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Sample records for antigen specific ige

  1. IgE ELISA using antisera derived from epsilon chain antigenic peptides detects allergen-specific IgE in allergic horses.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Warren V; Pettigrew, Howard D; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-05-12

    Equine disease with an allergic etiology is common. Environmental antigens most often implicated as allergens in horses include molds, dusty hay, grass pollen, hay dust mites, and insect saliva. Although intradermal testing with allergen is a useful diagnostic tool for some species, skin testing frequently produces false positive results in horses. Allergen deprivation as a diagnostic tool is often impossible and at best it is ineffective at diagnosing the specific allergic reactivity. Synthesis of IgE after exposure to allergen is the instigator of the allergic process. While IgE exerts its effect after binding strongly to mast cell Fc receptors, the presence of free IgE in the serum can be used to quantify and determine the allergen specificity of the allergic disease. A lack of widely available reagents for detection of equine IgE has limited this approach in horses. We have used the nucleotide sequence of equine IgE to prepare a peptide-based immunogen to elicit equine epsilon chain-specific antisera. Selection of peptides was based on antigenic attributes of the deduced amino acid sequence of the equine epsilon chain. Six peptides were selected for conjugation to carrier molecules and rabbit immunization. Of these, one peptide elicited antisera that was successfully used in enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to screen horse serum from 64 allergic horses for allergen-specific IgE. Twenty-four of the 64 horses showed positive reactivity to one or more of the following allergens: grass, grain mill dust, mosquito, and horsefly. This study demonstrates the usefulness of peptide-based immunogens for development of antisera to rare or difficult to purify antigens such as IgE. Resultant antisera has great usefulness in diagnostic assays for equine allergy and as a research tool. PMID:12730014

  2. Epidemiological survey of anti-flea IgE in dogs in Japan by using an antigen-specific IgE quantitative measurement method

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Y.; Beugnet, F.

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, an epidemiological survey was performed in dogs from October to December 2008 by using a quantitative measurement method for antigen-specific IgE towards specific Ctenocephalides felis antigens. 214 dogs from 22 veterinary clinics were included. These clinics were located as follows, from North to South: Hokkaido, Aomori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo (Tama-City and Ota-ku), Kanagawa, Gifu, Niigata, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. 110 dogs (51.4%) were seropositive for flea-specific IgE. No differences were associated with gender or breed. This survey confirms that flea infestation in dogs is a common problem in Japan. It especially shows that the infestation also occurs in Northern Japan where fleas are considered uncommon by the vet. PMID:22550629

  3. IgE-dependent humoral immune response in Echinococcus multilocularis infection: circulating and basophil-bound specific IgE against Echinococcus antigens in patients with alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Vuitton, D A; Bresson-Hadni, S; Lenys, D; Flausse, F; Liance, M; Wattre, P; Miguet, J P; Capron, A

    1988-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH) and specific IgE against Echinococcus granulosus antigens are frequently present in patients with hydatid cysts. In alveolar echinococcosis (AE) due to E. multilocularis, clinical manifestations related to ITH have never been reported. The IgE-dependent humoral immune response was evaluated in 30 patients with AE. Circulating specific IgE (sIgE) were determined with two different methods of radio-allergo-sorbent test. Serum sIgE were determined sequentially in 18 patients over 15 months. Specific IgE bound to circulating basophils were assessed with two tests in vitro, measuring specific degranulation and histamine release. The respective abilities of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis antigens to reveal bound and circulating IgE antibodies were also assayed. Despite the absence of clinical symptoms of ITH and the frequent lack of circulating sIgE, an immunological response involving IgE was always present in human AE: basophil-bound sIgE were revealed in every patient by histamine release and degranulation tests; these tests were constantly negative in control subjects. Echinococcus granulosus extracts were more effective for detecting circulating sIgE; however E. multilocularis antigenic preparation induced a histamine release significantly higher than E. granulosus extracts. These results suggest that IgE-dependent humoral immune response could play a role in the host-parasite relationship in AE. Moreover, the sensitivity of the tests used to detect basophil-bound sIgE was higher than that of the usual serological tests, and the basophil degranulation test could be used to confirm diagnosis of AE in endemic countries. PMID:2450708

  4. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT. PMID:24069042

  5. Presence of IgE class antibodies with cardiolipinic and treponemal specificity in syphilis. Quantitative evaluation by IgE prist radio-immuno-assay.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, A D; Ivănescu, M

    1992-01-01

    60 serum samples (reactive in VDRL, ELISA-Reiter, FTA-Abs tests) from 25-45 years old male patients with untreated latent syphilis (EL) (30 cases) and persistent positive treated syphilis (ET+) (30 cases) were tested for IgE by IgE-PRIST. On 30 sera from 25-45 years old male healthy persons, normal mean value for serum IgE was established: 159.63 +/- 124.09 U/ml. Cardiolipin and group treponemal IgE fractions were indirectly calculated by the difference between the specific activity induced by sera as such and that induced by sera absorbed with cardiolipin and group treponemal sorbents. In EL, total IgE level was 197 +/- 107 U/ml; cardiolipin IgE -24.9 +/- 8.3 U/ml and group treponemal IgE 35.8 +/- 6.6 U/ml. In ET, total IgE value was 152.6 +/- 122.5 U/ml, cardiolipin IgE -11 +/- 10.5 and group treponemal IgE -26.6 +/- 14.2 U/ml. Summing up the two specificities, the total specific IgE represent about 1/3 from total IgE in EL and 1/5 in ET+. Taking into account the short half-life (2-3 days) of IgE presence of a significant proportion of specific IgE in those two stages proves, by their continuous synthesis paralleling antigenic stimulation, the presence in various tissular zones of viable treponemas as sources of antigens. PMID:1457821

  6. Antigen Transfer from Exosomes to Dendritic Cells as an Explanation for the Immune Enhancement Seen by IgE Immune Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Frida; Heyman, Birgitta; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    IgE antigen complexes induce increased specific T cell proliferation and increased specific IgG production. Immediately after immunization, CD23+ B cells capture IgE antigen complexes, transport them to the spleen where, via unknown mechanisms, dendritic cells capture the antigen and present it to T cells. CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, binds IgE antigen complexes and internalizes them. In this study, we show that these complexes are processed onto B-cell derived exosomes (bexosomes) in a CD23 dependent manner. The bexosomes carry CD23, IgE and MHC II and stimulate antigen specific T-cell proliferation in vitro. When IgE antigen complex stimulated bexosomes are incubated with dendritic cells, dendritic cells induce specific T-cell proliferation in vivo, similar to IgE antigen complexes. This suggests that bexosomes can provide the essential transfer mechanism for IgE antigen complexes from B cells to dendritic cells. PMID:25330118

  7. Should milk-specific IgE antibodies be measured in adults in primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Anthoni, Sari; Elg, Peter; Haahtela, Tari; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the association of milk-IgE antibodies in serum to milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms in adults in primary care. Design Open clinical study. Setting Five outpatient clinics in primary care in Southern Finland. Subjects A total of 756 subjects who reported milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care and as controls 101 subjects with no such symptoms. Methods IgE values for specific food antigens were measured (Pharmacia CAP System) in a total of 857 subjects. All food screen-positive samples (>0.35 IU/l) were analysed further for IgE for untreated skimmed milk (milk-IgE) and for boiled milk. Those found positive for milk-IgE were invited for an open milk challenge test. Results Some 5.4% (46/857) of all subjects had a positive IgE antibody screen for food antigens. Of those with a positive food screen, 28% (13/46) had milk-IgE antibodies comprising 1.5% of the total group screened. The prevalence of milk-IgE was not statistically different between those with milk-related symptoms and those with no such symptoms. IgE antibodies for boiled milk were rare. All specific IgE antibody levels were low. Bloating was the only observed symptom in milk challenge tests. Conclusion IgE antibodies to cow's milk were relatively rare in the adult population and were not indicative of milk protein allergy. The observed IgE levels were low and did not correlate with subjective milk-related symptoms. The measurement of milk-specific IgE in adults should be discouraged in outpatient clinics. PMID:18609255

  8. Differential antibody isotype reactivity to specific antigens in human lymphatic filariasis: gp15/400 preferentially induces immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG4, and IgG2.

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanbakhsh, M; Paxton, W A; Brandenburg, A; Van Ree, R; Lens, M; Partono, F; Maizels, R M; Selkirk, M E

    1995-01-01

    Lymphatic filarial infection in humans is associated with a strong skewing of the immune response towards the TH2 arm, with prominent interleukin 4-producing cells and elevated levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgE antibodies in peripheral blood. To determine how such a generalized TH2 imbalance governs responses to individual parasite antigens, the profiles of isotypes of antibodies to two recombinant proteins of Brugia spp. were studied. One molecule was the C-terminal portion of the filarial heat shock protein 70 (Bpa-26), representative of a cytoplasmic protein, and the second antigen was a single unit of the tandem repeats of a Brugia polypeptide (BpL-4), a secreted product which is prominently exposed to the immune system. Serum samples from 146 individuals resident in areas in which brugian filariasis is endemic were used, and it was found that whereas the levels of IgG1 and IgG3 responses to both Bpa-26 and BpL-4 were high, IgG4 and IgE antibodies to only BpL-4, not to Bpa-26, were prominent. Thus, an antigen which is chronically exposed to the immune system elicited a TH2-dependent isotype switch, as manifested by increased IgG4 and IgE responses. Moreover, IgG4 and IgE responses to BpL-4 showed a strong negative association, suggesting that mediators other than interleukin 4 must be responsible for such differential regulation of these two isotypes. When the data were analyzed as a function of clinical status, a striking association between elevated levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 and manifestation of chronic obstructive disease was found; elephantiasis patients showed significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 than microfilaremics and asymptomatic amicrofilaremics. This indicates that an imbalance of isotypes of antibodies to particular filarial antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic disease. PMID:7558279

  9. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings were compared to brucella-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG1-4 demonstrated by ELISA, and to microagglutination test (MAT) results. Elevated (positive) antibrucella IgE titres were detected in 89 and 81% of sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The predominant antibodies found in patients with acute brucellosis were of the IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG3 types while in chronic brucellosis IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG4 were found. Although IgE can be detected in patients with brucellosis, it does not discriminate between the acute and chronic stages of the disease. PMID:2249721

  10. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  11. Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Bakos, Noémi; Schöll, Isabella; Kundi, Michael; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Szalai, Krisztina; Riemer, Angelika B; Ankersmit, Hendrik J; Scheiner, Otto; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2005-04-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that anti-ulcer drugs, such as H2-receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, promote the development of immediate type food allergy toward digestion-labile proteins in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the allergological relevance of these findings in humans. In an observational cohort study, we screened 152 adult patients from a gastroenterological outpatient clinic with negative case histories for atopy or allergy, who were medicated with H2-receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors for 3 months. IgE reactivities to food allergens before and after 3 months of anti-acid treatment were compared serologically. Ten percent of the patients showed a boost of preexisting IgE antibodies and 15% de novo IgE formation toward numerous digestion-labile dietary compounds, like milk, potato, celery, carrots, apple, orange, wheat, and rye flour. Thus, the relative risk to develop food-specific IgE after anti-acid therapy was 10.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-76.48). The long-term effect was evaluated 5 months after therapy. Food-specific IgE could still be measured in 6% of the patients, as well as significantly elevated serum concentrations of ST2, a Th2-specific marker. An unspecific boost during the pollen season could be excluded, as 50 untreated control patients revealed no changes in their IgE pattern. In line with our previous animal experiments, our data strongly suggest that anti-ulcer treatment primes the development of IgE toward dietary compounds in long-term acid-suppressed patients. PMID:15671152

  12. Variable Region Identical IgA and IgE to Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Manifest Specificity Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Nakouzi, Antonio; Pohl, Mary Ann; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and found that these differed in specificity from each other. The IgE and IgA paratopes were probed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 15N-labeled peptide mimetics of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen (Ag). IgE was found to cleave the peptide at a much faster rate than V region-identical IgG subclasses and IgA, consistent with an altered paratope. Both IgE and IgA were opsonic for C. neoformans and protected against infection in mice. In summary, V-region expression in the context of the ϵ constant (C) region results in specificity changes that are greater than observed for comparable IgG subclasses. These results raise the possibility that expression of certain V regions in the context of α and ϵ C regions affects their function and contributes to the special properties of those isotypes. PMID:25778397

  13. Potentiation of IgE responses to third-party antigens mediated by Ascaris suum soluble products.

    PubMed

    Lee, T D; McGibbon, A

    1993-01-01

    A reductive approach was used to examine the potentiation of IgE responses by nematode infection. Ascaris homogenized extract, Ascaris pseudocoelomic (body) fluid (ABF) and purified Ascaris allergen (ABA) were tested for their ability to act as protein carriers and as mediators of potentiated IgE responses to third-party (ovalbumin; OVA) responses. All three nematode products were excellent protein carriers for the hapten dinitrophenol and showed significantly better activity in this respect than OVA. Neither ABF nor ABA enhanced the level of the IgE response to the third-party antigen but both prolonged the response markedly. ABF, but not ABA, induced high levels of total circulating IgE when given at the same time as OVA with alum. The data suggest that the enhancement and prolongation of IgE responses by nematodes may be two separate but related activities. PMID:8400897

  14. Specific IgE in the identification of allergens in allergic rhinitis Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Choon-Kook, S; Teck-Soong, S L

    1995-06-01

    The specific serum IgE levels to 20 allergens were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 90 Malaysian patients with allergic rhinitis. Ninety-two percent of patients had elevated IgE to at least 1 of the allergens. The housedust mites D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were the major allergens, elevated IgE to either allergen being present in 86% of the patients. Prick skin tests were carried out in some of the patients, housedust mites, cat fur, dog hair and shrimp were the allergens used. Close correspondence was found between IgE and prick skin tests to the mites. PMID:7488340

  15. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. PMID:21955446

  16. Galectin and aldolase-like molecules are responsible for the specific IgE response in humans exposed to Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed

    Pou-Barreto, C; Quispe-Ricalde, M A; Morchón, R; Vázquez, C; Genchi, M; Postigo, I; Valladares, B; Simón, F

    2008-01-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is the agent of the heartworm disease in canids and felids, and of pulmonary dirofilariosis in man. Like other filariae, D. immitis harbours endosymbion Wolbachia bacteriae. In this work we analyse the response of specific IgE antibodies against both D. immitis antigens and the Wolbachia surface protein (WSP) in two groups of persons living in an area of canine endemia, one presenting high levels of total IgE (group 1) and other with normal levels (group 2). Infections with D. immitis were demonstrated by the presence of specific IgG in 228 individuals(48.8%) of the group 1 and only in one of the group 2. Specific IgE antibody response against D. immitis antigens was detected only in individuals of the group 1. IgE response against WSP was not detected in any group. The IgE response was directed mainly against two molecules of 33 and 42 kDa of the antigenic extract of D. immitis. These molecules were identified by mass spectrometry as a galectin and an aldolase, respectively. Their possible role in the survival mechanisms of the parasite and their contribution to development of allergic reactions in individuals resident in areas with heartworm disease are discussed. PMID:19067840

  17. Glove-derived foreign proteins induce allergen-specific IgE in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Busch, Marion; Schröder, Claudia; Baron, Jens-Malte; Ott, Hagen; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas L; Mahler, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Currently, most medical gloves are produced with a low content of natural rubber latex (NRL) protein. However, they may be substituted by proteins of foreign origin to maintain specific properties of the material. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity and immunogenicity of unexpected proteins (i.e., soy and casein) compared with NRL proteins in a murine model in BALB/c mice. All respective allergen sources (extracts from three brands of NRL gloves, soy, and casein) were able to induce significant allergen-specific IgE and IgG(1) responses. On average, the highest IgE induction occurred after immunization with NRL, followed by soy and casein. Certain individuals from each treatment group exhibited levels of specific IgE as high as due to NRL. To analyze further specific IgE responses on a single allergen level, we established a microarray based on recombinant allergens for allergen-specific murine IgE detection. Besides specific IgE against rHev b 3, -6, -7, -8, and -11, specific IgE against kappa-casein could be detected in mice immunized with NRL glove extract, indicating a sensitization potential of the contained foreign protein. The substitution of genuine latex proteins by proteins of foreign origin may lead to a shift and de novo increase in sensitization to the finished products. PMID:18049454

  18. NASA geometry data exchange specification for computational fluid dynamics (NASA IGES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.; Jou, Jin J.

    1994-01-01

    This document specifies a subset of an existing product data exchange specification that is widely used in industry and government. The existing document is called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. This document, a subset of IGES, is intended for engineers analyzing product performance using tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This document specifies how to define mathematically and exchange the geometric model of an object. The geometry is represented utilizing nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and surfaces. Only surface models are represented; no solid model representation is included. This specification does not include most of the other types of product information available in IGES (e.g., no material properties or surface finish properties) and does not provide all the specific file format details of IGES. The data exchange protocol specified in this document is fully conforming to the American National Standard (ANSI) IGES 5.2.

  19. Effect of walnut (Juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific IgE induction in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals. PMID:20388137

  20. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  1. The Prevalence of Serum Specific IgE to Superantigens in Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Nan; Shin, Yoo Seob; Yoo, Hye-Soo; Nam, Young Hee; Jin, Hyun Jung; Ye, Young-Min; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterium present in upper respiratory tract, and the toxins it produced are involved in allergic inflammation pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of IgE in association with staphylococcal superantigens in allergic asthma with rhinitis (BAwAR) and allergic rhinitis alone (AR). We recruited 100 patients with BAwAR (group I), 100 patients with AR (group II), and 88 healthy controls (group III). Patients were clinically diagnosed by physicians, and were sensitized to house dust mites. Specific IgE antibodies to staphylococcal superantigen A (SEA), B (SEB), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were measured using the ImmunoCAP system. Other clinical parameters were retrospectively analyzed. All specific IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 were detected most frequently in group I (22%, 21%, and 27%), followed by group II (11%, 14%, and 21%) and group III (4.5%, 3.4%, and 2.3%). Absolute values of serum specific IgE to SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 were also significantly higher in group I (0.300±1.533 kU/L, 0.663±2.933 kU/L, and 0.581±1.931 kU/L) and group II (0.502±2.011 kU/L, 0.695±3.337 kU/L, and 1.067±4.688 kU/L) compared to those in group III (0.03±0.133 kU/L, 0.03±0.14 kU/L, and 0.028±0.112 kU/L). The prevalence of serum specific IgE to SEA was significantly higher in group I compared to group II (P=0.025). Blood eosinophil counts were significantly higher in patients with specific IgE to SEA or SEB, and higher serum levels of specific IgE to house dust mites were noted in patients with specific IgE to TSST-1. In conclusion, the present study suggested that IgE responses to staphylococcal superantigens are prevalent in the sera of both BAwAR and AR patients. This may contribute to an augmented IgE response to indoor allergens and eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24843803

  2. Induction of reaginic (IgE) gonococcal antibodies in the rat by a common antigen of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Ashton, F E; Vijay, H M; Lavergne, G; Brodeur, B R; Diena, B B

    1979-02-01

    An antigen (ZAB) common to Neisseria gonorrhoeae was prepared by stepwise elution of a crude gonococcal antigen (ZA) from columns of diethylaminoethyl cellulose employing 0.02 M phosphate buffers, pH 7.6, containing increasing concentrations of sodium chloride. Rats immunized with ZAB produced reaginic (IgE) antibody which cross-reacted with ZA prepared from eight gonococcal strains by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test. Heating of the sera at 56 degrees C for 4 h destroyed the PCA activity. The PCA activity of the anti-ZAB rat serum was removed after absorption with ZAB antigen or with rabbit anti-rat IgE but not after absorption with gonococcal lipopolysaccharide or with heat-killed or formalinized gonococci. Treatment of ZAB with trypsin or heating at 100 degrees C for 30 min destroyed or reduced the antigenic activity respectively. Further purification of ZAB by filtration through Sephadex G-100 gave a preparation (ZAB2) which contained the common antigen as shown by the cross-reactivity of anti-ZAB2 rat serum with seven stains of N. gonorrhoeae. Fraction ZAB2 contained material which had a molecular weight less than 13,700 and was associated with the presence of material absorbing at 260 nm. The results of this study indicate that a low molecular weight antigen, which appears to be protein in nature and associated with nuclei acid, is common to the gonococcus and is the main antigenic component inducing reaginic (IgE) antibody in the rat. PMID:108009

  3. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  4. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267

  5. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267

  6. Utility of IgE (total and Aspergillus fumigatus specific) in monitoring for response and exacerbations in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Sehgal, Inderpaul S; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2016-01-01

    The role of total and specific IgE in monitoring treatment responses in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) remains poorly studied. Here in, we evaluate the utility of total and Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE in the follow-up of ABPA. Eighty-one consecutive treatment-naïve patients of ABPA (acute stage) with pulmonary infiltrates and bronchiectasis underwent measurement of total and A. fumigatus specific IgE at baseline, after 8 weeks of glucocorticoid therapy, and during exacerbations. There was clinical and radiological improvement after treatment with median decline of total IgE by 51.9%. The total IgE declined by at least 35%, 25% and 20% in 69 (85.2%), 76 (93.6%) and 78 (96.3%) patients, respectively. On the other hand, the A. fumigatus specific IgE increased in 42 (51.9%) subjects, and the mean increase was 1.4%, after 8 weeks. Among 13 patients with exacerbation, 12 (92.3%) had a rise of total IgE by >50%. The A. fumigatus specific IgE increased in only five (38.5%) subjects during exacerbation. Thus, the total IgE is a useful test in monitoring treatment responses in ABPA while A. fumigatus specific IgE has limited utility. PMID:26575791

  7. Down-modulation of antigen-induced activation of murine cultured mast cells sensitized with a highly cytokinergic IgE clone.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Mariko; Kurimune, Yuki; Yamada, Keiko; Hyodo, Nao; Natsuhara, Mayuko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that several IgE clones can activate mast cells during the sensitization phase even in the absence of antigen. They were found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release, histamine synthesis, chemotaxis, adhesion, and accelerated maturation of mast cells, although it remains unknown whether antigen-induced responses can be affected by differences of IgE clones. We compared two IgE clones, which were different in the capacity to activate mast cells during sensitization, in terms of potentials to affect antigen-induced degranulation and cytokine releases using IL-3-dependent murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs). Antigen-induced degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were augmented, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone IgE-3, which did not induce phosphorylation of JNK and cytokine release in the absence of antigen, whereas those were significantly rather decreased, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone SPE-7, one of the most potent cytokinergic IgE clones, which intensively induced phosphorylation of JNK. This attenuated response with SPE-7 was accompanied by decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cellular proteins including Syk upon antigen stimulation. SP600125, which is known to inhibit JNK, restored the levels of antigen-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in BMMCs sensitized with higher concentrations of a clone SPE-7 when it was added before sensitization. Treatment with anisomycin, a potent activator of JNK, before IgE sensitization significantly suppressed antigen-induced degranulation. These findings suggest that differences of sensitizing IgE clones can affect antigen-induced responses and activation of JNK during sensitization might suppress antigen-induced activation of mast cells. PMID:27060497

  8. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2). PMID:22993721

  9. Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E; Velte, Cathy A; Spooner, Christina E; Munroe, Melissa E; Farris, A Darise; Nelson, Michael R; Engler, Renata J M; James, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.2 to 8.7]; P < 0.0001). Individuals 18 to 29 years of age were less likely to report an AE than individuals aged 30 years or older (OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.22 to 0.43]; P < 0.0001). No significant effects were observed for African, European, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian ancestry after correcting for age and sex. Additionally, 103 AEs were large local reactions (LLRs), whereas 53 AEs were systemic reactions (SRs). In a subset of our cohort vaccinated 2 to 12 months prior to plasma sample collection (n = 75), individuals with LLRs (n = 33) had higher protective-antigen (PA)-specific IgE levels than matched, unaffected vaccinated individuals (n = 50; P < 0.01). Anti-PA IgE was not associated with total plasma IgE, hepatitis B-specific IgE, or anti-PA IgG in individuals who reported an AE or in matched, unaffected AVA-vaccinated individuals. IP-10 was also elevated in sera of individuals who developed LLRs (P < 0.05). Individuals reporting SRs had higher levels of systemic inflammation as measured from C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). Thus, LLRs and SRs are mediated by distinct pathways. LLRs are associated with a vaccine-specific IgE response and IP-10, whereas SRs demonstrate increased systemic inflammation without a skewed cytokine profile. PMID:27280620

  10. Determination of allergen specificity by heavy chains in grass pollen allergen–specific IgE antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Flicker, Sabine; Lupinek, Christian; Steinberger, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Affinity and clonality of allergen-specific IgE antibodies are important determinants for the magnitude of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation. Objective We sought to analyze the contribution of heavy and light chains of human allergen-specific IgE antibodies for allergen specificity and to test whether promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains with different allergen specificity allows binding and might affect affinity. Methods Ten IgE Fabs specific for 3 non–cross-reactive major timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, and Phl p 5) obtained by means of combinatorial cloning from patients with grass pollen allergy were used to construct stable recombinant single chain variable fragments (ScFvs) representing the original Fabs and shuffled ScFvs in which heavy chains were recombined with light chains from IgE Fabs with specificity for other allergens by using the pCANTAB 5 E expression system. Possible ancestor genes for the heavy chain and light chain variable region–encoding genes were determined by using sequence comparison with the ImMunoGeneTics database, and their chromosomal locations were determined. Recombinant ScFvs were tested for allergen specificity and epitope recognition by means of direct and sandwich ELISA, and affinity by using surface plasmon resonance experiments. Results The shuffling experiments demonstrate that promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains is possible and maintains allergen specificity, which is mainly determined by the heavy chains. ScFvs consisting of different heavy and light chains exhibited different affinities and even epitope specificity for the corresponding allergen. Conclusion Our results indicate that allergen specificity of allergen-specific IgE is mainly determined by the heavy chains. Different heavy and light chain pairings in allergen-specific IgE antibodies affect affinity and epitope specificity and thus might influence clinical reactivity to allergens. PMID:23206656

  11. IgE anti Hepatitis B virus surface antigen antibodies detected in serum from inner city asthmatic and non asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Tam, Elizabeth; Norowitz, Kevin B; Chotikanatis, Kobkul; Weaver, Diana; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H; Kohlhoff, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Viral Hepatitis type B (HBV) is a public health concern, but has not been linked to asthma. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G is involved in HBV immune responses; less is known about IgE antibodies (Abs) against HBV in asthma. Given the importance of HBV, we sought to determine whether HBV vaccine contributes to asthma in children, by stimulating specific IgE production. Total IgE, IgE- or IgG-anti-HBVs Abs were studied in vaccinated pediatric asthmatics and non asthmatics. We found: (1) total IgE was higher in asthmatics; (2) total IgE did not correlate with IgE anti-HBVs; (3) IgE anti-HBVs did correlate with IgG-anti-HBVs in all subjects; (4)IgE- and IgG-HBVs Abs were similar in both groups; (5) IgE- or IgG anti-HBVs Abs did not correlate with age. Our findings indicate that HBV vaccination induces IgE responses in asthmatics and non asthmatics. PMID:24374043

  12. Paradoxical Increase of IgE Binding Components during Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in Pollinosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon-Gyung; Jin, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Yoo-Seob

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) reduces allergen specific IgE (sIgE) levels and achieves clinical and immunological tolerance by modulating innate and adaptive immunological responses. Increased temperature and CO2 concentrations caused by climate changes contribute to an increase of pollen count and allergenicity that influences clinical SIT outcomes. In this study, we investigated the changes of IgE binding components to tree and weed pollens in pollinosis patients who showed a paradoxical increase of serum sIgE level during pollen-SIT. We enrolled nine patients who showed an increasing pattern of serum sIgE level to alder, birch, ragweed and mugwort pollens by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. IgE immunoblot analysis confirmed the intensification or new generation of major IgE binding components that could be induced by climate change. The findings suggest that the regular monitoring of sIgE levels and symptom changes is required to improve the clinical outcomes of SIT in patients undergoing SIT for tree and weed pollens. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045240

  13. Paradoxical increase of IgE binding components during allergen-specific immunotherapy in pollinosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon-Gyung; Jin, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) reduces allergen specific IgE (sIgE) levels and achieves clinical and immunological tolerance by modulating innate and adaptive immunological responses. Increased temperature and CO2 concentrations caused by climate changes contribute to an increase of pollen count and allergenicity that influences clinical SIT outcomes. In this study, we investigated the changes of IgE binding components to tree and weed pollens in pollinosis patients who showed a paradoxical increase of serum sIgE level during pollen-SIT. We enrolled nine patients who showed an increasing pattern of serum sIgE level to alder, birch, ragweed and mugwort pollens by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. IgE immunoblot analysis confirmed the intensification or new generation of major IgE binding components that could be induced by climate change. The findings suggest that the regular monitoring of sIgE levels and symptom changes is required to improve the clinical outcomes of SIT in patients undergoing SIT for tree and weed pollens. PMID:25045240

  14. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat Associated With Specific IgE Antibodies to Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Liping; Zhou, Junxiong; Sun, Jin-lu; Sun, Yi; Wu, Kai; Katial, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    A novel delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, associated with tick bites and IgE antibodies against galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (α-gal), was reported in 2009 in the US, Australia and Europe. In this case, serum specific IgE to galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (>100 kU/L) and IgE to multiple non-primate mammalian proteins were positive. However, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. We report the first case in Asia of delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, which was induced by bites from the hard tick, Hematophagous ixodidae. We confirmed the increased concentration of IgE reactive epitopes in non-primate mammalian organs, which may be rich in α-gal proteins in lymphatic and endothelial tissues. All confirmed ticks associated with this disorder in the literature and in our case belonged to the hard tick family. We hypothesize that hard tick saliva is enriched with blood-type substances, such as oligosaccharides, from the non-primate mammal victim's blood after days to weeks of blood sucking, which sensitizes humans through the injection route while blood sucking. PMID:25553269

  15. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  16. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  17. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  18. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. PMID:27288851

  19. Development of the Abbott MATRIX Aero assay for the measurement of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, R E; Anawis, M A; Bailey, M; Mangat, D; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I G; Hooyman, L; Putterman, C; Defreese, J D

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the quantitation of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum to a panel of allergens. The assay system, called the Abbott MATRIX Aero, includes an instrument, reagents and test cell disposables. Each test cell contains fourteen airborne allergens individually localized on a nitrocellulose solid phase. Individual calibration curves for each allergen are established by the manufacturer and included in barcode form with each test kit. Stable factory calibration eliminates the need to establish a calibration curve with each assay run. The instrument automatically incubates, washes, and reads the test cell and prints each result, which ensures assay reproducibility and provides ease-of-use. Analysis of test results shows good agreement with another in vitro assay for specific IgE. The Abbott MATRIX Aero is a sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-use system for the measurement of specific IgE to a panel of fourteen allergens simultaneously using a single, small volume of serum. PMID:1806584

  20. Galactose-α-1,3-Galactose–Specific IgE Is Associated with Anaphylaxis but Not Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Kelly, Libby A.; Rönmark, Eva; James, Hayley R.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Peters, Edward J.; Lundbäck, Bo; Nganga, Lucy W.; Cooper, Philip J.; Hoskins, Janelle M.; Eapen, Saju S.; Matos, Luis A.; McBride, Dane C.; Heymann, Peter W.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Methods: Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Measurements and Main Results: Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled. PMID:22281828

  1. Comparison of VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays for detection of specific IgE antibodies in allergic children.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung Hyun; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    In vitro determination of specific IgE antibodies in serum is the most frequently used method, besides the skin test, for diagnosing allergies. Standardized and reproducible assays of specific IgE antibodies contribute to the quality of diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. This study compared the results and performance characteristics of the Pharmacia CAP system and a new specific IgE method using the VIDAS Stallertest (manufactured by bioMériux). To evaluate their clinical efficiency, the results of the CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were compared with skin prick test (SPT) results. After allergic patients completed SPTs, serum samples were collected and CAP and VIDAS Stallertest assays were performed to determine specific IgEs for Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, cockroach, and alternaria. For egg and milk, we measured only the correlation between the 2 in vitro assays. When SPT was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the CAP assay was a little higher in respect to all inhalant allergens. There were significant correlations between the results of VIDAS Stallertest and CAP assays for IgE antibodies to inhalant and food allergens. This study indicates that the VIDAS Stallertest and Pharmacia CAP assays are feasible and replicable for measuring allergen-specific IgE. PMID:16081590

  2. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáñez Sandín, M D; Ureña Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515886

  3. Evaluation of immunoglobulin E-specific antibodies and viral antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions of children with respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Russi, J C; Delfraro, A; Borthagaray, M D; Velazquez, B; García-Barreno, B; Hortal, M

    1993-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays were developed to detect the presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and respiratory syncytial (RS) virus structural proteins in nasopharyngeal secretions in order to improve the knowledge on some aspects of the pathogenesis of severe acute lower respiratory tract infections caused by RS virus. These assays were used to analyze clinical specimens from children with RS virus-associated infections (bronchiolitis and pneumonia), and the findings were correlated with the patients' clinical symptoms. The results indicate the presence of specific IgE against the two external glycoproteins (G and F) and the absence of detectable IgE levels for the internal viral antigens. There was a correlation between the levels of IgE-specific antibodies and the amount of viral protein F in the secretions, indicating that the IgE response against the viral glycoproteins might be related to the antigen load. In addition, a correlation was found between higher levels of both viral protein F-specific IgE and F antigen with higher respiratory rates in children with pneumonia. These findings may be relevant because they suggest an association between the virus load and the immune response in the pathogenesis of RS virus infections. PMID:8463392

  4. [Radioimmunologic determination of total IgE and allergen-specific IgE-antibodies in diffuse neurodermitis].

