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Sample records for antigens reflect protection

  1. Atomic structure of anthrax protective antigen pore elucidates toxin translocation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiansen; Pentelute, Bradley L; Collier, R John; Zhou, Z Hong

    2015-05-28

    Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen, lethal factor, and oedema factor, is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in humans and animals. Protective antigen forms oligomeric prepores that undergo conversion to membrane-spanning pores by endosomal acidification, and these pores translocate the enzymes lethal factor and oedema factor into the cytosol of target cells. Protective antigen is not only a vaccine component and therapeutic target for anthrax infections but also an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of protein translocation. On the basis of biochemical and electrophysiological results, researchers have proposed that a phi (Φ)-clamp composed of phenylalanine (Phe)427 residues of protective antigen catalyses protein translocation via a charge-state-dependent Brownian ratchet. Although atomic structures of protective antigen prepores are available, how protective antigen senses low pH, converts to active pore, and translocates lethal factor and oedema factor are not well defined without an atomic model of its pore. Here, by cryo-electron microscopy with direct electron counting, we determine the protective antigen pore structure at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the long-sought-after catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel, and supports the Brownian ratchet model for protein translocation. Comparisons of four structures reveal conformational changes in prepore to pore conversion that support a multi-step mechanism by which low pH is sensed and the membrane-spanning channel is formed. PMID:25778700

  2. Identification of Protective Antigens for Vaccination against Systemic Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Bumann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent medical need for improved vaccines with broad serovar coverage and high efficacy against systemic salmonellosis. Subunit vaccines offer excellent safety profiles but require identification of protective antigens, which remains a challenging task. Here, I review crucial properties of Salmonella antigens that might help to narrow down the number of potential candidates from more than 4000 proteins encoded in Salmonella genomes, to a more manageable number of 50–200 most promising antigens. I also discuss complementary approaches for antigen identification and potential limitations of current pre-clinical vaccine testing. PMID:25157252

  3. Heat stability of protective antigen of Leptospira interrogans serovar lai.

    PubMed Central

    Masuzawa, T; Nakamura, R; Shimizu, T; Yanagihara, Y

    1990-01-01

    Protective antigen (PAg; glycolipid antigen; molecular size, 23 to 30 kilodaltons), the serogroup-specific antigen partially purified from leptospiral cells, is one of the most important protective antigens. The heat stability of PAg was compared with that of whole-cell (WC) antigen by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, protective activity, opsonin-inducing activity, agglutinating antibody-inducing activity, and an inhibition test in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A band of 23 to 30 kilodaltons of PAg, which was seen in untreated PAg and WC, shifted to a position with a molecular size of ca. 20 kilodaltons after heat treatment of PAg at 80 degrees C for 30 min and WC at 100 degrees C for 30 min. In the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition test with monoclonal antibody LW2 and a sonicated antigen of WC, the inhibition rate of PAg and WC to sonicated WC was reduced by heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 30 min and at 100 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. Agglutinating antibody-inducing activities and opsonin-inducing activities of PAg and WC in mice were reduced by heat treatment under the same conditions; these activities were assayed by a microscopic agglutination test and by chemical luminescence response in serum from immunized mice, respectively. Protective activity of heated PAg and heated WC in cyclophosphamide-pretreated mice agreed with the results of immunogenicity in mice. These results indicate that the Leptospira PAg is one of the important protective antigens and is altered by heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Furthermore, the immunogenicity and antigenicity of the PAg present in WC are more stable than that of the extracted PAg, and the coexistence of other cellular components with PAg might protect and stabilize PAg from the heat treatment. Images PMID:2332463

  4. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.

    PubMed

    Derrick, Steven C; Yabe, Idalia M; Yang, Amy; Kolibab, Kristopher; Hollingsworth, Brynn; Kurtz, Sherry L; Morris, Sheldon

    2013-09-23

    With tuberculosis continuing to be a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, a new vaccine is urgently needed. Tuberculosis subunit vaccines have been shown to induce robust immune responses in humans and are a potentially safer alternative to BCG for use in HIV-endemic areas. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of 16 different novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens using an aerogenic mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. These antigens were tested as subunit vaccines formulated in dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA) - D(+) with trehalose 6,6 dibenenate (TDB) (DDA/TDB) adjuvant administered alone as monovalent vaccines or in combination. Six of these antigens (Rv1626, Rv1735, Rv1789, Rv2032, Rv2220, and Rv3478) were shown to consistently and significantly reduce bacterial burdens in the lungs of mice relative to nonvaccinated controls. Three of these six (Rv1789, Rv2220, and Rv3478) induced levels of protective immunity that were essentially equivalent to protection induced by the highly immunogenic antigen 85B (>0.5 log₁₀CFU reduction in the lungs relative to naïve mice). Importantly, when these three antigens were combined, protection essentially equivalent to that mediated by BCG was observed. When either Rv1626 or Rv2032 were combined with the highly protective E6-85 fusion protein (antigen 85B fused to ESAT-6), the protection observed was equivalent to BCG-induced protection at one and three months post-aerosol infection and was significantly greater than the protection observed when E6-85 was administered alone at 3 months post-infection. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, monofunctional IFNγ CD4T cells and different multifunctional CD4T cell subsets capable of secreting multiple cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα and/or IL-2) were shown to be induced by the three most protective antigens with splenocyte CD4T cell frequencies significantly greater than observed in naïve controls. The identification of these highly

  5. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis V. Separation of Agglutinogen 1 and Mouse-Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Ross, R F; Munoz, J

    1971-02-01

    Agglutinogen 1 of Bordetella pertussis strain 353/Z (serotype 1) was separated from protective antigen and histamine-sensitizing factor by starch-block electrophoresis. Most of the agglutinogen 1 migrated towards the cathode in starch-block electrophoresis, although some remained near the origin. Fractions containing most of the agglutinogen 1 were free of detectable mouse-protecting or histamine-sensitizing activities. Agglutinogen 1 from a serotype 1, 3 B. pertussis strain (J20) migrated similarly to the agglutinogen 1 from strain 353/Z. All agglutinogen 3 activity was found at the point of application in the starch block. No clear relationship was found between agglutinogen 1 and mouse-protecting antigen or histamine-sensitizing factor. PMID:16557960

  6. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis V. Separation of Agglutinogen 1 and Mouse-Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Ross, R. F.; Munoz, J.

    1971-01-01

    Agglutinogen 1 of Bordetella pertussis strain 353/Z (serotype 1) was separated from protective antigen and histamine-sensitizing factor by starch-block electrophoresis. Most of the agglutinogen 1 migrated towards the cathode in starch-block electrophoresis, although some remained near the origin. Fractions containing most of the agglutinogen 1 were free of detectable mouse-protecting or histamine-sensitizing activities. Agglutinogen 1 from a serotype 1, 3 B. pertussis strain (J20) migrated similarly to the agglutinogen 1 from strain 353/Z. All agglutinogen 3 activity was found at the point of application in the starch block. No clear relationship was found between agglutinogen 1 and mouse-protecting antigen or histamine-sensitizing factor. Images PMID:16557960

  7. Select human anthrax protective antigen epitope-specific antibodies provide protection from lethal toxin challenge.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sherry R; Ash, Linda L; Engler, Renata J M; Ballard, Jimmy D; Harley, John B; Farris, A Darise; James, Judith A

    2010-07-15

    Bacillus anthracis remains a serious bioterrorism concern, and the currently licensed vaccine remains an incomplete solution for population protection from inhalation anthrax and has been associated with concerns regarding efficacy and safety. Thus, understanding how to generate long-lasting protective immunity with reduced immunizations or provide protection through postexposure immunotherapeutics are long-sought goals. Through evaluation of a large military cohort, we characterized the levels of antibodies against protective antigen and found that over half of anthrax vaccinees had low serum levels of in vitro toxin neutralization capacity. Using solid-phase epitope mapping and confirmatory assays, we identified several neutralization-associated humoral epitopes and demonstrated that select antipeptide responses mediated protection in vitro. Finally, passively transferred antibodies specific for select epitopes provided protection in an in vivo lethal toxin mouse model. Identification of these antigenic regions has important implications for vaccine design and the development of directed immunotherapeutics. PMID:20533877

  8. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mary Ellen; Koser, Martin; Xiao Sa; Siler, Catherine; McGettigan, James P.; Calkins, Catherine; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J. . E-mail: matthias.schnell@jefferson.edu

    2006-09-30

    Live viral vectors expressing foreign antigens have shown great promise as vaccines against viral diseases. However, safety concerns remain a major problem regarding the use of even highly attenuated viral vectors. Using the rabies virus (RV) envelope protein as a carrier molecule, we show here that inactivated RV particles can be utilized to present Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) domain-4 in the viral membrane. In addition to the RV glycoprotein (G) transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, a portion of the RV G ectodomain was required to express the chimeric RV G anthrax PA on the cell surface. The novel antigen was also efficiently incorporated into RV virions. Mice immunized with the inactivated recombinant RV virions exhibited seroconversion against both RV G and anthrax PA, and a second inoculation greatly increased these responses. These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems.

  9. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ducken, Deirdre R.; Brown, Wendy C.; Alperin, Debra C.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Turse, Joshua E.; Palmer, Guy H.; Noh, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines

  10. Protective Antigens Against Glanders Identified by Expression Library Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Gregory C.; Robida, Mark D.; Judy, Barbara M.; Qazi, Omar; Brown, Katherine A.; Deeraksa, Arpaporn; Taylor, Katherine; Massey, Shane; Loskutov, Andrey; Borovkov, Alex Y.; Brown, Kevin; Cano, Jose A.; Magee, D. Mitchell; Torres, Alfredo G.; Estes, D. Mark; Sykes, Kathryn F.

    2011-01-01

    Burkholderia are highly evolved Gram-negative bacteria that primarily infect solipeds but are transmitted to humans by ingestion and cutaneous or aerosol exposures. Heightened concern over human infections of Burkholderia mallei and the very closely related species B. pseudomallei is due to the pathogens’ proven effectiveness as bioweapons, and to the increased potential for natural opportunistic infections in the growing diabetic and immuno-compromised populations. These Burkholderia species are nearly impervious to antibiotic treatments and no vaccine exists. In this study, the genome of the highly virulent B. mallei ATCC23344 strain was examined by expression library immunization for gene-encoded protective antigens. This protocol for genomic-scale functional screening was customized to accommodate the unusually large complexity of Burkholderia, and yielded 12 new putative vaccine candidates. Five of the candidates were individually tested as protein immunogens and three were found to confer significant partial protection against a lethal pulmonary infection in a murine model of disease. Determinations of peripheral blood cytokine and chemokine profiles following individual protein immunizations show that interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 are elicited by the three confirmed candidates, but unexpectedly interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α are not. We suggest that these pathogen components, discovered using genetic immunization and confirmed in a conventional protein format, will be useful toward the development of a safe and effective glanders vaccine. PMID:22125550

  11. Generation and Characterization of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Anthrax Protective Antigen following Vaccination with a Recombinant Protective Antigen Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiangyang; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Weicen; Wang, Xiaolin; Yin, Kexin; Liu, Ju; Zai, Xiaodong; Li, Liangliang; Song, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yin, Ying; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    The anthrax protective antigen (PA) is the central component of the three-part anthrax toxin, and it is the primary immunogenic component in the approved AVA anthrax vaccine and the “next-generation” recombinant PA (rPA) anthrax vaccines. Animal models have indicated that PA-specific antibodies (AB) are sufficient to protect against infection with Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we investigated the PA domain specificity, affinity, mechanisms of neutralization, and synergistic effects of PA-specific antibodies from a single donor following vaccination with the rPA vaccine. Antibody-secreting cells were isolated 7 days after the donor received a boost vaccination, and 34 fully human monoclonal antibodies (hMAb) were identified. Clones 8H6, 4A3, and 22F1 were able to neutralize lethal toxin (LeTx) both in vitro and in vivo. Clone 8H6 neutralized LeTx by preventing furin cleavage of PA in a dose-dependent manner. Clone 4A3 enhanced degradation of nicked PA, thereby interfering with PA oligomerization. The mechanism of 22F1 is still unclear. A fourth clone, 2A6, that was protective only in vitro was found to be neutralizing in vivo in combination with a toxin-enhancing antibody, 8A7, which binds to domain 3 of PA and PA oligomers. These results provide novel insights into the antibody response elicited by the rPA vaccine and may be useful for PA-based vaccine and immunotherapeutic cocktail design. PMID:25787135

  12. Generation and Characterization of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Anthrax Protective Antigen following Vaccination with a Recombinant Protective Antigen Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiangyang; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Weicen; Wang, Xiaolin; Yin, Kexin; Liu, Ju; Zai, Xiaodong; Li, Liangliang; Song, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yin, Ying; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The anthrax protective antigen (PA) is the central component of the three-part anthrax toxin, and it is the primary immunogenic component in the approved AVA anthrax vaccine and the "next-generation" recombinant PA (rPA) anthrax vaccines. Animal models have indicated that PA-specific antibodies (AB) are sufficient to protect against infection with Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we investigated the PA domain specificity, affinity, mechanisms of neutralization, and synergistic effects of PA-specific antibodies from a single donor following vaccination with the rPA vaccine. Antibody-secreting cells were isolated 7 days after the donor received a boost vaccination, and 34 fully human monoclonal antibodies (hMAb) were identified. Clones 8H6, 4A3, and 22F1 were able to neutralize lethal toxin (LeTx) both in vitro and in vivo. Clone 8H6 neutralized LeTx by preventing furin cleavage of PA in a dose-dependent manner. Clone 4A3 enhanced degradation of nicked PA, thereby interfering with PA oligomerization. The mechanism of 22F1 is still unclear. A fourth clone, 2A6, that was protective only in vitro was found to be neutralizing in vivo in combination with a toxin-enhancing antibody, 8A7, which binds to domain 3 of PA and PA oligomers. These results provide novel insights into the antibody response elicited by the rPA vaccine and may be useful for PA-based vaccine and immunotherapeutic cocktail design. PMID:25787135

  13. Scalable purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, William; Zhang, Mei; Mon, Sandii; Sampey, Darryl; Zukauskas, David; Kassebaum, Corby; Zmuda, Jonathan F; Tsai, Amos; Laird, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor that are produced by the Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Current vaccines against anthrax use PA as their primary component. In this study, we developed a scalable process to produce and purify multi-gram quantities of highly pure, recombinant PA (rPA) from Escherichia coli. The rPA protein was produced in a 50-L fermentor and purified to >99% purity using anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The final yield of purified rPA from medium cell density fermentations resulted in approximately 2.7 g of rPA per kg of cell paste (approximately 270 mg/L) of highly pure, biologically active rPA protein. The results presented here exhibit the ability to generate multi-gram quantities of rPA from E. coli that may be used for the development of new anthrax vaccines and anthrax therapeutics. PMID:15935696

  14. Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  15. Reflective Coatings Protect People and Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Led by Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA engineers called upon National Metalizing of Cranbury, New Jersey, to help create a reflective sunshield to deploy on Skylab in place of a shield that was lost during launch in 1973. Years later, a former employee for National Metalizing founded Advanced Flexible Materials (AFM) Inc., of Petaluma, California, and utilized the radiant barrier technology in the public domain to produce a variety of products such as wraps to keep marathon finishers safe from hypothermia as well as a lining for mittens and vests. Recently, the material helped to keep manatees warm as they were lifted from the water as part of a tag-and-release program.

  16. Sterile Protective Immunity to Malaria is Associated with a Panel of Novel P. falciparum Antigens*

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Angela; Kayala, Matthew A.; Burk, Chad; Molina, Douglas M.; Freilich, Daniel A.; Richie, Thomas L.; Baldi, Pierre; Felgner, Philip L.; Doolan, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an effective malaria vaccine remains a global public health priority. Less than 0.5% of the Plasmodium falciparum genome has been assessed as potential vaccine targets and candidate vaccines have been based almost exclusively on single antigens. It is possible that the failure to develop a malaria vaccine despite decades of effort might be attributed to this historic focus. To advance malaria vaccine development, we have fabricated protein microarrays representing 23% of the entire P. falciparum proteome and have probed these arrays with plasma from subjects with sterile protection or no protection after experimental immunization with radiation attenuated P. falciparum sporozoites. A panel of 19 pre-erythrocytic stage antigens was identified as strongly associated with sporozoite-induced protective immunity; 16 of these antigens were novel and 85% have been independently identified in sporozoite and/or liver stage proteomic or transcriptomic data sets. Reactivity to any individual antigen did not correlate with protection but there was a highly significant difference in the cumulative signal intensity between protected and not protected individuals. Functional annotation indicates that most of these signature proteins are involved in cell cycle/DNA processing and protein synthesis. In addition, 21 novel blood-stage specific antigens were identified. Our data provide the first evidence that sterile protective immunity against malaria is directed against a panel of novel P. falciparum antigens rather than one antigen in isolation. These results have important implications for vaccine development, suggesting that an efficacious malaria vaccine should be multivalent and targeted at a select panel of key antigens, many of which have not been previously characterized. PMID:21628511

  17. Does Antigen Masking by Ubiquitin Chains Protect from the Development of Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the production of antibodies against self-antigens and generally arise from a failure of central or peripheral tolerance. However, these diseases may develop when newly appearing antigens are not recognized as self by the immune system. The mechanism by which some antigens are “invisible” to the immune system is not completely understood. Apoptotic and complement system defects or autophagy imbalance can generate this antigenic autoreactivity. Under particular circumstances, cellular debris containing autoreactive antigens can be recognized by innate immune receptors or other sensors and can eventually lead to autoimmunity. Ubiquitination may be one of the mechanisms protecting autoreactive antigens from the immune system that, if disrupted, can lead to autoimmunity. Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification used by cells to target proteins for degradation or to regulate other intracellular processes. The level of ubiquitination is regulated during T cell tolerance and apoptosis and E3 ligases have emerged as a crucial signaling pathway for the regulation of T cell tolerance toward self-antigens. I propose here that an unrecognized role of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins could be to render intracellular or foreign antigens (present in cellular debris resulting from apoptosis, complement system, or autophagy defects) invisible to the immune system in order to prevent the development of autoimmunity. PMID:24917867

  18. [Major host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestode and their molecular biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yue, Long; Fu, Bao-quan

    2014-12-01

    Taeniidae cestodes are the pathogens of cysticercosis and hydatid disease, these diseases lead to substantial economic losses in animal husbandry and cause morbidity and mortality in human population. In recent years, many host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestodes has been found, and their recombinant protein vaccines have been developed against several species, such as Taenia ovis, T. saginata, T. solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and E. multilocularis. This paper focuses on the major host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestodes and their molecular biological characteristics. PMID:25902683

  19. Immunodominant, protective response to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii requires antigen processing in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Federico; Schaeffer, Marie; Joncker, Nathalie T; Cheng, Tiffany; Shastri, Anjali J; Robey, Ellen A; Shastri, Nilabh

    2016-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii replicates in a specialized intracellular vacuole and causes disease in many species. Protection from toxoplasmosis is mediated by CD8+ T cells, but the T. gondii antigens and host genes required for eliciting protective immunity are poorly defined. Here we identified GRA6, a polymorphic protein secreted in the parasitophorous vacuole, as the source of the immunodominant and protective decapeptide HF10 presented by the H-2Ld major histocompatibility complex class I molecule. Presentation of the HF10–H-2Ld ligand required proteolysis by ERAAP, the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing. Consequently, expansion of protective CD8+ T cell populations was impaired in T. gondii–infected ERAAP-deficient mice, which were more susceptible to toxoplasmosis. Thus, endoplasmic reticulum proteolysis is critical for eliciting protective immunity to a vacuolar parasite. PMID:18587399

  20. Adjuvanticity and protective immunity elicited by Leishmania donovani antigens encapsulated in positively charged liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Afrin, F; Ali, N

    1997-01-01

    In the search for a leishmaniasis vaccine, extensive studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis have been carried out. Investigations in this regard with the visceral form are limited. As an initial step in the identification of the protective molecules, leishmanial antigens extracted from the membranes of Leishmania donovani promastigotes, alone or in association with liposomes, were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to elicit a protective immune response against challenge infection. Intraperitoneal immunization of hamsters and BALB/c mice with the leishmanial antigens conferred protection against infection with the virulent promastigotes. Encapsulation in positively charged liposomes significantly enhanced the protective efficacy of these antigens. The splenic parasite burden of hamsters was reduced by 97% after 6 months of infection. BALB/c mice exhibited 87 and 81.3% protection in the liver and spleen, respectively, after 4 months of infection. These protected animals elicited profound delayed-type hypersensitivity and increased levels of Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Protection in mice also coincided with elevated levels of IgM and IgA antibodies, which decreased with disease progression in the control-infected animals. Although both IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were present in the sera of infected mice, IgG1 appeared to be the predominant isotype, suggesting a preferential induction of the Th2 type of immune response over that of Th1. Effective stimulation of all the IgG isotypes, particularly IgG2a, after immunization with liposome encapsulated antigens seems to be responsible for the significant levels of resistance against the disease. Taken together, these data indicate a potential for the liposomal antigens as a vaccine which could trigger both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:9169776

  1. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  2. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. The protective antigens of equine herpesvirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Papp-Vid, G; Derbyshire, J B

    1978-04-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 was cultivated in swine testis cell cultures and partially purified by differential centrifugation and centrifugation in a linear sucrose density gradient. The viral envelope was separated from the nucleocapsid by treatment with Rexol 25J followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The envelope and nucleocapsid preparations were then electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gel after solubilization with sodium dodecyl sulphate. Hamsters were immunized with various preparations of the partially purified virus, including live or inactivated equine herpesvirus type 1 and viral envelope and nucleocapsid, all derived from the Kentucky D strain of the virus. Challenge of the immunized hamsters, with a hamster-adapted strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 demonstrated protection only in those animals which had been vaccinated with envelope-containing materials. When vaccination was carried out with fractions of electrophoresed envelope or nucleocapsid, protection was induced only by polypeptides of high molecular weight containing a glycoprotein component of the envelope of equine herpesvirus type 1. PMID:208736

  4. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  5. Designed Azolopyridinium Salts Block Protective Antigen Pores In Vitro and Protect Cells from Anthrax Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Duscha, Kerstin; Riedl, Zsuzsanna; Huber-Lang, Markus; Benz, Roland; Hajós, György; Barth, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background Several intracellular acting bacterial protein toxins of the AB-type, which are known to enter cells by endocytosis, are shown to produce channels. This holds true for protective antigen (PA), the binding component of the tripartite anthrax-toxin of Bacillus anthracis. Evidence has been presented that translocation of the enzymatic components of anthrax-toxin across the endosomal membrane of target cells and channel formation by the heptameric/octameric PA63 binding/translocation component are related phenomena. Chloroquine and some 4-aminoquinolones, known as potent drugs against Plasmodium falciparium infection of humans, block efficiently the PA63-channel in a dose dependent way. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that related positively charged heterocyclic azolopyridinium salts block the PA63-channel in the µM range, when both, inhibitor and PA63 are added to the same side of the membrane, the cis-side, which corresponds to the lumen of acidified endosomal vesicles of target cells. Noise-analysis allowed the study of the kinetics of the plug formation by the heterocycles. In vivo experiments using J774A.1 macrophages demonstrated that the inhibitors of PA63-channel function also efficiently block intoxication of the cells by the combination lethal factor and PA63 in the same concentration range as they block the channels in vitro. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly argue in favor of a transport of lethal factor through the PA63-channel and suggest that the heterocycles used in this study could represent attractive candidates for development of novel therapeutic strategies against anthrax. PMID:23840407

  6. Combination of two candidate subunit vaccine antigens elicits protective immunity to ricin and anthrax toxin in mice.

    PubMed

    Vance, David J; Rong, Yinghui; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop combination vaccines for biodefense, we evaluated a ricin subunit antigen, RiVax, given in conjunction with an anthrax protective antigen, DNI. The combination led to high endpoint titer antibody response, neutralizing antibodies, and protective immunity against ricin and anthrax lethal toxin. This is a natural combination vaccine, since both antigens are recombinant subunit proteins that would be given to the same target population. PMID:25475957

  7. Comparative assessment of vaccine vectors encoding ten malaria antigens identifies two protective liver-stage candidates

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Salman, Ahmed M.; Cottingham, Matthew G.; Ewer, Katie; Janse, Chris J.; Khan, Shahid M.; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficacious Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine remains a top priority for global health. Vaccination with irradiated sporozoites is able to provide complete sterile protection through the action of CD8+ T cells at the liver-stage of infection. However, this method is currently unsuitable for large-scale deployment and focus has instead turned to the development of sub-unit vaccines. Sub-unit vaccine efforts have traditionally focused on two well-known pre-erythrocytic antigens, CSP and TRAP, yet thousands of genes are expressed in the liver-stage. We sought to assess the ability of eight alternative P. falciparum pre-erythrocytic antigens to induce a high proportion of CD8+ T cells. We show that all antigens, when expressed individually in the non-replicating viral vectors ChAd63 and MVA, are capable of inducing an immune response in mice. Furthermore, we also developed chimeric P. berghei parasites expressing the cognate P. falciparum antigen to enable assessment of efficacy in mice. Our preliminary results indicate that vectors encoding either PfLSA1 or PfLSAP2 are capable of inducing sterile protection dependent on the presence of CD8+ T cells. This work has identified two promising P. falciparum liver-stage candidate antigens that will now undergo further testing in humans. PMID:26139288

  8. Superior efficacy of secreted over somatic antigen display in recombinant Salmonella vaccine induced protection against listeriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J; Gentschev, I; Miko, D; Welzel, M; Ladel, C; Goebel, W; Kaufmann, S H

    1996-01-01

    Vaccination provides the most potent measure against infectious disease, and recombinant (r) viable vaccines expressing defined pathogen-derived antigens represent powerful candidates for future vaccination strategies. In a new approach we constructed r-aroA- Salmonella typhimurium displaying p60 or listeriolysin (Hly) antigen of Listeria monocytogenes in secreted or somatic form in the host cell. Vaccination of mice with r-aroA- S. typhimurium induced protection against the intracellular pathogen L. monocytogenes only with secreted and not with somatic antigen. Secreted Hly was slightly more potent in inducing protective immunity than secreted p60. Both r-aroA- S. typhimurium secreting p60 in the endosome and r-aroA- S. typhimurium secreting Hly in the cytosol induced protective CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells suggesting CD8+ T-cell stimulation independent from intracellular residence of r-aroA- S. typhimurium carriers. Hence, not only the type of antigen but also its display by the r-carrier within the host cell critically influences vaccine efficacy. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643654

  9. Recombinant vaccine displaying the loop-neutralizing determinant from protective antigen completely protects rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Yu, Fen; Jacobs, Jana L; Cease, Kemp B

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) vaccine displaying amino acids (aa) 304 to 319 from the 2β2-2β3 loop of protective antigen was capable of protecting rabbits from an aerosolized spore challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain. Antibodies to this sequence, referred to as the loop-neutralizing determinant (LND), are highly potent at neutralizing lethal toxin yet are virtually absent in rabbit and human protective antigen (PA) antiserum. While the MAP vaccine was protective against anthrax, it contains a single heterologous helper T cell epitope which may be suboptimal for stimulating an outbred human population. We therefore engineered a recombinant vaccine (Rec-LND) containing two tandemly repeated copies of the LND fused to maltose binding protein, with enhanced immunogenicity resulting from the p38/P4 helper T cell epitope from Schistosoma mansoni. Rec-LND was found to be highly immunogenic in four major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-diverse strains of mice. All (7/7) rabbits immunized with Rec-LND developed high-titer antibody, 6 out of 7 developed neutralizing antibody, and all rabbits were protected from an aerosolized spore challenge of 193 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of the B. anthracis Ames strain. Survivor serum from Rec-LND-immunized rabbits revealed significantly increased neutralization titers and specific activity compared to prechallenge levels yet lacked PA or lethal factor (LF) antigenemia. Control rabbits immunized with PA, which were also completely protected, appeared sterilely immune, exhibiting significant declines in neutralization titer and specific activity compared to prechallenge levels. We conclude that Rec-LND may represent a prototype anthrax vaccine for use alone or potentially combined with PA-containing vaccines. PMID:23283638

  10. Efficacy of a Vaccine Based on Protective Antigen and Killed Spores against Experimental Inhalational Anthrax▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Yves P.; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Paucod, Jean-Charles; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Mock, Michèle; Goossens, Pierre L.; Vidal, Dominique R.

    2009-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA)-based anthrax vaccines acting on toxins are less effective than live attenuated vaccines, suggesting that additional antigens may contribute to protective immunity. Several reports indicate that capsule or spore-associated antigens may enhance the protection afforded by PA. Addition of formaldehyde-inactivated spores (FIS) to PA (PA-FIS) elicits total protection against cutaneous anthrax. Nevertheless, vaccines that are effective against cutaneous anthrax may not be so against inhalational anthrax. The aim of this work was to optimize immunization with PA-FIS and to assess vaccine efficacy against inhalational anthrax. We assessed the immune response to recombinant anthrax PA from Bacillus anthracis (rPA)-FIS administered by various immunization protocols and the protection provided to mice and guinea pigs infected through the respiratory route with spores of a virulent strain of B. anthracis. Combined subcutaneous plus intranasal immunization of mice yielded a mucosal immunoglobulin G response to rPA that was more than 20 times higher than that in lung mucosal secretions after subcutaneous vaccination. The titers of toxin-neutralizing antibody and antispore antibody were also significantly higher: nine and eight times higher, respectively. The optimized immunization elicited total protection of mice intranasally infected with the virulent B. anthracis strain 17JB. Guinea pigs were fully protected, both against an intranasal challenge with 100 50% lethal doses (LD50) and against an aerosol with 75 LD50 of spores of the highly virulent strain 9602. Conversely, immunization with PA alone did not elicit protection. These results demonstrate that the association of PA and spores is very much more effective than PA alone against experimental inhalational anthrax. PMID:19114543

  11. The Immunologically Distinct O Antigens from Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis and Francisella novicida Are both Virulence Determinants and Protective Antigens▿

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Rebecca M.; Titball, Richard W.; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Griffin, Kate; Waters, Emma; Hitchen, Paul G.; Michell, Stephen L.; Grice, I. Darren; Wilson, Jennifer C.; Prior, Joann L.

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the sequence of the gene cluster encoding the O antigen in Francisella novicida and compared it to the previously reported O-antigen cluster in Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis. Immunization with purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from F. tularensis subsp. tularensis or F. novicida protected against challenge with Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica and F. novicida, respectively. The LPS from F. tularensis subsp. tularensis did not confer protection against challenge with F. novicida, and the LPS from F. novicida did not confer protection against challenge with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. Allelic replacement mutants of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis or F. novicida which failed to produce O antigen were attenuated, but exposure to these mutants did not induce a protective immune response. The O antigen of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis appeared to be important for intracellular survival whereas the O antigen of F. novicida appeared to be critical for serum resistance and less important for intracellular survival. PMID:17074846

  12. B1b cells recognize protective antigens after natural infection and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Adam F; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Bobat, Saeeda; Dominguez Medina, Carmen C; Cook, Charlotte N L; Ross, Ewan A; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Henderson, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple, distinct B-cell populations in human beings and other animals such as mice. In the latter species, there is a well-characterized subset of B-cells known as B1 cells, which are enriched in peripheral sites such as the peritoneal cavity but are rare in the blood. B1 cells can be further subdivided into B1a and B1b subsets. There may be additional B1 subsets, though it is unclear if these are distinct populations or stages in the developmental process to become mature B1a and B1b cells. A limitation in understanding B1 subsets is the relative paucity of specific surface markers. In contrast to mice, the existence of B1 cells in human beings is controversial and more studies are needed to investigate the nature of these enigmatic cells. Examples of B1b antigens include pneumococcal polysaccharide and the Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi, both used routinely as vaccines in human beings and experimental antigens such as haptenated-Ficoll. In addition to inducing classical T-dependent responses some proteins are B1b antigens and can induce T-independent (TI) immunity, examples include factor H binding protein from Borrelia hermsii and porins from Salmonella. Therefore, B1b antigens can be proteinaceous or non-proteinaceous, induce TI responses, memory, and immunity, they exist in a diverse range of pathogenic bacteria, and a single species can contain multiple B1b antigens. An unexpected benefit to studying B1b cells is that they appear to have a propensity to recognize protective antigens in bacteria. This suggests that studying B1b cells may be rewarding for vaccine design as immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic interventions become more important due to the decreasing efficacy of small molecule antimicrobials. PMID:25400633

  13. B1b Cells Recognize Protective Antigens after Natural Infection and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Adam F.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Bobat, Saeeda; Dominguez Medina, Carmen C.; Cook, Charlotte N. L.; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Henderson, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple, distinct B-cell populations in human beings and other animals such as mice. In the latter species, there is a well-characterized subset of B-cells known as B1 cells, which are enriched in peripheral sites such as the peritoneal cavity but are rare in the blood. B1 cells can be further subdivided into B1a and B1b subsets. There may be additional B1 subsets, though it is unclear if these are distinct populations or stages in the developmental process to become mature B1a and B1b cells. A limitation in understanding B1 subsets is the relative paucity of specific surface markers. In contrast to mice, the existence of B1 cells in human beings is controversial and more studies are needed to investigate the nature of these enigmatic cells. Examples of B1b antigens include pneumococcal polysaccharide and the Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi, both used routinely as vaccines in human beings and experimental antigens such as haptenated-Ficoll. In addition to inducing classical T-dependent responses some proteins are B1b antigens and can induce T-independent (TI) immunity, examples include factor H binding protein from Borrelia hermsii and porins from Salmonella. Therefore, B1b antigens can be proteinaceous or non-proteinaceous, induce TI responses, memory, and immunity, they exist in a diverse range of pathogenic bacteria, and a single species can contain multiple B1b antigens. An unexpected benefit to studying B1b cells is that they appear to have a propensity to recognize protective antigens in bacteria. This suggests that studying B1b cells may be rewarding for vaccine design as immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic interventions become more important due to the decreasing efficacy of small molecule antimicrobials. PMID:25400633

  14. Potentiation of anthrax vaccines using protective antigen-expressing viral replicon vectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Chao; An, Huai-Jie; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Xu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    DNA vaccines require improvement for human use because they are generally weak stimulators of the immune system in humans. The efficacy of DNA vaccines can be improved using a viral replicon as vector to administer antigen of pathogen. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the conventional non-viral DNA, viral replicon DNA or viral replicon particles (VRP) vaccines encoding different forms of anthrax protective antigen (PA) for specific immunity and protective potency against anthrax. Our current results clearly suggested that these viral replicon DNA or VRP vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) induced stronger PA-specific immune responses than the conventional non-viral DNA vaccines when encoding the same antigen forms, which resulted in potent protection against challenge with the Bacillus anthracis strain A16R. Additionally, the naked PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines without the need for high doses or demanding particular delivery regimens elicited robust immune responses and afforded completely protective potencies, which indicated the potential of the SFV replicon as vector of anthrax vaccines for use in clinical application. Therefore, our results suggest that these PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax. PMID:25102364

  15. An anthrax subunit vaccine candidate based on protective regions of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and lethal factor.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Les W; Huwar, Theresa B; Moore, Stephen; Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Rodriguez, Liliana; Neeson, Brendan N; Flick-Smith, Helen C; Jenner, Dominic C; Atkins, Helen S; Ingram, Rebecca J; Altmann, Danny M; Nataro, James P; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2010-09-24

    Studies have confirmed the key role of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in the US and UK human anthrax vaccines. However, given the tripartite nature of the toxin, other components, including lethal factor (LF), are also likely to contribute to protection. We examined the antibody and T cell responses to PA and LF in human volunteers immunized with the UK anthrax vaccine (AVP). Individual LF domains were assessed for immunogenicity in mice when given alone or with PA. Based on the results obtained, a novel fusion protein comprising D1 of LF and the host cell-binding domain of PA (D4) was assessed for protective efficacy. Murine protection studies demonstrated that both full-length LF and D1 of LF conferred complete protection against a lethal intraperitoneal challenge with B. anthracis STI spores. Subsequent studies with the LFD1-PAD4 fusion protein showed a similar level of protection. LF is immunogenic in humans and is likely to contribute to the protection stimulated by AVP. A single vaccine comprising protective regions from LF and PA would simplify production and confer a broader spectrum of protection than that seen with PA alone. PMID:20691267

  16. Disaccharides Protect Antigens from Drying-Induced Damage in Routinely Processed Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Boi, Giovanna; Scalia, Carla Rossana; Gendusa, Rossella; Ronchi, Susanna; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Drying of the tissue section, partial or total, during immunostaining negatively affects both the staining of tissue antigens and the ability to remove previously deposited antibody layers, particularly during sequential rounds of de-staining and re-staining for multiple antigens. The cause is a progressive loss of the protein-associated water up to the removal of the non-freezable water, a step which abolishes the immunoavailability of the epitope. In order to describe and prevent these adverse effects, we tested, among other substances, sugars, which are known to protect unicellular organisms from freezing and dehydration, and stabilize drugs and reagents in solid state form in medical devices. Disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) prevented the air drying-induced antigen masking and protected tissue-bound antigens and antibodies from air drying-induced damage. Complete removal of the bound antibody layers by chemical stripping was permitted if lactose was present during air drying. Lactose, sucrose and other disaccharides prevent air drying artifacts, allow homogeneous, consistent staining and the reuse of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for repeated immunostaining rounds by guaranteeing constant staining quality in suboptimal hydration conditions. PMID:26487185

  17. Vaccination against Anthrax with Attenuated Recombinant Strains of Bacillus anthracis That Produce Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, John P.; Friedlander, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    The protective efficacy of several live, recombinant anthrax vaccines given in a single-dose regimen was assessed with Hartley guinea pigs. These live vaccines were created by transforming ΔANR and ΔSterne, two nonencapsulated, nontoxinogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, with four different recombinant plasmids that express the anthrax protective antigen (PA) protein to various degrees. This enabled us to assess the effect of the chromosomal background of the strain, as well as the amount of PA produced, on protective efficacy. There were no significant strain-related effects on PA production in vitro, plasmid stability in vivo, survival of the immunizing strain in the host, or protective efficacy of the immunizing infection. The protective efficacy of the live, recombinant anthrax vaccine strains correlated with the anti-PA antibody titers they elicited in vivo and the level of PA they produced in vitro. PMID:9916059

  18. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a protective 40-kilodalton antigen from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M J; Brandon, M R; Walker, J

    1995-01-01

    A 40-kDa protein from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis has been previously identified as a protective antigen against ovine caseous lymphadenitis. From genomic DNA libraries of C. pseudotuberculosis, we have cloned and sequenced the 40-kDa protein gene, which was found to contain an open reading frame of 1,137 bp encoding a protein of 379 amino acids. No significant homology with previously published DNA or amino acid sequence data was found in databases, suggesting that this is a novel protein. Recombinant 40-kDa protein was overexpressed as a fusion protein to 15% of total cell proteins in Escherichia coli. Biochemical analysis of native and recombinant 40-kDa proteins has revealed associated proteolytic activity, which was shown to be of the serine protease type through the use of specific inhibitors. We suggest that this novel protective antigen be termed corynebacterial protease 40 (CP40). PMID:7806359

  19. Plant expressed coccidial antigens as potential vaccine candidates in protecting chicken against coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Kota; Sriraman, Rajan; Subramanian, B Mohana; Rao, N Hanumantha; Kasa, Balaji; Donikeni, Jagan; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Srinivasan, V A

    2012-06-22

    Coccidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. In the present study, we transiently expressed two coccidial antigens EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 as poly histidine-tagged fusion proteins in tobacco. We have evaluated the protective efficacy of plant expressed EtMIC1 as monovalent and as well as bi-valent formulation where EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 were used in combination. The protective efficacy of these formulations was evaluated using homologous challenge in chickens. We observed better serum antibody response, weight gain and reduced oocyst shedding in birds immunized with EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 as bivalent formulation compared to monovalent formulation. However, IFN-γ response was not significant in birds immunized with EtMIC1 compared to the birds immunized with EtMIC2. Our results indicate the potential use of these antigens as vaccine candidates. PMID:22554463

  20. Nature of the cross-protective antigen in subcellular vaccines of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Au, C C; Eisenstein, T K

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been carried out to investigate the nature of the antigen present in subcellular extracts of a rough strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae A662b which has been shown to confer protection in mice against challenge with smooth, virulent organisms of the homologous and heterologous serotypes. The finding that whole, heat-killed cells were also capable of immunizing mice against challenge with organisms of heterologous serotypes suggests that the immunogen is present on the surface of the rough pneumococcal cell. Ribosomes purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation were not protective, but material recovered in the pellet retained activity. Subcellular extracts prepared from spheroplasts with a partial absence of cell wall showed decreased protective capacity, and extracts prepared from wall-deficient protoplasts were not protective. Crude cell walls evidenced cross-serotype protection, but purified walls did not protect. These results are interpreted as suggesting that the active moiety in the subcellular vaccine is present on the surface of rough pneumococci and is either a wall antigen that must be part of a larger macromolecular complex to be immunogenic, or a substance associated with the cell wall that is present in crude, but not purified, cell wall fractions. PMID:7216442

  1. Proteome-wide antigen discovery of novel protective vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Mattsson, Andreas Holm; Pilely, Katrine; Asferg, Cecilie Antoinette; Ciofu, Oana; Vitved, Lars; Koch, Claus; Kemp, Michael

    2016-08-31

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rapidly growing problem, especially in hospitals where MRSA cause increased morbidity and mortality and a significant rise in health expenditures. As many strains of MRSA are resistant to other antimicrobials in addition to methicillin, there is an urgent need to institute non-antimicrobial measures, such as vaccination, against the spread of MRSA. With the aim of finding new protective antigens for vaccine development, this study used a proteome-wide in silico antigen prediction platform to screen the proteome of S. aureus strain MRSA252. Thirty-five different S. aureus proteins were identified, recombinantly expressed, and tested for protection in a lethal sepsis mouse model using S. aureus strain MRSA252 as the challenge organism. We found that 13 of the 35 recombinant peptides yielded significant protection and that 12 of these antigens were highly conserved across 70 completely sequenced S. aureus strains. Thus, this in silico platform was capable of identifying novel candidates for inclusion in future vaccines against MRSA. PMID:27496278

  2. Identification of protective and broadly conserved vaccine antigens from the genome of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rappuoli, Rino; Serino, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are a common cause of disease in both mammals and birds. A vaccine to prevent such infections would be desirable given the increasing antibiotic resistance of these bacteria. We have determined the genome sequence of ExPEC IHE3034 (ST95) isolated from a case of neonatal meningitis and compared this to available genome sequences of other ExPEC strains and a few nonpathogenic E. coli. We found 19 genomic islands present in the genome of IHE3034, which are absent in the nonpathogenic E. coli isolates. By using subtractive reverse vaccinology we identified 230 antigens present in ExPEC but absent (or present with low similarity) in nonpathogenic strains. Nine antigens were protective in a mouse challenge model. Some of them were also present in other pathogenic non-ExPEC strains, suggesting that a broadly protective E. coli vaccine may be possible. The gene encoding the most protective antigen was detected in most of the E. coli isolates, highly conserved in sequence and found to be exported by a type II secretion system which seems to be nonfunctional in nonpathogenic strains. PMID:20439758

  3. Identification of protective and broadly conserved vaccine antigens from the genome of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Moriel, Danilo Gomes; Bertoldi, Isabella; Spagnuolo, Angela; Marchi, Sara; Rosini, Roberto; Nesta, Barbara; Pastorello, Ilaria; Corea, Vanja A Mariani; Torricelli, Giulia; Cartocci, Elena; Savino, Silvana; Scarselli, Maria; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hacker, Jörg; Tettelin, Hervé; Tallon, Luke J; Sullivan, Steven; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa; Pickard, Derek; Dougan, Gordon; Fontana, Maria Rita; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Serino, Laura

    2010-05-18

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are a common cause of disease in both mammals and birds. A vaccine to prevent such infections would be desirable given the increasing antibiotic resistance of these bacteria. We have determined the genome sequence of ExPEC IHE3034 (ST95) isolated from a case of neonatal meningitis and compared this to available genome sequences of other ExPEC strains and a few nonpathogenic E. coli. We found 19 genomic islands present in the genome of IHE3034, which are absent in the nonpathogenic E. coli isolates. By using subtractive reverse vaccinology we identified 230 antigens present in ExPEC but absent (or present with low similarity) in nonpathogenic strains. Nine antigens were protective in a mouse challenge model. Some of them were also present in other pathogenic non-ExPEC strains, suggesting that a broadly protective E. coli vaccine may be possible. The gene encoding the most protective antigen was detected in most of the E. coli isolates, highly conserved in sequence and found to be exported by a type II secretion system which seems to be nonfunctional in nonpathogenic strains. PMID:20439758

  4. Cross‐protection between antigenically distinct H1N1 swine influenza viruses from Europe and North America

    PubMed Central

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel R.; Van Poucke, Sjouke G.; Karasin, Alexander I.; Olsen, Christopher W.; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: De Vleeschauwer et al. (2011) Cross‐protection between antigenically distinct H1N1 swine influenza viruses from Europe and North America. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 115–122. Background  An avian‐like H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations of Western Europe. The virus is antigenically distinct from H1N1 SIVs in North America that have a classical swine virus‐lineage H1 hemagglutinin, as does the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. However, the significance of this antigenic difference for cross‐protection among pigs remains unknown. Objectives  We examined protection against infection with a North American triple reassortant H1N1 SIV [A/swine/Iowa/H04YS2/04 (sw/IA/04)] in pigs infected with a European avian‐like SIV [A/swine/Belgium/1/98 (sw/B/98)] 4 weeks earlier. We also examined the genetic relationships and serologic cross‐reactivity between both SIVs and with a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus [A/California/04/09 (Calif/09)]. Results  After intranasal inoculation with sw/IA/04, all previously uninfected control pigs showed nasal virus excretion, high virus titers in the entire respiratory tract at 4 days post‐challenge (DPCh) and macroscopic lung lesions. Most pigs previously infected with sw/B/98 tested negative for sw/IA/04 in nasal swabs and respiratory tissues, and none had lung lesions. At challenge, these pigs had low levels of cross‐reactive virus neutralizing and neuraminidase inhibiting (NI) antibodies to sw/IA/04, but no hemagglutination‐inhibiting antibodies. They showed similar antibody profiles when tested against Calif/09, but NI antibody titers were higher against Calif/09 than sw/IA/04, reflecting the higher genetic homology of the sw/B/98 neuraminidase with Calif/09. Conclusions  Our data indicate that immunity induced by infection with European avian‐like H1N1 SIV affords protection for pigs against North American H1N1 SIVs with a classical H1, and

  5. Synthetic Long Peptide Derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latency Antigen Rv1733c Protects against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Mariateresa; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Wilson, Louis; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Responsible for 9 million new cases of active disease and nearly 2 million deaths each year, tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat of overwhelming dimensions. Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the only licensed vaccine available, fails to confer lifelong protection and to prevent reactivation of latent infection. Although 15 new vaccine candidates are now in clinical trials, an effective vaccine against TB remains elusive, and new strategies for vaccination are vital. BCG vaccination fails to induce immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis latency antigens. Synthetic long peptides (SLPs) combined with adjuvants have been studied mostly for therapeutic cancer vaccines, yet not for TB, and proved to induce efficient antitumor immunity. This study investigated an SLP derived from Rv1733c, a major M. tuberculosis latency antigen which is highly expressed by “dormant” M. tuberculosis and well recognized by T cells from latently M. tuberculosis-infected individuals. In order to assess its in vivo immunogenicity and protective capacity, Rv1733c SLP in CpG was administered to HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. Immunization with Rv1733c SLP elicited gamma interferon-positive/tumor necrosis factor-positive (IFN-γ+/TNF+) and IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells and Rv1733c-specific antibodies and led to a significant reduction in the bacterial load in the lungs of M. tuberculosis-challenged mice. This was observed both in a pre- and in a post-M. tuberculosis challenge setting. Moreover, Rv1733c SLP immunization significantly boosted the protective efficacy of BCG, demonstrating the potential of M. tuberculosis latency antigens to improve BCG efficacy. These data suggest a promising role for M. tuberculosis latency antigen Rv1733c-derived SLPs as a novel TB vaccine approach, both in a prophylactic and in a postinfection setting. PMID:26202436

  6. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersen, Peter; Dietrich, Jes

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved among different GAS strains, upregulated in host-pathogen interaction studies, and predicted to be extracellular or associated with the surface of the bacteria. The antigens were tested for both antibody recognition and T cell responses in human adults and children. The antigenicity of a selected group of antigens was further validated using a high-density peptide array technology that also identified the linear epitopes. Based on immunological recognition, four targets were selected and tested for protective capabilities in an experimental GAS infection model in mice. Shown for the first time, three of these targets (spy0469, spy1228 and spy1801) conferred significant protection whereas one (spy1643) did not. PMID:26911649

  7. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersen, Peter; Dietrich, Jes

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved among different GAS strains, upregulated in host-pathogen interaction studies, and predicted to be extracellular or associated with the surface of the bacteria. The antigens were tested for both antibody recognition and T cell responses in human adults and children. The antigenicity of a selected group of antigens was further validated using a high-density peptide array technology that also identified the linear epitopes. Based on immunological recognition, four targets were selected and tested for protective capabilities in an experimental GAS infection model in mice. Shown for the first time, three of these targets (spy0469, spy1228 and spy1801) conferred significant protection whereas one (spy1643) did not. PMID:26911649

  8. A study on the protection to relics and the related problems with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqin; Liang, Guozheng; Dang, Gaochao

    2005-03-01

    The application of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to relic protection is studied by using a self-made fiber optics reflectance spectrophotometer. The major work done includes: (1) the composition of pigment on colored relics and its changes are identified; (2) the change on metal surface is monitored; (3) the reflectance spectrum characteristics of relic protection materials are studied. The results tell that diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a new protection technique, characterized by its quickness and non-destructiveness to the relic. PMID:15683812

  9. Identification of an OmpW homologue in Burkholderia pseudomallei, a protective vaccine antigen against melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Casey, William T; Spink, Natasha; Cia, Felipe; Collins, Cassandra; Romano, Maria; Berisio, Rita; Bancroft, Gregory J; McClean, Siobhán

    2016-05-17

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is associated with a range of clinical manifestations, including sepsis and fatal pneumonia and is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Treatment can be challenging and control of infection involves prolonged antibiotic therapy, yet there are no approved vaccines available to prevent infection. Our aim was to develop and assess the potential of a prophylactic vaccine candidate targeted against melioidosis. The identified candidate is the 22kDa outer membrane protein, OmpW. We previously demonstrated that this protein was immunoprotective in mouse models of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infections. We cloned Bp_ompW in Escherichia coli, expressed and purified the protein. Endotoxin free protein administered with SAS adjuvant protected Balb/C mice (75% survival) relative to controls (25% survival) (p<0.05). A potent serological response was observed with IgG2a to IgG1 ratio of 6.0. Furthermore C57BL/6 mice were protected for up to 80 days against a lethal dose of B. pseudomallei and surpassed the efficacy of the live attenuated 2D2 positive control. BpompW is homologous across thirteen sequenced B. pseudomallei strains, indicating that it should be broadly protective against B. pseudomallei. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that BpOmpW is able to induce protective immunity against melioidosis and is likely to be an effective vaccine antigen, possibly in combination with other subunit antigens. PMID:27091689

  10. Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Devera, T. Scott; Prusator, Dawn K.; Joshi, Sunil K.; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Lang, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Protective immunity against anthrax is inferred from measurement of vaccine antigen-specific neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples. In animal models, in vivo challenges with toxin and/or spores can also be performed. However, neither of these approaches considers toxin-induced damage to specific organ systems. It is therefore important to determine to what extent anthrax vaccines and existing or candidate adjuvants can provide organ-specific protection against intoxication. We therefore compared the ability of Alum, CpG DNA and the CD1d ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGC) to enhance protective antigen-specific antibody titers, to protect mice against challenge with lethal toxin, and to block cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. By measurement of serum cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), and hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), it was apparent that neither vaccine modality prevented hepatic intoxication, despite high Ab titers and ultimate survival of the subject. In contrast, cardiotoxicity was greatly diminished by prior immunization. This shows that a vaccine that confers survival following toxin exposure may still have an associated morbidity. We propose that organ-specific intoxication should be monitored routinely during research into new vaccine modalities. PMID:26120785

  11. A fusion DNA vaccine that targets antigen-presenting cells increases protection from viral challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliyannis, Georgia; Boyle, Jefferey S.; Brady, Jamie L.; Brown, Lorena E.; Lew, Andrew M.

