in their application of biomedical fields.

  15. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of gladiolus dalenii van geel (iridaceae).

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, Judith Agot; Siboe, George Muyala; Lukhoba, Catherine Wanjiru; Dossaji, Saiffudin Fidahussein

    2010-01-01

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as standards. Dichloromethane (CH?CL?)/Methanol (MeOH) in the ratio 1:1. Soluble extracts showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. Direct bioautography on silica gel Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and appropriate spraying agents were used to identify the active component in the extract. The activities of both the extracts were higher than that of Griseofulvin. CH?CL? soluble extract in addition showed ability to delay sporulation in A.niger. The active group of compounds in the extracts was identified as alkaloids, which offer immense potential for development of new and valuable pharmaceutical products. PMID:21304613

  16. Characterization of Diterpenes from Euphorbia prolifera and Their Antifungal Activities against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Kang, Jing; Cao, Xiangrong; Sun, Xiaocong; Yu, Shujing; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbia prolifera is a poisonous plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. In this survey on plant secondary metabolites to obtain bioactive substances for the development of new antifungal agents for agriculture, the chemical constituents of the plant E. prolifera were investigated. This procedure led to the isolation of six new and two known diterpenes. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses and time-dependent density functional theory ECD calculations. Biological screenings revealed that these diterpenes possessed antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi. The results of the phytochemical investigation further revealed the chemical components of the poisonous plant E. prolifera, and biological screenings implied the extract or bioactive diterpenes from this plant may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals for crop protection products. PMID:26063581

  17. Sertaconazole: an antifungal agent for the topical treatment of superficial candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Muńoz, Alfonso Javier; Tur-Tur, Cristina; Giusiano, Gustavo; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Eraso, Elena; Jauregizar, Nerea; Quindós, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    Sertaconazole is a useful antifungal agent against mycoses of the skin and mucosa, such as cutaneous, genital and oral candidiasis and tinea pedis. Its antifungal activity is due to inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis and disruption of the cell wall. At higher concentrations, sertaconazole is able to bind to nonsterol lipids of the fungal cell wall, increasing the permeability and the subsequent death of fungal cells. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities on Candida are dose-dependent. The antifungal spectrum of sertaconazole includes deramophytes, Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia and also Aspergillus, Scedosporium and Scopulariopsis. Sertaconazole also shows an antimicrobial activity against streptococci, staphylococci and protozoa (Trichomonas). In clinical trials including patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, a single dose of sertaconazole produced a higher cure rate compared with other topical azoles such as econazole and clotrimazole, in shorter periods. Sertaconazole has shown an anti-inflammatory effect that is very useful for the relief of unpleasant symptoms. PMID:23566144

  18. Triterpenoid glycosides from Medicago sativa as antifungal agents against Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Abbruscato, Pamela; Tosi, Solveig; Crispino, Laura; Biazzi, Elisa; Menin, Barbara; Picco, Anna M; Pecetti, Luciano; Avato, Pinarosa; Tava, Aldo

    2014-11-19

    The antifungal properties of saponin mixtures from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) tops and roots, the corresponding mixtures of prosapogenins from tops, and purified saponins and sapogenins against the causal agent of rice blast Pyricularia oryzae isolates are presented. In vitro experiments highlighted a range of activities, depending upon the assayed metabolite. The antifungal effects of the most promising prosapogenin mixture from alfalfa tops were confirmed by means of in planta tests using three different Italian cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), known to possess high, medium, and low blast resistance. The evidenced antifungal properties of the tested metabolites allowed some considerations on their structure-activity relationship. Results indicate that prosapogenins are active compounds to prevent the fungal attack of P. oryzae on different rice cultivars. Therefore, if properly formulated, these substances could represent a promising and environmentally friendly treatment to control rice blast. PMID:25361378

  19. Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae-Seok; Koo, Han-Mo; Yoon, Hei-Ryeo; Jeong, Nam-Su; Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight. PMID:25774111

  20. Candida Infections, Causes, Targets, and Resistance Mechanisms: Traditional and Alternative Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The genus Candida includes about 200 different species, but only a few species are human opportunistic pathogens and cause infections when the host becomes debilitated or immunocompromised. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes and can be treated successfully with topical antifungal drugs. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening, probably due to inefficient diagnostic methods and inappropriate initial antifungal therapies. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of pathogenic species of the genus Candida and yeast infection causes and then focus on current antifungal drugs and resistance mechanisms. An overview of new therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of Candida infections is also provided. PMID:23878798

  1. Disruption of testosterone homeostasis as a mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole fungicides in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Amber K; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E; Blystone, Chad R; Thillainadarajah, Inthirany; Best, Deborah S; Nichols, Harriette P; Strader, Lillian F; Wolf, Douglas C; Narotsky, Michael G; Rockett, John C; Dix, David J

    2007-01-01

    Triazole fungicides associated with a range of reported male reproductive effects in experimental animals were selected to assess potential toxic modes of action. Wistar Han rats were fed myclobutanil (M: 100, 500, or 2000 ppm), propiconazole (P: 100, 500, or 2500 ppm), or triadimefon (T: 100, 500, or 1800 ppm) from gestation day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 120. One male per litter was necropsied on PND1, 22, 50, or 92. Measurements included anogenital distance (AGD) at PND0, body and organ weights, serum hormone levels, age at preputial separation (PPS), sperm morphology and motility, and fertility and fecundity. AGD was increased by the high dose of all three triazoles, indicating hypervirilization. Triadimefon delayed PPS, consistent with delayed puberty, at 1800 ppm. Relative liver weights were increased at PND1, 50, and 92 by all three triazoles. Hepatocellular hypertrophy was present at PND50 from propiconazole and triadimefon and at PND92 from all three high-dose triazole treatments. Relative pituitary weights were decreased at PND92 by middle- and high-dose myclobutanil treatment. Absolute testis weights were increased at PND1 by myclobutanil, at PND22 by myclobutanil and triadimefon, and at PND50 by propiconazole and triadimefon treatment. Relative ventral prostate weights were increased at PND92 by myclobutanil and triadimefon treatment. Serum testosterone was increased at PND50 by triadimefon and at PND92/99 by all three triazole treatments. Insemination and fertility were impaired by myclobutanil and triadimefon treatment. In addition to the reproductive system effects, total serum thyroxine levels were decreased at PND92 by high-dose triadimefon. These reproductive effects are consistent with the disruption of testosterone homeostasis as a key event in the mode of action for triazole-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:17018648

  2. Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  3. Antifungal drug resistance evokedvia RNAi-dependent epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Calo, Silvia; Shertz-Wall, Cecelia; Lee, Soo Chan; Bastidas, Robert J.; Nicolás, Francisco E.; Granek, Joshua A.; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M.; Cardenas, Maria E.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms evolve via mechanisms spanning sexual/parasexual reproduction, mutators, aneuploidy, Hsp90, and even prions. Mechanisms that may seem detrimental can be repurposed to generate diversity. Here we show the human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides develops spontaneous resistance to the antifungal drug FK506 (tacrolimus) via two distinct mechanisms. One involves Mendelian mutations that confer stable drug resistance; the other occurs via an epigenetic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated pathway resulting in unstable drug resistance. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase FKBP12 interacts with FK506 forming a complex that inhibits the protein phosphatase calcineurin1. Calcineurin inhibition by FK506 blocks M. circinelloides transition to hyphae and enforces yeast growth2. Mutations in the fkbA gene encoding FKBP12 or the calcineurin cnbR or cnaA genes confer FK506 resistance (FK506R) and restore hyphal growth. In parallel, RNAi is spontaneously triggered to silence the FKBP12 fkbA gene, giving rise to drug-resistant epimutants. FK506R epimutants readily reverted to the drug-sensitive wild-type (WT) phenotype when grown without drug. The establishment of these epimutants is accompanied by generation of abundant fkbA small RNA (sRNA) and requires the RNAi pathway as well as other factors that constrain or reverse the epimutant state. Silencing involves generation of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger intermediate from the fkbA mature mRNA to produce antisense fkbA RNA. This study uncovers a novel epigenetic RNAi-based epimutation mechanism controlling phenotypic plasticity, with possible implications for antimicrobial drug resistance and RNAi-regulatory mechanisms in fungi and other eukaryotes. PMID:25079329

  4. Biogenic silver nanoparticles: efficient and effective antifungal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Domdi, Latha; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Bobbu, Pushpalatha; Venkata, Sucharitha K.; Ghosh, Sukhendu Bikash; Tartte, Vijaya

    2015-06-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by exploiting various plant materials is an emerging field and considered green nanotechnology as it involves simple, cost effective and ecofriendly procedure. In the present study AgNPs were successfully synthesized using aqueous callus extract of Gymnema sylvestre. The aqueous callus extract treated with 1nM silver nitrate solution resulted in the formation of AgNPs and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the formed AgNPs showed a peak at 437 nm in the UV Visible spectrum. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). FTIR spectra showed the peaks at 3333, 2928, 2361, 1600, 1357 and 1028 cm-1 which revealed the role of different functional groups possibly involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. TEM micrograph clearly revealed the size of the AgNPs to be in the range of 3-30 nm with spherical shape and poly-dispersed nature; it is further confirmed by Particle size analysis that the stability of AgNPs is due its high negative Zeta potential (-36.1 mV). XRD pattern revealed the crystal nature of the AgNPs by showing the braggs peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes of face-centered cubic crystal phase of silver. Selected area electron diffraction pattern showed diffraction rings and confirmed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida nonalbicans and Candida tropicalis.

  5. Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

  6. Aspergillus nidulans galactofuranose biosynthesis affects antifungal drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Kausar; El-Ganiny, Amira M; Afroz, Sharmin; Sanders, David A R; Liu, Juxin; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2012-12-01

    The cell wall is essential for fungal survival in natural environments. Many fungal wall carbohydrates are absent from humans, so they are a promising source of antifungal drug targets. Galactofuranose (Galf) is a sugar that decorates certain carbohydrates and lipids. It comprises about 5% of the Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall, and may play a role in systemic aspergillosis. We are studying Aspergillus wall formation in the tractable model system, A. nidulans. Previously we showed single-gene deletions of three sequential A. nidulans Galf biosynthesis proteins each caused similar hyphal morphogenesis defects and 500-fold reduced colony growth and sporulation. Here, we generated ugeA, ugmA and ugtA strains controlled by the alcA(p) or niiA(p) regulatable promoters. For repression and expression, alcA(p)-regulated strains were grown on complete medium with glucose or threonine, whereas niiA(p)-regulated strains were grown on minimal medium with ammonium or nitrate. Expression was assessed by qPCR and colony phenotype. The alcA(p) and niiA(p) strains produced similar effects: colonies resembling wild type for gene expression, and resembling deletion strains for gene repression. Galf immunolocalization using the L10 monoclonal antibody showed that ugmA deletion and repression phenotypes correlated with loss of hyphal wall Galf. None of the gene manipulations affected itraconazole sensitivity, as expected. Deletion of any of ugmA, ugeA, ugtA, their repression by alcA(p) or niiA(p), OR, ugmA overexpression by alcA(p), increased sensitivity to Caspofungin. Strains with alcA(p)-mediated overexpression of ugeA and ugtA had lower caspofungin sensitivity. Galf appears to play an important role in A. nidulans growth and vigor. PMID:23078837

  7. Evolution of Chemical Diversity in Echinocandin Lipopeptide Antifungal Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yue, Qun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Sun, Jingzu; Liu, Xingzhong; An, Zhiqiang; Bills, Gerald F

    2015-07-01

    The echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs that includes caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Gene clusters encoding most of the structural complexity of the echinocandins provided a framework for hypotheses about the evolutionary history and chemical logic of echinocandin biosynthesis. Gene orthologs among echinocandin-producing fungi were identified. Pathway genes, including the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), were analyzed phylogenetically to address the hypothesis that these pathways represent descent from a common ancestor. The clusters share cooperative gene contents and linkages among the different strains. Individual pathway genes analyzed in the context of similar genes formed unique echinocandin-exclusive phylogenetic lineages. The echinocandin NRPSs, along with the NRPS from the inp gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans and its orthologs, comprise a novel lineage among fungal NRPSs. NRPS adenylation domains from different species exhibited a one-to-one correspondence between modules and amino acid specificity that is consistent with models of tandem duplication and subfunctionalization. Pathway gene trees and Ascomycota phylogenies are congruent and consistent with the hypothesis that the echinocandin gene clusters have a common origin. The disjunct Eurotiomycete-Leotiomycete distribution appears to be consistent with a scenario of vertical descent accompanied by incomplete lineage sorting and loss of the clusters from most lineages of the Ascomycota. We present evidence for a single evolutionary origin of the echinocandin family of gene clusters and a progression of structural diversification in two fungal classes that diverged approximately 290 to 390 million years ago. Lineage-specific gene cluster evolution driven by selection of new chemotypes contributed to diversification of the molecular functionalities. PMID:26024901

  8. Impact of First-Line Antifungal Agents on the Outcomes and Costs of Candidemia

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Young Eun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Shin Woo; Jung, Sook-In; Chang, Hyun Ha; Park, Kyong Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Candida species are the leading causes of invasive fungal infection among hospitalized patients and are responsible for major economic burdens. The goals of this study were to estimate the costs directly associated with the treatment of candidemia and factors associated with increased costs, as well as the impact of first-line antifungal agents on the outcomes and costs. A retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 199 patients from four university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in Korea over 1 year. Only costs attributable to the treatment of candidemia were estimated by reviewing resource utilization during treatment. Risk factors for increased costs, treatment outcome, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were analyzed. Approximately 65% of the patients were treated with fluconazole, and 28% were treated with conventional amphotericin B. The overall treatment success rate was 52.8%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 47.9%. Hematologic malignancy, need for mechanical ventilation, and treatment failure of first-line antifungal agents were independent risk factors for mortality. The mean total cost for the treatment of candidemia was $4,743 per patient. Intensive care unit stay at candidemia onset and antifungal switch to second-line agents were independent risk factors for increased costs. The LOS was also significantly longer in patients who switched antifungal agents to second-line drugs. Antifungal switch to second-line agents for any reasons was the only modifiable risk factor of increased costs and LOS. Choosing an appropriate first-line antifungal agent is crucial for better outcomes and reduced hospital costs of candidemia. PMID:22526315

  9. Structure-Antifungal Activity Relationships of Polyene Antibiotics of the Amphotericin B Group

    PubMed Central

    Tevyashova, Anna N.; Olsufyeva, Evgenia N.; Solovieva, Svetlana E.; Printsevskaya, Svetlana S.; Reznikova, Marina I.; Trenin, Aleksei S.; Galatenko, Olga A.; Treshalin, Ivan D.; Pereverzeva, Eleonora R.; Mirchink, Elena P.; Isakova, Elena B.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive comparative analysis of the structure-antifungal activity relationships for the series of biosynthetically engineered nystatin analogues and their novel semisynthetic derivatives, as well as amphotericin B (AMB) and its semisynthetic derivatives, was performed. The data obtained revealed the significant influence of the structure of the C-7 to C-10 polyol region on the antifungal activity of these polyene antibiotics. Comparison of positions of hydroxyl groups in the antibiotics and in vitro antifungal activity data showed that the most active are the compounds in which hydroxyl groups are in positions C-8 and C-9 or positions C-7 and C-10. Antibiotics with OH groups at both C-7 and C-9 had the lowest activity. The replacement of the C-16 carboxyl with methyl group did not significantly affect the in vitro antifungal activity of antibiotics without modifications at the amino group of mycosamine. In contrast, the activity of the N-modified derivatives was modulated both by the presence of CH3 or COOH group in the position C-16 and by the structure of the modifying substituent. The most active compounds were tested in vivo to determine the maximum tolerated doses and antifungal activity on the model of candidosis sepsis in leukopenic mice (cyclophosphamide-induced). Study of our library of semisynthetic polyene antibiotics led to the discovery of compounds, namely, N-(l-lysyl)-BSG005 (compound 3n) and, especially, l-glutamate of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl amide of S44HP (compound 2j), with high antifungal activity that were comparable in in vitro and in vivo tests to AMB and that have better toxicological properties. PMID:23716057

  10. Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.

    PubMed

    Schmourlo, Gracilene; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-01-15

    In the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. Thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population. The agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to assess the activity against three fungi: Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results, evaluated by the diameter of the inhibition zone of fungal growth, indicate that six plant species, among the 16 investigated, showed significant antifungal activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on plant extracts that showed high efficacy against the tested microorganisms. The most susceptible yeast was Trichophyton rubrum and the best antifungal activity was shown by Xanthosoma sagittifolium supernatant. The bioautography was performed only for the aqueous extracts and supernatants of those plants that showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, using n-butanol/acetic acid/water (BAW) 8:1:1 to develop silica gel TLC plates. Clear inhibition zones were observed for aqueous extracts of Schinus molle (R(f) 0.89) and Schinus terebinthifolius (R(f) 0.80) against Candida albicans, as for supernatant of Anacardium occidentale (R(f) 0.31) against Cryptococcus neoformans. The separation of macromolecules from metabolites, as in the case of Anacardium occidentale, Solanum sp. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium, enhances antifungal activity. In other cases, the antifungal activity is destroyed, as observed for Momordica charantia, Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolius. PMID:15619579

  11. Antifungal bis[bibenzyls] from the Chinese liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chong; Qu, Jian-Bo; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Bioassay-guided separation of the antifungal constituents of the Chinese liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. (Marchantiaceae) led to the isolation of seven bis[bibenzyl]-type macrocycles. On the basis of NMR and MS analyses, the three new compounds plagiochin E (1), 13,13'-O-isoproylidenericcardin D (4), and riccardin H (7) were identified, together with four known compounds: marchantin E (2), neomarchantin A (3), marchantin A (5), and marchantin B (6). Their antifungal activities against Candida albicans were determined by TLC bioautography. PMID:17193213

  12. Pathogenesis and host defence against Mucorales: the role of cytokines and interaction with antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Roilides, Emmanuel; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Simitsopoulou, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Innate immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells and their respective receptors, plays an important role in host defences against Mucorales with differential activity against specific fungal species, while adaptive immunity is not the first line of defence. A number of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as cytokines and growth factors as well as certain antifungal agents have been found that they influence innate immune response to these organisms. Used alone or especially in combination have been shown to exert antifungal effects against Mucorales species. These findings suggest novel ways of adjunctive therapy for patients with invasive mucormycosis. PMID:25175306

  13. Role of Matrix ?-1,3 Glucan in Antifungal Resistance of Non-albicans Candida Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, K. F.; Taff, H. T.; Cuevas, M. A.; Reinicke, E. L.; Sanchez, H.

    2013-01-01

    Candida biofilm infections pose an increasing threat in the health care setting due to the drug resistance associated with this lifestyle. Several mechanisms underlie the resistance phenomenon. In Candida albicans, one mechanism involves drug impedance by the biofilm matrix linked to ?-1,3 glucan. Here, we show this is important for other Candida spp. We identified ?-1,3 glucan in the matrix, found that the matrix sequesters antifungal drug, and enhanced antifungal susceptibility with matrix ?-1,3 glucan hydrolysis. PMID:23318790

  14. Thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety: synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samir Y; El-Sharief, Marwa A M Sh; Basyouni, Wahid M; Fakhr, Issa M I; El-Gammal, Eman W

    2013-06-01

    New series of thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety have been synthesized through the reaction of 4-hippuric acid isothiocyanate with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, sulfa drugs, aminopyrazoles, phenylhydrazine and hydrazides. The synthesized compounds were tested against bacterial and fungal strains. Most of compounds, such as 2-(4-(3-(3-bromophenyl)thioureido)benzamido)acetic acid and 2-(4-(3-(4-(N-pyrimidin-2-ylsulfamoyl)phenyl)thioureido)benzamido)acetic acid, showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. These compounds comprise a new class of promising broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23644194

  15. The antifungal activity of corona treated polyamide and polyester fabrics loaded with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponjic, Z.; Ilic, V.; Vodnik, V.; Mihailovic, D.; Jovancic, P.; Nedeljkovic, J.; Radetic, M.

    2008-07-01

    This study is aimed to highlight the possibility of using the corona treatment for fiber surface activation that can facilitate the loading of silver nanoparticles from colloids onto the polyester and polyamide fabrics and thus enhance their antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Additionally, the laundering durability of achieved effects was studied. Corona activated polyamide and polyester fabrics loaded with silver nanoparticles showed better antifungal properties compared to untreated fabrics. The positive effect of corona treatment became even more prominent after 5 washing cycles, especially for polyester fabrics.

  16. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  17. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of different extracts obtained from aerial parts of Inula crithmoides L.