    PubMed

    Pürschel, W; Zeidler, U; Kuse, M

    1975-10-01

    Total IgE levels in sera of 165 patients with atopic dermatitis and 79 patients with dermatoses as well as normal control patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (Phadebas, Pharmacia). Although the mean value for patients with atopic dermatitis was found far above the mean value for normal controls, 38% of patients showed total IgE serum levels within the normal range. Highest IgE serum levels were observed in patients with the generalized form of the disease and in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. No direct correlation however, to severity of disease could be found. In a series of 50 patients prick tests were compared to total IgE serum levels and to levels of allergen specific antibodies determined by radioallergosorbent-test (RAST). Extracts of grass pollens and of animal dandruff were used. There was complete agreement between results of skin testing and RAST in at least 80%. While cross reactions were common with grass pollen extracts in RAST, there was no cross-over with animal dandruff. No correlation was found between titer of allergen specific antibody and severity of skin lesions. IgE specific antibody could be detected in 48% of patients with normal total IgE serum levels and in 82% of patients with elevated values. PMID:1201945

  5. Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids on Boosts of Systemic Allergen-Specific IgE Production Induced by Nasal Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Cornelia; Lupinek, Christian; Ristl, Robin; Lemell, Patrick; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear. Aim Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure. Methods Subjects (n = 48) suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1–4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter. Results Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00755066 PMID:25705889

  6. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    PubMed

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum

  7. Sequential serological responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in patients with cystic fibrosis. Use of antigen 'stretching' to delineate IgG and IgE activity.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J H; Alfaham, M; Fifield, R; Philpot, C; Clement, M J; Goodchild, M C

    1990-01-01

    Immunogens from Aspergillus fumigatus were fractionated on the basis of molecular weight. Nine fractions ranging from 900 to 10 kDa were used in ELISA and in a radioallergosorbent test (RAST) with sera from cases of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with ABPA or other Aspergillus involvement and compared with control subjects. The profile of IgG reactivity to the nine fractions did not vary substantially for all Aspergillus-involved groups producing peaks at greater than 900 kD and 170 kD whereas the profile for control subjects had a peak at greater than 900 kD only. The IgE profile for CF patients with ABPA did not differ from the profile of the RAST-positive CF patients without ABPA and provided only one peak of activity at 24 kD. Recovery from an episode of ABPA in CF patients was accompanied by a fall in both IgG and IgE antibody levels to all nine fractions, whereas increases in IgG and IgE to all fractions were seen during an episode of ABPA. Although there was an exaggerated IgG increase to antigens in the 43-170 kD range during ABPA, a meaningful increase was also observed to unfractionated A. fumigatus antigen preparations. With IgE in one detailed study the 24-kD fraction provided a better indication of Aspergillus involvement than the unfractionated A. fumigatus antigens. Sequential studies of IgG and IgE levels were not able to predict an episode of ABPA but were useful in conjunction with clinical assessment in following the course of the illness. PMID:2165878

  8. [For an efficient and reasonable accreditation of allergen specific IgE].

    PubMed

    Sarrat, Anne; Brabant, Séverine; Charbonnier, Eric; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Apoil, Pol-André; Bienvenu, Françoise; Jaby, Délia; Lainé, Catherine; Nicaise-Roland, Pascale; Renier, Gilles; Sainte-Laudy, Jean; Tabary, Thierry; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Vigneron, Céline; Lambert, Claude

    2013-01-01

    French medical laboratories must be accredited before November 2016 according to NF/EN/ISO 15189 standard. However, technical accreditation guidelines cannot be applied literally for the determination of specific IgE for several reasons: more than 600 allergen tests, lack of international gold standard, limited external quality controls. Furthermore, the technique for determination of specific IgE is CE DM-IVD marked, common to all specificities, automatised, standardized according to a single calibration curve. Thus, we propose an efficient but reasonable solution conform to the idea of the accreditation by validating the process. We recommend: a flexible extend type A; choice of only one representative allergen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) for repeatability and precision (20 tests, 2 levels 0.5-1 and 8-12 kUA/L) performed on patients sera, reproducibility (30 consecutive determinations using an Internal Quality Control/IQC), accuracy (IQC and rare External Quality Controls) compared with peers. Sensitivity, specificity, dynamic range, detection threshold are determinated by the provider. Linearity may be checked if the laboratory practices sample dilution for values higher than the upper limit guaranteed by the provider. In the absence of international gold standard, the uncertainty is not measurable. In case of change of instrument, the results obtained by the systems must be compared through 35 tests of different specificities distributed across the range of calibration and including 5 values close to the detection limit. This methodology allows a scientifically effective verification, technically and financially reasonable, to ensure the excellence of the performance of the laboratory with regard to peers and users (allergologists and patients). PMID:23747670

  9. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  10. Clinical and radiological signs of ABPA associated with airways infection with Aspergillus in the absence of specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Sunzini, F; Barbato, C; Canofari, C; Lugari, L; Perricone, R; Bergamini, A

    2016-09-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus that mainly affects patients with asthma. For diagnosis, elevated serum IgE level are needed according to Greenberger and Patterson criteria. We report a case of 43 years-old woman who developed ABPA with productive cough, fever and radiological findings of multiple confluent areas of consolidation in both upper lobes. Laboratory tests showed elevated peripheral eosinophil counts (9.3 x 10(3)/ml). In bronchial washing A. galactomannans and A. Fumigatus were isolated, although we found normal levels of serum IgE, and the absence of serum IgG and IgE antibodies to Aspergillus and A. galactomannans. In conclusion, clinical and radiological signs of ABPA can be associated with Aspergillus infection also in the absence of a specific serum antibody reaction. PMID:27608478

  11. Antigen-specific vaccines for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines targeting pathogens are generally effective and protective because based on foreign non-self antigens which are extremely potent in eliciting an immune response. On the contrary, efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines is still disappointing. One of the major reasons for such poor outcome, among others, is the difficulty of identifying tumor-specific target antigens which should be unique to the tumors or, at least, overexpressed on the tumors as compared to normal cells. Indeed, this is the only option to overcome the peripheral immune tolerance and elicit a non toxic immune response. New and more potent strategies are now available to identify specific tumor-associated antigens for development of cancer vaccine approaches aiming at eliciting targeted anti-tumor cellular responses. In the last years this aspect has been addressed and many therapeutic vaccination strategies based on either whole tumor cells or specific antigens have been and are being currently evaluated in clinical trials. This review summarizes the current state of cancer vaccines, mainly focusing on antigen-specific approaches. PMID:25483639

  12. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI, Laleh; KARIMI, Akram; SHOKOUHI SHOORMASTI, Raheleh; MIRI, Sara; HEYDAR NAZHAD, Hassan; BOKAIE, Saied; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; SADEGHNIIAT HAGHIGHI, Khosro; POURPAK, Zahra; MOIN, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. Methods: All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Results: Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953–17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45–305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). Conclusion: This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators. PMID:23785679

  13. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shade, Kai-Ting C; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R; Fiebiger, Edda; Anthony, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell-bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. PMID:25824821

  14. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  15. [Two cases of allergies due to Anisakis simplex, positive to specific IgE for Ani s 12 allergen].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuri; Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Lee, Min; Shinohara, Rie; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of immediate allergies to Anisakis after ingestion of seafood. In case 1, after ingestion of flatfish, sea bream and mackerel, wheals and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 5 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum strongly reacted to Ani s 12. In case 2, after ingestion of flatfish and yellowtail, pruritus and dyspnea occurred. Result of ImmunoCAP was class 6 for Anisakis. ELISA for specific IgE showed that the patient serum reacted to Ani s 1, 4, 6 and 12. In both cases, skin prick tests were negative for suspected seafoods. These data suggests the possibility Ani s 12 is a major allergen of Anisakis allergy besides Ani s 1, 2 and 7. Ani s 12 is an allergen that was first reported in 2011. The reactivity of Ani s 12 specific IgE with ELISA may become useful for the diagnosis of Anisakis allergy. PMID:25634460

  16. Is the Determination of Specific IgE against Components Using ISAC 112 a Reproducible Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aranguren, Rubén; Lizaso, María T.; Goikoetxea, María J.; García, Blanca E.; Cabrera-Freitag, Paula; Trellez, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ImmunoCAP ISAC 112 is a fluoro-immunoassay that allows detection of specific IgE to 112 molecular components from 51 allergenic sources. We studied the reliability of this technique intra- and inter- assay, as well as inter-batch- and inter-laboratory-assay. Methods Twenty samples were studied, nineteen sera from polysensitized allergic patients, and the technique calibrator provided by the manufacturer (CTR02). We measured the sIgE from CTR02 and three patients' sera ten times in the same and in different assays. Furthermore, all samples were tested in two laboratories and with two batches of ISAC kit. To evaluate the accuracy of ISAC 112, we contrasted the determinations of CTR02 calibrator with their expected values by T Student test. To analyse the precision, we calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) of the 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, and to analyse the repeatability and the reproducibility, we calculated the intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to each allergen. Results The results obtained for CTR02 were similar to those expected in 7 of 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, whereas in 8 allergens the results showed significant differences. The mean CV obtained in the CTR02 determinations was of 9.4%, and the variability of sera from patients was of 22.9%. The agreement in the intra- and inter-assay analysis was very good to 94 allergens and good to one. In the inter-batch analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 82 allergens, good to 14, moderate to 5 allergens, poor to one, and bad to 1 allergen. In the inter-laboratory analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 73 allergens, good to 22, moderate to 6 and poor to two allergens. Conclusion The allergen microarray immunoassay, ISAC 112, is a repeatable and reproducible in vitro diagnostic tool for determination of sIgE beyond the own laboratory. PMID:24516646

  17. Role of adult worm antigen-specific immunoglobulin E in acquired immunity to Schistosoma mansoni infection in baboons.

    PubMed

    Nyindo, M; Kariuki, T M; Mola, P W; Farah, I O; Elson, L; Blanton, R E; King, C L

    1999-02-01

    Allergic-type immune responses, particularly immunoglobulin E (IgE), correlate with protective immunity in human schistosomiasis. To better understand the mechanisms of parasite elimination we examined the immune correlates of protection in baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis), which are natural hosts for Schistosoma mansoni and also develop allergic-type immunity with infection. In one experiment, animals were exposed to a single infection (1,000 cercariae) or were exposed multiple times (100 cercariae per week for 10 weeks) and subsequently were cured with praziquantel prior to challenge with 1, 000 cercariae. Singly and multiply infected animals mounted 59 and 80% reductions in worm burden, respectively (P < 0.01). In a second experiment, animals were inoculated with S. mansoni ova and recombinant human interleukin 12 (IL-12). This produced a 37 to 39% reduction in adult worm burden after challenge (P < 0.05). Parasite-specific IgG, IgE, IgM, and peripheral blood cytokine production were evaluated. The only immune correlate of protection in both experiments was levels of soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP)-specific IgE in serum at the time of challenge infection and/or 6 weeks later. Baboons repeatedly infected with cercariae or immunized with ova and IL-12 developed two- to sixfold-greater levels of SWAP-specific IgE in serum than did controls, and this correlated with reductions in worm burden (r2, -0.40 to -0.64; P, <0. 01). Thus, in baboons and unlike mice, adult worm-specific IgE is uniquely associated with acquired immunity to S. mansoni infection. This similar association of parasite-specific IgE and protection among primates infected with schistosomiasis, along with similar pathology, anatomy, and genetic make-up, indicates that baboons provide an excellent permissive experimental model for better understanding the mechanisms of innate and acquired immunity to schistosomiasis in humans. PMID:9916070

  18. Specific IgE to fish extracts does not predict allergy to specific species within an adult fish allergic population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish is an important cause of food allergy. Studies on fish allergy are scarce and in most cases limited to serological evaluation. Our objective was to study patterns of self-reported allergy and tolerance to different commonly consumed fish species and its correlation to IgE sensitization to the same species. Methods Thirty-eight adult fish allergic patients completed a questionnaire regarding atopy, age of onset and symptoms to 13 commonly consumed fish species in the Netherlands (pangasius, cod, herring, eel, hake, pollock, mackerel, tilapia, salmon, sardine, tuna, plaice and swordfish). Specific IgE to these fish extracts were analyzed by ImmunoCAP. Results Median age of onset of fish allergy was 8.5 years. Severe reactions were reported by the majority of patients (n = 20 (53%) respiratory and of these 20 patients, 6 also had cardiovascular symptoms). After diagnosis, 66% of the patients had eliminated all fish from their diet. Allergy to all species ever tried was reported by 59%. In relation to species ever tried, cod (84%) and herring (79%) were the most frequently reported culprit species while hake (57%) and swordfish (55%) were the least frequent. A positive sIgE (value ≥ 0.35 kUA/L) to the culprit species ranged between 50% (swordfish) and 100% (hake). In tolerant patients, a negative sIgE (value < 0.35 kUA/L) ranged from 0% (hake, pollock and swordfish) to 75% (sardine). For cod, the agreement between sIgE test results and reported allergy or tolerance was 82% and 25%, respectively. Sensitization to cod parvalbumin (Gad c 1) was present in 77% of all patients. Conclusion Serological cross-reactivity between fish species is frequent, but in a significant proportion of patients, clinical relevance appears to be limited to only certain species. A well-taken history or food challenge is required for discrimination between allergy to the different fish species. PMID:25225608

  19. Correlation among skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests in atopic patients from Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Lipozencić, Jasna; Zizić, Vesna; Milavec, Dinko

    2004-01-01

    The correlation of pollen allergens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and animal dender was assessed during a two-year period. Results of skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests were compared in atopic patients (AP) with the following diagnoses: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic bronchitis or asthma, allergic urticaria and angioedema. The study included total and specific IgE (in vitro) tests to allergen mixtures (grass, tree, weed) or to single allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), cat and dog fur, feather, etc. Comparison of skin prick test with total and specific IgE UniCAP immunoassay was done in 173 patients, i.e. 107 female and 66 male atopic patients aged 9-76 years. Allergies were most commonly recorded in the 25-35 age group. Total IgE ranged from 8.63 kU/l to >4000 kU/l, with specific IgE ranging from class 1 to class 5. Skin prick test showed high correlation with specific IgE for grass and weed pollen in patients with repiratory allergy (50.28%). Good correlation among all three tests was quite frequently observed. The results suggest that the study should be continued using these three tests in further cases of atopic dermatitis. PMID:15588558

  20. PROSTATE SPECIFIC MEMBRANE ANTIGEN-BASED IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Joseph R.; Akhtar, Naveed H.; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Anand, Alok; Deh, Kofi; Tagawa, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Despite significant efforts, conventional imaging of PC does not contribute to patient management as much as imaging performed for other common cancers. Given the lack of specificity in conventional imaging techniques, one possible solution is to screen for PC specific antigenic targets and generate agents able to specifically bind. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is over-expressed in PC tissue, with low levels of expression in the small intestine, renal tubular cells and salivary gland. The first clinical agent for targeting PSMA was 111In-capromab, involving an antibody recognizing the internal domain of PSMA. The second- and third-generation humanized PSMA binding antibodies have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to capromab pendetide i.e. inability to bind to live PC cells. One example is the humanized monoclonal antibody J591 (Hu mAb J591) that was developed primarily for therapeutic purposes but also has interesting imaging characteristics including the identification of bone metastases in PC. The major disadvantage of use of mAb for imaging is slow target recognition and background clearance in an appropriate timeframe for diagnostic imaging. Urea-based compounds such as small molecule inhibitors may also present promising agents for PC imaging with SPECT and PET. Two such small-molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA, MIP-1072 and MIP-1095, have exhibited high affinity for PSMA. The uptake of 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095 in PC xenografts have imaged successfully with favorable properties amenable to human trials. While advances in conventional imaging will continue, Ab and small molecule imaging exemplified by PSMA targeting have the greatest potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22658884

  1. Tecemotide: An antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has made possible the development of antigen-specific cancer immunotherapies such as tecemotide. One of those is mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane glycoprotein expressed on some epithelial tissues such as breast and lung. In cancer, MUC1 becomes overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated, exposing the immunogenic tandem repeat units in the extracellular domain of MUC1. Designed to target tumor associated MUC1, tecemotide is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as maintenance therapy following chemoradiotherapy. Additional Phase II studies in other indications are ongoing. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical development of tecemotide, ongoing preclinical studies of tecemotide in human MUC1 transgenic mouse models of breast and lung cancer, and the potential application of these models for optimizing the timing of chemoradiotherapy and tecemotide immunotherapy to achieve the best treatment outcome for patients. PMID:25483673

  2. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Satinover, Shama M.; Hosen, Jacob; Mozena, Jonathan; Borish, Larry; Lewis, Barrett D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions. Objective We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb. Methods Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens. Results Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal. Conclusion We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb. PMID:19070355

  3. Clostridium butyricum in combination with specific immunotherapy converts antigen-specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hong-Ying; Tao, Li; Zhao, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zeng, Gu-Cheng; Cai, Song-Wang; Li, Yun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hui-Guo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of antigen specific immunotherapy (SIT) on asthma is supposed to be improved. Published data indicate that administration of probiotics alleviates allergic diseases. B cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. This study aims to modulate antigen specific B cell property by the administration of Clostridium butyrate (CB) in combination with SIT. The results showed that after a 3-month treatment, the total asthma clinical score and serum specific IgE were improved in the patients treated with SIT, which was further improved in those treated with both SIT and CB, but not in those treated with CB alone. Treatment with SIT and CB increased p300 and STAT3 activation, up regulated the IL-10 gene transcription and increased the frequency of peripheral antigen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration with SIT in combination with CB converts Der p 1 specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthma patients allergic to Der p 1. The data suggest a potential therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:26857726

  4. [Classification of allergens by positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis based on specific IgE antibodies in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, E; Baba, M

    1992-10-01

    Classification and characterization of allergens is important because allergic patients are sensitized by a variety of allergens. One hundred and sixty-one sera from asthmatic children were investigated for specific IgE antibodies against 35 allergens including 20 inhalants and 15 foods by means of the MAST method. We assessed the allergenic properties of the allergens based on positive percentage agreement and cluster analysis. There was a high positive percentage agreement of specific IgE antibodies between house dust and Dermatophagoides spp., a relatively high agreement between 5 molds, cat and dog epithelium, mugwort and wormwood and 5 grasses. Among the food allergens, the positive percentage agreements were relatively high, especially between cow's milk, casein, cheese, and between 3 cereal grains. In the cluster analysis, house dust and Dermatophagoides spp. made a big cluster; therefore 32 allergens except house dust and mites were analyzed. From the results of the cluster analysis, the major cluster consisted of (1) ragweed, (2) mugwort and wormwood, (3) timothy, sweet vernal, velvet and cultivated rye, (4) wheat, barley and rice, (5) molds, (6) cow's milk, casein, soybean and cheese, (7) shrimp and crab, (8) egg white, (9) Japanese cedar, (10) dog epithelium, (11) cat epithelium. The cluster of grass pollens and cereal grains made one cluster. These results tend to confirm the presence of species cross-reactivities within the major classes of allergens. PMID:1482294

  5. Progressive Cross-Reactivity in IgE Responses: an Explanation for the Slow Development of Human Immunity to Schistosomiasis?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Frances M.; Pinot de Moira, Angela; Protasio, Anna V.; Khalife, Jamal; Dickinson, Harriet A.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2012-01-01

    People in regions of Schistosoma mansoni endemicity slowly acquire immunity, but why this takes years to develop is still not clear. It has been associated with increases in parasite-specific IgE, induced, some investigators propose, to antigens exposed during the death of adult worms. These antigens include members of the tegumental-allergen-like protein family (TAL1 to TAL13). Previously, in a group of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males, we showed that IgE responses to three TALs expressed in worms (TAL1, -3, and -5) became more prevalent with age. Now, in a subcohort we examined associations of these responses with resistance to reinfection and use the data to propose a mechanism for the slow development of immunity. IgE was measured 9 weeks posttreatment and at reinfection at 2 years (n = 144). An anti-TAL5 IgE (herein referred to as TAL5 IgE) response was associated with reduced reinfection even after adjusting for age using regression analysis (geometric mean odds ratio, 0.24; P = 0.016). TAL5 IgE responders were a subset of TAL3 IgE responders, themselves a subset of TAL1 responders. TAL3 IgE and TAL5 IgE were highly cross-reactive, with TAL3 the immunizing antigen and TAL5 the cross-reactive antigen. Transcriptional and translational studies show that TAL3 is most abundant in adult worms and that TAL5 is most abundant in infectious larvae. We propose that in chronic schistosomiasis, older individuals have repeatedly experienced IgE antigens exposed when adult worms die (e.g., TAL3) and that this leads to increasing cross-reactivity with antigens of invading larvae (e.g., TAL5). Progressive accumulation of worm/larvae cross-reactivity could explain the age-dependent immunity observed in areas of endemicity. PMID:23006852

  6. Nonprostatic sources of prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Diamandis, E P; Yu, H

    1997-05-01

    The name prostate-specific antigen has been given to a protein that now is known not to be prostate-specific; however, prostatic tissue does produces extremely high levels of PSA and secrets it into the seminal plasma. Seminal plasma contains about 1 million micrograms/L of PSA and is the richest source of PSA reported. The biologic fluid with the second highest PSA concentration, however, is nipple aspirate fluid from the female breast (up to about 5000 micrograms/L), and the third is milk from lactating women (up to 300 micrograms/L). Male serum PSA is usually less than 4 micrograms/L. In nonprostatic tissues, PSA exists mainly in its free molecular form, but PSA-ACT complex is also present in most of the fluids that contain PSA, such as breast secretions and amniotic fluid. The gene expression and protein production of PSA in nonprostatic tissues are under the regulation of steroid hormones via their receptors. Androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestins up-regulate the PSA gene expression, resulting in an increase of protein production. Estrogen by itself seems to have no effect on PSA regulation, but it can impair PSA production induced by androgen. It remains unknown whether PSA is enzymatically active and what is the physiologic role of PSA in nonprostatic tissues. It is speculated that PSA may be involved in the regulation of growth factors. Measuring PSA in breast cancer cytosol, breast-nipple aspirate fluid, and female serum may have potential clinical utilities, including breast cancer prognosis, breast cancer risk assessment, and evaluation of androgen excess. Further studies are needed to identify the exact function and regulation of PSA in nonprostatic tissues and to explore the clinical application of this protein. PMID:9126224

  7. Listening to mozart reduces allergic skin wheal responses and in vitro allergen-specific IgE production in atopic dermatitis patients with latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    In atopic dermatitis patients with latex allergy, listening to Mozart reduced skin wheal responses induced by latex, but not by histamine, whereas listening to Beethoven failed to produce similar results. Listening to Mozart also decreased in vitro total IgE and latex-specific IgE production with concomitant skewing of the cytokine pattern toward the Th1 type, that is, an increase in Th1 cytokine production and decrease in Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas listening to Beethoven failed to do so. These results suggest that therapy using specific types of music may be an effective treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:14977243

  8. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; Montaño, Sherwin P.; Kurosawa, Kohei; Zheng, Yupeng; Akin, Louesa R.; Świst-Rosowska, Kalina M.; Grzybowski, Adrian T.; Koide, Akiko; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Ruthenburg, Alexander J.; Koide, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. This “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies. PMID:26862167

  9. Persistence of IgE-associated allergy and allergen-specific IgE despite CD4+ T cell loss in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Wollmann, Eva; Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Valenta, Rudolf; Sibanda, Elopy

    2014-01-01

    The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT), and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73%) followed by asthma (27%) due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire. PMID:24896832

  10. Strain-specific virulence-associated antigen of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W A; Leong, J K; Hough, D M

    1975-01-01

    A strain-specific virulence-associated antigen has been found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain F-62. Using immunodiffusion in agar gel, it has been shown that the antigen is distinguishable from endotoxin and the virulence-associated toxic protein. It does not appear to be derived from pili. The antigen was not detected in T1 and/or T2 colony type cultures of 10 other isolates. It exhibited a possible partial immunological relationship with an antigen found in one additional strain. It was susceptible to digestion with Pronase and trypsin. Images PMID:804445

  11. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    SciTech Connect

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  12. Immunoediting and Antigen Loss: Overcoming the Achilles Heel of Immunotherapy with Antigen Non-Specific Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Monjazeb, Arta Monir; Zamora, Anthony E.; Grossenbacher, Steven K.; Mirsoian, Annie; Sckisel, Gail D.; Murphy, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a mainstream therapy option in the battle against cancer. Pre-clinical data demonstrates the ability of immunotherapy to harness the immune system to fight disseminated malignancy. Clinical translation has failed to recapitulate the promising results of pre-clinical studies although there have been some successes. In this review we explore some of the short-comings of cancer immunotherapy that have limited successful clinical translation. We will give special consideration to what we consider the most formidable hurdle to successful cancer immunotherapy: tumor-induced immune suppression and immune escape. We will discuss the need for antigen-specific immune responses for successful immunotherapy but also consider the need for antigen specificity as an Achilles heel of immunotherapy given tumor heterogeneity, immune editing, and antigen loss. Finally, we will discuss how combinatorial strategies may overcome some of the pitfalls of antigen specificity and highlight recent studies from our lab which suggest that the induction of antigen non-specific immune responses may also produce robust anti-tumor effects and bypass the need for antigen specificity. PMID:23898464