    2000-06-01

    Improving the immunological potency, particularly the Ab response, is a serious hurdle for the protective efficacy and hence broad application of DNA vaccines. We examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a hemagglutinin-based influenza DNA vaccine that was targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by fusion to CTLA4. The targeted vaccine was shown to induce an accelerated and increased Ab response (as compared with those receiving the nontargeted control) that was predominated by IgG1 and recognized conformationally dependent viral epitopes. Moreover, mice receiving the APC-targeted DNA vaccine had significantly reduced viral titers (100-fold) after a nonlethal virus challenge. The increased protective efficacy was most likely because of increased Ab responses, as cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were not enhanced. Targeting was demonstrated by direct binding studies of CTLA4 fusion proteins to the cognate ligand (B7; expressed on APCs in vivo). In addition, a targeted protein was detected at 4-fold higher levels in draining lymph nodes within 2-24 h of administration. Therefore, this study demonstrates that targeting DNA-encoded antigen to APCs results in enhanced immunity and strongly suggests that this approach may be useful in improving the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines.

  12. The circumsporozoite protein is an immunodominant protective antigen in irradiated sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kota Arun; Sano, Gen-ichiro; Boscardin, Silvia; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Zavala, Fidel; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2006-12-14

    Malaria infection starts when mosquitoes inject sporozoites into the skin. The parasites enter the blood stream and make their way to the liver where they develop into the exo-erythrocytic forms (EEFs). Immunization with irradiated sporozoites (IrSp) leads to robust protection against malaria infection in rodents, monkeys and humans by eliciting antibodies to circumsporozoite protein (CS) that inhibit sporozoite infectivity, and T cells that destroy the EEFs. To study the role of non-CS antigens in protection, we produced CS transgenic mice that were tolerant to CS T-cell epitopes. Here we show that in the absence of T-cell-dependent immune responses to CS, protection induced by immunization with two doses of IrSp was greatly reduced. Thus, although hundreds of other Plasmodium genes are expressed in sporozoites and EEFs, CS is a dominant protective antigen. Nevertheless, sterile immunity could be obtained by immunization of CS transgenics with three doses of IrSp. PMID:17151604

  13. A fusion DNA vaccine that targets antigen-presenting cells increases protection from viral challenge

    PubMed Central

    Deliyannis, Georgia; Boyle, Jefferey S.; Brady, Jamie L.; Brown, Lorena E.; Lew, Andrew M.

    2000-01-01

    Improving the immunological potency, particularly the Ab response, is a serious hurdle for the protective efficacy and hence broad application of DNA vaccines. We examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a hemagglutinin-based influenza DNA vaccine that was targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by fusion to CTLA4. The targeted vaccine was shown to induce an accelerated and increased Ab response (as compared with those receiving the nontargeted control) that was predominated by IgG1 and recognized conformationally dependent viral epitopes. Moreover, mice receiving the APC-targeted DNA vaccine had significantly reduced viral titers (100-fold) after a nonlethal virus challenge. The increased protective efficacy was most likely because of increased Ab responses, as cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were not enhanced. Targeting was demonstrated by direct binding studies of CTLA4 fusion proteins to the cognate ligand (B7; expressed on APCs in vivo). In addition, a targeted protein was detected at 4-fold higher levels in draining lymph nodes within 2–24 h of administration. Therefore, this study demonstrates that targeting DNA-encoded antigen to APCs results in enhanced immunity and strongly suggests that this approach may be useful in improving the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines. PMID:10823919

  14. Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge.

    PubMed

    Devera, T Scott; Prusator, Dawn K; Joshi, Sunil K; Ballard, Jimmy D; Lang, Mark L

    2015-07-01

    Protective immunity against anthrax is inferred from measurement of vaccine antigen-specific neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples. In animal models, in vivo challenges with toxin and/or spores can also be performed. However, neither of these approaches considers toxin-induced damage to specific organ systems. It is therefore important to determine to what extent anthrax vaccines and existing or candidate adjuvants can provide organ-specific protection against intoxication. We therefore compared the ability of Alum, CpG DNA and the CD1d ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGC) to enhance protective antigen-specific antibody titers, to protect mice against challenge with lethal toxin, and to block cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. By measurement of serum cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), and hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), it was apparent that neither vaccine modality prevented hepatic intoxication, despite high Ab titers and ultimate survival of the subject. In contrast, cardiotoxicity was greatly diminished by prior immunization. This shows that a vaccine that confers survival following toxin exposure may still have an associated morbidity. We propose that organ-specific intoxication should be monitored routinely during research into new vaccine modalities. PMID:26120785

  15. Salmonella outer membrane vesicles displaying high densities of pneumococcal antigen at the surface offer protection against colonization.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Kirsten; Daleke-Schermerhorn, Maria H; Jong, Wouter S P; ten Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M; van Opzeeland, Fred; Simonetti, Elles; Luirink, Joen; de Jonge, Marien I

    2015-04-21

    Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are attractive vaccine formulations because they have intrinsic immunostimulatory properties. In principle, heterologous antigens incorporated into OMVs will elicit specific immune responses, especially if presented at the vesicle surface and thus optimally exposed to the immune system. In this study, we explored the feasibility of our recently developed autotransporter Hbp platform, designed to efficiently and simultaneously display multiple antigens at the surface of bacterial OMVs, for vaccine development. Using two Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins as model antigens, we showed that intranasally administered Salmonella OMVs displaying high levels of antigens at the surface induced strong protection in a murine model of pneumococcal colonization, without the need for a mucosal adjuvant. Importantly, reduction in bacterial recovery from the nasal cavity was correlated with local production of antigen-specific IL-17A. Furthermore, the protective efficacy and the production of antigen-specific IL-17A, and local and systemic IgGs, were all improved at increased concentrations of the displayed antigen. This discovery highlights the importance of an adequate antigen expression system for development of recombinant OMV vaccines. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the suitability of the Hbp platform for development of a new generation of OMV vaccines, and illustrate the potential of using this approach to develop a broadly protective mucosal pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:25776921

  16. Intravacuolar Membranes Regulate CD8 T Cell Recognition of Membrane-Bound Toxoplasma gondii Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jodie; Bittame, Amina; Massera, Céline; Vasseur, Virginie; Effantin, Grégory; Valat, Anne; Buaillon, Célia; Allart, Sophie; Fox, Barbara A; Rommereim, Leah M; Bzik, David J; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Gagnon, Jean; Mercier, Corinne; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2015-12-15

    Apicomplexa parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii target effectors to and across the boundary of their parasitophorous vacuole (PV), resulting in host cell subversion and potential presentation by MHC class I molecules for CD8 T cell recognition. The host-parasite interface comprises the PV limiting membrane and a highly curved, membranous intravacuolar network (IVN) of uncertain function. Here, using a cell-free minimal system, we dissect how membrane tubules are shaped by the parasite effectors GRA2 and GRA6. We show that membrane association regulates access of the GRA6 protective antigen to the MHC I pathway in infected cells. Although insertion of GRA6 in the PV membrane is key for immunogenicity, association of GRA6 with the IVN limits presentation and curtails GRA6-specific CD8 responses in mice. Thus, membrane deformations of the PV regulate access of antigens to the MHC class I pathway, and the IVN may play a role in immune modulation. PMID:26628378

  17. Contribution of Immunological Memory to Protective Immunity Conferred by a Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Hadar; Danieli, Rachel; Epstein, Eyal; Velan, Baruch; Shafferman, Avigdor; Reuveny, Shaul

    2004-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA)-based vaccination is an effective countermeasure to anthrax infection. While neutralizing anti-PA antibody titers elicited by this vaccine serve as good correlates for protection against anthrax (S. Reuveny, M. D. White, Y. Y. Adar, Y. Kafri, Z. Altboum, Y. Gozes, D. Kobiler, A. Shafferman, and B. Velan, Infect. Immun. 69:2888-2893, 2001), no data are available on the contribution of the immunological memory for PA itself to protection. We therefore developed a guinea pig model in which a primary immunization with threshold levels of PA can induce a long-term T-cell immunological memory response without inducing detectable anti-PA antibodies. A revaccination of primed animals with the same threshold PA levels was effective for memory activation, yielding a robust and rapid secondary response. A challenge with a lethal dose (40 50% lethal doses; 2,000 spores) of spores after the booster vaccinations indicated that animals were not protected at days 2, 4, and 6 postboosting. Protection was achieved only from the 8th day postboosting, concomitant with the detection of protective levels of neutralizing antibody titers in the circulation. The practical implications from the studies reported herein are that, as expected, the protective capacity of memory depends on the PA dose used for the primary immunization and that the effectiveness of booster immunizations for the postexposure treatment of anthrax may be very limited when no detectable antibodies are present in primed animals prior to Bacillus anthracis spore exposure. Therefore, to allow for the establishment of memory-dependent protection prior to the expected onset of disease, booster immunizations should not be used without concomitant antimicrobial treatment in postexposure scenarios. PMID:15155654

  18. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with a recombinant Entamoeba histolytica antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T; Cieslak, P R; Stanley, S L

    1994-01-01

    Amebiasis, infection by the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is a leading parasitic cause of death. As a step in the development of a recombinant antigen vaccine to prevent E. histolytica infection, we looked at the ability of a recombinant version of the serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) to elicit a protective immune response against invasive amebic disease. Gerbils, a standard model for amebic liver abscess, were immunized with either a recombinant SREHP/maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion, recombinant MBP alone, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), all combined with complete Freund's adjuvant. In the first trial (group 1), gerbils received a primary and two booster immunizations intraperitoneally; in the second trial (group 2), gerbils were immunized by a single intradermal injection. SREHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in both groups produced antibody to native SHEHP and developed delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to recombinant SREHP. All gerbils were challenged by an intrahepatic injection with 5 x 10(4) virulent E. histolytica HM1-IMSS trophozoites. Complete protection from amebic liver abscess was seen in 64% of the SHEHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in group 1 and in 100% of the SREHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in group 2. There was no protection observed in MBP- or PBS-immunized gerbils in either group. Our results indicate that the SREHP molecule has potential as a vaccine to prevent amebic infection and demonstrate that successful vaccination of animals with recombinant E. histolytica antigen vaccines is possible. Images PMID:8132322

  19. Protective immune responses of recombinant VP2 subunit antigen of infectious bursal disease virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

    2012-08-15

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease and poses a huge threat to poultry industry. The risks associated with conventional attenuated viral vaccines make it indispensable to probe into the development of novel and rationally designed subunit vaccines which are safer as well as effective. VP2 is the major host-protective antigen found in IBDV capsid. It encompasses different independent epitopes responsible for the induction of neutralizing antibody. Here, we report the efficacy of the immunodominant fragment of VP2 which induces both humoral and cellular immunity against infectious bursal disease. A 366 bp fragment (52-417 bp) of the VP2 gene from an IBDV field isolate was amplified and expressed in Escherichia coli as a 21 kDa recombinant protein. The efficacy of rVP2(52-417) antigen was compared with two commercial IBDV whole virus vaccine strains. The rVP2(52-417) induced significantly high antibody titres in chicken compared to commercial vaccines and the anti-rVP2(52-417) sera showed reactivity with viral antigens from both commercial strains (P<0.0001) and field isolates. Also, the chicken splenocytes from rVP2(52-417) immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation (P<0.01) compared to other groups, which implies that the rVP2(52-417) fragment contains immunogenic epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. Further, rVP2(52-417) conferred 100% protection against vIBDV challenge in the immunized chickens which was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to 55-60% protection by commercial vaccine strains. Hence, the study confirms the efficacy of the immunodominant VP2 fragment that could be used as a potent vaccine against IBDV infection in chicken. PMID:22795186

  20. Scaffolded Antigens in Yeast Cell Particle Vaccines Provide Protection against Systemic Polyoma Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Tipper, Donald J; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background. U65, a self-aggregating peptide scaffold, traps fused protein antigens in yeast cells. Conversion to Yeast Cell Particle (YCP) vaccines by partial removal of surface mannoproteins exposes β-glucan, mediating efficient uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). YCP vaccines are inexpensive, capable of rapid large-scale production and have potential for both parenteral and oral use. Results. YCP processing by alkaline hydrolysis exposes up to 20% of the glucan but converts scaffolded antigen and internal yeast proteins into a common aggregate, preventing selective yeast protein removal. For U65-green fluorescent protein (GFP) or U65-Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) subcutaneous vaccines, maximal IgG responses in mice required 10% glucan exposure. IgG responses to yeast proteins were 5-fold lower. Proteolytic mannoprotein removal produced YCPs with only 6% glucan exposure, insufficiently porous for selective removal of even native yeast proteins. Vaccine efficacy was reduced 10-fold. Current YCP formulations, therefore, are not suitable for human use but have considerable potential for use in feed animal vaccines. Significantly, a YCP vaccine expressing a GFP fusion to VP1, the murine polyoma virus major capsid protein, after either oral or subcutaneous administration, protected mice against an intraperitoneal polyoma virus challenge, reducing viral DNA levels in spleen and liver by >98%. PMID:27213160

  1. Scaffolded Antigens in Yeast Cell Particle Vaccines Provide Protection against Systemic Polyoma Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tipper, Donald J.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background. U65, a self-aggregating peptide scaffold, traps fused protein antigens in yeast cells. Conversion to Yeast Cell Particle (YCP) vaccines by partial removal of surface mannoproteins exposes β-glucan, mediating efficient uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). YCP vaccines are inexpensive, capable of rapid large-scale production and have potential for both parenteral and oral use. Results. YCP processing by alkaline hydrolysis exposes up to 20% of the glucan but converts scaffolded antigen and internal yeast proteins into a common aggregate, preventing selective yeast protein removal. For U65-green fluorescent protein (GFP) or U65-Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) subcutaneous vaccines, maximal IgG responses in mice required 10% glucan exposure. IgG responses to yeast proteins were 5-fold lower. Proteolytic mannoprotein removal produced YCPs with only 6% glucan exposure, insufficiently porous for selective removal of even native yeast proteins. Vaccine efficacy was reduced 10-fold. Current YCP formulations, therefore, are not suitable for human use but have considerable potential for use in feed animal vaccines. Significantly, a YCP vaccine expressing a GFP fusion to VP1, the murine polyoma virus major capsid protein, after either oral or subcutaneous administration, protected mice against an intraperitoneal polyoma virus challenge, reducing viral DNA levels in spleen and liver by >98%. PMID:27213160

  2. Production and purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Laird, Michael W; Zukauskas, David; Johnson, Kelly; Sampey, Gavin C; Olsen, Henrik; Garcia, Andy; Karwoski, Jeffrey D; Cooksey, Bridget A; Choi, Gil H; Askins, Janine; Tsai, Amos; Pierre, Jennifer; Gwinn, William

    2004-11-01

    Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Current vaccines against anthrax use PA as their primary component since it confers protective immunity. In this work, we expressed soluble, recombinant PA in relatively high amounts in the periplasm of E. coli from shake flasks and bioreactors. The PA protein was purified using Q-Sepharose-HP and hydroxyapatite chromatography, and routinely found to be 96-98% pure. Yields of purified PA varied depending on the method of production; however, medium cell density fermentations resulted in approximately 370 mg/L of highly pure biologically active PA protein. These results exhibit the ability to generate gram quantities of PA from E. coli. PMID:15477093

  3. EatA, an Immunogenic Protective Antigen of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Degrades Intestinal Mucin

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Luo, Qingwei; Vickers, Tim J.; Sheikh, Alaullah; Lewis, Warren G.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diarrhea in developing countries for which there is presently no effective vaccine. A central challenge in ETEC vaccinology has been the identification of conserved surface antigens to formulate a broadly protective vaccine. Here, we demonstrate that EatA, an immunogenic secreted serine protease of ETEC, contributes to virulence by degrading MUC2, the major protein present in the small intestinal mucous layer, and that removal of this barrier in vitro accelerates toxin access to the enterocyte surface. In addition, we demonstrate that vaccination with the recombinant secreted passenger domain of EatA (rEatAp) elicits high titers of antibody and is protective against intestinal infection with ETEC. These findings may have significant implications for development of both subunit and live-attenuated vaccines against ETEC and other enteric pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, that express similar proteins. PMID:24478066

  4. Protective efficacy of bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed BM95 antigenic peptides for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Canales, Mario; Labruna, Marcelo B; Soares, João F; Prudencio, Carlos R; de la Fuente, José

    2009-12-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 glycoproteins are homologous proteins that protect cattle against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that the recombinant chimeric protein comprising tick BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the A. marginale MSP1a N-terminal region for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane was protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. This system provides a novel and simple approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on live E. coli and suggests the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions for vaccination against cattle tick infestations. PMID:19835826

  5. Protective Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Antigens in a Murine Intranasal Challenge Model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Hays, Mike; Lim, Francis; Foster, Leonard J; Zhou, Mingxu; Zhu, Guoqiang; Miesner, Tracy; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an endemic health threat in underdeveloped nations. Despite the significant effort extended to vaccine trials using ETEC colonization factors, these approaches have generally not been especially effective in mediating cross-protective immunity. We used quantitative proteomics to identify 24 proteins that differed in abundance in membrane protein preparations derived from wild-type vs. a type II secretion system mutant of ETEC. We expressed and purified a subset of these proteins and identified nine antigens that generated significant immune responses in mice. Sera from mice immunized with either the MltA-interacting protein MipA, the periplasmic chaperone seventeen kilodalton protein, Skp, or a long-chain fatty acid outer membrane transporter, ETEC_2479, reduced the adherence of multiple ETEC strains differing in colonization factor expression to human intestinal epithelial cells. In intranasal challenge assays of mice, immunization with ETEC_2479 protected 88% of mice from an otherwise lethal challenge with ETEC H10407. Immunization with either Skp or MipA provided an intermediate degree of protection, 68 and 64%, respectively. Protection was significantly correlated with the induction of a secretory immunoglobulin A response. This study has identified several proteins that are conserved among heterologous ETEC strains and may thus potentially improve cross-protective efficacy if incorporated into future vaccine designs. PMID:26244636

  6. Developing Peptide Mimotopes of Capsular Polysaccharides and Lipopolysaccharides Protective Antigens of Pathogenic Burkholderia Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pengfei; Zhang, Jing; Tsai, Shien; Li, Bingjie; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (BP) and Burkholderia mallei (BM) are two species of pathogenic Burkholderia bacteria. Our laboratory previously identified four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that reacted against Burkholderia capsular polysaccharides (PS) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and effectively protected against a lethal dose of BP/BM infections in mice. In this study, we used phage display panning against three different phage peptide libraries to select phage clones specifically recognized by each of the four protective MAbs. After sequencing a total of 179 candidate phage clones, we examined in detail six selected phage clones carrying different peptide inserts for the specificity of binding by the respective target MAbs. Chemically synthesized peptides corresponding to those displayed by the six phage clones were conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin carrier protein and tested for their binding specificity to the respective protective MAbs. The study revealed that four of the six peptides, all derived from the library displaying dodecapeptides, functioned well as "mimotopes" of Burkholderia PS and LPS as demonstrated by a high degree of specific competition against the binding of three protective MAbs to BP and BM. Our results suggest that the four selected peptide mimics corresponding to PS/LPS protective antigens of BP and BM could potentially be developed into peptide vaccines against pathogenic Burkholderia bacteria. PMID:27328059

  7. Protective Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Antigens in a Murine Intranasal Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Hays, Mike; Lim, Francis; Foster, Leonard J.; Zhou, Mingxu; Zhu, Guoqiang; Miesner, Tracy; Hardwidge, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an endemic health threat in underdeveloped nations. Despite the significant effort extended to vaccine trials using ETEC colonization factors, these approaches have generally not been especially effective in mediating cross-protective immunity. We used quantitative proteomics to identify 24 proteins that differed in abundance in membrane protein preparations derived from wild-type vs. a type II secretion system mutant of ETEC. We expressed and purified a subset of these proteins and identified nine antigens that generated significant immune responses in mice. Sera from mice immunized with either the MltA-interacting protein MipA, the periplasmic chaperone seventeen kilodalton protein, Skp, or a long-chain fatty acid outer membrane transporter, ETEC_2479, reduced the adherence of multiple ETEC strains differing in colonization factor expression to human intestinal epithelial cells. In intranasal challenge assays of mice, immunization with ETEC_2479 protected 88% of mice from an otherwise lethal challenge with ETEC H10407. Immunization with either Skp or MipA provided an intermediate degree of protection, 68 and 64%, respectively. Protection was significantly correlated with the induction of a secretory immunoglobulin A response. This study has identified several proteins that are conserved among heterologous ETEC strains and may thus potentially improve cross-protective efficacy if incorporated into future vaccine designs. PMID:26244636

  8. Effect of particulation on the immunogenic and protective properties of the recombinant Bm86 antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    García-García, J C; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; Soto, A; Redondo, M; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; de la Fuente, J

    1998-02-01

    The recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris is obtained in a highly particulated form, as a distinguish feature of this expression system. This particulated protein, the active principle of the recombinant vaccine Gavac against the cattle tick, have shown high immunogenic and protective properties, probably associated with its own characteristics. To evaluate the effects of particulation on the properties of Bm86, three groups of calves were immunized with particulated or non-particulated recombinant Bm86 and the anti-Bm86 antibody response determined. Animals were challenged with a controlled tick infestation and the protective capacities of both proteins assessed. Humoral immune response and protection in cattle vaccinated with the particulated antigen were higher. These experiments suggested that particulation of the Bm86 expressed in P. pastoris is an important feature for the protective properties of the antigen in vaccine preparations. PMID:9607058

  9. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Pickering, Darren A; McSorley, Henry J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Tribolet, Leon; Dougall, Annette M; Hotez, Peter J; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1) and IgG(3) from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1), suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic. PMID:22428079

  10. Cloning and characterization of a potentially protective chitinase-like recombinant antigen from Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, N; Freedman, D O; Fitzgerald, P C; Unnasch, T R; Ottesen, E A; Nutman, T B

    1994-01-01

    While there is no direct evidence demonstrating the existence of protective immunity to Wuchereria bancrofti infection in humans, the presence of individuals, in populations in areas where infection is endemic, with no clinical evidence of past or current infection despite appreciable exposure to the infective larvae, suggests that protective immunity to filarial parasites may occur naturally. Earlier work indicated that such putatively immune individuals generated antibodies to a 43-kDa antigen from larval extracts of the related filarial parasite Brugia malayi that was recognized by only 8% of the infected population. With rabbit antiserum raised against this 43-kDa antigen, this current study identified a recombinant clone, WbN43, with an insert size of 2.3 kb, from a W. bancrofti genomic expression library. The recombinant fusion protein was differentially recognized by the putatively immune individuals but not by the infected patients. The coding sequence (684 bp) from the 5' end had significant sequence similarity to chitinases from Serratia marcescens, Bacillus circulans, Streptomyces plicatus, and B. malayi. Peptide sequencing of the expressed product also defined a chitinase-like sequence. Molecular characterization indicated WbN43 to be a low-copy-number gene, with expression predominantly in infective larvae and microfilariae but not in adult parasites. Images PMID:8168956

  11. A novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Ma, Ji-Hong; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Guo-Xin; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. Moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide (M2e-MAP) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated H3N2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of SwIVs, H1N1 and H3N2. The novel tetra-branched MAP was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper cell epitopes. A high-yield reassortant H3N2 virus was generated by plasmid based reverse genetics. The efficacy of the novel H3N2 inactivated vaccines with or without M2e-MAP supplementation was evaluated in a mouse model. M2e-MAP conjugated vaccine induced strong antibody responses in mice. Complete protection against the heterologous swine H1N1 virus was observed in mice vaccinated with M2e-MAP combined vaccine. Moreover, this novel peptide confers protection against lethal challenge of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Taken together, our results suggest the combined immunization of reassortant inactivated H3N2 vaccine and the novel M2e-MAP provided cross-protection against swine and human viruses and may serve as a promising approach for influenza vaccine development. PMID:27051342

  12. Anthrax protective antigen delivered by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a protects mice from a lethal anthrax spore challenge.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Manuel; Wu, Yanping; Singh, Sunil; Merkel, Tod J; Bhattacharyya, Siba; Blake, Milan S; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2009-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax disease, is a proven weapon of bioterrorism. Currently, the only licensed vaccine against anthrax in the United States is AVA Biothrax, which, although efficacious, suffers from several limitations. This vaccine requires six injectable doses over 18 months to stimulate protective immunity, requires a cold chain for storage, and in many cases has been associated with adverse effects. In this study, we modified the B. anthracis protective antigen (PA) gene for optimal expression and stability, linked it to an inducible promoter for maximal expression in the host, and fused it to the secretion signal of the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin protein (HlyA) on a low-copy-number plasmid. This plasmid was introduced into the licensed typhoid vaccine strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, and was found to be genetically stable. Immunization of mice with three vaccine doses elicited a strong PA-specific serum immunoglobulin G response with a geometric mean titer of 30,000 (range, 5,800 to 157,000) and lethal-toxin-neutralizing titers greater than 16,000. Vaccinated mice demonstrated 100% protection against a lethal intranasal challenge with aerosolized spores of B. anthracis 7702. The ultimate goal is a temperature-stable, safe, oral human vaccine against anthrax infection that can be self-administered in a few doses over a short period of time. PMID:19179420

  13. A Recombinant Raccoon Poxvirus Vaccine Expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and Truncated V Antigens Protects Animals against Lethal Plague

    PubMed Central

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Berlier, Willy; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307—a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas. PMID:26344891

  14. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and truncated V antigens protects animals against lethal plague.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Kingstad-Bakke, B; Berlier, W; Osorio, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis.. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  15. A Recombinant Raccoon Poxvirus Vaccine Expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and Truncated V Antigens Protects Animals against Lethal Plague.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Berlier, Willy; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas. PMID:26344891

  16. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems. PMID:19943063

  17. Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Moreno-Cantú, Orlando; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Galindo, Ruth C; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. In this study, we extended these results by expressing SUB-MSP1a, EF1a-MSP1a and UBQ-MSP1a fusion proteins on the E. coli membrane using this system and demonstrating that bacterial membranes containing the chimeric proteins BM95-MSP1a and SUB-MSP1a were protective (>60% vaccine efficacy) against experimental R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations in cattle. This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. PMID:22085549

  18. A fragment of anthrax lethal factor delivers proteins to the cytosol without requiring protective antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Nicholas; Zhang, Dong; Touzjian, Neal; Essex, Max; Lieberman, Judy; Lu, Yichen

    2003-01-01

    Anthrax protective antigen (PA) is a 735-aa polypeptide that facilitates the exit of anthrax lethal factor (LF) from the endosome to the cytosol where the toxin acts. We recently found, however, that a fusion protein of the detoxified N-terminal domain of lethal factor (LFn) with a foreign peptide could induce CD8 T cell immune responses in the absence of PA. Because CD8 T cells recognize peptides derived from proteins degraded in the cytosol, this result suggests that lethal factor may be capable of entering the cytosol independently of PA. To investigate this further, the intracellular trafficking of an LFn-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein (LFn-GFP) in the presence or absence of PA was examined by using confocal microscopy. LFn-GFP is able to enter the cytosol without PA. Moreover, it efficiently colocalizes with the proteosome 20s subunit, which degrades proteins into peptides for presentation to CD8 T cells by the MHC class I pathway. We further demonstrate that in the presence of an immune adjuvant LFn fusion protein without PA is able to effectively elicit anti-HIV cytotoxic T lymphocyte in inbred mice. These results indicate that LFn may be used without PA in a protein vaccine as a carrier to deliver antigens into the cytosol for efficient induction of T lymphocyte responses. Furthermore, these results enable us to propose a modified molecular mechanism of anthrax lethal toxin. PMID:12740437

  19. Anthrax vaccine recipients lack antibody against the loop neutralizing determinant: a protective neutralizing epitope from Bacillus anthracis protective antigen

    PubMed Central

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Quinn, Conrad P.; Cease, Kemp B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epitope-focused immunogens can elicit antibody against the loop neutralizing determinant (LND), a neutralizing epitope found within the 2β2-2β3 loop of protective antigen (PA), which can protect rabbits from high-dose inhalation challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain. Interestingly, data suggests that this epitope is relatively immunosilent in rabbits and non-human primates immunized with full length PA. Methods To determine whether the LND is immunosilent among humans vaccinated with PA, we screened antisera from AVA- or placebo-vaccinees from a clinical trial for antibody reactive with the LND. Results AVA-vaccinee sera had significant PA-specific antibody compared to placebo-vaccinee sera; however, sera from the two cohorts were indistinguishable with regard to the frequency of individuals with antibody specific for the LND. Conclusions AVA-vaccinees have a low frequency of antibody reactive with the LND. As with rabbits and non-human primates, the elicitation of LND-specific antibody in humans appears to require immunization with an epitope-focused vaccine. PMID:25820066

  20. Purification of serotype 2 fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis and their identification as a mouse protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J M; Cowell, J L; Steven, A C; Manclark, C R

    1985-01-01

    Fimbriae were removed from Bordetella pertussis by mechanical shearing and purified by successive precipitations with ammonium sulfate, pH 6.0 phosphate buffer, and magnesium chloride. Electron microscopy showed the purified fimbriae to be long filamentous structures (5 nm in diameter) which aggregated into bundles at pH 6.0. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the purified fimbriae gave a single protein subunit with a molecular weight of 22,000. The purified fimbriae did not have hemagglutinating activity when assayed with a variety of erythrocytes and were shown to be antigenically and structurally distinct from the filamentous hemagglutinin of B. pertussis. The purified fimbriae were identified as serotype 2 agglutinogens as antibody to the purified fimbriae agglutinated B. pertussis strains serotyped as 1.2.4, 1.2.3, or 1.2.3.6, but did not agglutinate serotypes 1.3.6. Immunization of mice with the purified fimbriae (14 micrograms) protected them from a lethal respiratory infection with strain 18323 (agglutinogen serotype 1.2.3.4.6) or with strain 432 (serotype 1.3.6). Immunization of mice with purified fimbriae containing 0.02% LPF also protected them from a lethal intracerebral infection with 18323. The ED50 was about 13 micrograms. Fimbriae containing less than 0.005% LPF did not protect mice from intracerebral challenge. PMID:2872103

  1. Characterization of an antigen from Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes able to elicit protective responses in a murine model.

    PubMed Central

    Beyrodt, C G; Pinto, A R; Freymüller, E; Barbiéri, C L

    1997-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative responses to an antigen from Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa, termed p30, were evaluated with BALB/c mice. The p30 antigen was purified after separation of parasite extracts by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by electroelution. Lymphoproliferative responses to p30 were obtained by subcutaneous immunization of animals with L. amazonensis amastigote extracts, and maximal stimulation indices were observed at an antigen concentration of 5 microg/ml. Induction of lymphoproliferation by p30 is stage specific, and no differences in the responses to this antigen between mice susceptible and resistant to L. amazonensis were detected. The predominant T cells characterized in the lymphocyte cultures were CD4+. Lymphokine analysis of the supernatants from these cultures indicated that Th1 is the subset involved in the lymphoproliferative responses to the antigen. BALB/c mice immunized with p30 and challenged with L. amazonensis amastigotes showed a very low level of infection, indicating a protective role for p30 and a correlation between Th1 and protection. Further biochemical characterization studies showed that this antigen presents cysteine proteinase activity. PMID:9169731

  2. Mucosal Immunization with Iron Receptor Antigens Protects against Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2009-01-01

    Uncomplicated infections of the urinary tract, caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli, are among the most common diseases requiring medical intervention. A preventive vaccine to reduce the morbidity and fiscal burden these infections have upon the healthcare system would be beneficial. Here, we describe the results of a large-scale selection process that incorporates bioinformatic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic screens to identify six vaccine candidates from the 5379 predicted proteins encoded by uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073. The vaccine candidates, ChuA, Hma, Iha, IreA, IroN, and IutA, all belong to a functional class of molecules that is involved in iron acquisition, a process critical for pathogenesis in all microbes. Intranasal immunization of CBA/J mice with these outer membrane iron receptors elicited a systemic and mucosal immune response that included the production of antigen-specific IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies. The cellular response to vaccination was characterized by the induction and secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. Of the six potential vaccine candidates, IreA, Hma, and IutA provided significant protection from experimental infection. In immunized animals, class-switching from IgM to IgG and production of antigen-specific IgA in the urine represent immunological correlates of protection from E. coli bladder colonization. These findings are an important first step toward the development of a subunit vaccine to prevent urinary tract infections and demonstrate how targeting an entire class of molecules that are collectively required for pathogenesis may represent a fundamental strategy to combat infections. PMID:19806177

  3. Gene cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the protective antigen subolesin in Dermacentor silvarum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yonghong; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Duo; Li, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantian; Yang, Shujie; Liu, Jingze

    2014-02-01

    Subolesin (4D8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. To date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against Dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of D. silvarum 4D8 cDNA (Ds4D8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residues. The results of sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that D. silvarum 4D8 (Ds4D8) is highly conserved showing more than 81% identity of amino acid sequences with those of other hard ticks. Additionally, Ds4D8 containing restriction sites was ligated into the pET-32(a+) expression vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli rosetta. The recombinant Ds4D8 (rDs4D8) was induced by isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified using Ni affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the molecular weight of rDs4D8 was 40 kDa, which was consistent with the expected molecular mass considering 22 kDa histidine-tagged thioredoxin (TRX) protein from the expression vector. Western blot results showed that rabbit anti-D. silvarum serum recognized the expressed rDs4D8, suggesting an immune response against rDs4D8. These results provided the basis for developing a candidate vaccine against D. silvarum ticks and transmission of associated pathogens. PMID:24623890

  4. Gene Cloning, Expression and Immunogenicity of the Protective Antigen Subolesin in Dermacentor silvarum

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yonghong; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Duo; Li, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantian; Yang, Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Subolesin (4D8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. To date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against Dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of D. silvarum 4D8 cDNA (Ds4D8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residues. The results of sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that D. silvarum 4D8 (Ds4D8) is highly conserved showing more than 81% identity of amino acid sequences with those of other hard ticks. Additionally, Ds4D8 containing restriction sites was ligated into the pET-32(a+) expression vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli rosetta. The recombinant Ds4D8 (rDs4D8) was induced by isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified using Ni affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the molecular weight of rDs4D8 was 40 kDa, which was consistent with the expected molecular mass considering 22 kDa histidine-tagged thioredoxin (TRX) protein from the expression vector. Western blot results showed that rabbit anti-D. silvarum serum recognized the expressed rDs4D8, suggesting an immune response against rDs4D8. These results provided the basis for developing a candidate vaccine against D. silvarum ticks and transmission of associated pathogens. PMID:24623890

  5. CD71 targeting boosts immunogenicity of sublingually delivered influenza haemagglutinin antigen and protects against viral challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jamie F S; Tregoning, John S; Aldon, Yoann; Shattock, Robin J; McKay, Paul F

    2016-06-28

    The delivery of vaccines to the sublingual mucosa is an attractive prospect due to the ease and acceptability of such an approach. However, novel adjuvant and delivery approaches are required to optimally vaccinate at this site. We have previously shown that conjugation of protein antigen to the iron transport molecule, transferrin, can significantly enhance mucosal immune responses. We tested whether conjugating influenza haemagglutinin to transferrin could improve the immune response to sublingually delivered antigen. Transferrin conjugated haemagglutinin induced a significant antibody and T cell response in both naïve animals and previously immunized animals. The immune response generated was able to protect mice against influenza virus challenge. Sublingually administered antigen dispersed more widely through the gastro-intestinal tract than intranasally delivered antigen and transferrin conjugation had a more marked effect on sublingually delivered antigen than intranasal immunisation. From these studies we conclude that transferrin conjugation of antigen is effective at boosting immune responses to sublingually delivered antigen and may be an attractive approach for influenza vaccines, particularly when mass campaigns are required. PMID:27094605

  6. Antibodies to Antigenic Site A of Influenza H7 Hemagglutinin Provide Protection against H7N9 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Schmeisser, Falko; Vasudevan, Anupama; Verma, Swati; Wang, Wei; Alvarado, Esmeralda; Weiss, Carol; Atukorale, Vajini; Meseda, Clement; Weir, Jerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying major antigenic and protective epitopes of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) will be important for understanding the antibody response to vaccines developed against the novel influenza H7N9 viruses that emerged in China in 2013. To facilitate antigenic characterization of the H7N9 HA and to develop reagents for evaluation of H7N9 candidate vaccines, we generated a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the HA of A/Shanghai/2/2013 using mammalian cell-derived virus-like particles (VLP) containing the H7 HA. Neutralizing antibodies identified an HA epitope corresponding to antigenic site A on the structurally similar influenza H3 hemagglutinin. Importantly, the neutralizing antibodies protect against A/Shanghai/2/2013 challenge. This antigenic site is conserved among many H7 viruses, including strains of both Eurasian and North American lineage, and the isolated neutralizing antibodies are cross-reactive with older H7 vaccine strains. The results indicate that the identified antigenic site is a potentially important protective epitope and suggest the potential benefit of cross-reactive antibody responses to vaccination with H7 candidate vaccines. PMID:25629172

  7. Evaluating the protective efficacy of antigen combinations against Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida infections in cobia, Rachycentron canadum L.

    PubMed

    Ho, L-P; Chang, C-J; Liu, H-C; Yang, H-L; Lin, J H-Y

    2014-01-01

    Cobia, Rachycentron canadum L., is a very important aquatic fish that faces the risk of infection with the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, and there are few protective approaches available that use multiple antigens. In the present study, potent bivalent antigens from P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed more efficient protection than did single antigens used in isolation. In preparations of three antigens that included recombinant heat shock protein 60 (rHSP60), recombinant α-enolase (rENOLASE) and recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rGAPDH), we analysed the doses that elicited the best immune responses and found that this occurred at a total of 30 μg of antigen per fish. Subsequently, vaccination of fish with rHSP60, rENOLASE and rGAPDH achieved 46.9, 52 and 25% relative per cent survival (RPS), respectively. In addition, bivalent subunit vaccines--combination I (rHSP60 + rENOLASE), combination II (rENOLASE + rGAPDH) and combination III (rHSP60 + rGAPDH)--were administered and the RPS in these groups (65.6, 64.0 and 48.4%, respectively), was higher than that achieved with single-antigen administration. Finally, in combination IV, the trivalent vaccine rHSP60 + rENOLASE + rGAPDH, the RPS was 1.6%. Taken together, our results suggest that combinations of two antigens may achieve a better efficiency than monovalent or trivalent antigens, and this may provide new insights into pathogen prevention strategies. PMID:24206018

  8. Limitations of plasmid vaccines to complex viruses: selected myxoma virus antigens as DNA vaccines were not protective.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mathew M; van Leeuwen, Barbara H; Kerr, Peter J

    2004-11-25

    Myxoma virus, a poxvirus of the genus Leporipoxvirus, is the causative agent of the disease myxomatosis which is highly lethal in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Current vaccines to protect against myxomatosis are either attenuated live strains of the virus or the antigenically related rabbit fibroma virus. We examined the immune response of outbred domestic rabbits to the individual myxoma virus antigens M055R, M073R, M115L and M121R, delivered as DNA vaccines co-expressing rabbit interleukin-2 or interleukin-4. M115L and M121R were also delivered simultaneously. None of the vaccine constructs were able to protect the rabbits from disease or reduce mortality after challenge with virulent myxoma virus, despite induction of antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. PMID:15531037

  9. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Dina A.; Scarff, Jennifer M.; Garcia, Preston P.; Cassidy, Sara K. B.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Waag, David M.; Inzana, Thomas J.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine. PMID:26148026

  10. A recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium vaccine encoding Eimeria acervulina antigen offers protection against E. acervulina challenge.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is a ubiquitous disease caused by several distinct species of intestinal protozoan parasite Eimeria spp.. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is critically important for protection against Eimeria, thus our approach utilizes bacterial Type Three Secretion System (TTSS) to deliver an antigen di...