    PubMed

    Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata; Messina, Federica; Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Curini, Massimo; Giamperi, Laura

    2015-06-01

    The total phenolic content, antioxidant and antifungal activities of three Inula crithmoides extracts (n-hexane, methylene chloride and MeOH) were investigated. The methanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content. In the DPPH assay, the methanolic and hexane extracts exhibited the highest DPPH-radical scavenging activity; in the 5-lipoxygenase assay, the hexane extract showed greater inhibitory effect with an IC50 similar to that of Trolox and ascorbic acid. The antifungal activity of the methanolic extract revealed a higher activity against Phytophtora cryptogea and Alternaria solani. PMID:25426874

  18. An antifungal protein from the culinary-medicinal beech mushroom, Hypsizygus marmoreus (Peck) Bigel. (Agaricomycetideae).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Umehara, Kanako; Tashiro, Ai; Kobayashi, Yuka; Dohra, Hideo; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    An antifungal protein (HM-af) was purified from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of HM-af indicated that its molecular mass was 9.5 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of HM-af showed homology to ribonuclease H from Clostridium thermocellum. HM-af showed the antifungal activity against Flammulina velutipes. PMID:22135901

  19. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of TAK-456, a novel oral triazole with a broad antifungal spectrum.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimori, Noboru; Hayashi, Ryogo; Kitamoto, Naomi; Asai, Kentaro; Kitazaki, Tomoyuki; Iizawa, Yuji; Itoh, Katsumi; Okonogi, Kenji

    2002-05-01

    TAK-456 is a novel oral triazole compound with potent and broad-spectrum in vitro antifungal activity and strong in vivo efficacy against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. TAK-456 inhibited sterol synthesis of C. albicans and A. fumigatus by 50% at 3 to 11 ng/ml. TAK-456 showed strong in vitro activity against clinical isolates of Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Cryptococcus neoformans, except for Candida glabrata. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited byTAK-456, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B were 0.25, 4, 0.5, 0.13, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, for clinical isolates of C. albicans and 1, >64, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, for clinical isolates of A. fumigatus. Therapeutic activities of TAK-456 and reference triazoles against systemic lethal infections caused by C. albicans and A. fumigatus in mice were investigated by orally administering drugs once daily for 5 days, and efficacies of the compounds were evaluated by the prolongation of survival. In normal mice, TAK-456 and fluconazole were effective against infection caused by fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans at a dose of 1 mg/kg. In transiently neutropenic mice, therapeutic activity of TAK-456 at 1 mg/kg of body weight against infection with the same strain was stronger than those at 1 mg/kg of fluconazole. TAK-456 was effective against infections with two strains of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans at a dose of 10 mg/kg. TAK-456 also expressed activities similar to or higher than those of itraconazole against the infections caused by two strains of A. fumigatus in neutropenic mice at a dose of 10 mg/kg. These results suggest that TAK-456 is a promising candidate for development for the treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis in humans. PMID:11959573

  20. [In vitro antifungal susceptibility, in vivo antifungal activity and security from a natural product obtained from sunrise oil (AMO3) against dermatophytes].

    PubMed

    Thomson M, Pamela; Anticevic C, Sonia; Rodríguez B, Héctor; Silva V, Víctor

    2011-12-01

    This work studied safety and antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (AMO3) against dermatophytes. AMO3 was prepared through a new original process that modifies the oil before ozonation by alcoholic catalytic esterification. Susceptibility was studied in 41 dermatophytes by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. The experimental model to assess the topical safety of the oil included 60 CF1 mice divided in three groups that were treated with vaseline (control), 1% AMO3 and 50% AMO3 (overdose), respectively. Then, experimental dermatophytosis was induced in CF1 mice. Seventy-five individuals were selected and divided in 5 groups that were treated once a day with placebo, cream with 1%, 2% and 3% AMO3 plus an untreated control group. This new natural product showed antifungal activity against all strains studied. The MIC ranged between was 0,125 and 1%, while minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was 2%. The application of vaseline and AMO3 1% and 50% did not produce clinical or histopathological lesions. The mice with dermatophytosis that were treated with 1%, 2% and 3% AMO3 showed 100% clinical cure and 94% average mycological cure, exceeding placebo and control groups (p < 0,05). This product exhibits high antifungal activity and could be a safe alternative for ringworm topical treatment. PMID:22286673

  1. Direct comparison of the pharmacodynamics of four antifungal drugs in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis using microbiological assays of serum drug concentrations.

    PubMed

    Maki, Katsuyuki; Holmes, Ann R; Watabe, Etsuko; Iguchi, Yumi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Tawara, Shuichi; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacodynamics of the azole antifungal drugs fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole, and the polyene antifungal amphotericin B, in a mouse model of disseminated Candida albicans infection. In order to directly compare effective serum concentrations of these antifungals, drug concentrations were assayed microbiologically by measuring inhibition of C. albicans mycelial growth (mMIC) in a mouse serum-based assay (serum antifungal titer). Efficacy in the mouse infection model was determined using an organ-based (kidney burden) endpoint. For all four drugs, the serum antifungal titers, 8 hr after administration of single doses of drugs at a range of drug concentrations, correlated closely with C. albicans kidney fungal burden in the mouse model. The results showed that determining serum antifungal titer may be used to accurately represent kidney fungal burden in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis and allowed direct comparison of the pharmacodynamics of differing classes of antifungal drugs. PMID:18037782

  2. Novel micelle formulations to increase cutaneous bioavailability of azole antifungals.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, Y G; Mondon, K; Kalia, Y N; Gurny, R; Möller, M

    2011-07-30

    Efficient topical drug administration for the treatment of superficial fungal infections would deliver the therapeutic agent to the target compartment and reduce the risk of systemic side effects. However, the physicochemical properties of the commonly used azole antifungals make their formulation a considerable challenge. The objective of the present investigation was to develop aqueous micelle solutions of clotrimazole (CLZ), econazole nitrate (ECZ) and fluconazole (FLZ) using novel amphiphilic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-hexyl substituted polylactide (MPEG-hexPLA) block copolymers. The CLZ, ECZ and FLZ formulations were characterized with respect to drug loading and micelle size. The optimal drug formulation was selected for skin transport studies that were performed using full thickness porcine and human skin. Penetration pathways and micellar distribution in the skin were visualized using fluorescein loaded micelles and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The hydrodynamic diameters of the azole loaded micelles were between 70 and 165nm and the corresponding number weighted diameters (d(n)) were 30 to 40nm. Somewhat surprisingly, the lowest loading efficiency (<20%) was observed for CLZ (the most hydrophobic of the three azoles tested); in contrast, under the same conditions, ECZ was incorporated with an efficiency of 98.3% in MPEG-dihexPLA micelles. Based on the characterization data and preliminary transport experiments, ECZ loaded MPEG-dihexPLA micelles (concentration 1.3mg/mL; d(n)<40nm) were selected for further study. ECZ delivery was compared to that from Pevaryl® cream (1% w/w ECZ), a marketed liposomal formulation for topical application. ECZ deposition in porcine skin following 6h application using the MPEG-dihexPLA micelles was >13-fold higher than that from Pevaryl® cream (22.8±3.8 and 1.7±0.6?g/cm(2), respectively). A significant enhancement was also observed with human skin; the amounts of ECZ deposited were 11.3±1.6 and 1.5±0.4?g/cm(2), respectively (i.e., a 7.5-fold improvement in delivery). Confocal laser scanning microscopy images supported the hypothesis that the higher delivery observed in porcine skin was due to a larger contribution of the follicular penetration pathway. In conclusion, the significant increase in ECZ skin deposition achieved using the MPEG-dihexPLA micelles demonstrates their ability to improve cutaneous drug bioavailability; this may translate into improved clinical efficacy in vivo. Moreover, these micelle systems may also enable targeting of the hair follicle and this will be investigated in future studies. PMID:21397643

  3. Augmenting the antifungal activity of an oxidizing agent with kojic Acid: control of penicillium strains infecting crops.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chan, Kathleen L

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative treatment is one of the strategies for preventing Penicillium contamination in crops/foods. The antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; oxidant) was investigated in Penicillium strains by using kojic acid (KA) as a chemosensitizing agent, which can enhance the susceptibility of pathogens to antifungal agents. Co-application of KA with H2O2 (chemosensitization) resulted in the enhancement of antifungal activity of either compound, when compared to the independent application of each agent alone. Of note, heat enhanced the activity of H2O2 to a greater extent during chemosensitization, whereby the minimum inhibitory or minimum fungicidal concentrations of H2O2 was decreased up to 4 or 13 fold, respectively, at 35-45 °C (heat), when compared to that at 28 °C (normal growth temperature). However, heat didn't increase the antifungal activity of KA, indicating specificity exists between heat and types of antifungals applied. The effect of chemosensitization was also strain-specific, where P. expansum (both parental and fludioxonil-resistant mutants) or P. italicum 983 exhibited relatively higher susceptibility to the chemosensitization, comparing to other Penicillium strains tested. Collectively, chemosensitization can serve as a potent antifungal strategy to lower effective dosages of toxic antifungal substances, such as H2O2. This can lead to coincidental lowering of environmental and health risks. PMID:25397736

  4. Consensus guidelines for the use of empiric and diagnostic-driven antifungal treatment strategies in haematological malignancy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, C O; Gilroy, N M; Macesic, N; Walker, P; Ananda-Rajah, M; May, M; Heath, C H; Grigg, A; Bardy, P G; Kwan, J; Kirsa, S W; Slavin, M; Gottlieb, T; Chen, S

    2014-12-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy for haematological malignancy. Much of these adverse outcomes are due to the limited ability of traditional diagnostic tests (i.e. culture and histology) to make an early and accurate diagnosis. As persistent or recurrent fevers of unknown origin (PFUO) in neutropenic patients despite broad-spectrum antibiotics have been associated with the development of IFD, most centres have traditionally administered empiric antifungal therapy (EAFT) to patients with PFUO. However, use of an EAFT strategy has not been shown to have an overall survival benefit and is associated with excessive antifungal therapy use. As a result, the focus has shifted to developing more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for early and more targeted antifungal treatment. These tests, including the galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have enabled the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal treatment (DDAT) strategies, which have been shown to be safe and feasible, reducing antifungal usage. In addition, the development of effective antifungal prophylactic strategies has changed the landscape in terms of the incidence and types of IFD that clinicians have encountered. In this review, we examine the current role of EAFT and provide up-to-date data on the newer diagnostic tests and algorithms available for use in EAFT and DDAT strategies, within the context of patient risk and type of antifungal prophylaxis used. PMID:25482742

  5. Plant latex: a promising antifungal agent for post harvest disease control.

    PubMed

    Sibi, G; Wadhavan, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Shukla, Abhilasha; Dhananjaya, K; Ravikumar, K R; Mallesha, H

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds from plant latex are potential source of antifungic against post harvest pathogens. Latex from a total of seven plant species was investigated for its phytochemical and antifungal properties. Six fungi namely Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, F. solani, P. digitatum and R. arrhizus were isolated from infected fruits and vegetables and tested against various solvent extracts of latex. Analysis of latex extracts with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antifungal assay revealed the potential inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extracts against the postharvest fungal isolates. Various degree of sensitivity was observed irrespective of plant species studied with A. terreus and P. digitatum as the most susceptible ones. F. solani and A. fumigatus were moderately sensitive to the latex extracts tested. Among the plants, latex of Thevetia peruviana (75.2%) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (64.8%) were having potential antifungal activity against the isolates followed by Manilkara zapota (51.1%). In conclusion, use of plant latex makes interest to control postharvest fungal diseases and is fitting well with the concept of safety for human health and environment. PMID:24506041

  6. Ketoconazole, an oral antifungal: laboratory and clinical assessment of imidazole drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Borelli; J. L. Bran; J. Fuentes; R. Legendre; E. Leiderman; H. B. Levine; A. Restrepo; D. A. Stevens

    1979-01-01

    Miconazole, a parenterally administered imidazole antifungal agent has been shown to produce responses in systemic fungal infections in man. Ketoconazole, an analogue, can be given by mouth. It is inhibitory in vitro at low concentrations to most fungi. Blood levels after oral administration to animals and man greatly exceed these inhibitory concentrations for several hours. The efficacy of this drug

  7. Profiling of the effects of antifungal agents on yeast cells based on morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Gebre, Abraham Abera; Okada, Hiroki; Kim, Cholgwang; Kubo, Karen; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of fungal infection and evolution of multidrug resistance have increased the need for new antifungal agents. To gain further insight into the development of antifungal drugs, the phenotypic profiles of currently available antifungal agents of three classes-ergosterol, cell wall and nucleic acid biosynthesis inhibitors-were investigated using yeast morphology as a chemogenomic signature. The comparison of drug-induced morphological changes with the deletion of 4718 non-essential genes not only confirmed the mode of action of the drugs but also revealed an unexpected connection among ergosterol, vacuolar proton-transporting V-type ATPase and cell-wall-targeting drugs. To improve, simplify and accelerate drug development, we developed a systematic classifier that sorts a newly discovered compound into a class with a similar mode of action without any mutant information. Using well-characterized agents as target unknown compounds, this method successfully categorized these compounds into their respective classes. Based on our data, we suggest that morphological profiling can be used to develop novel antifungal drugs. PMID:26066554

  8. Modeling Production of Antifungal Compounds and their Role in Biocontrol Inhibitory Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression modeling was used to relate the antifungal activity of B. subtilis solid-state fermentation extracts to the individual HPLC peaks from those extracts. A model was developed that predicted bioassay inhibition based on extract HPLC profile (R2 = 0.99). Concentr...

  9. A new methionine antagonist that has antifungal activity: mode of action.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Y; Kondoh, M; Nakamura, M; Fujii, T; Yamazaki, T; Shimada, H; Arisawa, M

    1994-08-01

    A new antifungal, azoxybacilin (an unusual amino acid with an azoxy moiety) was identified from Bacillus cereus, and its in vitro antifungal activity and mode of action were investigated. Azoxybacilin was active against a broad spectrum of fungi. It was especially active against mycelial fungi, such as Aspergillus, and did not show antibacterial activity. No cross-resistance with antifungals currently on the market was observed. The IC50 values of azoxybacilin antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae were significantly greater when amino acids containing sulfur were added to the growth medium, whereas other amino acids were not effective at all. We, therefore, tested the effect of the intermediates involved in the synthetic pathway of these amino acids. The activity markedly diminished when one of the following four intermediates was present in the medium:homocysteine, cysteine, cystathionine or methionine. These four intermediates were the same as those required for the growth of the O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase mutant, S. cerevisiae ONO726, indicating that azoxybacilin would inhibit a step or steps in the sulfur-fixation pathway. PMID:7928678

  10. Structure-activity relationships for antibacterial to antifungal conversion of kanamycin to amphiphilic analogues.

    PubMed

    Fosso, Marina; AlFindee, Madher N; Zhang, Qian; Nziko, Vincent de Paul Nzuwah; Kawasaki, Yukie; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Bearss, Jeremiah; Gregory, Rylee; Takemoto, Jon Y; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom

    2015-05-01

    Novel fungicides are urgently needed. It was recently reported that the attachment of an octyl group at the O-4? position of kanamycin B converts this antibacterial aminoglycoside into a novel antifungal agent. To elucidate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for this phenomenon, a lead compound FG03 with a hydroxyl group replacing the 3?-NH2 group of kanamycin B was synthesized. FG03's antifungal activity and synthetic scheme inspired the synthesis of a library of kanamycin B analogues alkylated at various hydroxyl groups. SAR studies of the library revealed that for antifungal activity the O-4? position is the optimal site for attaching a linear alkyl chain and that the 3?-NH2 and 6?-OH groups of the kanamycin B parent molecule are not essential for antifungal activity. The discovery of lead compound, FG03, is an example of reviving clinically obsolete drugs like kanamycin by simple chemical modification and an alternative strategy for discovering novel antimicrobials. PMID:25826012

  11. Relapses of Onychomycosis after Successful Treatment with Systemic Antifungals: A Three-Year Follow-Up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tosti; B. M. Piraccini; C. Stinchi; M. D. Colombo

    1998-01-01

    Background: Data about relapses of onychomycosis after treatment with the new systemic antifungals vary among the different studies, with figures ranging from 3 to 20% for terbinafine and from 21 to 27% for itraconazole, depending on the follow-up duration. Objective: To determine the prevalence of relapses of onychomycosis cured by terbinafine compared with that of onychomycosis cured by itraconazole. Methods:

  12. Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Hammer; C. F. Carson; T. V. Riley

    2003-01-01

    K. A. H A M M E R , C. F. C A R S O N A N D T. V. R I L E Y. 2003. Aims: To investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Methods and Results: Activity was investigated by broth microdilution and macrodilution, and time kill methods.

  13. Antifungal Susceptibilities among Different Serotypes of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, George R.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Vallor, Ana C.; Wickes, Brian L.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    We measured antifungal activity against 128 cryptococcal isolates (86 of C. neoformans and 42 of C. gattii) to determine if differences in serotype susceptibility exist. Contrary to previous results, we found no serotype susceptibility differences. Isavuconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole demonstrated excellent potency against each isolate and serotype, including isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibilities. PMID:18955539

  14. The Trailing End Point Phenotype in Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Is pH Dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIEREN A. MARR; TIGE R. RUSTAD; JOHN H. REX; THEODORE C. WHITE

    1999-01-01

    The interpretation of end points in azole antifungal drug susceptibility testing is problematic, in part due to incomplete growth inhibition of Candida species. Such trailing growth can cause the MICs of fluconazole for some isolates to be low (<1 mg\\/ml) after 24 h of growth but much higher (>64 mg\\/ml) after 48 h. Isolates having this type of growth have

  15. In Vitro Activities of Eight Antifungal Drugs against 104 Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans

    PubMed Central

    Najafzadeh, M. Javad; Sutton, Deanna A.; Keisari, M. Saradeghi; Zarrinfar, H.; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans is an unusual agent of phaeohyphomycosis. The in vitro activities of antifungals against 104 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans var. pullulans and A. pullulans var. melanigenum revealed low MIC90s of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole. However, they were resistant to fluconazole (?64 ?g/ml) and had high MICs of voriconazole, isavuconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin. PMID:25001309

  16. In Vitro Interaction of Flucytosine with Conventional and New Antifungals against Cryptococcus neoformans Clinical Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Schwarz; Francoise Dromer; Olivier Lortholary; Eric Dannaoui

    2003-01-01

    Infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans have become a major problem, especially for patients with AIDS. With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Western countries, the incidence of cryptococcosis has decreased in AIDS patients (15) but is still associated with high mortality. Amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FCZ), and flucytosine (5FC) are the most commonly used antifungals to treat cryp-

  17. Multilaboratory Testing of Antifungal Combinations against a Quality Control Isolate of Candida krusei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishnu Chaturvedi; Rama Ramani; Mahmoud A. Ghannoum; Scott B. Killian; Nicole Holliday; Cindy Knapp; Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner; Shawn A. Messer; Michael A. Pfaller; Naureen J. Iqbal; Beth A. Arthington-Skaggs; Jose A. Vazquez; Tin Sein; John H. Rex; Thomas J. Walsh

    2008-01-01

    Several new antifungal agents (caspofungin (CSP), posacon- azole (PSC), and voriconazole (VRC)) have recently become available for the treatment of deeply invasive fungal infections. These drugs are reported to vary in terms of efficacy, bioavail- ability, and tissue penetration in infections caused by patho- genic molds and yeasts (6, 17). They have been tested in the laboratory against a wide

  18. Antifungal, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of three Barleria species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Amoo; A. R. Ndhlala; J. F. Finnie; J. Van Staden

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antifungal, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activities of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethanol and methanol extracts from different parts of Barleria prionitis, Barleria greenii and Barleria albostellata. Their phytochemical properties and the possibility of plant-part substitution as a conservation strategy against destructive harvesting (use of aerial parts and roots) of these species for medicinal purposes

  19. Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gracilene Schmourlo; Ricardo R. Mendonça-Filho; Celuta Sales Alviano; Sônia S. Costa

    2005-01-01

    In the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. Thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population. The agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were

  20. An antifungal peptide from passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis) seeds with similarities to 2S albumin proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Pelegrini; E. F. Noronha; M. A. R. Muniz; I. M. Vasconcelos; M. D. Chiarello; J. T. A. Oliveira; O. L. Franco

    2006-01-01

    An actual worldwide problem consists of an expressive increase of economic losses and health problems caused by fungi. In order to solve this problem, several studies have been concentrating on the screening of novel plant defence peptides with antifungal activities. These peptides are commonly characterized by having low molecular masses and cationic charges. This present work reports on the purification

  1. Antiradical activity of natural honeys and antifungal effect against Penicillium genera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslava Kacániová; Katarína Fatrcová-Sramková; Janka Nozková; Martin Melich; Miriam Kadasi-Horáková; Vladimíra Knazovická; Sona Felsöciová; Simona Kunová; Magda Máriássyová

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the antiradical activity of 11 natural honeys and to evaluate the antifungal properties of honey. Honey samples (10) were collected from different locations of Slovak Republic. Honeys were native to different plant species of Robinia pseudoacaccia, Brassica napus subs. napus, Castanea sativa Mill. Thymus serpyllum vulgaris and the other samples had multifloral

  2. Antibiofilm activity and post antifungal effect of lemongrass oil on clinical Candida dubliniensis isolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Taweechaisupapong; P. Ngaonee; P. Patsuk; W. Pitiphat; W. Khunkitti

    Candidal infections are often difficult to eradicate due to the resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents. This study aimed at determining the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC) oil against Candida dubliniensis in both planktonic and biofilms form. The results from broth microdilution method revealed that the minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentration of lemongrass oil on C. dubliniensis were

  3. Identification of an Aminothiazole with Antifungal Activity against Intracellular Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jessica A.; Kemski, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    As eukaryotes, fungi possess relatively few molecules sufficiently unique from mammalian cell components to be used as drug targets. Consequently, most current antifungals have significant host cell toxicity. Primary fungal pathogens (e.g., Histoplasma) are of particular concern, as few antifungals are effective in treating them. To identify additional antifungal candidates for the treatment of histoplasmosis, we developed a high-throughput platform for monitoring Histoplasma growth and employed it in a phenotypic screen of 3,600 commercially available compounds. Seven hit compounds that inhibited Histoplasma yeast growth were identified. Compound 41F5 has fungistatic activity against Histoplasma yeast at micromolar concentrations, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.87 ?M, and has the greatest selectivity for yeast (at least 62-fold) relative to host cells. Structurally, 41F5 consists of an aminothiazole core with an alicyclic substituent at the 2-position and an aromatic substituent at the 5-position. 41F5 inhibits Histoplasma growth in liquid culture and similarly inhibits yeast cells within macrophages, the actual host environment of this fungal pathogen during infection. Importantly, 41F5 protects infected host cells from Histoplasma-induced macrophage death, making this aminothiazole hit compound an excellent candidate for development as an antifungal for Histoplasma infections. PMID:23817367

  4. Antifungal activity of several medicinal plants extracts against the early blight pathogen (Alternaria solani)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saba J. Goussous; Firas M. Abu el-Samen; Ragheb A. Tahhan

    2010-01-01

    The antifungal activity for several medicinal plants against the early blight fungus (Alternaria solani) has been investigated. These plants were Syrian marjoram (Majorana syriaca), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus). The inhibitory effect of these extracts on the radial mycelial growth as well as on spore germination was measured in vitro

  5. Methoxybifurcarenone: an antifungal and antibacterial meroditerpenoid from the brown alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Bennamara; Abdelmjid Abourriche; Mohamed Berrada; M'hamed Charrouf; Nezha Chaib; Mohammed Boudouma; François Xavier Garneau

    1999-01-01

    A meroditerpenoid metabolite has been isolated from the brown alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia and characterized as methoxybifurcarenone, by spectral analysis. Methoxybifurcarenone possesses antifungal activity against three tomato pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum sp. mycopersici and Verticillium alboatrum and antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Escherichia coli.