  13. Genetic basis of IgE responsiveness: relevance to the atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Marsh, D G; Neely, J D; Breazeale, D R; Ghosh, B; Freidhoff, L R; Schou, C; Beaty, T H

    1995-01-01

    Genetic analysis of 170 subjects in 11 extended Amish families revealed evidence for linkage of five markers in chromosome 5q31.1 with a gene controlling total serum IgE levels. No linkage was found between these markers and specific IgE antibody levels. Analysis of total IgE within a subset of 128 IgE-antibody-negative sib pairs confirmed evidence for linkage to 5q31.1, especially IL4 (p = 4 x 10(-6)). These and other data suggest that IL4 or a nearby gene regulates IgE production in a non-antigen-specific (noncognate) fashion and provide evidence for a possible link between asthma and the IL4 gene. PMID:7613143

  14. Antigenic liposomes displaying CD22 ligands induce antigen-specific B cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Macauley, Matthew S.; Pfrengle, Fabian; Rademacher, Christoph; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Gale, Andrew J.; von Drygalski, Annette; Paulson, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies confer humoral immunity but can also be harmful when they target an autoantigen, alloantigen, allergen, or biotherapeutic. New strategies are needed for antigen-specific suppression of undesired antibody responses, particularly to T cell–dependent protein antigens, because they elicit T cell help. Here we show that liposomal nanoparticles, displaying both antigen and glycan ligands of the inhibitory coreceptor CD22, induce a tolerogenic program that selectively causes apoptosis in mouse and human B cells. These SIGLEC-engaging tolerance-inducing antigenic liposomes (STALs, where SIGLEC is defined as sialic acid–binding Ig-like lectin) induced robust antigen-specific tolerance to protein antigens in mice, preventing subsequent immune response to challenge with the same antigen. Since development of inhibitory antibodies to FVIII is a serious problem in treatment of hemophilia A patients, we investigated the potential of this approach for inducing tolerance to FVIII in a hemophilia mouse model. STALs prevented formation of inhibitory FVIII antibodies, allowing for effective administration of FVIII to hemophilia mice to prevent bleeding. These findings suggest that STALs could be used to eliminate or prevent harmful B cell–mediated immune responses. PMID:23722906

  15. Association Between Specific Timothy Grass Antigens and Changes in Thelper 1 and 2 Cell Responses Following Specific Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Sidney, John; Greenbaum, Jason; Frazier, April; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Different populations of T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Objective We investigated changes in T-helper (Th) cell populations in patients with allergies following specific immunotherapy (SIT). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from patients with allergies who received specific immunotherapy (SIT) and those who did not (controls). We tested the ability of peptides from 93 Timothy grass (TG) proteins to induce T-cell responses (cytokine production). We used ELISPOT and staining assays for intracellular cytokines to measure production of interleukin (IL)4, IL5, IL13, interferon (IFN)γ, and IL10. Results Compared with PBMC from controls, PBMC from patients who received SIT produced lower levels of Th2 cytokines upon incubation with several different TG peptides. These data were used to select 20 peptides to be tested an independent cohort of 20 patients with allergies who received SIT and 20 controls. We again observed a significant decrease in production of Th2 cytokines, and an increase in production of the Th1 cytokine IFNγ, in PBMC from the validation groups. These changes correlated with improved symptoms after SIT. Immunization with this selected pool of peptides (or their associated antigens) could protect a substantial proportion of the population from TG allergy. Conclusions We observed a significant decrease in production of Th2 cytokines by PBMC from patients who received SIT for TG allergy, compared with those who did not. These changes might be used to monitor response to therapy. The decrease occurred in response to antigens that elicit little (if any) immunoglobulin (Ig)E responses; these antigens might be developed for use in immunotherapy. PMID:25042980

  16. Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE to Peanut and Ara h 2 in Korean Children with Peanut Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Young; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Kwanghoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Min-Ji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish the diagnostic decision point (DDP) of peanut specific IgE (sIgE) for predicting the outcome of oral food challenge (OFC). We also evaluated the usefulness of sIgE to peanut components (Ara h 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9) in diagnosing peanut allergy. Methods Korean children aged over 12 months with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. Diagnosis of peanut allergy was confirmed by an open OFC or through the convincing history of anaphylaxis. Cutoff levels of sIgE to peanut and peanut components were determined by analyzing receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Forty-eight children (22 boys and 26 girls) with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. The previously established DDP for peanut-sIgE antibodies (14 kU/L) showed a sensitivity of 22.7%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value of 60.4% in our study population. The median levels of peanut-sIgE (5.4 kU/L vs 1.1 kU/L, P<0.001) and Ara h 2-sIgE (0.8 kU/L vs 0 kU/L, P<0.001) were significantly higher in the peanut allergy group than in the peanut tolerance group. The peanut-sIgE concentration indicating a PPV of 100% was 10.3 kU/L. The Ara h 2-sIgE level of 4.0 kU/L had a PPV of 100%. Conclusions Our results showed that the cutoff levels for peanut (10.3 kU/L) and Ara h 2 (4.0 kU/L) established in this study is useful for the diagnosis of peanut allergy in Korean children. PMID:26739409

  17. Allergy to Red Meat: A Diagnosis Made by the Patient and Confirmed by an Assay for IgE Antibodies Specific for Alpha-1,3-Galactose.

    PubMed

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Kourouma, Sarah; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidje Joseph; Gbery, Ildevert Patrice; Allou, Ange S; Diabate, Almamy; Djeha, Djokouehi; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Yoboue, Yao Pauline

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of allergy to red meat observed in Ivory Coast. A 49-year-old male presented with pruritus. The diagnosis of allergy to red meat was confirmed by an assay for IgE antibodies specific for alpha-1,3 galactose. Interestingly, the disease was considered a spell to the patient who was suspected of being a sorcerer by the community. PMID:26933408

  18. Antigen-specific immune reactions to ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Urra, Xabier; Miró, Francesc; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain proteins are detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of stroke patients and their concentration is related to the extent of brain damage. Antibodies against brain antigens develop after stroke, suggesting a humoral immune response to the brain injury. Furthermore, induced immune tolerance is beneficial in animal models of cerebral ischemia. The presence of circulating T cells sensitized against brain antigens, and antigen presenting cells (APCs) carrying brain antigens in draining lymphoid tissue of stroke patients support the notion that stroke might induce antigen-specific immune responses. After stroke, brain proteins that are normally hidden from the periphery, inflammatory mediators, and danger signals can exit the brain through several efflux routes. They can reach the blood after leaking out of the damaged blood-brain barrier (BBB) or following the drainage of interstitial fluid to the dural venous sinus, or reach the cervical lymph nodes through the nasal lymphatics following CSF drainage along the arachnoid sheaths of nerves across the nasal submucosa. The route and mode of access of brain antigens to lymphoid tissue could influence the type of response. Central and peripheral tolerance prevents autoimmunity, but the actual mechanisms of tolerance to brain antigens released into the periphery in the presence of inflammation, danger signals, and APCs, are not fully characterized. Stroke does not systematically trigger autoimmunity, but under certain circumstances, such as pronounced systemic inflammation or infection, autoreactive T cells could escape the tolerance controls. Further investigation is needed to elucidate whether antigen-specific immune events could underlie neurological complications impairing recovery from stroke. PMID:25309322

  19. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, N. Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism. PMID:26163514

  20. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant. PMID:22844463

  1. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells.

    PubMed

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning; Dam, Svend; Lorentzen, Andrea; Miehe, Michaela; Jabs, Frederic; Jakob, Thilo; Plum, Melanie; Spillner, Edzard

    2016-04-01

    TH2-biased immunity to parasites and allergens is often associated with increased levels of antigen-specific and high affinity IgE. The role in reacting against minute amounts of target structures and to provoke severe anaphylactic reactions renders IgE a mechanistically outstanding isotype. IgE represents the least abundant serum antibody isotype and exhibits a variety of peculiarities including structure, extensive glycosylation and effector functions. Despite large progress in antibody technologies, however, the recombinant access to isotypes beyond IgG such as IgE still is scarce. The capacity of expression systems has to meet the complex structural conformations and the extensive posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for biological activity. In order to provide alternatives to mammalian expression systems with often low yield and a more complex glycosylation pattern we established the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the rIgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype. PMID:26943931

  2. Specificity of antibodies to immunodominant mycobacterial antigens in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jackett, P S; Bothamley, G H; Batra, H V; Mistry, A; Young, D B; Ivanyi, J

    1988-01-01

    A serological survey was performed in groups of patients with active sputum smear-positive or smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis, healthy household contacts, and controls. Sera were tested for titers of antibodies which bound to each of five purified mycobacterial antigens by enzyme immunoassay and for competition of binding to single epitopes, using six radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies directed toward corresponding molecules. The evaluation of diagnostic specificity was based on a positive score represented by titers above the cutoff point of 2 standard deviations above the mean titer of a control group. For smear-positive samples, the best sensitivity (83%) was achieved by exclusive use of the 38-kilodalton (kDa) antigen or its corresponding monoclonal antibodies. For smear-negative samples, levels of antibodies binding to the 19-kDa antigen showed a lower sensitivity of 62% compared with the control group or 38% compared with the contact group. Titers of antibody binding to the 14-kDa antigen were raised in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated contacts, indicating that the greatest potential of this antigen may be in the detection of infection in a population for which tuberculin testing is unreliable. The results demonstrated the differing antibody responses to each of the tested antigens and distinct associations with the stage of infection or disease. PMID:2466869

  3. Identification and characterization of specific hydatid antigen fraction(s).

    PubMed

    Maher, K M; Kaddah, M A; Hassanein, H I; Shaker, Z A; Khalafallah, A M

    1992-08-01

    A specific hydatid antigen was prepared in this study from Echinococcus granulosus cyst in livers and lungs of camels. Elimination of host "camel" protein from crude hydatid fluid was achieved by two methods: Salting out using ammonium sulfate precipitation method and immunoaffinity purification using coupled anticamel antibody to cyanogenbromide activated sepharose 4B gel. Testing the prepared hydatid antigen against anticamel serum, using immunodiffusion method, indicated that the affinity purified hydatid antigen was almost completely purified from camel protein. Characterization of the affinity purified hydatid antigen, using immunoelectrophoresis, showed positive arc 5 precipitation when tested against known positive antihydatid sera. Further characterization with gradient gel electrophoresis, showed with silver stain that the dominant and most consistently demonstrable proteins occurred as a complex in the 52/62 KDa region. Strong reaction with the 52/62 KDa complex was consistently observed when the affinity purified hydatid antigen was probed with known positive reference antihydatid sera. The identified hydatid antigen fraction(s) with 52/62 KDa complex can provide promising non-invasive parameter for diagnosis of Hydatidosis. PMID:1500792

  4. Antigen-specificity using chimeric antigen receptors: the future of regulatory T-cell therapy?

    PubMed

    Boardman, Dominic; Maher, John; Lechler, Robert; Smyth, Lesley; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2016-04-15

    Adoptive regulatory T-cell (Treg) therapy using autologous Tregs expandedex vivois a promising therapeutic approach which is currently being investigated clinically as a means of treating various autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. Despite this, early results have highlighted the need for potent Tregs to yield a substantial clinical advantage. One way to achieve this is to create antigen-specific Tregs which have been shown in pre-clinical animal models to have an increased potency at suppressing undesired immune responses, compared to polyclonal Tregs. This mini review outlines where Treg therapy currently stands and discusses the approaches which may be taken to generate antigen-specific Tregs, including the potential use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), for future clinical trials. PMID:27068938

  5. Antigen-specific immune responses to influenza vaccine in utero

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Deepa; Wang, Chaodong; Mao, Xia; Lendor, Cynthia; Rothman, Paul B.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    Initial immune responses to allergens may occur before birth, thereby modulating the subsequent development of atopy. This paradigm remains controversial, however, due to the inability to identify antigen-specific T cells in cord blood. The advent of MHC tetramers has revolutionized the detection of antigen-specific T cells. Tetramer staining of cord blood after CMV infection has demonstrated that effective CD8+ antigen-specific immune responses can follow intrauterine viral infections. We hypothesized that sensitization to antigens occurs in utero in humans. We studied cord blood B and T cell immune responses following vaccination against influenza during pregnancy. Anti-Fluzone and anti-matrix protein IgM antibodies were detected in 38.5% (27 of 70) and 40.0% (28 of 70), respectively, of cord blood specimens. Using MHC tetramers, HA-specific CD4+ T cells were detected among 25.0% (3 of 12) and 42.9% (6 of 14) of cord blood specimens possessing DRB1*0101 and DRB1*0401 HLA types, respectively, and were detected even when the DRB1 HLA type was inherited from the father. Matrix protein–specific CD8+ T cells were detected among 10.0% (2 of 20) of HLA-A*0201+ newborns. These results suggest that B and T cell immune responses occur in the fetus following vaccination against influenza and have important implications for determining when immune responses to environmental exposures begin. PMID:17549258

  6. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W.; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D.; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H.; Alter, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.   PMID:26982805

  7. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Jennewein, Madeleine F; Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  . PMID:26982805

  8. Monoclonal antibody specific for a pigmentation associated antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.M.; Mattes, M.J.; Old, L.J.; Lloyd, K.O

    1989-01-17

    Monoclonal antibody TA99, which specifically binds to a pigmentation associated antigen present on melanoma cells is described. Additionally, the hybridoma cell line deposited with the ATCC under Accession Number HB 8704 from which the antibody is derived, as well as methods for using the antibody are described.

  9. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  10. Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses and in vitro allergen-specific IgE production by computer-induced stress in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-04-01

    Computer-induced stress enhanced allergen-specific skin wheal responses in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) while it failed to do so in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Computer-induced stress also enhanced plasma levels of substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in patients with AD, but not with AR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with combination of IL-4, IL-10, anti-CD40 mAb, and allergen produced allergen-specific IgE production in both patients with AD and AR. Computer-induced stress enhanced allergen-specific IgE production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with AD, but not from patients with AR. This is the first report that computer-induced stress enhances allergen-specific responses with concomitant increase of plasma levels of SP and VIP specifically in patients with AD. Since AD is often aggravated by stress, these finding may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of AD. PMID:12676575

  11. Suppression of Antigen-Specific Lymphocyte Activation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David; Pride, Michael W.; Brown, Eric L.; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    1999-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in astronauts during and after spaceflight, and in isolated immune cells in true and simulated microgravity. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T cells is severely suppressed in true and simulated microgravity. These recent findings with various polyclonal activators suggests a suppression of oligoclonal lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors that simulate aspects of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR), as a model for a primary immune response; a tetanus toxoid (TT) response and a B. burgdorferi (Bb) response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  12. Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome is not associated with local production of specific IgE in nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; Rasp, Julia; Eder, Katharina; Berghaus, Alexander; Kramer, Matthias F; Gröger, Moritz

    2016-06-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is an eosinophilic inflammation of the nasal mucosa without evidence of an allergy or other nasal pathologies. Patients complain about perennial symptoms like nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itchiness and sneezing of the nose sometimes accompanied by hyposmia. The aim of the study was to better characterize NARES patients using immunoassay-biochip technology to examine serum and nasal secretion. Sera and nasal secretion of patients with NARES (perennial nasal symptoms, no evidence of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps, negative SX1-Screening test and/or negative skin prick test, eosinophilic cationic protein in nasal secretion >200 ng/ml) were tested by immunoassay-biochip technology (ImmunoCAP(®) ISAC, Phadia). 112 different allergen components from 51 allergen sources were tested on the chip. Furthermore, serum and nasal secretion were tested for specific IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1 by fluorescence-enzyme-immunoassay (UniCAP(®), Phadia). Unrecognized systemic sensitization could be ruled out by negative ISAC results in sera of all patients. Testing of nasal secretion for allergen-specific IgE by ISAC chip technology was negative as well in all cases. In one patient, a systemic sensitization to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen TSST-1 was detectable but no allergen-specific IgE to TSST-1 was measurable in nasal secretion of any patient. The results demonstrate that NARES is not associated with local allergy (entopy) nor with a local inflammation driven by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin TSST-1. Further studies are necessary to better understand the underlying mechanisms of NARES. PMID:26342925

  13. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  14. Antigen-Specific Therapeutic Approaches in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Clemente-Casares, Xavier; Tsai, Sue; Huang, Carol; Santamaria, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Development of strategies capable of specifically curbing pathogenic autoimmune responses in a disease- and organ-specific manner without impairing foreign or tumor antigen-specific immune responses represents a long sought-after goal in autoimmune disease research. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the intricate details of the different autoimmune diseases that affect mankind, including type 1 diabetes, is rudimentary. As a result, progress in the development of the so-called “antigen-specific” therapies for autoimmunity has been slow and fraught with limitations that interfere with bench-to-bedside translation. Absent or incomplete understanding of mechanisms of action and lack of adequate immunological biomarkers, for example, preclude the rational design of effective drug development programs. Here, we provide an overview of antigen-specific approaches that have been tested in preclinical models of T1D and, in some cases, human subjects. The evidence suggests that effective translation of these approaches through clinical trials and into patients will continue to meet with failure unless detailed mechanisms of action at the level of the organism are defined. PMID:22355799

  15. Antigen specificity can be irrelevant to immunocytokine efficacy and biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Alice; Kwan, Byron H.; Opel, Cary F.; Navaratna, Tejas; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine therapy can activate potent, sustained antitumor responses, but collateral toxicity often limits dosages. Although antibody–cytokine fusions (immunocytokines) have been designed with the intent to localize cytokine activity, systemic dose-limiting side effects are not fully ameliorated by attempted tumor targeting. Using the s.c. B16F10 melanoma model, we found that a nontoxic dose of IL-2 immunocytokine synergized with tumor-specific antibody to significantly enhance therapeutic outcomes compared with immunocytokine monotherapy, concomitant with increased tumor saturation and intratumoral cytokine responses. Examination of cell subset biodistribution showed that the immunocytokine associated mainly with IL-2R–expressing innate immune cells, with more bound immunocytokine present in systemic organs than the tumor microenvironment. More surprisingly, immunocytokine antigen specificity and Fcγ receptor interactions did not seem necessary for therapeutic efficacy or biodistribution patterns because immunocytokines with irrelevant specificity and/or inactive mutant Fc domains behaved similarly to tumor-specific immunocytokine. IL-2–IL-2R interactions, rather than antibody–antigen targeting, dictated immunocytokine localization; however, the lack of tumor targeting did not preclude successful antibody combination therapy. Mathematical modeling revealed immunocytokine size as another driver of antigen targeting efficiency. This work presents a safe, straightforward strategy for augmenting immunocytokine efficacy by supplementary antibody dosing and explores underappreciated factors that can subvert efforts to purposefully alter cytokine biodistribution. PMID:25733854

  16. Antigen specificity can be irrelevant to immunocytokine efficacy and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Alice; Kwan, Byron H; Opel, Cary F; Navaratna, Tejas; Wittrup, K Dane

    2015-03-17

    Cytokine therapy can activate potent, sustained antitumor responses, but collateral toxicity often limits dosages. Although antibody-cytokine fusions (immunocytokines) have been designed with the intent to localize cytokine activity, systemic dose-limiting side effects are not fully ameliorated by attempted tumor targeting. Using the s.c. B16F10 melanoma model, we found that a nontoxic dose of IL-2 immunocytokine synergized with tumor-specific antibody to significantly enhance therapeutic outcomes compared with immunocytokine monotherapy, concomitant with increased tumor saturation and intratumoral cytokine responses. Examination of cell subset biodistribution showed that the immunocytokine associated mainly with IL-2R-expressing innate immune cells, with more bound immunocytokine present in systemic organs than the tumor microenvironment. More surprisingly, immunocytokine antigen specificity and Fcγ receptor interactions did not seem necessary for therapeutic efficacy or biodistribution patterns because immunocytokines with irrelevant specificity and/or inactive mutant Fc domains behaved similarly to tumor-specific immunocytokine. IL-2-IL-2R interactions, rather than antibody-antigen targeting, dictated immunocytokine localization; however, the lack of tumor targeting did not preclude successful antibody combination therapy. Mathematical modeling revealed immunocytokine size as another driver of antigen targeting efficiency. This work presents a safe, straightforward strategy for augmenting immunocytokine efficacy by supplementary antibody dosing and explores underappreciated factors that can subvert efforts to purposefully alter cytokine biodistribution. PMID:25733854

  17. Prostate-specific antigen-negative prostate cancer recurrence?

    PubMed

    Froehner, Michael; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Wirth, Manfred P

    2013-02-01

    We describe a patient with bone metastases occurring shortly after radical prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer. The medical history and immunohistochemical findings suggested prostate cancer recurrence to the skeleton. Undetectable serum prostate-specific antigen levels, however, raised doubts about this diagnosis. A whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was obtained and revealed a right-sided breast cancer as the primary site of metastatic spread. PMID:23374851

  18. Expanding antigen-specific regulatory networks to treat autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Casares, Xavier; Blanco, Jesus; Ambalavanan, Poornima; Yamanouchi, Jun; Singha, Santiswarup; Fandos, Cesar; Tsai, Sue; Wang, Jinguo; Garabatos, Nahir; Izquierdo, Cristina; Agrawal, Smriti; Keough, Michael B; Yong, V Wee; James, Eddie; Moore, Anna; Yang, Yang; Stratmann, Thomas; Serra, Pau; Santamaria, Pere

    2016-02-25

    Regulatory T cells hold promise as targets for therapeutic intervention in autoimmunity, but approaches capable of expanding antigen-specific regulatory T cells in vivo are currently not available. Here we show that systemic delivery of nanoparticles coated with autoimmune-disease-relevant peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHCII) molecules triggers the generation and expansion of antigen-specific regulatory CD4(+) T cell type 1 (TR1)-like cells in different mouse models, including mice humanized with lymphocytes from patients, leading to resolution of established autoimmune phenomena. Ten pMHCII-based nanomedicines show similar biological effects, regardless of genetic background, prevalence of the cognate T-cell population or MHC restriction. These nanomedicines promote the differentiation of disease-primed autoreactive T cells into TR1-like cells, which in turn suppress autoantigen-loaded antigen-presenting cells and drive the differentiation of cognate B cells into disease-suppressing regulatory B cells, without compromising systemic immunity. pMHCII-based nanomedicines thus represent a new class of drugs, potentially useful for treating a broad spectrum of autoimmune conditions in a disease-specific manner. PMID:26886799

  19. Prevention of Th2-like cell responses by coadministration of IL-12 and IL-18 is associated with inhibition of antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, and serum IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, C L; Van Ark, I; Hofman, G; Kool, M; Nijkamp, F P; Van Oosterhout, A J

    1998-11-01

    Allergic asthma is thought to be regulated by Th2 cells, and inhibiting this response is a promising mode of intervention. Many studies have focused on differentiation of Th cells to the Th1 or Th2 subset in vitro. IL-4 is essential for Th2 development, while IL-12 induces Th1 development, which can be enhanced by IL-18. In the present study, we investigated whether IL-12 and IL-18 were able to interfere in Th2 development and the associated airway symptoms in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized with OVA using a protocol that induces IgE production. Repeated challenges by OVA inhalation induced elevated serum levels of IgE, airway hyperresponsiveness, and a predominantly eosinophilic infiltrate in the bronchoalveolar lavage concomitant with the appearance of Ag-specific Th2-like cells in lung tissue and lung-draining lymph nodes. Whereas treatments with neither IL-12 nor IL-18 during the challenge period were effective, combined treatment of IL-12 and IL-18 inhibited Ag-specific Th2-like cell development. This inhibition was associated with an absence of IgE up-regulation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and cellular infiltration in the lavage. These data show that, in vivo, the synergistic action of IL-12 and IL-18 is necessary to prevent Th2-like cell differentiation, and consequently inhibits the development of airway symptoms in a mouse model of allergic asthma. PMID:9794443

  20. Serum IgE clearance is facilitated by human FcεRI internalization

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Alexandra M.; Wu, Nan; Putnam, Amy L.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Wolters, Paul; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Jeoung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI is constitutively expressed in mast cells and basophils and is required for transmitting stimulatory signals upon engagement of IgE-bound allergens. FcεRI is also constitutively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in humans; however, the specific functions of the FcεRI expressed by these cells are not completely understood. Here, we found that FcεRI expressed by human blood DC antigen 1–positive (BDCA1+) DCs and monocytes, but not basophils, traffics to endolysosomal compartments under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, IgE bound to FcεRI on BDCA1+ DCs was rapidly endocytosed, transported to the lysosomes, and degraded in vitro. IgE injected into mice expressing human FcεRIα (FCER1A-Tg mice) was endocytosed by conventional DCs and monocytes, and endocytosis was associated with rapid clearance of circulating IgE from these mice. Importantly, this rapid IgE clearance was dependent on monocytes or DCs but not basophils. These findings strongly suggest that constitutive internalization of human FcεRI by DCs and monocytes distinctively contributes to serum IgE clearance. PMID:24569373

  1. Dendritic cell-bound IgE functions to restrain allergic inflammation at mucosal sites

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Baker, Kristi; Vera, Miguel Pinilla; Singer, Kathleen; Panduro, Marisella; Lexmond, Willem S.; Turner, Devin; Vargas, Sara O.; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Maurer, Dieter; Baron, Rebecca M.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-mediated crosslinking of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to mast cells/basophils via FcεRI, the high affinity IgE Fc-receptor, is a well-known trigger of allergy. In humans, but not mice, dendritic cells (DCs) also express FcεRI that is constitutively occupied with IgE. In contrast to mast cells/basophils, the consequences of IgE/FcεRI signals for DC function remain poorly understood. We show that humanized mice that express FcεRI on DCs carry IgE like non-allergic humans and do not develop spontaneous allergies. Antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking fails to induce maturation or production of inflammatory mediators in human DCs and FcεRI-humanized DCs. Furthermore, conferring expression of FcεRI to DCs decreases the severity of food allergy and asthma in disease-relevant models suggesting anti-inflammatory IgE/FcεRI signals. Consistent with the improved clinical parameters in vivo, antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking on papain or LPS-stimulated DCs inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Migration assays confirm that the IgE-dependent decrease in cytokine production results in diminished recruitment of mast cell progenitors; providing a mechanistic explanation for the reduced mast cell-dependent allergic phenotype observed in FcεRI-humanized mice. Our study demonstrates a novel immune regulatory function of IgE and proposes that DC-intrinsic IgE signals serve as a feedback mechanism to restrain allergic tissue inflammation. PMID:25227985

  2. Screening for IgE mediated allergy among people working in the Marseilles harbour.

    PubMed

    Panzani, R C; Falagiani, P; Riva, G; Mercier, P; Delord

    1993-01-01

    Screening for IgE mediated allergy by RASTs to professional (castor bean, green coffee, peanut, soy protein, wheat, rice), and non professional (pollens, mites, cat, Alternaria tenuis) air borne antigens among 36 people working in the Marseilles harbour has showed rather unexpected findings: only one case of IgE positivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (class I) and one case of IgE positivity to castor bean seed (Ricinus communis) (class IV). IgG4 specific antibodies against castor bean and green coffee were also measured by an ELISA technique, with eleven cases of positivity to castor bean and only one case to green coffee being recorded. Several explanations can be put forward for the low incidence of IgE responses to the commonest airborne antigens and to the professional antigens (castor bean being the only offender), and for the rather high incidence of specific IgG4 antibodies to castor bean. Most likely, the low incidence of latent atopy is the result of a natural selection among the workers who gave up their job if experiencing of discomfort. As far as the elevated IgG4 antibody levels to castor bean are concerned, these are probably natural blocking antibodies. PMID:8328353

  3. Specific Antigen in Serum of Patients with Colon Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Herlyn, Meenhard; Steplewski, Zenon; Sears, Henry F.

    1981-04-01

    The binding of monoclonal antibody specific for colon carcinoma was inhibited by serum from patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon but not by serum from patients with other bowel diseases or from healthy volunteers. Of other malignancies studied, serum from two patients with gastric carcinoma and two patients with pancreatic carcinoma also inhibited the specific binding of monoclonal antibody. The levels of carcinoembryonic antigen in these serum samples were not correlated with their levels of binding inhibition. Such monoclonal antibodies may prove useful for the detection of colorectal carcinoma.