  11. Augmented Replicative Capacity of the Boosting Antigen Improves the Protective Efficacy of Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Obeng, Rebecca C.; Kang, Zi H.; Provine, Nicholas M.; Parenteau, Lily; Blackmore, Stephen; Ra, Joshua; Borducchi, Erica N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prime-boost immunization regimens have proven efficacious at generating robust immune responses. However, whether the level of replication of the boosting antigen impacts the magnitude and protective efficacy of vaccine-elicited immune responses remains unclear. To evaluate this, we primed mice with replication-defective adenovirus vectors expressing the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP), followed by boosting with either LCMV Armstrong, which is rapidly controlled, or LCMV CL-13, which leads to a more prolonged exposure to the boosting antigen. Although priming of naive mice with LCMV CL-13 normally results in T cell exhaustion and establishment of chronic infection, boosting with CL-13 resulted in potent recall CD8 T cell responses that were greater than those following boosting with LCMV Armstrong. Furthermore, following the CL-13 boost, a greater number of anamnestic CD8 T cells localized to the lymph nodes, exhibited granzyme B expression, and conferred improved protection against Listeria and vaccinia virus challenges compared with the Armstrong boost. Overall, our findings suggest that the replicative capacity of the boosting antigen influences the protective efficacy afforded by prime-boost vaccine regimens. These findings are relevant for optimizing vaccine candidates and suggest a benefit of robustly replicating vaccine vectors. IMPORTANCE The development of optimal prime-boost vaccine regimens is a high priority for the vaccine development field. In this study, we compared two boosting antigens with different replicative capacities. Boosting with a more highly replicative vector resulted in augmented immune responses and improved protective efficacy. PMID:24648461

  12. Reduced Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Protection in Gulf War Illness (GWI)

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.; James, Lisa M.; Mahan, Margaret Y.; Joseph, Jasmine; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Engdahl, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a disease of unknown etiology with symptoms suggesting the involvement of an immune process. Here we tested the hypothesis that Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) composition might differ between veterans with and without GWI. Methods We identified 144 unique alleles of Class I and II HLA genes in 82 veterans (66 with and 16 without GWI). We tested the hypothesis that a subset of HLA alleles may classify veterans in their respective group using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis. In addition, each participant rated symptom severity in 6 domains according to established GWI criteria, and an overall symptom severity was calculated. Findings We found 6 Class II alleles that classified participants 84.1% correctly (13/16 control and 56/66 GWI). The number of copies of the 6 alleles was significantly higher in the control group, suggesting a protective role. This was supported by a significant negative dependence of overall symptom severity on the number of allele copies, such that symptom severity was lower in participants with larger numbers of allele copies. Interpretation These results indicate a reduced HLA protection (i.e. genetic susceptibility) in veterans with GWI. Funding University of Minnesota and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:26870819

  13. Intranasal immunization with protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis induces a long-term immunological memory response.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun-Je; Kang, Seok-Seong; Park, Sung-Moo; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Although intranasal vaccination has been shown to be effective for the protection against inhalational anthrax, establishment of long-term immunity has yet to be achieved. Here, we investigated whether intranasal immunization with recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis induces immunological memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments. Intranasal immunization with rPA plus cholera toxin (CT) sustained PA-specific antibody responses for 6 months in lung, nasal washes, and vaginal washes as well as serum. A significant induction of PA-specific memory B cells was observed in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and lung after booster immunization. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT remarkably generated effector memory CD4(+) T cells in the lung. PA-specific CD4(+) T cells preferentially increased the expression of Th1- and Th17-type cytokines in lung, but not in spleen or CLNs. Collectively, the intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT promoted immunologic memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments, providing long-term immunity. PMID:26278659

  14. Immunization with crude antigens plus aluminium hydroxide protects cattle from Fasciola hepatica infection.

    PubMed

    Guasconi, L; Serradell, M C; Borgonovo, J; Garro, A P; Varengo, H; Caffe, G; Masih, D T

    2012-03-01

    The ability of total homogenate (TH) of Fasciola hepatica conjugated with aluminium hydroxide (alum) or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) to protect cattle against experimental fasciolosis was evaluated. Compared with the infected group, the immunized animals with alum-TH and FCA-TH presented a significant reduction in fluke burden (85.9% and 96.8%, respectively), a higher percentage of short-sized worms, a marked reduction in the released eggs in faeces (89% and 57%, respectively), as well as an increased production of specific antibodies before infection. The alum-TH immunized group also showed a significant increase in the antigen-specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as early as 4 weeks before infection. Although both immunized groups (alum-TH and FCA-TH) were able to develop an efficient protective immune response to metacercarial challenge, an earlier PBMC response, lower hepatic damage and less effect on weight gain were found in alum-immunized animals. Therefore, alum is a good candidate for future immunization against bovine fasciolosis. PMID:21366935

  15. Antigen sparing and enhanced protection using a novel rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant in aqueous formulation with influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiu; Fisher, Erin M; Hensley, Scott E; Lustigman, Sara; Murasko, Donna M; Shen, Hao

    2014-05-13

    Influenza is one of the most common infectious diseases endangering the health of humans, especially young children and the elderly. Although vaccination is the most effective means of protection against influenza, frequent mutations in viral surface antigens, low protective efficacy of the influenza vaccine in the elderly, slow production process and the potential of vaccine supply shortage during a pandemic are significant limitations of current vaccines. Adjuvants have been used to enhance the efficacy of a variety of vaccines; however, no adjuvant is included in current influenza vaccines approved in the United States. In this study, we found that a novel adjuvant, rOv-ASP-1, co-administrated with inactivated influenza vaccine using an aqueous formulation, substantially improved the influenza-specific antibody response and protection against lethal infection in a mouse model. rOv-ASP-1 enhanced the magnitude of the specific antibody response after immunization with low doses of influenza vaccine, allowing antigen-sparring by 10-fold. The rOv-ASP-1 formulated vaccine induced a more rapid response and a stronger Th1-associated antibody response compared to vaccine alone and to the vaccine formulated with the adjuvant alum. Importantly, rOv-ASP-1 significantly enhanced cross-reactive antibody responses and protection against challenge with an antigenically distinct strain. These results demonstrate that rOv-ASP-1 is an effective adjuvant that: (1) accelerates and enhances the specific antibody response induced by influenza vaccine; (2) allows for antigen sparing; and (3) augments a Th1-biased and cross-reactive antibody response that confers protection against an antigenically distinct strain. PMID:24681229

  16. Superoxide dismutase SodB is a protective antigen against Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, Cosmin; Cassady-Cain, Robin L.; Al-Haideri, Halah; Watson, Eleanor; Kelly, David J.; Smith, David G.E.; Sparks, Nick H.C.; Kaiser, Pete; Stevens, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in the developed world and consumption or handling of contaminated poultry meat is the principal source of infection. Strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers prior to slaughter are urgently required and are predicted to limit the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. Towards this aim, a purified recombinant subunit vaccine based on the superoxide dismutase (SodB) protein of C. jejuni M1 was developed and tested in White Leghorn birds. Birds were vaccinated on the day of hatch and 14 days later with SodB fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or purified GST alone. Birds were challenged with C. jejuni M1 at 28 days of age and caecal Campylobacter counts determined at weekly intervals. Across three independent trials, the vaccine induced a statistically significant 1 log10 reduction in caecal Campylobacter numbers in vaccinated birds compared to age-matched GST-vaccinated controls. Significant induction of antigen-specific serum IgY was detected in all vaccinated birds, however the magnitude and timing of SodB-specific IgY did not correlate with lower numbers of C. jejuni. Antibodies from SodB-vaccinated chickens detected the protein in the periplasm and not membrane fractions or on the bacterial surface, suggesting that the protection observed may not be strictly antibody-mediated. SodB may be useful as a constituent of vaccines for control of C. jejuni infection in broiler birds, however modest protection was observed late relative to the life of broiler birds and further studies are required to potentiate the magnitude and timing of protection. PMID:26458797

  17. Human Leukocyte Antigen E Contributes to Protect Tumor Cells from Lysis by Natural Killer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Elisa Lo; Tremante, Elisa; Cerboni, Cristina; Melucci, Elisa; Sibilio, Leonardo; Zingoni, Alessandra; Nicotra, Maria Rita; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2011-01-01

    The nonclassic class I human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) molecule engages the inhibitory NKG2A receptor on several cytotoxic effectors, including natural killer (NK) cells. Its tissue distribution was claimed to be wider in normal than in neoplastic tissues, and surface HLA-E was undetectable in most tumor cell lines. Herein, these issues were reinvestigated taking advantage of HLA-E-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical methods detecting intracellular and surface HLA-E regardless of conformation. Contrary to published evidence, HLA-E was detected in a few normal epithelia and in a large fraction (approximately 1/3) of solid tumors, including those derived from HLA-E-negative/low-normal counterparts. Remarkably, HLA-E was detected in 30 of 30 tumor cell lines representative of major lymphoid and nonlymphoid lineages, and in 11 of 11, it was surface-expressed, although in a conformation poorly reactive with commonly used antibodies. Coexpression of HLA-E and HLA class I ligand donors was not required for surface expression but was associated with NKG2A-mediated protection from lysis by the cytotoxic cell line NKL and polyclonal NK cells from healthy donors, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated relief of protection in 10% to 20% of the tested target-effector combinations. NKG2A-mediated protection of additional targets became evident on NK effector blocking with antibodies to activating receptors (DNAM-1, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and NKG2D). Thus, initial evidence that the long-elusive HLA-E molecule is enhanced by malignant transformation and is functional in tumor cells is presented here, although its importance and precise functional role remain to be addressed in the context of a general understanding of the NK ligand-receptor network. PMID:21969815

  18. A meningococcal vaccine antigen engineered to increase thermal stability and stabilize protective epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Monica; Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Factor H binding protein (FHbp) is part of two vaccines recently licensed for prevention of sepsis and meningitis caused by serogroup B meningococci. FHbp is classified in three phylogenic variant groups that have limited antigenic cross-reactivity, and FHbp variants in one of the groups have low thermal stability. In the present study, we replaced two amino acid residues, R130 and D133, in a stable FHbp variant with their counterparts (L and G) from a less stable variant. The single and double mutants decreased thermal stability of the amino- (N-) terminal domain compared with the wild-type protein as measured by scanning calorimetry. We introduced the converse substitutions, L130R and G133D, in a less stable wild-type FHbp variant, which increased the transition midpoint (Tm) for the N-terminal domain by 8 and 12 °C; together the substitutions increased the Tm by 21 °C. We determined the crystal structure of the double mutant FHbp to 1.6 Å resolution, which showed that R130 and D133 mediated multiple electrostatic interactions. Monoclonal antibodies specific for FHbp epitopes in the N-terminal domain had higher binding affinity for the recombinant double mutant by surface plasmon resonance and to the mutant expressed on meningococci by flow cytometry. The double mutant also had decreased binding of human complement Factor H, which in previous studies increased the protective antibody responses. The stabilized mutant FHbp thus has the potential to stabilize protective epitopes and increase the protective antibody responses to recombinant FHbp vaccines or native outer membrane vesicle vaccines with overexpressed FHbp. PMID:26627237

  19. Human leukocyte antigen E contributes to protect tumor cells from lysis by natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Lo Monaco, Elisa; Tremante, Elisa; Cerboni, Cristina; Melucci, Elisa; Sibilio, Leonardo; Zingoni, Alessandra; Nicotra, Maria Rita; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2011-09-01

    The nonclassic class I human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) molecule engages the inhibitory NKG2A receptor on several cytotoxic effectors, including natural killer (NK) cells. Its tissue distribution was claimed to be wider in normal than in neoplastic tissues, and surface HLA-E was undetectable in most tumor cell lines. Herein, these issues were reinvestigated taking advantage of HLA-E-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical methods detecting intracellular and surface HLA-E regardless of conformation. Contrary to published evidence, HLA-E was detected in a few normal epithelia and in a large fraction (approximately 1/3) of solid tumors, including those derived from HLA-E-negative/low-normal counterparts. Remarkably, HLA-E was detected in 30 of 30 tumor cell lines representative of major lymphoid and nonlymphoid lineages, and in 11 of 11, it was surface-expressed, although in a conformation poorly reactive with commonly used antibodies. Coexpression of HLA-E and HLA class I ligand donors was not required for surface expression but was associated with NKG2A-mediated protection from lysis by the cytotoxic cell line NKL and polyclonal NK cells from healthy donors, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated relief of protection in 10% to 20% of the tested target-effector combinations. NKG2A-mediated protection of additional targets became evident on NK effector blocking with antibodies to activating receptors (DNAM-1, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and NKG2D). Thus, initial evidence that the long-elusive HLA-E molecule is enhanced by malignant transformation and is functional in tumor cells is presented here, although its importance and precise functional role remain to be addressed in the context of a general understanding of the NK ligand-receptor network. PMID:21969815

  20. A meningococcal vaccine antigen engineered to increase thermal stability and stabilize protective epitopes.

    PubMed

    Konar, Monica; Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T

    2015-12-01

    Factor H binding protein (FHbp) is part of two vaccines recently licensed for prevention of sepsis and meningitis caused by serogroup B meningococci. FHbp is classified in three phylogenic variant groups that have limited antigenic cross-reactivity, and FHbp variants in one of the groups have low thermal stability. In the present study, we replaced two amino acid residues, R130 and D133, in a stable FHbp variant with their counterparts (L and G) from a less stable variant. The single and double mutants decreased thermal stability of the amino- (N-) terminal domain compared with the wild-type protein as measured by scanning calorimetry. We introduced the converse substitutions, L130R and G133D, in a less stable wild-type FHbp variant, which increased the transition midpoint (Tm) for the N-terminal domain by 8 and 12 °C; together the substitutions increased the Tm by 21 °C. We determined the crystal structure of the double mutant FHbp to 1.6 Å resolution, which showed that R130 and D133 mediated multiple electrostatic interactions. Monoclonal antibodies specific for FHbp epitopes in the N-terminal domain had higher binding affinity for the recombinant double mutant by surface plasmon resonance and to the mutant expressed on meningococci by flow cytometry. The double mutant also had decreased binding of human complement Factor H, which in previous studies increased the protective antibody responses. The stabilized mutant FHbp thus has the potential to stabilize protective epitopes and increase the protective antibody responses to recombinant FHbp vaccines or native outer membrane vesicle vaccines with overexpressed FHbp. PMID:26627237

  1. Antibody to a conserved antigenic target is protective against diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Skurnik, David; Zaidi, Tanweer; Roux, Damien; Deoliveira, Rosane B; Garrett, Wendy S; Lu, Xi; O'Malley, Jennifer; Kinzel, Kathryn; Zaidi, Tauqeer; Rey, Astrid; Perrin, Christophe; Fichorova, Raina N; Kayatani, Alexander K K; Maira-Litràn, Tomas; Gening, Marina L; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Pelton, Stephen I; Golenbock, Douglas T; Pier, Gerald B

    2013-06-11

    Microbial capsular antigens are effective vaccines but are chemically and immunologically diverse, resulting in a major barrier to their use against multiple pathogens. A β-(1→6)-linked poly-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) surface capsule is synthesized by four proteins encoded in genetic loci designated intercellular adhesion in Staphylococcus aureus or polyglucosamine in selected Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. We report that many microbial pathogens lacking an identifiable intercellular adhesion or polyglucosamine locus produce PNAG, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal pathogens, as well as protozoa, e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, Plasmodium berghei, and sporozoites and blood-stage forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Natural antibody to PNAG is common in humans and animals and binds primarily to the highly acetylated glycoform of PNAG but is not protective against infection due to lack of deposition of complement opsonins. Polyclonal animal antibody raised to deacetylated glycoforms of PNAG and a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that both bind to native and deacetylated glycoforms of PNAG mediated complement-dependent opsonic or bactericidal killing and protected mice against local and/or systemic infections by Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, Candida albicans, and P. berghei ANKA, and against colonic pathology in a model of infectious colitis. PNAG is also a capsular polysaccharide for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and nontypable Hemophilus influenzae, and protects cells from environmental stress. Vaccination targeting PNAG could contribute to immunity against serious and diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, and the conserved production of PNAG suggests that it is a critical factor in microbial biology. PMID:23716675

  2. Expression and refolding of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis: A model for high-throughput screening of antigenic recombinant protein refolding.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban Enrique; Cairó, Fabián Martín; Pettinari, María Julia

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) is a well known and relevant immunogenic protein that is the basis for both anthrax vaccines and diagnostic methods. Properly folded antigenic PA is necessary for these applications. In this study a high level of PA was obtained in recombinant Escherichia coli. The protein was initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, which facilitated its efficient purification by simple washing steps; however, it could not be recognized by specific antibodies. Refolding conditions were subsequently analyzed in a high-throughput manner that enabled nearly a hundred different conditions to be tested simultaneously. The recovery of the ability of PA to be recognized by antibodies was screened by dot blot using a coefficient that provided a measure of properly refolded protein levels with a high degree of discrimination. The best refolding conditions resulted in a tenfold increase in the intensity of the dot blot compared to the control. The only refolding additive that consistently yielded good results was L-arginine. The statistical analysis identified both cooperative and negative interactions between the different refolding additives. The high-throughput approach described in this study that enabled overproduction, purification and refolding of PA in a simple and straightforward manner, can be potentially useful for the rapid screening of adequate refolding conditions for other overexpressed antigenic proteins. PMID:26777581

  3. Analysis of protective antigen peptide binding motifs using bacterial display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkes, Deborah A.; Dorsey, Brandi L.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2015-05-01

    In today's fast-paced world, a new biological threat could emerge at any time, necessitating a prompt, reliable, inexpensive detection reagent in each case. Combined with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), bacterial display technology makes it possible to isolate selective, high affinity peptide reagents in days to weeks. Utilizing the eCPX display scaffold is also a rapid way to screen potential peptide reagents. Peptide affinity reagents for protective antigen (PA) of the biothreat Bacillus anthracis were previously discovered using bacterial display. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the consensus sequence WXCFTC. Additionally, we have discovered PA binding peptides with a WW motif, one of which, YGLHPWWKNAPIGQR, can pull down PA from 1% human serum. The strength of these two motifs combined, to obtain a WWCFTC consensus, is assessed here using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). While monitoring binding to PA, overall expression of the display scaffold was assessed using the YPet Mona expression control tag (YPet), and specificity was assessed by binding to Streptavidin R-Phycoerythrin (SAPE). The importance of high YPet binding is highlighted as many of the peptides in one of the three replicate experiments fell below our 80% binding threshold. We demonstrate that it is preferable to discard this experiment, due to questionable expression of the peptide itself, than to try to normalize for relative expression. The peptides containing the WWCFTC consensus were of higher affinity and greater specificity than the peptides containing the WW consensus alone, validating further investigation to optimize known PA binders.

  4. Thermal Aggregation of Recombinant Protective Antigen: Aggregate Morphology and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Daniel J.; Miller, Aline F.

    2013-01-01

    The thermal aggregation of the biopharmaceutical protein recombinant protective antigen (rPA) has been explored, and the associated kinetics and thermodynamic parameters have been extracted using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopies (ESEMs) and ultraviolet light scattering spectroscopy (UV-LSS). Visual observations and turbidity measurements provided an overall picture of the aggregation process, suggesting a two-step mechanism. Microscopy was used to examine the structure of aggregates, revealing an open morphology formed by the clustering of the microscopic aggregate particles. UV-LSS was used and developed to elucidate the growth rate of these particles, which formed in the first stage of the aggregation process. Their growth rate is observed to be high initially, before falling to converge on a final size that correlates with the ESEM data. The results suggest that the particle growth rate is limited by rPA monomer concentration, and by obtaining data over a range of incubation temperatures, an approach was developed to model the aggregation kinetics and extract the rate constants and the temperature dependence of aggregation. In doing so, we quantified the susceptibility of rPA aggregation under different temperature and environmental conditions and moreover demonstrated a novel use of UV spectrometry to monitor the particle aggregation quantitatively, in situ, in a nondestructive and time-resolved manner. PMID:23476645

  5. Delivery of Antibody Mimics into Mammalian Cells via Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaoli; Rabideau, Amy E; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2014-01-01

    Antibody mimics have significant scientific and therapeutic utility for the disruption of protein–protein interactions inside cells; however, their delivery to the cell cytosol remains a major challenge. Here we show that protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxin, efficiently transports commonly used antibody mimics to the cytosol of mammalian cells when conjugated to the N-terminal domain of LF (LFN). In contrast, a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) was not able to deliver any of these antibody mimics into the cell cytosol. The refolding and binding of a transported tandem monobody to Bcr-Abl (its protein target) in chronic myeloid leukemia cells were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. We also observed inhibition of Bcr-Abl kinase activity and induction of apoptosis caused by the monobody. In a separate case, we show disruption of key interactions in the MAPK signaling pathway after PA-mediated delivery of an affibody binder that targets hRaf-1. We show for the first time that PA can deliver bioactive antibody mimics to disrupt intracellular protein–protein interactions. This technology adds a useful tool to expand the applications of these modern agents to the intracellular milieu. PMID:25250705

  6. Targeting HER2-positive cancer cells with receptor-redirected anthrax protective antigen

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, Andrew J.; Olive, Andrew J.; Starnbach, Michael N.; Collier, R. John

    2012-01-01

    Targeted therapeutics have emerged in recent years as an attractive approach to treating various types of cancer. One approach is to modify a cytocidal protein toxin to direct its action to a specific population of cancer cells. We created a targeted toxin in which the receptor-binding and pore-forming moiety of anthrax toxin, termed Protective Antigen (PA), was modified to redirect its receptor specificity to HER2, a marker expressed at the surface of a significant fraction of breast and ovarian tumors. The resulting fusion protein (mPA-ZHER2) delivered cytocidal effectors specifically into HER2-positive tumor cells, including a trastuzumab-resistant line, causing death of the cells. No off-target killing of HER2-negative cells was observed, either with homogeneous populations or with mixtures of HER2-positive and HER2-negative cells. A mixture of mPA variants targeting different receptors mediated killing of cells bearing either receptor, without affecting cells devoid of these receptors. Anthrax toxin may serve as an effective platform for developing therapeutics to ablate cells bearing HER2 or other tumor-specific cell-surface markers. PMID:23290417

  7. Peptide Probes Reveal a Hydrophobic Steric Ratchet in the Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen Translocase.

    PubMed

    Colby, Jennifer M; Krantz, Bryan A

    2015-11-01

    Anthrax toxin is a tripartite virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis during infection. Under acidic endosomal pH conditions, the toxin's protective antigen (PA) component forms a transmembrane channel in host cells. The PA channel then translocates its two enzyme components, lethal factor and edema factor, into the host cytosol under the proton motive force. Protein translocation under a proton motive force is catalyzed by a series of nonspecific polypeptide binding sites, called clamps. A 10-residue guest/host peptide model system, KKKKKXXSXX, was used to functionally probe polypeptide-clamp interactions within wild-type PA channels. The guest residues were Thr, Ala, Leu, Phe, Tyr, and Trp. In steady-state translocation experiments, the channel blocked most tightly with peptides that had increasing amounts of nonpolar surface area. Cooperative peptide binding was observed in the Trp-containing peptide sequence but not the other tested sequences. Trp substitutions into a flexible, uncharged linker between the lethal factor amino-terminal domain and diphtheria toxin A chain expedited translocation. Therefore, peptide-clamp sites in translocase channels can sense large steric features (like tryptophan) in peptides, and while these steric interactions may make a peptide translocate poorly, in the context of folded domains, they can make the protein translocate more rapidly presumably via a hydrophobic steric ratchet mechanism. PMID:26363343

  8. Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Suryanarayana, Nagendra; Vanlalhmuaka; Mankere, Bharti; Verma, Monika; Thavachelvam, Kulanthaivel; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis secretory protein protective antigen (PA) is primary candidate for subunit vaccine against anthrax. Attempts to obtain large quantity of PA from Escherichia coli expression system often result in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is always better to produce recombinant proteins in a soluble form. In the present study, we have obtained biologically active recombinant PA in small scale E. coli shake culture system using three different expression constructs. The PA gene was cloned in expression vectors bearing trc, T5, and T7 promoters and transformed into their respective E. coli hosts. The growth conditions were optimized to obtain maximum expression of PA in soluble form. The expression construct PA-pET32c in DE3-pLysS E. coli host resulted in a maximum production of soluble PA (15 mg L−1) compared to other combinations. Purified PA was subjected to trypsin digestion and binding assay with lethal factor to confirm the protein's functionality. Biological activity was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay on J774.1 cells. Balb/c mice were immunized with PA and the immunogenicity was tested by ELISA and toxin neutralization assay. This study highlights the expression of soluble and biologically active recombinant PA in larger quantity using simpler E. coli production platform. PMID:26966576

  9. Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayana, Nagendra; Vanlalhmuaka; Mankere, Bharti; Verma, Monika; Thavachelvam, Kulanthaivel; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis secretory protein protective antigen (PA) is primary candidate for subunit vaccine against anthrax. Attempts to obtain large quantity of PA from Escherichia coli expression system often result in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is always better to produce recombinant proteins in a soluble form. In the present study, we have obtained biologically active recombinant PA in small scale E. coli shake culture system using three different expression constructs. The PA gene was cloned in expression vectors bearing trc, T5, and T7 promoters and transformed into their respective E. coli hosts. The growth conditions were optimized to obtain maximum expression of PA in soluble form. The expression construct PA-pET32c in DE3-pLysS E. coli host resulted in a maximum production of soluble PA (15 mg L(-1)) compared to other combinations. Purified PA was subjected to trypsin digestion and binding assay with lethal factor to confirm the protein's functionality. Biological activity was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay on J774.1 cells. Balb/c mice were immunized with PA and the immunogenicity was tested by ELISA and toxin neutralization assay. This study highlights the expression of soluble and biologically active recombinant PA in larger quantity using simpler E. coli production platform. PMID:26966576

  10. Rational engineering of recombinant picornavirus capsids to produce safe, protective vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Porta, Claudine; Kotecha, Abhay; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Ren, Jingshan; Loureiro, Silvia; Jones, Ian M; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Charleston, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease remains a major plague of livestock and outbreaks are often economically catastrophic. Current inactivated virus vaccines require expensive high containment facilities for their production and maintenance of a cold-chain for their activity. We have addressed both of these major drawbacks. Firstly we have developed methods to efficiently express recombinant empty capsids. Expression constructs aimed at lowering the levels and activity of the viral protease required for the cleavage of the capsid protein precursor were used; this enabled the synthesis of empty A-serotype capsids in eukaryotic cells at levels potentially attractive to industry using both vaccinia virus and baculovirus driven expression. Secondly we have enhanced capsid stability by incorporating a rationally designed mutation, and shown by X-ray crystallography that stabilised and wild-type empty capsids have essentially the same structure as intact virus. Cattle vaccinated with recombinant capsids showed sustained virus neutralisation titres and protection from challenge 34 weeks after immunization. This approach to vaccine antigen production has several potential advantages over current technologies by reducing production costs, eliminating the risk of infectivity and enhancing the temperature stability of the product. Similar strategies that will optimize host cell viability during expression of a foreign toxic gene and/or improve capsid stability could allow the production of safe vaccines for other pathogenic picornaviruses of humans and animals. PMID:23544011

  11. Conservation of antigen components from two recombinant hybrid proteins protective against malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, B; Nau, U; Hundt, E

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that two hybrid proteins carrying partial sequences of the blood-stage antigens SERP, HRPII, and MSAI from Plasmodium falciparum confer protective immunity on Aotus monkeys against an experimental parasite infection (B. Knapp, E. Hundt, B. Enders, and H. A. Küpper, Infect. Immun. 60:2397-2401, 1992). The malarial components of the hybrid proteins consist of amino acid residues 630 to 892 of SERP, amino acid residues 146 to 260 of MSAI, and the 189 C-terminal residues of HRPII. We have studied the diversity of these protein regions in field isolates of P. falciparum. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of six donors from two different areas where malaria is endemic. The gene regions of SERP and MSAI coding for the corresponding sequences of the protective hybrid proteins and the exon II region of the HRPII gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. All three regions were found to be highly conserved. In the 262-amino-acid fragment of SERP, one single conservative amino acid substitution was found. The exon II region of HRPII showed only a slight variability in number and arrangement of the repeat units. The 115-amino-acid fragment of MSAI which is located within an N-terminal region known to be conserved among different parasite strains was shown to be the most variable among the vaccine components: amino acid substitutions were found in 14 different positions of this MSAI region when both laboratory strains and field isolates were compared. PMID:8432609

  12. Human Monoclonal Anti-Protective Antigen Antibody Completely Protects Rabbits and Is Synergistic with Ciprofloxacin in Protecting Mice and Guinea Pigs against Inhalation Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Johnny W.; Comer, Jason E.; Noffsinger, David M.; Wenglikowski, Autumn; Walberg, Kristin G.; Chatuev, Bagram M.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Kang, Angray S.; Scholz, Wolfgang W.; Sircar, Jagadish

    2006-01-01

    Prevention of inhalation anthrax requires early and extended antibiotic therapy, and therefore, alternative treatment strategies are needed. We investigated whether a human monoclonal antibody (AVP-21D9) to protective antigen (PA) would protect mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits against anthrax. Control animals challenged with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores by the intranasal route died within 3 to 7 days. AVP-21D9 alone provided minimal protection against anthrax in the murine model, but its efficacy was notably better in guinea pigs. When Swiss-Webster mice, challenged with five 50% lethal doses (LD50s) of anthrax spores, were given a single 16.7-mg/kg of body weight AVP-21D9 antibody dose combined with ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day for 6 days) 24 h after challenge, 100% of the mice were protected for more than 30 days, while ciprofloxacin or AVP-21D9 alone showed minimal protection. Similarly, when AVP-21D9 antibody (10 to 50 mg/kg) was combined with a low, nonprotective dose of ciprofloxacin (3.7 mg/kg/day) and administered to guinea pigs for 6 days, synergistic protection against anthrax was observed. In contrast, a single dose of AVP-21D9 antibody (1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) but not 0.2 mg/kg alone completely protected rabbits against challenge with 100 LD50s of B. anthracis Ames spores, and 100% of the rabbits survived rechallenge. Further, administration of AVP-21D9 (10 mg/kg) to rabbits at 0, 6, and 12 h after challenge with anthrax spores resulted in 100% survival; however, delay of antibody treatment by 24 and 48 h reduced survival to 80% and 60%, respectively. Serological analysis of sera from various surviving animals 30 days postprimary infection showed development of a species-specific PA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titer that correlated with protection against reinfection. Taken together, the effectiveness of human anti-PA antibody alone or in combination with low ciprofloxacin levels may provide the basis for an improved strategy for

  13. Surface plasmon resonance measurements of plasma antibody avidity during primary and secondary responses to anthrax protective antigen

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Heather E.; Stewart, Shelley M.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Alam, S. Munir

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of humoral immunity against pathogens is dependent on events that occur in the germinal center and the subsequent induction of high-affinity neutralizing antibodies. Quantitative assays that allow monitoring of affinity maturation and duration of antibody responses can provide useful information regarding the efficacy of vaccines and adjuvants. Using an anthrax protective antigen (rPA) and alum model antigen/adjuvant system, we describe a methodology for monitoring antigen-specific serum antibody concentration and avidity by surface plasmon resonance during primary and secondary immune responses. Our analyses showed that following a priming dose in mice, rPA-specific antibody concentration and avidity increases over time and reaches a maximal response in about six weeks, but gradually declines in the absence of antigenic boost. Germinal center reactions were observed early with maximal development achieved during the primary response, which coincided with peak antibody avidity responses to primary immunization. Boosting with antigen resulted in a rapid increase in rPA-specific antibody concentration and five-fold increase in avidity, which was not dependent on sustained GC development. The described methodology couples surface plasmon resonance-based plasma avidity measurements with germinal center analysis and provides a novel way to monitor humoral responses that can play a role in facilitating vaccine and adjuvant development. PMID:24316020

  14. Mimotope-Based Vaccines of Leishmania infantum Antigens and Their Protective Efficacy against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Pereira, Nathália Cristina de Jesus; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Lage, Paula Sousa; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Ribeiro, Tatiana Gomes; Melo, Maria Norma; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of cost-effective prophylactic strategies to prevent leishmaniasis has become a high-priority. The present study has used the phage display technology to identify new immunogens, which were evaluated as vaccines in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Epitope-based immunogens, represented by phage-fused peptides that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens, were selected according to their affinity to antibodies from asymptomatic and symptomatic VL dogs' sera. Methodology/Main Findings Twenty phage clones were selected after three selection cycles, and were evaluated by means of in vitro assays of the immune stimulation of spleen cells derived from naive and chronically infected with L. infantum BALB/c mice. Clones that were able to induce specific Th1 immune response, represented by high levels of IFN-γ and low levels of IL-4 were selected, and based on their selectivity and specificity, two clones, namely B10 and C01, were further employed in the vaccination protocols. BALB/c mice vaccinated with clones plus saponin showed both a high and specific production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with individual clones or L. infantum extracts. Additionally, these animals, when compared to control groups (saline, saponin, wild-type phage plus saponin, or non-relevant phage clone plus saponin), showed significant reductions in the parasite burden in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and paws' draining lymph nodes. Protection was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-γ, mainly by CD8+ T cells, against parasite proteins. These animals also presented decreased parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, and increased levels of parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. Conclusions/Significance This study describes two phage clones that mimic L. infantum antigens, which were directly used as immunogens in vaccines and presented Th1-type immune responses, and that significantly reduced the parasite burden. This

  15. [Historical reflections on health protection and the condom].

    PubMed

    Forrai, J

    1991-12-01

    The condom was first mentioned in a 1564 writing by Gabriel Fallopius as a means of protection against syphilis describing his tests on 1100 people. The name itself has been ascribed to the Latin word condere, Cum Domino, the French city of Condom, and doctor Quondom, the physician of the English King Charles II. The Marquis de Sade and Casanova used it to avoid venereal diseases (VDs). In London condom manufacturing started in the 18th century. Later it became a symbol of prostitution and immorality. The material used consisted of fish bladder or animal intestines (calf, sheep). The discovery of the rubber tree and the invention of vulcanization by the American technician Goodyear in 1840 made possible large-scale production. In Hungary the 1st rubber manufacturing plant EMERGE started production in 1893 along with toys and other wares. IN 1895 the HUngarian medial association warned about the spread of syphilis facilitated by the activities of 15,400 syphilitic prostitutes in the country. 30% of hospital patients had syphilis. The use of the condom was limited, and illegitimate births increased by 10.5% during the millennium celebrations of Hungary's existence in 1896. EMERGE manufactured condoms called Nono which were mostly distributed to soldiers during World War I, yet they had little popularity. US soldiers did not use the condoms either, as 7 million active days were lost due to VDs during World War II. In the 1950's Anna Ratko was Minister of Health in Hungary who opposed promotion of condoms to increase the population. The invention of penicillin in 1942 also pushed the condom to the background, but in the 1980's the epidemic of AIDS has made its use widespread. PMID:1758695

  16. Effect of particulate adjuvant on the anthrax protective antigen dose required for effective nasal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bento, Dulce; Staats, Herman F; Borges, Olga

    2015-07-17

    Successful vaccine development is dependent on the development of effective adjuvants since the poor immunogenicity of modern subunit vaccines typically requires the use of potent adjuvants and high antigen doses. In recent years, adjuvant formulations combining both immunopotentiators and delivery systems have emerged as a promising strategy to develop effective and improved vaccines. In this study we investigate if the association of the mast cell activating adjuvant compound 48/80 (C48/80) with chitosan nanoparticles would promote an antigen dose sparing effect when administered intranasally. Even though the induction of strong mucosal immunity required higher antigen doses, incorporation of C48/80 into nanoparticles provided significant dose sparing when compared to antigen and C48/80 in solution with no significant effect on serum neutralizing antibodies titers. These results suggest the potential of this novel adjuvant combination to improve the immunogenicity of a vaccine and decrease the antigen dose required for vaccination. PMID:26087299

  17. IFNγ Responses to Pre-erythrocytic and Blood-stage Malaria Antigens Exhibit Differential Associations With Past Exposure and Subsequent Protection

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Prasanna; Nankya, Felistas; Stoyanov, Cristina; Eccles-James, Ijeoma; Sikyomu, Esther; Naluwu, Kate; Wamala, Samuel; Nalubega, Mayimuna; Briggs, Jessica; Bowen, Katherine; Bigira, Victor; Kapisi, James; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant; Feeney, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The malaria-specific T-cell response is believed to be important for protective immunity. Antimalarial chemoprevention may affect this response by altering exposure to malaria antigens. Methods. We performed interferon γ (IFNγ) ELISpot assays to assess the cellular immune response to blood-stage and pre-erythrocytic antigens longitudinally from 1 to 3 years of age in 196 children enrolled in a randomized trial of antimalarial chemoprevention in Tororo, Uganda, an area of high transmission intensity. Results. IFNγ responses to blood-stage antigens, particularly MSP1, were frequently detected, strongly associated with recent malaria exposure, and lower in those adherent to chemoprevention compared to nonadherent children and those randomized to no chemoprevention. IFNγ responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens were infrequent and similar between children randomized to chemoprevention or no chemoprevention. Responses to blood-stage antigens were not associated with subsequent protection from malaria (aHR 0.96, P = .83), but responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens were associated with protection after adjusting for prior malaria exposure (aHR 0.52, P = .009). Conclusions. In this high transmission setting, IFNγ responses to blood-stage antigens were common and associated with recent exposure to malaria but not protection from subsequent malaria. Responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens were uncommon, not associated with exposure but were associated with protection from subsequent malaria. PMID:25520427

  18. Electrostatic Ratchet in the Protective Antigen Channel Promotes Anthrax Toxin Translocation*

    PubMed Central

    Wynia-Smith, Sarah L.; Brown, Michael J.; Chirichella, Gina; Kemalyan, Gigi; Krantz, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Central to the power-stroke and Brownian-ratchet mechanisms of protein translocation is the process through which nonequilibrium fluctuations are rectified or ratcheted by the molecular motor to transport substrate proteins along a specific axis. We investigated the ratchet mechanism using anthrax toxin as a model. Anthrax toxin is a tripartite toxin comprised of the protective antigen (PA) component, a homooligomeric transmembrane translocase, which translocates two other enzyme components, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), into the cytosol of the host cell under the proton motive force (PMF). The PA-binding domains of LF and EF (LFN and EFN) possess identical folds and similar solution stabilities; however, EFN translocates ∼10–200-fold slower than LFN, depending on the electrical potential (Δψ) and chemical potential (ΔpH) compositions of the PMF. From an analysis of LFN/EFN chimera proteins, we identified two 10-residue cassettes comprised of charged sequence that were responsible for the impaired translocation kinetics of EFN. These cassettes have nonspecific electrostatic requirements: one surprisingly prefers acidic residues when driven by either a Δψ or a ΔpH; the second requires basic residues only when driven by a Δψ. Through modeling and experiment, we identified a charged surface in the PA channel responsible for charge selectivity. The charged surface latches the substrate and promotes PMF-driven transport. We propose an electrostatic ratchet in the channel, comprised of opposing rings of charged residues, enforces directionality by interacting with charged cassettes in the substrate, thereby generating forces sufficient to drive unfolding. PMID:23115233

  19. Intranasal vaccination with adjuvant-free S. aureus antigens effectively protects mice against experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Stegmiller, Nataly Pescinalli; Barcelos, Estevão Carlos; Leal, Janine Miranda; Covre, Luciana Polaco; Donatele, Dirlei Molinari; de Matos Guedes, Herbet Leonel; Cunegundes, Marco Cesar; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Gomes, Daniel Cláudio Oliviera

    2016-06-24

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram-positive coccal bacterium comprising part of the human skin, nares and gastrointestinal tract normal microbiota. It is also an important cause of nosocomial/community-acquired infections in humans and animals, which can cause a diverse array of infections, including sepsis, which is a progressive systemic inflammation response syndrome that is frequently fatal. The emergence of drug-resistant strains and the high toxicity of the treatments used for these infections point out the need to develop an effective, inexpensive and safe vaccine that can be used prophylactically. In this work, we used an experimental sepsis model to evaluate the effectiveness of whole antigens from S. aureus (SaAg) given by the intranasal route to induce protective immunity against S. aureus infection in mice. BALB/c mice were vaccinated via intranasal or intramuscular route with two doses of SaAg, followed by biocompatibility and immunogenicity evaluations. Vaccinated animals did not show any adverse effects associated with the vaccine, as determined by transaminase and creatinine measurements. Intranasal, but not intramuscular vaccination with SaAg led to a significant reduction in IL-10 production and was associated with increased level of IFN-γ and NO. SaAg intranasal vaccination was able to prime cellular and humoral immune responses and inducing a higher proliferation index and increased production of specific IgG1/IgG2, which contributed to decrease the bacterial load in both liver and the spleen and improve survival during sepsis. These findings present the first evidence of the effectiveness of whole Ag intranasal-based vaccine administration, which expands the vaccination possibilities against S. aureus infection. PMID:27091687

  20. Mechanistic Analysis of the Effect of Deamidation on the Immunogenicity of Anthrax Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anita; Ngundi, Miriam M; Burns, Drusilla L

    2016-05-01

    The spontaneous modification of proteins, such as deamidation of asparagine residues, can significantly affect the immunogenicity of protein-based vaccines. Using a "genetically deamidated" form of recombinant protective antigen (rPA), we have previously shown that deamidation can decrease the immunogenicity of rPA, the primary component of new-generation anthrax vaccines. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and immunological mechanisms by which deamidation of rPA might decrease the immunogenicity of the protein. We found that loss of the immunogenicity of rPA vaccine was independent of the presence of adjuvant. We assessed the effect of deamidation on the immunodominant neutralizing B-cell epitopes of rPA and found that these epitopes were not significantly affected by deamidation. In order to assess the effect of deamidation on T-cell help for antibody production elicited by rPA vaccine, we examined the ability of the wild-type and genetically deamidated forms of rPA to serve as hapten carriers. We found that when wild-type and genetically deamidated rPA were modified to similar extents with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hapten (DNP) and then used to immunize mice, higher levels of anti-DNP antibodies were elicited by wild-type DNP-rPA than those elicited by the genetically deamidated DNP-rPA, indicating that wild-type rPA elicits more T-cell help than the genetically deamidated form of the protein. These results suggest that a decrease in the ability of deamidated rPA to elicit T-cell help for antibody production is a possible contributor to its lower immunogenicity. PMID:26912784

  1. The Protective Antigen Component of Anthrax Toxin Forms Functional Octameric Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kintzer, Alexander F.; Thoren, Katie L.; Sterling, Harry J.; Dong, Ken C.; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Tang, Iok I.; Zhang, Teri T.; Williams, Evan R.; Berger, James M.; Krantz, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    The assembly of bacterial toxins and virulence factors is critical to their function, but the regulation of assembly during infection has not been studied. We begin to address this question using anthrax toxin as a model. The protective antigen (PA) component of the toxin assembles into ring-shaped homooligomers that bind the two other enzyme components of the toxin, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), to form toxic complexes. To disrupt the host, these toxic complexes are endocytosed, such that the PA oligomer forms a membrane-spanning channel that LF and EF translocate through to enter the cytosol. We show using single-channel electrophysiology that PA channels contain two populations of conductance states, which correspond with two different PA pre-channel oligomers observed by electron microscopy—the well-described heptamer and a novel octamer. Mass spectrometry demonstrates that the PA octamer binds four LFs, and assembly routes leading to the octamer are populated with even-numbered, dimeric and tetrameric, PA intermediates. Both heptameric and octameric PA complexes can translocate LF and EF with similar rates and efficiencies. Here we also report a 3.2-Å crystal structure of the PA octamer. The octamer comprises ∼20−30% of the oligomers on cells, but outside of the cell, the octamer is more stable than the heptamer under physiological pH. Thus the PA octamer is a physiological, stable, and active assembly state capable of forming lethal toxins that may withstand the hostile conditions encountered in the bloodstream. This assembly mechanism may provide a novel means to control cytotoxicity. PMID:19627991

  2. Screening of Peptide Libraries against Protective Antigen of Bacillus anthracis in a Disposable Microfluidic Cartridge

    PubMed Central

    Kogot, Joshua M.; Zhang, Yanting; Moore, Stephen J.; Pagano, Paul; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Chang-Yen, David; Turewicz, Marek; Pellegrino, Paul M.; de Fusco, Andre; Soh, H. Tom; Stagliano, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial surface peptide display has gained popularity as a method of affinity reagent generation for a wide variety of applications ranging from drug discovery to pathogen detection. In order to isolate the bacterial clones that express peptides with high affinities to the target molecule, multiple rounds of manual magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) followed by multiple rounds of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) are conventionally used. Although such manual methods are effective, alternative means of library screening which improve the reproducibility, reduce the cost, reduce cross contamination, and minimize exposure to hazardous target materials are highly desired for practical application. Toward this end, we report the first semi-automated system demonstrating the potential for screening bacterially displayed peptides using disposable microfluidic cartridges. The Micro-Magnetic Separation platform (MMS) is capable of screening a bacterial library containing 3×1010 members in 15 minutes and requires minimal operator training. Using this system, we report the isolation of twenty-four distinct peptide ligands that bind to the protective antigen (PA) of Bacilus anthracis in three rounds of selection. A consensus motif WXCFTC was found using the MMS and was also found in one of the PA binders isolated by the conventional MACS/FACS approach. We compared MMS and MACS rare cell recovery over cell populations ranging from 0.1% to 0.0000001% and found that both magnetic sorting methods could recover cells down to 0.0000001% initial cell population, with the MMS having overall lower standard deviation of cell recovery. We believe the MMS system offers a compelling approach towards highly efficient, semi-automated screening of molecular libraries that is at least equal to manual magnetic sorting methods and produced, for the first time, 15-mer peptide binders to PA protein that exhibit better affinity and specificity than peptides isolated using

  3. A role for PACE4 in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin protective antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, V M; Rehemtulla, A; Leppla, S H

    1997-01-01

    Several bacterial protein toxins require activation by eukaryotic proteases. Previous studies have shown that anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), and diphtheria toxin (DT) are cleaved by furin C-terminal to the sequences RKKR, RQPR, and RVRR, respectively. Because furin-deficient cells retain some sensitivity to PA and DT, it is evident that other cellular proteases can activate these toxins. Whereas furin has been shown to require arginine residues at positions -1 and -4 for substrate recognition, another protease with an activity which could substitute for furin in toxin activation, the furin-related protease PACE4, requires basic residues in the -1, -2, and -4 positions of the substrate sequence. To examine the relative roles of furin and PACE4 in toxin activation, we used furin-deficient CHO cells (FD11 cells) transfected with either the furin (FD11/furin cells) or PACE4 (FD11/PACE4 cells) gene. Mutant PA proteins containing the cleavage sequence RAAR or KR were cytotoxic toward cells expressing only PACE4. In vitro cleavage data demonstrated that PACE4 can recognize RAAR and, to a much lesser extent, KR and RR. When extracts from PACE4-transfected cells were used as a source of proteases, PACE4 had minimal activity, indicating that it had been partially inactivated or did not remain associated with the cell membranes. Cleavage of iodinated PA containing the sequence RKKR or RAAR was detected on the surface of all cell types tested, but cleavage of a dibasic sequence was detected only intracellularly and only in cells that expressed furin or PACE4. The data provide evidence that PACE4 is present at the exterior of cells, that it plays a role in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin PA, and that PACE4 can activate substrates at the sequence RAAR or KR. PMID:9234799