  6. Methoxybifurcarenone: an antifungal and antibacterial meroditerpenoid from the brown alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia.

    PubMed

    Bennamara, A; Abourriche, A; Berrada, M; Charrouf, M; Chaib, N; Boudouma, M; Garneau, F X

    1999-09-01

    A meroditerpenoid metabolite has been isolated from the brown alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia and characterized as methoxybifurcarenone, by spectral analysis. Methoxybifurcarenone possesses antifungal activity against three tomato pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum sp. mycopersici and Verticillium alboatrum and antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Escherichia coli. PMID:10466223

  7. The diversity of antifungal compounds of six South African Terminalia species (Combretaceae) determined by bioautography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Masoko; J. N. Eloff

    2005-01-01

    A bioautography method was developed to determine the number of antifungal compounds in Terminalia species extracts. Acetone, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts of six Terminalia species (T. prunioides, T. brachystemma, T. sericea, T. gazensis, T. mollis and T. sambesiaca) were tested against five fungal animal pathogens (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum canis and Sporothrix schenkii). The Rf

  8. Synthesis, Structure Optimization and Antifungal Screening of Novel Tetrazole Ring Bearing Acyl-Hydrazones

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Malik, Manzoor A.

    2012-01-01

    Azoles are generally fungistatic, and resistance to fluconazole is emerging in several fungal pathogens. In an attempt to find novel azole antifungal agents with improved activity, a series of tetrazole ring bearing acylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antifungal activity. The mechanism of their antifungal activity was assessed by studying their effect on the plasma membrane using flow cytometry and determination of the levels of ergosterol, a fungal-specific sterol. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated a majority of yeast cells when they were treated with the synthesized compounds at concentrations just above MIC, implying that fungicidal activity resulted from extensive lesions of the plasma membrane. Target compounds also caused a considerable reduction in the amount of ergosterol. The results also showed that the presence and position of different substituents on the phenyl ring of the acylhydrazone pendant seem to play a role on the antifungal activity as well as in deciding the fungistatic and fungicidal nature of the compounds. PMID:23109826

  9. High-throughput screening assays for antibacterial and antifungal activities of Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Inglin, Raffael C; Stevens, Marc J A; Meile, Lukas; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2015-07-01

    We describe high-throughput screening techniques to rapidly detect either antimicrobial activity, using an agar-well diffusion assay in microtiter plates, or antifungal activity using an agar-spot assay in 24-well plates. 504 Lactobacillus isolates were screened with minimal laboratory equipment and screening rates of 2000-5000 individual antimicrobial interactions. PMID:25937247

  10. Wasalexins A and B, new phytoalexins from wasabi: isolation, synthesis, and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M S; Sorensen, J L; Okanga, F I; Zaharia, I L

    1999-10-18

    The chemical structure determination of two phytoalexins from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), a plant resistant to virulent isolates of the blackleg fungus [Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not., asexual stage Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm.], as well as their synthesis and antifungal activity towards isolates of P. lingam and P. wasabiae is reported. PMID:10571166

  11. Effect of Growth Rate on Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms to Antifungal Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE S. BAILLIE; L. JULIA DOUGLAS

    1998-01-01

    A perfused biofilm fermentor, which allows growth-rate control of adherent microbial populations, was used to assess whether the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents is dependent on growth rate. Biofilms were generated under conditions of glucose limitation and were perfused with drugs at a high concentration (20 times the MIC). Amphotericin B produced a greater reduction in the

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse

    PubMed Central

    Mehrara, Mina; Halakoo, Mehri; Hakemi-Vala, Mojdeh; Hashemi, Seyyde Jamal; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method. Results: The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction. Conclusions: Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended. PMID:25767757

  13. Synthesis and antifungal activities of some 2,6-bis-(un)substituted phenoxymethylpyridines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Qu, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Several 2,6-bis-(un)substituted phenoxymethylpyridines were synthesized and evaluated in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria alternata, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Among all derivatives, compound 3a exhibited a broad-spectrum antifungal activity against the five phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:20737909

  14. Antifungal activity and enhancement of plant growth by Bacillus cereus grown on shellfish chitin wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Teish Chang; Yu-Chung Chen; Chia-Ling Jao

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus QQ308 produced antifungal hydrolytic enzymes, comprising chitinase, chitosanase and protease, when grown in a medium containing shrimp and crab shell powder (SCSP) produced from marine waste. The growth of the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Pythium ultimum were considerably affected by the presence of the QQ308 culture supernatant. The supernatant inhibited spore germination and germ tube

  15. Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles by Gelidiella acerosa Extract and their Antifungal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, Marimuthu; Kumar, Palanisamy Senthil; Steffi, Sesurajan; Sudha, Sellappa

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials are an important aspect in nanotechnology. The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using the aqueous extract of red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa as the reducing agent to study the antifungal activity. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The synthesized Ag-NPs was predominately spherical in shape and polydispersed. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized nano-Ag was capped with bimolecular compounds which are responsible for reduction of silver ions. The antifungal effects of these nanoparticles were studied against Humicola insolens (MTCC 4520), Fusarium dimerum (MTCC 6583), Mucor indicus (MTCC 3318) and Trichoderma reesei (MTCC 3929). The present study indicates that Ag-NPs have considerable antifungal activity in comparison with standard antifungal drug, and hence further investigation for clinical applications is necessary. PMID:23408653

  16. Effectiveness of antifungal treatments during artificial incubation of the signal crayfish eggs ( Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana. Astacidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Melendre; J. D. Celada; J. M. Carral; M. Sáez-Royuela; A. Aguilera

    2006-01-01

    In artificial incubation of astacid crayfish eggs, the use of effective antifungal treatments is advisable for controlling the spread of fungi from dead to healthy eggs and increasing final efficiency rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of formaldehyde, malachite green, hydrogen peroxide, isopropyl alcohol, copper sulfate, potassium permanganate and iodine (as polyvidone iodine) on signal

  17. Antifungal activity and pore-forming mechanism of astacidin 1 against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun

    2014-10-01

    In a previous report, a novel antibacterial peptide astacidin 1 (FKVQNQHGQVVKIFHH) was isolated from hemocyanin of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In this study, the antifungal activity and mechanism of astacidin 1 were evaluated. Astacidin 1 exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Trichosporon beigelii, Malassezia furfur, and Trichophyton rubrum. Also, astacidin 1 had fungal cell selectivity in human erythrocytes without causing hemolysis. To understand the antifungal mechanism, membrane studies were done against C. albicans and T. beigelii. Flow cytometric analysis and K(+) measurement showed membrane damage, resulting in membrane permeabilization and K(+) release-induced membrane depolarization. Furthermore, the calcein leakage from liposomes mimicking C. albicans membrane demonstrated that the membrane-active action was driven by pore-forming mechanism. Live cell imaging using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans of various sizes suggested that the radii of pores formed in the C. albicans membrane were 1.4-2.3 nm. Therefore, the present study suggests that astacidin 1 exerts its antifungal effect by damaging the fungal membrane via pore formation. PMID:24955933

  18. Effects of different antifungal treatments on artificial incubation of the astacid crayfish ( Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana) eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Celada; J. M. Carral; M. Sáez-Royuela; P. M. Melendre; A. Aguilera

    2004-01-01

    During the artificial incubation, fungi can grow over nonviable eggs and invade the healthy ones causing a decrease of efficiency rates. Thus, the use of antifungal substances must be considered. Different doses and treatment frequencies of formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and malachite green were tested on eggs of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana). Eggs were incubated at two densities:

  19. Application of antifungal CFB to increase the durability of cement mortar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Myong; Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Wha-Jung; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2012-07-01

    Antifungal cement mortar or microbiological calcium carbonate precipitation on cement surface has been investigated as functional concrete research. However, these research concepts have never been fused with each other. In this study, we introduced the antifungal calciteforming bacteria (CFB) Bacillus aryabhattai KNUC205, isolated from an urban tunnel (Daegu, South Korea). The major fungal deteriogens in urban tunnel, Cladosporium sphaerospermum KNUC253, was used as a sensitive fungal strain. B. aryabhattai KNUC205 showed CaCO3 precipitation on B4 medium. Cracked cement mortar pastes were made and neutralized by modified methods. Subsequently, the mixture of B. aryabhattai KNUC205, conidiospore of C. sphaerospermum KNUC253, and B4 agar was applied to cement cracks and incubated at 18 degrees C for 16 days. B. aryabhattai KNUC205 showed fungal growth inhibition against C. sphaerospermum. Furthermore, B. aryabhattai KNUC205 showed crack remediation ability and water permeability reduction of cement mortar pastes. Taken together, these results suggest that the CaCO3 precipitation and antifungal properties of B. aryabhattai KNUC205 could be used as an effective sealing or coating material that can also prevent deteriorative fungal growth. This study is the first application and evaluation research that incorporates calcite formation with antifungal capabilities of microorganisms for an environment-friendly and more effective protection of cement materials. In this research, the conception of microbial construction materials was expanded. PMID:22580322

  20. Antifungal activity of the methanolic extract and alkaloids of Glaucium oxylobum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Morteza-Semnani; Gh. Amin; M. R. Shidfar; H. Hadizadeh; A. Shafiee

    2003-01-01

    The methanolic extract and total alkaloids of the aerial parts of Glaucium oxylobum exhibited good activity against Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis,Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum. Four alkaloids, dicentrine, glaucine, protopine, and ?-allocryptopine, were identified as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity of this plant.

  1. CROPS AND SOILS RESEARCH PAPER Screening of plant extracts for antifungal activities against

    E-print Network

    in vitro for their antifungal activities against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum dematium on both Colletotrichum spp. in vitro and also reduced anthracnose disease of bean and cowpea source of protein for the people of this region and ease of storage leads to their preference over meat

  2. Antifungal Efficacy of GM237354, a Sordarin Derivative, in Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Immunosuppressed Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTONIO MARTINEZ; JAVIER REGADERA; ELENA JIMENEZ; INMACULADA SANTOS; D. Gargallo-Viola

    2001-01-01

    GM237354 is a novel sordarin derivative with a broad spectrum of potent activity against a wide range of fungi. The members of this new class of antifungal agents act as potent inhibitors of fungal protein synthesis. In this study, the therapeutic effects of GM237354 were investigated in a novel experimental oral Candida albicans infection model in immunosuppressed rats. The animals

  3. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Haliclona sp. from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, M; Alidoust Salimi, M; Alidoust Salimi, P; Motallebi, A; Tamadoni Jahromi, S; Ahmadzadeh, O

    2014-09-01

    In this study, antifungal and antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Haliclona sp. were assessed (in vitro). The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spizizenii. The antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by using a broth microdilution test against clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our results showed diethyl ether extract of Haliclona sp. was active on Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, methanol extract in comparison with diethyl ether extract had better activity against C. albicans (MIC: 0.75 mg/mL, MFC: 1.5mg/mL) and A. fumigatus (MIC: 2mg/mL, MFC: 3mg/mL). Aqueous extract had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities. Based our results, Haliclona sp. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic and antifungal. PMID:24934592

  4. Antifungal activity of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Omar J M; van den Bout-van den Beukel, Carolien J P; Matee, Mecky I N; Moshi, Mainen J; Mikx, Frans H M; Selemani, Haji O; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Van der Ven, André J A M; Verweij, Paul E

    2006-11-01

    Using the ethnobotanical approach, some Tanzanian plants reported to be used by traditional healers for the treatment of oral candidiasis and fungal infections of the skin were collected and screened for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. A total of 65 crude methanol extracts belonging to 56 plant species and 38 families were screened using the broth microdilution method, according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) (formerly, National Committee for Clinical and Laboratory Standards) [National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 2002. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts. Approved Standard-2nd Edition M27-A2, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, PA, USA]. Among the tested plant species, 45% (25 species) showed antifungal activity against one or more of the test fungi. The most susceptible yeasts were Cryptococcus neoformans, followed by Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis. The least susceptible were Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Strong antifungal activity was exhibited by extracts of Clausena anisata Oliv., Sclerocariya birrea Sond, Turraea holstii Gurk, Sterculia africana (Lour) Fiori, Acacia robusta subsp. Usambarensis (Taub) Brenan, Cyphosterma hildebrandti (Gilg), Desc, Elaeodendron buchannanii (Lows), Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild ex Del, Jatropha multifida L., and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. PMID:16829001

  5. Soft X-ray tomography of phenotypic switching and the cellular response to antifungal peptoids

    E-print Network

    Barron, Annelise E.

    Soft X-ray tomography of phenotypic switching and the cellular response to antifungal peptoids that circumvent fungal drug- resistance mechanisms. In this work we used soft X-ray tomogra- phy to image of an entire, fully functional biological system, i.e., in the milieu of a cell (8, 10). Recently, soft X

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of phenylheptatriyne from Bidens cernua L. against yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Rybalchenko; V. A. Prykhodko; S. S. Nagorna; N. N. Volynets; A. N. Ostapchuk; V. V. Klochko; T. V. Rybalchenko; L. V. Avdeeva

    2010-01-01

    In vitro antifungal activity of phenylheptatriyne from Bidens cernua L. (Asteraceae) was studied using broth macrodilution method against 125 strains of yeasts including 104 clinical and other isolates of Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. inconspicua), 16 strains of basidiomycetous yeasts (Cryptococcus neoformans, C. albidus, Trichosporon cutaneum, Rhodotorula glutinis) and five

  7. Improved antifungal activity of amphotericin B-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolong; Jiao, Ronghong; Xie, Chunmei; Xu, Lifa; Huo, Zhen; Dai, Jingjing; Qian, Yunyun; Xu, Weiwen; Hou, Wei; Wang, Jiang; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    To develop amphotericin B-loaded biodegradable TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs) for fungal infection treatment, PLGA-TPGS NPs and PLGA NPs were synthesized by a modified double emulsion method and characterized in terms of size and size distribution, morphology and zeta potential. Drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro/vivo tests against Candida glabrata were completed. The data showed that both of the two AMB-loaded NPs (PLGA-AMB NPs, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs) achieved significantly higher level of antifungal effects than water suspended AMB. In comparison with PLGA-AMB NPs, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs had a stronger protective effect against candidiasis and gained an advantage of prolonged antifungal efficacy. In conclusion, PLGA-TPGS-AMB NPs system significantly improves AMB bioavailability by increasing the aqueous dispersibility and improving the antifungal activity. And this would be an excellent choice for the antifungal treatment of the entrapped drug because of its low toxicity and higher effectiveness.

  8. Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Kujumgiev; I Tsvetkova; Yu Serkedjieva; V Bankova; R Christov; S Popov

    1999-01-01

    Propolis samples from different geographic origins were investigated for their antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), antifungal (against Candida albicans) and antiviral (against Avian influenza virus) activities. All samples were active against the fungal and Gram-positive bacterial test strains, and most showed antiviral activity. The activities of all samples were similar in spite of the differences in their chemical

  9. Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

  10. Trends in Antifungal Use and Epidemiology of Nosocomial Yeast Infections in a University Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASMINA F. BERROUANE; LOREEN A. HERWALDT; MICHAEL A. PFALLER

    This report describes both the trends in antifungal use and the epidemiology of nosocomial yeast infections at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between fiscal year (FY) 1987-1988 and FY 1993-1994. Data were gathered retrospectively from patients' medical records and from computerized databases maintained by the Pharmacy, the Program of Hospital Epidemiology, and the Medical Records Department. After fluconazole

  11. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Intzar Ali; Farrah G Khan; Krishan A Suri; Bishan D Gupta; Naresh K Satti; Prabhu Dutt; Farhat Afrin; Ghulam N Qazi; Inshad A Khan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of

  12. The Petasis Reaction: Microscale Synthesis of a Tertiary Amine Antifungal Analog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroluk, Katherine J.; Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Students prepare a tertiary amine antifungal analog in an upper-level undergraduate organic laboratory. A microscale Petasis reaction is performed to generate a liquid compound readily characterized via IR and proton NMR spectroscopy. The biological relevance of the product is highlighted, with the tertiary amine scaffold being an important…

  13. Spice-Derived Essential Oils: Effective Antifungal and Possible Therapeutic Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vilas A. Kamble; Sahadeo D. Patil

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils derived from 20 spices were investigated for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida blanki, Candida cylindracea, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the disc diffusion method. The sensitivity of fungi to various essential oils was compared with standard ketoconazole and an activity index (AI) was determined. Inhibitory patterns varied with the

  14. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Hadizadeh; B. Peivastegan; H. Hamzehzarghani

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pestic ide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pres sure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be appli ed as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits

  15. Antifungal activity of essential oils against three vegetative-compatibility groups of Verticillium dahliae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Arslan; Sibel Dervis

    2010-01-01

    The antifungal activities of volatile phase effects of essential oils from Origanum onites, O. syriacum, O. minutiflorum, O. vulgare, O, marjorana, Thymus vulgaris, T. serpyllum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Micromeria fruticosa were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of three vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of Verticillium dahliae. Carvacrol was the main component of O. onites, O. minutiflorum and

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of a Semisolid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Test for Yeasts and Molds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARRIET PROVINE; SUSAN HADLEY

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) method for the rapid susceptibility screening of yeasts and molds. The reproducibility and accuracy of the SAAS method were assessed by com- paring the MICs of amphotericin B and fluconazole obtained for 10 candidate quality control (QC) American Type Culture Collection yeast strains in >15 replicates with those found by six

  17. [Application of the rough sets theory to the analysis of structure-activity relationships of pyridinium antifungal compounds].

    PubMed

    Krysi?ski, J

    1994-04-01

    Relationships between chemical structure and antifungal activity of 72 quaternary pyridinium chlorides were analysed using the method of rough sets. In the information system the compounds are described by eight condition attributes and divided into three classes of activity. Using the rough sets approach a smallest set of four condition attributes significant for a high quality of classification and accuracy of classes has been found. The resulting decision algorithm describes relations between structure and antifungal activity in terms of significant condition attributes. It may be helpful in predicting structures of new antifungal compounds to be synthesized. PMID:8204024

  18. Antifungal efficacy of itraconazole-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lixin; Hu, Bicheng; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Yuqian; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xinxing

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to formulate biodegradable itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(e-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) (TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA); TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) (designed as ITZ-loaded TPP NPs) to improve antifungal efficacy. ITZ-loaded TPP NPs were prepared by a modified double-emulsion method, and their size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug-release profile, and antifungal effects were characterized. The cytotoxicity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs on HeLa cells and fibroblasts was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The in vivo antifungal activity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs was examined in mice by administrating 5×10(5) colony forming units of Candida albicans through the tail vein. The survival rate and survival time of the mice was observed. The fungal count and pathology of lung tissue was analyzed. The data showed that ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs have size of 265±5.8 nm, zeta potential of -31±0.5 mV, high encapsulation efficiency (95%), and extended drug-release profile. ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs at a high concentration of 25 mg/mL had no cytotoxicity on HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs achieved a higher level of antifungal activity both in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate and duration was higher in mice treated by ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs than in the other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs significantly improved ITZ bioavailability by increasing its aqueous dispersibility and extending the duration of drug release, thereby improving the antifungal efficacy of the ITZ agent. PMID:25733833

  19. [Antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida causing oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Dieng, Y; Faye-Niang, M A; Ndour-Diop, A; Sow, P S; Dieng, T; Soumare, M; Bah, I B; Faye, O; Diop, B M; Gaye, O; Ndir, O; Diallo, S

    2001-01-01

    Candidiasis are very usual infections of HIV infected patients. By medicine pressure, susceptibility to antifungal drugs decrease in some Candida strains. This study carded out in 1997 at hospital, aimed to identify the yeast species isolated from HIV infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis, test their susceptibility to antifungal drugs and a previous antifungal treatment impact. Thus, 60 patients yielded to questionnary were recruited. Isolated yeast colonies from buccal tract after culture on Sabouraud medium with chloramphenicol were identified with the API 20 C AUX (BioMérieux) system by assimilation of different sugars. Susceptibility was evaluated by ATB FUNGUS (BioMérieux) system. 55 from the 60 isolated yeasts were identified and among them C. albicans and C. tropicalis were the main species with 75% and 11,7% respectively rates. In HIV1 infected patients, all specieswere isolated and C. albicans predominated (80,4%) on the other hand, C. albicans and C. tropicalis were the only isolated yeasts from the HIV2 infected patients with 83,3% and 16,6% respectively rates. Susceptibility of C. albicans was 72,2% to nystatine, 58,3% to amphotericin B, 83,3% to flucytosin, 12,8% to miconazole, 8,5% to econazole and 10,6% to ketoconazole. Susceptibility of C. albicans to polyenes was modified by a previous antifungal treatment. This study indicated emergence of saprophytic yeasts of the buccal mucosa and seemed to be more fostered by HIV1 serotype than HIV2. So, C. albicans's susceptibility to polyenes decreased by untimely use of antifungal drugs and by controlling it one could improve the clinic conditions of HIV infected patients. PMID:15773146

  20. Antifungal efficacy of itraconazole-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lixin; Hu, Bicheng; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Yuqian; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xinxing

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to formulate biodegradable itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(e-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) (TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA); TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) (designed as ITZ-loaded TPP NPs) to improve antifungal efficacy. ITZ-loaded TPP NPs were prepared by a modified double-emulsion method, and their size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug-release profile, and antifungal effects were characterized. The cytotoxicity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs on HeLa cells and fibroblasts was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The in vivo antifungal activity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs was examined in mice by administrating 5×105 colony forming units of Candida albicans through the tail vein. The survival rate and survival time of the mice was observed. The fungal count and pathology of lung tissue was analyzed. The data showed that ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs have size of 265±5.8 nm, zeta potential of ?31±0.5 mV, high encapsulation efficiency (95%), and extended drug-release profile. ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs at a high concentration of 25 mg/mL had no cytotoxicity on HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs achieved a higher level of antifungal activity both in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate and duration was higher in mice treated by ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs than in the other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs significantly improved ITZ bioavailability by increasing its aqueous dispersibility and extending the duration of drug release, thereby improving the antifungal efficacy of the ITZ agent. PMID:25733833

  1. Species-Specific Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Scedosporium and Pseudallescheria Species

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Michaela; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Verweij, Paul E.; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J.; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Klaassen, Corné H.