  4. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-wu; Wang, Zhi-xiang; Kong, Xing-ai; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-xin; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Results: Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost all Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. Conclusions: The prevalence of birch allergy among patients visiting health care during pollen season can be as high as 16.7% in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch allergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 as well as to the major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4. A relatively high number of patients (17.6%) are IgE-sensitized to birch pollen allergen(s) other than Bet v 1. The high prevalence of specific IgE to Mal d 1 and Gly m 4 among Bet v 1-sensitized patients indicates that pollen-food allergy syndrome could be of clinical relevance in China. PMID:27143268

  5. Reduced level of sex-specific antigen (H-Y antigen) on lymphocytes in some patients with bilateral cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Fedder, J; Hansen, L G; Hjort, T

    1989-01-01

    Sex-specific (Sxs) antigen on the surface of nucleated cells from normal human males seems to be essential for the formation of testes. The relative quantity of the antigen on lymphocytes was evaluated by absorption experiments in a complement-dependent cytotoxicity test or in an ELISA technique using antisera against Sxs antigen produced by immunization of female rats. Lymphocytes from 13 normal males were Sxs-antigen positive, and cells from 12 normal females were characterized as Sxs-antigen negative. However, in the testing of lymphocytes from nine boys with bilateral cryptorchidism, only six revealed a normal male absorption pattern, whereas the antigen level on cells from three boys, all of them with normal karyotype, was reduced compared with the normal male level. No correlation between Sxs-antigen level and testosterone response after treatment with hCG could be demonstrated. PMID:2565709

  6. Co-Localization of Multiple Antigens and Specific DNA

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Marcus; Wacker, Karin; Hickey, William F.; Ringelstein, Erich B.; Kiefer, Reinhard

    2000-01-01

    Co-localization of proteins and nucleic acid sequences by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry is frequently difficult as the process necessary to detect the target structure of one technique may negatively affect the target of the other. Morphological impairment may also limit the application of the two techniques on sensitive tissue. To overcome these problems we developed a method to perform in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry on semithin sections of methyl methacrylate-embedded tissue. Microwave-stimulated antigen retrieval, signal amplification by catalyzed reporter deposition, and fluorescent dyes were used for both techniques, yielding high sensitivity and excellent morphological preservation compared to conventional paraffin sections. Co-localization of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry signals with high morphological resolution was achieved on single sections as well as on adjacent multiple serial sections, using computerized image processing. The latter allowed for the co-localization of multiple antigens and a specific DNA sequence at the same tissue level. The method was successfully applied to radiation bone marrow chimeric rats created by transplanting wild-type Lewis rat bone marrow into TK-tsa transgenic Lewis rats, in an attempt to trace and characterize TK-tsa transgenic cells. It also proved useful in the co-localization of multiple antigens in peripheral nerve biopsies. PMID:11106556

  7. Vaccine against autoimmune disease: antigen-specific immunotherapy✩

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert P; Jabri, Bana

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in testing whether the success of antigen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) for autoimmune diseases in mice can be translated to humans has highlighted the need for better tools to study and understand human autoimmunity. Clinical development of ASIT for allergy has been instructive, but limited understanding of CD4 T cell epitope/determinant hierarchies hampers the rational design and monitoring of ASIT. Definitive identification of pathogenic T cell epitopes as is now known in celiac disease and recent initiatives to optimize immune monitoring will facilitate rational design, monitoring and mechanistic understanding of ASIT for human autoimmune diseases. PMID:23478068

  8. Specific binding of antigen onto human T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Charron, D.; Griscelli, C.

    1986-05-01

    Human T lymphocytes sensitized to Candida albicans (CA) were shown to proliferate in cultures induced with mannan, a ramified polysaccharide extracted from the cell well of CA. We presently describe that, when we used strongly labeled (/sup 3/H)mannan, antigen-specific T blast cells were able to bind the labeled mannan on their membrane. The observations that irrelevant blast cells did not bind (/sup 3/H)mannan, and that mannan-specific blast cells did not bind tritiated pneumococcal polysaccharide SIII, indicate the specificity of mannan binding. Mannan binding was reversible and saturable. Mannan binding on T blast cells was inhibited by preincubation with monoclonal antibodies to T3 but not to other T cell-related molecules. The characteristics of this receptor suggest its identity with the T cell receptor for antigen. The direct binding of mannan could be either due to a cross-linking of the receptor by multivalent mannan or to a recognition of mannan in association with HLA-DQ molecules, as suggested by partial blocking of mannan binding using anti-HLA-DQ monoclonal antibodies.

  9. Expression Cloning of Camelid Nanobodies Specific for Xenopus Embryonic Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Keiji; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental biology relies heavily on the use of conventional antibodies, but their production and maintenance involves significant effort. Here we use an expression cloning approach to identify variable regions of llama single domain antibodies (known as nanobodies), which recognize specific embryonic antigens. A nanobody cDNA library was prepared from lymphocytes of a llama immunized with Xenopus embryo lysates. Pools of bacterially expressed cDNAs were sib-selected for the ability to produce specific staining patterns in gastrula embryos. Three different nanobodies were isolated: NbP1 and NbP3 stained yolk granules, while the reactivity of NbP7 was predominantly restricted to the cytoplasm and the cortex. The isolated nanobodies recognized specific protein bands in immunoblot analysis. A reverse proteomic approach identified NbP1 target antigen as EP45/Seryp, a serine protease inhibitor. Given the unique stability of nanobodies and the ease of their expression in diverse systems, we propose that nanobody cDNA libraries represent a promising resource for molecular markers for developmental biology. PMID:25285446

  10. Exocellular components of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification of a specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Puccia, R; Schenkman, S; Gorin, P A; Travassos, L R

    1986-01-01

    Yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis grown in liquid medium produced exocellular components. Immunodiffusion reactions and immunoprecipitations of 131I-radiolabeled antigenic components with sera from patients having paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) were used to monitor the isolation of specific constituents. Components having the main antigenic activity (fCon A) were isolated by exclusion from a Bio-Gel P30 column, followed by successive binding of eluted material to a Sepharose-concanavalin A column, and elution. The product contained, from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, a minor 43,000-molecular-weight (MW) component (gp43), a polydisperse high-MW glycoconjugate, and a diffusely migrating 55,000-MW glycoprotein (gp55). Other components, including a 72,000-MW glycoprotein, were irregularly expressed. The high-MW glycoconjugate complex contained, on the basis of methylation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, a branched structure of mainly mannopyranosyl units. These were nonreducing ends, 6-O-, 2-O-, and 2,6-di-O-substituted, and the specific rotation of +16 degrees indicated that the glycosidic configurations of the units were alpha and beta in a ratio of ca. 1:1 (concanavalin A binding indicated that nonreducing ends or 2-O-substituted units or both of alpha-D-mannopyranose were present). A small proportion of nonreducing end units of D-galactopyranose were also present in this polysaccharide. gp55 is a glycoprotein containing a complex carbohydrate moiety with fucose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, either as terminal nonreducing units or substituted in positions indicated by methylation data. Both PCM and normal human sera precipitated the high-MW glycoconjugate from 131I-labeled fCon A preparations, whereas gp55 was unreactive with human sera. gp43 was a specific antigenic component of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates which could be isolated in a pure form by gel filtration column chromatography (Sephadex G150

  11. Crossreactivity of IgE antibody against Dermatophagoides farinae with Limulus polyphemus agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, M; Isoyama, S; Sumazaki, R; Takita, H

    1994-04-01

    Crossreactivity of IgE antibody against Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) with Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA) was examined using RAST and immunoblot analysis. Of 40 Der f-sensitive asthmatic patients, 28 revealed a positive RAST reaction to LPA, while none of 20 Der f-insensitive hay fever patients showed this reaction. LPA-specific RAST levels of the 40 asthmatic patients correlated with their Der f-specific levels. The RAST reactivity to LPA was competitively inhibited by the addition of either soluble Der f or LPA, but not by the specific inhibitory sugar of sialic acid. LPA could also induce histamine release from leucocytes of Der f-sensitive asthmatic patients. IgE immunoblot analyses showed that the positive RAST sera for LPA had a strong IgE binding activity to the 30 kDa and 80 kDa components of Der f body extract, whereas gel filtration studies showed that the high molecular weight fractions above 150 kDa retained antigenic constituents associated with IgE reactivity to LPA. These results suggest that the antigenic materials of Dermatophagoides mites share some determinants with the haemagglutinin of horseshoe crabs. PMID:7518731

  12. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Crispe, I Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nanoscale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The conjugation of fluoresceinated ovalbumin (FLUO-OVA) and lactobionic acid with LDL resulted in a substantially increased uptake of FLUO-OVA by murine macrophage-like ANA1 cells in preference to NIH3T3 cells, and by primary peritoneal macrophages in preference to primary hepatic stellate cells. Such preferential uptake led to enhanced proliferation of OVA specific T cells, showing that the galactosylated LDL nanoscale platform is a successful antigen carrier, targeting antigen to macrophages but not to all categories of antigen presenting cells. This system will allow targeted delivery of antigen to macrophages in the liver and elsewhere, addressing the question of the role of Kupffer cells in liver immunology. It may also be an effective way of delivering drugs or vaccines directly at macrophages. PMID:19637876

  13. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression. PMID:27398157

  14. Prostate-specific antigen testing accuracy in community practice

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard M; Gilliland, Frank D; Adams-Cameron, Meg; Hunt, William C; Key, Charles R

    2002-01-01

    Background Most data on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing come from urologic cohorts comprised of volunteers for screening programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PSA testing for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. Methods PSA testing results were compared with a reference standard of prostate biopsy. Subjects were 2,620 men 40 years and older undergoing (PSA) testing and biopsy from 1/1/95 through 12/31/98 in the Albuquerque, New Mexico metropolitan area. Diagnostic measures included the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Results Cancer was detected in 930 subjects (35%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.67 and the PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 33%. The likelihood ratio for a positive test (LR+) was 1.28 and 0.42 for a negative test (LR-). PSA testing was most sensitive (90%) but least specific (27%) in older men. Age-specific reference ranges improved specificity in older men (49%) but decreased sensitivity (70%), with an LR+ of 1.38. Lowering the PSA cutpoint to 2 ng/ml resulted in a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 20%, and an LR+ of 1.19. Conclusions PSA testing had fair discriminating power for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. The PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml was sensitive but relatively non-specific and associated likelihood ratios only moderately revised probabilities for cancer. Using age-specific reference ranges and a PSA cutpoint below 4 ng/ml improved test specificity and sensitivity, respectively, but did not improve the overall accuracy of PSA testing. PMID:12398793

  15. Recognition of Antigen-Specific B Cell Receptors From Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients By Synthetic Antigen Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Morimoto, Jumpei; Peng, Haiyong; Aquino, Claudio; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a single neoplastic antigen-specific B cell accumulates and overgrows other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. CLL is often treated with drugs that ablate all B cells, leading to further weakening of humoral immunity, and a more focused therapeutic strategy capable of targeting only the pathogenic B cells would represent a significant advance. One approach to this would be to develop synthetic surrogates of the CLL antigens allowing differentiation of the CLL cells and healthy B cells in a patient. Here, we describe discovery of non-peptidic molecules capable of targeting antigen-specific B cell receptors with good affinity and selectivity using a combinatorial library screen. We demonstrate that our hit compounds act as synthetic antigen surrogates and recognize CLL cells and not healthy B cells. Additionally, we argue that the technology we developed can be used for discovery of other classes of antigen surrogates. PMID:25467125

  16. The current state of prostate-specific antigen testing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan; Hornberger, Brad

    2016-09-01

    Since prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was approved in 1994, the incidence of metastasis and mortality from prostate cancer have significantly decreased. However, PSA screening for prostate cancer has limitations and few large randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine the mortality benefit of PSA screening. Two studies that have been conducted are the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). These were the two main studies the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) used in its recommendation against prostate cancer screening in 2012. However, new evidence has demonstrated that the PLCO trial had significant limitations and the results of the ERSPC trial were more significant than previously thought. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of the USPSTF's recommendation, along with current guidelines for prostate cancer screening. PMID:27575906

  17. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with /sup 125/I, or metabolically with (/sup 35/S) methionine or (/sup 3/H) mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen.

  18. Multiplexed BioCD for prostate specific antigen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Ming; Nolte, David D.

    2008-02-01

    Specific protein concentrations in human body fluid can serve as diagnostic markers for some diseases, and a quantitative and high-throughput technique for multiplexed protein detection would speed up diagnosis and facilitate medical research. For this purpose, our group developed the BioCD, a spinning-disc interferometric biosensor on which antibody is immobilized. The detection system adopts a common-path scheme making it ultra stable. The scaling mass sensitivity is below 10 pg/mm for protein surface density. A 25000-spot antibody BioCD was fabricated to measure the concentration of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a protein indicating prostate cancer if its level is high. Statistical analysis of our immunoassay results projects that the detection limit of PSA would reach 20 pg/ml in a 2 mg/ml background solution. For future prospects, a multiplexed BioCD can be produced for simultaneous diagnosis of diverse diseases. For instance, 100 markers above 200 pg/ml could be measured on a single disc given that the detection limit is inversely proportional to square root of the number of spots.

  19. Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  20. Antigen presentation by hapten-specific B lymphocytes. II. Specificity and properties of antigen-presenting B lymphocytes, and function of immunoglobulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, A.K.; Haber, S.; Rock, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Studies were designed to examine the ability of hapten-binding murine B lymphocytes to present hapten-protein conjugates to protein antigen-specific, Ia-restricted T cell hybridomas. BALB/c B cells specific for TNP or FITC presented hapten-modified proteins (TNP-G1 phi, TNP-OVA, or FITC-OVA) to the relevant T cell hybridomas at concentrations below 0.1 microgram/ml. Effective presentation of the same antigens by B lymphocyte-depleted splenocytes, and of unmodified proteins by either hapten-binding B cells or Ig spleen cells, required about 10(3)-to 10(4)-fold higher concentrations of antigen. The use of two different haptens and two carrier proteins showed that this extremely efficient presentation of antigen was highly specific, with hapten specificity being a property of the B cells and carrier specificity of the responding T cells. The presentation of hapten-proteins by hapten-binding B lymphocytes was radiosensitive and was not affected by the depletion of plastic-adherent cells, suggesting that conventional APCs (macrophages or dendritic cells) are not required in this phenomenon. Antigen-pulsing and antibody-blocking experiments showed that this hapten-specific antigen presentation required initial binding of antigen to surface Ig receptors. Moreover, linked recognition of hapten and carrier determinants was required, but these recognition events could be temporally separated. Finally, an antigen-processing step was found to be necessary, and this step was disrupted by ionizing radiation. These data suggest a role for B cell surface Ig in providing a specific high-affinity receptor to allow efficient uptake or focusing of antigen for its subsequent processing and presentation to T lymphocytes.

  1. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. Aim To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Methodology Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. Results IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. Conclusion We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD. PMID:27228091

  2. An antigen-specific, four-color, B-cell FluoroSpot assay utilizing tagged antigens for detection.

    PubMed

    Jahnmatz, Peter; Bengtsson, Theresa; Zuber, Bartek; Färnert, Anna; Ahlborg, Niklas

    2016-06-01

    The FluoroSpot assay, a variant of ELISpot utilizing fluorescent detection, has so far been used primarily for assessment of T cells, where simultaneous detection of several cytokines has allowed a more qualitative analysis of functionally distinct T cells. The potential to measure multiple analytes also presents several advantages when analyzing B cells. Our aim was to develop a B-cell FluoroSpot assay adaptable to studies of a variety of antigens. The assay utilizes anti-IgG antibodies immobilized in 96-well filter membrane plates. During cell culture, IgG antibodies secreted by antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are captured in the vicinity of each of these cells and the specificity of single ASCs is defined using antigens for detection. The antigens were labeled with biotin or peptide tags enabling secondary detection with fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin or tag-specific antibodies. The assay, utilizing up to four different tag systems and fluorophores simultaneously, was evaluated using hybridomas and immunized splenocytes as ASCs. Assay variants were developed that could: i) identify multiple ASCs with different antigen specificities; ii) detect ASCs showing cross-reactivity with different but related antigens; and iii) define the antigen-specificity and, by including anti-IgG subclass detection reagents, simultaneously determine the IgG subclass of antibodies secreted by ASCs. As demonstrated here, the B-cell FluoroSpot assay using tag-based detection systems provides a versatile and powerful tool to investigate antibody responses by individual cells that can be readily adapted to studies of a variety of antigen-specific ASCs. PMID:26930550

  3. Synthetic peptides with antigenic specificity for bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Sela, M; Arnon, R; Jacob, C O

    1986-01-01

    The attachment of a diphtheria toxin-specific synthetic antigenic determinant and a synthetic adjuvant to a synthetic polymeric carrier led to production of a totally synthetic macromolecule which provoked protective antibodies against diphtheria when administered in aqueous solution. When peptides related to the B subunit of cholera toxin were synthesized and attached to tetanus toxoid, antibodies produced against the conjugate reacted in some but not all cases with intact cholera toxin and (especially with peptide CTP 3, residues 50-64) neutralized toxin reactivity, as tested by permeability in rabbit skin, fluid accumulation in ligated small intestinal loops and adenylate cyclase activation. Polymerization of the peptide without any external carrier, or conjugation with the dipalmityl lysine group, had as good an effect in enhancing the immune response as its attachment to tetanus toxoid. Prior exposure to the carrier suppressed the immune response to the epitope attached to it, whereas prior exposure to the synthetic peptide had a good priming effect when the intact toxin was given; when two different peptides were attached to the same carrier, both were expressed. Antisera against peptide CTP 3 were highly cross-reactive with the heat-labile toxin of Escherichia coli and neutralized it to the same extent as cholera toxin, which is not surprising in view of the great homology between the two proteins. A synthetic oligonucleotide coding for CTP 3 has been used to express the peptide in a form suitable for immunization. It led to a priming effect against the intact cholera toxin. PMID:2426052

  4. Predictors of mortality after prostate-specific antigen failure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V. . E-mail: adamico@lroc.harvard.edu; Kantoff, Phillip; Loffredo, Marian; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Brittany; Chen Minghui

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: We identified factors associated with the length of survival after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 81 of 206 men enrolled on a randomized trial evaluating external-beam radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen suppression therapy (AST) and who experienced PSA failure. Salvage AST was administered at a PSA level of {approx}10 ng/mL as per protocol. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with length of survival after PSA failure. Results: A PSA DT (doubling time) <6 months (p = 0.04) and age at the time of PSA failure (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with length of survival. By 5 years, 35% and 65% of all-cause mortality was from prostate cancer in men whose age at PSA failure was 75 or higher vs. <75, respectively. Across all ages, 0%, 4%, as compared with 63% of men, were estimated to die of prostate cancer within 5 years after PSA failure if their PSA DT was >12, 6-12, or <6 months, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced age and a PSA DT <6 months at the time of PSA failure are associated with a significantly shorter survival.

  5. Prostate-Specific Antigen: Nonspecific in Deceased Organ Donors.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, K; Ostrowski, M; Kram, A; Safranow, K; Myślak, M; Sieńko, J; Sulikowski, T; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no clear position regarding the donation of organs from donors with prostate carcinoma (CaP) in European countries, except Italy. The lengthening of life expectancy increases the probability of prostate cancer among potential organ donors. The concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2 ng/mL at 60 years of age is related to the increasing possibility of identifying an advanced form of CaP. In recent years in Poland, the recommendation has been to determine tumor markers in potential donors. In the first year of the recommendation, 10% of potential male cadaveric donors were disqualified in West Pomerania, Poland, on the basis of elevated PSA levels (>10 ng/mL). To avoid reduction of the actual donor pool, each potential male donor reported to the center since January 2010 undergoes a routine histologic evaluation of the whole prostate, regardless of the PSA level, before organ implantation. In the study group (N = 52), histopathologic evaluation revealed 6 cases of CaP (12%). In CaP positive group Gleason score range from 2+2 to 3+4. In CaP donors PSA level have been noticed in range 1.79 ng/mL - 7.66 ng/mL. There was no correlation between histologically confirmed CaP and the PSA level. PMID:27496408

  6. Splenunculus Masquerading as Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen-positive Lymph Node Metastasis in a Patient With Prostate-specific Antigen Relapse After Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Froehner, Michael; Zöphel, Klaus; Hölscher, Tobias; Laniado, Michael; Wirth, Manfred P

    2016-08-01

    A 45-year-old patient presented with prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy. Diagnostic workup revealed a (68)Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted ligand tracer uptaking nodule that was initially interpreted as lymph node metastasis but eventually identified as a splenunculus by scintigraphy with (99m)Tc pertechnetate-labeled heat-altered erythrocytes. Awareness of this constellation may spare unnecessary diagnostic procedures and inappropriate treatment. PMID:27125881

  7. Recreation of the 28-entity IGES test file using the ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    An Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) test file is called the 28 Entity IGES Test File. This file contains 28 geometric and annotation entities which are considered the basic entities that an IGES translator for any CAD system should support. The main purpose was to determine how the IGES preprocessor supports the 28 entities through recreation of the 28 Entity IGES Test File on the ComputerVision CADDS 4X. Test procedure is described and test results are presented.

  8. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    PubMed

    Domina, Maria; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Benfatto, Salvatore; D'Aliberti, Deborah; Venza, Mario; Borgogni, Erica; Castellino, Flora; Biondo, Carmelo; D'Andrea, Daniel; Grassi, Luigi; Tramontano, Anna; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology. PMID:25473968

  9. The Natural History of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy: Can Skin Prick Tests and Serum-Specific IgE Predict the Resolution of Food Allergy?

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rachel L.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Allen, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a transient condition for some children, however there are few indices to predict when and in whom food allergy will resolve. Skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE levels (sIgE) are usually monitored in the management of food allergy and are used to predict the development of tolerance or persistence of food allergy. The aim of this article is to review the published literature that investigated the predictive value of SPT and sIgE in development of tolerance in children with a previous diagnosis of peanut, egg and milk allergy. A systematic search identified twenty-six studies, of which most reported SPT or sIgE thresholds which predicted persistent or resolved allergy. However, results were inconsistent between studies. Previous research was hampered by several limitations including the absence of gold standard test to diagnose food allergy or tolerance, biased samples in retrospective audits and lack of systematic protocols for triggering re-challenges. There is a need for population-based, prospective studies that use the gold standard oral food challenge (OFC) to diagnose food allergy at baseline and follow-up to develop SPT and sIgE thresholds that predict the course of food allergy. PMID:24132133

  10. Antigen specificity of invariant natural killer T-cells.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Alysia M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer T-cells, with an invariant T-cell antigen receptor α-chain (iNKT cells), are unique and conserved subset of lymphocytes capable of altering the immune system through their rapid and potent cytokine responses. They are reactive to lipid antigens presented by the CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that is not highly polymorphic. iNKT cell responses frequently involve mixtures of cytokines that work against each other, and therefore attempts are underway to develop synthetic antigens that elicit only strong interferon-gamma (IFNγ) or only strong interleukin-4 responses but not both. Strong IFNγ responses may correlate with tighter binding to CD1d and prolonged stimulation of iNKT cells, and this may be useful for vaccine adjuvants and for stimulating anti-tumor responses. iNKT cells are self-reactive although the structure of the endogenous antigen is controversial. By contrast, bacterial and fungal lipids that engage the T-cell receptor and activate IFNγ from iNKT cells have been identified from both pathogenic and commensal organisms and the responses are in some cases highly protective from pathogens in mice. It is possible that the expanding knowledge of iNKT cell antigens and iNKT cell activation will provide the basis for therapies for patients suffering from infectious and immune diseases and cancer. PMID:27013447

  11. Auger Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Ana P.; Hobbs, Robert; Sgouros, George; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Shen, Colette J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Auger electron emitters such as 125I have a high linear energy transfer and short range of emission (<10 μm), making them suitable for treating micrometastases while sparing normal tissues. We used a highly specific small molecule targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) to deliver 125I to prostate cancer cells. Methods The PSMA-targeting Auger emitter 2-[3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-125I-iodo-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid (125I-DCIBzL) was synthesized. DNA damage (via phosphorylated H2A histone family member X staining) and clonogenic survival were tested in PSMA-positive (PSMA+) PC3 PIP and PSMA-negative (PSMA−) PC3 flu human prostate cancer cells after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL. Subcellular drug distribution was assessed with confocal microscopy using a related fluorescent PSMA-targeting compound YC-36. In vivo antitumor efficacy was tested in nude mice bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP or PSMA− PC3 flu flank xenografts. Animals were administered (intravenously) 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-DCIBzL, 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-NaI, an equivalent amount of nonradiolabeled DCIBzL, or saline. Results After treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, PSMA+ PC3 PIP cells exhibited increased DNA damage and decreased clonogenic survival when compared with PSMA− PC3 flu cells. Confocal microscopy of YC-36 showed drug distribution in the perinuclear area and plasma membrane. Animals bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumors had significant tumor growth delay after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, with only 1 mouse reaching 5 times the initial tumor volume by 60 d after treatment, compared with a median time to 5 times volume of less than 15 d for PSMA− PC3 flu tumors and all other treatment groups (P = 0.002 by log-rank test). Conclusion PSMA-targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy with the Auger emitter 125I-DCIBzL yielded highly specific antitumor efficacy in vivo, suggesting promise for treatment of prostate cancer micrometastases. PMID:26182968

  12. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  13. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but not in 2008 (P = 0.779). In 2007, PSA was 13.5 % higher at 5 °C and 10.0 % higher at 30 °C than that at 18.4 °C (nadir). In 2009, PSA was 7.3 % higher at 5 °C and 6.8 % at 30 °C compared with the level at 17.7 °C (nadir). In logistic regression analysis, a U-shaped relationship was found for the prevalence of a higher PSA (> 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 (P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 (P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  14. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but not in 2008 ( P = 0.779). In 2007, PSA was 13.5 % higher at 5 °C and 10.0 % higher at 30 °C than that at 18.4 °C (nadir). In 2009, PSA was 7.3 % higher at 5 °C and 6.8 % at 30 °C compared with the level at 17.7 °C (nadir). In logistic regression analysis, a U-shaped relationship was found for the prevalence of a higher PSA (> 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 ( P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 ( P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  15. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jessica J.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Loffredo, Marian; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  16. Internalization and presentation of myelin antigens by the brain endothelium guides antigen-specific T cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Pinheiro, Melissa A; Kamermans, Alwin; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; van het Hof, Bert; Wierts, Laura; O'Toole, Tom; Boeve, Daniël; Verstege, Marleen; van der Pol, Susanne MA; van Kooyk, Yvette; de Vries, Helga E; Unger, Wendy WJ

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking of myelin-reactive CD4+ T-cells across the brain endothelium, an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), is suggested to be an antigen-specific process, yet which cells provide this signal is unknown. Here we provide direct evidence that under inflammatory conditions, brain endothelial cells (BECs) stimulate the migration of myelin-reactive CD4+ T-cells by acting as non-professional antigen presenting cells through the processing and presentation of myelin-derived antigens in MHC-II. Inflamed BECs internalized myelin, which was routed to endo-lysosomal compartment for processing in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, myelin/MHC-II complexes on inflamed BECs stimulated the trans-endothelial migration of myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 2D2 cells, while control antigen loaded BECs did not stimulate T-cell migration. Furthermore, blocking the interaction between myelin/MHC-II complexes and myelin-reactive T-cells prevented T-cell transmigration. These results demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the brain are capable of enhancing antigen-specific T cell recruitment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13149.001 PMID:27336724

  17. Redirecting T-cell specificity by introducing a tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Bipulendu; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2010-01-01

    Infusions of antigen-specific T cells have yielded therapeutic responses in patients with pathogens and tumors. To broaden the clinical application of adoptive immunotherapy against malignancies, investigators have developed robust systems for the genetic modification and characterization of T cells expressing introduced chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect specificity. Human trials are under way in patients with aggressive malignancies to test the hypothesis that manipulating the recipient and reprogramming T cells before adoptive transfer may improve their therapeutic effect. These examples of personalized medicine infuse T cells designed to meet patients' needs by redirecting their specificity to target molecular determinants on the underlying malignancy. The generation of clinical grade CAR+ T cells is an example of bench-to-bedside translational science that has been accomplished using investigator-initiated trials operating largely without industry support. The next-generation trials will deliver designer T cells with improved homing, CAR-mediated signaling, and replicative potential, as investigators move from the bedside to the bench and back again. PMID:20439624

  18. Pentabody-mediated antigen delivery induces antigen-specific mucosal immune response.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenghua; Zheng, Wenju; Kuolee, Rhonda; Hirama, Tomoko; Henry, Matthew; Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Fjällman, Ted; Chen, Wangxue; Zhang, Jianbing

    2009-05-01

    An efficient immunization system is essential for the development of mucosal vaccine. Cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (LT) are among the strongest adjuvants tested in experimental animals but their use in humans has been hindered by their toxicity. On the other hand, the role of their non-toxic B-subunits, CTB or LTB, in enhancing mucosal immune response is not clear. We propose here a novel strategy for the induction of mucosal immune responses. Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) against a model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA) were raised from the antibody repertoire of a llama immunized with BSA, pentamerized by fusing the sdAbs to CTB, generating the so-called pentabodies. These pentabodies were used to deliver the antigen by mixing the two components and administering the mixture to mice intranasally. One construct was equivalent to CT in helping induce mucosal immune response. It was also found that this ability was probably due to its high affinity to BSA, providing some insight into the controversial role of CTB in mucosal immunization: at least for BSA, the model antigen BSA employed in this study, CTB has to be tightly linked to the antigen to have adjuvant/immune-enhancing effect. PMID:19269688

  19. Identification of Enterococcus faecalis antigens specifically expressed in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shet, Uttom K.; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Molecular mechanism of the pathogenicity of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a suspected endodontic pathogen, has not yet been adequately elucidated due to limited information on its virulence factors. Here we report the identification of in vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis by using a novel immunoscreening technique called change-mediated antigen technology (CMAT) and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Materials and Methods Among 4,500 E. coli recombinant clones screened, 19 positive clones reacted reproducibly with hyperimmune sera obtained from rabbits immunized with E. faecalis cells isolated from an experimental endodontic infection. DNA sequences from 16 of these in vivo-induced (IVI) genes were determined. Results Identified protein antigens of E. faecalis included enzymes involved in housekeeping functions, copper resistance protein, putative outer membrane proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Conclusions In vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis could be identified by using a novel immune-screening technique CMAT and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Detailed analysis of these IVI genes will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the endodontic infection of E. faecalis. PMID:26587417

  20. Effect of ejaculation on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Tarhan, Fatih; Demir, Kadir; Orçun, Asuman; Madenci, Ozlem Cakır