  4. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, P C B; Diekmann, M; Kilian, J W; Versfeld, W; De Vos, V; Arntzen, L; Wolter, K; Bartels, P; Kotze, A

    2008-06-01

    Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63%) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P < 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P > 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheres, six out of ten White-backed Vultures, Gyps africanus, and one out of three Lappet-faced Vultures, Aegypius tracheliotus, or in five of six males versus three of seven females, and ten of 15 adults versus one of four juveniles. The results are in line with the available data on the incidence of anthrax in northern Namibia and South Africa and the likely contact of the vultures tested with anthrax carcasses. It is not known whether elevated titre indicates infection per se in vultures or absorption of incompletely digested epitopes of the toxin or both. The results are discussed in relation to distances travelled by vultures as determined by new tracking techniques, how serology can reveal anthrax activity in an area and the issue of the role of vultures in transmission of anthrax. PMID:18788202

  5. Plant Virus Particles Carrying Tumour Antigen Activate TLR7 and Induce High Levels of Protective Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Jobsri, Jantipa; Allen, Alex; Rajagopal, Deepa; Shipton, Michael; Kanyuka, Kostya; Lomonossoff, George P.; Ottensmeier, Christian; Diebold, Sandra S.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Savelyeva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Induction of potent antibody is the goal of many vaccines targeted against infections or cancer. Modern vaccine designs that use virus-like particles (VLP) have shown efficacy for prophylactic vaccination against virus-associated cancer in the clinic. Here we used plant viral particles (PVP), which are structurally analogous to VLP, coupled to a weak idiotypic (Id) tumour antigen, as a conjugate vaccine to induce antibody against a murine B-cell malignancy. The Id-PVP vaccine incorporates a natural adjuvant, the viral ssRNA, which acts via TLR7. It induced potent protective anti-Id antibody responses in an in vivo mouse model, superior to the “gold standard” Id vaccine, with prevalence of the IgG2a isotype. Combination with alum further increased antibody levels and maintained the IgG2a bias. Engagement of TLR7 in vivo was followed by secretion of IFN-α by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and by activation of splenic CD11chi conventional dendritic cells. The latter was apparent from up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and from secretion of a wide range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including the Th1-governing cytokine IL-12, in keeping with the IgG2a antibody isotype distribution. PVP conjugates are a novel cancer vaccine design, offering an attractive molecular form, similar to VLP, and providing T-cell help. In contrast to VLP, they also incorporate a safe “in-built” ssRNA adjuvant. PMID:25692288

  6. Lipopolysaccharide Modifications of a Cholera Vaccine Candidate Based on Outer Membrane Vesicles Reduce Endotoxicity and Reveal the Major Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Deborah R.; Feichter, Sandra; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Reidl, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The causative agent of the life-threatening gastrointestinal infectious disease cholera is the Gram-negative, facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. We recently started to investigate the potential of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from V. cholerae as an alternative approach for a vaccine candidate against cholera and successfully demonstrated the induction of a long-lasting, high-titer, protective immune response upon immunization with OMVs using the mouse model. In this study, we present immunization data using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-modified OMVs derived from V. cholerae, which allowed us to improve and identify the major protective antigen of the vaccine candidate. Our results indicate that reduction of endotoxicity can be achieved without diminishing the immunogenic potential of the vaccine candidate by genetic modification of lipid A. Although the protective potential of anti-LPS antibodies has been suggested many times, this is the first comprehensive study that uses defined LPS mutants to characterize the LPS-directed immune response of a cholera vaccine candidate in more detail. Our results pinpoint the O antigen to be the essential immunogenic structure and provide a protective mechanism based on inhibition of motility, which prevents a successful colonization. In a detailed analysis using defined antisera, we can demonstrate that only anti-O antigen antibodies, but not antibodies directed against the major flagellar subunit FlaA or the most abundant outer membrane protein, OmpU, are capable of effectively blocking the motility by binding to the sheathed flagellum and provide protection in a passive immunization assay. PMID:23630951

  7. Enhanced Protective Efficacy of Nonpathogenic Recombinant Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinases Combined with a Sand Fly Salivary Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Doustdari, Fatemeh; Seyed, Negar; Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Meneses, Claudio; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel vaccination approaches are needed to prevent leishmaniasis. Live attenuated vaccines are the gold standard for protection against intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania and there have been new developments in this field. The nonpathogenic to humans lizard protozoan parasite, Leishmania (L) tarentolae, has been used effectively as a vaccine platform against visceral leishmaniasis in experimental animal models. Correspondingly, pre-exposure to sand fly saliva or immunization with a salivary protein has been shown to protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we tested the efficacy of a novel combination of established protective parasite antigens expressed by L. tarentolae together with a sand fly salivary antigen as a vaccine strategy against L. major infection. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different DNA/Live and Live/Live prime-boost vaccination modalities with live recombinant L. tarentolae stably expressing cysteine proteinases (type I and II, CPA/CPB) and PpSP15, an immunogenic salivary protein from Phlebotomus papatasi, a natural vector of L. major, were tested both in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed before challenge and at 3 and 10 weeks after Leishmania infection. In both strains of mice, the strongest protective effect was observed when priming with PpSP15 DNA and boosting with PpSP15 DNA and live recombinant L. tarentolae stably expressing cysteine proteinase genes. Conclusion/Significance The present study is the first to use a combination of recombinant L. tarentolae with a sand fly salivary antigen (PpSP15) and represents a novel promising vaccination approach against leishmaniasis. PMID:24675711

  8. Co-administration of certain DNA vaccine combinations expressing different H5N1 influenza virus antigens can be beneficial or detrimental to immune protection.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ami; Gray, Michael; Li, Yan; Kobasa, Darwyn; Yao, Xiaojian; Kobinger, Gary P

    2012-01-11

    Achieving broad-spectrum immunity against emerging zoonotic viruses such as avian influenza H5N1 and other possible pandemic viruses will require generation of cross-protective immune responses. Strong antibody responses generated against the H5HA protein are protective, however, antigenic variation between diverging isolates can interfere with virus neutralization. The current study investigates co-administration of an H5 HA DNA vaccine with other variable and conserved influenza antigens (NA, NP, and M2). All antigens were derived from the A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1) virus and the contribution towards overall protection and immune activation was assessed against lethal homologous and heterologous challenges. An (HA+NA) combination afforded the best protection against homologous challenge and (HA+NP) was comparable to HA alone against heterologous A/Hong Kong/483/1997 challenge. Interestingly, combining all four H5 antigens at a single site did not improve protection against matched challenge and unexpectedly reduced survival by 30% against a heterologous challenge. Survival was also significantly decreased against heterologous challenge following combination of (HA+NP) with an unrelated antigen. Although there were no significant changes in antibody titres, significantly lower T-cell responses were detected against all antigens except HA in each combination. Co-administration of the vaccines at different injection sites restored T-cell responses but did not improve overall protection. Similar observations were also recorded following combination of HA and NP antigens using two different adenovirus-based backbones. Overall, the data suggest that co-administering certain H5N1 antigens offer better or comparable protection to HA alone, however, combining extra antigens may be unnecessary and lead to unfavourable immune responses. PMID:22119588

  9. Live attenuated Salmonella vaccines displaying regulated delayed lysis and delayed antigen synthesis to confer protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Yang, Jiseon; Kader, Rebin; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E

    2012-02-01

    Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains have great potential to induce protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by delivering M. tuberculosis antigens. Recently, we reported that, in orally immunized mice, RASV strains delivering the M. tuberculosis early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) antigens via the Salmonella type III secretion system (SopE amino-terminal region residues 1 to 80 with two copies of ESAT-6 and one copy of CFP-10 [SopE(Nt80)-E2C]) afforded protection against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis. Here, we constructed and evaluated an improved Salmonella vaccine against M. tuberculosis. We constructed translational fusions for the synthesis of two copies of ESAT-6 plus CFP-10 fused to the OmpC signal sequence (OmpC(SS)-E2C) and amino acids 44 to 338 of antigen 85A (Ag85A(294)) flanked by the signal sequence (SS) and C-terminal peptide (CT) of β-lactamase (Bla(SS)-Ag85A(294)-Bla(CT)) to enable delivery via the Salmonella type II secretion system. The genes expressing these proteins were cloned as an operon transcribed from P(trc) into isogenic Asd(+)/MurA(+) pYA3681 lysis vector derivatives with different replication origins (pBR, p15A, pSC101), resulting in pYA4890, pYA4891, and pYA4892 for SopE(Nt80)-E2C/Ag85A(294) synthesis and pYA4893 and pYA4894 for OmpC(SS)-E2C/Ag85A(294) synthesis. Mice orally immunized with the RASV χ11021 strain engineered to display regulated delayed lysis and regulated delayed antigen synthesis in vivo and harboring pYA4891, pYA4893, or pYA4894 elicited significantly greater humoral and cellular immune responses, and the RASV χ11021 strain afforded a greater degree of protection against M. tuberculosis aerosol challenge in mice than RASVs harboring any other Asd(+)/MurA(+) lysis plasmid and immunization with M. bovis BCG, demonstrating that RASV strains displaying regulated delayed lysis with delayed antigen synthesis

  10. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Berezin, V E; Bogoyavlenskyi, A P; Khudiakova, S S; Alexuk, P G; Omirtaeva, E S; Zaitceva, I A; Tustikbaeva, G B; Barfield, R C; Fetterer, R H

    2010-01-20

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen concentration of ISCOMs, containing Eimeria tenella antigens and saponins from native plants, were evaluated in their ability to stimulate humoral immunity and to protect chickens against a challenge infection with E. tenella. Broiler chickens were immunized with ISCOM preparations containing E. tenella antigens and the purified saponins Gg6, Ah6 and Gp7 isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aesculus hippocastanum and Gipsophila paniculata, respectively. The effects of the route of administration, dose of antigen and type of saponin used for construction of ISCOMs were evaluated for ability to stimulate serum IgG and IgM and to protect chickens against a homologous challenge. A single intranasal immunization was the most effective route for administering ISCOMs although the in ovo route was also quite effective. Dose titration experiments demonstrated efficacy after single immunization with various ISCOM doses but maximum effects were observed when ISCOMs contain 5-10mug antigen. Immunization of birds by any of the three routes with E. tenella antigens alone or antigens mixed with alum hydroxide adjuvant resulted in lower serum antibody and reduced protection to challenge relative to immunization with ISCOMs. Overall the results of this study confirm that significant immunostimulation and protection to challenge are achieved by immunization of chickens with ISCOMs containing purified saponins and native E. tenella antigens and suggest that ISCOMs may be successfully used to develop a safe and effective vaccine for prevention of avian coccidiosis. PMID:19879050

  11. Immune responses to oral vaccination with Salmonella-delivered avian pathogenic Escherichia coli antigens and protective efficacy against colibacillosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Hwa; Chaudhari, Atul A.; Oh, In Gyoung; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Jawale, Chetan V.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the immune responses to and protective efficacy of a live attenuated Salmonella-delivered vaccine candidate secreting the papA, papG, iutA, and clpG antigens of Escherichia coli were evaluated against infection with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) in layer chickens. Primary vaccination was done at age 7 d and booster vaccination at age 5 wk. The levels of intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A specific to the 4 antigens were significantly higher in the vaccinated group than in the control group. A potent lymphocyte-proliferation response and increased levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-2, and interleukin-6 in the plasma and in culture supernatants of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes from the vaccinated group suggested significant induction of the cell-mediated immune response in this group compared with the control group. Upon challenge with a virulent APEC strain at 8 wk of age, the vaccinated group had no deaths, whereas the control group had a 15% mortality rate. In addition, the morbidity rate was significantly higher in the control group (55%) than in the vaccinated group (15%). Thus, giving primary and booster vaccination with the Salmonella-delivered APEC vaccine candidate significantly elevated both mucosal and cellular immune responses, which protected the chickens against colibacillosis. PMID:26130856

  12. A thymus-independent (type 1) phosphorylcholine antigen isolated from Trichinella spiralis protects mice against pneumococcal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, P L; Choy, W F

    1990-01-01

    A phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein of 68,000 molecular weight (MW) was isolated from Trichinella spiralis. The potential of this antigen (Tsp) as a species-specific vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied in both immunologically deficient (CBA/N) and normal (CFW) mice. Unlike the PC determinant found in S. pneumoniae, Tsp is a type 1 thymus-independent (TI-1) antigen, as it was able to stimulate PC-specific antibody production in CBA/N animals, though less well than in CFW mice. Immunological memory to this antigen was observed in both strains of mice, and the predominant class of antibodies formed was IgM. In further studies, Tsp-immunized CFW mice were protected against a fatal challenge of S. pneumoniae type 3. Protection in these animals is probably mediated by the PC-specific antibodies present, which comprised 87.9% of antibodies reactive to S. pneumoniae, or 58.7% of total antibodies formed. Images Figure 1 PMID:2312167

  13. Immune responses to oral vaccination with Salmonella-delivered avian pathogenic Escherichia coli antigens and protective efficacy against colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, John Hwa; Chaudhari, Atul A; Oh, In Gyoung; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Jawale, Chetan V

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the immune responses to and protective efficacy of a live attenuated Salmonella-delivered vaccine candidate secreting the papA, papG, iutA, and clpG antigens of Escherichia coli were evaluated against infection with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) in layer chickens. Primary vaccination was done at age 7 d and booster vaccination at age 5 wk. The levels of intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A specific to the 4 antigens were significantly higher in the vaccinated group than in the control group. A potent lymphocyte-proliferation response and increased levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-2, and interleukin-6 in the plasma and in culture supernatants of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes from the vaccinated group suggested significant induction of the cell-mediated immune response in this group compared with the control group. Upon challenge with a virulent APEC strain at 8 wk of age, the vaccinated group had no deaths, whereas the control group had a 15% mortality rate. In addition, the morbidity rate was significantly higher in the control group (55%) than in the vaccinated group (15%). Thus, giving primary and booster vaccination with the Salmonella-delivered APEC vaccine candidate significantly elevated both mucosal and cellular immune responses, which protected the chickens against colibacillosis. PMID:26130856

  14. Antibodies to Merkel cell polyomavirus T-antigen oncoproteins reflect tumor burden in Merkel cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Kelly G.; Carter, Joseph J.; Johnson, Lisa G.; Cahill, Kevin W.; Iyer, Jayasri G.; Schrama, David; Becker, Juergen C.; Madeleine, Margaret M.; Nghiem, Paul; Galloway, Denise A.

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a common infectious agent that is likely involved in the etiology of most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs). Serum antibodies recognizing the MCPyV capsid protein, VP1, are detectable at high titer in nearly all MCC patients, and remain stable over time. Although antibodies to the viral capsid indicate prior MCPyV infection, they provide limited clinical insight into MCC because they are also detected in more than half of the general population. We investigated whether antibodies recognizing MCPyV large and small tumor-associated antigens (T-Ags) would be more specifically associated with MCC. Among 530 population control subjects, these antibodies were present in only 0.9% and were of low titer. In contrast, among 205 MCC cases, 40.5% had serum IgG antibodies that recognize a portion of T-Ag shared between small and large T-Ags. Among cases, titers of T-Ag antibodies fell rapidly (approximately 8 fold/year) in patients whose cancer did not recur, while they rose rapidly in those with progressive disease. Importantly, in several patients who developed metastases, the rise in T-Ag titer preceded clinical detection of disease spread. These results suggest that antibodies recognizing T-Ag are relatively specifically associated with MCC, do not effectively protect against disease progression, and may serve as a clinically useful indicator of disease status. PMID:20959478

  15. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA) Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard; Vincendeau, Philippe; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES) antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA), from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA) or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA), combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates. PMID:27223609

  16. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA) Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard; Vincendeau, Philippe; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES) antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA), from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA) or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA), combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates. PMID:27223609

  17. Extracted protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis. I. Preparation and properties of the solubilized surface of components.

    PubMed

    Helting, T B; Blackkolb, F

    1981-04-01

    Bordetella pertussis microorganisms were treated with several extracting agents followed by ultracentrifugation to remove particulate matter. Analysis of the resulting supernatants by SDS gel electrophoresis showed one major component after simple salt extraction, and much more complex, although consistent pattern following detergent treatment. The yield of the solubilized protein in detergent extracts exceeded by far the values recorded for salt extracts. In order to prevent irreversible precipitation of the solubilized proteins upon removal of the denaturing agent, a novel procedure was developed. After extraction with urea-salt, the solubilized material was absorbed on a mineral carrier prior to the separation of the denaturing agent. The resulting absorbed vaccine was highly potent in the mouse-protection test, whereas the toxic reactions, elicited upon injection into experimental animals, were reduced in the comparison to the starting material. This diminished reactogenic potential was accompanied by the partial loss of the leukocytosis-promiting factor, whose activity was greatly diminished by urea-salt at alkaline pH-values. The procedure described may be applied to large-scale processing of Bordetella persussis microorganisms. Clinical trials now in progress should confirm or rebut the thesis that increased tolerability of the product, inferred from animal experiments, is reflected by fewer adverse reactions in humans. In the former case, the detergent extract vaccine may constitute a realistic alternative to conventional whole-cell vaccines against whooping-cough. PMID:6266198

  18. Topological phases protected by reflection symmetry and cross-cap states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Gil Young; Hsieh, Chang-Tse; Morimoto, Takahiro; Ryu, Shinsei

    2015-05-01

    Twisting symmetries provides an efficient method to diagnose symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases. In this paper, edge theories of (2+1)-dimensional topological phases protected by reflection as well as other symmetries are studied by twisting reflection symmetry, which effectively puts the edge theories on an unoriented space-time, such as the Klein bottle. A key technical step taken in this paper is the use of the so-called cross-cap states, which encode entirely the unoriented nature of space-time, and can be obtained by rearranging the space-time geometry and exchanging the role of space and time coordinates. When the system is in a nontrivial SPT phase, we find that the corresponding cross-cap state is noninvariant under the action of the symmetries of the SPT phase, but acquires an anomalous phase. This anomalous phase, with a proper definition of a reference state, on which symmetry acts trivially, reproduces the known classification of (2+1)-dimensional bosonic and fermionic SPT phases protected by reflection symmetry, including in particular the Z8 classification of topological crystalline superconductors protected by reflection and time-reversal symmetries.

  19. Protection against aerosolized Yersinia pestis challenge following homologous and heterologous prime-boost with recombinant plague antigens.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Audrey; Roy, Chad J; Powell, Bradford S; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J; Freytag, Lucy C; Clements, John D

    2005-08-01

    A Yersinia pestis-derived fusion protein (F1-V) has shown great promise as a protective antigen against aerosol challenge with Y. pestis in murine studies. In the current study, we examined different prime-boost regimens with F1-V and demonstrate that (i) boosting by a route other than the route used for the priming dose (heterologous boosting) protects mice as well as homologous boosting against aerosol challenge with Y. pestis, (ii) parenteral immunization is not required to protect mice against aerosolized plague challenge, (iii) the route of immunization and choice of adjuvant influence the magnitude of the antibody response as well as the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)/IgG2a ratio, and (iv) inclusion of an appropriate adjuvant is critical for nonparenteral immunization. PMID:16041052

  20. Analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses by antigenic cartography and correlation to protection by vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H7 hemagglutinin subtype one of the most common subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry world wide and since it has the potential to become highly pathogenic it is among the priority subtypes for vaccination. Selection of the optimal vaccine seed strains may now be aided by antigenic...

  1. Immunization with a Recombinant, Pseudomonas fluorescens-Expressed, Mutant Form of Bacillus anthracis-Derived Protective Antigen Protects Rabbits from Anthrax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Matthew D.; Wilder, Julie A.; Mega, William M.; Hutt, Julie A.; Kuehl, Philip J.; Valderas, Michelle W.; Chew, Lawrence L.; Liang, Bertrand C.; Squires, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA), one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax). Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively) supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse injection site reactions. Mutant derivatives of the protective antigen that will not form the anthrax toxins have been described. We have cloned and expressed both mutant (PA SNKE167-ΔFF-315-E308D) and native PA molecules recombinantly and purified them. In this study, both the mutant and native PA molecules, formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), elicited high titers of anthrax toxin neutralizing anti-PA antibodies in New Zealand White rabbits. Both mutant and native PA vaccine preparations protected rabbits from lethal, aerosolized, B. anthracis spore challenge subsequent to two immunizations at doses of less than 1 μg. PMID:26207820

  2. Immunization with a Recombinant, Pseudomonas fluorescens-Expressed, Mutant Form of Bacillus anthracis-Derived Protective Antigen Protects Rabbits from Anthrax Infection.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew D; Wilder, Julie A; Mega, William M; Hutt, Julie A; Kuehl, Philip J; Valderas, Michelle W; Chew, Lawrence L; Liang, Bertrand C; Squires, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA), one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax). Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively) supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse injection site reactions. Mutant derivatives of the protective antigen that will not form the anthrax toxins have been described. We have cloned and expressed both mutant (PA SNKE167-ΔFF-315-E308D) and native PA molecules recombinantly and purified them. In this study, both the mutant and native PA molecules, formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), elicited high titers of anthrax toxin neutralizing anti-PA antibodies in New Zealand White rabbits. Both mutant and native PA vaccine preparations protected rabbits from lethal, aerosolized, B. anthracis spore challenge subsequent to two immunizations at doses of less than 1 μg. PMID:26207820

  3. Protection against murine listeriosis by an attenuated recombinant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain that secretes the naturally somatic antigen superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Hess, J; Dietrich, G; Gentschev, I; Miko, D; Goebel, W; Kaufmann, S H

    1997-04-01

    A recombinant (r)-Salmonella typhimurium aroA vaccine strain was constructed which secretes the naturally somatic protein of Listeria monocytogenes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), by the HlyB/HlyD/TolC export machinery. Vaccine efficacy of the SOD-bearing carrier strain was compared with that of the p60-secreting construct, S. typhimurium p60s (J. Hess, I. Gentschev, D. Miko, M. Welzel, C. Ladel, W. Goebel, and S. H. E. Kaufmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1458-1463, 1996). Vaccination of mice with both constructs induced protection against a lethal challenge with the intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. While the somatic listerial antigen, SOD, is immunologically uncharacterized, the naturally secreted protein of L. monocytogenes, p60, is known to be highly immunogenic. Our data emphasize the high vaccine potential of r-Salmonella constructs secreting antigens of somatic or secreted origin. Moreover, they suggest that the HlyB/HlyD/TolC-based antigen delivery system with attenuated Salmonella spp. as the carrier is capable of potentiating the immune response against foreign proteins independent from their immunogenicity in and display by the natural host. PMID:9119463

  4. Comparison of the structural stability and dynamic properties of recombinant anthrax protective antigen and its 2-fluorohistidine-labeled analogue.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Andra, Kiran K; Thakkar, Santosh V; Volkin, David B; Bann, James G; Middaugh, C Russell

    2012-11-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is the primary protein antigenic component of both the currently used anthrax vaccine and related recombinant vaccines under development. An analogue of recombinant PA (2-FHis rPA) has been recently shown to block the key steps of pore formation in the process of inducing cytotoxicity in cells, and thus can potentially be used as an antitoxin or a vaccine. This rPA analogue was produced by fermentation to incorporate the unnatural amino acid 2-fluorohistidine (2-FHis). In this study, the effects of 2-FHis labeling on rPA antigen's conformational stability and dynamic properties were investigated by various biophysical techniques. Temperature/pH stability profiles of rPA and 2-FHis rPA were analyzed by the empirical phase diagram (EPD) approach, and physical stability differences between them were identified. Results showed that rPA and 2-FHis rPA had similar stability at pH 7-8. With decreasing solution pH, however, 2-FHis rPA was found to be more stable. Dynamic sensitive measurements of the two proteins at pH 5 found that 2-FHis rPA was more dynamic and/or differentially hydrated under acidic pH conditions. The biophysical characterization and stability data provide information useful for the potential development of 2-FHis rPA as a more stable rPA vaccine candidate. PMID:22911632

  5. Neutralizing antibody and functional mapping of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen-The first step toward a rationally designed anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    McComb, Ryan C; Martchenko, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category A pathogen for its potential use as a bioweapon. Current prevention treatments include Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA). AVA is an undefined formulation of Bacillus anthracis culture supernatant adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. It has an onerous vaccination schedule, is slow and cumbersome to produce and is slightly reactogenic. Next-generation vaccines are focused on producing recombinant forms of anthrax toxin in a well-defined formulation but these vaccines have been shown to lose potency as they are stored. In addition, studies have shown that a proportion of the antibody response against these vaccines is focused on non-functional, non-neutralizing regions of the anthrax toxin while some essential functional regions are shielded from eliciting an antibody response. Rational vaccinology is a developing field that focuses on designing vaccine antigens based on structural information provided by neutralizing antibody epitope mapping, crystal structure analysis, and functional mapping through amino acid mutations. This information provides an opportunity to design antigens that target only functionally important and conserved regions of a pathogen in order to make a more optimal vaccine product. This review provides an overview of the literature related to functional and neutralizing antibody epitope mapping of the Protective Antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin. PMID:26611201

  6. Protection against murine listeriosis by an attenuated recombinant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain that secretes the naturally somatic antigen superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J; Dietrich, G; Gentschev, I; Miko, D; Goebel, W; Kaufmann, S H

    1997-01-01

    A recombinant (r)-Salmonella typhimurium aroA vaccine strain was constructed which secretes the naturally somatic protein of Listeria monocytogenes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), by the HlyB/HlyD/TolC export machinery. Vaccine efficacy of the SOD-bearing carrier strain was compared with that of the p60-secreting construct, S. typhimurium p60s (J. Hess, I. Gentschev, D. Miko, M. Welzel, C. Ladel, W. Goebel, and S. H. E. Kaufmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1458-1463, 1996). Vaccination of mice with both constructs induced protection against a lethal challenge with the intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. While the somatic listerial antigen, SOD, is immunologically uncharacterized, the naturally secreted protein of L. monocytogenes, p60, is known to be highly immunogenic. Our data emphasize the high vaccine potential of r-Salmonella constructs secreting antigens of somatic or secreted origin. Moreover, they suggest that the HlyB/HlyD/TolC-based antigen delivery system with attenuated Salmonella spp. as the carrier is capable of potentiating the immune response against foreign proteins independent from their immunogenicity in and display by the natural host. PMID:9119463

  7. Bicistronic DNA Vaccines Simultaneously Encoding HIV, HSV and HPV Antigens Promote CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Vinicius C.; Diniz, Mariana O.; Cariri, Francisco A. M. O.; Ventura, Armando M.; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Almeida, Rafael R.; Campos, Marco A.; Lima, Graciela K.; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are currently infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For this enormous contingent of people, the search for preventive and therapeutic immunological approaches represents a hope for the eradication of latent infection and/or virus-associated cancer. To date, attempts to develop vaccines against these viruses have been mainly based on a monovalent concept, in which one or more antigens of a virus are incorporated into a vaccine formulation. In the present report, we designed and tested an immunization strategy based on DNA vaccines that simultaneously encode antigens for HIV, HSV and HPV. With this purpose in mind, we tested two bicistronic DNA vaccines (pIRES I and pIRES II) that encode the HPV-16 oncoprotein E7 and the HIV protein p24 both genetically fused to the HSV-1 gD envelope protein. Mice i.m. immunized with the DNA vaccines mounted antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses, including in vivo cytotoxic responses, against the three antigens. Under experimental conditions, the vaccines conferred protective immunity against challenges with a vaccinia virus expressing the HIV-derived protein Gag, an HSV-1 virus strain and implantation of tumor cells expressing the HPV-16 oncoproteins. Altogether, our results show that the concept of a trivalent HIV, HSV, and HPV vaccine capable to induce CD8+ T cell-dependent responses is feasible and may aid in the development of preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for the control of diseases associated with these viruses. PMID:23951135

  8. Vivotif--a 'magic shield' for protection against typhoid fever and delivery of heterologous antigens.

    PubMed

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Spreng, Simone; Sieber, Heike; Ures, Jose; Mollet, Fabian; Collioud, Andre; Pearman, Jon; Griot-Wenk, Monika E; Fensterle, Joachim; Rapp, Ulf R; Goebel, Werner; Rothen, Simon A; Dietrich, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The attenuated Salmonella typhi strain Ty21a is the main constituent of Vivotif, the only attenuated live oral vaccine against typhoid fever. In comparison with antibiotics, the 'magic bullets' which Paul Ehrlich was striving for to treat infectious diseases, this vaccine should be viewed as a 'magic shield', because rather than treating typhoid fever after the infection has started, immunisation with this vaccine strain prevents infection and disease by the induction of specific immune responses. Ty21a is also an attractive carrier for the delivery of heterologous antigens. Recently, we successfully used Ty21a for antigen delivery via the haemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli, which allows efficient protein secretion from the carrier bacteria. PMID:17347563

  9. Does binding of complement factor H to the meningococcal vaccine antigen, factor H binding protein, decrease protective serum antibody responses?

    PubMed

    Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay; Beernink, Peter T

    2013-08-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a principal antigen in a multicomponent meningococcal vaccine recently licensed in Europe for prevention of serogroup B diseases. The protein recruits the complement downregulator, factor H (fH), to the bacterial surface, which enables the organism to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Binding is specific for human fH. In preclinical studies, mice and rabbits immunized with fHbp vaccines developed serum bactericidal antibody responses, which in humans predict protection against developing meningococcal disease. These studies, however, were in animals whose fH did not bind to the vaccine antigen. Here we review the immunogenicity of fHbp vaccines in human fH transgenic mice. The data suggest that animals with high serum human fH concentrations have impaired protective antibody responses. Further, mutant fHbp vaccines with single amino acid substitutions that decrease fH binding are superior immunogens, possibly by unmasking epitopes in the fH binding site that are important for eliciting serum bactericidal antibody responses. Humans immunized with fHbp vaccines develop serum bactericidal antibody, but achieving broad coverage in infants required incorporation of additional antigens, including outer membrane vesicles, which increased rates of fever and local reactions at the injection site. The experimental results in transgenic mice predict that fHbp immunogenicity can be improved in humans by using mutant fHbp vaccines with decreased fH binding. These results have important public health implications for developing improved fHbp vaccines for control of serogroup B meningococcal disease and for development of vaccines against other microbes that bind host molecules. PMID:23740919

  10. No protection in chickens immunized by the oral or intra-muscular immunization route with Ascaridia galli soluble antigen.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Norup, Liselotte R; Dalgaard, Tina S; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Fink, Dorte R; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2013-01-01

    In chickens, the nematode Ascaridia galli is found with prevalences of up to 100% causing economic losses to farmers. No avian nematode vaccines have yet been developed and detailed knowledge about the chicken immune response towards A. galli is therefore of great importance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the induction of protective immune responses to A. galli soluble antigen by different immunization routes. Chickens were immunized with a crude extract of A. galli via an oral or intra-muscular route using cholera toxin B subunit as adjuvant and subsequently challenged with A. galli. Only chickens immunized via the intra-muscular route developed a specific A. galli antibody response. Frequencies of γδ T cells in spleen were higher 7 days after the first immunization in both groups but only significantly so in the intra-muscularly immunized group. In addition, systemic immunization had an effect on both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in caecal tonsils and Meckel's diverticulum. Thus both humoral and cellular immune responses are inducible by soluble A. galli antigen, but in this study no protection against the parasite was achieved. PMID:23718808

  11. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  12. Presentation of peptides from Bacillus anthracis protective antigen on Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an epitope targeted anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    McComb, Ryan C; Ho, Chi-Lee; Bradley, Kenneth A; Grill, Laurence K; Martchenko, Mikhail

    2015-11-27

    The current anthrax vaccine requires improvements for rapidly invoking longer-lasting neutralizing antibody responses with fewer doses from a well-defined formulation. Designing antigens that target neutralizing antibody epitopes of anthrax protective antigen, a component of anthrax toxin, may offer a solution for achieving a vaccine that can induce strong and long lasting antibody responses with fewer boosters. Here we report implementation of a strategy for developing epitope focused virus nanoparticle vaccines against anthrax by using immunogenic virus particles to present peptides derived from anthrax toxin previously identified in (1) neutralizing antibody epitope mapping studies, (2) toxin crystal structure analyses to identify functional regions, and (3) toxin mutational analyses. We successfully expressed two of three peptide epitopes from anthrax toxin that, in previous reports, bound antibodies that were partially neutralizing against toxin activity, discovered cross-reactivity between vaccine constructs and toxin specific antibodies raised in goats against native toxin and showed that antibodies induced by our vaccine constructs also cross-react with native toxin. While protection against intoxication in cellular and animal studies were not as effective as in previous studies, partial toxin neutralization was observed in animals, demonstrating the feasibility of using plant-virus nanoparticles as a platform for epitope defined anthrax vaccines. PMID:26514421

  13. Novel Protective Antigens Expressed by Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigotes Provide Immunity to Mice Highly Susceptible to Chagas' Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Eduardo L. V.; Claser, Carla; Haolla, Filipe A. B.; Zanella, Luiz G.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated in A/Sn mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease protective immunity against lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection elicited by vaccination with an open reading frame (ORF) expressed by amastigotes. In our experiments, we used this mouse model to search for other amastigote-expressed ORFs with a similar property. Fourteen ORFs previously determined to be expressed in this developmental stage were individually inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector containing a nucleotide sequence that encoded a mammalian secretory signal peptide. Immunization with 13 of the 14 ORFs induced specific antibodies which recognized the amastigotes. Three of those immune sera also reacted with trypomastigotes and epimastigotes. After a lethal challenge with Y strain trypomastigotes, the vast majority of plasmid-injected mice succumbed to infection. In some cases, a significant delay in mortality was observed. Only two of these ORFs provided protective immunity against the otherwise lethal infection caused by trypomastigotes of the Y or Colombia strain. These ORFs encode members of the trans-sialidase family of surface antigens related to the previously described protective antigen amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2). Nevertheless, at the level of antibody recognition, no cross-reactivity was observed between the ORFs and the previously described ASP-2 from the Y strain. In immunofluorescence analyses, we observed the presence of epitopes related to both proteins expressed by amastigotes of seven different strains. In conclusion, our approach allowed us to successfully identify two novel protective ORFs which we consider interesting for future studies on the immune response to Chagas' disease. PMID:18579696

  14. Novel protective antigens expressed by Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes provide immunity to mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Eduardo L V; Claser, Carla; Haolla, Filipe A B; Zanella, Luiz G; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2008-08-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated in A/Sn mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease protective immunity against lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection elicited by vaccination with an open reading frame (ORF) expressed by amastigotes. In our experiments, we used this mouse model to search for other amastigote-expressed ORFs with a similar property. Fourteen ORFs previously determined to be expressed in this developmental stage were individually inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector containing a nucleotide sequence that encoded a mammalian secretory signal peptide. Immunization with 13 of the 14 ORFs induced specific antibodies which recognized the amastigotes. Three of those immune sera also reacted with trypomastigotes and epimastigotes. After a lethal challenge with Y strain trypomastigotes, the vast majority of plasmid-injected mice succumbed to infection. In some cases, a significant delay in mortality was observed. Only two of these ORFs provided protective immunity against the otherwise lethal infection caused by trypomastigotes of the Y or Colombia strain. These ORFs encode members of the trans-sialidase family of surface antigens related to the previously described protective antigen amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2). Nevertheless, at the level of antibody recognition, no cross-reactivity was observed between the ORFs and the previously described ASP-2 from the Y strain. In immunofluorescence analyses, we observed the presence of epitopes related to both proteins expressed by amastigotes of seven different strains. In conclusion, our approach allowed us to successfully identify two novel protective ORFs which we consider interesting for future studies on the immune response to Chagas' disease. PMID:18579696

  15. The 3' portion of the gene for a Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface antigen encodes the epitope recognized by a protective monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J M; Daly, T M; Vaidya, A B; Long, C A

    1988-01-01

    The 230-kDa merozoite antigen of the murine malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii provides a potential model system for the development of a protective erythrocytic stage vaccine. To characterize this antigen at the molecular level, isolated P. yoelii 17XL DNA was used to construct a genomic library in the expression vector lambda gt11. A monoclonal antibody, mAb 302, which passively protected mice against P. yoelii challenge infection, was used to identify a lambda gt11 recombinant clone encoding a portion of the 230-kDa antigen of this parasite. Using this clone as a probe, we identified an mRNA of 7.6 kilobases by RNA blot analysis. Nucleic acid sequence analysis of the clone showed that the epitope recognized by the protective mAb 302 is encoded by the 3' portion of the gene for the 230-kDa antigen. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed that this antigen also contains the tandemly repeated tetrapeptide Gly-Ala-Val-Pro, a series of 10 cysteine residues located within the terminal 110 amino acids, and a potential membrane anchor of 18 hydrophobic residues. Comparison of this C-terminal sequence with the carboxyl segment of the 195-kDa merozoite antigen of Plasmodium falciparum revealed nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities ranging from 40% to 70%. The localization of a B-cell epitope recognized by the protective mAb 302 to this carboxyl region of the P. yoelii antigen, combined with the limited strain variability in this region of the homologous 195-kDa antigen of P. falciparum, has implications for the development of an effective erythrocytic stage malarial vaccine. Images PMID:2448778

  16. Identification of broadly conserved cross-species protective Leishmania antigen and its responding CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zhirong; Li, Jintao; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Hamana, Hiroshi; Ezzati, Peyman; Hu, Chuanmin; Yi, Weijing; Liu, Dong; Khadem, Forough; Okwor, Ifeoma; Jia, Ping; Shitaoka, Kiyomi; Wang, Shufeng; Ndao, Momar; Petersen, Christine; Chen, Jianping; Rafati, Sima; Louzir, Hechmi; Muraguchi, Atsushi; Wilkins, John A; Uzonna, Jude E

    2015-10-21

    There is currently no clinically effective vaccine against leishmaniasis because of poor understanding of the antigens that elicit dominant T cell immunity. Using proteomics and cellular immunology, we identified a dominant naturally processed peptide (PEPCK335-351) derived from Leishmania glycosomal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). PEPCK was conserved in all pathogenic Leishmania, expressed in glycosomes of promastigotes and amastigotes, and elicited strong CD4(+) T cell responses in infected mice and humans. I-A(b)-PEPCK335-351 tetramer identified protective Leishmania-specific CD4(+) T cells at a clonal level, which comprised ~20% of all Leishmania-reactive CD4(+) T cells at the peak of infection. PEPCK335-351-specific CD4(+) T cells were oligoclonal in their T cell receptor usage, produced polyfunctional cytokines (interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor), and underwent expansion, effector activities, contraction, and stable maintenance after lesion resolution. Vaccination with PEPCK peptide, DNA expressing full-length PEPCK, or rPEPCK induced strong durable cross-species protection in both resistant and susceptible mice. The effectiveness and durability of protection in vaccinated mice support the development of a broadly cross-species protective vaccine against different forms of leishmaniasis by targeting PEPCK. PMID:26491077

  17. Antigen-dependent and –independent contributions to primary memory CD8 T cell activation and protection following infection

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew D.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Memory CD8 T-cell activation, including expression of IFN-γ and granzymeB, can be induced by antigen (Ag)-dependent signals through the T-cell-receptor, or by pathogen-derived inflammatory cytokines in an Ag-independent manner. Recent studies have come to conflicting results regarding the contributions of Ag and/or inflammation to memory CD8 T-cell activation. Additionally, research has indicated that inflammation-driven CD8 T-cell responses during un-related infections (bystander activation) have the potential to provide protection, but whether protection occurs in immuno-competent hosts is unclear. To investigate these questions, we examined activation of virus-specific memory CD8 T-cells following infection with L. monocytogenes either expressing or not cognate Ag. We show that Ag and inflammation act synergistically in vitro to induce memory activation. In vivo, we found that when memory CD8 T-cells significantly contribute to clearance of infection, early activation and continued responses by these cells are enhanced by cognate Ag recognition. Mechanistically, we show that bystander responses by memory are dependent upon the dose of infection and the amount of inflammation elicited following infection and are able to provide protection in IFN-γ deficient mice, but not in immuno-competent hosts. The data elucidate the requirements for memory CD8 T-cell activation and the protective role of bystander responses. PMID:26658291

  18. BclA and toxin antigens augment each other to protect NMRI mice from lethal Bacillus anthracis challenge.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Susanne M; Baillie, Les W; Beyer, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    While proving highly effective in controlling Anthrax in farm animals all over the world currently attenuated live anthrax vaccines employed in a veterinary context suffer from drawbacks such as residual virulence, short term protection, variation in quality and, most importantly, lack of efficacy if administered simultaneously with antibiotics. These limitations have stimulated the development of non-living component vaccines which induce a broad spectrum immune response capable of targeting both toxaemia (as in the case of PA based vaccines) and bacteraemia. To contribute to this several new approaches were tested in outbred NMRI mice for antibody titres and protectiveness. Plasmids encoding a recombinant toxin derived fusion peptide and a spore surface derived peptide were tested as DNA-vaccines in comparison to their protein counterparts utilising two adjuvant approaches and two DNA-vector backbones. The combination of two plasmids encoding LFD1PAD4-mIPS1 and TPA-BclAD1D3-LAMP1, when delivered by GeneGun, protected 90% of the animals against a lethal challenge with 25LD50 spores of the Ames strain of Bacillus anthracis. Single applications of either antigen component showed significantly lower protection rates, indicating the beneficial interaction between anti-spore and anti-toxin components for an acellular vaccine formulation. PMID:25917676

  19. Expression of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in transgenic chloroplasts of tobacco, a non-food/feed crop

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Jennifer; Koya, Vijay; Leppla, Stephen H.; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) lists Bacillus anthracis as a category A agent and estimates the cost of an anthrax attack to exceed US$ 26 billion per 100,000 exposed individuals. Concerns regarding anthrax vaccine purity, a requirement for multiple injections, and a limited supply of the protective antigen (PA), underscore the urgent need for an improved vaccine. Therefore, the 83 kDa immunogenic Bacillus anthracis protective antigen was expressed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. The PA gene (pag) was cloned into a chloroplast vector along with the psbA regulatory signals to enhance translation. Chloroplast integration of the transgenes was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Crude plant extracts contained up to 2.5 mg full length PA/g of fresh leaf tissue and this showed exceptional stability for several months in stored leaves or crude extracts. Maximum levels of expression were observed in mature leaves under continuous illumination. Co-expression of the ORF2 chaperonin from Bacillus thuringiensis did not increase PA accumulation or induce folding into cuboidal crystals in transgenic chloroplasts. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and furin proteolytic cleavage sites present in PA were protected in transgenic chloroplasts because only full length PA 83 was observed without any degradation products. Both CHAPS and SDS detergents extracted PA with equal efficiency and PA was observed in the soluble fraction. Chloroplast-derived PA was functionally active in lysing mouse macrophages when combined with lethal factor (LF). Crude leaf extracts contained up to 25 μg functional PA/ml. With an average yield of 172 mg of PA per plant using an experimental transgenic cultivar grown in a greenhouse, 400 million doses of vaccine (free of contaminants) could be produced per acre, a yield that could be further enhanced 18-fold using a commercial cultivar in the field. PMID:15474731

  20. Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Malito, Enrico; Faleri, Agnese; Lo Surdo, Paola; Veggi, Daniele; Maruggi, Giulietta; Grassi, Eva; Cartocci, Elena; Bertoldi, Isabella; Genovese, Alessia; Santini, Laura; Romagnoli, Giacomo; Borgogni, Erica; Brier, Sébastien; Lo Passo, Carla; Domina, Maria; Castellino, Flora; Felici, Franco; van der Veen, Stijn; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M; Tang, Christoph M; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Savino, Silvana; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Bottomley, Matthew J; Masignani, Vega

    2013-02-26

    Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In recent years, identification of B-cell epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies has facilitated the design of peptide-based vaccines against highly variable pathogens like HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and Helicobacter pylori; however, none of these products has yet progressed into clinical stages. Linear epitopes identified by conventional mapping techniques only partially reflect the immunogenic properties of the epitope in its natural conformation, thus limiting the success of this approach. To investigate antigen-antibody interactions and assess the potential of the most common epitope mapping techniques, we generated a series of mAbs against factor H binding protein (fHbp), a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen of Neisseria meningitidis. The interaction of fHbp with the bactericidal mAb 12C1 was studied by various epitope mapping methods. Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ∼1,000 Å(2) on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen-antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. PMID:23396847

  1. Label-free and real-time detection of antigen-antibody interactions by Oblique-incidence Reflectivity Difference (OIRD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, LiPing; Sun, Yue; Dai, Jun; Wang, JingYi; Lü, HuiBin; Wang, ShuFang; Jin, KuiJuan; Zhou, YueLiang; Yang, GuoZhen

    2012-09-01

    We label-free and real-time detected three interaction processes of antigen-antibodies, Human Immunoglobulin G (IgG), Rabbit IgG, and Mouse IgG as the targets, and Goat Anti-human IgG, Goat Anti-rabbit IgG, and Goat Anti-mouse IgG as the probe, by the Oblique-incidence Reflectivity Difference (OIRD) method. The interaction dynamic curves of the OIRD signal, corresponding to the interaction processes of antigen-antibodies, are generated. The reaction times from beginning to equilibrium state are about 1800, 900, and 1200 s for Human IgG, Rabbit IgG, and Mouse IgG, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the OIRD method not only can distinguish biomolecular interactions, but also can be used in real-time detection of interactions and dynamic processes of biomolecules.

  2. Wave interaction with a partially reflecting vertical wall protected by a submerged porous bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yong; Li, Huajun

    2016-08-01

    This study gives an analytical solution for wave interaction with a partially reflecting vertical wall protected by a submerged porous bar based on linear potential theory. The whole study domain is divided into multiple sub-regions in relation to the structures. The velocity potential in each sub-region is written as a series solution by the separation of variables. A partially reflecting boundary condition is used to describe the partial reflection of a vertical wall. Unknown expansion coefficients in the series solutions are determined by matching velocity potentials among different sub-regions. The analytical solution is verified by an independently developed multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) solution and experimental data. The wave run-up and wave force on the partially reflecting vertical wall are estimated and examined, which can be effectively reduced by the submerged porous bar. The horizontal space between the vertical wall and the submerged porous bar is a key factor, which affects the sheltering function of the porous bar. The wave resonance between the porous bar and the vertical wall may disappear when the vertical wall has a low reflection coefficient. The present analytical solution may be used to determine the optimum parameters of structures at a preliminary engineering design stage.