    2012-01-01

    Since the separation of Pseudallescheria boydii and P. apiosperma in 2010, limited data on species-specific susceptibility patterns of these and other species of Pseudallescheria and its anamorph Scedosporium have been reported. This study presents the antifungal susceptibility patterns of members affiliated with both entities. Clinical and environmental isolates (n = 332) from a wide range of sources and origins were identified down to species level and tested according to CLSI M38-A2 against eight antifungal compounds. Whereas P. apiosperma (geometric mean MIC/minimal effective concentration [MEC] values of 0.9, 2.4, 7.4, 16.2, 0.2, 0.8, 1.5, and 6.8 ?g/ml for voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and amphotericin B, respectively) and P. boydii (geometric mean MIC/MEC values of 0.7, 1.3, 5.7, 13.8, 0.5, 1.4, 2.3, and 11.8 ?g/ml for voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and amphotericin B, respectively) had similar susceptibility patterns, those for S. aurantiacum, S. prolificans, and S. dehoogii were different from each other. Voriconazole was the only drug with significant activity against S. aurantiacum isolates. The MIC distributions of all drugs except voriconazole did not show a normal distribution and often showed two subpopulations, making a species-based prediction of antifungal susceptibility difficult. Therefore, antifungal susceptibility testing of all clinical isolates remains essential for targeted antifungal therapy. Voriconazole was the only compound with low MIC values (MIC90 of ?2 ?g/ml) for P. apiosperma and P. boydii. Micafungin and posaconazole showed moderate activity against the majority of Scedosporium strains. PMID:22290955

  2. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from different tissues of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Lin, Huang-Yuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2005-02-01

    In this study antifungal activities of essential oils from different tissues of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) against four wood decay fungi and six tree pathogenic fungi were investigated. In addition, the yields of essential oils obtained by water distillation were compared and their constituents determined by GC-MS analyses. The yield of essential oils from four tissues of Japanese cedar is in the decreasing order of leaf (27.38 mL/kg) > bark (6.31 mL/kg) > heartwood (3.80 mL/kg) > sapwood (1.27 mL/kg). Results obtained from the antifungal tests demonstrate that the essential oil of Japanese cedar heartwood used against Laetiporus sulphureus and Trametes versicolor and sapwood essential oil used against L. sulphureus had strong antifungal activities at 500 mug/mL, with IC(50) values of 39, 91, and 94 microg/mL, respectively. Besides, the essential oils of Japanese cedar heartwood used against Rhizoctonia solani, Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, and Ganoderma australe had strong antifungal activities at 500 microg/mL, with IC(50) values of 65, 80, 80, and 110 microg/mL, respectively. GC-MS analyses showed that the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds dominate in the essential oil from Japanese cedar heartwood, amounting to a total percentage of 82.56%, with the major compounds of delta-cadinene (18.60%), isoledene (12.41%), and gamma-muurolene (11.82%). It is proposed that the excellent antifungal activities of Japanese cedar heartwood essential oils might correlate with the presence of these compounds. PMID:15686410

  3. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Miszti-Blasius, Kornél [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona [Department of Pathology, Kenézy Hospital LTD, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István [Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre of Arts, Humanities and Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Cs?sz, Éva; Kalló, Gerg? [Proteomics Core Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Heged?s, Csaba; Virág, László [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csernoch, László [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szentesi, Péter, E-mail: szentesi.peter@med.unideb.hu [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 ?g·kg{sup ?1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  4. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) ?elak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) ?elak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), ?-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 ?L/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 ?L/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. PMID:22294341

  5. Toxicogenomic study of triazole fungicides and perfluoroalkyl acids in rat livers predicts toxicity and categorizes chemicals based on mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew T; Brennan, Richard J; Hu, Wenyue; Ayanoglu, Eser; Lau, Christopher; Ren, Hongzu; Wood, Carmen R; Corton, J Christopher; Kavlock, Robert J; Dix, David J

    2007-06-01

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated chemicals [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] were administered daily via oral gavage for one, three, or five consecutive days to male Sprague-Dawley rats at single doses of 300, 300, 175, 20, or 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathology were measured at all time points. Gene expression profiling of livers from three rats per treatment group at all time points was performed on the CodeLink Uniset Rat I Expression array. Data were analyzed in the context of a large reference toxicogenomic database containing gene expression profiles for over 630 chemicals. Genomic signatures predicting hepatomegaly and hepatic injury preceded those results for all five chemicals, and further analysis segregated chemicals into two distinct classes. The triazoles caused similar gene expression changes as other azole antifungals, particularly the induction of pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress genes. In contrast, PFOA and PFOS exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist-like effects on genes associated with fatty acid homeostasis. PFOA and PFOS also resulted in downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes, matching an in vivo decrease in serum cholesterol, and perturbation of thyroid hormone metabolism genes matched by serum thyroid hormone depletion in vivo. The concordance of in vivo observations and gene expression findings demonstrated the ability of genomics to accurately categorize chemicals, identify toxic mechanisms of action, and predict subsequent pathological responses. PMID:17383973

  6. Abstract. The inuence of the anti-fungal agent phosphonate (Phi) on the response of oilseed rape

    E-print Network

    Plaxton, William

    Abstract. The inŻuence of the anti-fungal agent phosphonate (Phi) on the response of oilseed rape rape suspension cells by the fungicide phosphonate M. Christian Carswell1 , Bruce R. Grant2 , William C

  7. Synthesis, in vitro antifungal activity and in silico study of 3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)flavanones.

    PubMed

    Emami, Saeed; Shojapour, Shahaboddin; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Samadi, Nasrin; Irannejad, Hamid

    2013-08-01

    A series of novel 3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)flavanones were synthesized based on the N-phenethylazole pharmacophore of azole antifungals. The results of antifungal assay revealed that 4'-fluoroflavanone derivative 4c exhibited the best profile of activity against Candida and Saccharomyces strains. Compound 4c was 4-16 times more potent than reference drug fluconazole against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular docking study with lanosterol 14?-demethylase, in silico toxicity risks and drug-likeness predictions were used to better define of title compounds as antifungal agents. The favorable drug-like property of compound 4c makes 3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)flavanone prototype as a promising lead for the future development of azole antifungal agents. PMID:23831810

  8. Mitigation of human-pathogenic fungi that exhibit resistance to medical agents: can clinical antifungal stewardship help?

    PubMed

    Hull, Claire M; Purdy, Nicola J; Moody, Suzy C

    2014-01-01

    Reducing indiscriminate antimicrobial usage to combat the expansion of multidrug-resistant human-pathogenic bacteria is fundamental to clinical antibiotic stewardship. In contrast to bacteria, fungal resistance traits are not understood to be propagated via mobile genetic elements, and it has been proposed that a global explosion of resistance to medical antifungals is therefore unlikely. Clinical antifungal stewardship has focused instead on reducing the drug toxicity and high costs associated with medical agents. Mitigating the problem of human-pathogenic fungi that exhibit resistance to antimicrobials is an emergent issue. This article addresses the extent to which clinical antifungal stewardship could influence the scale and epidemiology of resistance to medical antifungals both now and in the future. The importance of uncharted selection pressure exerted by agents outside the clinical setting (agricultural pesticides, industrial xenobiotics, biocides, pharmaceutical waste and others) on environmentally ubiquitous spore-forming molds that are lesserstudied but increasingly responsible for drug-refractory infections is considered. PMID:24762306

  9. Phytoalexins from Thlaspi arvense, a wild crucifer resistant to virulent Leptosphaeria maculans: structures, syntheses and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. C. Pedras; P. B. Chumala; M. Suchy

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated phytoalexin production in leaves of Thlaspi arvense under abiotic and biotic elicitation and report here two phytoalexins, wasalexin A and arvelexin, their syntheses and antifungal activity, as well as the isolation of isovitexin, a constitutive glycosyl flavonoid.

  10. Influence of fungicide residues on the primary fermentation of young lager beer.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Simón; Pérez, Gabriel; Navarro, Ginés; Mena, Luis; Vela, Nuria

    2007-02-21

    The effect of four sterol biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicides added to the pitching wort on the evolution of several organoleptic parameters during the primary fermentation of young lager beer was assessed. Pyrimidine (nuarimol and fenarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides were individually supplied to the pitching wort to obtain a concentration of 1 mg/L. A marked influence in the fermentation rate was observed for the samples with propiconazole residues. From the fourth day onward, the fermentation prematurely ceased (stuck fermentation), and therefore, statistical significant differences were found in fermented extract, alcohol content, fermentable carbohydrates, pH, color, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of beer. Myclobutanil residues are only influenced in the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, while differences in the analyzed parameters were not noticeable for the samples containing nuarimol and fenarimol residues in comparison with the blank sample. PMID:17263547

  11. A non-compulsory stewardship programme for the management of antifungals in a university-affiliated hospital.

    PubMed

    López-Medrano, F; San Juan, R; Lizasoain, M; Catalán, M; Ferrari, J M; Chaves, F; Lumbreras, C; Montejo, J C; Herreros de Tejada, A; Aguado, J M

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programmes promote excellence in the use of antimicrobials by selecting the appropriate antimicrobial agent and the correct dose, route of administration and duration of treatment. However, there is limited experience with such programmes targeting antifungal treatments. We present the results of a non-compulsory programme for the control of antifungals. For 12 months, prescriptions of oral voriconazole or intravenous voriconazole, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B were reviewed, and non-compulsory recommendations were made. The incidence and outcome of fungal infections were examined. The results for the dispensed defined daily doses (DDDs) and expenditure on antifungals were compared with those for the previous 12 months. The number of antifungal treatments reviewed was 662. A recommendation to change treatment was made in 29% of the cases, including a change from intravenous to oral treatment (15%), cessation of antifungal treatment (8%), and a change to fluconazole (6%). The DDDs of intravenous voriconazole and caspofungin were reduced by 31.4% and 20.2%, respectively. The DDDs of oral voriconazole and dispensed vials of liposomal amphotericin B were increased by 8.2% and 13.9%, respectively. Expenditure on antifungals was reduced by US$370681.78 (11.8% reduction). The programme was not related to significant increases in the incidence of candidaemia, percentage of persistent/relapsing candidaemia cases, percentage of fluconazole-resistant Candida species, incidence of infections by filamentous fungi, or 12-month mortality in patients with filamentous fungal infections. In conclusion, a stewardship programme targeting antifungals achieved a reduction in antifungal expenditure without reducing the quality of care provided. PMID:22551077

  12. In vitro antifungal susceptibility profile and correlation of mycelial and yeast forms of molecularly characterized Histoplasma capsulatum strains from India.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep K; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2014-09-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of the mycelial and yeast forms of 23 Histoplasma capsulatum strains from pulmonary and disseminated histoplasmosis patients in India are reported here. The MIC data of this dimorphic fungus had good agreement between both forms for azoles, amphotericin B, and caspofungin. Therefore, the use of mycelial inocula for H. capsulatum antifungal susceptibility testing is suggested, which is less time-consuming vis-ŕ-vis the yeast form, which requires 6 to 8 weeks for conversion. PMID:24982084

  13. Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (?) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319?±?0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141?±?0.001 to 0.265?±?0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the ?- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the ?-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (??antifungal activity against seven oral Candida species. The fungistatic and growth inhibiting effects of B. javanica extract have shown that it has potential to be considered as a promising candidate for the development of antifungal agent in oral health products. PMID:24305010

  14. Antifungal activity, biofilm-controlling effect, and biocompatibility of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-grafted denture materials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinbo; Cao, Zhengbing; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Sun, Yuyu

    2013-01-01

    Colonization and biofilm-formation of Candida species on denture surfaces cause Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS), a common, recurring disease affecting up to 67% of denture wearers. We developed poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-grafted denture materials that can be repeatedly recharged with various antifungal drugs to achieve long-term antifungal and biofilm-controlling effects. The monomer, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP), was grafted onto poly(methyl methacrylate) denture resins through plasma-initiated grafting polymerization. The physical properties and biocompatibility of the resulting resins were not negatively affected by the presence of up to 7.92% of grafted poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) (PNVP). Miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CD) were used as model antifungal drugs. PNVP grafting significantly increased the drug absorption capability of the resulting denture materials. Further, the new materials showed sustained drug release and provided antifungal effects for weeks (in the case of CD) to months (in the case of miconazole). The drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of antifungal drug to further extend antifungal duration. If needed, drugs on the PNVP-grafted denture materials could be “washed out” (quenched) by treating with PNVP aqueous solutions to stop drug release. These results point to great potentials of the new materials in controlling biofilm-formation in a wide range of device-related applications. PMID:23708753

  15. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Padgett, William T; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels on cell proliferation in the mouse tumorigenesis process are discussed. PMID:19010342

  16. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.-J. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, B143-06, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, B143-06, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nesnow, Stephen [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, B143-06, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)], E-mail: nesnow.stephen@epa.gov

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels on cell proliferation in the mouse tumorigenesis process are discussed.

  17. A potential microRNA signature for tumorigenic conazoles in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jeffrey A; Blackman, Carl F; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Li, Zhiguang; Kohan, Michael; Jones, Carlton P; Chen, Tao

    2010-04-01

    Triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. As part of a coordinated study to understand the molecular determinants of conazole tumorigenicity, we analyzed the microRNA expression levels in control and conazole-treated mice after 90 d of administration in feed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs composed of approximately 19-24 nucleotides in length, and have been shown to interact with mRNA (usually 3' UTR) to suppress its expression. MicroRNAs play a key role in diverse biological processes, including development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Groups of mice were fed either control diet or diet containing 1800 ppm triadimefon, 2500 ppm propiconazole, or 2000 ppm myclobutanil. MicroRNA was isolated from livers and analyzed using Superarray whole mouse genome miRNA PCR arrays from SABioscience. Data were analyzed using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) procedure. We identified those miRNAs whose expression was either increased or decreased relative to untreated controls with q < or = 0.01. The tumorigenic conazoles induced many more changes in miRNA expression than the nontumorigenic conazole. A group of 19 miRNAs was identified whose expression was significantly altered in both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated animals but not in myclobutanil-treated animals. All but one of the altered miRNAs were downregulated compared to controls. This pattern of altered miRNA expression may represent a signature for tumorigenic conazole exposure in mouse liver after 90 d of treatment. PMID:20175128

  18. Determination of fungicides in wine by mixed-mode solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Carpinteiro; M. Ramil; I. Rodríguez; R. Cela

    A novel procedure for the determination of nine selected fungicides (metalaxyl-M, azoxystrobin, myclobutanil, flusilazole, penconazole, tebuconazole, propiconazole, diniconazole and difenoconazole) in wine samples is presented. Sample enrichment and purification is simultaneously performed using mixed-mode, anion exchange and reversed-phase, OASIS MAX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Analytes were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization

  19. Toxicity of six novel fungicides and sulphur to Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Bostanian, Noubar J; Thistlewood, Howard M A; Hardman, John M; Racette, Gaétan

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory evaluation of fenbuconazole, myclobutanil propiconazole, boscalid, fenhexamid and pyraclostrobin revealed these fungicides to be harmless to adult Galendromus occidentalis. None of these fungicides affected adversely fecundity and egg viability. Elemental sulphur also had no effect on adults and fecundity. However, 72.4% of the young larvae perished after hatching. The six novel fungicides are safer alternatives to sulphur in perennial crops in British Columbia. PMID:18792796

  20. Baseline sensitivity and cross-resistance to demethylation-inhibiting fungicides in Ontario isolates of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hsiang; L. Yang; W. Barton

    1997-01-01

    Four hundred and thirty-five isolates ofSclerotinia homoeocarpafrom eight populations in southern Ontario were tested for sensitivity to the demethylation-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides, propiconazole, myclobutanil, fenarimol and tebuconazole. The isolates were collected in summer 1994 just prior to legal DMI fungicide use on turfgrass in Ontario. There were wide variations in sensitivities, and seven of the eight populations were very sensitive to

  1. Solidphase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the rapid screening of triazole residues in wine and strawberries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G Zambonin; A Cilenti; F Palmisano

    2002-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of triazole residues, such as triadimefon, propiconazole, myclobutanil and penconazole. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of strawberries and wine samples. The procedure is solvent-free, simple and highly sensitive. Within-day and day-to-day RSDs ranged between 2–11% and 7–28%, respectively. Detection limits estimated at a

  2. Antifungal susceptibility of emerging opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi from Rhea americana.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; Pereira de Alencar, Lucas; Nogueira Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Cordeiro Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo; de Brito Macedo, Ramila; Teixeira Lima, Daniel; Paiva de Araújo Neto, Manoel; Jalles Monteiro, André; Dutra Alves, Nilza; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Costa Sidrim, José Júlio; Rocha Gadelha, Marcos Fábio

    2013-08-01

    Opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi have been recognized as important pathogens in high-risk patients. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of these microorganisms in the microbiota of captive rheas and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated strains. Isolates representing Magnusiomyces capitatus (Geotrichum capitatum, n = 11), Trichosporon mucoides (n = 11), Trichosporon asteroides (n = 5), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (n = 4), Trichosporon asahii (n = 3), Trichosporon cutaneum (n = 3), and Trichosporon ovoides (n = 3) were obtained from the oropharynx, cloaca, and feces of 58 animals. Most of the isolates were susceptible to antifungals in vitro; however, resistance against fluconazole (n = 1) and itraconazole (n = 2) was detected among T. mucoides. This study indicates that healthy rheas can be reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. Primary resistance to azoles in T. mucoides obtained from these animals demonstrates the potential risk to humans. PMID:23899001

  3. Antifungal activity of posaconazole against Candida spp. and non-Candida clinical yeasts isolates.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Muńoz, A J; Tur-Tur, C; Hernández-Molina, J M; Quindós, G; Marcos-Arias, C; Eraso, E; Cárdenes, D; Ortiz-Maestro, O; Santos, P; Estivill, D; Guardia, C; Giusiano, G

    2010-09-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of posaconazole was tested against 315 yeast clinical isolates and 11 ATCC reference strains by means an agar diffusion method (Neosensitabs, Rosco,Denmark) based in CLSI M44-A2 document. Posaconazole activity was excellent against Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula species studied and showed very good activity against most species of Candida tested. A total of 13 clinical isolates (4.1%) were resistant: Candida albicans (n=5), Candida glabrata (n=5), Candida tropicalis (n=1), Geotrichum australiensis (n=1) and Geotrichum capitatum (n=1). Our results suggest posaconazole is an effective antifungal agent against the most clinically important yeasts species (92.7% of susceptibility). Agar diffusion method provides good conditions for the posaconazole susceptibility study in the routine laboratory. PMID:20844842

  4. Antipodal crambescin A2 homologues from the marine sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata. Antifungal structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Matthew T; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2015-03-27

    Investigation of antifungal natural products from the marine sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata from the Bahamas led to the discovery of new crambescin homologues (1, 2) and enantiomers (3, 4) of known natural products. The cyclic-guanidine structures were solved through analysis of 2D NMR, MS-MS, and CD data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established as 13R-opposite of known homologues reported from Crambe crambe obtained from the Mediterranean Sea-by comparison of their CD spectra with predicted Cotton effects obtained from DFT calculations. Antifungal activities of 1-4 against the pathogenic strains Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp. were observed to correlate potency (MIC50 and MIC90) with the length of the alkyl side chain. PMID:25738226

  5. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of antifungal activity of rosin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hien; Li, Shujun; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Jian

    2015-01-15

    To develop new rosin-based wood preservatives with good antifungal activity, 24 rosin derivatives were synthesized, bioassay tested with Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum, and subjected to analysis of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). A QSAR analysis using Ampac 9.2.1 and Codessa 2.7.16 software built two QSAR models of antifungal ratio for T. versicolor and G. trabeum with values of R(2)=0.9740 and 0.9692, respectively. Based on the models, tri-N-(3-hydroabietoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride was designed and the bioassay test result proved its better inhibitory effect against the two selected fungi as expected. PMID:25466709

  6. Prenylated flavonoids from the roots of Desmodium caudatum and evaluation of their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hisako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Shibatav, Hirofumi; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-11-01

    Two new prenylated flavonoids (1, 4) and two new prenylated C-methyl-flavonoids (6, 7), together with four known flavonoids (2, 3, 5, 8), were isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR and MS. The antifungal activities of five compounds (1, 2, 4, 6, 8) as well as nine flavonoids (9-17) previously isolated from this plant against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., and Trichophyton sp. were evaluated. Compound 6 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton sp. with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.95?µg/mL. PMID:23059627

  7. Synthesis and antifungal activity of the derivatives of novel pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jialong; Zhou, Yuanming

    2015-01-01

    A series of pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate derivatives were designed and synthesized in this study. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectral data (infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Then, all of the compounds were bioassayed in vitro against four types of phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria porri, Marssonina coronaria, Cercospora petroselini and Rhizoctonia solani) using the mycelium growth inhibition method. The results showed that some of the synthesized pyrazole carboxamides displayed notable antifungal activity. The isoxazole pyrazole carboxylate 7ai exhibited significant antifungal activity against R. solani, with an EC50 value of 0.37 ?g/mL. Nonetheless, this value was lower than that of the commercial fungicide, carbendazol. PMID:25759955

  8. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Yong-Fei; Zhang, Mao; Li, Sheng-Kun; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shen, Li; Wang, Jian-Xin; Qian, Shao-Song; Zhu, Hai-Liang; Ye, Yong-Hao

    2015-01-14

    A series of 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone derivatives were designed and synthesized as antifungal agents. Their structures were determined based on (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, MS, elemental analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The antifungal activities were evaluated against four phytopathogenic fungi including Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium graminearum and Phytophthora capsici, by the mycelium growth inhibition method in vitro. Compound 5p exhibited significant anti-phytopathogenic activity, with the EC50 values of 0.18, 2.28, 1.01, and 1.85 ?g mL(-1), respectively. In vivo testing demonstrated that 5p was effective in the control of rice sheath blight, rape sclerotinia rot and fusarium head blight. A 3D-QSAR model was built for a systematic SAR profile to explore more potent 1,2,3-triazole phenylhydrazone analogs as novel fungicides. PMID:25374053

  9. Endophytic fungi diversity of aquatic/riparian plants and their antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Chun-An; Liu, Chen-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Fei

    2010-02-01

    Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and 44 (21%) were sterile mycelia. There were significant differences in the colonization frequency of endophytes between the five plant species (X~2=51.128, P<0.001, Chi-square test). The riparian plants harboured more endophytes than the submerged plants. The antifungal activity of these isolates against Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae in vitro were tested and 28 (13.1%) isolates showed antifungal activities with more than 30% growth inhibition rate against the two pathogens. PMID:20221722

  10. Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

    2014-06-15

    The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, ?-pinene, linalool, and ?-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, ?-terpinene, linalool, and ?-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. PMID:24491729

  11. Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Nikhil, Kumar; Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Roy, Partha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-06-13

    The plant 2S albumins exhibit a spectrum of biotechnologically exploitable functions. Among them, pumpkin 2S albumin has been shown to possess RNase and cell-free translational inhibitory activities. The present study investigated the anticancer, DNase and antifungal activities of pumpkin 2S albumin. The protein exhibited a strong anticancer activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1), prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation studies indicated that cytotoxic effect of pumpkin 2S albumin is mediated through induction of apoptosis. Pumpkin 2S albumin showed DNase activity against both supercoiled and linear DNA and exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Secondary structure analysis by CD showed that protein is highly stable up to 90°C and retains its alpha helical structure. These results demonstrated that pumpkin 2S albumin is a multifunctional protein with host of potential biotechnology applications. PMID:24814706

  12. Triazole derivatives with improved in vitro antifungal activity over azole drugs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shichong; Chai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yanwei; Cao, Yongbing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Qiuye; Zhang, Dazhi; Jiang, Yuanying; Yan, Tianhua; Sun, Qingyan

    2014-01-01

    A series of triazole antifungal agents with piperidine side chains was designed and synthesized. The results of antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the compounds exhibited moderate-to-excellent activities. Molecular docking between 8d and the active site of Candida albicans CYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results. The triazole interacts with the iron of the heme group. The difluorophenyl group is located in the S3 subsite and its fluorine atom (2-F) can form H-bonds with Gly307. The side chain is oriented into the S4 subsite and formed hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions with the amino residues. Moreover, the phenyl group in the side chain interacts with the phenol group of Phe380 through the formation of ?–? face-to-edge interactions. PMID:24748772

  13. Consensus guidelines for antifungal prophylaxis in haematological malignancy and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation, 2014.