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose:To evaluate the effect of ejaculation on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in patients with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS). Materials and Methods Our study includes 98 men (62 study and 36 control). After three days of sexual abstinence, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of baseline PSA levels. Then the patients were told to ejaculate. One, 5, 24 and 72 hours after ejaculation, serum total (tPSA), free (fPSA) and complexed PSA (cPSA) levels were measured. Serum PSA sampling was performed at the same intervals in the control group without ejaculation. Results The mean age in study and control groups patients were 59.03±0.99 years, 61.14±1.30 years, respectively. In the study group, changes in tPSA and fPSA levels after ejaculation were found statistically significant while changes in cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were not significant (p=0.016, p=0.0003, p=0.176, and p=0.173, respectively). Baseline values showed significant differences with 1st and 5th hours. No significant changes in tPSA, fPSA, cPSA levels and f/tPSA values were found in control group (p=0.223, p=0.224, p=0.444, and p=0.718, respectively). The changes in the number of patients exceeding the cutoff values after ejaculation were not statistically significant for tPSA, cPSA, and f/tPSA ratio. Conclusions In this study, ejaculation increased tPSA and fPSA concentrations but it didn’t have a significant effect on serum cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios. However, recent ejaculation may affect the biopsy indication at least near cut off PSA values. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of alterations in the concentration of PSA. PMID:27286109

  1. T-cell hybridoma specific for a cytochrome c peptide: specific antigen binding and interleukin 2 production.

    PubMed Central

    Carel, S; Bron, C; Corradin, G

    1983-01-01

    T-cell hybridomas were obtained after fusion of BW 5147 thymoma and long-term cultured T cells specific for cytochrome c peptide 66-80 derivatized with a 2,4-dinitroaminophenyl (DNAP) group. The resulting hybridomas were selected for their capacity to specifically bind to soluble radiolabeled peptide antigen. One T-cell hybrid was positive for antigen binding. This hybrid T cell exhibits surface phenotypic markers of the parent antigen-specific T cells. The binding could be inhibited either by an excess of unlabeled homologous antigen or by cytochrome c peptide 11-25 derivatized with a 2-nitrophenylsulfenyl group. Several other peptide antigens tested failed to inhibit binding of the radioactive peptide. This suggests that a specific amino acid sequence, modified by a DNAP group, is the antigenic structure recognized by the putative T-cell receptor. In addition, direct interaction of DNAP-66-80 peptide with the hybridoma cell line induced production of the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2. Furthermore, supernatants derived from syngeneic macrophages pulsed with the relevant peptide also induced the antigen-specific hybridoma to produce interleukin 2. Images PMID:6192442

  2. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat in Patients with IgE Specific for Galactose alpha-1,3-Galactose (alpha-gal)

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal. In instances where the triggering allergen is not known, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term risk management. Our recent work has identified a novel IgE antibody (Ab) response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab, and (2) delayed onset anaphylaxis 3–6 h after ingestion of mammalian food products (e.g., beef and pork). The results of our studies strongly suggest that tick bites are a cause, if not the only significant cause, of IgE Ab responses to alpha-gal in the southern, eastern and central United States. Patients with IgE Ab to alpha-gal continue to emerge and, increasingly, these cases involve children. This IgE Ab response cross-reacts with cat and dog but does not appear to pose a risk for asthma; however, it may impair diagnostic testing in some situations. PMID:23054628

  3. Individual antigenic specificity and cross-reactions among amyloid preparations from different individuals

    PubMed Central

    Husby, G.; Natvig, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils were isolated from eleven amyloid-laden organs of six patients. By alkaline degradation, soluble units were obtained which gave antibody formation in rabbits. Gel precipitation and haemagglutination inhibition were used to characterize antigens of the amyloid. Evidence was obtained that amyloids from different organs of the same individual were identical in the antigenicity. In contrast, amyloids from different individuals each showed unique individual specificity. Besides this, antigenic cross-reactions were noted between the amyloid preparations. Finally, evidence for antigenic cross-reactivity between certain amyloid preparations and immunoglobulin light chains was obtained. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4624554

  4. Immune modulation of T regulatory cells and IgE responses in horses vaccinated with West Nile virus vaccine combined with a CpG ODN.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Nicole E; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2015-10-26

    Hypersensitivity reactions, such as hives or fatal anaphylactic shock, in response to vaccination constitute a health hazard for horses that develop allergies to vaccine components. In such horses vaccination with viral vaccines stimulates an IgE response to non-target antigens. Viral vaccines share contaminating non-target proteins, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA); these antigens can stimulate IgE production with each exposure. We hypothesized that the addition of a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) administered in conjunction with a West Nile virus vaccine would decrease the IgE response; through up-regulation of T regulatory cells and T helper 1 cells thus decreasing the potential to induce a type 1 hypersensitivity response. Thirty adult horses were injected with either CpG ODN or control GpC ODN with a killed WNV vaccine. T regulatory cell numbers and BSA specific IgE concentrations were determined pre and post vaccination. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to evaluate expression of CD4, CD25, and intracellular Foxp3 on PBMCs. Serum concentrations of BSA specific IgE were determined by ELISA. Cell culture supernatants from BSA re-stimulated lymphocytes were evaluated for concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ. The inclusion of the CpG ODN significantly increased the differentiation of T regulatory cells in response to antigen in vitro and in vivo. A significant inverse correlation was found between T regulatory cell numbers and serum BSA specific IgE concentrations. These results suggest that we can provide a safer alternate vaccination strategy, particularly for horses that have demonstrated a pro-allergic phenotype. PMID:26424604

  5. Cell-type specific regulation of gene expression by simian virus 40 T antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Saenz-Robles, Maria Teresa; Rathi, Abhilasha V.; Beerman, Rebecca W.; Patterson, William H.; Whitehead, Robert H.; Pipas, James M.

    2009-03-30

    SV40 transforms cells through the action of two oncoproteins, large T antigen and small t antigen. Small t antigen targets phosphatase PP2A, while large T antigen stimulates cell proliferation and survival by action on multiple proteins, including the tumor suppressors Rb and p53. Large T antigen also binds components of the transcription initiation complex and several transcription factors. We examined global gene expression in SV40-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts, and in enterocytes obtained from transgenic mice. SV40 transformation alters the expression of approximately 800 cellular genes in both systems. Much of this regulation is observed in both MEFs and enterocytes and is consistent with T antigen action on the Rb-E2F pathway. However, the regulation of many genes is cell-type specific, suggesting that unique signaling pathways are activated in different cell types upon transformation, and that the consequences of SV40 transformation depends on the type of cell targeted.

  6. IgE immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gould, Hannah J; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of antibodies in activating immune responses against tumors is now better appreciated with the emergence of checkpoint blockade antibodies and with engineered antibody Fc domains featuring enhanced capacity to focus potent effector cells against cancer cells. Antibodies designed with Fc regions of the IgE class can confer natural, potent, long-lived immune surveillance in tissues through tenacious engagement of high-affinity cognate Fc receptors on distinct, often tumor-resident immune effector cells, and through ability to activate these cells under tumor-induced Th2-biased conditions. Here, we review the properties that make IgE a contributor to the allergic response and a critical player in the protection against parasites, which also support IgE as a novel anti-cancer modality. We discuss IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches in disparate in vitro and in vivo model systems, collectively suggesting the potential of IgE immunotherapies in oncology. Translation toward clinical application is now in progress. PMID:24423620

  7. Specific bovine brucellosis diagnosis based on in vitro antigen-specific gamma interferon production.

    PubMed Central

    Weynants, V; Godfroid, J; Limbourg, B; Saegerman, C; Letesson, J J

    1995-01-01

    In order to improve the specificity of the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, we developed a test which can be regarded as an in vitro correlate of the delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH). A mixture of cytoplasmic proteins from Brucella melitensis B115 was used as a specific antigenic stimulus in bovine whole blood culture. Supernatants harvested at 18 to 24 h after the in vitro antigenic stimulus were assayed for their gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) content by using a commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The IFN-gamma assay was evaluated with 10 heifers during the course (80 days) of an experimental infection and with 14 cows from an ongoing brucellosis outbreak. All of these animals were slaughtered, and pertinent organs were subjected to classical bacteriological analyses. In addition, we analyzed 23 field cases in which false-positive serological reactions occurred. The IFN-gamma results were compared with those of the standard DTH and a battery of serological assays, and they were correlated with bacteriological data. Both for the experimental infection and for the field brucellosis outbreak, the IFN-gamma assay detected infection in more animals than any combination of the serological tests, and it detected infection earlier than these tests. Finally, none of the samples from cows showing false-positive serological reactions was classified as positive by the IFN-gamma assay, attesting to its specificity and to its usefulness in interpreting ambiguous serological results. A rapid and convenient alternative to the DTH, the IFN-gamma assay appears to be an ideal method that is complementary to the serological diagnosis protocols. PMID:7751381

  8. The sequential appearance of IgG subclasses and IgE during the course of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ljungström, I; Hammarström, L; Kociecka, W; Smith, C I

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that IgG1 and IgG4 are the dominant IgG subclasses in the specific response during a chronic helminthic infection. It has also been suggested that IgG4 production results from chronic or repetitive antigenic stimulation and a correlation between IgG4 and IgE levels exists. An outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infection in Poland provided the opportunity to follow the sequential appearance of the IgG subclass and IgE responses in 15 patients during the early stage of Trichinella infection and to compare these observations in sera obtained one year later from the same patients. The results show that the sequential appearance of the IgG subclasses were IgG1 before IgG3 and IgG3 before IgG4. IgG1 antibodies dominated the immune response in all patients. A statistically significant increase in the number of IgG4 positive sera was observed in patients during the chronic stage compared to the findings during the early stage of infection (13% vs 73%; p less than 0.001), supporting the view that IgG4 results from a chronic antigenic stimulation. A correlation between the appearance of IgG4 and IgE was not found. The highest levels of IgE were seen in the first serum samples obtained, with a decrease during the course of infection. PMID:3224442

  9. Exploring the antigenic relatedness of influenza virus haemagglutinins with strain-specific polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    García-Barreno, Blanca; Delgado, Teresa; Benito, Sonia; Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco; Melero, José A

    2014-10-01

    Alternative methods to the standard haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization tests to probe the antigenic properties of the influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) were developed in this study. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing reference HAs were used to immunize rabbits from which polyclonal antibodies were obtained. These antibodies were subtype specific but showed limited intra-subtype strain specificity in ELISA. The discriminatory capacity of these antibodies was, however, markedly increased after adsorption to cells infected with heterologous influenza viruses, revealing antigenic differences that were otherwise undistinguishable by standard HI and neutralization tests. Furthermore, the unadsorbed antibodies could be used to select escape mutants of the reference strain, which after sequencing unveiled amino acid changes responsible of the noted antigenic differences. These procedures therefore provide alternative methods for the antigenic characterization of influenza HA and might be useful in studies of HA antigenic evolution. PMID:25000959

  10. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Arman; DeCourcey, Joseph; Larbi, Nadia Ben; Loughran, Sinéad T.; Walls, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E.

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells resulted in reduction of IgE secretion. •Knock-down of syntaxin-4 also leads to the accumulation of IgE in the cell. •Immuno-fluorescence staining shows co-localisation of IgE and syntaxin-4 in U266 cells. •Findings suggest a critical requirement for syntaxin-4 in IgE secretion from plasma cells. -- Abstract: The humoral immune system provides a crucial first defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens via the secretion of antigen specific immunoglobulins (Ig). The secretion of Ig is carried out by terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes called plasma cells. Despite the key role of plasma cells in the immune response, the mechanisms by which they constitutively traffic large volumes of Ig out of the cell is poorly understood. The involvement of Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the regulation of protein trafficking from cells has been well documented. Syntaxin-4, a member of the Qa SNARE syntaxin family has been implicated in fusion events at the plasma membrane in a number of cells in the immune system. In this work we show that knock-down of syntaxin-4 in the multiple myeloma U266 human plasma cell line results in a loss of IgE secretion and accumulation of IgE within the cells. Furthermore, we show that IgE co-localises with syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells suggesting direct involvement in secretion at the plasma membrane. This study demonstrates that syntaxin-4 plays a critical role in the secretion of IgE from plasma cells and sheds some light on the mechanisms by which these cells constitutively traffic vesicles to the surface for secretion. An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients.

  11. Development and evaluation of a sensitive and specific assay for diagnosis of human toxocariasis by use of three recombinant antigens (TES-26, TES-30USM, and TES-120).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Suharni; Azmi, Norhaida Che; Noordin, Rahmah

    2009-06-01

    Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serologic tests that use Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigen to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the larvae. In general, however, these assays do not have adequate specificity for use in countries in which other soil-transmitted helminths are endemic. The use of recombinant antigens in these assays, however, is promising for improving the specificity of the diagnosis of toxocariasis. Toward this goal, we developed an IgG4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) involving three recombinant antigens: rTES-30USM (previously produced), rTES-26, and rTES-120. The latter two antigens were produced by reverse transcription-PCR cloning; subcloned into glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged and His-tagged prokaryotic expression vectors, respectively; and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were subsequently purified by affinity chromatography using GST and His-Trap resins. The diagnostic potential of each purified recombinant antigen was tested with various immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgM, and IgE) and IgG subclasses. The IgG4 ELISA was determined to have the highest specificity and was further evaluated using a panel of serum samples. The rTES-26 IgG4 ELISA showed 80.0% (24/30 samples positive) sensitivity, and both the rTES-30USM IgG4 ELISA and rTES-120 IgG4 ELISA had 93.0% (28/30) sensitivity. Combined use of rTES-120 and rTES-30 IgG4 ELISA for the diagnosis of toxocariasis provided 100% sensitivity. The specificities of rTES-26, rTES-30USM, and rTES-120 antigens were 96.2%, 93.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. These results indicate that the development of a diagnostic test using the three recombinant antigens will allow for more-accurate detection of toxocariasis. PMID:19369434

  12. Evaluation of in utero sensitization by screening antigen-specific immunoglobulin E levels in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Karakol, Burcu; Önal, Zehra Esra; Tabak, Yonca; Nuhoğlu, Çağatay; Ceran, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of asthma and atopic reactions is increasing worldwide. Previous reports have suggested that maternal exposure to allergens during pregnancy may have potential effects on allergic sensitization in infants. Aim To evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to environmental allergens during pregnancy on in-utero sensitization. Material and methods Two hundred mothers and their infants were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Mothers were given a questionnaire that had a series of questions to evaluate the maternal allergic status and environmental exposures during pregnancy. Plasma specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels to pets, grass, food (nuts) of all mothers and their infants were analyzed by an immune-enzymatic assay. Results There was no significant correlation between plasma specific IgE positivity in mothers, with regard to keeping indoor domestic pets, living in grass habitat, eating nuts in diet. A significant correlation was found between specific IgE presence in mothers and allergic reactions; however, there was no correlation between plasma specific IgE positivity of mothers and infants. Conclusions We concluded that prenatal maternal sensitivity to environmental allergens could not be evaluated as a predictive factor for in-utero sensitization. PMID:26161059

  13. Functional TCR retrieval from single antigen-specific human T cells reveals multiple novel epitopes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Petra; Omokoko, Tana A; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Hebich, Lisa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Attig, Sebastian; Konur, Abdo; Britten, Cedrik M; Paret, Claudia; Dhaene, Karl; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2014-12-01

    The determination of the epitope specificity of disease-associated T-cell responses is relevant for the development of biomarkers and targeted immunotherapies against cancer, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. The lack of known T-cell epitopes and corresponding T-cell receptors (TCR) for novel antigens hinders the efficient development and monitoring of new therapies. We developed an integrated approach for the systematic retrieval and functional characterization of TCRs from single antigen-reactive T cells that includes the identification of epitope specificity. This is accomplished through the rapid cloning of full-length TCR-α and TCR-β chains directly from single antigen-specific CD8(+) or CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The functional validation of cloned TCRs is conducted using in vitro-transcribed RNA transfer for expression of TCRs in T cells and HLA molecules in antigen-presenting cells. This method avoids the work and bias associated with repetitive cycles of in vitro T-cell stimulation, and enables fast characterization of antigen-specific T-cell responses. We applied this strategy to viral and tumor-associated antigens (TAA), resulting in the retrieval of 56 unique functional antigen-specific TCRs from human CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells (13 specific for CMV-pp65, 16 specific for the well-known TAA NY-ESO-1, and 27 for the novel TAA TPTE), which are directed against 39 different epitopes. The proof-of-concept studies with TAAs NY-ESO-1 and TPTE revealed multiple novel TCR specificities. Our approach enables the rational development of immunotherapy strategies by providing antigen-specific TCRs and immunogenic epitopes. PMID:25245536

  14. The role of a human antigen specific T8+ cell subset in antigen presentation, helper function and contrasuppression.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, T; Avery, J; Jones, T

    1985-01-01

    Regulation of the human immune response was studied by sequential separation of subsets of T cells, followed by assessment of their helper and suppressor functions in a series of reconstitution experiments. T8+ lymphocytes were separated by panning on streptococcal antigen (SA) coated plates into T8+ SA-adherent cells (T8+SA+) and T8+ SA-non-adherent cells (T8+SA-). The helper and suppressor functions of the T8+SA+ and T8+SA- cells, reconstituted with T4+ helper cells were then studied by a direct antibody forming cell assay. T4+ cells will not induce helper activity by 1000 ng SA alone but require the accessory function of monocytes (Mo). However, replacing Mo by T8+SA+ cells will elicit a similar helper activity by T4+ cells and SA as that induced by Mo. In addition to the antigen-specific presentation and induction of helper activity, the T8+SA+ subset displays the properties of antigen-specific contrasuppressor cells. Thus, reconstitution of T4+ cells and T8+SA- (suppressor cells) with T8+SA+ and 1000 ng SA induces helper and no suppressor activity. Substitution of Mo for the T8+SA+ cells converts the helper to a predominantly suppressor-cell function. T8+SA- cells elicit suppression with 1 ng SA in the absence of accessory cells and reconstitution with Mo, T8+SA+ or T4+ cells failed to affect the suppressor activity. Total reconstitution of the four principle subsets of T4+, T8+SA+, T8+SA- cells and Mo elicited similar antigen dose-dependent responses as those of the unseparated mononuclear cells. It seems that all four cell subsets are required for optimal immunoregulation. We suggest that the T8+SA+ can present antigen to T4+ helper cells and induce helper activity, but in addition these cells can prevent the suppressor subset of T8+ cells from inhibiting T4+ helper cells and function as contrasuppressor cells. The mechanism of these functions is not known but HLA class II antigens might play an essential role in antigen binding, presentation and

  15. Regeneration of tumor antigen-specific CTLs utilizing iPS technology.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuya; Masuda, Kyoko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Tumor immunotherapy, especially tumor antigen specific T cell therapy, is currently attracting attention. However, a critical issue still awaits resolution; it is difficult to efficiently expand tumor antigen-specific T cells. To solve this problem, we are now utilizing iPS cell technology. When iPS cells are established from tumor antigen specific T cells, T cells regenerated from these iPS cells are expected to express the same TCRs as the original T cells. In line with this concept, we succeeded in regenerating tumor antigen specific cytotoxic T cells. The regenerated T cells exhibited TCR specific killing activity comparable to that of the original cells, and were able to kill leukemia cells in an antigen-specific manner. We are currently endeavoring to apply this method clinically. In the future, we intend to establish an allogeneic transfusion system, in which various tumor antigen specific T-iPS cells from a wide range of HLA haplotype homozygous donors will be lined up as a "T-iPS cell bank", with the aim of making off-the-shelf tumor immunotherapy a reality. PMID:27599425

  16. The Presence of Tumour Specific Membrane Antigen in the Serum of Rats with Chemically Induced Sarcomata

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, D. M. P.; Steele, K.; Alexander, P.

    1973-01-01

    Antibodies to the tumour-specific transplantation type antigen (TSTA) of a transplanted methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma (MC-1) in syngeneic rats were studied using the techniques of indirect membrane immunofluorescence and mixed haemadsorption with a 51Cr-labelled indicator cell. After tumour excision, anti-TSTA antibody was readily measurable in both serum and lymph. In contrast, the tumour-bearing animal had no measurable anti-TSTA antibody in the serum but low titres in the lymph. Consequently, we formed the hypothesis that in the presence of a growing tumour the serum contained antigen-antibody complexes with antigen in excess. To test this hypothesis, tumour-bearing serum was examined for the presence of free antigen and antigen-antibody complexes by 2 different methods. In the first method, tumour-bearing serum was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and was found to absorb specifically the anti-TSTA antibody, indicating free circulating TSTA. Next, antigen-antibody complexes were split with salt or acid and separated into a low molecular weight (or “antigen”) fraction (<100,000) and a high molecular weight (or “antibody”) fraction (>100,000). The low M.W. fraction specifically inhibited the anti-TSTA antibody when tested by either membrane immunofluorescence or mixed haemadsorption, indicating the presence of antigen from antigen-antibody complexes in the tumour-bearing circulation. The possible effect on the host's immune response of circulating free tumour antigen and antigen-antibody complexes are discussed. PMID:4568460

  17. Immunoradiometric assay for examination and quantitation of Brucella abortus-specific antibodies reactive with the antigen(s) used in the indirect hemolysis test.

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, T F; Hoffmann, E M

    1981-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay was designed to quantitate antibodies which bind to Brucella abortus antigens adsorbed to bovine erythrocytes. This allowed examination of antibodies specific for B. abortus antigens detectable in the indirect hemolysis test for bovine brucellosis. Assay parameters were optimized for measuring antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2, and IgM antibodies. The immunoradiometric assay allowed examination of binding interactions which occur during the indirect hemolysis test. Affinity-purified antibovine IgG1, IgG2, and IgM were used to detect specific bovine antibodies of these classes (and subclasses). The binding of the anti-immunoglobulins was linear as a function of immunoglobulin concentration. However, the binding of bovine antibodies of the different classes and subclasses to B. abortus antigen was nonlinear. Since B. abortus-specific antibodies of all classes and subclasses were present in the "standard serum" during the immunoradiometric assays, it is possible that the non-linearity was due to competition between antibodies for antigenic sites. IgG2 and IgM antibodies specific for B. abortus antigen(s) appeared to be capable of binding independently to antigen(s). However, the binding efficiencies of IgG1 antibodies changed as the ratio of antigenic sites to antibodies was increased. PMID:6793625

  18. Adoptive therapy with redirected primary regulatory T cells results in antigen-specific suppression of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Graham P; Notley, Clare A; Xue, Shao-An; Bendle, Gavin M; Holler, Angelika; Schumacher, Ton N; Ehrenstein, Michael R; Stauss, Hans J

    2009-11-10

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can suppress a wide range of immune cells, making them an ideal candidate for the treatment of autoimmunity. The potential clinical translation of targeted therapy with antigen-specific Tregs is hampered by the difficulties of isolating rare specificities from the natural polyclonal T cell repertoire. Moreover, the initiating antigen is often unknown in autoimmune disease. Here we tested the ability of antigen-specific Tregs generated by retroviral gene transfer to ameliorate arthritis through linked suppression and therefore without cognate recognition of the disease-initiating antigen. We explored two distinct strategies: T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer into purified CD4+CD25+ T cells was used to redirect the specificity of naturally occurring Tregs; and co-transfer of FoxP3 and TCR genes served to convert conventional CD4(+) T cells into antigen-specific regulators. Following adoptive transfer into recipient mice, the gene-modified T cells engrafted efficiently and retained TCR and FoxP3 expression. Using an established arthritis model, we demonstrate antigen-driven accumulation of the gene modified T cells at the site of joint inflammation, which resulted in a local reduction in the number of inflammatory Th17 cells and a significant decrease in arthritic bone destruction. Together, we describe a robust strategy to rapidly generate antigen-specific regulatory T cells capable of highly targeted inhibition of tissue damage in the absence of systemic immune suppression. This opens the possibility to target Tregs to tissue-specific antigens for the treatment of autoimmune tissue damage without the knowledge of the disease-causing autoantigens recognized by pathogenic T cells. PMID:19884493

  19. Possible Role of Trichophytin Antigen in Inducing Impaired Immunological Clearance of Fungus in Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chhavi; Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, V G; Saha, Rumpa; Bhattacharya, S N; Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Atri, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    The immunology of onychomycosis is poorly understood. Th1 and Th17 are the principal effector cells responsible for protective immunity against fungi, while it is assumed that Th2 responses are associated with deleterious effects. The study was conducted to appraise the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in onychomycosis patients and to study skin reactivity to trichophytin antigen in them. Serum samples of 60 cases of chronic onychomycosis and 30 healthy controls were assayed for serum IgE, IL-6 and TGF-β levels using specific immunoassay kits; 0.01 ml of trichophytin antigen, Candida antigen and phosphate-buffered saline using separate syringes were injected intradermal at three independent sites of the forearm in cases and controls. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower in cases as compared to controls, while serum TGF-β levels in both cases and controls were comparable. Serum IgE levels in cases were significantly higher when compared with controls. Thirty-eight patients showed immediate hypersensitivity response to trichophytin antigen, while none showed delayed hypersensitivity reaction to trichophytin antigen. Constant fungal antigenic stimuli induce a state of anergy as indicated by low serum IL-6 levels and the absence of delayed hypersensitivity reaction to trichophytin antigen in cases, leading to chronicity of infection. High total IgE may indicate a high probability of prior fungal sensitization. PMID:26614362

  20. Antigen-specific tolerogenic and immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Shailesh R.; Durai, Malarvizhi; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To review various antigen-specific tolerogenic and immunomodulatory approaches for arthritis in animal models and patients in regard to their efficacy, mechanisms of action and limitations. Methods We reviewed the published literature in Medline (PubMed) on the induction of antigen-specific tolerance and its effect on autoimmune arthritis, as well as the recent work on B cell-mediated tolerance from our laboratory. The prominent key words used in different combinations included arthritis, autoimmunity, immunotherapy, innate immunity, tolerance, treatment, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although this search spanned the years 1975 to 2007, the majority of the short-listed articles belonged to the period 1990 to 2007. The relevant primary as well as cross-referenced articles were then collected from links within PubMed and reviewed. Results Antigen-specific tolerance has been successful in the prevention and/or treatment of arthritis in animal models. The administration of soluble native antigen or an altered peptide ligand intravenously, orally, or nasally, and the delivery of the DNA encoding a particular antigen by gene therapy have been the mainstay of immunomodulation. Recently, the methods for in vitro-expansion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have been optimized. Furthermore, interleukin-17 has emerged as a promising new therapeutic target in arthritis. However, in RA patients, non-antigen-specific therapeutic approaches have been much more successful than antigen-specific tolerogenic regimens. Conclusion An antigen-specific treatment against autoimmune arthritis is still elusive. However, insights into newly emerging mechanisms of disease pathogenesis provide hope for the development of effective and safe immunotherapeutic strategies in the near future. PMID:18177689

  1. Increased local IgE production induced by common aeroallergens and phenotypic alteration of mast cells in Chinese eosinophilic, but not non-eosinophilic, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Na; Liao, Bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wang, Heng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Hong; Schleimer, Robert P.; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) display distinct patterns of inflammation. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of CRSwNP need further investigation. Objective To investigate local immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and phenotype of mast cells in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP in Chinese. Methods Total and specific IgE levels were analyzed by means of the ImmunoCAP system. The molecular steps involved in class switch recombination to IgE were investigated using RT-PCR assays. Mast cell phenotypes, IgE- and high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-positive cells, and allergen binding to specific IgE in sinonasal mucosa were determined by means of immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with controls and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, local total IgE levels were increased, and local specific IgE to common aeroallergens was more frequently found, in Chinese eosinophilic CRSwNP independent of atopy and without significant association with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. The ε germline gene transcript was also more frequently detected in eosinophilic CRSwNP. The number of IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP. Most IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells were mast cells. Dust mite antigens could bind to IgE on mast cells in situ. The number of mast cells positive for both tryptase and chymase and activated mast cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP and the number of activated mast cells positively correlated with local IgE level, eotaxin-1 level, and eosinophil count in CRSwNP. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The local IgE induced by common aeroallergens may mediate mast cell activation and contribute to subsequent eosinophilic inflammation in Chinese CRSwNP. This study offers a rationale for considering intervention strategies designed to target “local allergy” in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:24597471

  2. Phospholipase treatment of accessory cells that have been exposed to antigen selectively inhibits antigen-specific Ia-restricted, but not allospecific, stimulation of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1986-01-01

    The corecognition of antigen and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (Ia molecules) by the T-cell receptor is a cell surface event. Before antigen is recognized, it must be taken up, processed, and displayed on the surface of an Ia-bearing accessory cell (antigen-presenting cell, APC). The exact nature of antigen processing and the subsequent associations of antigen with the APC plasma membrane, Ia molecules, and/or the T-cell receptor are not well defined. To further analyze these events, we have characterized the processing and presentation of the soluble polypeptide antigen bovine insulin. We found that this antigen requires APC-dependent processing, as evidenced by the inability of metabolically inactivated APCs to present native antigen to antigen plus Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. The ability of the same APCs to present antigen after uptake and processing showed that this antigen subsequently becomes stably associated with the APC plasma membrane. To characterize the basis for this association, we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. APCs exposed to antigen, treated with phospholipase A2, and then immediately fixed lost the ability to stimulate bovine insulin plus I-Ad-specific hybridomas. In contrast, the ability of these same APCs to stimulate I-Ad allospecific hybridomas was unaffected. This effect of phospholipase is not mimicked by the broadly active protease Pronase, nor is there evidence for contaminating proteases in the phospholipase preparation. These results suggest that one consequence of antigen processing may be an antigen-lipid association that contributes to the anchoring of antigen to the APC membrane. The implications of this model are discussed. PMID:3529095

  3. Alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells generated with a chimeric antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Katherine G.; Hoeppli, Romy E.; Huang, Qing; Gillies, Jana; Luciani, Dan S.; Orban, Paul C.; Broady, Raewyn; Levings, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising treatment for allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Emerging data indicate that, compared with polyclonal Tregs, disease-relevant antigen-specific Tregs may have numerous advantages, such as a need for fewer cells and reduced risk of nonspecific immune suppression. Current methods to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs rely on expansion with allogeneic antigen-presenting cells, which requires access to donor and recipient cells and multiple MHC mismatches. The successful use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells suggests that a similar approach could be used to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs. Here, we have described the creation of an HLA-A2–specific CAR (A2-CAR) and its application in the generation of alloantigen-specific human Tregs. In vitro, A2-CAR–expressing Tregs maintained their expected phenotype and suppressive function before, during, and after A2-CAR–mediated stimulation. In mouse models, human A2-CAR–expressing Tregs were superior to Tregs expressing an irrelevant CAR at preventing xenogeneic GVHD caused by HLA-A2+ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that use of CAR technology to generate potent, functional, and stable alloantigen-specific human Tregs markedly enhances their therapeutic potential in transplantation and sets the stage for using this approach for making antigen-specific Tregs for therapy of multiple diseases. PMID:26999600

  4. Induction of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in the liver-draining celiac lymph node following oral antigen administration.