  3. IL-13 Production by Regulatory T Cells Protects Against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Independent of Auto-Antigen1

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Rynda, Agnieszka; Ascón, Miguel A.; Yang, Xinghong; Kochetkova, Irina; Riccardi, Carol; Callis, Gayle; Trunkle, Theresa; Pascual, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with an anti-inflammatory Salmonella vaccine expressing enterotoxigenic E. coli colonization factor antigen 1 (CFA/I) proved effective in stimulating protective, potent CD25+ CD4+ T (Treg) cells in susceptible mice challenged with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Since the Salmonella vector was considerably less protective, we questioned whether altering the fimbrial subunit expression to resemble conventional Salmonella expression may impact Treg cell potency. The Salmonella-CFA/I vaccine was modified to limit the fimbrial subunit expression to the intracellular compartment (Salmonella-CFA/IIC). SJL mice were challenged with proteolipid protein (PLP)139–151 to induce EAE and orally treated with one of three Salmonella vaccines six days post-challenge. Treatment with Salmonella-CFA/IIC greatly reduced clinical disease, similar to Salmonella-CFA/I, by subduing IL-17 and IL-21; however, mechanisms of protection differed, as evident by increased IL-13 and IFN-γ, but diminished TGF-β production by Treg cells from Salmonella-CFA/IIC-treated mice. Adoptive transfer of Treg cells from both CFA/I-expressing constructs was equivalent in protecting against EAE, showing minimal disease. While not as potent in its protection, CD25−CD4+ T cells from Salmonella-CFA/IIC showed minimal Th2 cells, but this vaccine did prime for Th2 cells subsequent EAE challenge. In vivo IL-13, but not IFN-γ neutralization, compromised protection conferred by adoptive transfer with Salmonella-CFA/IIC-induced Treg cells. Thus, the Salmonella-CFA/IIC vaccine elicits Treg cells with attributes from both the Salmonella vector and Salmonella-CFA/I vaccines. Importantly, these Treg cells can be induced to high potency by simply vaccinating against irrelevant Ags, offering a novel approach to treat autoimmune diseases independently of the auto-Ag. PMID:18606647

  4. Isolation of protective antigens from Trypanosoma lewisi by using trypanostatic (ablastic) immunoglobulin G from the surface coat.

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, S H; D'Alesandro, P A

    1984-01-01

    Antigens were purified from extracts of Trypanosoma lewisi on immunoadsorbent columns of trypanostatic immunoglobulin G eluted from parasite surface coats at 8 days postinfection. Eight absorbed proteins, with molecular weights between 15,000 and 70,000, were identified. These surface coat antigens (SCAgs) were then used to immunize rats. After immunization, sera were assayed in vitro for levels of circulating trypanostatic and trypanocidal antibodies. Approximately half of the immune sera had higher levels of trypanostatic antibody, compared with control sera; no trypanocidal antibodies (agglutinins) were detected in any of the sera. The rats were then challenged intraperitonally, and the parasitemias and division rates of the parasites were monitored. Parasitemias of all immunized rats were significantly (P less than 0.01) lower and of shorter duration than those of the controls. Division rates of trypanosomes were also significantly (P less than 0.01) lower in all immunized rats at all times before total cessation of division compared with control rats. A clear dose-response effect was observed, with greater amounts of SCAg eliciting higher levels of protection. Purified SCAgs were also more effective immunogens than were the crude trypanosome extracts from which they had been purified, and in which other proteins in addition to the SCAgs were present. These data provide conclusive evidence that the immunoglobulin G in the surface coats of T. lewisi, adsorbed during the course of infection, is specific antibody, in that it can be used to isolate parasite antigens that elicit a trypanostatic response in rats immunized with them. Images PMID:6363294

  5. An Antibody Screen of a Plasmodium vivax Antigen Library Identifies Novel Merozoite Proteins Associated with Clinical Protection

    PubMed Central

    França, Camila T.; Hostetler, Jessica B.; Sharma, Sumana; White, Michael T.; Lin, Enmoore; Kiniboro, Benson; Waltmann, Andreea; Darcy, Andrew W.; Li Wai Suen, Connie S. N.; Siba, Peter; King, Christopher L.; Rayner, Julian C.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Background Elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria would be greatly facilitated by the development of an effective vaccine. A comprehensive and systematic characterization of antibodies to P. vivax antigens in exposed populations is useful in guiding rational vaccine design. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated antibodies to a large library of P. vivax entire ectodomain merozoite proteins in 2 Asia-Pacific populations, analysing the relationship of antibody levels with markers of current and cumulative malaria exposure, and socioeconomic and clinical indicators. 29 antigenic targets of natural immunity were identified. Of these, 12 highly-immunogenic proteins were strongly associated with age and thus cumulative lifetime exposure in Solomon Islanders (P<0.001–0.027). A subset of 6 proteins, selected on the basis of immunogenicity and expression levels, were used to examine antibody levels in plasma samples from a population of young Papua New Guinean children with well-characterized individual differences in exposure. This analysis identified a strong association between reduced risk of clinical disease and antibody levels to P12, P41, and a novel hypothetical protein that has not previously been studied, PVX_081550 (IRR 0.46–0.74; P<0.001–0.041). Conclusion/Significance These data emphasize the benefits of an unbiased screening approach in identifying novel vaccine candidate antigens. Functional studies are now required to establish whether PVX_081550 is a key component of the naturally-acquired protective immune response, a biomarker of immune status, or both. PMID:27182597

  6. A Multiple Antigenic Peptide Mimicking Peptidoglycan Induced T Cell Responses to Protect Mice from Systemic Infection with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Chen, Yi-Guo; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Wen, Kun; Fu, Ning; Liu, Bei-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the enormous capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to acquire antibiotic resistance, it becomes imperative to develop vaccines for decreasing the risk of its life-threatening infections. Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a conserved and major component of S. aureus cell wall. However, it has not been used as a vaccine candidate since it is a thymus-independent antigen. In this study, we synthesized a multiple antigenic peptide, named MAP27, which comprised four copies of a peptide that mimics the epitope of PGN. After immunization with MAP27 five times and boosting with heat-inactivated bacterium one time, anti-MAP27 serum bound directly to S. aureus or PGN. Immunization with MAP27 decreased the bacterial burden in organs of BALB/c mice and significantly prolonged their survival time after S. aureus lethal-challenge. The percentage of IFN-γ+CD3+ T cells and IL-17+CD4+ T cells in spleen, as well as the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A/F and CCL3 in spleen and lung, significantly increased in the MAP27-immunized mice after infection. Moreover, in vitro incubation of heat-inactivated S. aureus with splenocytes isolated from MAP27-immunized mice stimulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-17A/F. Our findings demonstrated that MAP27, as a thymus-dependent antigen, is efficient at eliciting T cell-mediated responses to protect mice from S. aureus infection. This study sheds light on a possible strategy to design vaccines against S. aureus. PMID:26317210

  7. Vaccination with cyclin-dependent kinase tick antigen confers protection against Ixodes infestation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helga; Moraes, Jorge; Githaka, Naftaly; Martins, Renato; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-30

    Among arthropods, ticks lead as vectors of animal diseases and rank second to mosquitoes in transmitting human pathogens. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) participate in cell cycle control in eukaryotes. CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases and these catalytic subunits are activated or inactivated at specific stages of the cell cycle. To determine the potential of using CDKs as anti-tick vaccine antigens, hamsters were immunized with recombinant Ixodes persulcatus CDK10, followed by a homologous tick challenge. Though it was not exactly unexpected, IpCDK10 vaccination significantly impaired tick blood feeding and fecundity, which manifested as low engorgement weights, poor oviposition, and a reduction in 80% of hatching rates. These findings may underpin the development of more efficacious anti-tick vaccines based on the targeting of cell cycle control proteins. PMID:26073111

  8. Multiple antigens of Yersinia pestis delivered by live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains elicit protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Patel, Hetal; Sun, Wei; Curtiss, Roy

    2016-05-01

    Based on our improved novel Salmonella vaccine delivery platform, we optimized the recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine (RASV) χ12094 to deliver multiple Yersinia pestis antigens. These included LcrV196 (amino acids, 131-326), Psn encoded on pYA5383 and F1 encoded in the chromosome, their synthesis did not cause adverse effects on bacterial growth. Oral immunization with χ12094(pYA5383) simultaneously stimulated high antibody titers to LcrV, Psn and F1 in mice and presented complete protection against both subcutaneous (s.c.) and intranasal (i.n.) challenges with high lethal doses of Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, no deaths or other disease symptoms were observed in SCID mice orally immunized with χ12094(pYA5383) over a 60-day period. Therefore, the trivalent S. typhimurium-based live vaccine shows promise for a next-generation plague vaccine. PMID:27060051

  9. Production and cell surface display of recombinant anthrax protective antigen on the surface layer of attenuated Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-chun; Yuan, Sheng-ling; Tao, Hao-xia; Wang, Ling-chun; Zhang, Zhao-shan; Liu, Chun-jie

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the surface display of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) on attenuated Bacillus anthracis, a recombinant B. anthracis strain, named AP429 was constructed by integrating into the chromosome a translational fusion harboring the DNA fragments encoding the cell wall-targeting domain of the S-layer protein EA1 and the anthrax PA. Crerecombinase action at the loxP sites excised the antibiotic marker. Western blot analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that PA was successfully expressed on the S-layer of the recombinant antibiotic marker-free strain. Notwithstanding extensive proteolytic degradation of the hybrid protein SLHs-PA, quantitative ELISA revealed that approximately 8.1 × 10(6) molecules of SLHs-PA were gained from each Bacillus cell. Moreover, electron microscopy assay indicated that the typical S-layer structures could be clearly observed from the recombinant strain micrographs. PMID:25504373

  10. Protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost vaccine candidate carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigen against neonatal piglet colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Humoral immune responses and protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost cells carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fimbrial antigens for protection against piglet colibacillosis were studied. All groups were orally primed and boosted at 11 and 14 wk of pregnancy, respectively. Group A sows were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and groups B, C, and D sows were immunized with 2 × 10(9), 2 × 10(10), and 2 × 10(11) ghost cells, respectively. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and colostrum IgG and IgA levels of groups C and D sows were significantly higher than those of group A sows. In addition, serum IgG and IgA levels in group C and D piglets were significantly increased compared to those of group A piglets. After challenge with wild-type ETEC, diarrhea and mortality were not observed in group C and D piglets, while diarrhea was observed in 88.9% and 58.8% of groups A and B piglets, respectively, and 16.7% mortality was observed in group A piglets. These findings indicate that oral immunization of sows with 2 × 10(10) or 10(11) ghost cells can effectively protect their offspring from colibacillosis. PMID:27408340

  11. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingping; An, Qi; Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  12. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  13. Protective effect of intranasal immunization with Neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ferreirinha, Pedro; Dias, Joana; Correia, Alexandra; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santos, Carlos; Teixeira, Luzia; Ribeiro, Adília; Rocha, António; Vilanova, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite that in the last two decades was acknowledged as the main pathogenic agent responsible for economic losses in the cattle industry. In the present study, the effectiveness of intranasal immunization with N. caninum membrane antigens plus CpG adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of intragastrically established neosporosis. Immunized mice presented a lower parasitic burden in the brain on infection with 5 × 107 tachyzoites, showing that significant protection was achieved by this immunization strategy. Intestinal IgA antibodies raised by immunization markedly agglutinated live N. caninum tachyzoites whereas previous opsonization with IgG antibodies purified from immunized mice sera reduced parasite survival within macrophage cells. Although an IgG1 : IgG2a ratio < 1 was detected in the immunized mice before and after infection, indicative of a predominant T helper type 1 immune response, no increased production of interferon-γ was detected in the spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes of the immunized mice. Altogether, these results show that mucosal immunization with N. caninum membrane proteins plus CpG adjuvant protect against intragastrically established neosporosis and indicate that parasite-specific mucosal and circulating antibodies have a protective role against this parasitic infection. PMID:24128071

  14. Secretion of Protective Antigens by Tissue-Stage Nematode Larvae Revealed by Proteomic Analysis and Vaccination-Induced Sterile Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, James P.; Ivens, Al C.; Harcus, Yvonne; Filbey, Kara J.; McSorley, Henry J.; Murray, Janice; Bridgett, Stephen; Ashford, David; Dowle, Adam A.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasites infect over 1 billion humans, with little evidence for generation of sterilising immunity. These helminths are highly adapted to their mammalian host, following a developmental program through successive niches, while effectively down-modulating host immune responsiveness. Larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, for example, encyst in the intestinal submucosa, before emerging as adult worms into the duodenal lumen. Adults release immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products, but mice immunised with adult H. polygyrus ES become fully immune to challenge infection. ES products of the intestinal wall 4th stage (L4) larvae are similarly important in host-parasite interactions, as they readily generate sterile immunity against infection, while released material from the egg stage is ineffective. Proteomic analyses of L4 ES identifies protective antigen targets as well as potential tissue-phase immunomodulatory molecules, using as comparators the adult ES proteome and a profile of H. polygyrus egg-released material. While 135 proteins are shared between L4 and adult ES, 72 are L4 ES-specific; L4-specific proteins correspond to those whose transcription is restricted to larval stages, while shared proteins are generally transcribed by all life cycle forms. Two protein families are more heavily represented in the L4 secretome, the Sushi domain, associated with complement regulation, and the ShK/SXC domain related to a toxin interfering with T cell signalling. Both adult and L4 ES contain extensive but distinct arrays of Venom allergen/Ancylostoma secreted protein-Like (VAL) members, with acetylcholinesterases (ACEs) and apyrase APY-3 particularly abundant in L4 ES. Serum antibodies from mice vaccinated with L4 and adult ES react strongly to the VAL-1 protein and to ACE-1, indicating that these two antigens represent major vaccine targets for this intestinal nematode. We have thus defined an extensive and novel repertoire of H

  15. Secretion of protective antigens by tissue-stage nematode larvae revealed by proteomic analysis and vaccination-induced sterile immunity.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, James P; Ivens, Al C; Harcus, Yvonne; Filbey, Kara J; McSorley, Henry J; Murray, Janice; Bridgett, Stephen; Ashford, David; Dowle, Adam A; Maizels, Rick M

    2013-08-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasites infect over 1 billion humans, with little evidence for generation of sterilising immunity. These helminths are highly adapted to their mammalian host, following a developmental program through successive niches, while effectively down-modulating host immune responsiveness. Larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, for example, encyst in the intestinal submucosa, before emerging as adult worms into the duodenal lumen. Adults release immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products, but mice immunised with adult H. polygyrus ES become fully immune to challenge infection. ES products of the intestinal wall 4th stage (L4) larvae are similarly important in host-parasite interactions, as they readily generate sterile immunity against infection, while released material from the egg stage is ineffective. Proteomic analyses of L4 ES identifies protective antigen targets as well as potential tissue-phase immunomodulatory molecules, using as comparators the adult ES proteome and a profile of H. polygyrus egg-released material. While 135 proteins are shared between L4 and adult ES, 72 are L4 ES-specific; L4-specific proteins correspond to those whose transcription is restricted to larval stages, while shared proteins are generally transcribed by all life cycle forms. Two protein families are more heavily represented in the L4 secretome, the Sushi domain, associated with complement regulation, and the ShK/SXC domain related to a toxin interfering with T cell signalling. Both adult and L4 ES contain extensive but distinct arrays of Venom allergen/Ancylostoma secreted protein-Like (VAL) members, with acetylcholinesterases (ACEs) and apyrase APY-3 particularly abundant in L4 ES. Serum antibodies from mice vaccinated with L4 and adult ES react strongly to the VAL-1 protein and to ACE-1, indicating that these two antigens represent major vaccine targets for this intestinal nematode. We have thus defined an extensive and novel repertoire of H

  16. Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Antigen-Antibody Capture Processes Using the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li-Ping; Dai, Jun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jing-Yi; Lü, Hui-Bin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Jin, Kui-Juan; Zhou, Yue-Liang; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2012-07-01

    We successfully label-free and real-time detect the capture processes of human immunoglobulin G (IgG)/goat anti-human IgG and mouse IgG/goat anti-mouse IgG antigen-antibody pairs with different concentrations using the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) method, and obtain the interaction kinetics curves and the interaction times. The experimental results prove that the OIRD method is a promising technique for label-free and real-time detection of the biomolecular interaction processes and achieving the quantitative information of interaction kinetics.

  17. Studies on the protective efficacy of freeze thawed promastigote antigen of Leishmania donovani along with various adjuvants against visceral leishmaniasis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ankita; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2015-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani persists as a major public health issue in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Current treatment of this disease relies on use of drugs. It is doubtful that chemotherapy can alone eradicate the disease, so there is a need for an effective vaccine. Killed antigen candidates remain a good prospect considering their ease of formulation, stability, low cost and safety. To enhance the efficacy of killed vaccines suitable adjuvant and delivery system are needed. Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the protective efficacy of freeze-thawed L. donovani antigen in combination with different adjuvants against experimental infection of VL. For this, BALB/c mice were immunized thrice at an interval of two weeks. Challenge infection was given two weeks after last immunization. Mice were sacrificed after last immunization and on different post challenge/infection days. Immunized mice showed significant reduction in parasite burden, enhanced DTH responses with increased levels of Th1 cytokines and lower levels of Th2 cytokines, thus indicating the development of a protective Th1 response. Maximum protection was achieved with liposome encapsulated freeze thawed promastigote (FTP) antigen of L. donovani and it was followed by group immunized with FTP+MPL-A, FTP+saponin, FTP+alum and FTP antigen (alone). The present study highlights greater efficacy of freeze thawed promastigote antigen as a potential vaccine candidate along with effective adjuvant formulations against experimental VL infection. PMID:26001730

  18. rBCG30-induced immunity and cross-protection against Mycobacterium leprae challenge are enhanced by boosting with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30-kilodalton antigen 85B.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Thomas P; Tullius, Michael V; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2014-09-01

    Leprosy remains a major global health problem and typically occurs in regions in which tuberculosis is endemic. Vaccines are needed that protect against both infections and do so better than the suboptimal Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Here, we evaluated rBCG30, a vaccine previously demonstrated to induce protection superior to that of BCG against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis challenge in animal models, for efficacy against Mycobacterium leprae challenge in a murine model of leprosy. rBCG30 overexpresses the M. tuberculosis 30-kDa major secretory protein antigen 85B, which is 85% homologous with the M. leprae homolog (r30ML). Mice were sham immunized or immunized intradermally with BCG or rBCG30 and challenged 2.5 months later by injection of viable M. leprae into each hind footpad. After 7 months, vaccine efficacy was assessed by enumerating the M. leprae bacteria per footpad. Both BCG and rBCG30 induced significant protection against M. leprae challenge. In the one experiment in which a comparison between BCG and rBCG30 was feasible, rBCG30 induced significantly greater protection than did BCG. Immunization of mice with purified M. tuberculosis or M. leprae antigen 85B also induced protection against M. leprae challenge but less so than BCG or rBCG30. Notably, boosting rBCG30 with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B significantly enhanced r30ML-specific immune responses, substantially more so than boosting BCG, and significantly augmented protection against M. leprae challenge. Thus, rBCG30, a vaccine that induces improved protection against M. tuberculosis, induces cross-protection against M. leprae that is comparable or potentially superior to that induced by BCG, and boosting rBCG30 with antigen 85B further enhances immune responses and protective efficacy. PMID:25001602

  19. Multi-antigen vaccines based on complex adenovirus vectors induce protective immune responses against H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Holman, David H; Wang, Danher; Raja, Nicholas U; Luo, Min; Moore, Kevin M; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Mytle, Nutan; Dong, John Y

    2008-05-19

    There are legitimate concerns that the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus could adapt for human-to-human transmission and cause a pandemic similar to the 1918 "Spanish flu" that killed 50 million people worldwide. We have developed pandemic influenza vaccines by incorporating multiple antigens from both avian and Spanish influenza viruses into complex recombinant adenovirus vectors. In vaccinated mice, these vaccines induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses against pandemic influenza virus antigens, and protected vaccinated mice against lethal H5N1 virus challenge. These results indicate that this multi-antigen, broadly protective vaccine may serve as a safer and more effective approach than traditional methods for development of a pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:18395306

  20. Adenoviral Expression of a Bispecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Agent That Targets Protective Antigen Provides Prophylactic Protection from Anthrax in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Debatis, Michelle; Dmitriev, Igor P; Kashentseva, Elena A; Yeh, Anthony J; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Curiel, David T; Leppla, Stephen; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three polypeptides, which form the bipartite lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET, respectively). The common component in these toxins, protective antigen (PA), is responsible for binding to cellular receptors and translocating the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) enzymatic moieties to the cytosol. Antibodies against PA protect against anthrax. We previously isolated toxin-neutralizing variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy. In this work, gene therapy with an adenoviral (Ad) vector (Ad/VNA2-PA) (VNA, VHH-based neutralizing agents) promoting the expression of a bispecific VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA), consisting of two linked VHHs targeting different PA-neutralizing epitopes, was tested in two inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J, and found to protect mice against anthrax toxin challenge and anthrax spore infection. Two weeks after a single treatment with Ad/VNA2-PA, serum VNA2-PA levels remained above 1 μg/ml, with some as high as 10 mg/ml. The levels were 10- to 100-fold higher and persisted longer in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LT or spores at various times after Ad/VNA2-PA administration. The majority of BALB/cJ mice having serum VNA2-PA levels of >0.1 μg/ml survived LT challenge, and 9 of 10 C57BL/6J mice with serum levels of >1 μg/ml survived spore challenge. Our findings demonstrate the potential for genetic delivery of VNAs as an effective method for providing prophylactic protection from anthrax. We also extend prior findings of mouse strain-based differences in transgene expression and persistence by adenoviral vectors. PMID:26740390

  1. Screening and Molecular Cloning of a Protective Antigen from the Midgut of Haemaphysalis longicornis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yonghong; Zhang, Jincheng; Yang, Shujie; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Tiantian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is considered a promising alternative for controlling tick infestations. Haemaphysalis longicornis midgut proteins separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane were screened for protective value against bites. The western blot demonstrated the immunogenicity of 92 kDa protein (P92). The analysis of the P92 amino acid sequence by LC-MS/MS indicated that it was a H. longicornis paramyosin (Hl-Pmy). The full lenghth cDNA of Hl-Pmy was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) which consisted of 2,783 bp with a 161 bp 3' untranslated region. Sequence alignment of tick paramyosin (Pmy) showed that Hl-Pmy shared a high level of conservation among ticks. Comparison with the protective epitope sequence of other invertebrate Pmy, it was calculated that the protective epitope of Hl-Pmy was a peptide (LEEAEGSSETVVEMNKKRDTE) named LEE, which was close to the N-terminal of Hl-Pmy protein. The secondary structure analysis suggested that LEE had non-helical segments within an α-helical structure. These results provide the basis for developing a vaccine against biting H. longicornis ticks. PMID:23864744

  2. Temperature-mediated recombinant anthrax protective antigen aggregate development: Implications for toxin formation and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Amador-Molina, Juan C; Valerdi-Madrigal, Esther D; Domínguez-Castillo, Rocío I; Sirota, Lev A; Arciniega, Juan L

    2016-07-29

    Anthrax vaccines containing recombinant PA (rPA) as the only antigen face a stability issue: rPA forms aggregates in solution after exposure to temperatures ⩾40°C, thus losing its ability to form lethal toxin (LeTx) with Lethal Factor. To study rPA aggregation's impact on immune response, we subjected rPA to several time and temperature combinations. rPA treated at 50°C for 30min formed high mass aggregates when analyzed by gel electrophoresis and failed to form LeTx as measured by a macrophage lysis assay (MLA). Aggregated rPA-formed LeTx was about 30 times less active than LeTx containing native rPA. Mice immunized with heat-treated rPA combined with Al(OH)3 developed antibody titers about 49 times lower than mice immunized with native rPA, as measured by a Toxicity Neutralization Assay (TNA). Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) of the same immune sera showed anti-rPA titers only 2-7 times lower than titers elicited by native rPA. Thus, rPA's ability to form LeTx correlates with its production of neutralizing antibodies, and aggregation significantly impairs the protein's antibody response. However, while these findings suggest MLA has some value as an in-process quality test for rPA in new anthrax vaccines, they also confirm the superiority of TNA for use in vaccine potency. PMID:27364097

  3. Subdominant antigens in bacterial vaccines: Am779 is subdominant in the anaplasma marginale outer membrane vaccine but does not associate with protective immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of specific antigens responsible for the ability of complex immunogens to induce protection is a major goal in development of bacterial vaccines. Much of the investigation has focused on highly abundant and highly immunodominant outer membrane proteins. Recently however, genomic and p...

  4. Clinical and Parasitological Protection in a Leishmania infantum-Macaque Model Vaccinated with Adenovirus and the Recombinant A2 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Porrozzi, Renato; Pinto, Marcelo A.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle L.; Dutra, Miriam S.; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Fernandes, Ana-Paula; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2) protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12) adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum); two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2) followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum); and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2) boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2). Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. Conclusions/Significance The

  5. Influence of adjuvant and antigen dose on protection induced by an inactivated whole vaccine against Neospora caninum infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Montejo, Silvia; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Prenafeta, Antoni; Gomez-Bautista, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2011-02-10

    In this study, the protection afforded by a Neospora caninum inactivated vaccine formulated with three different adjuvants (water-in-oil emulsion, aluminum hydroxide with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and aluminum hydroxide with ginseng extract) and three different parasite doses (10(5), 5 × 10(5) or 10(6) inactivated whole tachyzoites) was evaluated using a mouse model. Mice were immunized subcutaneously twice at three-week intervals with inactivated Nc-Spain 1H tachyzoites and challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation with 10(6) live Nc-1 tachyzoites. The efficacy of the immunization was evaluated in non-pregnant BALB/c mice on days 1 and 5 (acute infection phase) and days 14 and 30 (chronic infection phase) post-challenge. The results showed the ability of water-in-oil emulsion combined with inactivated 5 × 10(5) tachyzoites to induce protection against neosporosis during the chronic stage, limiting parasite multiplication in the brain. Aluminum hydroxide-ginseng extract and inactivated tachyzoites reduced the number of parasites circulating in the blood during acute phase but failed to limit the establishment of chronic infection. On the other hand, a dose-effect was observed in groups vaccinated with aluminum hydroxide-ginseng extract in which the lesion severity increased as the inactivated tachyzoite dose. This study demonstrates that efficacy can significantly vary depending on the adjuvant, the dose of antigen and the phase of N. caninum infection in which the vaccine is tested. PMID:21067865

  6. DNA based vaccination with a cocktail of plasmids encoding immunodominant Leishmania (Leishmania) major antigens confers full protection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sami Ben Hadj; Touihri, Leila; Chtourou, Yessine; Dellagi, Koussay; Bahloul, Chokri

    2009-01-01

    Despite the lack of effective vaccines against parasitic diseases, the prospects of developing a vaccine against leishmaniasis are still high. With this objective, we have tested four DNA based candidate vaccines encoding to immunodominant leishmania antigens (LACKp24, TSA, LmSTI1 and CPa). These candidates have been previously reported as capable of eliciting at least partial protections in the BALB/c mice model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. When tested under similar experimental conditions, all of them were able to induce similar partial protective effects, but none could induce a full protection. In order to improve the level of protection we have explored the approach of DNA based vaccination with different cocktails of plasmids encoding to the different immunodominant Leishmania antigens. A substantial increase of protection was achieved when the cocktail is composed of all of the four antigens; however, no full protection was achieved when mice were challenged with a high dose of parasite in their hind footpad. The full protection was only achieved after a challenge with a low parasitic dose in the dermis of the ear. It was difficult to determine clear protection correlates, other than the mixture of immunogens induced specific Th1 immune responses against each component. Therefore, such an association of antigens increased the number of targeted epitopes by the immune system with the prospects that the responses are at least additive if not synergistic. Even though, any extrapolation of this approach when applied to other animal or human models is rather hazardous, it undoubtedly increases the hopes of developing an effective leishmania vaccine. PMID:18951941

  7. Bm86 antigen induces a protective immune response against Boophilus microplus following DNA and protein vaccination in sheep.

    PubMed

    De Rose, R; McKenna, R V; Cobon, G; Tennent, J; Zakrzewski, H; Gale, K; Wood, P R; Scheerlinck, J P; Willadsen, P

    1999-11-30

    Vaccination of sheep with a plasmid bearing the full length gene for the tick antigen Bm86 either alone or co-administered with plasmid carrying the ovine genes for the cytokines, granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin (IL)-1beta induced a relatively low level of protection against subsequent tick infestation. This tick damage reached statistical significance only for the groups which were vaccinated with plasmid encoding for Bm86, co-administered with plasmid encoding for ovine GM-CSF. Antibody titres measured against Bm86 were also low in all groups injected with the Bm86 DNA vaccine. Antibody production and anti-tick effect were significantly less than that achieved by two vaccinations with recombinant Bm86 protein. In all cases only a low level of antigen-specific stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was recorded, as measured either by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine or the release of IFN-gamma. Injection of DNA encoding for Bm86, either alone or with co-administered cytokine genes, did however prime for a strong subsequent antibody response following a single injection of recombinant Bm86 protein in adjuvant. Antibody production nevertheless appeared to be slightly less effective than following two vaccinations with recombinant protein. The persistence of antibody following vaccination was the same regardless of the method of primary sensitization. In all cases the half-life of the antibody response was approximately 40-50 days indicating that, in contrast to results reported in mice, DNA vaccination in sheep did not result in sustained antibody production. PMID:10587297

  8. Characterization of Protective Epitopes in a Highly Conserved Plasmodium falciparum Antigenic Protein Containing Repeats of Acidic and Basic Residues

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pawan; Kumar, Anil; Singh, Balwan; Bharadwaj, Ashima; Sailaja, V. Naga; Adak, T.; Kushwaha, Ashima; Malhotra, Pawan; Chauhan, V. S.

    1998-01-01

    The delineation of putatively protective and immunogenic epitopes in vaccine candidate proteins constitutes a major research effort towards the development of an effective malaria vaccine. By virtue of its role in the formation of the immune clusters of merozoites, its location on the surface of merozoites, and its highly conserved nature both at the nucleotide sequence level and the amino acid sequence level, the antigen which contains repeats of acidic and basic residues (ABRA) of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum represents such an antigen. Based upon the predicted amino acid sequence of ABRA, we synthesized eight peptides, with six of these (AB-1 to AB-6) ranging from 12 to 18 residues covering the most hydrophilic regions of the protein, and two more peptides (AB-7 and AB-8) representing its repetitive sequences. We found that all eight constructs bound an appreciable amount of antibody in sera from a large proportion of P. falciparum malaria patients; two of these peptides (AB-1 and AB-3) also elicited a strong proliferation response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all 11 human subjects recovering from malaria. When used as carrier-free immunogens, six peptides induced a strong, boostable, immunoglobulin G-type antibody response in rabbits, indicating the presence of both B-cell determinants and T-helper-cell epitopes in these six constructs. These antibodies specifically cross-reacted with the parasite protein(s) in an immunoblot and in an immunofluorescence assay. In another immunoblot, rabbit antipeptide sera also recognized recombinant fragments of ABRA expressed in bacteria. More significantly, rabbit antibodies against two constructs (AB-1 and AB-5) inhibited the merozoite reinvasion of human erythrocytes in vitro up to ∼90%. These results favor further studies so as to determine possible inclusion of these two constructs in a multicomponent subunit vaccine against asexual blood stages of P. falciparum. PMID:9596765

  9. Protection of chickens to antigenically variant avian influenza virus challenge after immunization with two antigenically unrelated strains of the same subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antigenic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) within a subtype has been well established and is believed to be driven by the selection of immunologic escape mutants. In regions where vaccination against AIV has been implemented for prolonged periods (e.g. Vietnam and Egypt), vaccines which...

  10. Enhanced and durable protective immune responses induced by a cocktail of recombinant BCG strains expressing antigens of multistage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinping; Teng, Xindong; Yuan, Xuefeng; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Chunwei; Yue, Tingting; Zhou, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Fan, Xionglin

    2015-08-01

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine confers protection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children, its immune protection gradually wanes over time, and consequently leads to an inability to prevent the reactivation of latent infection of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, improving BCG for better control of tuberculosis (TB) is urgently needed. We thus hypothesized that recombinant BCG overexpressing immunodominant antigens expressed at different growth stages of M. tuberculosis could provide a more comprehensive protection against primary and latent M. tuberculosis infection. Here, a novel cocktail of recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains, namely ABX, was produced by combining rBCG::85A, rBCG::85B, and rBCG::X, which overexpressed respective multistage antigens Ag85A, Ag85B, and HspX of M. tuberculosis. Our results showed that ABX was able to induce a stronger immune protection than individual rBCGs or BCG against primary TB infection in C57BL/6 mice. Mechanistically, the immune protection was attributed to stronger antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 responses, higher numbers of IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) TEM and IL-2(+) CD8(+) TCM cells elicited by ABX. These findings thus provide a novel strategy for the improvement of BCG efficacy and potentially a promising prophylactic TB vaccine candidate, warranting further investigation. PMID:25974877

  11. Local skin burn causes systemic (lung and kidney) endothelial cell injury reflected by increased circulating and decreased tissue factor VIII-related antigen.

    PubMed

    Gross, M A; Viders, D E; Brown, J M; Mulvin, D W; Miles, R H; Brentlinger, E R; Velasco, S E; Crawford, T S; Burton, L K; Repine, J E

    1989-08-01

    Inasmuch as xanthine oxidase (XO)-derived O2* metabolites may contribute to vascular endothelial injury and Factor VIII antigen (F8Ag) is a component of endothelial cells, we hypothesized that XO-derived O2* might damage and cause distant organ endothelial cells to release F8Ag in rats subjected to skin burn. We found that serum F8Ag (ELISA) increased in the blood of rats subjected to skin burn (70 degrees C water to shaved dorsal skin for 30 seconds) but not in sham control rats (30 degrees C water). Coincidentally, F8Ag levels also decreased in lung and kidney tissue sections (immunofluorescent staining) of burned rats but not sham rats. Increases in circulating F8Ag levels and decreases in tissue F8Ag levels appeared to result from XO-derived O2* metabolites: F8Ag levels did not increase in the blood and did not decrease in the tissues of rats pretreated with allopurinol (a specific XO inhibitor, 50 mg/kg) or dimethylthiourea (DMTU) (a permeable O2* metabolite scavenger, 250 mg/kg). Lung injury as assessed by permeability studies (I125-albumin leak) paralleled changes in blood F8Ag levels in sham, burn, allopurinol-, and DMTU-treated groups. We conclude that skin burn causes a systemic vascular injury that can be inhibited by allopurinol or DMTU and is reflected by increased circulating and tissue decreased Factor VIII antigen levels. Release of Factor VIII antigen may serve as a valuable marker of distant organ injury in patients with skin burn. PMID:2503901

  12. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Lim, Stephanie; Kaserer, Martina; Lülf, Anna; Marr, Lisa; Jany, Sylvia; Deeg, Cornelia A; Pijlman, Gorben P; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we generated and evaluated recombinant MVA candidate vaccines that deliver WNV envelope (E) antigens and fulfil all the requirements to proceed to clinical testing in humans. Infections of human and equine cell cultures with recombinant MVA demonstrated efficient synthesis and secretion of WNV envelope proteins in mammalian cells non-permissive for MVA replication. Prime-boost immunizations in BALB/c mice readily induced circulating serum antibodies binding to recombinant WNV E protein and neutralizing WNV in tissue culture infections. Vaccinations in HLA-A2.1-/HLA-DR1-transgenic H-2 class I-/class II-knockout mice elicited WNV E-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Moreover, the MVA-WNV candidate vaccines protected C57BL/6 mice against lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV infection and induced heterologous neutralizing antibodies. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate these recombinant MVA-WNV vaccines in other preclinical models and use them as candidate vaccine in humans. PMID:26939903

  13. Molecular assembly of lethal factor enzyme and pre-pore heptameric protective antigen in early stage of translocation.

    PubMed

    Alisaraie, Laleh; Rouiller, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    During intoxication, the anthrax toxin lethal (LF) and edema (EF) factors initially assemble with the protective antigen (PA) on the plasma membrane of cells expressing the membrane-bound surface-exposed anthrax toxin receptor (ATR). This takes place at the physiological pH prior to entering the acidic environment of the endosome. We elucidated the molecular dynamics (MD) behaviors of the three-dimensional structure of the (PA63)7LF3 complex in various conformations and analyzed the dynamical properties of the fully loaded pre-pore complex on the plasma membrane at the physiological pH. The analysis points to the interaction networks of amino acids conserved between PA63 octamer and heptamer, which are not affected during the initial stage of the LFs binding. The simulations show an asymmetrical movement of the complex domains that directly affect LFs conformations. The conformational and structural alterations of the 2β2-2β3 loops of PA subunits are associated with pore formation. The early conformational changes of the loops appear as they peel off from the domain 2 toward domain 4 of each PA subunit. The LFs unfold in 1α1 segments of their N-terminal initiating the early stage of the pre-pore formation. The results indicate instable regions within the complex and provide important clues concerning the detail of fluctuating residues of the LF-PA interface regions at the early steps of toxins translocation. PMID:26659402

  14. Co-culture with podoplanin+ cells protects leukemic blast cells with leukemia-associated antigens in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOON; HAN, A-REUM; LEE, SUNG-EUN; MIN, WOO-SUNG; KIM, HEE-JE

    2016-01-01

    Podoplanin+ cells are indispensable in the tumor microenvironment. Increasing evidence suggests that podoplanin may support the growth and metastasis of solid tumors; however, to the best of our knowledge no studies have determined whether or not podoplanin serves a supportive role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The effects of co-culture with podoplanin+ cells on the cellular activities of the leukemic cells, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to the expression of podoplanin in leukemic cells, were investigated. Due to the fact that genetic abnormalities are the primary cause of leukemogenesis, the overexpression of the fibromyalgia-like tyrosine kinase-3 gene in colony forming units was also examined following cell sorting. Podoplanin+ cells were found to play a protective role against apoptosis in leukemic cells and to promote cell proliferation. Tumor-associated antigens, including Wilms' tumor gene 1 and survivin, were increased when leukemic cells were co-cultured with podoplanin+ cells. In combination, the present results also suggest that podoplanin+ cells can function as stromal cells for blast cell retention in the AML tumor microenvironment. PMID:27035421

  15. Noncapsulated toxinogenic Bacillus anthracis presents a specific growth and dissemination pattern in naive and protective antigen-immune mice.

    PubMed

    Glomski, Ian J; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Mock, Michèle; Goossens, Pierre L

    2007-10-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax. B. anthracis has three major virulence factors, namely, lethal toxin, edema toxin, and a poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid capsule. The toxins modulate host immune responses, and the capsule inhibits phagocytosis. With the goal of increasing safety, decreasing security concerns, and taking advantage of mammalian genetic tools and reagents, mouse models of B. anthracis infection have been developed using attenuated bacteria that produce toxins but no capsule. While these models have been useful in studying both toxinogenic infections and antitoxin vaccine efficacy, we questioned whether eliminating the capsule changed bacterial growth and dissemination characteristics. Thus, the progression of infection by toxinogenic noncapsulated B. anthracis was analyzed and compared to that by previously reported nontoxinogenic capsulated bacteria, using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The influence of immunization with the toxin component protective antigen (PA) on the development of infection was also examined. The toxinogenic noncapsulated bacteria were initially confined to the cutaneous site of infection. Bacteria then progressed to the draining lymph nodes and, finally, late in the infection, to the lungs, kidneys, and frequently the gastrointestinal tract. There was minimal colonization of the spleen. PA immunization reduced bacterial growth from the outset and limited infection to the site of inoculation. These in vivo observations show that dissemination by toxinogenic noncapsulated strains differs markedly from that by nontoxinogenic capsulated strains. Additionally, PA immunization counters bacterial growth and dissemination in vivo from the onset of infection. PMID:17635863

  16. Role of the protective antigen octamer in the molecular mechanism of anthrax lethal toxin stabilization in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kintzer, Alexander F.; Sterling, Harry J.; Tang, Iok I.; Abdul-Gader, Ali; Miles, Andrew J.; Wallace, B. A.; Williams, Evan R.; Krantz, Bryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis that produce two key virulence factors, anthrax toxin (Atx) and a poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule. Atx is comprised of three-proteins: protective antigen (PA) and two enzymes, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). To disrupt cell function, these components must assemble into holotoxin complexes, which contain either a ring-shaped homooctameric or homoheptameric PA oligomer bound to multiple copies of either LF and/or EF, producing lethal toxin (LT), edema toxin, or mixtures thereof. Once a host cell endocytoses these complexes, PA converts into a membrane-inserted channel that translocates LF and EF into the cytosol. LT may assemble on host cell surfaces or extracellularly in plasma. We show that under physiological conditions in bovine plasma that LT complexes containing heptameric PA aggregate and inactivate more readily than LT complexes containing octameric PA. LT complexes containing octameric PA possess enhanced stability, channel forming activity, and macrophage cytotoxicity relative to those containing heptameric PA. Under physiological conditions, multiple biophysical probes reveal that heptameric PA can prematurely adopt the channel conformation, but octameric PA complexes remain in their soluble prechannel configuration allowing them to resist aggregation and inactivation. We conclude that PA may form an octameric oligomeric state as a means to produce a more stable and active LT complex that may circulate freely in the blood. PMID:20433851

  17. Self-Amplifying mRNA Vaccines Expressing Multiple Conserved Influenza Antigens Confer Protection against Homologous and Heterosubtypic Viral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Magini, Diletta; Giovani, Cinzia; Mangiavacchi, Simona; Maccari, Silvia; Cecchi, Raffaella; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; De Gregorio, Ennio; Geall, Andrew J; Brazzoli, Michela; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Current hemagglutinin (HA)-based seasonal influenza vaccines induce vaccine strain-specific neutralizing antibodies that usually fail to provide protection against mismatched circulating viruses. Inclusion in the vaccine of highly conserved internal proteins such as the nucleoprotein (NP) and the matrix protein 1 (M1) was shown previously to increase vaccine efficacy by eliciting cross-reactive T-cells. However, appropriate delivery systems are required for efficient priming of T-cell responses. In this study, we demonstrated that administration of novel self-amplifying mRNA (SAM®) vectors expressing influenza NP (SAM(NP)), M1 (SAM(M1)), and NP and M1 (SAM(M1-NP)) delivered with lipid nanoparticles (LNP) induced robust polyfunctional CD4 T helper 1 cells, while NP-containing SAM also induced cytotoxic CD8 T cells. Robust expansions of central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) CD4 and CD8 T cells were also measured. An enhanced recruitment of NP-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells was observed in the lungs of SAM(NP)-immunized mice after influenza infection that paralleled with reduced lung viral titers and pathology, and increased survival after homologous and heterosubtypic influenza challenge. Finally, we demonstrated for the first time that the co-administration of RNA (SAM(M1-NP)) and protein (monovalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MIIV)) was feasible, induced simultaneously NP-, M1- and HA-specific T cells and HA-specific neutralizing antibodies, and enhanced MIIV efficacy against a heterologous challenge. In conclusion, systemic administration of SAM vectors expressing conserved internal influenza antigens induced protective immune responses in mice, supporting the SAM® platform as another promising strategy for the development of broad-spectrum universal influenza vaccines. PMID:27525409

  18. Self-Amplifying mRNA Vaccines Expressing Multiple Conserved Influenza Antigens Confer Protection against Homologous and Heterosubtypic Viral Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Magini, Diletta; Giovani, Cinzia; Mangiavacchi, Simona; Maccari, Silvia; Cecchi, Raffaella; Ulmer, Jeffrey B.; De Gregorio, Ennio; Geall, Andrew J.; Brazzoli, Michela; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Current hemagglutinin (HA)-based seasonal influenza vaccines induce vaccine strain-specific neutralizing antibodies that usually fail to provide protection against mismatched circulating viruses. Inclusion in the vaccine of highly conserved internal proteins such as the nucleoprotein (NP) and the matrix protein 1 (M1) was shown previously to increase vaccine efficacy by eliciting cross-reactive T-cells. However, appropriate delivery systems are required for efficient priming of T-cell responses. In this study, we demonstrated that administration of novel self-amplifying mRNA (SAM®) vectors expressing influenza NP (SAM(NP)), M1 (SAM(M1)), and NP and M1 (SAM(M1-NP)) delivered with lipid nanoparticles (LNP) induced robust polyfunctional CD4 T helper 1 cells, while NP-containing SAM also induced cytotoxic CD8 T cells. Robust expansions of central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) CD4 and CD8 T cells were also measured. An enhanced recruitment of NP-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells was observed in the lungs of SAM(NP)-immunized mice after influenza infection that paralleled with reduced lung viral titers and pathology, and increased survival after homologous and heterosubtypic influenza challenge. Finally, we demonstrated for the first time that the co-administration of RNA (SAM(M1-NP)) and protein (monovalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MIIV)) was feasible, induced simultaneously NP-, M1- and HA-specific T cells and HA-specific neutralizing antibodies, and enhanced MIIV efficacy against a heterologous challenge. In conclusion, systemic administration of SAM vectors expressing conserved internal influenza antigens induced protective immune responses in mice, supporting the SAM® platform as another promising strategy for the development of broad-spectrum universal influenza vaccines. PMID:27525409

  19. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-02-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes (IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon (IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  20. Simultaneous multicolor detection system of the single-molecular microbial antigen by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with fluorescent nanocrystal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Fujioka, Kouki; Yamamoto, Mayu; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yasuhara, Masato; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2005-11-01

    Immunological diagnostic methods have been widely performed and showed high performance in molecular and cellular biology, molecular imaging, and medical diagnostics. We have developed novel methods for the fluorescent labeling of several antibodies coupled with fluorescent nanocrystals QDs. In this study we demonstrated that two bacterial toxins, diphtheria toxin and tetanus toxin, were detected simultaneously in the same view field of a cover slip by using directly QD-conjugated antibodies. We have succeeded in detecting bacterial toxins by counting luminescent spots on the evanescent field with using primary antibody conjugated to QDs. In addition, each bacterial toxin in the mixture can be separately detected by single excitation laser with emission band pass filters, and simultaneously in situ pathogen quantification was performed by calculating the luminescent density on the surface of the cover slip. Our results demonstrate that total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) enables us to distinguish each antigen from mixed samples and can simultaneously quantitate multiple antigens by QD-conjugated antibodies. Bioconjugated QDs could have great potentialities for in practical biomedical applications to develop various high-sensitivity detection systems.