    PubMed

    Fleming, S; Yannakou, C K; Haeusler, G M; Clark, J; Grigg, A; Heath, C H; Bajel, A; van Hal, S J; Chen, S C; Milliken, S T; Morrissey, C O; Tam, C S; Szer, J; Weinkove, R; Slavin, M A

    2014-12-01

    There is a strong argument for the use of antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk patients given the significant mortality associated with invasive fungal disease, the late identification of these infections, and the availability of safe and well-tolerated prophylactic medications. Clinical decisions about which patients should receive prophylaxis and choice of antifungal agent should be guided by risk stratification, knowledge of local fungal epidemiology, the efficacy and tolerability profile of available agents, and estimates such as number needed to treat and number needed to harm. There have been substantial changes in practice since the 2008 guidelines were published. These include the availability of new medications and/or formulations, and a focus on refining and simplifying patient risk stratification. Used in context, these guidelines aim to assist clinicians in providing optimal preventive care to this vulnerable patient demographic. PMID:25482741

  14. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of the lipophylic extracts of Pistacia vera.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Berrin; Aslan, Mustafa; Orhan, Ilkay; Karaoglu, Taner

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties of 15 lipohylic extracts obtained from different parts (leaf, branch, stem, kernel, shell skins, seeds) of Pistacia vera were screened against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis by microdilution method. Both Herpes simplex (DNA) and Parainfluenza viruses (RNA) were used for the determination of antiviral activity of the P. vera extracts by using Vero cell line. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. The extracts showed little antibacterial activity between the range of 128-256 microg/ml concentrations whereas they had noticeable antifungal activity at the same concentrations. Kernel and seed extracts showed significant antiviral activity compared to the rest of the extracts as well as the controls. PMID:15881833

  15. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, K; Kumar, L Sathish; Rajendran, S; Chandrasekaran, M; Bhaskar, K; Sajit Khan, A K

    2008-11-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447

  16. Isolation and characterization of sesquiterpenes from Celastrus orbiculatus and their antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meicheng; Zhang, Qiang; Ren, Quanhui; Kong, Xianglei; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Hao; Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-11-12

    Celastrus orbiculatus is an insecticidal plant belonging to the Celastraceae family. In this survey on the secondary metabolites of plants for obtaining bioactive substances to serve agriculture, the chemical constituents of the fruits of C. orbiculatus were investigated. This phytochemical investigation resulted in the isolation of nine new and one known sesquiterpene. Their structures, especially the complicated stereochemical features, were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses, time-dependent density functional theory CD calculations, and the CD exciton chirality method. Biological screenings disclosed that these sesquiterpenes showed antifungal activities against six phytopathogenic fungi. The results of our phytochemical investigation further disclosed the chemical components of C. orbiculatus, and biological screening implied that it may be potentially useful to protect crops against phytopathogenic fungi and the bioactive compounds may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals for crop protection products. PMID:25331421

  17. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  18. The phytoalexins from cauliflower, caulilexins A, B and C: Isolation, structure determination, syntheses and antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Soledade C. Pedras; Mohammed G. Sarwar; Mojmir Suchy; Adewale M. Adio

    2006-01-01

    Our continuous search for phytoalexins from crucifers led us to examine phytoalexin production in florets of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) under abiotic (UV light) elicitation. Four known (isalexin, S-(?)-spirobrassinin, 1-methoxybrassitin, brassicanal C) and three new (caulilexins A–C) phytoalexins were isolated. The syntheses and antifungal activity of caulilexins A–C against the economically important pathogenic fungi Leptosphaeria maculans, Rhizoctonia solani and

  19. Susceptibility of Candida Species Isolated from Female Prostitutes with Vulvovaginitis to Antifungal Agents and Boric Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Otero; A. Fleites; F. J. Méndez; V. Palacio; F. Vázquez

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility of 108 Candida albicans and 23 Candida glabrata isolates obtained from female prostitutes with vulvovaginitis, a population for which available data is limited. Amphotericin\\u000a B, flucytosine, and fluconazole were tested by broth microdilution, and boric acid was tested by the agar dilution method.\\u000a The susceptibility patterns found in this

  20. Screening for Antifungal Activities of Some Medicinal Plants used Traditionally in Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda M. Aly; Samira O. Bafeel

    2010-01-01

    Aly, M.M. and Bafeel, S.O. 2010. Screening for antifungal activities of some medicinal plants used traditionally in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 39–44.The antimicrobial activities of water and organic crude extracts of 6 medicinal plants (Azadirachta Indica (neem), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Lepidium sativum and Rosmarinus officinalis) were detected against different pathogenic yeasts and fungi

  1. A fatal case of AIDS-defining meningoencephalitis by C. Neoformans, sensitive to antifungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of life threatening meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis is based on tests for cryptoccocal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, and on culture of the organism. We present a case of AIDS-related cryptococcal meningoencephalitis unresponsive to antifungal combination therapy, despite of evidence of fungal susceptibility in vitro. Significant decreases in cryptococcal antigen titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid did not correlate with progress in disease and fatal outcome. PMID:21159575

  2. A fatal case of AIDS-defining meningoencephalitis by C. neoformans, sensitive to antifungal therapy.

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Khani, S; Otremba, B; Klein, R; Capelle, H H; Logemann, F; Bange, F C; Schmidt, R E; Stoll, M

    2010-11-25

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of life threatening meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis is based on tests for cryptoccocal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, and on culture of the organism. We present a case of AIDS-related cryptococcal meningoencephalitis unresponsive to antifungal combination therapy, despite of evidence of fungal susceptibility in vitro. Significant decreases in cryptococcal antigen titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid did not correlate with progress in disease and fatal outcome. PMID:21159575

  3. In vitro and in vivo assessment of dermatophyte acquired resistance to efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoko; Kumagai, Naomichi; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Sugiura, Keita; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2014-08-01

    Efinaconazole is a novel triazole antifungal drug for the topical treatment of onychomycosis, a nail infection caused mainly by dermatophytes. We assessed the potential of efinaconazole to induce resistance in dermatophytes by continuous exposure of Trichophyton rubrum strains to efinaconazole in vitro (12 passages) and in a guinea pig onychomycosis model (8 weeks). There was no evidence of efinaconazole resistance development in the tested strains under the experimental conditions used. PMID:24867968

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Dermatophyte Acquired Resistance to Efinaconazole, a Novel Triazole Antifungal

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoko; Kumagai, Naomichi; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Sugiura, Keita; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Efinaconazole is a novel triazole antifungal drug for the topical treatment of onychomycosis, a nail infection caused mainly by dermatophytes. We assessed the potential of efinaconazole to induce resistance in dermatophytes by continuous exposure of Trichophyton rubrum strains to efinaconazole in vitro (12 passages) and in a guinea pig onychomycosis model (8 weeks). There was no evidence of efinaconazole resistance development in the tested strains under the experimental conditions used. PMID:24867968

  5. Cloning and overexpression of antifungal barley chitinase gene in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Isaac Kirubakaran; N. Sakthivel

    2007-01-01

    Plant chitinases are pathogenesis-related proteins, which are believed to be involved in plant defense responses to pathogen infection. In this study, chitinase gene from barley was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chitinase (35kDa) was isolated and purified. Since the protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies, the protein was solubilized and refolded. Purified chitinase exerted broad-spectrum antifungal activity against

  6. Discovery of substituted isoxazolecarbaldehydes as potent spermicides, acrosin inhibitors and mild anti-fungal agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gupta; R. K. Jain; J. P. Maikhuri; P. K. Shukla; M. Kumar; A. K. Roy; A. Patra; V. Singh; S. Batra

    2005-01-01

    semen samples were used to detect the spermicidal and acrosin inhibitory activities of the new compounds. Lactobacillus, HeLa and Candida cultures were used to determine the safety of compounds towards normal vaginal flora, their cytotoxicity and anti-fungal activity. Supravital staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) were used to detect the effect on sperm membrane integrity. Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) was used

  7. Compartmental Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of the Antifungal Echinocandin Lipopeptide Micafungin (FK463) in Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREAS H. GROLL; DIANA MICKIENE; VIDMANTAS PETRAITIS; RUTA PETRAITIENE; KHALID H. IBRAHIM; STEPHEN C. PISCITELLI; IHOR BEKERSKY; THOMAS J. WALSH

    2001-01-01

    The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the novel antifungal echinocandin-like lipopeptide micafungin (FK463) were investigated in healthy rabbits. Cohorts of three animals each received micafungin at 0.5, 1, and 2 mg\\/kg of body weight intravenously once daily for a total of 8 days. Serial plasma samples were collected on days 1 and 7, and tissue samples were obtained 30

  8. Antifungal activity of lemongrass ( Cympopogon citratus L.) essential oil against key postharvest pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos G. Tzortzakis; Costas D. Economakis

    2007-01-01

    Lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus L.) oil (ranging between 25 and 500 ppm) was tested for antifungal activity against Colletotrichum coccodes, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium herbarum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in vitro. Oil-enrichment resulted in significant (P<0.05) reduction on subsequent colony development for the examined pathogens. Fungal spore production inhibited up to 70% at 25 ppm of lemongrass oil concentration when compared with equivalent

  9. Rufuslactone, a new antifungal sesquiterpene from the fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Lactarius rufus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Du-Qiang; Wang, Fei; Bian, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2005-07-01

    A new lactarane sesquiterpene, rufuslactone (1), was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Lactarius rufus. Rufuslactone (1) is an isomer of a previously described lactarane 3,8-oxa-13-hydroxylactar-6-en-5-oic acid gamma-lactone (2) from Lactarius necatar. Its structure,was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Rufuslactone (1) showed antifungal properties against plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:16161484

  10. Synthesis of 2-benzylthiopyridine-4-carbothioamide derivatives and their antimycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V?ra Klimešová; Martin Svoboda; Karel Waisser; Jarmila Kaustová; Vladimír Buchta; Katarina Krá?ová

    1999-01-01

    Aseries of 2-benzylthiopyridine-4-carbonitriles 4 and a series of 2-benzylthiopyridine-4-carbothioamides 5 were prepared. Their chemical structures were proved by IR and 1H NMR data and by elemental analysis. The MIC assessment was used for the estimation of their potential antimycobacterial and antifungal activity in vitro. The compounds were shown to be more active against mycobacterial strains than the tested fungi. Their

  11. Genetic engineering of crop plants for fungal resistance: role of antifungal genes.

    PubMed

    Ceasar, S Antony; Ignacimuthu, S

    2012-06-01

    Fungal diseases damage crop plants and affect agricultural production. Transgenic plants have been produced by inserting antifungal genes to confer resistance against fungal pathogens. Genes of fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes, such as chitinase and glucanase, are frequently used to produce fungal-resistant transgenic crop plants. In this review, we summarize the details of various transformation studies to develop fungal resistance in crop plants. PMID:22350290

  12. Antifungal and insect antifeedant 2-phenylethanol esters from the liverwort Balantiopsis cancellata from Chile.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Cecilia; Faini, Francesca; Villagrán, Carolina; Coll, Josep; Rycroft, David S

    2005-01-26

    A chemical study of a dichloromethane extract of Balantiopsis cancellata led to the isolation of four known 2-phenylethanol esters (1-4) and a phenylethanediol benzoate (5). Antifeedant activity toward Spodoptera littoralis (disk-choice bioassay) and growth inhibition of the phytopathogen Cladosporium herbarum in TLC-bioautography assays were determined. The results show that the antifeedant and antifungal activity of the extract is attributable mainly to the trans-beta-methylthioacrylate 4. PMID:15656657

  13. Purification and Characterization of Novel Antifungal Compounds from the Sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum Strain 21B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAOLA LAVERMICOCCA; FRANCESCA VALERIO; ANTONIO EVIDENTE; SILVIA LAZZARONI; ALDO CORSETTI; MARCO GOBBETTI

    2000-01-01

    ml21 was not effective under the same assay conditions, while sodium benzoate caused inhibition similar to L. plantarum 21B. After extraction with ethyl acetate, preparative silica gel thin-layer chromatography, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, novel antifungal compounds such as phenyllactic and 4-hydroxy- phenyllactic acids were identified in the culture filtrate of L. plantarum 21B. Phenyllactic acid was contained at the

  14. Comparison of the In Vitro Activities of Newer Triazoles and Established Antifungal Agents against Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuwen; Zhang, Chao; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Zhu, Shuang; Tan, Xin; Wen, Yiyang; Huang, Xin; Lei, Wenzhi; Zhou, Zhaojing; Fang, Wenjie; Shen, Shuaishuai; Deng, Danqi; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2015-07-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26 mg/liter; griseofulvin, 1.65 mg/liter; and fluconazole, 2.12 mg/liter. PMID:25896691

  15. Allantofuranone, a new antifungal antibiotic from Allantophomopsis lycopodina IBWF58B05A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Schüffler; Daniela Kautz; Johannes C Liermann; Till Opatz; Timm Anke

    2009-01-01

    In a screening for new bioactive compounds, the extract of Allantophomopsis lycopodina strain IBWF58B-05A, an imperfect ascomycete, was found to exhibit strong but rather selective antibiotic activity against Paecilomyces variotii. The bioactivity-guided isolation yielded allantofuranone, a new and uncommon ?-lactone. This compound showed antifungal activity against P. variotii and Penicillium species. This paper describes the isolation, structure elucidation and biological

  16. Design, synthesis, antifungal activity, and ADME prediction of functional analogues of terbinafine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant S. Kharkar; Meenakshi N. Deodhar; Vithal M. Kulkarni

    2009-01-01

    From the earlier quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) and molecular modeling studies, a series of quinoline\\u000a derivatives 5a–h mimicking terbinafine and containing different bulky aromatic rings in the side chain were designed using LeapFrog, a de\\u000a novo drug design program. The designed compounds were synthesized and screened for antifungal activity in vitro against C. albicans. Of the ten compounds designed and synthesized,

  17. Antifungal Azoles: Structural Insights into Undesired Tight Binding to Cholesterol-Metabolizing CYP46A1.

    PubMed

    Mast, Natalia; Zheng, Wenchao; Stout, C David; Pikuleva, Irina A

    2013-07-01

    Although there are currently three generations of antifungal azoles on the market, even the third-generation agents show undesirable interactions with human cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. CYP46A1 is a cholesterol-metabolizing P450 in the brain that tightly binds a number of structurally distinct azoles. Previously, we determined the crystal structures of CYP46A1 in complex with voriconazole and clotrimazole, and in the present work we cocrystallized the P450 with posaconazole at 2.5 Ĺ resolution. This long antifungal drug coordinates the P450 heme iron with the nitrogen atom of its terminal azole ring and adopts a linear configuration occupying the whole length of the substrate access channel and extending beyond the protein surface. Numerous drug-protein interactions determine the submicromolar Kd of posaconazole for CYP46A1. We compared the crystal structure of posaconazole-bound CYP46A1 with those of the P450 in complex with other drugs, including the antifungal voriconazole and clotrimazole. We also analyzed the accommodation of posaconazole in the active site of the target enzymes, CYPs 51, from several pathogenic species. These and the solution studies with different marketed azoles, collectively, allowed us to identify the determinants of tight azole binding to CYP46A1 and generate an overall picture of azole binding to this important P450. The data obtained suggest that development of CYP51-specific antifungal agents will continue to be a challenge. Therefore, structural understanding of the azole binding not only to CYPs 51 from the pathogenic species but also to different human P450s is required to deal efficiently with this challenge. PMID:23604141

  18. Fumigant antifungal activity of essential oil components from Acorus gramineus against three phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Suk; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-01-01

    Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26 compounds in Acorus gramineus essential oil. The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested singularly by using standard compounds. Allyl isothiocyanate and cis-asarone showed inhibition rates of 100% against P. cactorum at 28 mg/l air. In a test with C. parasitica and E. circinatum, allyl isothiocyante and cis-asarone showed moderate activity at 28 mg/l air. PMID:18810992

  19. Antifungal Therapy for Invasive Fungal Diseases in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: An Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dustin T. Wilson; Richard H. Drew; John R. Perfect

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients.\\u000a While the most common pathogens are Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., the incidence of infections caused by non-albicans Candida species as well as molds such as Zygomycetes has increased. For many years, amphotericin B deoxycholate (AMB-D) was the only\\u000a available antifungal

  20. Candida   albicans and Candida   tropicalis in Oral Candidosis: Quantitative Analysis, Exoenzyme Activity, and Antifungal Drug Sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Regina Carim da Costa; Joseane Cristina Ferreira; Marilena Chinali Komesu; Regina Celia Candido

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans and C. tropicalis obtained from whole saliva of patients presenting signs of oral candidosis were assayed for quantification of colony forming\\u000a units, exoenzyme activity (phospholipase and proteinase) and antifungal drug sensitivity (amphotericin B, fluconazole and\\u000a itraconazole) by the reference method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The number of colony forming units\\u000a per milliliter varied according to the Candida

  1. Antifungal activity of a novel quercetin derivative bearing a trifluoromethyl group on Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas C. Tempesti; M. Gabriela Alvarez; Marcelo Francisco de Araújo; Francisco Eduardo Aragăo Catunda Júnior; Mário Geraldo de Carvalho; Edgardo N. Durantini

    In this study, a novel quercetin derivative bearing a trifluoromethyl group was synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution\\u000a reaction between rutin and 2-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dinitrobenzene in basic medium. This synthetic quercetin showed\\u000a antifungal activity against Candida albicans cultures. The results indicated a remarkable increase in the biological activity of this compound as compared to rutin.

  2. Epoxiconazole-induced stimulation of the antifungal hydrolases chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Siefert; M. Thalmair; C. Langebartels; H. Sandermann; K. Grossmann

    1996-01-01

    Young plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Star), which were treated hydroponically with the triazole fungicide epoxiconazole (BAS 480 F) over a period of 8 days, showed a dose-dependent stimulation of the enzyme activities of the two antifungal hydrolases chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase in the shoot tissue. In the root tissue, no significant rise in the enzyme activities was found.