    PubMed

    Hultkrantz, Susanne; Ostman, Sofia; Telemo, Esbjörn

    2005-11-01

    Regulatory T cells are induced by oral administration of an antigen, but the physiological requirements and localization of the inductive sites are largely unknown. Using an adoptive transfer system of cells transgenic for ovalbumin T-cell receptor (OVA TCR tg), we found that antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were activated in the liver-draining celiac lymph node (CLN) shortly after ovalbumin feeding, and that a significantly higher proportion of the T cells in the CLN developed into the putative regulatory phenotype [co-expressing CD25 with the glucocortico-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family related gene (GITR), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 and CD103] than in Peyer's patches, the mesenteric and peripheral lymph nodes and the spleen. In addition, a particularly high level of expression of CD103 on the OVA-specific T cells in the CLN may favour homing to the epithelium of the intestine. While equally suppressive, OVA tg T cells isolated from the CLN of OVA-fed DO11.10 mice were less dependent on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta for suppression than cells isolated from the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes, which indicates the involvement of an additional suppressive mechanism. The expression of FoxP3 was not up-regulated in any of the lymph node compartments studied. Our phenotypic and functional findings suggest that the induction of regulatory T cells in the CLN may be relevant in the control of the immune response to dietary antigens. PMID:16236126

  5. IgE and IgG1 antibody production by a soluble product of Ascaris suum in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Stromberg, B E

    1979-01-01

    Third-stage larvae of Ascaris suum cultured to the fourth stage in a chemically defined culture medium produced a substance, the 'ACF antigen', which was allergenic in the guinea-pig. When three different concentrations (3.1, 31 and 62 micrograms) of the ACF antigen were given intraperitoneally, only the highest concentration induced a primary IgE specific antibody response (1:100 titre) as determined with the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Upon secondary exposure all concentrations demonstrated a strong IgE response (1:50,000 peak titre) with very little IgG1 activity (1:100). The secondary IgE responses began to rise on the fourth day, peaked on the sixth day and returned to relatively low levels by the fourteenth day (1:100). The intramuscular administration of the ACF antigen did not induce the extremely high titres of IgE as found with the intraperitoneal injection, but rather a low level response (1:500 peak) which did not differ greatly from the IgG1 response. PMID:521052

  6. Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti produce structurally conserved lipopolysaccharides and strain-specific K antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Reuhs, B.L.; Geller, D.P.; Kim, J.S.; Fox, J.E.; Kolli, V.S.K.; Pueppke, S.G.

    1998-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (K antigens) may influence the interaction of rhizobia with their specific hosts; therefore, the authors conducted a comparative analysis of Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti, which are genetically related, yet symbiotically distinct, nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts of legumes. They found that both species typically produce strain-specific K antigens that consist of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo), or other 1-carboxy-2-keto-3-deoxy sugars (such as sialic acid), and hexoses. The K antigens of each strain are distinguished by glycosyl composition, anomeric configuration, acetylation, and molecular weight distribution. One consistent difference between the K antigens of S. fredii and those of S. meliloti is the presence of N-acetyl groups in the polysaccharides of the latter. In contrast to the K antigens, the LPS of Sinorhizobium spp. are major common antigens. Rough (R) LPS is the predominant form of LPS produced by cultured cells, and some strains release almost no detectable smooth (S) LPS upon extraction. Sinorhizobium spp. are delineated into two major RLPS core serogroups, which do not correspond to species. The O antigens of the SLPS, when present, have similar degrees of polymerization and appear to be structurally conserved throughout the genus. Interestingly, one strain was found to be distinct from all others: S. fredii HH303 produces a unique K antigen, which contains galacturonic acid and rhamnose, and the RLPS did not fall into either of the RLPS core serogroups. The results of this study indicate that the conserved S- and RLPS of Sinorhizobium spp. lack the structural information necessary to influence host specificity, whereas the variable K antigens may affect strain-cultivar interactions.

  7. Impaired Antigen-Specific Immune Response to Vaccines in Children with Antibody Production Defects.

    PubMed

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Breborowicz, Anna; Samara, Husam; Ossowska, Lidia; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    The impaired synthesis of antigen-specific antibodies, which is indispensable for an adaptive immune response to infections, is a fundamental pathomechanism that leads to clinical manifestations in children with antibody production defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synthesis of antigen-specific antibodies following immunization in relation to peripheral blood B cell subsets in young children with hypogammaglobulinemia. Twenty-two children, aged from 8 to 61 months, with a deficiency in one or more major immunoglobulin classes participated in the study. Postvaccination antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus, and the capsular Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antigen were assessed along with an immunophenotypic evaluation of peripheral blood B lymph cell maturation. A deficiency of antibodies against the tetanus toxoid was assessed in 73% of cases and that against the diphtheria toxoid was assessed in 68% of cases, whereas a deficiency of antibodies against the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus was revealed in 59% of the children included in the study. A defective response to immunization with a conjugate vaccine with the Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antigen was demonstrated in 55% of hypogammaglobulinemic patients. Increased proportions of transitional B lymph cells and an accumulation of plasmablasts accompanied antibody deficiencies. The defective response to vaccine protein and polysaccharide antigens is a predominating disorder of humoral immunity in children with hypogammaglobulinemia and may result from a dysfunctional state of the cellular elements of the immune system. PMID:26018535

  8. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  9. Antigen-specific immunotherapy of cervical and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-fu; Wu, TC; Monie, Archana; Roden, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary We contrast the efforts to treat ovarian cancer and cervical cancer through vaccination because of their different pathobiology. A plethora of approaches have been developed for therapeutic vaccination against cancer, many of which target defined tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary cause of cervical cancer. Furthermore, cervical cancer patients frequently mount both humoral and T cell immune responses to the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is required for the transformed phenotype. Numerous vaccine studies target these viral TAAs, including recent trials that may enhance clearance of pre-malignant disease. By contrast little is known about the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer. Although it is clear that p53 mutation or loss is a critical early event in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, no precursor lesion has been described for the most common serous histotype, and even the location of its origin is debated. These issues have complicated the selection of appropriate ovarian TAAs and the design of vaccines. Here we focus on mesothelin as a promising ovarian TAA because it is overexpressed and immunogenic at high frequency in patients, is displayed on the cell surface and potentially contributes to ovarian cancer biology. PMID:18363994

  10. Rabies Group-Specific Ribonucleoprotein Antigen and a Test System for Grouping and Typing of Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, L. G.; Dietzschold, B.; Dierks, R. E.; Matthaeus, W.; Enzmann, P.-J.; Strohmaier, K.

    1973-01-01

    Cell-associated ribonucleoprotein (RNP) was isolated from BHK-21 cells infected with several strains of rabies and rabies-related viruses. The RNP-antigen from rabies and related viruses induced the formation of complement-fixing, precipitating, and immunofluorescent antibodies, and proved to be the group-specific antigen common to all rabies viruses. Antigens of the envelope which induce virus-neutralizing antibodies are apparently determinative for the serotype of a virus as evidenced by two-way neutralization tests. A combination of these methods seems to be a useful approach to the serological grouping and typing of rhabdoviruses. Images PMID:4196634

  11. Pulmonary responses to pathogen-specific antigens in latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Jarvela, Jessica R; Tuscano, Lori; Lee, Hung; Silver, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used ELISPOT to quantify frequencies of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood T cells capable of producing IFNγ in response to PPD, antigen 85B, and Mtb-specific antigens CFP-10 and ESAT-6 in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and Mtb-naïve controls. Compared to peripheral blood, BAL cells of LTBI subjects displayed significant enrichment for T cells responding to PPD, antigen 85B, and CFP-10, but not to ESAT-6. Baseline BAL cells of LTBI subjects displayed significant production of Mig (CXCL9) in response to PPD, antigen 85B, and CFP-10 as well. These findings suggest that enrichment for Mtb-specific T cells within BAL is not unique to active pulmonary tuberculosis and may, to the contrary, contribute to protection from re-infection in Mtb immune individuals. PMID:26732045

  12. Definition of Drosophila hemocyte subsets by cell-type specific antigens.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, Eva; Váczi, B; Márkus, R; Laurinyecz, Barbara; Vilmos, P; Zsámboki, J; Csorba, Kinga; Gateff, Elisabeth; Hultmark, D; Andó, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the heterogeneity of Drosophila hemocytes on the basis of the expression of cell-type specific antigens. The antigens characterize distinct subsets which partially overlap with those defined by morphological criteria. On the basis of the expression or the lack of expression of blood cell antigens the following hemocyte populations have been defined: crystal cells, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and precursor cells. The expression of the antigens and thus the different cell types are developmentally regulated. The hemocytes are arranged in four main compartments: the circulating blood cells, the sessile tissue, the lymph glands and the posterior hematopoietic tissue. Each hemocyte compartment has a specific and characteristic composition of the various cell types. The described markers represent the first successful attempt to define hemocyte lineages by immunological markers in Drosophila and help to define morphologically, functionally, spatially and developmentally distinct subsets of hemocytes. PMID:18297797

  13. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  14. Systemic and mucosal IgE antibody responses of horses to infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, Charles E; Lawson, April L; Coles, Gerald C; Wilson, A Douglas

    2014-01-17

    Infection of horses with Anoplocephala perfoliata induces a severe inflammatory reaction of the caecal mucosa around the site of parasite attachment adjacent to the ileocecal valve. Lesions show epithelial erosion or ulceration of the mucosa with infiltration by eosinophils, lymphocytes and mast cells leading to oedema, gross thickening and fibrosis of the caecal wall. Despite this evidence of an inflammatory reaction to A. perfoliata within the mucosa of the caecum there is little information about the nature of the local immune response to A. perfoliata. An ELISA which assays serum IgG(T) antibodies to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens has been developed as a diagnostic test. However, the specificity of the ELISA remains sub-optimal and the role of other isotypes in the immune response to A. perfoliata has not been reported. This study measured IgA, IgE and IgG(T) antibody responses to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens in sera of 75 horses presented for slaughter. The prevalence of A. perfoliata infection, as confirmed by the presence of parasites in the terminal ileum, caecum or proximal colon, was 55%. A. perfoliata-specific IgG(T) and IgE antibodies were significantly elevated in infected horses compared to controls; IgA antibodies were also detected but did not differ between infected and control horses. Diagnosis by serum IgG(T) ELISA had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 80%, by comparison the serum IgE ELISA had a sensitivity of just 44% with a specificity of 82% and therefore did not provide an improved diagnostic test. Western blots with sera from infected horses demonstrated IgE-binding to at least 10 separate components of excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens. A similar pattern was also found with IgG(T). Around 30% of horses had high levels of serum IgE which bound fucose-containing carbohydrate antigens on the parasite surface but this was unrelated to the presence of A. perfoliata infection. Immunoperoxidase staining detected

  15. Identification and visualization of multidimensional antigen-specific T-cell populations in polychromatic cytometry data

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Frelinger, Jacob; Jiang, Wenxin; Finak, Greg; Seshadri, Chetan; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; McElrath, Julie; DeRosa, Steve; Gottardo, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    An important aspect of immune monitoring for vaccine development, clinical trials, and research is the detection, measurement, and comparison of antigen-specific T-cells from subject samples under different conditions. Antigen-specific T-cells compose a very small fraction of total T-cells. Developments in cytometry technology over the past five years have enabled the measurement of single-cells in a multivariate and high-throughput manner. This growth in both dimensionality and quantity of data continues to pose a challenge for effective identification and visualization of rare cell subsets, such as antigen-specific T-cells. Dimension reduction and feature extraction play pivotal role in both identifying and visualizing cell populations of interest in large, multi-dimensional cytometry datasets. However, the automated identification and visualization of rare, high-dimensional cell subsets remains challenging. Here we demonstrate how a systematic and integrated approach combining targeted feature extraction with dimension reduction can be used to identify and visualize biological differences in rare, antigen-specific cell populations. By using OpenCyto to perform semi-automated gating and features extraction of flow cytometry data, followed by dimensionality reduction with t-SNE we are able to identify polyfunctional sub-populations of antigen-specific T-cells and visualize treatment-specific differences between them. PMID:25908275

  16. Increased proportions of CCR4+ cells among peripheral blood CD4+ cells and serum levels of allergen-specific IgE antibody in canine chronic rhinitis and bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    YAMAYA, Yoshiki; WATARI, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Canine chronic rhinitis (CR) and bronchitis (CB) are suspected to be allergic diseases. The present study tested whether dogs diagnosed with CR or CB present an atopic predisposition based on the ratio of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4)-positive cells among peripheral blood CD4-positive cells (CCR4/CD4) and the serum levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. We found that most dogs with CR and CB have a possibility of atopic predisposition, and macrolide therapy constitutes an alternative to corticosteroid therapy in controlling the clinical signs. PMID:25650058

  17. Propagation of mouse and human T cells with defined antigen specificity and function.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P A; Fowler, D H; Kim, H; White, R L; Czerniecki, B J; Carter, C; Gress, R E; Rosenberg, S A

    1994-01-01

    Difficulties maintaining fully functional CD4+ T cells in culture have historically limited the study of their role in tumour rejection as well as other clinical applications. As the therapeutic value of current antitumour CD8+ T cell adoptive therapy becomes better defined, a strong impetus exists to determine optimal conditions for culturing antitumour CD4+ T cells. Our goal is to promote broadly polyclonal, antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses of either Th1 or Th2 character for use in antitumour therapy or allograft facilitation, respectively. Similar obstacles exist in murine and human cultures: (1) during even brief periods of culture CD4+ T cells develop high 'background' reactivity to class II-positive antigen-presenting cells; (2) maintenance of antigen specificity as evidenced by cytokine secretion and short-term proliferation assays is insufficient to ensure bulk numerical expansion; (3) Th1-type CD4+ T cells often lose their potential for antigen-specific secretion of interleukin 2 on re-stimulation (though remain inducible by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate/ionomycin); (4) during prolonged culture selection pressure favours CD4+ subpopulations that recognize artifactual antigens such as culture medium proteins; (5) even with optimal culture conditions, cultured CD4+ T cells may function differently in vivo to uncultured CD4+ T cells. We have devised various strategies to surmount these obstacles by use of selected cytokines, antigen-presenting cells and timely culture manoeuvres. PMID:7540969

  18. VIRUS-SPECIFIC NUCLEIC ACIDS IN SV40-EXPOSED HAMSTER EMBRYO CELL LINES: CORRELATION WITH S AND T ANTIGENS*

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Oxman, Michael N.; Diamandopoulos, George Th.; Levine, Arthur S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Enders, John F.

    1969-01-01

    A number of homologous SV40-exposed hamster embryonic cell lines were examined for the presence of RNA complementary to SV40 DNA. Only those lines containing the SV40 T antigen were found to have such virus-specific RNA. In lines containing the SV40 S antigen, but not the SV40 T antigen, virus-specific RNA was not detected. These findings suggest that the S antigen is not coded for directly by the SV40 genome. PMID:4307716

  19. Development of glycan specific lectin based immunoassay for detection of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Bhanushali, Paresh B; Badgujar, Shamkant B; Tripathi, Mukesh M; Gupta, Sanjeev; Murthy, Vedang; Krishnasastry, Musti V; Puri, Chander P

    2016-05-01

    We describe an analytical approach for the detection and verification of glycosylation patterns of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a key biomarker currently used for understanding the onset and prognosis of prostate cancer. PSA has been purified from the human seminal plasma and total PSA from prostate cancer sera. PSA is a monomeric glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass 28040.467Da, which exhibits a characteristic protease activity against casein and gelatin. Its optimal protease activity is centered on neutral pH. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis of the purified PSA has yielded peptides that partially match with known database sequences (Uniprot ID P07288). Tryptic digestion profile of isolated PSA, infer the exclusive nature of PSA and may be additive molecule in the dictionary of seminal proteins. Surface plasmon resonance and lectin immunoassay revealed direct interaction between a newly developed anti-PSA monoclonal antibody (C4E6) and PSA. A lectin based immunoassay is reported here which was achieved with the C4E6 anti-PSA antibody and biotinylated plant lectins. This investigation provides an alternative method to isolate and quantify PSA with altered glycosylation which might be seen in the prostate cancer and developing a lectin based immunoassay to detect PSA in serum of prostate cancer patients. PMID:26840176

  20. Antigen-specific suppression of inflammatory arthritis using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Capini, Christelle; Jaturanpinyo, Montree; Chang, Hsin-I; Mutalik, Srinivas; McNally, Alice; Street, Shayna; Steptoe, Raymond; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Davies, Nigel; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2009-03-15

    Existing therapies for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases are not Ag specific, which increases the likelihood of systemic toxicity. We show that egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes loaded with Ag (OVA or methylated BSA) and a lipophilic NF-kappaB inhibitor (curcumin, quercetin, or Bay11-7082) suppress preexisting immune responses in an Ag-specific manner. We injected loaded liposomes into mice primed with Ag or into mice suffering from Ag-induced inflammatory arthritis. The liposomes targeted APCs in situ, suppressing the cells' responsiveness to NF-kappaB and inducing Ag-specific FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. This regulatory mechanism suppressed effector T cell responses and the clinical signs of full-blown Ag-induced arthritis. Thus, liposomes encapsulate Ags and NF-kappaB inhibitors stably and efficiently and could be readily adapted to deliver Ags and inhibitors for Ag-specific suppression of other autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:19265134

  1. Generation of tumor-specific transplantation antigens by UV radiation can occur independently of neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, L W; Ananthaswamy, H N; Kripke, M L

    1986-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the UV-associated antigens present on tumors induced in mice by chronic UV irradiation could be induced by in vitro irradiation of cells that were already tumorigenic, or whether their occurrence was associated with the primary neoplastic transformation event. Cells of a nonantigenic, spontaneous fibrosarcoma cell line were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, were cloned, and were tested for antigenic properties. A large number of the clones obtained after UV irradiation of the fibrosarcoma cells were highly antigenic (20 of 39), whereas clones derived from unirradiated cultures were not (0 of 10). The antigenic variants did not induce cross-protection among themselves, but induced only variant-specific immunity in vivo. Several antigenic variants were tested for susceptibility to the action of UV-induced suppressor cells, which seem to recognize a common determinant shared among UV-induced tumors. The variants tested were indeed subject to the activity of the UV-induced suppressor lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that the unique antigenic properties exhibited by UV-induced murine skin cancers are also exhibited by cells exposed to UV radiation in vitro. In addition, they imply that the UV-associated antigens arise as a consequence of exposing cells to UV radiation and that they can occur independently of an initial neoplastic transformation event. PMID:3760572

  2. Design of universal cancer vaccines using natural tumor vessel-specific antigens (SANTAVAC)

    PubMed Central

    Lokhov, Petr G; Balashova, Elena E

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against endothelial cells (ECs) lining the tumor vasculature represents one of the most attractive potential cancer immunotherapy options due to its ability to prevent solid tumor growth. Using this approach, target antigens can be derived from ECs and used to develop a universal cancer vaccine. Unfortunately, direct immunization with EC preparations can elicit autoimmune vasculitis in normal tissues. Recently, tumor-induced changes to the human EC surface were described that provided a basis for designing efficient EC-based vaccines capable of eliciting immune responses that targeted the tumor endothelium directly. This review examines these data from the perspective of designing EC-based cancer vaccines for the treatment of all solid tumors, including the antigen composition of vaccine formulations, the selection ECs for antigen derivation, the production and control of antigens, and the method for estimating vaccine efficacy and safety. As the vaccine preparation requires a specifically derived set of natural cell surface antigens, a new vaccine preparation concept was formulated. Antigen compositions prepared according to this concept were named SANTAVAC (Set of All Natural Target Antigens for Vaccination Against Cancer). PMID:25714389

  3. Extraction of tumor-specific antigen from cells and plasma membranes of line-10 hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Leonard, E J; Richardson, A K; Hardy, A S; Rapp, H J

    1975-07-01

    Tumor-specific antigen was extracted with 3 M KCl from line-10 guinea pig hepatoma cells. The yield of antigenic activity, estimated by production of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in line-10 immune guinea pigs, was 10-30% of the antigen present in intact cells. By ultracentrifugation criteria, the extracted antigen was soluble. Gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, and salting-out studies showed that the antigen was heterogeneous in size and net charge. The possibility that 3 M KCl extracted a homogeneous population of molecules associating into polymers of various sizes at low ionic strength was ruled out by heterogeneity on Sephadex G-200 chromatography at high ionic strength. After osmotic lysis of sucrose-loaded line-10 cells, whole plasma membranes or large membrane fragments were obtained in a yield of about 20%. The isolation procedure did not cause detectable loss of membrane antigenic activity. The membranes had 33 skin test U/mg membrane protein, compared to the intact cell value of 1.7 skin test U/mg cell protein. Extracts of plasma membranes had 10-20% of the antigenic activity of the starting membrane material. In contrast to the wide variety of proteins liberated from intact cells, much of the protein extracted from the membranes was in the molecular weight range above 250,000. PMID:169367

  4. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  5. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection. PMID:22044420

  6. Purification of genus-specific chlamydial antigen and its separation into several components by ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Schmeer, N; Krauss, H

    1982-01-01

    Sodium deoxycholate-extracted genus-specific chlamydial antigen was purified from contaminating substances by ion-exchange chromatography with DEAE-sephacel, resulting in a decrease in the complement-fixing activity of the antigen, whereas the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay activity increased. By successive elution with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 M acetate buffer at least three clearly separated components were consistently recovered in 14 trials. The identity of these components as genus-specific chlamydial antigen was demonstrated in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests with specific antisera. The antigenic activity of these components was not diminished by prior treatment of the chlamydial particles with pronase. Antiserum prepared by immunization of rabbits with the antigenic component I of an egg-propagated antigen reacted predominantly with the antigenic components I and II of a cell culture-propagated antigen. PMID:7096557

  7. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Augments Antigen-Specific PD-1-Mediated Anti-Tumor Immune Responses via Cross-Presentation of Tumor Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sharabi, Andrew B.; Nirschl, Christopher J.; Kochel, Christina M.; Nirschl, Thomas R.; Francisca, Brian J.; Velarde, Esteban; Deweese, Theodore L.; Drake, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    The immune-modulating effects of radiation therapy have gained considerable interest recently and there have been multiple reports of synergy between radiation and immunotherapy. However, additional pre-clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the antigen-specific nature of radiation-induced immune responses and elucidate potential mechanisms of synergy with immunotherapy. Here we demonstrate the ability of stereotactic radiotherapy to induce endogenous antigen-specific immune responses when combined with anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP), image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy delivered to B16-OVA melanoma or 4T1-HA breast carcinoma tumors resulted in the development of antigen-specific T and B cell-mediated immune responses. These immune-stimulating effects of radiotherapy were significantly increased when combined with either anti-PD-1 therapy or regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion, resulting in improved local tumor control. Phenotypic analyses of antigen-specific CD8 T cells revealed that radiotherapy increased the percentage of antigen-experienced T cells and effector memory T cells. Mechanistically we found that radiotherapy up-regulates tumor-associated antigen-MHC complexes, enhances antigen cross-presentation in the draining lymph node, and increased T-cell infiltration into tumors. These findings demonstrate the ability of radiotherapy to prime an endogenous antigen-specific immune response and provide additional mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with PD-1 blockade in the clinic. PMID:25527358

  8. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S.; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18–65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  9. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  10. No significant difference in antigenicity or tissue transglutaminase substrate specificity of Irish and US wheat gliadins.

    PubMed

    Keaveny, A P; Offner, G D; Bootle, E; Nunes, D P

    2000-04-01

    The prevalence of clinical celiac disease has been shown to vary both across time and between genetically similar populations. Differences in wheat antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate properties are a possible explanation for these differences. This study assessed the antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate specificities of gliadins from regions of high and low celiac disease prevalence. Gliadin was extracted from three commercial US wheat sources and two Irish sources. SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed minor, but significant variations in the gliadin extracts. However, ELISA showed no difference in the antigenicity of these gliadins. Transglutaminase pretreatment of gliadin resulted in no significant change in gliadin antigenicity and kinetic studies showed that the Kms of the various gliadins were very similar. Purified IgA and IgG had no effect on transglutaminase activity. In summary, minor variations in wheat gliadins are unlikely to explain the observed differences in disease expression across genetically similar populations. PMID:10759247

  11. Immuno-PCR: Very sensitive antigen detection by means of specific antibody-DNA conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, T.; Smith, C.L.; Cantor, C.R. )

    1992-10-02

    An antigen detection system, termed immuno-polymerase chain reaction (immuno-PCR), was developed in which a specific DNA molecule is used as the marker. A streptavidin-protein A chimera that possesses tight and specific binding affinity both for biotin and immunoglobulin G was used to attach a biotinylated DNA specifically to antigen-monoclonal antibody complexes that had been immobilized on microtiter plate wells. Then, a segment of the attached DNA was amplified by PCR. Analysis of the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis after staining with ethidium bromide allowed as few as 580 antigen molecules to be readily and reproducibly detected. Direct comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the use of a chimera-alkaline phosphatase conjugate demonstrates that enhancement in detection sensitivity was obtained with the use of immuno-PCR. Given the enormous amplification capability and specificity of PCR, this immuno-PCR technology has a sensitivity greater than any existing antigen detection system and, in principle, could be applied to the detection of single antigen molecules.

  12. Distribution and functional characteristics of antigen-specific helper T cells arising after Peyer's patch immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Dunkley, M L; Husband, A J

    1987-01-01

    Antigen-specific T-helper cells for IgA responses arise in Peyer's patches (PP) following their immunization by subserosal injection of keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). These are of the W3/25 phenotype and the W3/25 receptor is shown here to be involved in their helper function. These cells originate in PP and migrate via mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) to thoracic duct lymph, although the MLN appear to be unnecessary for the induction or maturation of antigen-specific helper cells collected in thoracic duct lymph after intra-Peyer's patch (i.p.p.) immunization. KLH-specific helper cells can be detected subsequently in the intraepithelial lymphocyte population and also among lamina propria lymphocytes. The helper cells also relocate to PP distant to their site of origin where they are retained only when antigen is present. While i.p.p. immunization is an efficient route for the induction of IgA helper cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, it differs from oral immunization in that concomitant induction of antigen-specific splenic suppressor cells does not occur, indicating a role for epithelial antigen processing in this phenomenon. PMID:2450831

  13. Antigenic stimulation specifically reactivates the replication of archived simian immunodeficiency virus genomes in chronically infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Renoux, Céline; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Hurtrel, Bruno; Cheynier, Rémi

    2005-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) diversification is a direct consequence of viral replication and occurs principally in secondary lymphoid organs where CD4(+) T cells are activated and proliferate. However, the evolution of viral quasispecies may also be driven by various nonexclusive mechanisms, including adaptation to specific immune responses and modification of viral fitness. Analysis of viral quasispecies in SIV-infected macaques subjected to repeated antigenic stimulations allowed us to demonstrate transient expansions of SIV populations that were highly dependent upon activation of antigen-specific T cells. T-cell clones expanded in response to a particular antigen were infected by a specific viral population and persisted for prolonged periods. Upon a second stimulation by encounter with the same antigen, these specific genomes were at the origin of a new burst of replication, leading to rapid but transient replacement of the viral quasispecies in blood. Finally, longitudinal analysis of SIV sequence variation during and between antigenic stimulations revealed that viral evolution is mostly constrained to periods of strong immunological activity. PMID:16103175

  14. Bystander T cells participate in specific response to cockroach antigen (CR) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Walters, C S; Tackey, R N; Reece, E; Paluvoi, S

    2003-02-01

    Allergic reactions due to whole body, body parts and fecal products of cockroach (CR) are characterized by inflammatory reaction that may lead to symptoms of rhinitis or asthma in atopic individuals. Although the majority of T cells at the site of CR hypersensitivity are not antigen specific, the cellular subset and cytokine receptors that participate and control the outcome of the reaction have not been fully studied. In this study, we have used fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis to characterize the activation marker and cytokine profile of antigen specific and bystander T cells after in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with whole body extract of CR antigen. There was significant enhancement of CD69 on blast and bystander T cells in all atopic subjects compared to non-atopics. Both antigen specific and bystander T cells showed increased expression of HLA-DR, CD25 and CD71 in 9 of 11 atopic patients compared to control. There was also an increase in CD45RA+ and a decrease in CD45RO+ cells following antigen stimulation. These results correlated with the increase in the early apoptotic cells observed in patients as measured by Annexin V stain. Our data revealed that there was no difference in the expression of CD95 in both stimulated and bystander T cells. However, there was enhancement of FasL by CR antigen, suggesting that the increased apoptosis that was observed was probably due to the Fas/FasL interaction. Positive intracellular IL2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma in T cells were observed in only the antigen specific blast cells in 83% of patients studied. These results suggest interplay of memory T cell response, apoptosis, and activated bystander T cells activities in maintaining cellular homeostasis during allergic reaction in cockroach sensitive atopic subjects. PMID:12722946

  15. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Gregory, C.D.; Rowe, M.; Rickinson, A.B.; Wang, D.; Birkenbach, M.; Kikutani, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Kieff, E.