  1. A synthetic peptide vaccine directed against the 2ß2-2ß3 loop of domain 2 of protective antigen protects rabbits from inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Yu, Fen; Cease, Kemp B

    2010-09-15

    The current vaccines for anthrax in the United States and United Kingdom are efficacious in the two most accepted animal models of inhalation anthrax, nonhuman primates and rabbits, but require extensive immunization protocols. We previously demonstrated that a linear determinant in domain 2 of Bacillus anthracis protective Ag (PA) is a potentially important target for an epitope-specific vaccine for anthrax, as Abs specific for this site, referred to as the loop-neutralizing determinant (LND), neutralize lethal toxin in vitro, yet are virtually absent in PA-immunized rabbits. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy in rabbits of multiple antigenic peptides (MAPs) consisting of aa 304-319 from the LND of PA colinearly synthesized at the C terminus (T-B MAP) or N terminus (B-T MAP) with a heterologous T cell epitope from Plasmodium falciparum. Immunogenicity studies demonstrated that both MAPs elicited toxin-neutralizing Ab in rabbits. To evaluate the MAPs as potential anthrax vaccines, we immunized groups of rabbits (n = 7) with each MAP in Freund's adjuvant and then exposed all rabbits to a 200-LD(50) challenge with aerosolized spores of B. anthracis Ames strain. All seven rabbits immunized with the B-T MAP and 89% (six of seven) of rabbits immunized with the T-B MAP survived the spore challenge. Corollary studies with reference sera from human vaccinees immunized with rPA or anthrax vaccine absorbed and nonhuman primates immunized with PA revealed no detectable Ab with specificity for the LND. We conclude that a synthetic peptide vaccine targeting the LND would be a potentially efficacious vaccine for anthrax. PMID:20696862

  2. Synergistic effect of silencing the expression of tick protective antigens 4D8 and Rs86 in Rhipicephalus sanguineus by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Naranjo, Victoria; Blouin, Edmour F; Kocan, Katherine M

    2006-07-01

    Tick proteins have been shown to be useful for the development of vaccines which reduce tick infestations. Potential tick protective antigens have been identified and characterized, in part, by use of RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi allows for analysis of gene function by characterizing the impact of loss of gene expression on tick physiology. Herein, we used RNAi in Rhipicephalus sanguineus to evaluate gene functions of two tick protective antigens, 4D8 and Rs86, the homologue of Bm86, on tick infestation, feeding and oviposition. Silencing of 4D8 alone resulted in decreased tick attachment, survival, feeding and oviposition. Although the effect of Rs86 RNAi was less pronounced, silencing of this gene also reduced tick weight and oviposition. Most notably, simultaneous silencing of 4D8 and Rs86 by RNAi resulted in a synergistic effect in which tick survival, attachment, feeding, weight and oviposition were profoundly reduced. Microscopic evaluation of tick tissues revealed that guts from dual injected ticks were distended with epithelial cells sparsely distributed along the basement membrane. These results demonstrated the synergistic effect of the silencing expression of two tick protective genes. Inclusion of multiple tick protective antigens may, therefore, enhance the efficacy of tick vaccines. PMID:16518610

  3. Directed selection of influenza virus produces antigenic variants that match circulating human virus isolates and escape from vaccine-mediated immune protection.

    PubMed

    DeDiego, Marta L; Anderson, Christopher S; Yang, Hongmei; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Fitzgerald, Theresa; Treanor, John J; Topham, David J

    2016-06-01

    Influenza vaccination does not provide 100% protection from infection, partly due to antigenic drift of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein. Low serum antibody titres increase the risk of infection. To determine whether there were additional correlates of risk, we examined the relationship between human serum immunity and antigenic variation in seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses. Seasonal H3N2 vaccine strains grown in the presence of heterogeneous human or mono-specific ferret antisera selected variants with mutations in the HA antigenic sites. Surprisingly, circulating strains infecting human subjects in the same seasons displayed mutations in the same positions, although only in one case did the change correspond to the same amino acid. Serum antibody titres were lower against both the in vitro selected and clinical isolates compared with the vaccine strains, suggesting that the mutations are relevant to vaccine failure. Antibody titres were also significantly lower in sera from infected subjects than in non-infected subjects, suggesting relatively poor responses to vaccination in the infected subjects. Collectively, the data suggest that risk from influenza infection is a result of poor response to vaccination, as well as encounter with drifted seasonal influenza virus antigenic variants. The results also show that directed selection under human immune pressure could reveal antigenic variants relevant to real-world drifted viruses, helping in annual vaccine re-formulation. PMID:26854888

  4. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  5. Prior infection with influenza virus but not vaccination leaves a long-term immunological imprint that intensifies the protective efficacy of antigenically drifted vaccine strains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Liepkalns, Justine; Reber, Adrian J; Lu, Xiuhua; Music, Nedzad; Jacob, Joshy; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2016-01-20

    The role of pre-existing immunity for influenza vaccine responses is of great importance for public health, and thus has been studied in various contexts, yet the impact of differential priming on vaccine responses in the midst of antigenic drift remains to be elucidated. To address this with antigenically related viruses, mice were first primed by either infection or immunization with A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, then immunized with whole-inactivated A/Fort Monmouth/1/47 (FM1) virus. The ensuing vaccine responses and the protective efficacy of FM1 were superior in PR8 infection-primed mice compared to PR8 immunization-primed or unprimed mice. Increased FM1-specific Ab responses of PR8 infection-primed mice also broadened cross-reactivity against contemporary as well as antigenically more drifted strains. Further, prior infection heightened the protective efficacy of antigenically distant strains, such as A/Brisbane/59/2006 infection followed by immunization with split pandemic H1N1 vaccine (A/California/07/2009). Therefore, influenza infection is a significant priming event that intensifies future vaccine responses against drift strains. PMID:26706277

  6. Influenza virus infection elicits protective antibodies and T cells specific for host cell antigens also expressed as tumor-associated antigens: a new view of cancer immunosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Iheagwara, Uzoma K; Beatty, Pamela L; Van, Phu T; Ross, Ted M; Minden, Jonathan S; Finn, Olivera J

    2014-03-01

    Most tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are self-molecules that are abnormally expressed in cancer cells and become targets of antitumor immune responses. Antibodies and T cells specific for some TAAs have been found in healthy individuals and are associated with lowered lifetime risk for developing cancer. Lower risk for cancer has also been associated with a history of febrile viral diseases. We hypothesized that virus infections could lead to transient expression of abnormal forms of self-molecules, some of which are TAAs; facilitated by the adjuvant effects of infection and inflammation, these molecules could elicit specific antibodies, T cells, and lasting immune memory simultaneously with immunity against viral antigens. Such infection-induced immune memory for TAA would be expected to provide life-long immune surveillance of cancer. Using influenza virus infection in mice as a model system, we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that influenza-experienced mice control 3LL mouse lung tumor challenge better than infection-naive control mice. Using 2D-difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified numerous molecules, some of which are known TAAs, on the 3LL tumor cells recognized by antibodies elicited by two successive influenza infections. We studied in detail immune responses against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone H4, HSP90, malate dehydrogenase 2, and annexin A2, all of which were overexpressed in influenza-infected lungs and in tumor cells. Finally, we show that immune responses generated through vaccination against peptides derived from these antigens correlated with improved tumor control. PMID:24778322

  7. Vaccination with replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses encoding the main surface antigens of toxoplasma gondii induces immune response and protection against infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Bráulia C; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Fux, Blima; Mendes, Erica A; Penido, Marcus L O; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2006-04-01

    We have generated recombinant adenoviruses encoding three genetically modified surface antigens (SAGs) of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, that is, AdSAG1, AdSAG2, and AdSAG3. Modifications included the removal of their glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring motifs and, in some cases, the exchange of the native signal peptide for influenza virus hemagglutinin signal sequence. Adenovirus immunization of BALB/c mice elicited potent antibody responses against each protein, displaying a significant bias toward a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) profile in animals vaccinated with AdSAG1. Furthermore, the presence of parasite-specific IFN-gamma-producing T cells was analyzed by proliferation assays and enzyme-linked immunospot assays in the same animals. Splenocytes from immunized mice secreted IFN-gamma after in vitro stimulation with tachyzoite lysate antigen or with a fraction enriched for membrane-purified GPI-anchored proteins (F3) from the T. gondii tachyzoite surface. Epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells were identified in SAG1 and SAG3, but not SAG2, sequences, although this protein also induced a specific response. We also tested the capacity of the immune responses detected to protect mice against a challenge with live T. gondii parasites. Although no protection was observed against tachyzoites of the highly virulent RH strain, a significant reduction in cyst loads in the brain was observed in animals challenged with the P-Br strain. Thus, up to 80% of the cysts were eliminated from animals vaccinated with a mixture of the three recombinant viruses. Because adenoviruses seemed capable of inducing Th1-biased protective immune responses against T. gondii antigens, other parasite antigens should be tested alone or in combination with those described here to further develop a protective vaccine against toxoplasmosis. PMID:16610929

  8. Expression of VP7, a Bluetongue virus group specific antigen by viral vectors: analysis of the induced immune responses and evaluation of protective potential in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Contreras, Vanessa; Caruso, Agathe; Top, Sokunthea; Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Relmy, Anthony; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Dubois, Eric; Thiery, Richard; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Richardson, Jennifer; Foucras, Gilles; Meyer, Gilles; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important Orbivirus transmitted by biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. The need for new vaccines has been highlighted by the occurrence of repeated outbreaks caused by different BTV serotypes since 1998. The major group-reactive antigen of BTV, VP7, is conserved in the 26 serotypes described so far, and its role in the induction of protective immunity has been proposed. Viral-based vectors as antigen delivery systems display considerable promise as veterinary vaccine candidates. In this paper we have evaluated the capacity of the BTV-2 serotype VP7 core protein expressed by either a non-replicative canine adenovirus type 2 (Cav-VP7 R0) or a leporipoxvirus (SG33-VP7), to induce immune responses in sheep. Humoral responses were elicited against VP7 in almost all animals that received the recombinant vectors. Both Cav-VP7 R0 and SG33-VP7 stimulated an antigen-specific CD4+ response and Cav-VP7 R0 stimulated substantial proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Encouraged by the results obtained with the Cav-VP7 R0 vaccine vector, immunized animals were challenged with either the homologous BTV-2 or the heterologous BTV-8 serotype and viral burden in plasma was followed by real-time RT-PCR. The immune responses triggered by Cav-VP7 R0 were insufficient to afford protective immunity against BTV infection, despite partial protection obtained against homologous challenge. This work underscores the need to further characterize the role of BTV proteins in cross-protective immunity. PMID:25364822

  9. A Bivalent Typhoid Live Vector Vaccine Expressing both Chromosome- and Plasmid-Encoded Yersinia pestis Antigens Fully Protects against Murine Lethal Pulmonary Plague Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Yuan; Carrasco, Jose A.; Lloyd, Scott A.; Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Franco, Olga; Buskirk, Amanda D.; Nataro, James P.; Pasetti, Marcela F.

    2014-01-01

    Live attenuated bacteria hold great promise as multivalent mucosal vaccines against a variety of pathogens. A major challenge of this approach has been the successful delivery of sufficient amounts of vaccine antigens to adequately prime the immune system without overattenuating the live vaccine. Here we used a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain to create a bivalent mucosal plague vaccine that produces both the protective F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis and the LcrV protein required for secretion of virulence effector proteins. To reduce the metabolic burden associated with the coexpression of F1 and LcrV within the live vector, we balanced expression of both antigens by combining plasmid-based expression of F1 with chromosomal expression of LcrV from three independent loci. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this novel vaccine were assessed in mice by using a heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy and compared to those of a conventional strain in which F1 and LcrV were expressed from a single low-copy-number plasmid. The serum antibody responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced by the optimized bivalent vaccine were indistinguishable from those elicited by the parent strain, suggesting an adequate immunogenic capacity maintained through preservation of bacterial fitness; in contrast, LPS titers were 10-fold lower in mice immunized with the conventional vaccine strain. Importantly, mice receiving the optimized bivalent vaccine were fully protected against lethal pulmonary challenge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of distributing foreign antigen expression across both chromosomal and plasmid locations within a single vaccine organism for induction of protective immunity. PMID:25332120

  10. Expression of VP7, a Bluetongue Virus Group Specific Antigen by Viral Vectors: Analysis of the Induced Immune Responses and Evaluation of Protective Potential in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Contreras, Vanessa; Caruso, Agathe; Top, Sokunthea; Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Relmy, Anthony; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Dubois, Eric; Thiery, Richard; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Richardson, Jennifer; Foucras, Gilles; Meyer, Gilles; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important Orbivirus transmitted by biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. The need for new vaccines has been highlighted by the occurrence of repeated outbreaks caused by different BTV serotypes since 1998. The major group-reactive antigen of BTV, VP7, is conserved in the 26 serotypes described so far, and its role in the induction of protective immunity has been proposed. Viral-based vectors as antigen delivery systems display considerable promise as veterinary vaccine candidates. In this paper we have evaluated the capacity of the BTV-2 serotype VP7 core protein expressed by either a non-replicative canine adenovirus type 2 (Cav-VP7 R0) or a leporipoxvirus (SG33-VP7), to induce immune responses in sheep. Humoral responses were elicited against VP7 in almost all animals that received the recombinant vectors. Both Cav-VP7 R0 and SG33-VP7 stimulated an antigen-specific CD4+ response and Cav-VP7 R0 stimulated substantial proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Encouraged by the results obtained with the Cav-VP7 R0 vaccine vector, immunized animals were challenged with either the homologous BTV-2 or the heterologous BTV-8 serotype and viral burden in plasma was followed by real-time RT-PCR. The immune responses triggered by Cav-VP7 R0 were insufficient to afford protective immunity against BTV infection, despite partial protection obtained against homologous challenge. This work underscores the need to further characterize the role of BTV proteins in cross-protective immunity. PMID:25364822

  11. Detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) using europium labeled anti-PA monoclonal antibody and time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Quinn, Conrad P; Schiffer, Jarad M; Boyer, Anne E; Goldstein, Jason; Bagarozzi, Dennis A; Soroka, Stephen D; Dauphin, Leslie A; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a rare but acute infectious disease following adsorption of Bacillus anthracis spores through the lungs. The disease has a high fatality rate if untreated, but early and correct diagnosis has a significant impact on case patient recovery. The early symptoms of inhalation anthrax are, however, non-specific and current anthrax diagnostics are primarily dependent upon culture and confirmatory real-time PCR. Consequently, there may be a significant delay in diagnosis and targeted treatment. Rapid, culture-independent diagnostic tests are therefore needed, particularly in the context of a large scale emergency response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect anthrax toxin proteins that are secreted early in the course of B. anthracis infection using a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) immunoassay. We selected monoclonal antibodies that could detect protective antigen (PA), as PA83 and also PA63 and LF in the lethal toxin complex. The assay reliable detection limit (RDL) was 6.63×10(-6)μM (0.551ng/ml) for PA83 and 2.51×10(-5)μM (1.58ng/ml) for PA63. Despite variable precision and accuracy of the assay, PA was detected in 9 out of 10 sera samples from anthrax confirmed case patients with cutaneous (n=7), inhalation (n=2), and gastrointestinal (n=1) disease. Anthrax Immune Globulin (AIG), which has been used in treatment of clinical anthrax, interfered with detection of PA. This study demonstrates a culture-independent method of diagnosing anthrax through the use of monoclonal antibodies to detect PA and LF in the lethal toxin complex. PMID:24857756

  12. Identification of a Receptor-Binding Region within Domain 4 of the Protective Antigen Component of Anthrax Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Mini; Teixeira, Avelino V.; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H.

    1999-01-01

    Anthrax toxin from Bacillus anthracis is a three-component toxin consisting of lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA). LF and EF are the catalytic components of the toxin, whereas PA is the receptor-binding component. To identify residues of PA that are involved in interaction with the cellular receptor, two solvent-exposed loops of domain 4 of PA (amino acids [aa] 679 to 693 and 704 to 723) were mutagenized, and the altered proteins purified and tested for toxicity in the presence of LF. In addition to the intended substitutions, novel mutations were introduced by errors that occurred during PCR. Substitutions within the large loop (aa 704 to 723) had no effect on PA activity. A mutated protein, LST-35, with three substitutions in the small loop (aa 679 to 693), bound weakly to the receptor and was nontoxic. A mutated protein, LST-8, with changes in three separate regions did not bind to receptor and was nontoxic. Toxicity was greatly decreased by truncation of the C-terminal 3 to 5 aa, but not by their substitution with nonnative residues or the extension of the terminus with nonnative sequences. Comparison of the 28 mutant proteins described here showed that the large loop (aa 704 to 722) is not involved in receptor binding, whereas residues in and near the small loop (aa 679 to 693) play an important role in receptor interaction. Other regions of domain 4, in particular residues at the extreme C terminus, appear to play a role in stabilizing a conformation needed for receptor-binding activity. PMID:10085028

  13. O-mannosylation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Adhesin Apa Is Crucial for T Cell Antigenicity during Infection but Is Expendable for Protection

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, Karen M.; Lucas, Megan; Spencer, John S.; Fang, Sunan; McDonald, Melissa A.; Pohl, Jan; Birkness, Kristin; Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Ramirez, Melissa V.; Plikaytis, Bonnie B.; Posey, James E.; Amara, Rama Rao

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is the most abundant post-translational polypeptide chain modification in nature. Although carbohydrate modification of protein antigens from many microbial pathogens constitutes important components of B cell epitopes, the role in T cell immunity is not completely understood. Here, using ELISPOT and polychromatic flow cytometry, we show that O-mannosylation of the adhesin, Apa, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is crucial for its T cell antigenicity in humans and mice after infection. However, subunit vaccination with both mannosylated and non-mannosylated Apa induced a comparable magnitude and quality of T cell response and imparted similar levels of protection against Mtb challenge in mice. Both forms equally improved waning BCG vaccine-induced protection in elderly mice after subunit boosting. Thus, O-mannosylation of Apa is required for antigenicity but appears to be dispensable for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. These results have implications for the development of subunit vaccines using post-translationally modified proteins such as glycoproteins against infectious diseases like tuberculosis. PMID:24130497

  14. O-mannosylation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis adhesin Apa is crucial for T cell antigenicity during infection but is expendable for protection.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Subhadra; Kannanganat, Sunil; Dobos, Karen M; Lucas, Megan; Spencer, John S; Fang, Sunan; McDonald, Melissa A; Pohl, Jan; Birkness, Kristin; Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Ramirez, Melissa V; Plikaytis, Bonnie B; Posey, James E; Amara, Rama Rao; Sable, Suraj B

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is the most abundant post-translational polypeptide chain modification in nature. Although carbohydrate modification of protein antigens from many microbial pathogens constitutes important components of B cell epitopes, the role in T cell immunity is not completely understood. Here, using ELISPOT and polychromatic flow cytometry, we show that O-mannosylation of the adhesin, Apa, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is crucial for its T cell antigenicity in humans and mice after infection. However, subunit vaccination with both mannosylated and non-mannosylated Apa induced a comparable magnitude and quality of T cell response and imparted similar levels of protection against Mtb challenge in mice. Both forms equally improved waning BCG vaccine-induced protection in elderly mice after subunit boosting. Thus, O-mannosylation of Apa is required for antigenicity but appears to be dispensable for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. These results have implications for the development of subunit vaccines using post-translationally modified proteins such as glycoproteins against infectious diseases like tuberculosis. PMID:24130497

  15. Hydroxychloroquine protects melanocytes from autoantibody-induced injury by reducing the binding of antigen-antibody complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Guang; Hu, Wen-Zhi; Ma, Hui-Jun; Liu, Wen; Yang, Qing-Qi; Zhao, Guang

    2016-08-01

    Vitiligo is a polygenic autoimmune disorder characterized by loss of pigmentation due to melanocyte destruction. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an effective immunosuppressant widely used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders. As generalized vitiligo (GV) is commonly considered to be a T cell and autoantibody-induced immune disorder, the present study aimed to determine whether HCQ protects melanocytes from autoantibody‑induced disruption. Anti‑melanocyte antibodies were obtained from the serum of patients with progressive GV and the effects of HCQ on prevent the autoantibody‑induced disruption of melanocytes was observed. Cell‑based ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence and western blotting were used to analyze the autoantibody content of sera samples obtained from 32 patients with progressive GV. The cytotoxicity of HCQ was detected by MTT assay, and 1 µg/ml HCQ was applied to human primary melanocytes (HMCs) to examine whether it could exert protective effects against autoantibody‑induced immune injury. Flow cytometry was used to measure autoantibody binding to the surface of HMCs. Complement‑dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody‑dependent cell‑mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) were monitored by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase‑releasing assays. The concentration of autoantibodies in sera samples taken from GV patients was significantly higher than in controls, particularly in patients who had >10% of their body surface affected by vitiligo. The majority of the autoantibodies presented in the HMCs and human keratinocytes (HKCs) and were predominantly localized to the cell surface and cytoplasm. The molecular weights of the autoantigens were identified as 30, 37‑39, 42, 53, 60‑75, 90, 100, 110, and 126 kDa; the 30 kDa protein was observed only in HMCs. The addition of HCQ at a concentration of 1 µg/ml produced no significant cytotoxicity in HMCs and was demonstrated to reduce the binding of GV immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the surface of HMCs

  16. Immobilization antigen vaccine adjuvanted by parasitic heat shock protein 70C confers high protection in fish against cryptocaryonosis.

    PubMed

    Josepriya, T A; Chien, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Han-Ning; Wu, Chang-Jer; Song, Yen-Ling

    2015-08-01

    The immobilization antigen (iAg) has been demonstrated as a protective immunogen against Cryptocaryon irritans infection. In this study, C-terminal domain of heat shock protein 70 cloned from C. irritans (Hsp70C) was tested for its immuno-stimulatory effects. The iAg and Hsp70C cDNAs were constructed independently in secretory forms and were encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. In the first immunization trial, grouper fingerlings orally intubated with iAg and iAg:Hsp70C presented 96% and 100% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively, after a lethal challenge. In the second trial, both iAg and iAg:Hsp70C groups showed 100% RPS and the skin trophont burden was significantly lowered. The iAg:Hsp70C still provides a significantly high protection of 51% RPS at 49 days post immunization, when an even more serious lethal infection occurs. RT-qPCR results showed that Hsp70C could up-regulate the expression of i) T cell markers: Cluster of Differentiation 8 alpha (CD8α) and CD4, ii) cytokine genes: Interferon gamma (IFNγ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) and Interleukin 12 p40 (IL-12/P40), iii) antibody genes: Immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgMH) and IgTH, and iv) major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I & MHC-II), in the spleen of iAg:Hsp70C group. Furthermore, significantly high levels of iAg-specific IgM was detected in skin mucus which efficiently immobilized live theronts in iAg- and iAg:Hsp70C-immunized fish at 5 weeks post immunization. Hsp70C significantly increased the number of nonspecific CD8(+) skin leucocytes which exerted cytotoxicity against theronts, although cytotoxic activity showed no difference among the various groups. Because of this complementary cooperation of cellular and humoral immune responses, Hsp70C enhances the efficacy of iAg vaccine and constrains C. irritans infection. In view of the severe loss caused by cryptocaryonosis, application of this parasitic vaccine in farmed and ornamental fish, is worthy to be considered. PMID

  17. Recombinant V antigen protects mice against pneumonic and bubonic plague caused by F1-capsule-positive and -negative strains of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G W; Leary, S E; Williamson, E D; Titball, R W; Welkos, S L; Worsham, P L; Friedlander, A M

    1996-01-01

    The purified recombinant V antigen from Yersinia pestis, expressed in Escherichia coli and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, an adjuvant approved for human use, was used to immunize outbred Hsd:ND4 mice subcutaneously. Immunization protected mice from lethal bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by CO92, a wild-type F1+ strain, or by the isogenic F1- strain C12. This work demonstrates that a subunit plague vaccine formulated for human use provides significant protection against bubonic plague caused by an F1- strain (C12) or against substantial aerosol challenges from either F1+ (CO92) or F1-(C12) Y. pestis. PMID:8890210

  18. Protective efficacy of a 62-kilodalton antigen, HIS-62, from the cell wall and cell membrane of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, F J; Gomez, A M; Deepe, G S

    1991-01-01

    We reported previously that a detergent extract of the cell wall and cell membrane of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells contains antigens recognized by T cells. In T-cell immunoblot analysis, a region encompassing 62 kDa was stimulatory for an H. capsulatum-reactive T-cell line and T-cell clones derived from C57BL/6 mice. In this study, we isolated a 62-kDa band, termed HIS-62, from electrophoresed cell wall and cell membrane of H. capsulatum yeast cells and examined its antigenicity and immunogenicity. C57BL/6, BALB/c, and CBA/J mice that were immunized with viable H. capsulatum yeast cells mounted a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to HIS-62 that was stronger than that of normal controls. Spleen cells from each strain of mouse immunized with viable yeast cells proliferated vigorously in response to HIS-62; conversely, splenocytes from control animals did not recognize this antigen. A T-cell line and 5 of 5 T-cell clones from C57BL/6 mice, 10 of 15 BALB/c T-cell hybridomas, and 8 of 12 CBA/J T-cell hybridomas recognized HIS-62. A cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity response to the antigen was apparent in each strain of mouse that was injected with 80 micrograms of HIS-62 mixed with Freund adjuvant. In addition, spleen cells from HIS-62-immunized mice proliferated in vitro in response to this antigen. Vaccination of each strain of mouse with 80 micrograms of HIS-62 conferred protection against a lethal intravenous challenge with H. capsulatum yeast cells. Thus, HIS-62 appears to be an important target of the cellular immune response to H. capsulatum and induces a protective immune response in mice. Images PMID:1937804

  19. Protection against Invasive Amebiasis by a Single Monoclonal Antibody Directed against a Lipophosphoglycan Antigen Localized on the Surface of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Marinets, Alexandra; Zhang, Tonghai; Guillén, Nancy; Gounon, Pierre; Bohle, Barbara; Vollmann, Ute; Scheiner, Otto; Wiedermann, Gerhard; Stanley, Samuel L.; Duchêne, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised from mice immunized with a membrane preparation from Entamoeba histolytica, the pathogenic species causing invasive amebiasis in humans. Antibody EH5 gave a polydisperse band in immunoblots from membrane preparations from different E. histolytica strains, and a much weaker signal from two strains of the nonpathogenic species Entamoeba dispar. Although the exact chemical structure of the EH5 antigen is not yet known, the ability of the antigen to be metabolically radiolabeled with [32P]phosphate or [3H]glucose, its sensitivity to digestion by mild acid and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, and its specific extraction from E. histolytica trophozoites by a method used to prepare lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania showed that it could be classified as an amebal lipophosphoglycan. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling of trophozoites localized the antigen on the outer face of the plasma membrane and on the inner face of internal vesicle membranes. Antibody EH5 strongly agglutinated amebas in a similar way to concanavalin A (Con A), and Con A bound to immunoaffinity-purified EH5 antigen. Therefore, surface lipophosphoglycans may play an important role in the preferential agglutination of pathogenic amebas by Con A. The protective ability of antibody EH5 was tested in a passive immunization experiment in a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. Intrahepatic challenge of animals after administration of an isotype-matched control antibody or without treatment led to the development of a liver abscess in all cases, whereas 11 out of 12 animals immunized with the EH5 antibody developed no liver abscess. Our results demonstrate the importance and, for the first time, the protective capacity of glycan antigens on the surface of the amebas. PMID:9348313

  20. Vaccination focusing immunity on conserved antigens protects mice and ferrets against virulent H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Price, Graeme E; Soboleski, Mark R; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A; Pappas, Claudia; Houser, Katherine V; Tumpey, Terrence M; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2009-11-01

    Immunization against conserved virus components induces broad, heterosubtypic protection against diverse influenza A viruses, providing a strategy for controlling unexpected outbreaks or pandemics until strain-matched vaccines become available. This study characterized immunization to nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 2 (M2) by DNA priming followed by parenteral or mucosal boosting in mice and ferrets. DNA vaccination followed by boosting with antigen-matched recombinant adenovirus (rAd) or cold-adapted (ca) influenza virus provided robust protection against virulent H1N1 and H5N1 challenges. Compared to other boosts, mucosal rAd induced stronger IgA responses, more virus-specific activated T-cells in the lung, and better protection against morbidity following challenge even eight months post-boost. In ferrets, both mucosal and parenteral rAd boosting protected from lethal H5N1 challenge. These findings demonstrate potent protection by vaccination highly focused on conserved antigens and identify immune response measures in mice that differed among vaccinations and correlated with outcome. PMID:19729082

  1. Discovery of a Protective Rickettsia prowazekii Antigen Recognized by CD8+ T Cells, RP884, Using an In Vivo Screening Platform

    PubMed Central

    Goez, Yenny; Cespedes, Maria A.; Hidalgo, Marylin; Correa, Paula; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii has been tested for biological warfare due to the high mortality that it produces after aerosol transmission of very low numbers of rickettsiae. Epidemic typhus, the infection caused by these obligately intracellular bacteria, continues to be a threat because it is difficult to diagnose due to initial non-specific symptoms and the lack of commercial diagnostic tests that are sensitive and specific during the initial clinical presentation. A vaccine to prevent epidemic typhus would constitute an effective deterrent to the weaponization of R. prowazekii; however, an effective and safe vaccine is not currently available. Due to the cytoplasmic niche of Rickettsia, CD8+ T-cells are critical effectors of immunity; however, the identification of antigens recognized by these cells has not been systematically addressed. To help close this gap, we designed an antigen discovery strategy that uses cell-based vaccination with antigen presenting cells expressing microbe's proteins targeted to the MHC class I presentation pathway. We report the use of this method to discover a protective T-cell rickettsial antigen, RP884, among a test subset of rickettsial proteins. PMID:24146844

  2. Bacterial membranes enhance the immunogenicity and protective capacity of the surface exposed tick Subolesin-Anaplasma marginale MSP1a chimeric antigen.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Marinela; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Domingos, Ana; Canales, Mario; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Sánchez, Emilio; Merino, Octávio; Zavala, Rigoberto López; Ayllón, Nieves; Boadella, Mariana; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are vectors of diseases that affect humans and animals worldwide. Tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative for tick control. Recently, the Rhipicephalus microplus Subolesin (SUB)-Anaplasma marginale MSP1a chimeric antigen was produced in Escherichia coli as membrane-bound and exposed protein and used to protect vaccinated cattle against tick infestations. In this research, lipidomics and proteomics characterization of the E. coli membrane-bound SUB-MSP1a antigen showed the presence of components with potential adjuvant effect. Furthermore, vaccination with membrane-free SUB-MSP1a and bacterial membranes containing SUB-MSP1a showed that bacterial membranes enhance the immunogenicity of the SUB-MSP1a antigen in animal models. R. microplus female ticks were capillary-fed with sera from pigs orally immunized with membrane-free SUB, membrane bound SUB-MSP1a and saline control. Ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on reduction of tick weight was shown for membrane bound SUB-MSP1a but not SUB when compared to control. Using the simple and cost-effective process developed for the purification of membrane-bound SUB-MSP1a, endotoxin levels were within limits accepted for recombinant vaccines. These results provide further support for the development of tick vaccines using E. coli membranes exposing chimeric antigens such as SUB-MSP1a. PMID:26219233

  3. Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune response to different antigens of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in Canindé goats and their potential protection against caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Moura-Costa, L F; Bahia, R C; Carminati, R; Vale, V L C; Paule, B J A; Portela, R W; Freire, S M; Nascimento, I; Schaer, R; Barreto, L M S; Meyer, R

    2008-11-15

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that affects goats and sheep, and can cause severe economic losses. In this study, four different antigenic extracts were obtained from the attenuated strain T1, which was isolated in the state of Bahia (Brazil). Forty-four Canindé breed goats were divided in five groups, each receiving a different antigen solution and saline buffer as a control. The humoral response was monitored through the identification of specific IgG by indirect ELISA and Western Blotting, and the production of IFN-gamma was followed in order to observe the activation of cellular response. After twelve weeks of antigen inoculation, the animals were challenged with 2 x 10(5)CFU of a wild strain, also isolated in Bahia, and necropsy was performed on all animals twelve weeks afterwards. It was observed that the attenuated bacteria gave a protection of 33.3%, in addition to the weak humoral response elicited. Animals inoculated with secreted antigen associated with Freund's incomplete adjuvant and oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODN) showed a strong humoral response, but this inoculation could not prevent the spread of challenge bacteria in the majority of animals. These results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of the attenuated T1 strain in the development of a vaccine against caseous lymphadenitis in goats. PMID:18752855

  4. Signaling When (and When Not) to Be Cautious and Self-Protective: Impulsive and Reflective Trust in Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sandra L.; Pinkus, Rebecca T.; Holmes, John G.; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leder, Sadie

    2011-01-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner’s caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the IAT) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner’s trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity. PMID:21443370

  5. Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective: impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sandra L; Pinkus, Rebecca T; Holmes, John G; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L; Leder, Sadie

    2011-09-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner's caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Association Test; Zayas & Shoda, 2005) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner's trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity. PMID:21443370

  6. Multiepitope fusion antigen induces broadly protective antibodies that prevent adherence of Escherichia coli strains expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Wollenberg, Katie M; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years and continues to be a major threat to global health. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains are able to attach to host small intestinal epithelial cells by using bacterial colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins. This attachment helps to initiate the diarrheal disease. Vaccines that induce antiadhesin immunity to block adherence of ETEC strains that express immunologically heterogeneous CFA adhesins are expected to protect against ETEC diarrhea. In this study, we created a CFA multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) carrying representative epitopes of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, and CS3), and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, and CS6), examined its immunogenicity in mice, and assessed the potential of this MEFA as an antiadhesin vaccine against ETEC. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with this CFA MEFA exhibited no adverse effects and developed immune responses to CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV adhesins. Moreover, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, ETEC or E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV adhesins were significantly inhibited in adherence to Caco-2 cells. Our results indicated this CFA MEFA elicited antibodies that not only cross-reacted to CFA/I, CFA/II and CFA/IV adhesins but also broadly inhibited adherence of E. coli strains expressing these seven adhesins and suggested that this CFA MEFA could be a candidate to induce broad-spectrum antiadhesin protection against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, this antigen construction approach (creating an MEFA) may be generally used in vaccine development against heterogenic pathogens. PMID:24351757

  7. Long-lived antigen-induced IgM plasma cells demonstrate somatic mutations and contribute to long-term protection

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon, Caitlin; Powers, Ryan; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Cui, Ang; Tipton, Christopher; Michaeli, Miri; Skountzou, Ioanna; Mittler, Robert S.; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Mehr, Ramit; Lee, Frances Eun-Yun; Sanz, Ignacio; Jacob, Joshy

    2016-01-01

    Long-lived plasma cells are critical to humoral immunity as a lifelong source of protective antibodies. Antigen-activated B cells—with T-cell help—undergo affinity maturation within germinal centres and persist as long-lived IgG plasma cells in the bone marrow. Here we show that antigen-specific, induced IgM plasma cells also persist for a lifetime. Unlike long-lived IgG plasma cells, which develop in germinal centres and then home to the bone marrow, IgM plasma cells are primarily retained within the spleen and can develop even in the absence of germinal centres. Interestingly, their expressed IgV loci exhibit somatic mutations introduced by the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). However, these IgM plasma cells are probably not antigen-selected, as replacement mutations are spread through the variable segment and not enriched within the CDRs. Finally, antibodies from long-lived IgM plasma cells provide protective host immunity against a lethal virus challenge. PMID:27270306

  8. Polyvalent DNA vaccines expressing HA antigens of H5N1 influenza viruses with an optimized leader sequence elicit cross-protective antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shixia; Hackett, Anthony; Jia, Na; Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Lu; Parker, Chris; Zhou, An; Li, Jun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Huang, Zuhu; Li, Yan; Lu, Shan

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are circulating among poultry populations in parts of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, and have caused human infections with a high mortality rate. H5 subtype hemagglutinin (HA) has evolved into phylogenetically distinct clades and subclades based on viruses isolated from various avian species. Since 1997, humans have been infected by HPAI H5N1 viruses from several clades. It is, therefore, important to develop strategies to produce protective antibody responses against H5N1 viruses from multiple clades or antigenic groups. In the current study, we optimized the signal peptide design of DNA vaccines expressing HA antigens from H5N1 viruses. Cross reactivity analysis using sera from immunized rabbits showed that antibody responses elicited by a polyvalent formulation, including HA antigens from different clades, was able to elicit broad protective antibody responses against multiple key representative H5N1 viruses across different clades. Data presented in this report support the development of a polyvalent DNA vaccine strategy against the threat of a potential H5N1 influenza pandemic. PMID:22205966

  9. Expression, purification, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a recombinant Tc24 antigen as a vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Campos, Viridiana; Martinez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Ortega-López, Jaime; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-08-26

    The Tc24 calcium binding protein from the flagellar pocket of Trypanosoma cruzi is under evaluation as a candidate vaccine antigen against Chagas disease. Previously, a DNA vaccine encoding Tc24 was shown to be an effective vaccine (both as a preventive and therapeutic intervention) in mice and dogs, as evidenced by reductions in T. cruzi parasitemia and cardiac amastigotes, as well as reduced cardiac inflammation and increased host survival. Here we developed a suitable platform for the large scale production of recombinant Tc24 (rTc24) and show that when rTc24 is combined with a monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant, the formulated vaccine induces a Th1-biased immune response in mice, comprised of elevated IgG2a antibody levels and interferon-gamma levels from splenocytes, compared to controls. These immune responses also resulted in statistically significant decreased T. cruzi parasitemia and cardiac amastigotes, as well as increased survival following T. cruzi challenge infections, compared to controls. Partial protective efficacy was shown regardless of whether the antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli or in yeast (Pichia pastoris). While mouse vaccinations will require further modifications in order to optimize protective efficacy, such studies provide a basis for further evaluations of vaccines comprised of rTc24, together with alternative adjuvants and additional recombinant antigens. PMID:26192358

  10. Long-lived antigen-induced IgM plasma cells demonstrate somatic mutations and contribute to long-term protection.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Caitlin; Powers, Ryan; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Cui, Ang; Tipton, Christopher; Michaeli, Miri; Skountzou, Ioanna; Mittler, Robert S; Kleinstein, Steven H; Mehr, Ramit; Lee, Francis Eun-Yun; Sanz, Ignacio; Jacob, Joshy

    2016-01-01

    Long-lived plasma cells are critical to humoral immunity as a lifelong source of protective antibodies. Antigen-activated B cells-with T-cell help-undergo affinity maturation within germinal centres and persist as long-lived IgG plasma cells in the bone marrow. Here we show that antigen-specific, induced IgM plasma cells also persist for a lifetime. Unlike long-lived IgG plasma cells, which develop in germinal centres and then home to the bone marrow, IgM plasma cells are primarily retained within the spleen and can develop even in the absence of germinal centres. Interestingly, their expressed IgV loci exhibit somatic mutations introduced by the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). However, these IgM plasma cells are probably not antigen-selected, as replacement mutations are spread through the variable segment and not enriched within the CDRs. Finally, antibodies from long-lived IgM plasma cells provide protective host immunity against a lethal virus challenge. PMID:27270306

  11. Affinity binding of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Ingavle, Ganesh C; Baillie, Les W J; Zheng, Yishan; Lis, Elzbieta K; Savina, Irina N; Howell, Carol A; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Sandeman, Susan R

    2015-05-01

    Polymeric cryogels are efficient carriers for the immobilization of biomolecules because of their unique macroporous structure, permeability, mechanical stability and different surface chemical functionalities. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the potential use of macroporous monolithic cryogels for biotoxin removal using anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), the central cell-binding component of the anthrax exotoxins, and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibodies. The affinity ligand (protein A) was chemically coupled to the reactive hydroxyl and epoxy-derivatized monolithic cryogels and the binding efficiencies of protein A, monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel column were determined. Our results show differences in the binding capacity of protein A as well as monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel adsorbents caused by ligand concentrations, physical properties and morphology of surface matrices. The cytotoxicity potential of the cryogels was determined by an in vitro viability assay using V79 lung fibroblast as a model cell and the results reveal that the cryogels are non-cytotoxic. Finally, the adsorptive capacities of PA from phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were evaluated towards a non-glycosylated, plant-derived human monoclonal antibody (PANG) and a glycosylated human monoclonal antibody (Valortim(®)), both of which were covalently attached via protein A immobilization. Optimal binding capacities of 108 and 117 mg/g of antibody to the adsorbent were observed for PANG attached poly(acrylamide-allyl glycidyl ether) [poly(AAm-AGE)] and Valortim(®) attached poly(AAm-AGE) cryogels, respectively, This indicated that glycosylation status of Valortim(®) antibody could significantly increase (8%) its binding capacity relative to the PANG antibody on poly(AAm-AGE)-protien-A column (p < 0.05). The amounts of PA which remained in the solution after passing PA spiked PBS through PANG or Valortim bound poly(AAm-AGE) cryogel were significantly (p < 0

  12. Antigen spreading-induced CD8+T cells confer protection against the lethal challenge of wild-type malignant mesothelioma by eliminating myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon Kiat; Tang, Jiansong; Wu, Xilin; Cheung, Ka-Wai; Lok Lo, Nathan Tin; Man, Kwan; Liu, Li; Chen, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    A key focus in cancer immunotherapy is to investigate the mechanism of efficacious vaccine responses. Using HIV-1 GAG-p24 in a model PD1-based DNA vaccine, we recently reported that vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells conferred complete prevention and therapeutic cure of AB1-GAG malignant mesothelioma in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Here, we further investigated the efficacy and correlation of protection on the model vaccine-mediated antigen spreading against wild-type AB1 (WT-AB1) mesothelioma. We found that this vaccine was able to protect mice completely from three consecutive lethal challenges of AB1-GAG mesothelioma. Through antigen spreading these animals also developed tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, but neither CD4+ T cells nor antibodies, rejecting WT-AB1 mesothelioma. A majority of these protected mice (90%) were also completely protected against the lethal WT-AB1 challenge. Adoptive cell transfer experiments further demonstrated that antigen spreading-induced CD8+ T cells conferred efficacious therapeutic effects against established WT-AB1 mesothelioma and prevented the increase of exhausted PD-1+ and Tim-3+ CD8+ T cells. A significant inverse correlation was found between the frequency of functional PD1−Tim3− CD8+ T cells and that of MDSCs or tumor mass in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that WT-AB1 mesothelioma induced predominantly polymorphonuclear (PMN) MDSCs in vivo. In co-cultures with efficacious CD8+ T cells, a significant number of PMN-MDSCs underwent apoptosis in a dose-dependent way. Our findings indicate that efficacious CD8+ T cells capable of eliminating both tumor cells and MDSCs are likely necessary for fighting wild-type malignant mesothelioma. PMID:26431275

  13. Immunochemical characterization and purification of Sm-97 a Schistosoma manosin antigen monospecifically recognized by antibodies from mice protectively immunized with a nonliving vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, E.J.; James, S.L.; Dalton, J.; Barrall, A.; Ramos, C.; Strand, M.; Sher, A.

    1986-12-01

    Mice protected against Shistosoma mansoni infection by intradermal (i.d.) vaccination with nonliving schistosomula or soluble extracts of larval or adult schistosomes (SCHLARP and SWAP, respectively) produce antibodies that react by Western blot analysis with one antigen of M/sub r/ (x 10/sup -3/) 97 in SWAP prepared in the presence of protease inhibitors and two antigens of M/sub r/ (x 10/sup -3/) 95 and 78 in SWAP prepared in their absence. Vaccine antibodies also immunoprecipitated a single 97k molecule, with a pI of 5.5, from detergent extracts of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled schistosomes. Three hybridomas, produced from spleen cells of i.d. immunized mice, all recognized both the 95k/78k doublet and one 97k antigen, indicating that the two lower M/sub r/ components are degradation products of the same 97k molecule. /sup 125/I-concanavalin a bound weakly to purified Sm-97, indicating that this antigen is minimally glycosylated. Competitive radioimmunoassays performed with /sup 125/I-labeled monoclonal antibodies and purified antigen defined at least two distinct epitopes on Sm-97. Antibodies from i.d. vaccinated mice recognized both monoclonal antibody-defined epitopes, whereas anti-Sm-97 antibodies in chronic infection sera recognized neither. Finally, purified Sm-97 was shown to elicit delayed-type hypersensitivity in i.d. vaccinated mice, suggesting that this molecule is also capable of evoking cell-mediated responses, a finding consistent with its proposed function as a vaccine immunogen.

  14. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant adenoviral based vaccine expressing heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) and K99 adhesion antigen of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guangcun; Li, Wu; Wu, Xiaoling; Bao, Shaowen; Zeng, Jin; Zhao, Ning; Luo, Meihui; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2015-12-01

    The diarrheal disease of domestic animals or in humans caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections remains a major issue for public health in developing countries. Unfortunately, there is no effective vaccine available for preventing from an ETEC infection. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine against ETEC is urgently needed. In the present study, A recombinant adenoviral vector Ad5-STa-K99 that capable of expressing a fusion protein of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) and K99 adhesion antigen of ETEC was generated and its immunogenicity was evaluated in a murine model. The intestinal mucosal secretory IgA(sIgA), serum anti-STa-K99 antibody responses, antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells frequencies, as well as T-cell proliferation of mice immunized with the viral vector were determined as immunological indexes. The results demonstrated that Ad5-STa-K99 was able to enhance humoral responses with a dramatically augmented antigen-specific serum IgG antibody, and an elevated production of intestinal sIgA in immunized mice, suggesting the elicitation of both of humoral and mucosal immune responses. In addition, this adenoviral vector could significantly promote splenic T cell proliferation and increase the frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations in mice, indicative of a capacity to activate T cell responses. More importantly, vaccination of the Ad5-STa-K99 showed a potential to evoke a protective effect from ETEC challenge in mice. These data indicate that the Ad5-STa-K99 is a highly immunogenic vector able to induce a broad range of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, and evoke a protective immune response against ETEC infections, implying that it may be a novel vaccine candidate warranted for further investigation. PMID:26589454

  15. Total internal reflection plasmonic scattering-based fluorescence-free nanoimmunosensor probe for ultra-sensitive detection of cancer antigen 125.