  3. Antifungal stewardship in a tertiary-care institution: a bedside intervention.

    PubMed

    Valerio, M; Muńoz, P; Rodríguez, C G; Caliz, B; Padilla, B; Fernández-Cruz, A; Sánchez-Somolinos, M; Gijón, P; Peral, J; Gayoso, J; Frias, I; Salcedo, M; Sanjurjo, M; Bouza, E

    2015-05-01

    Antifungal stewardship (AFS) programmes are needed in tertiary-care hospitals. Our aim is to describe a bedside non-restrictive AFS programme, and to evaluate its economic impact. During the first year of the AFS a bundle of non-interventional measures were implemented. During the second year an infectious diseases specialist visited 453 patients receiving candins, liposomal amphotericin B, voriconazole or posaconazole. Monthly costs were studied with an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis. The main prescribing departments were haematology (35%), medical departments (23%), and intensive care units (20%). Reasons to start antifungal therapy were: targeted therapy (36%), prophylaxis (32%), empirical therapy (20%) and pre-emptive therapy (12%). At the initial visit, diagnostic advice was provided in 40% of cases. The most common therapeutic recommendations were to de-escalate the antifungal drug (17%) or to suspend it (7%). Annual total antifungal expenditure was reduced from US$3.8 million to US$2.9 million over the first 2 years, generating net savings of US$407,663 and US$824,458 per year after considering the cost of additional staff required. The ITS analyses showed a significant economic impact after the first 12 months of the intervention (p 0.042 at month 13), which was enhanced in the following 24 months (p 0.006 at month 35). The number of defined daily doses decreased from 66.4 to 54.8 per 1000 patient-days. Incidence of candidaemia was reduced from 1.49 to 1.14 (p 0.08) and related mortality was reduced from 28% to 16% (p 0.1). A collaborative and non-compulsory AFS program based on bedside intervention is an efficacious and cost-effective approach that optimizes the use of AF drugs. PMID:25748494

  4. Isolation and partial characterization of an antifungal protein from the endophytic Bacillus subtilis strain EDR4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Liu; Lili Huang; Heinrich Buchenauer; Zhensheng Kang

    2010-01-01

    An antifungal protein E2, from the culture filtrate of the endophytic Bacillus subtilis strain EDR4 of wheat with a high activity against numerous fungal species in vitro and take-all in wheat caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in vivo, was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The molecular mass of the protein was

  5. The Rel Protein DIF Mediates the Antifungal but Not the Antibacterial Host Defense in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Rutschmann; Alain C Jung; Charles Hetru; Jean-Marc Reichhart; Jules A Hoffmann; Dominique Ferrandon

    2000-01-01

    We have isolated two Drosophila lines that carry point mutations in the gene coding for the NF-?B-like factor DIF. Like mutants of the Toll pathway, Dif mutant flies are susceptible to fungal but not to bacterial infections. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that Dif mediates the Toll-dependent control of the inducibility of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin. Strikingly, DIF alone is

  6. Characterization of two anti-fungal lipopeptides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SH-B10

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Chen; Nan Wang; Xuemei Wang; Jiangchun Hu; Shujin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SH-B10 isolated from deep-sea sediment produces two anti-fungal lipopeptides that were purified by bioactivity-guided fractionation based on acid precipitation, vacuum flash chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. The two compounds were identified by tandem Q-TOF mass spectroscopy as C16 fengycin A (1) and a new fengycin with an aminobutyric acid at position 6 of the peptide backbone (2). Both compounds

  7. Syk kinase signalling couples to the Nlrp3 inflammasome for anti-fungal host defence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Gross; Hendrik Poeck; Michael Bscheider; Catherine Dostert; Nicole Hannesschläger; Stefan Endres; Gunther Hartmann; Aubry Tardivel; Edina Schweighoffer; Victor Tybulewicz; Attila Mocsai; Jürg Tschopp; Jürgen Ruland

    2009-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a serious threat, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a key pro-inflammatory factor in innate antifungal immunity. The mechanism by which the mammalian immune system regulates IL-1beta production after fungal recognition is unclear. Two signals are generally required for IL-1beta production: an NF-kappaB-dependent signal that induces the synthesis of pro-IL-1beta (p35), and a second signal that

  8. Antifungal effects of Ellagitannin isolated from leaves of Ocotea odorifera (Lauraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi; Francielle Pelegrin Garcia; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho; Celso Vataru Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    Ocotea odorifera is a medicinal plant that is popularly known in Brazil as “canela-sassafrás” and is used to treat dermatosis. This study\\u000a investigated the antifungal properties of O. odorifera. The methanol extract of O. odorifera was submitted to successive chromatographic separation and yielded Tellimagrandin II (TEL). Candida parapsilosis strain ATCC 22019 was used to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and

  9. Occurrence and risk factors of oral candidiasis treated with oral antifungals in seniors using inhaled steroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy A. Kennedy; Claudine Laurier; Denyse Gautrin; Heberto Ghezzo; Michčle Paré; Jean-Luc Malo; André-Pierre Contandriopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a frequent side effect of inhaled corticosteroids (iCSTs). This study estimated occurrence and significance of risk factors of OC treated with antifungals in users of iCSTs under conditions of normal use. This retrospective analysis used data drawn from drug insurance plan records in Quebec, Canada. The sample contained 27,000 seniors using anti-asthma medications during 1990. Three

  10. Melanin Protects Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from the Effects of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inhibition and Antifungal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Ludmila Matos; Werneck, Silvia Maria Cordeiro; Soares, Betânia Maria; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius L; Souza, Danielle G; Pinotti, Marcos; Santos, Daniel Assis; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva

    2015-07-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a public health concern in Latin America and South America that when not correctly treated can lead to patient death. In this study, the influence of melanin produced by Paracoccidioides spp. on the effects of treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic inhibition (aPI) and antifungal drugs was evaluated. aPI was performed using toluidine blue (TBO) as a photosensitizer and a 630-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light. The antifungals tested were itraconazole and amphotericin B. We evaluated the effects of each approach, aPI or antifungals, against nonmelanized and melanized yeast cells by performing susceptibility tests and by quantifying oxidative and nitrosative bursts during the experiments. aPI reduced nonmelanized cells by 3.0 log units and melanized cells by 1.3 log units. The results showed that melanization protects the fungal cell, probably by acting as a scavenger of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, but not of peroxynitrite. Melanin also increased the MICs of itraconazole and amphotericin B, and the drugs were fungicidal for nonmelanized and fungistatic for melanized yeast cells. Our study shows that melanin production by Paracoccidioides yeast cells serves a protective function during aPI and treatment with itraconazole and amphotericin B. The results suggest that melanin binds to the drugs, changing their antifungal activities, and also acts as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, but not of peroxynitrite, indicating that peroxynitrite is the main radical that is responsible for fungal death after aPI. PMID:25896704

  11. Metal-based carboxamide-derived compounds endowed with antibacterial and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H; Winum, Jean-Yves; Akhtar, Javeed

    2014-08-01

    A series of three bioactive thiourea (carboxamide) derivatives, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)), N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-5-methylthiophene-2-carboxamide (L(2)) and 5-bromo-N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)furan-2-carboxamide (L(3)) and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes (1)-(12) have been synthesized and characterized by their IR,(1)H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis data. The Crystal structure of one of the ligand, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)) and its nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. All the ligands and metal(II) complexes have been subjected to in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against six bacterial species (Escherichia coli. Shigella flexneri. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella typhi. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus. Candida albicans. Aspergillus flavus. Microsporum canis. Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata). The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal bioactivity data showed the metal(II) complexes to be more potent than the parent ligands against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:23914928

  12. Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets ?-1,3-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Okada, Hiroki; Lu, Fachuang; Li, Sheena C.; Hinchman, Li; Ranjan, Ashish; Smith, Damon L.; Higbee, Alan J.; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J.; Deshpande, Raamesh; Bukhman, Yury V.; McIlwain, Sean; Ong, Irene M.; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charles; Landick, Robert; Ralph, John; Kabbage, Mehdi; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    A rise in resistance to current antifungals necessitates strategies to identify alternative sources of effective fungicides. We report the discovery of poacic acid, a potent antifungal compound found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of grasses. Chemical genomics using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that loss of cell wall synthesis and maintenance genes conferred increased sensitivity to poacic acid. Morphological analysis revealed that cells treated with poacic acid behaved similarly to cells treated with other cell wall-targeting drugs and mutants with deletions in genes involved in processes related to cell wall biogenesis. Poacic acid causes rapid cell lysis and is synergistic with caspofungin and fluconazole. The cellular target was identified; poacic acid localized to the cell wall and inhibited ?-1,3-glucan synthesis in vivo and in vitro, apparently by directly binding ?-1,3-glucan. Through its activity on the glucan layer, poacic acid inhibits growth of the fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria solani as well as the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. A single application of poacic acid to leaves infected with the broad-range fungal pathogen S. sclerotiorum substantially reduced lesion development. The discovery of poacic acid as a natural antifungal agent targeting ?-1,3-glucan highlights the potential side use of products generated in the processing of renewable biomass toward biofuels as a source of valuable bioactive compounds and further clarifies the nature and mechanism of fermentation inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25775513

  13. Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets ?-1,3-glucan.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Jeff S; Okada, Hiroki; Lu, Fachuang; Li, Sheena C; Hinchman, Li; Ranjan, Ashish; Smith, Damon L; Higbee, Alan J; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J; Deshpande, Raamesh; Bukhman, Yury V; McIlwain, Sean; Ong, Irene M; Myers, Chad L; Boone, Charles; Landick, Robert; Ralph, John; Kabbage, Mehdi; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-24

    A rise in resistance to current antifungals necessitates strategies to identify alternative sources of effective fungicides. We report the discovery of poacic acid, a potent antifungal compound found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of grasses. Chemical genomics using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that loss of cell wall synthesis and maintenance genes conferred increased sensitivity to poacic acid. Morphological analysis revealed that cells treated with poacic acid behaved similarly to cells treated with other cell wall-targeting drugs and mutants with deletions in genes involved in processes related to cell wall biogenesis. Poacic acid causes rapid cell lysis and is synergistic with caspofungin and fluconazole. The cellular target was identified; poacic acid localized to the cell wall and inhibited ?-1,3-glucan synthesis in vivo and in vitro, apparently by directly binding ?-1,3-glucan. Through its activity on the glucan layer, poacic acid inhibits growth of the fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria solani as well as the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. A single application of poacic acid to leaves infected with the broad-range fungal pathogen S. sclerotiorum substantially reduced lesion development. The discovery of poacic acid as a natural antifungal agent targeting ?-1,3-glucan highlights the potential side use of products generated in the processing of renewable biomass toward biofuels as a source of valuable bioactive compounds and further clarifies the nature and mechanism of fermentation inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25775513

  14. Activation of stress signalling pathways enhances tolerance of fungi to chemical fungicides and antifungal proteins.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brigitte M E; Anderson, Marilyn A; Traven, Ana; van der Weerden, Nicole L; Bleackley, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Fungal disease is an increasing problem in both agriculture and human health. Treatment of human fungal disease involves the use of chemical fungicides, which generally target the integrity of the fungal plasma membrane or cell wall. Chemical fungicides used for the treatment of plant disease, have more diverse mechanisms of action including inhibition of sterol biosynthesis, microtubule assembly and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, these treatments have limitations, including toxicity and the emergence of resistance. This has led to increased interest in the use of antimicrobial peptides for the treatment of fungal disease in both plants and humans. Antimicrobial peptides are a diverse group of molecules with differing mechanisms of action, many of which remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that stress response pathways are involved in the tolerance of fungi to both chemical fungicides and antimicrobial peptides. These signalling pathways such as the cell wall integrity and high-osmolarity glycerol pathway are triggered by stimuli, such as cell wall instability, changes in osmolarity and production of reactive oxygen species. Here we review stress signalling induced by treatment of fungi with chemical fungicides and antifungal peptides. Study of these pathways gives insight into how these molecules exert their antifungal effect and also into the mechanisms used by fungi to tolerate sub-lethal treatment by these molecules. Inactivation of stress response pathways represents a potential method of increasing the efficacy of antifungal molecules. PMID:24526056

  15. Comparison of Antifungal Activity of 2% Chlorhexidine, Calcium Hydroxide, and Nanosilver gels against Candida Albicans

    PubMed Central

    Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Hadian, Ali; Bakhshaei, Pedram; Dianat, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Residual microorganisms in the root canal system (RCS) after endodontic therapy such as Candida albicans are a major cause of endodontic failure. Calcium hydroxide (CH) and chlorhexidine (CHX) have suitable antimicrobial activity against bacteria and can be used as intracanal medicaments. Nanosilver has also shown antimicrobial activity against microorganisms. This study aimed to compare the antifungal effect of calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine and nanosilver gels on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one single-rooted teeth were selected. After root canal preparation, the teeth were contaminated. After culture, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups. In experimental groups, 24 teeth were selected and completely filled with CH, 2% CHX and nanosilver gels in each group. Nine teeth were selected in the control group and filled with saline solution. After 1, 3, and 7 days, samples were obtained by #30 sterile paper points, and #2 and #4 Gates Glidden drills and cultured on solid Sabouraud agar. Results: The results demonstrated that CH and 2% CHX had equal antifungal effects on samples taken by paper point and #2 Gates Glidden drill at all time points. Both CH and 2% CHX were more effective than nanosilver at all time periods. There was no statistically significant difference between medicaments in samples taken by #4 Gates Glidden drill. Conclusion: CH and 2% CHX gels have significantly higher antifungal activity than nanosilver gel. Also, CH and 2% CHX gels are equally effective against Candida albicans.

  16. Extracellular chitinases of fluorescent pseudomonads antifungal to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi causing carnation wilt.

    PubMed

    Ajit, Naosekpam Singh; Verma, Rajni; Shanmugam, V

    2006-04-01

    Vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Prill. & Delacr.) W. C. Synder & H.N. Hans inflicts substantial yield and quality loss to the crop. Mycolytic enzymes such as chitinases are antifungal and contribute significantly to the antagonistic activity of fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Fluorescent pseudomonads antagonistic to the vascular wilt pathogen were studied for their ability to grow and produce chitinases on different substrates. Bacterial cells grown on chitin-containing media showed enhanced growth and enzyme production with increased anti-fungal activity against the pathogen. Furthermore, the cell-free bacterial culture filtrate from chitin-containing media also significantly inhibited the mycelial growth. Both the strains and their cell-free culture filtrate from chitin-amended media showed the formation of lytic zones on chitin agar, indicating chitinolytic ability. Extracellular proteins of highly antagonistic bacterial strain were isolated from cell-free extracts of media amended with chitin and fungal cell wall. These cell-free conditioned media contained one to seven polypeptides. Western blot analysis revealed two isoforms of chitinase with molecular masses of 43 and 18.5 kDa. Further plate assay for mycelial growth inhibition showed the 43-kDa protein to be antifungal. The foregoing studies clearly established the significance of chitinases in the antagonism of fluorescent pseudomonads, showing avenues for possible exploitation in carnation wilt management. PMID:16550458

  17. A residue-free green synergistic antifungal nanotechnology for pesticide thiram by ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingzhe; Luo, Zhihui; Li, Ping; Ding, Yaping; Cui, Yi; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Here we reported a residue-free green nanotechnology which synergistically enhance the pesticides efficiency and successively eliminate its residue. We built up a composite antifungal system by a simple pre-treating and assembling procedure for investigating synergy. Investigations showed 0.25 g/L ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with 0.01 g/L thiram could inhibit the fungal growth in a synergistic mode. More importantly, the 0.25 g/L ZnO NPs completely degraded 0.01 g/L thiram under simulated sunlight irradiation within 6 hours. It was demonstrated that the formation of ZnO-thiram antifungal system, electrostatic adsorption of ZnO NPs to fungi cells and the cellular internalization of ZnO-thiram composites played important roles in synergy. Oxidative stress test indicated ZnO-induced oxidative damage was enhanced by thiram that finally result in synergistic antifungal effect. By reducing the pesticides usage, this nanotechnology could control the plant disease economically, more significantly, the following photocatalytic degradation of pesticide greatly benefit the human social by avoiding negative influence of pesticide residue on public health and environment. PMID:25023938

  18. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antifungal Activity Screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bagiu, Radu Vasile; Vlaicu, Brigitha; Butnariu, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to summarize the methods for isolating and identifying natural sulfur compounds from Allium ursinum (ramson) and to discuss the active constituents with regard to antifungal action. Using chromatographic techniques, the active constituents were isolated and subsequently identified. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggested that these compounds were sulfur constituents, with a characteristic absorbance at 250 nm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses allowed the chemical structures of the isolated constituents to be postulated. We adopted the same methods to identify the health-giving profiling of ramsons and the effects are thought to be primarily derived from the presence and breakdown of the alk(en)ylcysteine sulphoxide, alliin and its subsequent breakdown to allicin (sulfur-compounds of ramson) in connection with antifungal action. The aim of the study was the characterization of the chemical composition of ramsons and the testing of the action of the in vitro extracts, on different strains of Candida albicans. The main goal was to highlight the most efficient extracts of Allium ursinum that can provide long-term antifungal activity without remissions. The extracts from Allium ursinum plants, inhibited growth of Candida spp. cells at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, while that of adherent cells at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to > 4.0 mg/mL, depending on the yeast and plant species. PMID:22408399

  19. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Citral against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Clerya Alvino; Bezerra, André Parente de Brito; de Sousa, Janiere Pereira; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a yeast that commensally inhabits the human body and can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Objective. To investigate the antifungal activity of citral against C. albicans. Methodology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible citral action on cell walls (0.8?M sorbitol), cell membranes (citral to ergosterol binding), the time-kill curve, and biological activity on the yeast's morphology. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were, respectively, 64?µg/mL and 256?µg/mL. Involvement with the cell wall and ergosterol binding were excluded as possible mechanisms of action. In the morphological interference assay, it was observed that the product inhibited pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia formation. The MIC and the MFC of citral required only 4 hours of exposure to effectively kill 99.9% of the inoculum. Conclusion. Citral showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans. Citral's mechanism of action does not involve the cell wall or ergosterol, and further study is needed to completely describe its effects before being used in the future as a component of new antifungals. PMID:25250053

  20. A Critical Role for CLSP2 in the Modulation of Antifungal Immune Response in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Zou, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of ?2-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes. PMID:26057557

  1. An Integrated Approach for Identification and Target Validation of Antifungal Compounds Active against Erg11p

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Stephen B.; Pfeifer, Martin; Trunzer, Markus; De Bonnechose, Sophie; Zimmerlin, Alfred; Tao, Jianshi; Richie, Daryl; Hofmann, Andreas; Reinker, Stefan; Frederiksen, Mathias; Movva, N. Rao; Porter, Jeffrey A.; Ryder, Neil S.; Parker, Christian N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic life-threatening fungal infections represent a significant unmet medical need. Cell-based, phenotypic screening can be an effective means of discovering potential novel antifungal compounds, but it does not address target identification, normally required for compound optimization by medicinal chemistry. Here, we demonstrate a combination of screening, genetic, and biochemical approaches to identify and characterize novel antifungal compounds. We isolated a set of novel non-azole antifungal compounds for which no target or mechanism of action is known, using a screen for inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proliferation. Haploinsufficiency profiling of these compounds in S. cerevisiae suggests that they target Erg11p, a cytochrome P450 family member, which is the target of azoles. Consistent with this, metabolic profiling in S. cerevisiae revealed a buildup of the metabolic intermediates prior to Erg11p activity, following compound treatment. Further, human cytochrome P450 is also inhibited in in vitro assays by these compounds. We modeled the Erg11p protein based on the human CYP51 crystal structure, and in silico docking of these compounds suggests that they interact with the heme center in a manner similar to that of azoles. Consistent with these docking observations, Candida strains carrying azole-resistant alleles of ERG11 are also resistant to the compounds in this study. Thus, we have identified non-azole Erg11p inhibitors, using a systematic approach for ligand and target characterization. PMID:22615293

  2. Forward Modeling of the Coumarin Antifungals; SPR/SAR Based Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Saeed; Dianat, Shima; Sardari, Soroush

    2009-01-01

    Although, coumarins are a group of compounds which are naturally found in some plants, they can be synthetically produced as well. Because of their diverse derivatives, origin and properties most of them can be used for medicinal purposes. For example, they can be used against fungal diseases or in studying structure and biological properties of antifungal agents to discover new compounds with the similar activity. A Structure Property/Activity Relationship (SAR) can be utilized in prediction of biological activity of desired molecules. In order to represent a relationship between the physicochemical properties of coumarin compounds and their biological activities, 68 coumarins and coumarin derivatives with already reported antifungal activities were selected and eleven attributes were generated. The descriptors were used to perform artificial neural network (ANN) and to build a model for predicting effectiveness of the new ones. The correlation coefficient between the experimental and the predicted MIC values pertaining to all the coumarins was 0.984. This study paves the way for further researches about antifungal activity of coumarins, and offers a powerful tool in modeling and prediction of their bioactivities. PMID:23407575

  3. A Critical Role for CLSP2 in the Modulation of Antifungal Immune Response in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zou, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of ?2-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes. PMID:26057557

  4. A ready-to-use antifungal starter culture improves the shelf life of packaged bread.

    PubMed

    Gerez, C L; Torino, M I; Obregozo, M D; Font de Valdez, G

    2010-04-01

    Fungal spoilage is the main cause of economic loss in the baking industry. In this study, we developed a ready-to-use biopreserver (slurry [SL]) for nonsliced packed bread by using selected antifungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and low-cost ingredients that are compatible with the food matrix. Four LAB strains (Lactobacillus brevis CRL 772, L. brevis CRL 796, L. plantarum CRL 778, and L. reuteri CRL 1100) tested in bread preservation were able to inhibit Penicillium sp. growth and lengthen shelf life twofold with respect to breads prepared using only Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2 days shelf life). The best biopreservation effect (5 days shelf life) was obtained with 40% antifungal slurry SL778 containing L. plantarum CRL 778; this was as effective as 0.2% calcium propionate (PCa). The antifungal effect of SL778 was related to the synthesis of acetic and phenyllactic acid as well as lactic acid, which was produced at a high concentration (31.2 mmol/kg) and lowered the pH of the dough, favoring the undissociated fraction of the organic acids. The combination of the starter SL778 with 0.4% PCa extended the shelf life of packaged bread to 24 days, 2.6-fold longer than breads prepared with only 0.4% PCa. PMID:20377968

  5. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79?%). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4?%), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3?%), Candida tropicalis (3.2?%) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1?%). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (P<0.01). The resistance rates to C. albicans were 4.7, 6.5, 7.1, 7.6, 12.3, 27.7 and 74.7?% for caspofungin, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. No drugs tested apart from fluconazole exhibited differences in resistance between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  6. Candida vaginitis during contraceptive use: the influence of methods, antifungal susceptibility and virulence patterns.