    1987-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation.

  16. Identification of antigen-specific B cell receptor sequences using public repertoire analysis

    PubMed Central

    Galson, Jacob D.; Rance, Richard; Parkhill, Julian; Lunter, Gerton; Pollard, Andrew J.; Kelly, Dominic F.

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing allows detailed study of the B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire post-immunization but it remains unclear to what extent the de novo identification of antigen-specific sequences from the total BCR repertoire is possible. A Hib-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine containing H. influenzae type b (Hib) and group C meningococcal (MenC) polysaccharides as well as tetanus toxoid (TT) was used to investigate the BCR repertoire of adult humans following immunization and test the hypothesis that public or convergent repertoire analysis could identify antigen specific sequences. A number of antigen-specific BCR sequences have previously been reported for Hib and TT which made a vaccine containing these 2 antigens an ideal immunological stimulus. Analysis of identical complementarity determining region (CDR)3 amino acid (AA) sequences that were shared by individuals in the post-vaccine repertoire identified a number of known Hib-specific sequences but only one previously described TT sequence. The extension of this analysis to non-identical but highly similar CDR3 AA sequences revealed a number of other TT-related sequences. The anti-Hib avidity index post-vaccination was strongly correlated with the relative frequency of Hib-specific sequences, indicating that the post-vaccination public BCR repertoire may be related to more conventional measures of immunogenicity correlating with disease protection. Analysis of public BCR repertoire provided evidence of convergent BCR evolution in individuals exposed to the same antigens. If this finding is confirmed, the public repertoire could be used for rapid and direct identification of protective antigen-specific BCR sequences from peripheral blood. PMID:25392534

  17. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT in Splenic Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kobe, Carsten; Maintz, David; Fischer, Thomas; Drzezga, Alexander; Chang, De-Hua

    2015-11-01

    A 65-year-old man who had prostate cancer presented with slightly progressive prostate-specific antigen values. In this situation of biochemical relapse, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT has proven to be superior to choline PET. The Ga-PSMA PET/CT of our patient revealed PSMA-positive tissue in the spleen. Although the localization was not typical for metastases, metastasis could not be excluded because of the intense focal tracer uptake. A supplementary MRI was performed but also failed to rule out a malignant origin. Finally, biopsy confirmed benign disease in the spleen in the form of granulomatous disease. PMID:26018688

  18. A novel agglutination test for antigen-specific detection of platelet antibodies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Oliver; Agaylan, Ashraf; Borchert, Hans-Hubert; Aslan, Tunay; Bombard, Stéphane; Kiesewetter, Holger; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2006-10-15

    A simple and rapid antigen-specific assay for the identification antibodies to platelets is lacking, yet. Red-dyed polystyrene microbeads were coated with monoclonal antibodies to various platelet glycoprotein complexes, and used for the detection of platelet autoantibodies and alloantibodies. The results were largely identical with those obtained by monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigen assay (MAIPA). The new test is reliable yet less complex and time-consuming than the currently available assays, and it can be implemented in any routine laboratory. PMID:16933262

  19. Cell-Mediated Immune Response of Ragweed-Sensitive Patients to Ragweed Antigen E

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Ross E.; Pence, Hobert; Kaplan, Hyman; Evans, Richard

    1974-01-01

    The in vivo and in vitro responses to ragweed antigen E were evaluated in 28 untreated atopic patients with ragweed hayfever. The methods employed included direct skin testing, measurement of total serum IgE, measurement of specific IgE anti-ragweed antibodies, leukocyte histamine release, lymphocyte transformation, and release of lymphocyte mediators (migration inhibitory factor and mitogenic factor). The patients could be divided into sensitive and insensitive groups on the basis of their in vitro reactivity to antigen E. 20 patients in the sensitive group had statistically higher levels of total serum IgE, higher levels of specific IgE anti-ragweed antibodies, and greater leukocyte sensitivity as measured by antigen-induced histamine release than did eight patients in the insensitive group. Lymphocytes from sensitive patients produced greater amounts of migration inhibitory factor and mitogenic factor when challenged by antigen E than did lymphocytes from insensitive patients. A possible role for the lymphocyte in this allergic disease is discussed. The results of this study indicate that the immune response to ragweed antigen is complex and involves components of both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity. PMID:4130213

  20. DOE DEF RIM-to-IGES. File Writer documentation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, K.L.; Leake, P.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document will define the design specifications for the RIM-to-IGES File Writer Program. It describes the purpose of the File Writer, lists references, defines the structure of the program, and discusses the Fortran/RIM interface.

  1. Antigen-specific TIL therapy for melanoma: A flexible platform for personalized cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kelderman, Sander; Heemskerk, Bianca; Fanchi, Lorenzo; Philips, Daisy; Toebes, Mireille; Kvistborg, Pia; van Buuren, Marit M; van Rooij, Nienke; Michels, Samira; Germeroth, Lothar; Haanen, John B A G; Schumacher, N M

    2016-06-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy has shown objective clinical response rates of 50% in stage IV melanoma patients in a number of clinical trials. Nevertheless, the majority of patients progress either directly upon therapy or after an initial period of tumor control. Recent data have shown that most TIL products that are used for therapy contain only low frequencies of T cells reactive against known melanoma-associated epitopes. Because of this, the development of a technology to create T-cell products that are enriched for reactivity against defined melanoma-associated antigens would seem valuable, both to evaluate the tumoricidal potential of T cells directed against different antigen classes and to potentially increase response rates. Here, we developed and validated a conditional MHC streptamer-based platform for the creation of TIL products with defined antigen reactivities. We have used this platform to successfully enrich both high-frequency (≥1%) and low-frequency (<1%) tumor-specific CD8(+) T-cell populations, and thereby created T-cell products with enhanced tumor recognition potential. Collectively, these data demonstrate that selection of antigen-specific T-cell populations can be used to create defined T-cell products for clinical use. This strategy thus forms a highly flexible platform for the development of antigen-specific cell products for personalized cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27005018

  2. Polymeric synthetic nanoparticles for the induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Roberto A.; LaMothe, Robert A.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Rossi, Robert J.; Kolte, Pallavi N.; Griset, Aaron P.; O’Neil, Conlin; Altreuter, David H.; Browning, Erica; Johnston, Lloyd; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Langer, Robert; Scott, David W.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Kishimoto, Takashi Kei

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments to control pathological or unwanted immune responses often use broadly immunosuppressive drugs. New approaches to induce antigen-specific immunological tolerance that control both cellular and humoral immune responses are desirable. Here we describe the use of synthetic, biodegradable nanoparticles carrying either protein or peptide antigens and a tolerogenic immunomodulator, rapamycin, to induce durable and antigen-specific immune tolerance, even in the presence of potent Toll-like receptor agonists. Treatment with tolerogenic nanoparticles results in the inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation, an increase in regulatory cells, durable B-cell tolerance resistant to multiple immunogenic challenges, and the inhibition of antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions, relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and antibody responses against coagulation factor VIII in hemophilia A mice, even in animals previously sensitized to antigen. Only encapsulated rapamycin, not the free form, could induce immunological tolerance. Tolerogenic nanoparticle therapy represents a potential novel approach for the treatment of allergies, autoimmune diseases, and prevention of antidrug antibodies against biologic therapies. PMID:25548186

  3. Specific inactivation of sensitized lymphocytes in vitro using antigens labelled with astatine-211

    PubMed Central

    Smit, J. A.; Myburgh, J. A.; Neirinckx, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    This is a study of the use of astatine-211 as an alternative to iodine isotopes in radioactive antigen suicide experiments. The theoretical advantages of 211At are that it is a high energy (5·87 MeV), short half-life (7·2 hr)α-emitter with a short path length of 60 μm. Its destructive effect, measured in terms of degree of ionization per micron is 300 times that of 125I and 131I. Streptokinase (SK), tuberculin (PPD) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were labelled electrolytically with 211At (3–9% incorporation). These antigens were not destroyed by the labelling technique or by self-irradiation during radioactive decay. Autoradiography showed that only a small fraction of lymphocytes bound 211At-labelled SK and PPD whilst most lymphocytes bound 211At-labelled PHA. Lymphocytes exposed for 40 min to 0·35–1·40 μCi of labelled antigens lost 35–83% of their ability to transform upon subsequent exposure to the unlabelled antigens. The inhibition was specific in that responsiveness to unrelated antigens was retained. These results extend our previous findings with the use of 211At in in vivo antigen suicide experiments. ImagesFig. 1(a)Fig. 1(b) PMID:4716099

  4. Antigenic specificity of the 72-kilodalton major surface glycoprotein of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Kutner, S; Pellerin, P; Breniere, S F; Desjeux, P; Dedet, J P

    1991-01-01

    We examined the expression and the antigenicity of the major surface polypeptides of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis and Leishmania donovani chagasi, parasites which commonly coexist in the same endemic areas of Bolivia. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles from surface-iodinated promastigotes showed the presence of a unique iodinatable polypeptide of 72 kDa on the L. b. braziliensis surface and of two major components of 65 and 50 kDa exposed at the surface of L. d. chagasi. Comparison of the peptide digestion profiles of the major iodinated polypeptides of both strains showed no similarity between the maps of the 72- and the 65-kDa polypeptides of L. b. braziliensis and L. d. chagasi, respectively. Immunoprecipitation of surface-labeled L. b. braziliensis Nonidet P-40 extracts with 35 serum specimens obtained from Bolivian patients with cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis showed that all serum specimens recognized predominantly the 72-kDa antigen and high-molecular-mass proteins in some cases. The recognition patterns were independent of the geographical origin of the patient, the type of lesion, and the serum antibody titer. Serum specimens from children with visceral leishmaniasis did not precipitate the L. b. braziliensis 72-kDa antigen. Hamster hyperimmune serum against L. b. braziliensis also recognized the 72-kDa surface antigen. However, this recognition was inhibited in the presence of the homologous nonlabeled antigen but not in the presence of heterologous (L. d. chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi) antigens. The specific recognition of 72-kDa surface antigen in both natural and experimental L. b. braziliensis infections suggests that this antigen could be a good candidate for use in the differential immunodiagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Images PMID:2037677

  5. Identification of Giardia lamblia-specific antigens in infected human and gerbil feces by western immunoblotting.

    PubMed Central

    Stibbs, H H; Samadpour, M; Ongerth, J E

    1990-01-01

    Western immunoblot analysis of aqueous extracts of feces obtained from five giardiasis patients and from experimentally infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with rabbit antiserum to Giardia lamblia cysts has revealed antigens of three molecular weight groups. A stepladderlike, evenly-spaced set of strongly reactive antigens (darkest at a molecular weight [m.w.] of 55,000 to 70,000) appeared in the gerbil feces from day 4 (first experiment) or day 2 (second experiment) and lasted to about day 7 but disappeared completely by day 8 and did not reappear later. These antigenic bands were seen in gerbils infected with two isolates of G. lamblia. These bands were not revealed when antiserum to trophozoites was used as the probe, nor were they evident in specimens from the patients or in a preparation of sonicated cysts. A second group of antigens, represented by two to three low-m.w. bands of approximately 15,000 to 20,000, was evident in both the blots of gerbil feces after approximately day 8 and the specimens from the giardiasis patients. The third group of antigens revealed by blotting experiments was a high-m.w. band (approximately 110,000) which appeared on a number of days (beginning of day 8 of gerbil infection), but this band was not seen in the human specimens. A clear band corresponding to the previously reported GSA-65 antigen was not seen in either the gerbil or the human samples. Some low- and high-m.w. bands were also detected by antitrophozoite serum in the gerbil samples, but these were weak and unimpressive compared with those visualized using anticyst serum. A monoclonal antibody-based antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that Giardia spp.-specific stool antigen rose suddenly at day 3 of gerbil infection, at the time when fecal cyst numbers began to rise rapidly. Images PMID:2229361

  6. Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcɛRI.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Sari; Ye, Hongtu; Helm, Birgit

    2013-05-15

    The binding of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to its high-affinity receptor (FcɛRI) is the central protein interaction in IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The cross-linking of the IgE/FcɛRI complex, through cognate allergens, on the surface of mast cells and basophil cells results in mediator release, and thus leads to the symptoms of type I hypersensitivity responses in mammals. To develop a baseline value for subsequent equine anti-allergy drug and vaccine research, the interaction of equine IgE with its high-affinity FcɛRI receptor was investigated following the cloning and expression of equine IgE with specificity for NIP-HSA (4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenylacetic acid conjugated to human serum albumin). Receptor recognition and effector functions were assessed in Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells transfected with the α chain of equine and canine FcɛRI. Results obtained showed that the equine FcɛRI receptor recognizes both equine and canine IgE and supports similar β-hexosaminidase release levels from RBL cells transfected with equine FcɛRI, peaking at 36.68% at 100ngml(-1) antigen and 32.00% at 100ngml(-1) antigen respectively. Furthermore, the binding kinetics of the equine IgE to the equine FcɛRI receptor and the canine IgE to the same receptor was measured to be KA=6.33×10(9)M(-1) and KA=1.84×10(9)M(-1) respectively. This research established basic reagents and vitro assay systems to underpin the development of rational therapeutic intervention strategies to combat equine allergic manifestations. PMID:23485176

  7. Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, enhances antigen-specific IgG2a and interferon-gamma expression in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Jan, Tong-Rong; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuan, Chio-Chin; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Wu, Hsin-Yin

    2007-05-01

    The effect of diosgenin, the most abundant sapogenin in Chinese yam, on humoral immunity was investigated. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice were administered daily with diosgenin for 34 days. The production of OVA-specific serum IgG2a was significantly enhanced by diosgenin treatment, whereas total IgE and OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgM were unaffected. In parallel with the enhancement of IgG2a, OVA-induced IFN-gamma secretion and mRNA expression were markedly elevated in splenocytes of diosgenin-treated mice, whereas IL-4 expression was unaltered. Furthermore, the expression of T-bet, but not of GATA-3, in splenocytes was up-regulated by diosgenin administration. However, diosgenin treatment did not modulate IL-4 mRNA expression and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung of OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that diosgenin regulates the systemic immune response towards the Th1 direction in response to OVA sensitization. The present study provides evidence to show that intake of diosgenin modulates certain aspects of acquired immunity, including the enhancement of antigen-specific IgG2a and IFN-gamma expression, which may be mediated through the up-regulation of Th1 differentiation. PMID:17566144

  8. Capsular polysaccharide antigens for detection of serotype-specific antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, J T; Johnson, R P; Rosendal, S

    1990-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) of serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7 of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae were obtained from 18 h culture supernatants by precipitation with hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (Cetavlon) followed by extraction with sodium chloride and reprecipitation in ethanol. These crude extracts, and portions purified further by phenol extraction to remove contaminating proteins, were evaluated as antigens for the detection of serotype-specific antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae in sera from immunized rabbits and swine by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The crude extracts reacted strongly with homologous antisera, but except for serotype 1 showed considerable cross-reactivity with antisera to other serotypes. Phenol extraction greatly improved the serospecificity of the antigens from serotypes 1, 7 and, to a lesser extent, 5. The serotype 2 CPS antigen showed poor reactivity following phenol extraction, and did not appear as useful for detection of serotype-specific antibodies. PMID:2379111

  9. Immunochemistry of sea anemone toxins: structure-antigenicity relationships and toxin-receptor interactions probed by antibodies specific for one antigenic

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Beress, L.; Rochat, H.

    1986-11-04

    Two antibody subpopulations directed against Anemonia sulcata toxin I or II have been purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. These antibodies are specific for a single antigenic region and were used in a structure-antigenicity relationship study using homologous toxins and chemically modified derivatives of A. sulcata toxin II. Asp-7 and/or Asp=9 and Gln-47 of toxin II were found to be implicated in the antigenic region recognized by the two antibody subpopulations. On the contrary, Arg-14, Lys-35, -36, and -46, and ..cap alpha..-NH/sub 2/ of the glycine residue of A. sulcata toxin II are not involved in the corresponding antigenic region. When assayed for interaction with the sodium channel, the antigenic region of toxin II, including Asp-9 and Gln-47, appeared fully accessible to its specific antibodies, suggesting that it is not involved in the binding of the toxin to its receptor.

  10. Fucoidan prevents C{epsilon} germline transcription and NF{kappa}B p52 translocation for IgE production in B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oomizu, Souichi; Yanase, Yuhki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu; Hide, Michihiro . E-mail: mhide@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2006-11-24

    Fucoidan, a dietary fiber contained in seaweed, reduces the increase of antigen-specific IgE in mice exposed to ovalbumin. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on IgE production and intracellular events in B cells in vitro. Fucoidan inhibited the production of IgE and C{epsilon} germline transcription in murine B cells induced by IL-4 (100 ng/ml) and anti-CD40 antibodies (10 {mu}g/ml), whereas it stimulated cell proliferation. A significant effect of fucoidan on IgE production was observed when B cells were stimulated with a higher dose (5 {mu}g/ml) of anti-CD40 antibodies, but not when stimulated with lower doses (1.25, 2.5 {mu}g/ml), regardless of the IL-4 concentrations. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B p52, but neither that of NF{kappa}B p65, nor the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT6 was reduced by fucoidan. These results suggest that fucoidan inhibited IgE production by preventing the NF{kappa}B p52-mediated pathways activated by CD40.

  11. Probing the S1 specificity pocket of the aminopeptidases that generate antigenic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudi, Efthalia; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Georgiadou, Dimitra; Evnouchidou, Irini; Gajda, Anna; Poreba, Marcin; Salvesen, Guy S.; Drag, Marcin; Hattori, Akira; Swevers, Luc; Vourloumis, Dionisios; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis ER aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), ER aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) and Insulin Regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) are three homologous enzymes that play critical roles in the generation of antigenic peptides. These aminopeptidases excise amino acids from N-terminally extended precursors of antigenic peptides in order to generate the correct length epitopes for binding onto MHC class I molecules. The specificity of these peptidases can affect antigenic peptide selection, but has not yet been investigated in detail. In the present study we utilized a collection of 82 fluorogenic substrates to define a detailed selectivity profile for each of the three enzymes and to probe structural and functional features of the primary specificity (S1) pocket. Molecular modeling of the three S1 pockets reveals substrate-enzyme interactions that are critical determinants for specificity. The substrate selectivity profiles suggest that IRAP largely combines the S1 specificity of ERAP1 and ERAP2, consistent with its proposed biological function. IRAP however, does not achieve this dual specificity by simply combining structural features of ERAP1 and 2, but rather by a unique amino acid change at position 541. Our results provide insights on antigenic peptide selection and may prove valuable in designing selective inhibitors or activity markers for this class of enzymes. PMID:21314638

  12. Induction of the c-myc protooncogene following antigen binding to hapten-specific B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, E.C.; Fetherston, J.; Zimmer, S.

    1986-03-01

    Considerable controversy has centered on the role that the surface immunoglobulin (sIg) receptor for antigen plays during the induction of B cell activation. Stimulation by anti-Ig reagents has been shown to activate G/sub 0/ B cells to enter the cell cycle. The binding of thymus-dependent antigens to hapten-specific B cell populations apparently does not result in the movement of the antigen-binding cells (ABC) into the G/sub 1/ stage of the cell cycle. However, the authors have recently demonstrated that antigen binding to such hapten-specific B cells does result in the initiation of the membrane phosphatidylinositol cycle. In the present experiments, hapten-specific B cells (80-90% ABC, 99% in G/sub 0/) were incubated with either the correct hapten-carrier conjugate, with the carrier protein, or only media for 2 hours at 37/sup 0/C. At that time, total cellular RNA was isolated and subsequently analyzed by either dot blots or Northern gel techniques. The blots were probed with a (/sup 32/P)-c-myc SstI-Xhol fragment. The results indicate that hapten carrier stimulation of the hapten-specific B cells induces enhanced transcription of the c-myc gene. These observations lend further support to the premise that antigen binding to the sIg receptor results in the transduction to the cell of important signals and implicates the active participation of sIg during the process of antigen-mediated B cell activation.

  13. The socioeconomic implications of prostate-specific antigen screening.

    PubMed

    Benoit, R M; Naslund, M J

    1997-05-01

    Widespread PSA screening will increase overall health care costs. This increase will not result from the detection of clinically insignificant prostate cancer, but rather from the stage migration caused by prostate cancer screening. This stage migration will result in a larger percentage of men with prostate cancer undergoing early treatment options, which are more expensive than treatment of late disease. More importantly, early detection of prostate cancer will lead to treatment several years earlier than would have occurred otherwise. Because treatment then will be paid for in current rather than future dollars, the opportunity costs of money will make treatment costs resulting from PSA screening greater than treatment costs resulting from traditional detection. The critical question is what benefits will be obtained by the expenditure of these additional health care dollars. If early treatment of clinically localized cancer has little or no effect on cause-specific survival, the additional health care costs will have been spent only to limit eventual treatment of local symptoms in the screened men. If early treatment of prostate cancer can increase survival, the added expense is more worthwhile. Because there are not adequate data available to address this issue, several approaches have been used to develop models to estimate cost-effectiveness. Decision analysis models have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening and treatment and have found little or no benefit. The current review has demonstrated how assumptions used in the models can influence the results. Benoit et al also have constructed a model of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer, but in this study only concrete parameters such as cost, published complication rates, and survival data were used. This quantitative analysis demonstrated that prostate cancer screening is an effective and cost-effective health care intervention compared with currently

  14. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:26666347

  15. Novel use of a radiolabelled antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for the detection of occult abscesses in mammals

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Madhukar L.

    1990-01-01

    The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents.

  16. Effects of Treatment on IgE Responses against Parasite Allergen-Like Proteins and Immunity to Reinfection in Childhood Schistosome and Hookworm Coinfections

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Frances M.; Wilson, Shona; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Mwatha, Joseph K.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Dunne, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring human immunity to both schistosomiasis and hookworm infection has been associated with IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins. Since the two helminths frequently coinfect the same individuals, there is growing advocacy for their concurrent treatment. However, both helminths are known to exert strong immunomodulatory effects; therefore, coinfected individuals could have immune responses different from those characteristically seen in monoinfected individuals. In this study, we measured changes in IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 responses to schistosome and hookworm antigens, including the allergen-like proteins Schistosoma mansoni tegumental-allergen-like 1 protein (SmTAL1), SmTAL2, and Necator americanus Ancylostoma-secreted protein-2 (Na-ASP-2), following concurrent treatment of schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. Antibody responses to schistosome egg (soluble egg antigen and SmTAL2) or somatic adult hookworm (AHW) antigens either decreased after treatment or were unchanged, whereas those to schistosome worm antigens (soluble worm antigen and SmTAL1) increased. The observed different effects of treatment likely reflect the different modes of drug action and sites of infection for these two helminths. Importantly, there was no evidence that the simultaneous treatment of coinfected children with praziquantel and albendazole affected schistosome- and hookworm-specific humoral responses differently from those characteristic of populations in which only one organism is endemic; schistosome- and hookworm-specific responses were not associated, and there was no evidence for cross-regulation. Posttreatment increases in the levels of IgE to schistosome worm antigens were associated with lower Schistosoma mansoni reinfection intensity, while no associations between humoral responses to AHW antigen and protection from hookworm reinfection were observed in this sample of school-aged children. PMID:23071136

  17. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  18. Critical Role of Autophagy in the Processing of Adenovirus Capsid-Incorporated Cancer-Specific Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sarah R.; Jiang, Hong; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Dong, Andrew; Alonso, Marta M.; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Fueyo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are highly immunogenic and are being examined as potential vectors for immunotherapy. Infection by oncolytic adenovirus is followed by massive autophagy in cancer cells. Here, we hypothesize that autophagy regulates the processing of adenoviral proteins for antigen presentation. To test this hypothesis, we first examined the presentation of viral antigens by infected cells using an antibody cocktail of viral capsid proteins. We found that viral antigens were processed by JNK-mediated autophagy, and that autophagy was required for their presentation. Consistent with these results, splenocytes isolated from virus-immunized mice were activated by infected cells in an MHC II-dependent manner. We then hypothesize that this mechanism can be utilized to generate an efficient cancer vaccine. To this end, we constructed an oncolytic virus encompassing an EGFRvIII cancer-specific epitope in the adenoviral fiber. Infection of cancer cells with this fiber-modified adenovirus resulted in recognition of infected cancer cells by a specific anti-EGFRvIII antibody. However, inhibition of autophagy drastically decreased the capability of the specific antibody to detect the cancer-related epitope in infected cells. Our data suggest that combination of adenoviruses with autophagy inducers may enhance the processing and presentation of cancer-specific antigens incorporated into capsid proteins. PMID:27093696

  19. HEPA and PARSE: Systematic discovery of clinically relevant tumor-specific antigens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Song

    2013-03-01

    The effective discovery of tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) holds the key for the development of new diagnostic assays and immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer. Here, we discuss our recently developed technologies, HEPA and PARSE, which allow for the systematic identification of TSAs, generating a reservoir of immunologically and clinically relevant targets. PMID:23802073

  20. Chemoenzymatic Syntheses of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Antigen Globo-H and Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen 4

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Gilbert, Michel; Eguchi, Hironobu; Yu, Hai; Cheng, Jiansong; Muthana, Saddam; Zhou, Luyuan; Wang, Peng George; Chen, Xi; Huang, Xuefei

    2009-01-01

    Gangliosides have attracted much attention due to their important biological properties. Herein, we report the first chemoenzymatic syntheses of two globo series of ganglioside oligosaccharides, Globo-H 1 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) 2. The common precursor SSEA-3 pentasaccharide for these two compounds was assembled rapidly using the pre-activation based one-pot glycosylation method. The stereoselectivity in forming the 1,2-cis linkage in SSEA-3 was attributed to a steric buttressing effect of the donor rather than electronic properties of the glycosyl donors. SSEA-3 was then successfully fucosylated by the fucosyltransferase WbsJ and sialylated by sialyltransferases CST-I and PmST1 producing Globo-H and SSEA-4 respectively. PMID:20305750

  1. Ultrasensitive immunoassay for prostate specific antigen using scanning tunneling microscopy-based electrical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun; Jang, Yong-Hark; Kang, Da-Yeon

    2008-07-01

    We characterized a vertically configured electrical detection system that used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to detect antigen-antibody binding. This technique could be used to easily construct a multiple measurement system in a protein chip. We utilized immunocomplexes comprised of our model protein, prostate specific antigen (PSA), corresponding antibody fragments, and gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates. The electrical tunneling current between the STM tip and these complexes exhibited a peaklike pulse, the frequency of which depended on the surface density of the bound complexes. We could therefore quantitatively measure PSA concentrations as low as 10fg/mL using periodogram analysis of this peak frequency.