    PubMed

    Chakkarapani, Suresh Kumar; Zhang, Peng; Ahn, Sujin; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-07-15

    Highly sensitive detection of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) on nanoarray chips was carried out by means of total internal reflection (TIR) microscopy based on fluorescent labeling (i.e., TIR fluorescence microscopy; TIRFM) and fluorescent-free labeling (TIR scattering microscopy; TIRSM). TIR plasmonic scattering of nanoparticles (NPs) as a fluorescence-free immunosensor probe potentially superior to fluorescent probes was applied to quantify CA125 on a nanoarray chip. NP-labeled CA125 (NP-CA125) was immunoreacted on chips, and the TIR scattering illumination of NP-CA125 allowed quantitative TIRSM measurement of wavelength-dependent plasmonic scattering detection of CA125. In addition, Alexafluor 488-labeled CA125 was immunoreacted on the same chips for comparison of detection sensitivity. TIRSM showed less photobleaching and higher photostability and detection sensitivity than TIRFM, as well as a lower limit of detection (LOD), 0.0018U/mL. This LOD was ~144 times lower than that of previously reported detection methods. These results demonstrated that the wavelength-dependent TIR plasmon NPs can be used as an enhanced nanoimmunosensor probe, providing ultra-sensitive fluorescence-free biomolecule detection to enable earliest-stage disease diagnosis. PMID:26913504

  16. Autoreactive natural killer T cells: promoting immune protection and immune tolerance through varied interactions with myeloid antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Subramanya; Fox, Lisa; Wang, Xiaohua; Gumperz, Jenny E

    2010-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate T lymphocytes that are restricted by CD1d antigen-presenting molecules and recognize lipids and glycolipids as antigens. NKT cells have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. Like other types of regulatory lymphocytes, a high proportion of NKT cells appear to be autoreactive to self antigens. Thus, as myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) constitutively express CD1d, NKT cells are able to interact with these APCs not only during times of immune activation but also in immunologically quiescent periods. The interactions of NKT cells with myeloid APCs can have either pro-inflammatory or tolerizing outcomes, and a central question is how the ensuing response is determined. Here we bring together published results from a variety of model systems to highlight three critical factors that influence the outcome of the NKT–APC interaction: (i) the strength of the antigenic signal delivered to the NKT cell, as determined by antigen abundance and/or T-cell receptor (TCR) affinity; (ii) the presence or absence of cytokines that costimulate NKT cells [e.g. interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and interferon (IFN)-α]; (iii) APC intrinsic factors such as differentiation state (e.g. monocyte versus DC) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. Together with recent findings that demonstrate new links between NKT cell activation and endogenous lipid metabolism, these results outline a picture in which the functions of NKT cells are closely attuned to the existing biological context. Thus, NKT cells may actively promote tolerance until a critical level of danger signals arises, at which point they switch to activating pro-inflammatory immune responses. PMID:20465577

  17. An IgG1 titre to the F1 and V antigens correlates with protection against plague in the mouse model

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMSON, E D; VESEY, P M; GILLHESPY, K J; ELEY, S M; GREEN, M; TITBALL, R W

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify an immunological correlate of protection for a two-component subunit vaccine for plague, using a mouse model. The components of the vaccine are the F1 and V antigens of the plague-causing organism, Yersinia pestis, which are coadsorbed to alhydrogel and administered intramuscularly. The optimum molar ratio of the subunits was determined by keeping the dose-level of either subunit constant whilst varying the other and observing the effect on specific antibody titre. A two-fold molar excess of F1 to V, achieved by immunizing with 10 μg of each antigen, resulted in optimum antibody titres. The dose of vaccine required to protect against an upper and lower subcutaneous challenge with Y. pestis was determined by administering doses in the range 10 μg F1 + 10 μg V to 0.01 μg F1 + 0.01 μg V in a two-dose regimen. For animals immunized at the 1-μg dose level or higher with F1 + V, an increase in specific IgG1 titre was observed over the 8 months post-boost and they were fully protected against a subcutaneous challenge with 105 colony-forming units (CFU) virulent Y. pestis at this time point. However, immunization with 5 μg or more of each subunit was required to achieve protection against challenge with 107 CFU Y. pestis. A new finding of this study is that the combined titre of the IgG1 subclass, developed to F1 plus V, correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with protection. The titres of IgG1 in vaccinated mice which correlated with 90%, 50% and 10% protection have been determined and provide a useful model to predict vaccine efficacy in man. PMID:10209513

  18. The Effect of Different Adjuvants on Immune Parameters and Protection following Vaccination of Sheep with a Larval-Specific Antigen of the Gastrointestinal Nematode, Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, David; Preston, Sarah; Kemp, Joanna; de Veer, Michael; Sherrard, Jayne; Kraska, Troy; Elhay, Martin; Meeusen, Els

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been recognised that vaccine adjuvants play a critical role in directing the nature of a vaccine induced effector response. In the present study, several adjuvants were evaluated for their ability to protect sheep after field vaccination with the larval-specific Haemonchus contortus antigen, HcsL3. Using a suboptimal antigen dose, aluminium adjuvant was shown to reduce the cumulative faecal egg counts (cFEC) and worm burden by 23% and 25% respectively, in agreement with a previous study. The addition of Quil A to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine brought cFEC back to control levels. Vaccination with the adjuvant DEAE-dextran almost doubled the protection compared to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine resulting in 40% and 41% reduction in cFEC and worm counts compared to controls. Examination of skin responses following i.d. injection of exsheathed L3, revealed that cFEC was negatively correlated with wheal size and tissue eosinophils for the DEAE-dextran and aluminium-adjuvanted groups respectively. These studies have for the first time shown the potential of DEAE-dextran adjuvant for helminth vaccines, and discovered significant cellular correlates of vaccine-induced protection. PMID:24205209

  19. The effect of different adjuvants on immune parameters and protection following vaccination of sheep with a larval-specific antigen of the gastrointestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, David; Preston, Sarah; Kemp, Joanna; de Veer, Michael; Sherrard, Jayne; Kraska, Troy; Elhay, Martin; Meeusen, Els

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been recognised that vaccine adjuvants play a critical role in directing the nature of a vaccine induced effector response. In the present study, several adjuvants were evaluated for their ability to protect sheep after field vaccination with the larval-specific Haemonchus contortus antigen, HcsL3. Using a suboptimal antigen dose, aluminium adjuvant was shown to reduce the cumulative faecal egg counts (cFEC) and worm burden by 23% and 25% respectively, in agreement with a previous study. The addition of Quil A to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine brought cFEC back to control levels. Vaccination with the adjuvant DEAE-dextran almost doubled the protection compared to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine resulting in 40% and 41% reduction in cFEC and worm counts compared to controls. Examination of skin responses following i.d. injection of exsheathed L3, revealed that cFEC was negatively correlated with wheal size and tissue eosinophils for the DEAE-dextran and aluminium-adjuvanted groups respectively. These studies have for the first time shown the potential of DEAE-dextran adjuvant for helminth vaccines, and discovered significant cellular correlates of vaccine-induced protection. PMID:24205209

  20. Optimizing Immunization Strategies for the Induction of Antigen-Specific CD4 and CD8 T Cell Responses for Protection against Intracellular Parasites.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyer, Kimberly A; Duthie, Malcolm S; Laurance, John D; Favila, Michelle A; Van Hoeven, Neal; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Immunization strategies that generate either CD4 or CD8 T cell responses are relatively well described, but less is known with regard to optimizing regimens to induce both CD4 and CD8 memory T cells. Considering the importance of both CD4 and CD8 T cells in the control of intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania donovani, we wanted to identify vaccines that could raise both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses and determine how to configure immunization strategies to generate the best combined protective T cell response. We examined responses generated against the Leishmania vaccine antigen F3 following its administration in either recombinant form with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist-containing adjuvant formulation GLA-SE (F3+GLA-SE) or as a gene product delivered in an adenoviral vector (Ad5-F3). Homologous immunization strategies using only F3+GLA-SE or Ad5-F3 preferentially generated either CD4 or CD8 T cells, respectively. In contrast, heterologous strategies generated both antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Administration of F3+GLA-SE before Ad5-F3 generated the greatest combined CD4 and CD8 responses. Cytotoxic CD8 T cell responses were highest when Th1 cells were generated prior to their induction by Ad5-F3. Finally, a single immunization with a combination of F3+GLA-SE mixed with Ad5-F3 was found to be sufficient to provide protection against experimental L. donovani infection. Taken together, our data delineate immunization regimens that induce antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell memory responses, and identify a single immunization strategy that could be used to rapidly provide protection against intracellular pathogens in regions where access to health care is limited or sporadic. PMID:27466350

  1. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-01

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2μg or 2.3 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9 μg or 2.2 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9 μg HA and 2.2 μg HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2 μg HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9μg HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9 μg HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2 μg HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a

  2. Regulated delayed synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and enterobacterial common antigen of Salmonella Typhimurium enhances immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy against heterologous Salmonella challenge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun; Liu, Qing; Luo, Yali; Li, Pei; Liu, Qiong; Kong, Qingke

    2016-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen and enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) are two major polysaccharide structures on the surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Previous studies have demonstrated that regulated truncation of LPS enhances the cross-reaction against conserved outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from enteric bacteria. We speculate that the regulation of both O-antigen and ECA may enhance the induction of immune responses against conserved OMPs from enteric bacteria. In this work we targeted rfbB and rffG genes which encode dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratases and share the same function in regulating O-antigen and ECA synthesis. We constructed a mutant, S496 (ΔrfbB6 ΔrffG7 ΔpagL73::TT araC PBADrfbB-3), in which rfbB gene expression was dependent on exogenously supplied arabinose during in vitro growth and achieved the simultaneous tight regulation of both LPS and ECA synthesis, as demonstrated by the LPS profile and Western blotting using antisera against LPS and ECA. When administered orally, S. Typhimurium S496 was completely attenuated for virulence but still retained the capacity to colonize and disseminate in mice. In addition, we found that oral immunization with S496 resulted in increased immune responses against OMPs from enteric bacteria and enhanced survival compared with immunization with S492 possessing ΔrfbB6 ΔrffG8 mutations when challenged with lethal doses of Salmonella Choleraesuis or Salmonella Enteritidis. These results indicate that S. Typhimurium arabinose-regulated rfbB strain S496 is a good vaccine candidate, conferring cross-protection against lethal challenge with heterologous Salmonella. PMID:27423383

  3. DNA-Launched Alphavirus Replicons Encoding a Fusion of Mycobacterial Antigens Acr and Ag85B Are Immunogenic and Protective in a Murine Model of TB Infection.

    PubMed

    Dalmia, Neha; Klimstra, William B; Mason, Carol; Ramsay, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for effective prophylactic measures against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, particularly given the highly variable efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Most studies indicate that cell-mediated immune responses involving both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are necessary for effective immunity against Mtb. Genetic vaccination induces humoral and cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, against a variety of bacterial, viral, parasitic and tumor antigens, and this strategy may therefore hold promise for the development of more effective TB vaccines. Novel formulations and delivery strategies to improve the immunogenicity of DNA-based vaccines have recently been evaluated, and have shown varying degrees of success. In the present study, we evaluated DNA-launched Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (Vrep) encoding a novel fusion of the mycobacterial antigens α-crystallin (Acr) and antigen 85B (Ag85B), termed Vrep-Acr/Ag85B, for their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of pulmonary TB. Vrep-Acr/Ag85B generated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that persisted for at least 10 wk post-immunization. Interestingly, parenterally administered Vrep-Acr/Ag85B also induced T cell responses in the lung tissues, the primary site of infection, and inhibited bacterial growth in both the lungs and spleens following aerosol challenge with Mtb. DNA-launched Vrep may, therefore, represent an effective approach to the development of gene-based vaccines against TB, particularly as components of heterologous prime-boost strategies or as BCG boosters. PMID:26317509

  4. Immunoregulation of cutaneous leishmaniasis. T cell lines that transfer protective immunity or exacerbation belong to different T helper subsets and respond to distinct parasite antigens

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    BALB/c mice can be protected against a normally fatal Leishmania major infection by immunization with a partially purified, soluble subfraction of the parasite (fraction 9). In this study, we demonstrate that a T cell line established against fraction 9, designated line 9, transfers protection equivalent to that obtained by active immunization. In contrast, T cell lines (lines 1 and 9.2) responsive to a nonprotective soluble fraction (fraction 1) not only failed to protect BALB/c mice against L. major, but exacerbated the infection. Most importantly, in addition to differing in their antigen specificity, protective and exacerbative T cells lines could be distinguished on the basis of the lymphokines produced, a characteristic previously used to separate murine Th cells into two subsets, designated Th1 and Th2. We found that the protective cell line, line 9, displayed the Th1 property of secreting IL-2 and IFN- gamma, while the exacerbating lines secreted IL-4 and IL-5, a characteristic of Th2 cells. Our results demonstrate that Th1 and Th2 cells may have dramatically different effects on the outcome of an infection, and suggest that susceptibility and resistance in experimental leishmaniasis may depend upon a balance between the Th subsets induced. PMID:2903212

  5. MYD88-DEPENDENT PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY ELICITED BY ADENOVIRUS 5 EXPRESSING THE SURFACE ANTIGEN 1 FROM TOXOPLASMA GONDII IS MEDIATED BY CD8+ T LYMPHOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Érica A.; Caetano, Bráulia C.; Penido, Marcus L. O.; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite widely spread around the world. The Surface Antigens (SAG) 1, 2 and 3 are the main proteins expressed on the surface of T. gondii tachyzoites. Replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) is one of the most potent recombinant viral vectors for eliciting T cell-mediated immunity in mice and humans. Here we show that vaccination with rAd5 expressing SAG1 (AdSAG1), but neither SAG2 nor SAG3, induces protective immunity in the highly susceptible C57BL/6 mice challenged with T. gondii. Furthermore, we evaluated different immunological components involved on viral induced protective immunity. We observed that host protection elicited by AdSAG1 is highly dependent on IL-12, IFN-γ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Importantly, the induction of protective immunity (T cell-derived IFN-γ) was also dependent on Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 (MyD88), and thus, likely to involve Toll-Like receptors. We conclude that protective parasite specific-CD8+ T cells are elicited by a mechanism that involves MyD88-dependent induction of IL-12. PMID:21549794

  6. Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope peptide enhances protection against genital chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yirong; Lv, Yan; Feng, Juan; Zhu, Shanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. There is no safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Ct. In development of Ct vaccine, selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system may be the main challenges. Multi-epitope of major outer membrane protein (MOMPm) is the most suitable candidate for a Ct vaccine, while hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has unique advantages as vaccine delivery system. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immune response of a novel candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. This candidate vaccine comprises MOMPm peptide delivered with HBcAg. Our results of Ct-specific serum IgG and secretory IgA assay, cytokine assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay revealed that immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was much better than that of the corresponding synthetic MOMPm peptide. Furthermore, the protective effect of the candidate vaccine was also shown much better than that of the synthetic peptide by calculating the isolation of Chlamydia from vaginal swabs and histopathological analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that HBcAg carrying Ct MOMPm could be an effective immune prophylactic for chlamydial infection. PMID:26657117

  7. Protection against Helicobacter pylori infection in mice by intragastric vaccination with H. pylori antigens is achieved using a non-toxic mutant of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) as adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, M; Rossi, M; Giannelli, V; Giuliani, M M; Pizza, M; Censini, S; Covacci, A; Massari, P; Pagliaccia, C; Manetti, R; Telford, J L; Douce, G; Dougan, G; Rappuoli, R; Ghiara, P

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that infection of mice with H. pylori can be prevented by oral immunization with H. pylori antigens given together with E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) as adjuvant. Since LT cannot be used in humans because of its unacceptable toxicity, we investigated whether protection of mice could be achieved by co-administration of antigens with non-toxic LT mutants. Here we show that CD1/SPF mice are protected against infection after oral vaccination with either purified H. pylori antigens (native and recombinant VacA, urease and CagA), or whole-cell vaccine formulations, given together with the non-toxic mutant LTK63 as a mucosal adjuvant. Furthermore we show that such protection is antigen-specific since immunization with recombinant or native VacA plus LTK63 conferred protection against infection by an H. pylori Type I strain, which expresses VacA, but not against challenge with a Type II strain which is not able to express this antigen. These results show that: (1) protection against H. pylori can be achieved in the mouse model of infection using subunit recombinant constructs plus non-toxic mucosal adjuvants; and (2) this mouse model is an useful tool in testing H. pylori vaccine formulations for eventual use in humans. PMID:9607006

  8. Eimeria maxima recombinant Gam82 gametocyte antigen vaccine protects against coccidiosis and augments humoral and cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal infection with Eimeria, the etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis, stimulates protective immunity to subsequent colonization by the homologous parasite, whilst cross-protection against heterologous species is poor. As a first step toward the development of a broad specificity Eimeria vacci...

  9. Prostate stem cell antigen vaccination induces a long-term protective immune response against prostate cancer in the absence of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Maria de la Luz; Gray, Andrew; Hubby, Bolyn; Klinger, Otto J; Kast, W Martin

    2008-02-01

    Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is an attractive antigen to target using therapeutic vaccines because of its overexpression in prostate cancer, especially in metastatic tissues, and its limited expression in other organs. Our studies offer the first evidence that a PSCA-based vaccine can induce long-term protection against prostate cancer development in prostate cancer-prone transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Eight-week-old TRAMP mice displaying prostate intraepithelial neoplasia were vaccinated with a heterologous prime/boost strategy consisting of gene gun-delivered PSCA-cDNA followed by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons encoding PSCA. Our results show the induction of an immune response against a newly defined PSCA epitope that is mediated primarily by CD8 T cells. The prostates of PSCA-vaccinated mice were infiltrated by CD4-positive, CD8-positive, CD11b-positive, and CD11c-positive cells. Vaccination induced MHC class I expression and cytokine production [IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, and IL-5] within prostate tumors. This tumor microenvironment correlated with low Gleason scores and weak PSCA staining on tumor cells present in hyperplastic zones and in areas that contained focal and well-differentiated adenocarcinomas. PSCA-vaccinated TRAMP mice had a 90% survival rate at 12 months of age. In contrast, all control mice had succumbed to prostate cancer or had heavy tumor loads. Crucially, this long-term protective immune response was not associated with any measurable induction of autoimmunity. The possibility of inducing long-term protection against prostate cancer by vaccination at the earliest signs of its development has the potential to cause a dramatic paradigm shift in the treatment of this disease. PMID:18245488

  10. Protective effects of cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin A and FK506 against antigen-induced lung eosinophilia in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, A A; Jackson, D M; Eady, R P

    1992-01-01

    A close association has been recognized between activated T cells and eosinophils in asthma, albeit circumstantial. The present study attempted to investigate this relationship in an animal model of lung eosinophilia using the new generation of T cell-selective immunosuppressants, cyclosporin A and FK506, compared with the myelotoxic immunosuppressive agent cyclophosphamide. Antigen challenge of ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs resulted in a lung eosinophilia which was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage. All three agents caused a marked suppression of lung eosinophilia at 24 h post-challenge when the compounds were administered at the time of sensitization but not when administered for 3 days before lavage. However, the lung eosinophilia at 72 h post-challenge was reduced significantly by FK506 and by cyclophosphamide, but not by cyclosporin A, when the drugs were administered for 3 days, before lavage. These results strongly suggest the involvement of T cells in antigen-induced late phase (72 h) eosinophilia in guinea-pigs but not at 24 h. The effects of cyclophosphamide were always associated with a reduction in circulating white cell counts, whereas cyclosporin A and FK506 showed no myelotoxic properties. These results suggest the potential therapeutic use of selective, non-cytotoxic immunosuppressive agents in asthma. PMID:1381297

  11. Surfactant proteins A and D protect mice against pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by Aspergillus fumigatus antigens and allergens.

    PubMed

    Madan, T; Kishore, U; Singh, M; Strong, P; Clark, H; Hussain, E M; Reid, K B; Sarma, P U

    2001-02-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic disorder caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus (AFU:). Lung surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D can interact with the glycosylated antigens and allergens of AFU:, inhibit specific IgE binding to these allergens, and block histamine release from sensitized basophils. We have now examined the therapeutic effect of exogenous administration of human SP-A, SP-D, and a recombinant fragment of SP-D (rSP-D), in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by AFU: antigens and allergens, which resembles human ABPA immunologically. The ABPA mice exhibited high levels of AFU:-specific IgG and IgE, blood eosinophilia, extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the lung sections, and a Th2 cytokine response. Treatment with SP-A, SP-D, and rSP-D lowered blood eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltration, and specific Ab levels considerably, which persisted up to 4 days in the SP-A-treated ABPA mice, and up to 16 days in the SP-D- or rSP-D-treated ABPA mice. The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 were decreased, while the level of IFN-gamma was raised in the splenic supernatants of the treated mice, indicating a marked shift from Th2 to Th1 response. These results clearly implicate pulmonary SP-A and SP-D in the modulation of allergic reactions. PMID:11181646

  12. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen conce...

  13. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickbold, Paul

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  14. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  15. Protective Effect of Human Leukocyte Antigen B27 in Hepatitis C Virus Infection Requires the Presence of a Genotype-Specific Immunodominant CD8+ T-Cell Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Kersting, Nadine; Fitzmaurice, Karen; Oniangue-Ndza, Cesar; Kemper, Michael N.; Humphreys, Isla; McKiernan, Susan; Kelleher, Dermot; Lohmann, Volker; Bowness, Paul; Huzly, Daniela; Rosen, Hugo R.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Lauer, Georg M.; Allen, Todd M.; Barnes, Eleanor; Roggendorf, Michael; Blum, Hubert E.; Thimme, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) is associated with protection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This protective role is linked to single immunodominant HLA-B27-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes in both infections. In order to define the relative contribution of a specific HLA-B27-restricted epitope to the natural course of HCV infection, we compared the biological impact of the highly conserved HCV genotype 1 epitope, for which the protective role has been described, with the corresponding region in genotype 3 that differs in its sequence by three amino acid residues. The genotype 3a peptide was not recognized by CD8+ T cells specific for the genotype 1 peptide. Furthermore, patients with acute or chronic infection with HCV genotype 3a did not mount T-cell responses to this epitope region, and their autologous viral sequences showed no evidence of T-cell pressure. Finally, we found a significantly higher frequency of HLA-B27 positivity in patients with chronic HCV genotype 3a infection compared to genotype 1 infection, indicating that there is no protection by HLA-B27 in HCV genotype 3 infection. Conclusion Our data indicate that the protective effect of HLA-B27 is limited to HCV genotype 1 infection and does not expand to other genotypes such as genotype 3a. This can most likely be explained by intergenotype sequence diversity leading to the loss of the immunodominant HLA-B27 epitope in viral strains other than genotype 1. Our results underline the central role of a single HLA-B27-restricted epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell response in mediating protection in HCV genotype 1 infection. PMID:20034048

  16. A live oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium vaccine expressing Clostridium perfringens antigens confers protection against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, R R; Parreira, V R; Jiang, Y-F; Prescott, J F

    2010-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens, and there is currently no effective vaccine for NE. We previously showed that in broiler chickens protection against NE can be achieved through intramuscular immunization with alpha toxin (AT) and hypothetical protein (HP), and we subsequently identified B-cell epitopes in HP. In the present study, we identified B-cell epitopes in AT recognized by chickens immune to NE. The gene fragments encoding immunodominant epitopes of AT as well as those of HP were codon optimized for Salmonella and cloned into pYA3493, and the resultant plasmid constructs were introduced into an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chi9352 vaccine vehicle. The expression of these Clostridium perfringens proteins, alpha toxoid (ATd) and truncated HP (HPt), was confirmed by immunoblotting. The protection of broiler chickens against experimentally induced NE was assessed at both the moderate and the severe levels of challenge. Birds immunized orally with Salmonella expressing ATd were significantly protected against moderate NE, and there was a nonsignificant trend for protection against severe challenge, whereas HPt-immunized birds were significantly protected against both severities of challenge. Immunized birds developed serum IgY and mucosal IgA and IgY antibody responses against Clostridium and Salmonella antigens. In conclusion, this study identified, for the first time, the B-cell epitopes in AT from an NE isolate recognized by chickens and showed the partial protective ability of codon-optimized ATd and HPt against NE in broiler chickens when they were delivered orally by using a Salmonella vaccine vehicle. PMID:20007363

  17. Cloning, expression and purification of binding domains of lethal factor and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis in Escherichia coli and evaluation of their related murine antibody.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Honari, Hossein; Kooshk, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is common disease between human and animals caused by Bacillus anthracis. The cell binding domain of protective antigen (PAD4) and the binding domain of lethal factor (LFD1) have high immunogenicity potential and always were considered as a vaccine candidate against anthrax. The aims of this study are cloning and expressing of PAD4 and LFD1 in Escherichia coli, purification of the recombinant proteins and determination of their immunogenicity through evaluating of the relative produced polyclonal antibodies in mice. PAD4 and LFD1 genes were cloned in pET28a(+) vector and expressed in E. coli Bl21(DE3)PlysS. Expression and purification of the two recombinant proteins were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. The PAD4 and LFD1 were purified using Ni(+)-NTA affinity chromatography (95-98 %), yielding 37.5 and 45 mg/l of culture, respectively. The antigens were injected three times into mice and production of relative antibodies was evaluated by ELISA test. The results showed that both PAD4 and LFD1 are immunogenic, but LFD1 has higher potential to stimulate Murine immune system. With regard to the high level of LFD1 and PAD4 expression and also significant increment in produced polyclonal antibodies, these recombinant proteins can be considered as a recombinant vaccine candidate against anthrax. PMID:24430302

  18. Induction of protective immunity in chickens immunized with plant-made chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles expressing very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ten-Hong; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liao, Jia-Teh; Lee, Chin-Wei; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Maw-Yeong; Liu, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Ying; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2012-06-01

    Very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chickens and leads to significant economic loss in the poultry industry. Effective new vaccines are urgently needed. Autonomously replicating plant virus-based vector provides attractive means for producing chimeric virus particles (CVPs) in plants that can be developed into vaccines. In this study, we demonstrate the potential for vaccine development of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) epitope-presentation system, where the antigen from vvIBDV VP2 was fused to the N-terminus of BaMV coat protein. Accordingly, an infections plasmid, pBIBD2, was constructed. Inoculation of the recombinant BaMV clone pBIBD2 enabled the generation of chimeric virus, BIBD2, and stable expression of IBDV VP2 antigen on its coat protein. After intramuscular immunization with BIBD2 CVPs, chickens produced antibodies against IBDV and were protected from vvIBDV (V263/TW strain) challenges. These results corroborate the feasibility of BaMV-based CVP platform in plants for the development and production of vaccines against IBDV. PMID:22406128

  19. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Rai, Devendra K; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San; Schafer, Elizabeth; Burrage, Thomas G; Rodriguez, Luis L; de Los Santos, Teresa; Hoeprich, Paul D; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co(2+) affinity columns. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xHis FMDVs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with Ni(2+)-chelated nanolipoprotein and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant (MPLA:NiNLP). Animals Immunized with the inactivated 6xHis-FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine acquired enhanced protective immunity against FMDV challenge compared to virions alone. Induction of anti-6xHis and anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies in the immunized animals could be exploited in the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals needed for the improvement of FMD control measures. The novel marker vaccine/nanolipid technology described here has broad applications for the development of distinctive and effective immune responses to other pathogens of importance. PMID:27209448

  20. Discordance at human leukocyte antigen-DRB3 and protection from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission.

    PubMed

    Hader, Shannon L; Hodge, Thomas W; Buchacz, Kate A; Bray, Robert A; Padian, Nancy S; Rausa, Alfio; Slaviniski, Sally A; Holmberg, Scott D

    2002-06-15

    Host human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) integrated into the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope could theoretically determine, as in tissue transplants, whether HIV-1 is "rejected" by exposed susceptible persons, preventing transmission. HLA discordance (mismatch) was examined among 45 heterosexual partner pairs in which at least 1 partner was HIV-1 infected and exposure or transmission between partners had occurred. Immunologic discordance at class II HLA-DRB3 (present in the HIV donor partner but absent in the recipient partner) was associated with lack of transmission of HIV-1. Eight (35%) of 23 partner pairs in which HIV-1 transmission did not occur were immunologically discordant at HLA-DRB3, compared with 0 of 11 partner pairs in which HIV-1 transmission did occur (P=.027). Further investigation of the roles of class II HLAs in HIV-1 transmission and as possible components of HIV-1 vaccines should be pursued. PMID:12085318

  1. Key epitopes on the ESAT-6 antigen recognized in mice during the recall of protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, L; Oettinger, T; Holm, A; Andersen, A B; Andersen, P

    1996-10-15

    The recall of long-lived immunity in a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB) is defined as an accelerated accumulation of reactive T cells in the target organs. We have recently identified Ag 85B and a 6-kilodalton early secretory antigenic target, designated ESAT-6, as key antigenic targets recognized by these cells. In the present study, preferential recognition of the ESAT-6 Ag during the recall of immunity was found to be shared by five of six genetically different strains of mice. Overlapping peptides spanning the sequence of ESAT-6 were used to map two T cell epitopes on this molecule. One epitope recognized in the context of H-2b,d was located in the N-terminal part of the molecule, whereas an epitope recognized in the context of H-2a,k covered amino acids 51 to 60. Shorter versions of the N-terminal epitope allowed the precise definition of a 13-amino acid core sequence recognized in the context of H-2b. The peptide covering the N-terminal epitope was immunogenic, and a T cell response with the same fine specificity as that induced during TB infection was generated by immunization with the peptide in IFA. In the C57BL/6j strain, this single epitope was recognized by an exceedingly high frequency of splenic T cells (approximately 1:1000), representing 25 to 35% of the total culture filtrate-reactive T cells recruited to the site of infection during the first phase of the recall response. These findings emphasize the relevance of this Ag in the immune response to TB and suggest that immunologic recognition in the first phase of infection is a highly restricted event dominated by a limited number of T cell clones. PMID:8871652

  2. Protein antigens increase the protective efficacy of a capsule-based vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus in a rat model of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lattar, Santiago M; Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Denoël, Philippe; Germain, Sophie; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Lee, Jean C; Sordelli, Daniel O

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an invasive bacterial pathogen, and antibiotic resistance has impeded adequate control of infections caused by this microbe. Moreover, efforts to prevent human infections with single-component S. aureus vaccines have failed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy in rats of vaccines containing both S. aureus capsular polysaccharides (CPs) and proteins. The serotypes 5 CP (CP5) and 8 CP (CP8) were conjugated to tetanus toxoid and administered to rats alone or together with domain A of clumping factor A (ClfA) or genetically detoxified alpha-toxin (dHla). The vaccines were delivered according to a preventive or a therapeutic regimen, and their protective efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of osteomyelitis. Addition of dHla (but not ClfA) to the CP5 or CP8 vaccine induced reductions in bacterial load and bone morphological changes compared with immunization with either conjugate vaccine alone. Both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens were protective. Immunization with dHla together with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used as a control did not reduce staphylococcal osteomyelitis. The emergence of unencapsulated or small-colony variants during infection was negligible and similar for all of the vaccine groups. In conclusion, addition of dHla to a CP5 or CP8 conjugate vaccine enhanced its efficacy against S. aureus osteomyelitis, indicating that the inclusion of multiple antigens will likely enhance the efficacy of vaccines against both chronic and acute forms of staphylococcal disease. PMID:24126523

  3. Protection Induced by Simultaneous Subcutaneous and Endobronchial Vaccination with BCG/BCG and BCG/Adenovirus Expressing Antigen 85A against Mycobacterium bovis in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Dean, Gillian S; Clifford, Derek; Whelan, Adam O; Tchilian, Elma Z; Beverley, Peter C L; Salguero, Francisco J; Xing, Zhou; Vordermeier, Hans M; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the GB has been increasing since the 1980s. Immunisation, alongside current control measures, has been proposed as a sustainable measure to control bTB. Immunisation with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been shown to protect against bTB. Furthermore, much experimental data indicates that pulmonary local immunity is important for protection against respiratory infections including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that pulmonary immunisation is highly effective. Here, we evaluated protection against M. bovis, the main causative agent of bTB, conferred by BCG delivered subcutaneously, endobronchially or by the new strategy of simultaneous immunisation by both routes. We also tested simultaneous subcutaneous immunisation with BCG and endobronchial delivery of a recombinant type 5 adenovirus expressing mycobacterial antigen 85A. There was significantly reduced visible pathology in animals receiving the simultaneous BCG/BCG or BCG/Ad85 treatment compared to naïve controls. Furthermore, there were significantly fewer advanced microscopic granulomata in animals receiving BCG/Ad85A compared to naive controls. Thus, combining local and systemic immunisation limits the development of pathology, which in turn could decrease bTB transmission. PMID:26544594

  4. Leishmania tarentolae secreting the sand fly salivary antigen PpSP15 confers protection against Leishmania major infection in a susceptible BALB/c mice model.

    PubMed

    Katebi, A; Gholami, E; Taheri, T; Zahedifard, F; Habibzadeh, S; Taslimi, Y; Shokri, F; Papadopoulou, B; Kamhawi, S; Valenzuela, J G; Rafati, S

    2015-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease causing a major health problem in several countries. No vaccine is available and there are limitations associated with the current therapeutic regimens. Immune responses to sand fly saliva have been shown to protect against Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response to PpSP15, a protein from the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi, was sufficient to control Leishmania major infection in mice. This work presents data supporting the vaccine potency of recombinant live non-pathogenic Leishmania (L.) tarentolae secreting PpSP15 in mice and its potential as a new vaccine strategy against L. major. We generated a recombinant L. tarentolae-PpSP15 strain delivered in the presence of CpG ODN and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. major infection in BALB/c mice. In parallel, different vaccination modalities using PpSP15 as the target antigen were compared. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated before and at three and eight weeks after challenge. Footpad swelling and parasite load were assessed at eight and eleven weeks post-challenge. Our results show that vaccination with L. tarentolae-PpSP15 in combination with CpG as a prime-boost modality confers strong protection against L. major infection that was superior to other vaccination modalities used in this study. This approach represents a novel and promising vaccination strategy against Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26298575

  5. Toxoplasma gondii Soluble Tachyzoite Antigen Triggers Protective Mechanisms against Fatal Intestinal Pathology in Oral Infection of C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Benevides, Luciana; Cardoso, Cristina R.; Milanezi, Cristiane M.; Castro-Filice, Letícia S.; Barenco, Paulo V. C.; Sousa, Romulo O.; Rodrigues, Rosangela M.; Mineo, José R.; Silva, João S.; Silva, Neide M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii induces a potent IL-12 response early in infection that results in IFN-γ-dependent control of parasite growth. It was previously shown that T. gondii soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAg) injected 48 hr before intraperitoneal infection reduces lipoxin A4 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)-dependent systemic IL-12 and IFN-γ production as well as hepatic immunopathology. This study investigated the ability of STAg-pretreatment to control the fatal intestinal pathology that develops in C57BL/6 mice orally infected with 100 T. gondii cysts. STAg-pretreatment prolonged the animals’ survival by decreasing tissue parasitism and pathology, mainly in the ilea. Protection was associated with decreases in the systemic IFN-γ levels and IFN-γ and TNF message levels in the ilea and with increased TGF-β production in this tissue, but protection was independent of 5-LO and IL-4. STAg-pretreatment decreased CD4+ T cell, NK cell, CD11b+ monocyte and CD11b+CD11c+ dendritic cell numbers in the lamina propria and increased CD8+ T cells in the intestinal epithelial compartment. In parallel, decreases were observed in iNOS and IL-17 expression in this organ. These results demonstrate that pretreatment with STAg can induce the recruitment of protective CD8+ T cells to the intraepithelial compartment and decrease proinflammatory immune mechanisms that promote intestinal pathology in T. gondii infection. PMID:24086456

  6. Protein Antigens Increase the Protective Efficacy of a Capsule-Based Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus in a Rat Model of Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lattar, Santiago M.; Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Denoël, Philippe; Germain, Sophie; Buzzola, Fernanda R.; Lee, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an invasive bacterial pathogen, and antibiotic resistance has impeded adequate control of infections caused by this microbe. Moreover, efforts to prevent human infections with single-component S. aureus vaccines have failed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy in rats of vaccines containing both S. aureus capsular polysaccharides (CPs) and proteins. The serotypes 5 CP (CP5) and 8 CP (CP8) were conjugated to tetanus toxoid and administered to rats alone or together with domain A of clumping factor A (ClfA) or genetically detoxified alpha-toxin (dHla). The vaccines were delivered according to a preventive or a therapeutic regimen, and their protective efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of osteomyelitis. Addition of dHla (but not ClfA) to the CP5 or CP8 vaccine induced reductions in bacterial load and bone morphological changes compared with immunization with either conjugate vaccine alone. Both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens were protective. Immunization with dHla together with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used as a control did not reduce staphylococcal osteomyelitis. The emergence of unencapsulated or small-colony variants during infection was negligible and similar for all of the vaccine groups. In conclusion, addition of dHla to a CP5 or CP8 conjugate vaccine enhanced its efficacy against S. aureus osteomyelitis, indicating that the inclusion of multiple antigens will likely enhance the efficacy of vaccines against both chronic and acute forms of staphylococcal disease. PMID:24126523

  7. A Multi-Antigenic Adenoviral-Vectored Vaccine Improves BCG-Induced Protection of Goats against Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infection and Prevents Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Andaluz, Anna; Moll, Xavier; Martín, Maite; Nofrarías, Miquel; McShane, Helen; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Domingo, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The “One world, one health” initiative emphasizes the need for new strategies to control human and animal tuberculosis (TB) based on their shared interface. A good example would be the development of novel universal vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection. This study uses the goat model, a natural TB host, to assess the protective effectiveness of a new vaccine candidate in combination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. Thirty-three goat kids were divided in three groups: Group 1) vaccinated with BCG (week 0), Group 2) vaccinated with BCG and boosted 8 weeks later with a recombinant adenovirus expressing the MTBC antigens Ag85A, TB10.4, TB9.8 and Acr2 (AdTBF), and Group 3) unvaccinated controls. Later on, an endobronchial challenge with a low dose of M. caprae was performed (week 15). After necropsy (week 28), the pulmonary gross pathology was quantified using high resolution Computed Tomography. Small granulomatous pulmonary lesions (< 0.5 cm diameter) were also evaluated through a comprehensive qualitative histopathological analysis. M. caprae CFU were counted from pulmonary lymph nodes. The AdTBF improved the effects of BCG reducing gross lesion volume and bacterial load, as well as increasing weight gain. The number of Ag85A-specific gamma interferon-producing memory T-cells was identified as a predictor of vaccine efficacy. Specific cellular and humoral responses were measured throughout the 13-week post-challenge period, and correlated with the severity of lesions. Unvaccinated goats exhibited the typical pathological features of active TB in humans and domestic ruminants, while vaccinated goats showed only very small lesions. The data presented in this study indicate that multi-antigenic adenoviral vectored vaccines boosts protection conferred by vaccination with BCG. PMID:24278420

  8. Protective oral vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus using the major viral antigenic protein VP2 produced in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0-10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90-100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40-60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast

  9. Protective Oral Vaccination against Infectious bursal disease virus Using the Major Viral Antigenic Protein VP2 Produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M.; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0–10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90–100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40–60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast

  10. A Small Antigenic Determinant of the Chikungunya Virus E2 Protein Is Sufficient to Induce Neutralizing Antibodies which Are Partially Protective in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Christopher; Büchner, Sarah M.; Schnierle, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes high fever and severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe and has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change and vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle and, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses. Methodology/Principal Findings E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells and a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 and consisting of linear and/or structural antigens were created, and were expressed in and purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins and the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L) and surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA) alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B and a part of the β-ribbon (called B+) was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+) induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ and/or the recombinant protein sAB+ and were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice and its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine. PMID

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected CBA/J mice can generate robust and protective responses to antigen Ag85 when delivered as a soluble protein, but fail to respond efficiently in the context of natural infection

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Gillian L.; Cyktor, Joshua; Flaherty, David K.; Stromberg, Paul C.; Carruthers, Bridget; Turner, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Summary In CBA/J mice, susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses to antigens (Antigen 85 (Ag85) and Early Secreted Antigenic Target-6 (ESAT-6)) that have been defined as immunodominant. Here, we asked whether the failure of CBA/J mice to recognize Ag85 is a consequence of M.tb infection or whether CBA/J mice have a general defect in generating specific T cell responses to this protein antigen. We compared CBA/J mice during primary M.tb infection, Ag85 vaccination followed by M.tb challenge, or M.tb memory immune mice for their capacity to generate Ag85-specific IFN-γ responses and to control M.tb infection. CBA/J mice did not respond efficiently to Ag85 in the context of natural infection or re-infection. In contrast, CBA/J mice could generate Ag85-specific IFN-γ responses and protective immunity when this antigen was delivered as a soluble protein. Our data indicate that although M.tb infection of CBA/J mice does not drive an Ag85 response, they can fully and protectively respond to Ag85 if it is delivered as a vaccine. The data from this experimental model suggest that the Ag85-containing vaccines in clinical trials should protect M.tb susceptible humans. PMID:22531914

  12. Utility of a Novel Reflective Marker Visualized by Flash Photography for Assessment of Personnel Contamination During Removal of Personal Protective Equipment.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Myreen E; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Mana, Thriveen S C; Jencson, Annette L; Koganti, Sreelatha; Alhmidi, Heba; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    In an experimental study, the frequency of contamination of healthcare personnel during removal of contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE) was similar for bacteriophage MS2 and a novel reflective marker visualized using flash photography. The reflective marker could be a useful tool to visualize and document personnel contamination during PPE removal. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:711-713. PMID:26976219

  13. Antigenic sites on the HN domain of botulinum neurotoxin A stimulate protective antibody responses against active toxin

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, B.; Tajhya, Rajeev B.; Beeton, Christine; Zouhair Atassi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known. BoNT intoxicates cells in a highly programmed fashion initiated by binding to the cell surface, internalization and enzymatic cleavage of substrate, thus, inhibiting synaptic exocytosis. Over the past two decades, immunological significance of BoNT/A C-terminal heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) domains were investigated extensively leading to important findings. In the current work, we explored the significance of BoNT/A heavy chain N-terminal (HN) region as a vaccine candidate. Mice were immunized with recombinant HN519–845 generating antibodies (Abs) that were found to be protective against lethal dose of BoNT/A. Immuno-dominant regions of HN519–845 were identified and individually investigated for antibody response along with synthetic peptides within those regions, using in vivo protection assays against BoNT/A. Results were confirmed by patch-clamp analysis where anti-HN antibodies were studied for the ability to block toxin-induced channel formation. This data strongly indicated that HN519–593 is an important region in generating protective antibodies and should be valuable in a vaccine design. These results are the first to describe and dissect the protective activity of the BoNT/A HN domain. PMID:26508475

  14. A method to identify protein antigens of Dermanyssus gallinae for the protection of birds from poultry mites.

    PubMed

    Makert, Gustavo R; Vorbrüggen, Susanne; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Voss, Matthias; Sohn, Kai; Buschmann, Tilo; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM) Dermanyssus gallinae causes high economic losses and is among the most important parasites in poultry farming worldwide. Different chemical, physical, and biological strategies try to control the expansion of PRM. However, effective solutions to this problem still have to be found. Here, we present a method for the development of an immunological control strategy, based on the identification of mite protein antigens which elicit antibodies with anti-mite activity in the immunized chicken. Hens were immunized with different PRM protein extracts formulated with two different adjuvants, and IgY-antibodies were isolated from the eggs. A PRM in vitro feeding assay which used chicken blood spiked with these IgY-preparations was used to detect antibodies which caused PRM mortality. In vitro feeding of mites with IgY isolated from hens immunized with PRM extract formulated with one of the adjuvants showed a statistically significant increase in the mortality as compared to control mites. After the separation of total PRM extracts in two-dimensional gels, several protein spots were recognized by such IgY preparations. Ten protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the identification of the corresponding proteins. Complete protein sequences were deduced from genomic and transcriptomic assemblies derived from high throughput sequencing of total PRM DNA and RNA. The results may contribute to the development of an immunological control strategy of D. gallinae. PMID:27026505

  15. A reflection about the social and technological aspects in flood risk management - the case of the Italian Civil Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, M. Del Carmen; Siccardi, F.

    2010-01-01

    The right of a person to be protected from natural hazards is a characteristic of the social and economical development of the society. This paper is a contribution to the reflection about the role of Civil Protection organizations in a modern society. The paper is based in the inaugural conference made by the authors on the 9th Plinius Conference on Mediterranean Storms. Two major issues are considered. The first one is sociological; the Civil Protection organizations and the responsible administration of the land use planning should be perceived as reliable as possible, in order to get consensus on the restrictions they pose, temporary or definitely, on the individual free use of the territory as well as in the entire warning system. The second one is technological: in order to be reliable they have to issue timely alert and warning to the population at large, but such alarms should be as "true" as possible. With this aim, the paper summarizes the historical evolution of the risk assessment, starting from the original concept of "hazard", introducing the concepts of "scenario of event" and "scenario of risk" and ending with a discussion about the uncertainties and limits of the most advanced and efficient tools to predict, to forecast and to observe the ground effects affecting people and their properties. The discussion is centred in the case of heavy rains and flood events in the North-West of Mediterranean Region.