    PubMed

    Güzel, A B; Küçükgöz-Güleç, U; Aydin, M; Gümral, R; Kalkanci, A; Ilkit, M

    2013-11-01

    No consensus exists about whether contraceptives cause an increased risk of vaginitis, including vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). We investigated 495 women (252 who used contraceptives; 243 who did not) for the presence of VVC. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed for five antifungal agents and for boric acid, and three virulence factors were also examined. We recovered 129 (26.1%) monofungal populations from vaginal samples of women with acute VVC (AVVC, n = 18), symptomatic recurrent VVC (RVVC, n = 22) and asymptomatic RVVC (n = 28), as well as of other contraceptive users who carried Candida in their vaginas (n = 61). It is important to note that the women who had VVC used the same contraceptive methods (p > 0.05). Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (45%), followed by C. glabrata (40.3%). Most of the vaginal yeast isolates exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration levels for the five antifungals tested. However, this was not the case for boric acid. In addition, the yeast fungi that was derived from the AVVC and RVVC patients showed higher amounts of haemolytic activity than the yeast fungi found among the controls (p < 0.05). The use of contraception does not predispose women to VVC (p > 0.05). Also, both host- and organism-related factors were required to achieve optimal clinical treatment for VVC. PMID:24219728

  7. Comparative evaluation of two Trichoderma harzianum strains for major secondary metabolite production and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitendra; Rana, Virendra S; Sati, Om P; Walia, S

    2015-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to identify the major secondary metabolite, produced by two Trichoderma harzianum strains (T-4 and T-5) with their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi using poison food technique. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol gradually. Chromatographic separation of ethyl acetate extract of T. harzianum (T-4) resulted in the isolation and identification of palmitic acid (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (2), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), 2(5H)-furanone (4), stigmasterol (5) and ?-sitosterol (6), while T. harzianum (T-5) gave palmitic acid (1), 1-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (7), ?-decanolactone (8), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), ergosterol (9), harzianopyridone (10) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (11) as major metabolites. Among compounds screened for antifungal activity, compound 10 was found to be most active (EC50 35.9-50.2 ?g mL(- 1)). In conclusion, the present investigation provided significant information about antifungal activity and compounds isolated from two different strains of T. harzianum obtained from two different Himalayan locations. PMID:25248548

  8. Diversities in Virulence, Antifungal Activity, Pigmentation and DNA Fingerprint among Strains of Burkholderia glumae

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Hari S.; Shrestha, Bishnu K.; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E.; Barphagha, Inderjit K.; Rush, Milton C.; Melanson, Rebecca A.; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR. PMID:23028972

  9. In vitro susceptibility of environmental isolates of Exophiala dermatitidis to five antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana Paula Miranda; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Baron, Noemi Carla; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Palmeira, Gislene Aparecida; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Attili-Angelis, Derlene

    2013-06-01

    Several dematiaceous fungi frequently isolated from nature are involved in cases of superficial lesions to lethal cerebral infections. Antifungal susceptibility data on environmental and clinical isolates are still sparse despite the advances in testing methods. The objective of this study was to examine the activities of 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and terbinafine against environmental isolates of Exophiala strains by minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) determination. The strains were obtained from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, ant cuticle and fungal pellets from the infrabuccal pocket of attine gynes. Broth microdilution assay using M38-A2 reference methodology for the five antifungal drugs and DNA sequencing for fungal identification were applied. Terbinafine was the most active drug against the tested strains. It was observed that amphotericin B was less effective, notably against Exophiala spinifera, also studied. High MICs of 5-flucytosine against Exophiala dermatitidis occurred. This finding highlights the relevance of studies on the antifungal resistance of these potential opportunistic species. Our results also contribute to a future improvement of the standard methods to access the drug efficacy currently applied to black fungi. PMID:23229615

  10. Extracellular DNA Release Acts as an Antifungal Resistance Mechanism in Mature Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Williams, Craig; Lappin, David F.; Millington, Owain; Martins, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus has been shown to form biofilms that are associated with adaptive antifungal resistance mechanisms. These include multidrug efflux pumps, heat shock proteins, and extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM is a key structural and protective component of microbial biofilms and in bacteria has been shown to contain extracellular DNA (eDNA). We therefore hypothesized that A. fumigatus biofilms also possess eDNA as part of the ECM, conferring a functional role. Fluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of eDNA, which was released phase dependently (8 < 12 < 24 < 48 h). Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR showed that eDNA was identical to genomic DNA. Biofilm architectural integrity was destabilized by DNase treatment. Biochemical and transcriptional analyses showed that chitinase activity and mRNA levels of chitinase, a marker of autolysis, were significantly upregulated as the biofilm matured and that inhibition of chitinases affected biofilm growth and stability, indicating mechanistically that autolysis was possibly involved. Finally, using checkerboard assays, it was shown that combinational treatment of biofilms with DNase plus amphotericin B and caspofungin significantly improved antifungal susceptibility. Collectively, these data show that eDNA is an important structural component of A. fumigatus ECM that is released through autolysis, which is important for protection from environmental stresses, including antifungal therapy. PMID:23314962

  11. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus jowitt ex bor against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Wylly Araújo; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; de Luna, Giliara Carol Diniz Gomes; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Wanderley, Paulo Alves; de Lima, Rita Baltazar; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast and a member of the normal human flora that commonly causes infections in patients with any type of deficiency of the immune system. The essential oils have been tested for antimycotic activity and pose much potential as antifungal agents. This work investigated the activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus against C. albicans by MIC, MFC and time-kill methods. The essential oil (EO) was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. It was tested fifteen strains of C. albicans. The MIC was determined by the microdilution method and the MFC was determined when an aliquot of the broth microdilution was cultivated in SDA medium. The phytochemical analysis of EO showed presence of citronellal (23,59%), geraniol (18,81%) and citronellol (11,74%). The EO showed antifungal activity, and the concentrations 625 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL inhibited the growth of all strains tested and it was fungicidal, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of EO was analyzed over time, it was found concentration-dependent antifungal activity, whose behavior was similar to amphotericin B and nystatin. PMID:24031651

  12. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L.

    PubMed Central

    Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Motamedi, Marjan; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Miri, Ramin; Hemyari, Kimia

    2012-01-01

    Variations in quantity and quality of essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of cultivated Mentha piperita were determined. The EO of air-dried sample was obtained by a hydrodistillation method and analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the EO was investigated by broth microdilution methods as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A biofilm formation inhibition was measured by using an XTT reduction assay. Menthol (53.28%) was the major compound of the EO followed by Menthyl acetate (15.1%) and Menthofuran (11.18%). The EO exhibited strong antifungal activities against the examined fungi at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8.0??L/mL. In addition, the EO inhibited the biofilm formation of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis at concentrations up to 2??L/mL. Considering the wide range of the antifungal activities of the examined EO, it might be potentially used in the management of fungal infections or in the extension of the shelf life of food products. PMID:23304561

  13. Induced production of antifungal naphthoquinones in the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes khasiana

    PubMed Central

    Eilenberg, Haviva; Pnini-Cohen, Smadar; Rahamim, Yocheved; Sionov, Edward; Segal, Esther; Carmeli, Shmuel; Zilberstein, Aviah

    2010-01-01

    Nepenthes spp. are carnivorous plants that have developed insect capturing traps, evolved by specific modification of the leaf tips, and are able to utilize insect degradation products as nutritional precursors. A chitin-induced antifungal ability, based on the production and secretion to the trap liquid of droserone and 5-O-methyldroserone, is described here. Such specific secretion uniquely occurred when chitin injection was used as the eliciting agent and probably reflects a certain kind of defence mechanism that has been evolved for protecting the carnivory-based provision of nutritional precursors. The pitcher liquid containing droserone and 5-O-methyldroserone at 3:1 or 4:1 molar ratio, as well as the purified naphthoquinones, exerted an antifungal effect on a wide range of plant and human fungal pathogens. When tested against Candida and Aspergillus spp., the concentrations required for achieving inhibitory and fungicidal effects were significantly lower than those causing cytotoxicity in cells of the human embryonic kidney cell line, 293T. These naturally secreted 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, that are assumed to act via semiquinone enhancement of free radical production, may offer a new lead to develop alternative antifungal drugs with reduced selectable pressure for potentially evolved resistance. PMID:20018905

  14. Identification of a New Class of Antifungals Targeting the Synthesis of Fungal Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Visesato; Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M.; Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Mansa; Bryan, Arielle; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B.; Ojima, Iwao; Bullesbach, Erika; Ashbaugh, Alan; Linke, Michael J.; Cushion, Melanie; Collins, Margaret; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Sallans, Larry; Desai, Pankaj B.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas; Wong, Lai Hong; Sinha, Sunita; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Flaherty, Patrick; Pan, Xuewen; Cesar, Gabriele Vargas; de Melo Tavares, Patricia; Frases, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Luberto, Chiara; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent estimates suggest that >300 million people are afflicted by serious fungal infections worldwide. Current antifungal drugs are static and toxic and/or have a narrow spectrum of activity. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal drugs. The fungal sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is critical in promoting virulence of a variety of human-pathogenic fungi. In this study, we screened a synthetic drug library for compounds that target the synthesis of fungal, but not mammalian, GlcCer and found two compounds [N?-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-methylbenzohydrazide (BHBM) and its derivative, 3-bromo-N?-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide (D0)] that were highly effective in vitro and in vivo against several pathogenic fungi. BHBM and D0 were well tolerated in animals and are highly synergistic or additive to current antifungals. BHBM and D0 significantly affected fungal cell morphology and resulted in the accumulation of intracellular vesicles. Deep-sequencing analysis of drug-resistant mutants revealed that four protein products, encoded by genes APL5, COS111, MKK1, and STE2, which are involved in vesicular transport and cell cycle progression, are targeted by BHBM. PMID:26106079

  15. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; Gonçalves, Maria-José; Hrimpeng, Karnjana; Pinto, Jéssica; Pinto, Eugénia

    2015-04-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil (EO) of Angelica major and its main components ?-pinene and cis-?-ocimene against clinically relevant yeasts and moulds were evaluated. EO from the plant's aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The oil showed high contents of ?-pinene (21.8 %) and cis-?-ocimene (30.4 %). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The EO, ?-pinene and cis-?-ocimene displayed low MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with ?-pinene being the most active. Regarding Candida species, the EO susceptibility profiles seem to be diverse and not correlated with fluconazole susceptibility patterns. Moreover, an inhibition of yeast-mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO, ?-pinene and cis-?-ocimene in C. albicans. In addition, their haemolytic activity was low. The activity displayed by A. major EO and its main components associated with low cytotoxic activity confirms their potential as an antifungal agent against fungal species frequently implicated in human mycoses, particularly cryptococcosis and dermatophytosis. The association with commercial antifungal compounds could bring benefits, by the effect on germ tube formation, and be used in mucocutaneous candidiasis treatment. PMID:25576097

  16. In vitro susceptibility patterns of clinically important Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species against nine antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F

    2015-05-01

    Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and verified to the species level by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, terbinafine and MECs of caspofungin and anidulafungin were performed based on CLSI M38-A2. The resulting MIC90 s of all strains were, in increasing order, as follows: terbinafine (0.063 mg l(-1) ); posaconazole (1 mg l(-1) ); isavuconazole and anidulafungin (2 mg l(-1) ); itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin (4 mg l(-1) ) and fluconazole (>64 mg l(-1) ). These results confirm that terbinafine is an excellent agent for treatment of dermatophytosis due to T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, T. schoenleinii and E. floccosum. In addition, the new azoles POS and ISA are potentially useful antifungals to treat dermatophytosis. However, the clinical effectiveness of these novel antifungals remains to be determined. PMID:25757042

  17. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, V J

    2011-04-01

    This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant) was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ?g/ml) of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive-Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative-Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains-Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:22171301

  18. Systematic phenotyping of a large-scale Candida glabrata deletion collection reveals novel antifungal tolerance genes.

    PubMed

    Schwarzmüller, Tobias; Ma, Biao; Hiller, Ekkehard; Istel, Fabian; Tscherner, Michael; Brunke, Sascha; Ames, Lauren; Firon, Arnaud; Green, Brian; Cabral, Vitor; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Quintin, Jessica; Seider, Katja; Frohner, Ingrid; Glaser, Walter; Jungwirth, Helmut; Bachellier-Bassi, Sophie; Chauvel, Murielle; Zeidler, Ute; Ferrandon, Dominique; Gabaldón, Toni; Hube, Bernhard; d'Enfert, Christophe; Rupp, Steffen; Cormack, Brendan; Haynes, Ken; Kuchler, Karl

    2014-06-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is a frequent cause of candidiasis, causing infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated disease. The inherent tolerance of C. glabrata to azole drugs makes this pathogen a serious clinical threat. To identify novel genes implicated in antifungal drug tolerance, we have constructed a large-scale C. glabrata deletion library consisting of 619 unique, individually bar-coded mutant strains, each lacking one specific gene, all together representing almost 12% of the genome. Functional analysis of this library in a series of phenotypic and fitness assays identified numerous genes required for growth of C. glabrata under normal or specific stress conditions, as well as a number of novel genes involved in tolerance to clinically important antifungal drugs such as azoles and echinocandins. We identified 38 deletion strains displaying strongly increased susceptibility to caspofungin, 28 of which encoding proteins that have not previously been linked to echinocandin tolerance. Our results demonstrate the potential of the C. glabrata mutant collection as a valuable resource in functional genomics studies of this important fungal pathogen of humans, and to facilitate the identification of putative novel antifungal drug target and virulence genes. PMID:24945925

  19. In Vitro Nail Penetration and Antifungal Activity of Tavaborole, a Boron-Based Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Dina; Merchant, Tejal; Chanda, Sanjay; Zane, Lee T

    2015-06-01

    An effective topical antifungal medication must penetrate through the nail plate at sufficient concentrations to eradicate the fungal infection. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% is a novel boron-based pharmaceutical approved for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum or T mentagrophytes. Four in vitro studies assessed the antifungal activity and nail penetration of tavaborole. In Study 1, tavaborole demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25-2 ?g/mL against all fungi tested; addition of 5% keratin powder did not affect the MIC against T rubrum. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values for tavaborole against T rubrum and T mentagrophytes were 8 and 16 ?g/mL, respectively. In Study 2, tavaborole effectively penetrated through the nail plate; mean concentrations in the ventral/intermediate nail layer were significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 3, mean cumulative tavaborole penetration through ex vivo human nails was significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 4, tavaborole demonstrated superior nail penetration and fungicidal activity, as measured by zones of inhibition. These studies demonstrated the superior penetration of tavaborole through the nail plate vs ciclopirox. Tavaborole demonstrated robust antifungal activity, with low MIC and MFC values, even in the presence of keratin.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(6):609-614.. PMID:26091387

  20. Concepts and Principles of Photodynamic Therapy as an Alternative Antifungal Discovery Platform

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Fuchs, Beth B.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Prates, Renato A.; Astrakas, Christos; St. Denis, Tyler G.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hamblin, Michael R.; Tegos, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens may cause superficial or serious invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised and debilitated patients. Invasive mycoses represent an exponentially growing threat for human health due to a combination of slow diagnosis and the existence of relatively few classes of available and effective antifungal drugs. Therefore systemic fungal infections result in high attributable mortality. There is an urgent need to pursue and deploy novel and effective alternative antifungal countermeasures. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was established as a successful modality for malignancies and age-related macular degeneration but photodynamic inactivation has only recently been intensively investigated as an alternative antimicrobial discovery and development platform. The concept of photodynamic inactivation requires microbial exposure to either exogenous or endogenous photosensitizer molecules, followed by visible light energy, typically wavelengths in the red/near infrared region that cause the excitation of the photosensitizers resulting in the production of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species that react with intracellular components, and consequently produce cell inactivation and death. Antifungal PDT is an area of increasing interest, as research is advancing (i) to identify the photochemical and photophysical mechanisms involved in photoinactivation; (ii) to develop potent and clinically compatible photosensitizers; (iii) to understand how photoinactivation is affected by key microbial phenotypic elements multidrug resistance and efflux, virulence and pathogenesis determinants, and formation of biofilms; (iv) to explore novel photosensitizer delivery platforms; and (v) to identify photoinactivation applications beyond the clinical setting such as environmental disinfectants. PMID:22514547

  1. Comparison of susceptibility and transcription profile of the new antifungal hassallidin A with caspofungin

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhof, Torsten [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Chemie, FG Biochemie und Molekulare Biologie, 10587 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: t.neuhof@gmx.de; Seibold, Michael [Robert Koch-Institut, FG 16, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Thewes, Sascha [Robert Koch-Institut, FG 16, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Laue, Michael [Robert Koch-Institut, ZBS4, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Han, Chang-Ok [Robert Koch-Institut, FG 16, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Hube, Bernhard [Robert Koch-Institut, FG 16, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Doehren, Hans von [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Chemie, FG Biochemie und Molekulare Biologie, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-10-20

    This is First report on the antifungal effects of the new glycolipopeptide hassallidin A. Due to related molecular structure moieties between hassallidin A and the established antifungal drug caspofungin we assumed parallels in the effects on cell viability. Therefore we compared hassallidin A with caspofungin by antifungal susceptibility testing and by analysing the genome-wide transcriptional profile of Candida albicans. Furthermore, we examined modifications in ultracellular structure due to hassallidin A treatment by electron microscopy. Hassallidin A was found to be fungicidal against all tested Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. MICs ranged from 4 to 8 {mu}g/ml, independently from the species. Electron microscopy revealed noticeable ultrastructural changes in C. albicans cells exposed to hassallidin A. Comparing the transcriptional profile of C. albicans cells treated with hassallidin A to that of cells exposed to caspofungin, only 20 genes were found to be similarly up- or down-regulated in both assays, while 227 genes were up- or down-regulated induced by hassallidin A specifically. Genes up-regulated in cells exposed to hassallidin A included metabolic and mitotic genes, while genes involved in DNA repair, vesicle docking, and membrane fusion were down-regulated. In summary, our data suggest that, although hassallidin A and caspofungin have similar structures, however, the effects on susceptibility and transcriptional response to yeasts seem to be different.

  2. Analysis of the mutations induced by conazole fungicides in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jeffrey A; Leavitt, Sharon A

    2010-05-01

    The mouse liver tumorigenic conazole fungicides triadimefon and propiconazole have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the non-tumorigenic conazole myclobutanil was not mutagenic. DNA sequencing of the mutants recovered from each treatment group as well as from animals receiving control diet was conducted to gain additional insight into the mode of action by which tumorigenic conazoles induce mutations. Relative dinucleotide mutabilities (RDMs) were calculated for each possible dinucleotide in each treatment group and then examined by multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of RDM values segregated two independent control groups together, along with the non-tumorigen myclobutanil. The two tumorigenic conazoles clustered together in a distinct grouping. Partitioning around mediods of RDM values into two clusters also groups the triadimefon and propiconazole together in one cluster and the two control groups and myclobutanil together in a second cluster. Principal component analysis of these results identifies two components that account for 88.3% of the variability in the points. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that propiconazole- and triadimefon-induced mutations do not represent clonal expansion of background mutations and support the hypothesis that they arise from the accumulation of reactive electrophilic metabolic intermediates within the liver in vivo. PMID:20064898

  3. Systemic antifungal prescribing in neonates and children: outcomes from the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) Study.

    PubMed

    Lestner, J M; Versporten, A; Doerholt, K; Warris, A; Roilides, E; Sharland, M; Bielicki, J; Goossens, H

    2015-02-01

    The appropriate use of systemic antifungals is vital in the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in immunosuppressed children and neonates. This multicenter observational study describes the inpatient prescribing practice of antifungal drugs for children and neonates and identifies factors associated with prescribing variability. A single-day point prevalence study of antimicrobial use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed between October and December 2012. The data were entered through a study-specific Web-based portal using a standardized data entry protocol. Data were recorded from 17,693 patients from 226 centers. A total of 136 centers recorded data from 1,092 children and 380 neonates receiving at least one antifungal agent. The most frequently prescribed systemic antifungals were fluconazole (n=355) and amphotericin B deoxycholate (n=195). The most common indications for antifungal administration in children were medical prophylaxis (n=325), empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia (n=122), and treatment of confirmed or suspected IFI (n=100 [14%]). The treatment of suspected IFI in low-birthweight neonates accounted for the majority of prescriptions in the neonatal units (n=103). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated no significant effect of clinical indication (prophylaxis or treatment of systemic or localized infection) on the total daily dose (TDD). Fewer than one-half of the patients (n=371) received a TDD within the dosing range recommended in the current guidelines. Subtherapeutic doses were prescribed in 416 cases (47%). The predominance of fluconazole and high incidence of subtherapeutic doses in participating hospitals may contribute to suboptimal clinical outcomes and an increased predominance of resistant pathogenic fungi. A global consensus on antifungal dosing and coordinated stewardship programs are needed to promote the consistent and appropriate use of antifungal drugs in neonates and children. PMID:25403672

  4. Enhanced Antifungal Activity by Ab-Modified Amphotericin B-Loaded Nanoparticles Using a pH-Responsive Block Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolong; Dai, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhi; Xie, Chunmei; Yao, Aixia; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Li; Jiang, Qinglin; Wang, Shulei; Liang, Yong; Xu, Congjing

    2015-12-01

    Fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Amphotericin B (AMB), with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, has long been recognized as a powerful fungicidal drug, but its clinical toxicities mainly nephrotoxicity and poor solubility limit its wide application in clinical practice. The fungal metabolism along with the host immune response usually generates acidity at sites of infection, resulting in loss of AMB activity in a pH-dependent manner. Herein, we developed pH-responsive AMB-loaded and surface charge-switching poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(L-histidine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG) nanoparticles for resolving the localized acidity problem and enhance the antifungal efficacy of AMB. Moreover, we modified AMB-encapsulated PLGA-PLH-PEG nanoparticles with anti-Candida albicans antibody (CDA) (CDA-AMB-NPs) to increase the targetability. Then, CDA-AMB-NPs were characterized in terms of physical characteristics, in vitro drug release, stability, drug encapsulation efficiency, and toxicity. Finally, the targetability and antifungal activity of CDA-AMB-NPs were investigated in vitro/in vivo. The result demonstrated that CDA-AMB-NPs significantly improve the targetability and bioavailability of AMB and thus improve its antifungal activity and reduce its toxicity. These NPs may become a good drug carrier for antifungal treatment. PMID:26061446

  5. Fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: The impact of antifungal prophylaxis on patient and technique outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K V; Mallikarjuna, H M; Gokulnath; Jayanthi, S