  2. SIV antigen immunization induces transient antigen-specific T cell responses and selectively activates viral replication in draining lymph nodes in retroviral suppressed rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection causes a qualitative and quantitative loss of CD4+ T cell immunity. The institution of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4+ T cell responses to many pathogens, but HIV-specific responses remain deficient. Similarly, therapeutic immunization with HIV antigens of chronically infected, ART treated subjects results in poor induction of HIV-specific CD4 responses. In this study, we used a macaque model of ART treatment during chronic infection to study the virologic consequences of SIV antigen stimulation in lymph nodes early after immunization. Rhesus CMV (RhCMV) seropositive, Mamu A*01 positive rhesus macaques were chronically infected with SIVmac251 and treated with ART. The immune and viral responses to SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 antigen immunization in draining lymph nodes and peripheral blood were analyzed. Animals were immunized on contralateral sides with SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 encoding plasmids, which allowed lymph nodes draining each antigen to be obtained at the same time from the same animal for direct comparison. Results We observed that both SIV and RhCMV immunizations stimulated transient antigen-specific T cell responses in draining lymph nodes. The RhCMV-specific responses were potent and sustained (50 days post-immunization) in the periphery, while the SIV-specific responses were transient and extinguished quickly. The SIV antigen stimulation selectively induced transient SIV replication in draining lymph nodes. Conclusions The data are consistent with a model whereby viral replication in response to SIV antigen stimulation limits the generation of SIV antigen-specific responses and suggests a potential mechanism for the early loss and poor HIV-specific CD4+ T cell response observed in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21752277

  3. Flow cytometric assessment of antigen-specific proliferation in peripheral chicken T cells by CFSE dilution.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, T S; Norup, L R; Rubbenstroth, D; Wattrang, E; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2010-11-15

    Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution is a well established method for analysis of dividing cells by flow cytometry. In other species the method has been extensively used in the study of antigen-specific T cells. The purpose of this study was to apply the method to chicken peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) and to evaluate and optimize its performance in relation to detection of vaccine-induced chicken T cells specific for Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The method was based on analysis of CFSE dilution upon ex vivo recall stimulation with whole vaccine antigen. Analysis of proliferation was combined with the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the lymphocyte surface markers CD4 and CD8 in order to phenotype the responding cells. Problems with nonspecific background proliferation especially in the CD8 compartment were significantly reduced by replacing medium containing fetal calf serum with serum-free medium. It was rendered probable that antigen-specific cellular immunity can be assessed by this method as NDV-vaccinated chickens showed a significantly higher proliferative capacity than age-matched naïve controls. Furthermore it was shown that the recall stimulation lead to a proliferative response in T cells expressing αβ-type TCRs but also those expressing the γδ-type. In summary, the method was found challenging but nevertheless useful to quantify the proliferative response of chicken antigen-specific T cells. Further investigations though, are needed in order to prove what cell subsets are true antigen-specific responders and what cells are bystander activated. Nevertheless, the method is expected to be a valuable tool to evaluate and quantify vaccine responses to current and new chicken vaccines in the future. PMID:20739071

  4. Isolation of Antagonists of Antigen-Specific Autoimmune T Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Gocke, Anne R.; Udugamasooriya, D. Gomika; Archer, Chase T.; Lee, Jiyong; Kodadek, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Antigen-specific T cells play a major role in mediating the pathogenesis of a variety of autoimmune conditions as well as other diseases. In the context of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis, we present here a general approach to the discovery of highly specific ligands for autoreactive cells. These ligands are obtained from a combinatorial library of hundreds of thousands of synthetic peptoids that is screened simultaneously against two populations of CD4+ T cells. Peptoids that recognize autoreactive T cells with extremely high specificity can be identified in the library. Since no specific knowledge is required regarding the nature of the native antigens recognized by the autoreactive T cells, this technology provides a powerful tool for the enrichment and inhibition of autoimmune cells in a variety of disease states. PMID:19942136

  5. Immunohistochemical demonstration of specific antigens in the human brain fixed in zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Korzhevskii, D E; Sukhorukova, E G; Kirik, O V; Grigorev, I P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue fixation is critical for immunohistochemistry. Recently, we developed a zinc-ethanol-formalin fixative (ZEF), and the present study was aimed to assess the applicability of the ZEF for the human brain histology and immunohistochemistry and to evaluate the detectability of different antigens in the human brain fixed with ZEF. In total, 11 antigens were tested, including NeuN, neuron-specific enolase, GFAP, Iba-1, calbindin, calretinin, choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin, and α-tubulin. The obtained data show that: i) the ZEF has potential for use in general histological practice, where detailed characterization of human brain morphology is needed; ii) the antigens tested are well-preserved in the human brain specimens fixed in the ZEF. PMID:26428887

  6. Stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 identifies human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Noriaki; Murata, Satoko; Fukushima, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Yanagita, Takeshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Itoh, Tomoo; Kuboki, Takuo; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2012-03-10

    Embryonic stem cell-associated antigens are expressed in a variety of adult stem cells as well as embryonic stem cells. In the present study, we investigated whether stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 can be used to isolate dental pulp (DP) stem cells. DP cells showed plastic adherence, specific surface antigen expression, and multipotent differentiation potential, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). SSEA-4+ cells were found in cultured DP cells in vitro as well as in DP tissue in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that 45.5% of the DP cells were SSEA-4+. When the DP cells were cultured in the presence of all-trans-retinoic acid, marked downregulation of SSEA-3 and SSEA-4 and the upregulation of SSEA-1 were observed. SSEA-4+ DP cells showed a greater telomere length and a higher growth rate compared to ungated and SSEA-4- cells. A clonal assay demonstrated that 65.5% of the SSEA-4+ DP cells had osteogenic potential, and the SSEA-4+ clonal DP cells showed multilineage differentiation potential toward osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and neurons in vitro. In addition, the SSEA-4+ DP cells had the capacity to form ectopic bone in vivo. Thus, our results suggest that SSEA-4 is a specific cell surface antigen that can be used to identify DP stem cells. PMID:22266579

  7. Mathematics Instruction in IGE and Non-IGE Schools. Working Paper 317. Report from the IGE Evaluation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This report summarizes the data from a comparative study of grades 2 and 5 mathematics instruction and the use of Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) in IGE and non-IGE settings. These results are part of a five-phase evaluation of the IGE system of elementary schooling. Use of DMP and reported adoption of IGE were not found to be good…

  8. Specific Fluorine Labeling of the HyHEL10 Antibody Affects Antigen Binding and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Acchione, Mauro; Lee, Yi-Chien; DeSantis, Morgan E.; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Li, Mi; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Walter, Richard L.; Smith-Gill, Sandra; Barchi, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    To more fully understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for variations in binding affinity with antibody maturation, we explored the use of site specific fluorine labeling and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Several single-chain (scFv) antibodies, derived from an affinity-matured series of anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) mouse IgG1, were constructed with either complete or individual replacement of tryptophan residues with 5-fluorotryptophan (5FW). An array of biophysical techniques was used to gain insight into the impact of fluorine substitution on the overall protein structure and antigen binding. SPR measurements indicated that 5FW incorporation lowered binding affinity for the HEL antigen. The degree of analogue impact was residue-dependent, and the greatest decrease in affinity was observed when 5FW was substituted for residues near the binding interface. In contrast, corresponding crystal structures in complex with HEL were essentially indistinguishable from the unsubstituted antibody. 19F NMR analysis showed severe overlap of signals in the free fluorinated protein that was resolved upon binding to antigen, suggesting very distinct chemical environments for each 5FW in the complex. Preliminary relaxation analysis suggested the presence of chemical exchange in the antibody–antigen complex that could not be observed by X-ray crystallography. These data demonstrate that fluorine NMR can be an extremely useful tool for discerning structural changes in scFv antibody–antigen complexes with altered function that may not be discernible by other biophysical techniques. PMID:22769726

  9. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Arturo; Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  10. Two Allergen Model Reveals Complex Relationship Between IgE Cross-Linking and Degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Handlogten, Michael W.; Deak, Peter E.; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Allergy is an immune response to complex mixtures of multiple allergens yet current models use a single synthetic allergen. Multiple allergens were modeled using two well-defined tetravalent allergens each specific for a distinct IgE thus enabling a systematic approach to evaluate the effect of each allergen and percent of allergen specific IgE on mast cell degranulation. We found the overall degranulation response caused by two allergens is additive for low allergen concentrations or low percent specific IgE, does not change for moderate allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE, and is reduced for high allergen concentrations with moderate to high percent specific IgE. These results provide further evidence that supra-optimal IgE cross-linking decreases the degranulation response and establishes the two allergen model as a relevant experimental system to elucidate mast cell degranulation mechanisms. PMID:25308278

  11. Evaluation of antigen-specific immunoglobulin g responses in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and contacts.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yun-Gyoung; Kim, Ahreum; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, An Sik; Kim, Dae Yeon; Kim, Yeun; Kim, Youngmi; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the serodiagnostic potential of immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients, recent TB contacts with latent TB infection (LTBI), and healthy subjects. Infections were assessed using tuberculin skin tests, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube tests, drug susceptibility testing, and molecular genotyping of clinical isolates. Serum IgG responses to selective M. tuberculosis antigens, including the 38-kDa and 16-kDa antigens, lipoarabinomannan (LAM), and recombinant early secreted antigen target 6 kDa (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 kDa (CFP-10), were determined. We found that the serum IgG responses to all antigens might differentiate between active TB and LTBI, with LAM having the highest diagnostic value (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.7756, P < 0.001). Recurrent TB cases showed significantly higher IgG responses to 38 kDa, CFP-10 (P < 0.01), and LAM (P < 0.05) than new cases, and male patients had higher levels of antigen-specific IgG than females (P < 0.05). Conversely, drug resistance and patient body mass index did not affect IgG responses (P > 0.05). LAM-specific IgG responses differentiated between acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive and -negative patients (P < 0.01), whereas antigen-specific IgG responses did not vary with the M. tuberculosis genotype (P > 0.05). Significantly higher IgG responses to 38 kDa and 16 kDa were observed in AFB smear-negative patients than in controls. These results suggest that assessment of serum IgG responses to selective purified M. tuberculosis antigens may help improve the diagnosis of active TB, particularly for sputum smear-negative patients or recurrent cases, and these may also help to differentiate between active TB and LTBI. PMID:25588651

  12. A Phase 1 Study of a Vaccine Targeting Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma and Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey S.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Goodman, Oscar B.; Cranmer, Lee D.; Marshall, John L.; Miles, Sabrina; Rosario, Dar; Diamond, David C.; Qiu, Zhiyong; Obrocea, Mihail; Bot, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are tumor-associated antigens implicated in cellular differentiation, genetic stability, and angiogenesis. MKC1106-PP is an immunotherapeutic regimen cotargeting PRAME and PSMA, comprised of a recombinant plasmid (pPRA-PSM encoding fragments derived from both antigens) and 2 peptides (E-PRA and E-PSM derived from PRAME and PSMA, respectively). This multicenter study evaluated MKC1106-PP with a fixed plasmid dose and 2 different peptide doses, administered by intralymph node injection in a prime-boost sequence in human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 and tumor-antigen-positive patients with progressing metastatic solid tumors who had failed standard therapy. Immune monitoring was done by tetramer and enzymatic-linked immune spot analysis. The treatment was well tolerated, with no significant differences in safety, immune response, and clinical outcome relative to peptide doses. Fifteen of 24 evaluable patients showed an immune response, as defined by the expansion of PRAME-specific or PSMA-specific T cells in the blood. There were no partial or complete responses by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Seven patients showed stable disease (SD) for 6 months or longer, or prostate specific antigen decline: 4 of 10 with prostate carcinoma, 2 of 2 with renal clear cell carcinoma, and 1 of 10 with metastatic melanoma. In addition, there was an association between the induction and persistence of antigen-specific T cells in blood above baseline levels and disease control, defined as SD for 6 months or longer. These results support further development of MKC1106-PP in specific clinical indications. PMID:21760528

  13. Antigenic cross-reactivity and species-specific identification of Pseudocerastes persicus fieldi snake venom.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nihal M; El-Kady, Ebtsam M

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we recognized progressively high immunological cross-reactivity between Pseudocerastes persicus fieldi (Pf) venom and six other medically important Egyptian snake venoms belonging to families Viperidae and Elapidae. Antibodies with a range of bonding strengths were shown to be involved in such cross-reactivity. Two strategies have been tried to access specificity; (i) using affinity purified species-specific anti-Pf antivenom antibodies, (ii) conducting the assay in the presence of ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN). The discrimination power of the prepared species-specific antivenom was demonstrated by its ability to detect Pf venom over a range of Pf concentrations (2.5 ng-2.5 μg) in a variety of body fluids. The assay could distinguish circulating Pf antigens from other viper antigens in the whole blood of experimentally envenomed mice. What seems promising in our work is the use of the chaotrope, NH4SCN, which renders the reaction medium more favorable for the specific homologous antigen-antibody interactions, primarily via preventing lower avid antibodies to share and, to a bit lesser extent, by decreasing non-specific absorbance signals frequently encountered with ELISA assays. The ELISA described herein may be useful for clinicians for identification of snake bites inflicted by Pf snake species. Balancing between specificity and sensitivity has to be considered for best results. PMID:27319296

  14. Transgenic antigen-specific, HLA-A*02:01-allo-restricted cytotoxic T cells recognize tumor-associated target antigen STEAP1 with high specificity.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, David; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Klar, Richard; Schmidt, Oxana; Wohlleber, Dirk; Rubío, Rebeca Alba; Uckert, Wolfgang; Thiel, Uwe; Bohne, Felix; Busch, Dirk H; Krackhardt, Angela M; Burdach, Stefan; Richter, Günther H S

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric cancers, including Ewing sarcoma (ES), are only weakly immunogenic and the tumor-patients' immune system often is devoid of effector T cells for tumor elimination. Based on expression profiling technology, targetable tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are identified and exploited for engineered T-cell therapy. Here, the specific recognition and lytic potential of transgenic allo-restricted CD8(+) T cells, directed against the ES-associated antigen 6-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1), was examined. Following repetitive STEAP1(130) peptide-driven stimulations with HLA-A*02:01(+) dendritic cells (DC), allo-restricted HLA-A*02:01(-) CD8(+) T cells were sorted with HLA-A*02:01/peptide multimers and expanded by limiting dilution. After functional analysis of suitable T cell clones via ELISpot, flow cytometry and xCELLigence assay, T cell receptors' (TCR) α- and β-chains were identified, cloned into retroviral vectors, codon optimized, transfected into HLA-A*02:01(-) primary T cell populations and tested again for specificity and lytic capacity in vitro and in a Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mouse model. Initially generated transgenic T cells specifically recognized STEAP1(130)-pulsed or transfected cells in the context of HLA-A*02:01 with minimal cross-reactivity as determined by specific interferon-γ (IFNγ) release, lysed cells and inhibited growth of HLA-A*02:01(+) ES lines more effectively than HLA-A*02:01(-) ES lines. In vivo tumor growth was inhibited more effectively with transgenic STEAP1(130)-specific T cells than with unspecific T cells. Our results identify TCRs capable of recognizing and inhibiting growth of STEAP1-expressing HLA-A*02:01(+) ES cells in vitro and in vivo in a highly restricted manner. As STEAP1 is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, we anticipate these STEAP1-specific TCRs to be potentially useful for immunotherapy of other STEAP1-expressing tumors. PMID:27471654

  15. Antigen-specific CD4{sup +} effector T cells: Analysis of factors regulating clonal expansion and cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuki, Kazunobu; Watanabe, Yuri; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Sakiko; Watanabe, Shiho; Ogawa, Shuhei; Kotani, Motoko; Kozono, Haruo; Tanabe, Kazunari; Abe, Ryo

    2009-03-20

    In order to fully understand T cell-mediated immunity, the mechanisms that regulate clonal expansion and cytokine production by CD4{sup +} antigen-specific effector T cells in response to a wide range of antigenic stimulation needs clarification. For this purpose, panels of antigen-specific CD4{sup +} T cell clones with different thresholds for antigen-induced proliferation were generated by repeated stimulation with high- or low-dose antigen. Differences in antigen sensitivities did not correlate with expression of TCR, CD4, adhesion or costimulatory molecules. There was no significant difference in antigen-dependent cytokine production by TG40 cells transfected with TCR obtained from either high- or low-dose-responding T cell clones, suggesting that the affinity of TCRs for their ligands is not primary determinant of T cell antigen reactivity. The proliferative responses of all T cell clones to both peptide stimulation and to TCR{beta} crosslinking revealed parallel dose-response curves. These results suggest that the TCR signal strength of effector T cells and threshold of antigen reactivity is determined by an intrinsic property, such as the TCR signalosome and/or intracellular signaling machinery. Finally, the antigen responses of high- and low-peptide-responding T cell clones reveal that clonal expansion and cytokine production of effector T cells occur independently of antigen concentration. Based on these results, the mechanisms underlying selection of high 'avidity' effector and memory T cells in response to pathogen are discussed.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of IgE mediated food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to collate current knowledge and recent advances in molecular mechanism behind the immediate type hypersensitivity of foods. Food allergy is a growing concern of human health in developed as well as developing countries now days. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity or type I reaction. This review encompasses a wide range of molecular events during IgE mediated reactions like primary exposure of allergens, processing of allergens by antigen presenting cells, role of transcription factors like GATA-3, STAT-6, NF-AT, c-maf, c-kit and NF-κB, Treg cells, toll like receptors, cytokines and chemokines, class switch to IgE, FcεR1 receptor, priming of IgE on mast cells or basophils, signaling events followed by secondary exposure of allergens, degranulation and release of mediators like leukotrienes, histamines, prostaglandins, β-hexosaminidase and ultimately anaphylaxis. This review may be helpful to beginners as well as experts working in the field of allergy and immunology because of the stepwise explanations of molecular mechanisms involved in IgE mediated reactions. PMID:22668720

  17. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. PMID:27436445

  18. Prostate specific antigen in the diagnosis and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. III. Radiation treated patients

    SciTech Connect

    Stamey, T.A.; Kabalin, J.N.; Ferrari, M.

    1989-05-01

    Serum prostate specific antigen was determined (Yang polyclonal radioimmunoassay) in 183 men after radiation therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A total of 163 men had received 7,000 rad external beam radiotherapy and 20 had been implanted with iodine-125 seeds. Only 11 per cent of these 183 patients had undetectable prostate specific antigen levels at a mean interval of 5 years since completion of radiotherapy. Prostate specific antigen levels after radiotherapy were directly related to initial clinical stage and Gleason score before treatment. Multiple prostate specific antigen determinations were performed with time in 124 of 183 patients. During year 1 after radiotherapy prostate specific antigen levels were decreasing in 82 per cent of the patients but only 8 per cent continued to decrease beyond year 1. Of 80 patients observed greater than 1 year after completion of radiotherapy 51 per cent had increasing values and 41 per cent had stable values. Increasing prostate specific antigen values after radiotherapy were correlated with progression to metastastic disease and residual cancer on prostate biopsy. Total serum acid phosphatase levels were poorly related to prostate specific antigen levels, were less effective in discriminating patients with metastatic disease and provided no additional information beyond that provided by prostate specific antigen.

  19. Determination of the serological sex-specific (Sxs) antigen ("H-Y antigen") in birds and mammals using high-titer antisera and a sensitive urease ELISA.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M P; Ebensperger, C; Wiberg, U H

    1987-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for the detection of the serological sex-specific (Sxs) antigen (formerly termed H-Y antigen; see Introduction), is described. This assay uses bovine testes extract as the solid phase antigen, and high-titer anti-Sxs antisera and a urease-conjugated anti rat-IgG as the first and second antibody respectively. The urea containing substrate causes a pH shift in a positive reaction, which in turn is visualized by the use of bromocresol purple as a pH indicator. The method, and some representative applications of it, are described in detail. PMID:3610155

  20. Tolerance induction in memory CD4 T cells requires two rounds of antigen-specific activation.

    PubMed

    David, Alexandria; Crawford, Frances; Garside, Paul; Kappler, John W; Marrack, Philippa; MacLeod, Megan

    2014-05-27

    A major goal for immunotherapy is to tolerize the immune cells that coordinate tissue damage in autoimmune and alloantigen responses. CD4 T cells play a central role in many of these conditions and improved antigen-specific regulation or removal of these cells could revolutionize current treatments. A confounding factor is that little is known about whether and how tolerance is induced in memory CD4 T cells. We used MHC class II tetramers to track and analyze a population of endogenous antigen-specific memory CD4 T cells exposed to soluble peptide in the absence of adjuvant. We found that such memory T cells proliferated and reentered the memory pool apparently unperturbed by the incomplete activation signals provided by the peptide. Upon further restimulation in vivo, CD4 memory T cells that had been previously exposed to peptide proliferated, provided help to primary responding B cells, and migrated to inflamed sites. However, these reactivated memory cells failed to survive. The reduction in T-cell number was marked by low expression of the antiapoptotic molecule B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) and increased expression of activated caspase molecules. Consequently, these cells failed to sustain a delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Moreover, following two separate exposures to soluble antigen, no T-cell recall response and no helper activity for B cells could be detected. These results suggest that the induction of tolerance in memory CD4 T cells is possible but that deletion and permanent removal of the antigen-specific T cells requires reactivation following exposure to the tolerogenic antigen. PMID:24821788

  1. Analysis of antigen specific T cells in diabetes - Lessons from pre-clinical studies and early clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Selck, Claudia; Chee, Jonathan; Jhala, Guarang; Kay, Thomas W H

    2016-07-01

    Antigen-specific immune tolerance promises to provide safe and effective therapies to prevent type 1 diabetes (T1D). Antigen-specific therapy requires two components: well-defined, clinically relevant autoantigens; and safe approaches to inducing tolerance in T cells specific for these antigens. Proinsulin is a critical autoantigen in both NOD mice, based on knockout mouse studies and induction of immune tolerance to proinsulin preventing disease whereas most antigens cannot, and also in human T1D based on proinsulin-specific T cells being found in the islets of affected individuals and the early appearance of insulin autoantibodies. Effective antigen-specific therapies that prevent T1D in humans have not yet been developed although doubt remains about the best molecular form of the antigen, the dose and the route of administration. Preclinical studies suggest that antigen specific therapy is most useful when administered before onset of autoimmunity but this time-window has not been tested in humans until the recent "pre-point" study. There may be a 'window of opportunity' during the neonatal period when 'vaccine' like administration of proinsulin for a short period may be sufficient to prevent diabetes. After the onset of autoimmunity, naive antigen-specific T cells have differentiated into antigen-experienced memory cells and the immune responses have spread to multiple antigens. Induction of tolerance at this stage becomes more difficult although recent studies have suggested generation of antigen-specific TR1 cells can inhibit memory T cells. Preclinical studies are required to identify additional 'help' that is required to induce tolerance to memory T cells and develop protocols for effective therapy in individuals with established autoimmunity. PMID:27083395

  2. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  3. Visualization of antigen-specific human cytotoxic T lymphocytes labeled with superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Beer, Ambros J; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Neudorfer, Juliana; Piontek, Guido; Settles, Marcus; Krönig, Holger; Peschel, Christian; Schlegel, Jürgen; Rummeny, Ernst J; Bernhard, Helga

    2008-06-01

    New technologies are needed to characterize the migration and survival of antigen-specific T cells in vivo. In this study, we developed a novel technique for the labeling of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes with superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles and the subsequent depiction with a conventional 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Antigen-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes were labeled with ferucarbotran by lipofection. The uptake of ferucarbotran was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using a dextran-specific antibody, and the intracellular enrichment of iron was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The imaging of T cells was performed by magnetic resonance on day 0, 2, 7 and 14 after the labeling procedure. On day 0 and 2 post labeling, a pronounced shortening of T2*-relaxation times was observed, which diminished after 7 days and was not detectable anymore after 14 days, probably due to the retained mitotic activity of the labeled T cells. Of importance, the antigen-specific cytolytic activity of the T cells was preserved following ferucarbotran labeling. Efficient ferucarbotran labeling of functionally active T lymphocytes and their detection by magnetic resonance imaging allows the in vivo monitoring of T cells and, subsequently, will impact the further development of T cell-based therapies. PMID:18286290

  4. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of airway allergic inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epithelium lining the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc'RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monola...

  5. [Diagnosis and follow-up of prostate cancer patients using prostate specific antigen (PSA)].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, M; Uno, H; Ueno, K; Yamamoto, N; Takahashi, Y; Shinoda, I; Ban, Y; Kawada, Y

    1997-06-01

    An international standard of prostate specific antigen (PSA) assays was constructed and prognosis of the patients with prostate cancers showing gray zone PSA was studied. For lower levels of serum PSA (< 50 ng/ml), the conversion formula to that of Tandem-R PSA from other assays was presented. Furthermore, based on the standards of Stanford Reference and Markit-MPA, conversion rates to this international standard from the conventional PSA assays were also obtained. Patients' cancer-specific survival was found to be significantly better in the gray zone group. Further studies to obtain higher specificity such as using free or complex rate in total PSA is necessary. PMID:9250498

  6. Enhanced specificity of immunoblotting using radiolabeled antigen overlay: studies of blood coagulation factor XII and prekallikrein in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Laemmle, B.; Berrettini, M.; Griffin, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Immunoblotting of blood coagulation Factor XII and plasma prekallikrein in whole plasma was performed using radiolabeled antigen for detection. After sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of plasma and transfer to nitrocellulose sheets, the blots were first reacted with polyclonal goat anti-Factor XII or anti-prekallikrein antisera and then with /sup 125/I-Factor XII or /sup 125/I-prekallikrein, respectively. A major advantage of using radiolabeled antigen rather than radiolabeled secondary antibody was enhanced specificity of immunodetection of these antigens in plasma. This procedure was sensitive to approx.0.3 ng of either Factor XII or prekallikrein antigen and was useful for detection of Factor XII cleavage fragments in contact activated plasma. Radiolabeled antigen overlay may improve the specificity of immunoblotting of trace antigens in any complex mixtures.

  7. Comparison of IgE expression at the mRNA and protein levels in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K J; Creany, J; Coelen, R J; Cameron, K J; Holt, B J; Beilharz, M W

    1991-01-01

    The regulating effects of IL-4 and pokeweed mitogen on IgE synthesis in vitro by human peripheral blood leucocytes has been compared with the corresponding effect of these regulators on the expression of IgE mRNA. The latter was measured by dot blot hybridization with an oligonucleotide coding for a unique six amino acid region of the CH epsilon 2 domain. Specificity of the oligonucleotide probe was established by its inability to hybridize with RNA extracted from HMY-2 (IgG) and XQ-15 (IgM) secreting cell lines whilst producing intense signals with RNA extracted from the IgE secreting cell line U266. Whilst IgE mRNA was detected in RNA extracted from PBL of both atopic and control subjects, spontaneous IgE synthesis was restricted to atopic PBL. IL-4 increased both IgE mRNA and IgE synthesis in all PBL samples but PWM, while significantly increasing IgE mRNA expression either failed to modify IgE synthesis or actively suppressed it. The assay system employed to quantitate IgE synthesis in vitro was shown to be inhibited by both IgE binding factors and IgG anti-IgE autoantibodies which are produced in PBL cultures. IgE mRNA levels might therefore more accurately monitor the regulatory effects of IL-4 and PWM on IgE synthesis than quantitation of the IgE by radioimmunoassay. Images Figure 1 PMID:1783428

  8. Evolutionary origin and human-specific expansion of a cancer/testis antigen gene family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are encoded by germline genes and are aberrantly expressed in a number of human cancers. Interestingly, CT antigens are frequently involved in gene families that are highly expressed in germ cells. Here, we presented an evolutionary analysis of the CTAGE (cutaneous T-cell-lymphoma-associated antigen) gene family to delineate its molecular history and functional significance during primate evolution. Comparisons among human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, macaque, marmoset, and other mammals show a rapid and primate specific expansion of CTAGE family, which starts with an ancestral retroposition in the haplorhini ancestor. Subsequent DNA-based duplications lead to the prosperity of single-exon CTAGE copies in catarrhines, especially in humans. Positive selection was identified on the single-exon copies in comparison with functional constraint on the multiexon copies. Further sequence analysis suggests that the newly derived CTAGE genes may obtain regulatory elements from long terminal repeats. Our result indicates the dynamic evolution of primate genomes, and the recent expansion of this CT antigen family in humans may confer advantageous phenotypic traits during early human evolution. PMID:24916032

  9. [Species-specific sera against surface antigens of Bacillus anthracis strains].

    PubMed

    Barkova, I A; Barkov, A M; Alekseev, V V; Lipnitskiĭ, A V

    2010-11-01

    The species-related specificity of sera against 94-KD proteins isolated from culture filtrates of B. anthracis strains with different levels of virulence plasmids was studied to determine whether they might be used to identify the pathogen of anthrax. Sera against fractions 1 of culture filtrates of B. anthracis strains CTI (pXO1+ pXO2-), 81/1TR (pXO1- pXO2-), Davies (pXO1- pXO) separated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 were examined. In the gel immunodiffusion test with growing cultures, the sera exhibited non-identical antigens and differed in the presence of antibodies to antigens of related bacilli. The sera against fractions 1 of culture filtrates of toxin-producing and plasmidless strains displayed antigens produced only by B. anthracis strains into nutrient agar. Electroimmunotransblotting revealed that they contained antibodies mainly to 94-kD proteins and failed to react with B. cereus proteins with a molecular weight of 94 kD and with B. thuringiensis proteins with a molecular weight of 97 kD, which were extracted from autonomous cells. In the immunofluorescence test, immunoglobulins of sera against fractions 1 of culture filtrates of three strains stained autonomous cells and spores of 23 B. anthracis strains with different levels of virulence plasmids. In working dilutions, they did not react with antigens of 18 strains of related bacilli, which presents a possibility of using them for species identification of B. anthracis. PMID:21319392

  10. T Lymphocyte–Endothelial Interactions: Emerging Understanding of Trafficking and Antigen-Specific Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Christopher V.; Martinelli, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Antigen-specific immunity requires regulated trafficking of T cells in and out of diverse tissues in order to orchestrate lymphocyte development, immune surveillance, responses, and memory. The endothelium serves as a unique barrier, as well as a sentinel, between the blood and the tissues, and as such it plays an essential locally tuned role in regulating T cell migration and information exchange. While it is well established that chemoattractants and adhesion molecules are major determinants of T cell trafficking, emerging studies have now enumerated a large number of molecular players as well as a range of discrete cellular remodeling activities (e.g., transmigratory cups and invadosome-like protrusions) that participate in directed migration and pathfinding by T cells. In addition to providing trafficking cues, intimate cell–cell interaction between lymphocytes and endothelial cells provide instruction to T cells that influence their activation and differentiation states. Perhaps the most intriguing and underappreciated of these “sentinel” roles is the ability of the endothelium to act as a non-hematopoietic “semiprofessional” antigen-presenting cell. Close contacts between circulating T cells and antigen-presenting endothelium may play unique non-redundant roles in shaping adaptive immune responses within the periphery. A better understanding of the mechanisms directing T cell trafficking and the antigen-presenting role of the endothelium may not only increase our knowledge of the adaptive immune response but also empower the utility of emerging immunomodulatory therapeutics. PMID:26635815