    2014-09-01

    Fungal peritonitis (FP) is a rare, but serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. We analyzed the incidence of FP, associated risk factors and outcome of patients with FP and evaluated the role of prophylactic antifungal agent in reducing its incidence. We studied all patients with FP from January 2005 to January 2012. Study period was divided into two parts, period I (January 2005 to January 2010), when prophylactic antifungal was not used and period II (January 2010 to January 2012), when prophylactic antifungal (fluconazole) was used. A total of 142 episodes of peritonitis were documented during this period of which 20 (14%) were FP. During the study period I, 18 of 102 episodes of peritonitis (17.6%) and in the study period II (with antifungal prophylaxis), only 2 of 40 episodes of peritonitis (5%) were due to fungal infection (P = 0.04). Nine out of 20 patients (45%) had prior exposure to antibiotics. Fungal isolates were Candida albicans in 65%, non-albicans Candida in 25%, Rhizopus species in 5% and Alternaria in 5% of the patients. While 12 out of 20 patients (60%) recovered completely and were re-initiated on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 4 of them expired (20%) and 4 others (20%) were shifted to hemodialysis. Use of prophylactic antifungal agent significantly reduced the incidence of FP (P = 0.04). We conclude that - fluconazole when used as a prophylactic agent in the setting of bacterial peritonitis significantly reduces the incidence of subsequent FP in CAPD patients. PMID:25249719

  6. Fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: The impact of antifungal prophylaxis on patient and technique outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V.; Mallikarjuna, H. M.; Gokulnath; Jayanthi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis (FP) is a rare, but serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. We analyzed the incidence of FP, associated risk factors and outcome of patients with FP and evaluated the role of prophylactic antifungal agent in reducing its incidence. We studied all patients with FP from January 2005 to January 2012. Study period was divided into two parts, period I (January 2005 to January 2010), when prophylactic antifungal was not used and period II (January 2010 to January 2012), when prophylactic antifungal (fluconazole) was used. A total of 142 episodes of peritonitis were documented during this period of which 20 (14%) were FP. During the study period I, 18 of 102 episodes of peritonitis (17.6%) and in the study period II (with antifungal prophylaxis), only 2 of 40 episodes of peritonitis (5%) were due to fungal infection (P = 0.04). Nine out of 20 patients (45%) had prior exposure to antibiotics. Fungal isolates were Candida albicans in 65%, non-albicans Candida in 25%, Rhizopus species in 5% and Alternaria in 5% of the patients. While 12 out of 20 patients (60%) recovered completely and were re-initiated on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 4 of them expired (20%) and 4 others (20%) were shifted to hemodialysis. Use of prophylactic antifungal agent significantly reduced the incidence of FP (P = 0.04). We conclude that - fluconazole when used as a prophylactic agent in the setting of bacterial peritonitis significantly reduces the incidence of subsequent FP in CAPD patients. PMID:25249719

  7. Single-drug therapy or selective decontamination of the digestive tract as antifungal prophylaxis in critically ill patients: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JW Olivier van Till; Oddeke van Ruler; Bas Lamme; Roy JP Weber; Johannes B Reitsma; Marja A Boermeester

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine and compare the effectiveness of different prophylactic antifungal therapies in critically ill patients on the incidence of yeast colonisation, infection, candidemia, and hospital mortality. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of prospective trials including adult non-neutropenic patients, comparing single-drug antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) or selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) with

  8. Emergence of Disseminated Infections Due to Geosmithia argillacea in Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease Receiving Long-Term Azole Antifungal Prophylaxis?

    PubMed Central

    Machouart, Marie; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Rivier, Alexandre; Hassouni, Noura; Catherinot, Emilie; Salmon, Alexandra; Debourgogne, Anne; Coignard, Hélčne; Lecuit, Marc; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Blanche, Stéphane; Lortholary, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    We report two cases of invasive infections due to Geosmithia argillacea, an emerging mold, in patients with chronic granulomatous disease receiving prolonged azole antifungal prophylaxis. One patient died despite receiving a combination of four antifungals, and the other developed cerebral and medullary lesions under a combination of caspofungin, posaconazole, terbinafine, and gamma interferon. PMID:21270214

  9. Emergence of disseminated infections due to Geosmithia argillacea in patients with chronic granulomatous disease receiving long-term azole antifungal prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Machouart, Marie; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Rivier, Alexandre; Hassouni, Noura; Catherinot, Emilie; Salmon, Alexandra; Debourgogne, Anne; Coignard, Hélčne; Lecuit, Marc; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Blanche, Stéphane; Lortholary, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    We report two cases of invasive infections due to Geosmithia argillacea, an emerging mold, in patients with chronic granulomatous disease receiving prolonged azole antifungal prophylaxis. One patient died despite receiving a combination of four antifungals, and the other developed cerebral and medullary lesions under a combination of caspofungin, posaconazole, terbinafine, and gamma interferon. PMID:21270214

  10. Micelles catalyzed chemoselective synthesis 'in water' and biological evaluation of oxygen containing hetero-1,4-naphthoquinones as potential antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Vishnu K; Maurya, Hardesh K; Mishra, Nripendra N; Shukla, Praveen K

    2011-11-01

    Various oxygen containing 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives have been synthesized chemoselectively by an economical, viable green methodology approach using water as solvent with or without surfactants such as Triton X-100, SDS, LD (laundry detergent), and TBAB, a phase transfer catalyst and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity. The antifungal profile of 3, 4a, 4b, and 6 indicated that compounds 3a, 3b, 4b, 6a, and 6c have potent antifungal activity compared to clinically prevalent antifungal drugs Fluconazole and Amphotericin-B against Sporothrix schenckii, Trichophyton mentagraphytes, and Candida parapsilosis and compound 3b has been found to be a lead antifungal agent for further study. PMID:21930375

  11. Antifungal activity of propolis against Candida species isolated from cases of chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; Rodriguez, Larissa Rodrigues Nolasco de Araújo; Santos, Ruth Karine Barroso; Marinho, Ricardo Romulo Batista; Abreu, Sheila; Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; Gurgel, Bruno César de Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    This research evaluated the fungistatic and fungicidal activities of red propolis alcoholic extract (RPAE) against different Candida species isolated from chronic periodontitis cases, and compared with chlorhexidine (CHX). Nineteen samples of Candida species (C. albicans [n = 12], C. tropicalis [n = 5] and C. glabrata [n = 2]) isolated from chronic periodontitis cases were analyzed. The fungistatic and fungicidal activity of both RPAE and CHX were evaluated using fluconazole and C. parapsilosis (ATCC 6258) as a control. Fungistatic activity was analyzed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference procedure to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations. Fungicidal activity was established according to the absence of fungal growth on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of RPAE were observed, respectively, at 32-64 ?g/mL and 64-512 ?g/mL for C. albicans, 64 ?g/mL and 64-256 ?g/mL for C. glabrata, and 32-64 ?g/mL and 64 µg/mL for C. tropicalis. CHX fungistatic activity was observed at concentrations of 0.003-1.92 µg/mL for C. albicans, 1.92 µg/mL for C. glabrata, and 0.03-1.92 µg/mL for C. tropicalis. Fluconazole fungistatic activity ranged between 1-64 ?g/mL, and fungicidal activity occurred at 8-64 ?g/mL, for the three Candida species analyzed. All the Candida species were susceptible to RPAE antifungal activity, but five samples of C. albicans, one of C. tropicalis and one of C. glabrata were resistant to fluconazole antifungal activity. CHX showed fungistatic activity against all the Candida species analyzed. The antifungal potential of these substances suggests that they can be applied as an alternative treatment for diseases affected by these species. PMID:26154370

  12. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida Isolates from the Candida Surveillance Study?

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, G. Marshall; Karatela, Sulaiman; Sunay, Susan; Adiri, Yaffa

    2010-01-01

    Candida species are a common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Recent surveillance has shown an increase in the relative proportion of infections caused by Candida glabrata, which has reduced susceptibility to fluconazole. We undertook sentinel surveillance with antifungal susceptibility testing to monitor the trends in the proportions of various Candida species causing invasive disease. Forty-one institutions participated in the Candida Surveillance Study. All isolates were submitted to a central laboratory for identification and susceptibility testing. Susceptibility testing was performed in compliance with CLSI guidelines using a custom, broth dilution, microtiter system. There were 5,900 isolates submitted for identification and antifungal susceptibility testing. The distribution of species was as follows: C. albicans, 2,567 (43.5%) isolates; C. glabrata, 1,464 (24.8%) isolates; C. parapsilosis, 1,048 (17.8%) isolates; C. tropicalis, 527 (8.9%) isolates; C. krusei, 109 (1.9%) isolates; C. lusitaniae, 76 (1.3%) isolates; and other Candida species, 109 (1.9%) isolates. Resistance to fluconazole occurred in 1.2% of C. albicans isolates, 5.9% of C. glabrata isolates, 0.3% of C. parapsilosis isolates, and 0.4% of C. tropicalis isolates. Resistance to fluconazole was highly predictive of resistance to voriconazole. Resistance to echinocandins was rarely found, occurring in only 0.2% of all isolates. The rate of fluconazole susceptibility increased significantly from 87.5% in 2005 to 97.4% in 2007. The proportion of cases of disease caused by various Candida species did not change appreciably between 2004 and 2007, and the rate of antifungal susceptibility was high. PMID:20129963

  13. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Isolated From Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Adibpour, Neda; Nasr, Farhad; Nematpour, Fatemeh; Shakouri, Arash; Ameri, Abdolghani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance toward a number of conventional antibiotics has triggered the search for antimicrobial agents from a variety of sources including the marine environment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Holothuria leucospilota from Qeshm and Kharg Islands against some selected bacteria and fungi. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, sea cucumbers from two coastal cities of Persian Gulf were collected in March and May 2011 and identified by the scale method according to the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of the body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid, methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts of the body wall were evaluated by the spot test. In addition, their antifungal activity was assessed by the broth dilution method. Results: The displayed effect was microbiostatic at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 µg/mL rather than microbicidal. The highest activity of hydroalcoholic extracts was exhibited by body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. brasilensis. However, none of the methanol, chloroform and n-haxane extracts showed appreciable effects against Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans. Moreover, cuvierian organs did not possess any antifungal potential. Conclusions: Our data indicated that water-methanol extracts from the body wall of H. leucospilota possess antibacterial and antifungal activity. However, additional and in-depth studies are required to isolate and identify the active component(s). PMID:25147657

  14. A Role for the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in Virulence and Antifungal Susceptibility in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Richie, Daryl L.; Hartl, Lukas; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Winters, Michael S.; Fuller, Kevin K.; Miley, Michael D.; White, Stephanie; McCarthy, Jason W.; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Feldmesser, Marta; Rhodes, Judith C.; Askew, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Filamentous fungi rely heavily on the secretory pathway, both for the delivery of cell wall components to the hyphal tip and the production and secretion of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes needed to support growth on polymeric substrates. Increased demand on the secretory system exerts stress on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is countered by the activation of a coordinated stress response pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). To determine the contribution of the UPR to the growth and virulence of the filamentous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, we disrupted the hacA gene, encoding the major transcriptional regulator of the UPR. The ?hacA mutant was unable to activate the UPR in response to ER stress and was hypersensitive to agents that disrupt ER homeostasis or the cell wall. Failure to induce the UPR did not affect radial growth on rich medium at 37°C, but cell wall integrity was disrupted at 45°C, resulting in a dramatic loss in viability. The ?hacA mutant displayed a reduced capacity for protease secretion and was growth-impaired when challenged to assimilate nutrients from complex substrates. In addition, the ?hacA mutant exhibited increased susceptibility to current antifungal agents that disrupt the membrane or cell wall and had attenuated virulence in multiple mouse models of invasive aspergillosis. These results demonstrate the importance of ER homeostasis to the growth and virulence of A. fumigatus and suggest that targeting the UPR, either alone or in combination with other antifungal drugs, would be an effective antifungal strategy. PMID:19132084

  15. Synthesis and immunological studies of linear oligosaccharides of ?-glucan as antigens for antifungal vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Liao, Guochao; Zhou, Zhifang; Burgula, Srinivas; Liao, Jun; Yuan, Cheng; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-03-18

    Antifungal vaccines have recently engendered considerable excitement for counteracting the resurgence of fungal infections. In this context, ?-glucan, which is abundantly expressed on all fungal cell surfaces, functionally necessary for fungi, and immunologically active, is an attractive target antigen. Aiming at the development of effective antifungal vaccines based on ?-glucan, a series of its oligosaccharide derivatives was designed, synthesized, and coupled with a carrier protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), to form new semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccines. In this article, a convergent and effective synthetic strategy using preactivation-based iterative glycosylation was developed for the designed oligosaccharides. The strategy can be widely useful for rapid construction of large oligo-?-glucans with shorter oligosaccharides as building blocks. The KLH conjugates of the synthesized ?-glucan hexa-, octa-, deca-, and dodecasaccharides were demonstrated to elicit high titers of antigen-specific total and IgG antibodies in mice, suggesting the induction of functional T cell-mediated immunity. Moreover, it was revealed that octa-, deca-, and dodeca-?-glucans were much more immunogenic than the hexamer and that the octamer was the best among these. The results suggested that the optimal oligosaccharide sequence of ?-glucan required for exceptional immunogenicity was a hepta- or octamer and that longer glucans are not necessarily better antigens, a finding that may be of general importance. Most importantly, the octa-?-glucan-KLH conjugate provoked protective immunity against Candida albicans infection in a systemic challenge model in mice, suggesting the great potential of this glycoconjugate as a clinically useful immunoprophylactic antifungal vaccine. PMID:25671314

  16. Novel antifungal drugs against fungal pathogens: do they provide promising results for treatment?

    PubMed

    Gedik, Habip; ?im?ek, Funda; Y?ld?rmak, Taner; Kantürk, Arzu; Ar?ca, Deniz; Ayd?n, Demet; Demirel, Naciye; Yoku?, Osman

    2015-06-01

    The febrile neutropenia episodes of hematological patients and their outcomes were evaluated with respect to fungal pathogens and antifungal therapy in this retrospective study. All patients, who were older than 14 years of age and developed at least one neutropenic episode after chemotherapy due to hematological cancer from November 2010 to November 2012, were included into the study. We retrospectively collected demographic, treatment, and survival data of 126 patients with neutropenia and their 282 febrile episodes. The mean Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer score was 17.18 ± 8.27. Systemic antifungal drugs were initiated in 22 patients with 30 culture-proven invasive fungal infections (IFIs), 25 attacks of 19 patients with probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), 42 attacks of 38 patients with possible IPA, and 31 attacks of 30 patients with suspected IFI. Voriconazole (VOR), caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B were used to treat 72 episodes of 65 patients, 45 episodes of 37 patients and 34 episodes of 32 patients as a first-line therapy, respectively. Unfavorable conditions of our hematology ward are thought to increase the number of cases with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and VOR use. It should be taken into consideration that increased systemic and per oral VOR usage predisposes patients to colonization and infection with azole-resistant fungal strains. Catheters should be removed in cases where patients' conditions are convenient to remove it. Acute myeloblastic leukemia cases that are more likely to develop invasive fungal infections should be monitored closely for early diagnosis and timely initiation of antifungal drugs which directly correlates with survival rates. PMID:25825558

  17. Genetic and Genomic Architecture of the Evolution of Resistance to Antifungal Drug Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jessica A.; Ammar, Ron; Torti, Dax; Nislow, Corey; Cowen, Leah E.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistance in fungal pathogens compromises the efficacy of the limited number of antifungal drugs. Drug combinations have emerged as a powerful strategy to enhance antifungal efficacy and abrogate drug resistance, but the impact on the evolution of drug resistance remains largely unexplored. Targeting the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its downstream effector, the protein phosphatase calcineurin, abrogates resistance to the most widely deployed antifungals, the azoles, which inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis. Here, we evolved experimental populations of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans with azole and an inhibitor of Hsp90, geldanamycin, or calcineurin, FK506. To recapitulate a clinical context where Hsp90 or calcineurin inhibitors could be utilized in combination with azoles to render resistant pathogens responsive to treatment, the evolution experiment was initiated with strains that are resistant to azoles in a manner that depends on Hsp90 and calcineurin. Of the 290 lineages initiated, most went extinct, yet 14 evolved resistance to the drug combination. Drug target mutations that conferred resistance to geldanamycin or FK506 were identified and validated in five evolved lineages. Whole-genome sequencing identified mutations in a gene encoding a transcriptional activator of drug efflux pumps, PDR1, and a gene encoding a transcriptional repressor of ergosterol biosynthesis genes, MOT3, that transformed azole resistance of two lineages from dependent on calcineurin to independent of this regulator. Resistance also arose by mutation that truncated the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, and by mutation in LCB1, encoding a sphingolipid biosynthetic enzyme. Genome analysis revealed extensive aneuploidy in four of the C. albicans lineages. Thus, we identify molecular determinants of the transition of azole resistance from calcineurin dependence to independence and establish multiple mechanisms by which resistance to drug combinations evolves, providing a foundation for predicting and preventing the evolution of drug resistance. PMID:23593013

  18. Lead optimization of antifungal peptides with 3D NMR structures analysis.

    PubMed

    Landon, Céline; Barbault, Florent; Legrain, Michčle; Menin, Laure; Guenneugues, Marc; Schott, Valérie; Vovelle, Françoise; Dimarcq, Jean-Luc

    2004-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are key components of the innate immune response in most multicellular organisms. These molecules are considered as one of the most innovative class of anti-infective agents that have been discovered over the last two decades, and therefore, as a source of inspiration for novel drug design. Insect cystine-rich antimicrobial peptides with the CS alpha beta scaffold (an alpha-helix linked to a beta-sheet by two disulfide bridges) represent particularly attractive templates for the development of systemic agents owing to their remarkable resistance to protease degradation. We have selected heliomicin, a broad spectrum antifungal CS alpha beta peptide from Lepidoptera as the starting point of a lead optimization program based on phylogenic exploration and fine tuned mutagenesis. We report here the characterization, biological activity, and 3D structure of heliomicin improved analogs, namely the peptides ARD1, ETD-135, and ETD-151. The ARD1 peptide was initially purified from the immune hemolymph of the caterpillars of Archeoprepona demophoon. Although it differs from heliomicin by only two residues, it was found to be more active against the human pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The peptides ETD-135 and ETD-151 were engineered by site-directed mutagenesis of ARD1 in either cationic or hydrophobic regions. ETD-135 and ETD-151 demonstrated an improved antifungal activity over the native peptides, heliomicin and ARD1. A comparative analysis of the 3D structure of the four molecules highlighted the direct impact of the modification of the amphipathic properties on the molecule potency. In addition, it allowed to characterize an optimal organization of cationic and hydrophobic regions to achieve best antifungal activity. PMID:14978308

  19. Secondary Antifungal Prophylaxis in Hematological Malignancy Patients with Previous Invasive Fungal Disease: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongqing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhai, Bing; Zhang, Qingyi; Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Yu; Li, Honghua; Wang, Quanshun; Gao, Chunji; Huang, Wenrong; Yu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancy. Recurrence of IFD after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with poor prognosis. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of different strategies of secondary antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) for IFD and choose an appropriate SAP regimen. Methods Clinical data of patients with previous IFD who underwent chemotherapy or HSCT between Jan 2008 and Jun 2013 were retrospectively reviewed and followed up to 180 days post-chemotherapy or HSCT. The clinical characteristics and diagnosis were analyzed according to the diagnostic criteria for IFD. The efficacy of different strategies for SAP and risk factors influencing the failure of SAP were evaluated. Results Of the 164 patients enrolled, 121 patients received SAP regimen (73.78%), and IFD recurred in 40 patients: 16.5% (20/121) in SAP group and 46.5% (20/43) in non-SAP group. In SAP group, 58 received SAP agents which were proven effective for their previous IFD, while other 63 patients received other broad-spectrum antifungal agents. There was no significant difference in the recurrence rates between these two subgroups (13.8% (8/58) vs 19.0% (12/63), P?=?0.437). The IFD recurrence rates were statistically significant between patients with allogeneic HSCT and chemotherapy or autologous HSCT (25% vs 8.2%, P?=?0.013). Multivariate analysis indicated that allogeneic HSCT was the independent risk factor of IFD recurrence after SAP. Conclusions Secondary antifungal prophylaxis is necessary to prevent IFD recurrence in patients with hematological malignancy, especially for patients in the setting of allogeneic HSCT. PMID:25531544

  20. Endophytic Bacillus spp. produce antifungal lipopeptides and induce host defence gene expression in maize.

    PubMed

    Gond, Surendra K; Bergen, Marshall S; Torres, Mónica S; White, James F

    2015-03-01

    Endophytes are mutualistic symbionts within healthy plant tissues. In this study we isolated Bacillus spp. from seeds of several varieties of maize. Bacillus amyloliquifaciens or Bacillus subtilis were found to be present in all maize varieties examined in this study. To determine whether bacteria may produce antifungal compounds, generally lipopeptides in Bacillus spp., bacterial cultures were screened for production of lipopeptides. Lipopeptides were extracted by acid precipitation from liquid cultures of Bacillus spp. Lipopeptide extracts from Bacillus spp. isolated from Indian popcorn and yellow dent corn showed inhibitory activity against Fusarium moniliforme at 500?g per disk. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we detected the presence of antifungal iturin A, fengycin and bacillomycin in these isolates. PCR amplification also showed the presence of genes for iturin A and fengycin. B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) isolated from Indian popcorn showed strong inhibition of Arabidopsis seed mycoflora and enhanced seedling growth. We tested for the induction of defence gene expression in the host plant after treatment of plants with B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) and its lipopeptide extract using RT-qPCR. Roots of Indian popcorn seedlings treated with a suspension of B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) showed the induction of pathogenesis-related genes, including PR-1 and PR-4, which relate to plant defence against fungal pathogens. The lipopeptide extract alone did not increase the expression of these pathogenesis-related genes. Based on our study of maize endophytes, we hypothesize that, bacterial endophytes that naturally occur in many maize varieties may function to protect hosts by secreting antifungal lipopeptides that inhibit pathogens as well as inducing the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes of host plants (systemic acquired resistance). PMID:25497916