  16. Human monoclonal antibody AVP-21D9 to protective antigen reduces dissemination of the Bacillus anthracis Ames strain from the lungs in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Johnny W; Comer, Jason E; Baze, Wallace B; Noffsinger, David M; Wenglikowski, Autumn; Walberg, Kristin G; Hardcastle, Jason; Pawlik, Jennifer; Bush, Kathryn; Taormina, Joanna; Moen, Scott; Thomas, John; Chatuev, Bagram M; Sower, Laurie; Chopra, Ashok K; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Sawada, Ritsuko; Scholz, Wolfgang W; Sircar, Jagadish

    2007-07-01

    Dutch-belted and New Zealand White rabbits were passively immunized with AVP-21D9, a human monoclonal antibody to protective antigen (PA), at the time of Bacillus anthracis spore challenge using either nasal instillation or aerosol challenge techniques. AVP-21D9 (10 mg/kg) completely protected both rabbit strains against lethal infection with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores, regardless of the inoculation method. Further, all but one of the passively immunized animals (23/24) were completely resistant to rechallenge with spores by either respiratory challenge method at 5 weeks after primary challenge. Analysis of the sera at 5 weeks after primary challenge showed that residual human anti-PA levels decreased by 85 to 95%, but low titers of rabbit-specific anti-PA titers were also measured. Both sources of anti-PA could have contributed to protection from rechallenge. In a subsequent study, bacteriological and histopathology analyses revealed that B. anthracis disseminated to the bloodstream in some naïve animals as early as 24 h postchallenge and increased in frequency with time. AVP-21D9 significantly reduced the dissemination of the bacteria to the bloodstream and to various organs following infection. Examination of tissue sections from infected control animals, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the Gram stain, showed edema and/or hemorrhage in the lungs and the presence of bacteria in mediastinal lymph nodes, with necrosis and inflammation. Tissue sections from infected rabbits dosed with AVP-21D9 appeared comparable to corresponding tissues from uninfected animals despite lethal challenge with B. anthracis Ames spores. Concomitant treatment with AVP-21D9 at the time of challenge conferred complete protection in the rabbit inhalation anthrax model. Early treatment increased the efficacy progressively and in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, AVP-21D9 could offer an adjunct or alternative clinical treatment regimen against inhalation anthrax. PMID:17452469

  17. Human Monoclonal Antibody AVP-21D9 to Protective Antigen Reduces Dissemination of the Bacillus anthracis Ames Strain from the Lungs in a Rabbit Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Johnny W.; Comer, Jason E.; Baze, Wallace B.; Noffsinger, David M.; Wenglikowski, Autumn; Walberg, Kristin G.; Hardcastle, Jason; Pawlik, Jennifer; Bush, Kathryn; Taormina, Joanna; Moen, Scott; Thomas, John; Chatuev, Bagram M.; Sower, Laurie; Chopra, Ashok K.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Sawada, Ritsuko; Scholz, Wolfgang W.; Sircar, Jagadish

    2007-01-01

    Dutch-belted and New Zealand White rabbits were passively immunized with AVP-21D9, a human monoclonal antibody to protective antigen (PA), at the time of Bacillus anthracis spore challenge using either nasal instillation or aerosol challenge techniques. AVP-21D9 (10 mg/kg) completely protected both rabbit strains against lethal infection with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores, regardless of the inoculation method. Further, all but one of the passively immunized animals (23/24) were completely resistant to rechallenge with spores by either respiratory challenge method at 5 weeks after primary challenge. Analysis of the sera at 5 weeks after primary challenge showed that residual human anti-PA levels decreased by 85 to 95%, but low titers of rabbit-specific anti-PA titers were also measured. Both sources of anti-PA could have contributed to protection from rechallenge. In a subsequent study, bacteriological and histopathology analyses revealed that B. anthracis disseminated to the bloodstream in some naïve animals as early as 24 h postchallenge and increased in frequency with time. AVP-21D9 significantly reduced the dissemination of the bacteria to the bloodstream and to various organs following infection. Examination of tissue sections from infected control animals, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the Gram stain, showed edema and/or hemorrhage in the lungs and the presence of bacteria in mediastinal lymph nodes, with necrosis and inflammation. Tissue sections from infected rabbits dosed with AVP-21D9 appeared comparable to corresponding tissues from uninfected animals despite lethal challenge with B. anthracis Ames spores. Concomitant treatment with AVP-21D9 at the time of challenge conferred complete protection in the rabbit inhalation anthrax model. Early treatment increased the efficacy progressively and in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, AVP-21D9 could offer an adjunct or alternative clinical treatment regimen against inhalation anthrax. PMID:17452469

  18. Whole recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing HPV16 L1 antigen is superior in inducing protection against tumor growth as compared to killed transgenic Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Bolhassani, Azam; Muller, Martin; Roohvand, Farzin; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Agi, Elnaz; Shokri, Mehdi; Rad, Mahdieh Motamedi; Hosseinzadeh, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    The development of an efficient vaccine against high-risk HPV types can reduce the incidence rates of cervical cancer by generating anti-tumor protective responses. Traditionally, the majority of prophylactic viral vaccines are composed of live, attenuated or inactivated viruses. Among them, the design of an effective and low-cost vaccine is critical. Inactivated vaccines especially heat-killed yeast cells have emerged as a promising approach for generating antigen-specific immunotherapy. Recent studies have indicated that yeast cell wall components possess adjuvant activities. Moreover, a non-pathogenic protozoan, Leishmania tarentolae (L.tar) has attracted a great attention as a live candidate vaccine. In current study, immunological and protective efficacy of whole recombinant killed Pichia pastoris and Leishmania tarentolae expressing HPV16 L1 capsid protein was evaluated in tumor mice model. We found that Pichia-L1, L.tar-L1 and Gardasil groups increase the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, indicating a relative preference for the induction of Th1 immune responses. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of killed Pichia-L1 generated the significant L1-specific IFN-γ immune response as well as the best protective effects in vaccinated mice as compared to killed L.tar-L1, killed Pichia pastoris, killed L.tar and PBS groups. Indeed, whole recombinant Leishmania tarentolae could not protect mice against C3 tumor mice model. These data suggest that Pichia-L1 may be a candidate for the control of HPV infections. PMID:25668661

  19. Whole recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing HPV16 L1 antigen is superior in inducing protection against tumor growth as compared to killed transgenic Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Muller, Martin; Roohvand, Farzin; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Agi, Elnaz; Shokri, Mehdi; Rad, Mahdieh Motamedi; Hosseinzadeh, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficient vaccine against high-risk HPV types can reduce the incidence rates of cervical cancer by generating anti-tumor protective responses. Traditionally, the majority of prophylactic viral vaccines are composed of live, attenuated or inactivated viruses. Among them, the design of an effective and low-cost vaccine is critical. Inactivated vaccines especially heat-killed yeast cells have emerged as a promising approach for generating antigen-specific immunotherapy. Recent studies have indicated that yeast cell wall components possess adjuvant activities. Moreover, a non-pathogenic protozoan, Leishmania tarentolae (L.tar) has attracted a great attention as a live candidate vaccine. In current study, immunological and protective efficacy of whole recombinant killed Pichia pastoris and Leishmania tarentolae expressing HPV16 L1 capsid protein was evaluated in tumor mice model. We found that Pichia-L1, L.tar-L1 and Gardasil groups increase the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, indicating a relative preference for the induction of Th1 immune responses. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of killed Pichia-L1 generated the significant L1-specific IFN-γ immune response as well as the best protective effects in vaccinated mice as compared to killed L.tar-L1, killed Pichia pastoris, killed L.tar and PBS groups. Indeed, whole recombinant Leishmania tarentolae could not protect mice against C3 tumor mice model. These data suggest that Pichia-L1 may be a candidate for the control of HPV infections. PMID:25668661

  20. Cooperation between CD4+ T Cells and Humoral Immunity Is Critical for Protection against Dengue Using a DNA Vaccine Based on the NS1 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Antônio J. S.; Oliveira, Edson R. A.; Costa, Simone M.; Paes, Marciano V.; Silva, Juliana F. A.; Azevedo, Adriana S.; Mantuano-Barradas, Marcio; Nogueira, Ana Cristina M. A.; Almeida, Cecília J.; Alves, Ada M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is spread through most tropical and subtropical areas of the world and represents a serious public health problem. At present, the control of dengue disease is mainly hampered by the absence of antivirals or a vaccine, which results in an estimated half worldwide population at risk of infection. The immune response against DENV is not yet fully understood and a better knowledge of it is now recognized as one of the main challenge for vaccine development. In previous studies, we reported that a DNA vaccine containing the signal peptide sequence from the human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) fused to the DENV2 NS1 gene (pcTPANS1) induced protection against dengue in mice. In the present work, we aimed to elucidate the contribution of cellular and humoral responses elicited by this vaccine candidate for protective immunity. We observed that pcTPANS1 exerts a robust protection against dengue, inducing considerable levels of anti-NS1 antibodies and T cell responses. Passive immunization with anti-NS1 antibodies conferred partial protection in mice infected with low virus load (4 LD50), which was abrogated with the increase of viral dose (40 LD50). The pcTPANS1 also induced activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We detected production of IFN-γ and a cytotoxic activity by CD8+ T lymphocytes induced by this vaccine, although its contribution in the protection was not so evident when compared to CD4+ cells. Depletion of CD4+ cells in immunized mice completely abolished protection. Furthermore, transfer experiments revealed that animals receiving CD4+ T cells combined with anti-NS1 antiserum, both obtained from vaccinated mice, survived virus infection with survival rates not significantly different from pcTPANS1-immunized animals. Taken together, results showed that the protective immune response induced by the expression of NS1 antigen mediated by the pcTPANS1 requires a cooperation between CD4+ T cells and the humoral immunity. PMID:26650916

  1. Protective Response to Leishmania major in BALB/c Mice Requires Antigen Processing in the Absence of DM1

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, Tirumalai; Nanda, Navreet K.

    2009-01-01

    Protection from the parasite Leishmania major is mediated by CD4 T cells. BALB/c mice are susceptible to L. major and show a nonprotective immunodominant CD4 T cell response to Leishmania homolog of activated receptor for c-kinase (LACK) 158–173. Host genes that underlie BALB/c susceptibility to L. major infections are poorly defined. DM, a nonclassical MHC class II molecule, due to its peptide editing properties has been shown to 1) edit the repertoire of peptides displayed by APC, and 2) focus the display of epitopes by APC to the immunodominant ones. We tested the hypothesis that deficiency of DM, by causing presentation of a different array of epitopes by infected APC than that presented by DM-sufficient APC, may change the course of L. major infection in the susceptible BALB/c mice. We show herein that unlike their susceptible wild-type counterparts, BALB/c mice deficient in DM are protected from infections with L. major. Furthermore, DM-deficient mice fail to display the immunodominant LACK 158–173 on infected APC. In its place, infected DM−/− hosts show elicitation of CD4 T cells specific for newer epitopes not presented by wild-type L. major-infected APC. Protection of BALB/c DM−/− mice is dependent on IFN-γ. DM is thus a host susceptibility gene in BALB/c mice, and Ag processing in the absence of DM results in elicitation of a protective T cell response against L. major infections. This report suggests a novel mechanism to trigger host resistance against pathogens. PMID:19342667

  2. IgG2 Antibodies against a Clinical Grade Plasmodium falciparum CSP Vaccine Antigen Associate with Protection against Transgenic Sporozoite Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Robert; Nikki, Jennifer; Rein, Lisa; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Wightman, Paul D.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Dutta, Sheetij

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a highly purified and well characterized circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is essential to improve upon the partial success of recombinant CSP-based malaria vaccine candidates. Soluble, near full-length, Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen (CS/D) was produced in E. coli under bio-production conditions that comply with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). A mouse immunogenicity study was conducted using a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE) of CS/D in combination with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA/SE), or one of two TLR7/8 agonists: R848 (un-conjugated) or 3M-051 (covalently conjugated). Compared to Alum and SE, GLA/SE induced higher CS/D specific antibody response in Balb/c mice. Subclass analysis showed higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio of GLA/SE induced antibodies as compared to Alum and SE. TLR synergy was not observed when soluble R848 was mixed with GLA/SE. Antibody response of 3M051 formulations in Balb/c was similar to GLA/SE, except for the higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio and a trend towards higher T cell responses in 3M051 containing groups. However, no synergistic enhancement of antibody and T cell response was evident when 3M051 conjugate was mixed with GLA/SE. In C57Bl/6 mice, CS/D adjuvanted with 3M051/SE or GLA/SE induced higher CSP repeat specific titers compared to SE. While, 3M051 induced antibodies had high IgG2c:IgG1 ratio, GLA/SE promoted high levels of both IgG1 and IgG2c. GLA/SE also induced more potent T-cell responses compared to SE in two independent C57/BL6 vaccination studies, suggesting a balanced and productive TH1/TH2 response. GLA and 3M-051 similarly enhanced the protective efficacy of CS/D against challenge with a transgenic P. berghei parasite and most importantly, high levels of cytophilic IgG2 antibodies were associated with protection in this model. Our data indicated that the cGMP-grade, soluble CS/D antigen combined with the TLR4-containing adjuvant GLA/SE warrants further

  3. IgG2 antibodies against a clinical grade Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen associate with protection against transgenic sporozoite challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Robert; DeBot, Margot; Porter, Michael; Nikki, Jennifer; Rein, Lisa; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Wightman, Paul D; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Dutta, Sheetij

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a highly purified and well characterized circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is essential to improve upon the partial success of recombinant CSP-based malaria vaccine candidates. Soluble, near full-length, Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen (CS/D) was produced in E. coli under bio-production conditions that comply with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). A mouse immunogenicity study was conducted using a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE) of CS/D in combination with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA/SE), or one of two TLR7/8 agonists: R848 (un-conjugated) or 3M-051 (covalently conjugated). Compared to Alum and SE, GLA/SE induced higher CS/D specific antibody response in Balb/c mice. Subclass analysis showed higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio of GLA/SE induced antibodies as compared to Alum and SE. TLR synergy was not observed when soluble R848 was mixed with GLA/SE. Antibody response of 3M051 formulations in Balb/c was similar to GLA/SE, except for the higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio and a trend towards higher T cell responses in 3M051 containing groups. However, no synergistic enhancement of antibody and T cell response was evident when 3M051 conjugate was mixed with GLA/SE. In C57Bl/6 mice, CS/D adjuvanted with 3M051/SE or GLA/SE induced higher CSP repeat specific titers compared to SE. While, 3M051 induced antibodies had high IgG2c:IgG1 ratio, GLA/SE promoted high levels of both IgG1 and IgG2c. GLA/SE also induced more potent T-cell responses compared to SE in two independent C57/BL6 vaccination studies, suggesting a balanced and productive T(H1)/T(H2) response. GLA and 3M-051 similarly enhanced the protective efficacy of CS/D against challenge with a transgenic P. berghei parasite and most importantly, high levels of cytophilic IgG2 antibodies were associated with protection in this model. Our data indicated that the cGMP-grade, soluble CS/D antigen combined with the TLR4-containing adjuvant GLA/SE warrants further

  4. Immunologic study and optimization of Salmonella delivery strains expressing adhesin and toxin antigens for protection against progressive atrophic rhinitis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Byeon, Hoyeon; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-10-01

    Mice were intranasally inoculated at various times to optimize the vaccination strategy with a new live candidate vaccine expressing the antigens CP39, FimA, PtfA, and ToxA of Pasteurella multocida and F1P2 of Bordetella bronchiseptica in an attenuated live Salmonella system to protect against progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR). Sixty BALB/c mice were divided equally into 4 groups. The group A mice were vaccinated only at 12 wk of age, the group B mice received a primary vaccination at 9 wk of age and a booster at 12 wk of age, the group C mice received a primary vaccination at 6 wk of age and boosters at 9 and 12 wk of age, and the group D mice were inoculated intranasally with sterile phosphate-buffered saline as a control. The humoral and mucosal immune responses of groups A, B, and C increased significantly compared with those of the control group. Expression of the cytokines interleukin-4 and interferon-γ in splenocytes also increased significantly. In addition, the group B mice exhibited significantly fewer gross lesions in lung tissue compared with the other vaccinated groups after challenge with a virulent P. multocida strain. These results indicate that a strategy of double intranasal vaccination can optimize protection against PAR. PMID:25355999

  5. Bactericidal Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to the Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen from Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Clone ST131-O25b:H4 Elicit Protection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Szijártó, Valéria; Guachalla, Luis M.; Visram, Zehra C.; Hartl, Katharina; Varga, Cecília; Mirkina, Irina; Zmajkovic, Jakub; Badarau, Adriana; Zauner, Gerhild; Pleban, Clara; Magyarics, Zoltán; Nagy, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131)-O25b:H4 clone has spread worldwide and become responsible for a significant proportion of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal infections. We generated humanized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that target the lipopolysaccharide O25b antigen conserved within this lineage. These MAbs bound to the surface of live bacterial cells irrespective of the capsular type expressed. In a serum bactericidal assay in vitro, MAbs induced >95% bacterial killing in the presence of human serum as the complement source. Protective efficacy at low antibody doses was observed in a murine model of bacteremia. The mode of action in vivo was investigated by using aglycosylated derivatives of the protective MAbs. The significant binding to live E. coli cells and the in vitro and in vivo efficacy were corroborated in assays using bacteria grown in human serum to mimic relevant clinical conditions. Given the dry pipeline of novel antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, passive immunization with bactericidal antibodies offers a therapeutic alternative to control infections caused by E. coli ST131-O25b:H4. PMID:25779571

  6. Core-linked LPS expression of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 O-antigen in live Salmonella Typhi vaccine vector Ty21a: preclinical evidence of immunogenicity and protection.

    PubMed

    Xu, De Qi; Cisar, John O; Osorio, Manuel; Wai, Tint T; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2007-08-14

    Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S. dysenteriae 1) causes severe shigellosis that is typically associated with high mortality. Antibodies against Shigella serotype-specific O-polysaccharide (O-Ps) have been shown to be host protective. In this study, the rfb locus and the rfp gene with their cognate promoter regions were PCR-amplified from S. dysenteriae 1, cloned, and sequenced. Deletion analysis showed that eight rfb ORFs plus rfp are necessary for biosynthesis of this O-Ps. A tandemly-linked rfb-rfp gene cassette was cloned into low copy plasmid pGB2 to create pSd1. Avirulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Ty21a harboring pSd1 synthesized S. Typhi 9, 12 LPS as well as typical core-linked S. dysenteriae 1 LPS. Animal immunization studies showed that Ty21a (pSd1) induces protective immunity against high stringency challenge with virulent S. dysenteriae 1 strain 1617. These data further demonstrate the utility of S. Typhi Ty21a as a live, bacterial vaccine delivery system for heterologous O-antigens, supporting the promise of a bifunctional oral vaccine for prevention of shigellosis and typhoid fever. PMID:17629369

  7. Nonclassical MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T Cells Recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Derived Protein Antigens and Contribute to Protection Against Infection.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shaobin; Siddiqui, Sarah; Bian, Yao; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2016-06-01

    MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells have been implicated in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, the relative contribution of various MHC Ib-restricted T cell populations to anti-mycobacterial immunity remains elusive. In this study, we used mice that lack MHC Ia (Kb-/-Db-/-), MHC Ia/H2-M3 (Kb-/-Db-/-M3-/-), or β2m (β2m-/-) to study the role of M3-restricted and other MHC Ib-restricted T cells in immunity against Mtb. Unlike their dominant role in Listeria infection, we found that M3-restricted CD8+ T cells only represented a small proportion of the CD8+ T cells responding to Mtb infection. Non-M3, MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells expanded preferentially in the lungs of Mtb-infected Kb-/-Db-/-M3-/- mice, exhibited polyfunctional capacities and conferred protection against Mtb. These MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells recognized several Mtb-derived protein antigens at a higher frequency than MHC Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells. The presentation of Mtb antigens to MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells was mostly β2m-dependent but TAP-independent. Interestingly, a large proportion of Mtb-specific MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells in Kb-/-Db-/-M3-/- mice were Qa-2-restricted while no considerable numbers of MR1 or CD1-restricted Mtb-specific CD8+ T cells were detected. Our findings indicate that nonclassical CD8+ T cells other than the known M3, CD1, and MR1-restricted CD8+ T cells contribute to host immune responses against Mtb infection. Targeting these MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells would facilitate the design of better Mtb vaccines with broader coverage across MHC haplotypes due to the limited polymorphism of MHC class Ib molecules. PMID:27272249

  8. Nonclassical MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T Cells Recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Derived Protein Antigens and Contribute to Protection Against Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shaobin; Siddiqui, Sarah; Bian, Yao; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2016-01-01

    MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells have been implicated in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, the relative contribution of various MHC Ib-restricted T cell populations to anti-mycobacterial immunity remains elusive. In this study, we used mice that lack MHC Ia (Kb-/-Db-/-), MHC Ia/H2-M3 (Kb-/-Db-/-M3-/-), or β2m (β2m-/-) to study the role of M3-restricted and other MHC Ib-restricted T cells in immunity against Mtb. Unlike their dominant role in Listeria infection, we found that M3-restricted CD8+ T cells only represented a small proportion of the CD8+ T cells responding to Mtb infection. Non-M3, MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells expanded preferentially in the lungs of Mtb-infected Kb-/-Db-/-M3-/- mice, exhibited polyfunctional capacities and conferred protection against Mtb. These MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells recognized several Mtb-derived protein antigens at a higher frequency than MHC Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells. The presentation of Mtb antigens to MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells was mostly β2m-dependent but TAP-independent. Interestingly, a large proportion of Mtb-specific MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells in Kb-/-Db-/-M3-/- mice were Qa-2-restricted while no considerable numbers of MR1 or CD1-restricted Mtb-specific CD8+ T cells were detected. Our findings indicate that nonclassical CD8+ T cells other than the known M3, CD1, and MR1-restricted CD8+ T cells contribute to host immune responses against Mtb infection. Targeting these MHC Ib-restricted CD8+ T cells would facilitate the design of better Mtb vaccines with broader coverage across MHC haplotypes due to the limited polymorphism of MHC class Ib molecules. PMID:27272249

  9. A CpG-Ficoll Nanoparticle Adjuvant for Anthrax Protective Antigen Enhances Immunogenicity and Provides Single-Immunization Protection against Inhaled Anthrax in Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kachura, Melissa A; Hickle, Colin; Kell, Sariah A; Sathe, Atul; Calacsan, Carlo; Kiwan, Radwan; Hall, Brian; Milley, Robert; Ott, Gary; Coffman, Robert L; Kanzler, Holger; Campbell, John D

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems for vaccine adjuvants, designed to enhance targeting of secondary lymphoid organs and activation of APCs, have shown substantial promise for enhanced immunopotentiation. We investigated the adjuvant activity of synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG-rich motifs linked to the sucrose polymer Ficoll, forming soluble 50-nm particles (DV230-Ficoll), each containing >100 molecules of the TLR9 ligand, DV230. DV230-Ficoll was evaluated as an adjuvant for a candidate vaccine for anthrax using recombinant protective Ag (rPA) from Bacillus anthracis. A single immunization with rPA plus DV230-Ficoll induced 10-fold higher titers of toxin-neutralizing Abs in cynomolgus monkeys at 2 wk compared with animals immunized with equivalent amounts of monomeric DV230. Monkeys immunized either once or twice with rPA plus DV230-Ficoll were completely protected from challenge with 200 LD50 aerosolized anthrax spores. In mice, DV230-Ficoll was more potent than DV230 for the induction of innate immune responses at the injection site and draining lymph nodes. DV230-Ficoll was preferentially colocalized with rPA in key APC populations and induced greater maturation marker expression (CD69 and CD86) on these cells and stronger germinal center B and T cell responses, relative to DV230. DV230-Ficoll was also preferentially retained at the injection site and draining lymph nodes and produced fewer systemic inflammatory responses. These findings support the development of DV230-Ficoll as an adjuvant platform, particularly for vaccines such as for anthrax, for which rapid induction of protective immunity and memory with a single injection is very important. PMID:26608924

  10. Selection of Glutamate-Rich Protein Long Synthetic Peptides for Vaccine Development: Antigenicity and Relationship with Clinical Protection and Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Toure-Balde, Aissatou; Soe, Soe; Corradin, Giampietro; Koram, Kwadwo K.; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A. L.; Hviid, Lars; Theander, Thor; Akanmori, Bartholomew; Ndiaye, Mohamadou; Druilhe, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Antibodies against three long synthetic peptides (LSPs) derived from the glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) of Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed in three cohorts from Liberia, Ghana, and Senegal. Two overlapping LSPs, LR67 and LR68, are derived from the relatively conserved N-terminal nonrepeat region (R0), and the third, LR70, is derived from the R2 repeat region. A high prevalence of antibody responses to each LSP was observed in all three areas of endemic infection. Levels of cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against both GLURP regions were significantly correlated with protection from clinical P. falciparum malaria. Protected children from the Ghana cohort possessed predominantly IgG1 antibodies against the nonrepeat epitope and IgG3 antibodies against the repeat epitope. T-cell proliferation responses, studied in the cohort from Senegal, revealed that T-helper-cell epitopes were confined to the nonrepeat region. When used as immunogens, the LR67 and LR68 peptides elicited strong IgG responses in outbred mice and LR67 also induced antibodies in mice of different H-2 haplotypes, confirming the presence of T-helper-cell epitopes in these constructs. Mouse antipeptide antisera recognized parasite proteins as determined by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. This indicates that synthetic peptides derived from relatively conserved epitopes of GLURP might serve as useful immunogens for vaccination against P. falciparum malaria. PMID:11500389

  11. Selection of glutamate-rich protein long synthetic peptides for vaccine development: antigenicity and relationship with clinical protection and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Theisen, M; Dodoo, D; Toure-Balde, A; Soe, S; Corradin, G; Koram, K K; Kurtzhals, J A; Hviid, L; Theander, T; Akanmori, B; Ndiaye, M; Druilhe, P

    2001-09-01

    Antibodies against three long synthetic peptides (LSPs) derived from the glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) of Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed in three cohorts from Liberia, Ghana, and Senegal. Two overlapping LSPs, LR67 and LR68, are derived from the relatively conserved N-terminal nonrepeat region (R0), and the third, LR70, is derived from the R2 repeat region. A high prevalence of antibody responses to each LSP was observed in all three areas of endemic infection. Levels of cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against both GLURP regions were significantly correlated with protection from clinical P. falciparum malaria. Protected children from the Ghana cohort possessed predominantly IgG1 antibodies against the nonrepeat epitope and IgG3 antibodies against the repeat epitope. T-cell proliferation responses, studied in the cohort from Senegal, revealed that T-helper-cell epitopes were confined to the nonrepeat region. When used as immunogens, the LR67 and LR68 peptides elicited strong IgG responses in outbred mice and LR67 also induced antibodies in mice of different H-2 haplotypes, confirming the presence of T-helper-cell epitopes in these constructs. Mouse antipeptide antisera recognized parasite proteins as determined by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. This indicates that synthetic peptides derived from relatively conserved epitopes of GLURP might serve as useful immunogens for vaccination against P. falciparum malaria. PMID:11500389

  12. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  13. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  14. Attempts to enhance cross-protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses using chimeric viruses containing structural genes from two antigenically distinct strains.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong; Khatun, Amina; Kim, Won-Il; Cooper, Vickie; Cho, Yong-Il; Wang, Chong; Choi, Eun-Jin; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Due to significant antigenic variations between field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), suboptimal cross-protection between different viruses impedes the effective control of PRRS via vaccination. Our previous study showed that chimeric viruses containing mixed structural genes from two distinct strains (VR2332 and JA142) of PRRSV were highly susceptible to the viral neutralizing activity of antisera generated against both parental strains. In this study, three chimeric viruses (JAP5, JAP56 and JAP2-6) were constructed by replacing ORF5, ORFs 5 and 6, and ORFs 2-6 of VR2332 with the corresponding genes of JA142, respectively, and their ability to confer cross-protection against challenge with the VR2332 and JA142 strains was evaluated in vivo. A total of 114 pigs were divided into 6 groups, and each group was intramuscularly injected with one of the 3 chimeric viruses (n=16 pigs per group), VR2332 (n=24), JA142 (n=24), or sham inoculum (n=18). At 44days post-inoculation (dpi), these pigs were further divided into 15 groups (n=6 or 8 pigs per group) and intranasally challenged with VR2332, JA142, or sham inoculum. All pigs inoculated with one of the chimeric viruses prior to challenge had lower viremia levels than the challenge control pigs. Prior inoculation with JAP56 markedly decreased viremia to nearly undetectable levels in pigs challenged with either VR2332 or JA142. These results suggest that chimeric viruses harboring mixed structural genes from two distinct PRRSV strains can provide protection against both donor viruses. PMID:27406935

  15. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads A B; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-02-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested. PMID:26886513

  16. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Maria R.; Larsen, Mads A. B.; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R.; Christensen, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested. PMID:26886513

  17. BoHV-4-Based Vector Single Heterologous Antigen Delivery Protects STAT1(-/-) Mice from Monkeypoxvirus Lethal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Ryan W.; Doronin, Konstantin; Hembrador, Edguardo; Pompilio, Daniela; Tebaldi, Giulia; Estep, Ryan D.; Wong, Scott W.; Buller, Mark R.; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is the etiological agent of human (MPX). It is an emerging orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forest of Africa and is endemic in the Congo-basin and sporadic in West Africa; it remains a tropical neglected disease of persons in impoverished rural areas. Interaction of the human population with wildlife increases human infection with MPX virus (MPXV), and infection from human to human is possible. Smallpox vaccination provides good cross-protection against MPX; however, the vaccination campaign ended in Africa in 1980, meaning that a large proportion of the population is currently unprotected against MPXV infection. Disease control hinges on deterring zoonotic exposure to the virus and, barring that, interrupting person-to-person spread. However, there are no FDA-approved therapies against MPX, and current vaccines are limited due to safety concerns. For this reason, new studies on pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapeutics are still of great interest, not only for the scientific community but also for the governments concerned that MPXV could be used as a bioterror agent. In the present study, a new vaccination strategy approach based on three recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) vectors, each expressing different MPXV glycoproteins, A29L, M1R and B6R were investigated in terms of protection from a lethal MPXV challenge in STAT1 knockout mice. BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK were successfully constructed by recombineering, and their capacity to express their transgene was demonstrated. A small challenge study was performed, and all three recombinant BoHV-4 appeared safe (no weight-loss or obvious adverse events) following intraperitoneal administration. Further, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK alone or in combination with BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK, was shown to be able to protect, 100% alone and 80% in combination, STAT1(-/-) mice against

  18. BoHV-4-Based Vector Single Heterologous Antigen Delivery Protects STAT1(-/-) Mice from Monkeypoxvirus Lethal Challenge.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Valentina; Parker, Scott; Jacca, Sarah; Crump, Ryan W; Doronin, Konstantin; Hembrador, Edguardo; Pompilio, Daniela; Tebaldi, Giulia; Estep, Ryan D; Wong, Scott W; Buller, Mark R; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2015-06-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is the etiological agent of human (MPX). It is an emerging orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forest of Africa and is endemic in the Congo-basin and sporadic in West Africa; it remains a tropical neglected disease of persons in impoverished rural areas. Interaction of the human population with wildlife increases human infection with MPX virus (MPXV), and infection from human to human is possible. Smallpox vaccination provides good cross-protection against MPX; however, the vaccination campaign ended in Africa in 1980, meaning that a large proportion of the population is currently unprotected against MPXV infection. Disease control hinges on deterring zoonotic exposure to the virus and, barring that, interrupting person-to-person spread. However, there are no FDA-approved therapies against MPX, and current vaccines are limited due to safety concerns. For this reason, new studies on pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapeutics are still of great interest, not only for the scientific community but also for the governments concerned that MPXV could be used as a bioterror agent. In the present study, a new vaccination strategy approach based on three recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) vectors, each expressing different MPXV glycoproteins, A29L, M1R and B6R were investigated in terms of protection from a lethal MPXV challenge in STAT1 knockout mice. BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK were successfully constructed by recombineering, and their capacity to express their transgene was demonstrated. A small challenge study was performed, and all three recombinant BoHV-4 appeared safe (no weight-loss or obvious adverse events) following intraperitoneal administration. Further, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK alone or in combination with BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK, was shown to be able to protect, 100% alone and 80% in combination, STAT1(-/-) mice against

  19. Broad-spectrum sunscreens provide greater protection against ultraviolet-radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity to a recall antigen in humans.

    PubMed

    Damian, D L; Halliday, G M; Barnetson, R S

    1997-08-01

    This study investigates the extent to which sunscreens protect humans from ultraviolet (UV)-radiation-induced immunosuppression. In the presence of solar-simulated UV, three sunscreens with differing UVA transmission were assessed for their ability to protect the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to nickel of 16 nickel-allergic subjects. The sunscreens contained 2-ethylhexyl para-methoxycinnamate (cinnamate), cinnamate with oxybenzone, or cinnamate with zinc oxide, respectively. All had sun protection factors of 10 and hence inhibited UV erythema to similar extents. Volunteers were irradiated on their backs with suberythemal UV daily for 5 d after application of the sunscreens and their base lotion to different sites. Nickel-containing patches were then applied to both UV-treated sites and adjacent, unirradiated control sites. Erythema caused by nickel CHS at each site was quantitated 72 h later with a reflectance erythema meter. In comparison of the nickel reactions of irradiated and unirradiated skin, there was 35% mean immunosuppression in unprotected UV-treated skin. Significant immunosuppression also occurred at sites irradiated through the narrow-spectrum cinnamate-only sunscreen but was prevented by the two broad-spectrum sunscreens. To determine whether UV-induced suppression of the nickel response is specific for cell-mediated immunity or reflects suppression of nonspecific inflammation, a further 16 subjects were patch-tested with a skin irritant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), following a sunscreen and irradiation protocol identical to that of the nickel volunteers. UV had no significant effect on SLS responses. We conclude that nickel patch testing is a valid means of assessing UV-induced immunosuppression in humans and that even with suberythemal UV, immune protection was provided only by sunscreens filtering both UVA and UVB. PMID:9242499

  20. Intranasal Immunization with the Cholera Toxin B Subunit-Pneumococcal Surface Antigen A Fusion Protein Induces Protection against Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Has Negligible Impact on the Nasopharyngeal and Oral Microbiota of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, F. C.; Miyaji, E. N.; Arêas, A. P. M.; Oliveira, M. L. S.; de Andrade, A. L. S. S.; Ho, P. L.; Hollingshead, S. K.; Leite, L. C. C.

    2006-01-01

    One of the candidate proteins for a mucosal vaccine antigen against Streptococcus pneumoniae is PsaA (pneumococcal surface antigen A). Vaccines targeting mucosal immunity may raise concerns as to possible alterations in the normal microbiota, especially in the case of PsaA, which was shown to have homologs with elevated sequence identity in other viridans group streptococci. In this work, we demonstrate that intranasal immunization with a cholera toxin B subunit-PsaA fusion protein is able to protect mice against colonization with S. pneumoniae but does not significantly alter the natural oral or nasopharyngeal microbiota of mice. PMID:16861686

  1. The toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) of Vibrio cholerae: molecular cloning of genes involved in pilus biosynthesis and evaluation of TCP as a protective antigen in the infant mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D P; Stroeher, U H; Thomas, C J; Manning, P A; Attridge, S R

    1989-12-01

    A serum containing antibodies to non-lipopolysaccharide (non-LPS) protective antigens of Vibrio cholerae has been used, after extensive absorption, to facilitate the cloning of genes involved in the synthesis of toxin-coregulated pili (TCP). A gene bank was constructed from V. cholerae Z17561 DNA using a mobilizable cosmid vector in Escherichia coli, and subsequently transferred by conjugation into V. cholerae O17. This strain does not produce TCP in vitro and lacks non-LPS protective antigens. Eight positive clones were isolated, and of these, four produced TCP as determined by electron microscopic and immunoblotting analyses. TCP-positive O17 clones were 70-fold more virulent than TCP-negative clones or O17 in the infant mouse cholera model. Only the former could remove protective antibodies from the clone-probing serum by absorption. As a corollary, serum containing antibodies to TCP protected mice from challenge with TCP-positive clones, but not with TCP-negative clones or O17. Our data indicate that TCP can function as both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen in the infant mouse model. PMID:2576091

  2. Use of IGHV3–21 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is associated with high-risk disease and reflects antigen-driven, post–germinal center leukemogenic selection

    PubMed Central

    Ghia, Emanuela M.; Jain, Sonia; Widhopf, George F.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.; Gribben, John G.; Brown, Jennifer R.; Rai, Kanti R.; Byrd, John C.; Kay, Neil E.; Greaves, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells of 2457 patients evaluated by the CLL Research Consortium (CRC) and found that 63 (2.6%) expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) encoded by the Ig heavy-chain-variable-region gene (IGHV), IGHV3-21. We identified the amino acid sequence DANGMDV (motif-1) or DPSFYSSSWTLFDY (motif-2) in the Ig heavy-chain (IgH) third complementarity-determining region (HCDR3) of IgH, respectively, used by 25 or 3 cases. The IgH with HCDR3 motif-1 or motif-2, respectively, was paired with Ig light chains (IgL) encoded by IGLV3-21 or IGKV3-20, suggesting that these Ig had been selected for binding to conventional antigen(s). Cases that had HCDR3 motif-1 had a median time from diagnosis to initial therapy comparable with that of cases without a defined HCDR3 motif, as did cases that used mutated IGHV3-21 (n = 27) versus unmutated IGHV3-21 (n = 30). Of 7 examined cases that used Ig encoded by IGHV3-21/IGLV3-21, we found that 5 had a functionally rearranged IGKV allele that apparently had incurred antigendriven somatic mutations and subsequent rearrangement with KDE. This study reveals that CLL cells expressing IGHV3-21/IGLV3-21 most likely were derived from B cells that had experienced somatic mutation and germinal-center maturation in an apparent antigen-driven immune response before undergoing Ig-receptor editing and after germinal-center leukemogenic selection. PMID:18326815

  3. Soluble expression and purification of the anthrax protective antigen in E. coli and identification of a novel dominant-negative mutant N435C.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaobing; Feng, Chunfang; Hong, Yuzhi; Guo, Aizhen; Cao, Sha; Dong, Junli; Lin, Ling; Liu, Ziduo

    2010-06-01

    The anthrax toxin is an AB-type bacterium toxin composed of the protective antigen (PA) as the cell-binding B component, and the lethal factor (LF) and edema toxin (EF) as the catalytic A components. The PA component is a key factor in anthrax-related research and recombinant PA can be produced in general in Escherichia coli. However, such recombinant PA always forms inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of E. coli, making difficult the procedure of its purification. In this study, we found that the solubility of recombinant PA was dramatically enhanced by fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and an induction of its expression at 28 degrees C. The PA was purified to high homogeneity and a yield of 3 mg protein was obtained from 1 l culture by an affinity-chromatography approach. Moreover, we expressed and purified three PA mutants, I394C, A396C, and N435C, which were impaired in expression in previous study. Among them, a novel mutant N435C which conferred dominant-negative inhibitory activity on PA was identified. This new mutant may be useful in designing new antitoxin for anthrax prophylaxis and therapy. PMID:20213183

  4. Development of an edema factor-mediated cAMP-induction bioassay for detecting antibody-mediated neutralization of anthrax protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Zmuda, Jonathan F; Zhang, Linyi; Richards, Terri; Pham, Quyen; Zukauskas, David; Pierre, Jennifer L; Laird, Michael W; Askins, Janine; Choi, Gil H

    2005-03-01

    Intoxication of mammalian cells by Bacillus anthracis requires the coordinate activity of three distinct bacterial proteins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). Among these proteins, PA has become the major focus of work on monoclonal antibodies and vaccines designed to treat or prevent anthrax infection since neither EF nor LF is capable of inducing cellular toxicity in its absence. Here, we present the development of a sensitive, precise, and biologically relevant bioassay platform capable of quantifying antibody-mediated PA neutralization. This bioassay is based on the ability of PA to bind and shuttle EF, a bacterial adenylate cyclase, into mammalian cells leading to an increase in cAMP that can be quantified using a sensitive chemiluminescent ELISA. The results of this study indicate that the cAMP-induction assay possesses the necessary performance characteristics for use as both a potency-indicating release assay in a quality control setting and as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker for ensuring the continued bioactivity of therapeutic antibodies against PA during clinical trials. PMID:15847796

  5. Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, Ard M; Taoufik, Amar; de la Fuente, José; Kocan, Katherine M; de Vries, Erik; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-05-01

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing was confirmed by real time PCR. Gene silencing occurred in injected unfed females after they were allowed to feed. Injection of dsRNA into engorged females caused gene silencing in the subsequently oviposited eggs and larvae that hatched from these eggs, but not in adults that developed from these larvae. dsRNA injected into engorged females could be detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in eggs 14 days from the beginning of oviposition, demonstrating that unprocessed dsRNA was incorporated in the eggs. Eggs produced by engorged females injected with subolesin dsRNA were abnormal, suggesting that subolesin may play a role in embryonic development. The injection of dsRNA into engorged females to obtain gene-specific silencing in eggs and larvae is a novel method which can be used to study gene function in tick embryogenesis. PMID:17196597

  6. Expression, purification, and characterization of protective MPT64 antigen protein and identification of its multimers isolated from nontoxic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra.

    PubMed

    Chu, Teng-Ping J; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P

    2011-05-01

    MPT64, a secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), stimulates the immune reactions within cells and is a protective antigen that is lost by the bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine during propagation. To minimize the toxicity caused by MTB, we used the MPT64 gene encoded by nontoxic H37Ra MTB to carry out genetic expansion via polymerase chain reaction and gene clone MPT64. The plasmid DNA encoded MPT64 was expressed at 20°C for 22 H, and a large quantity of MPT64 was obtained. In the absence of urea, MPT64 multimers with subunits being covalently connected via disulfide bonds were detected by Western blot showing strong protein-protein interactions, as evidenced by the formation of MPT64 tetramers. Finally, with urea of decreasing concentrations, we refolded MPT64 purified in the presence of urea and determined its secondary structures using circular dichroism. MPT64 was found to contain 2.2% α-helix, 50.9% β-sheet, 19.5% turn, and 27.4% random coil. The molecular weight of MPT64 was determined by a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer and found to be 23,497 Da, very close to the theoretical molecular weight of MPT64. The results presented here provide a sound basis for future biochemical and biophysical studies of MPT64 or any other proteins encoded by nontoxic H37Ra MTB. PMID:21679242

  7. Electrochemical detection of the binding of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) to the membrane receptor on macrophages through release of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Trouillon, Raphaël; Williamson, E Diane; Saint, Richard J; O'Hare, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax is a serious bacterial disease of man and animals whose pathogenesis involves the secretion of lethal toxins in the host. The intracellular delivery of toxic complexes involves a complex structural rearrangement of sub-domains of the exotoxin protective antigen (PA). We have used a biocompatible microelectrode array, coated with J774 mouse macrophages, to detect PA binding and intracellular signaling resulting in nitric oxide (NO) release. We have found that exposure of macrophages to PA in vitro activates the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS), thus increasing the extracellular concentration of NO and nitrite, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the cell-binding domain 4 of PA (PA4) could substitute for full-length PA to achieve equivalent NO release, suggesting that the heptamerisation of PA, ultimately required to deliver toxic complexes into the cell, is not a requirement for the activation of an intracellular cascade through the ERK 1/2 and the PI-3K/ Akt kinase pathways and that these events could be triggered by the binding of PA4 alone to its cell membrane receptor. Further, we have found that pre-incubation of the cells with azidothymidine, a pro-oxidant drug, significantly improves the limit of detection of rPA-induced NO release thus offering a sensitive tool for the analysis of the kinetics of anthrax intoxication and ultimately drug discovery. PMID:22672762

  8. Optimization, Production, and Characterization of a CpG-Oligonucleotide-Ficoll Conjugate Nanoparticle Adjuvant for Enhanced Immunogenicity of Anthrax Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Milley, Bob; Kiwan, Radwan; Ott, Gary S; Calacsan, Carlo; Kachura, Melissa; Campbell, John D; Kanzler, Holger; Coffman, Robert L

    2016-05-18

    We have synthesized and characterized a novel phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN)-Ficoll conjugated nanoparticulate adjuvant, termed DV230-Ficoll. This adjuvant was constructed from an amine-functionalized-Ficoll, a heterobifunctional linker (succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido)-hexaethylene glycol] ester) and the CpG-ODN DV230. Herein, we describe the evaluation of the purity and reactivity of linkers of different lengths for CpG-ODN-Ficoll conjugation, optimization of linker coupling, and conjugation of thiol-functionalized CpG to maleimide-functionalized Ficoll and process scale-up. Physicochemical characterization of independently produced lots of DV230-Ficoll reveal a bioconjugate with a particle size of approximately 50 nm and covalent attachment of more than 100 molecules of CpG per Ficoll. Solutions of purified DV230-Ficoll were stable for at least 12 months at frozen and refrigerated temperatures and stability was further enhanced in lyophilized form. Compared to nonconjugated monomeric DV230, the DV230-Ficoll conjugate demonstrated improved in vitro potency for induction of IFN-α from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and induced higher titer neutralizing antibody responses against coadministered anthrax recombinant protective antigen in mice. The processes described here establish a reproducible and robust process for the synthesis of a novel, size-controlled, and stable CpG-ODN nanoparticle adjuvant suitable for manufacture and use in vaccines. PMID:27074387

  9. Optimization, Production, and Characterization of a CpG-Oligonucleotide-Ficoll Conjugate Nanoparticle Adjuvant for Enhanced Immunogenicity of Anthrax Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a novel phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN)-Ficoll conjugated nanoparticulate adjuvant, termed DV230-Ficoll. This adjuvant was constructed from an amine-functionalized-Ficoll, a heterobifunctional linker (succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido)-hexaethylene glycol] ester) and the CpG-ODN DV230. Herein, we describe the evaluation of the purity and reactivity of linkers of different lengths for CpG-ODN-Ficoll conjugation, optimization of linker coupling, and conjugation of thiol-functionalized CpG to maleimide-functionalized Ficoll and process scale-up. Physicochemical characterization of independently produced lots of DV230-Ficoll reveal a bioconjugate with a particle size of approximately 50 nm and covalent attachment of more than 100 molecules of CpG per Ficoll. Solutions of purified DV230-Ficoll were stable for at least 12 months at frozen and refrigerated temperatures and stability was further enhanced in lyophilized form. Compared to nonconjugated monomeric DV230, the DV230-Ficoll conjugate demonstrated improved in vitro potency for induction of IFN-α from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and induced higher titer neutralizing antibody responses against coadministered anthrax recombinant protective antigen in mice. The processes described here establish a reproducible and robust process for the synthesis of a novel, size-controlled, and stable CpG-ODN nanoparticle adjuvant suitable for manufacture and use in vaccines. PMID:27074387

  10. Induction of cytotoxic T-cell activity by the protective antigen of Schistosoma mansoni Sm28GST or its derived C-terminal lipopeptide.

    PubMed

    Pancré, V; Gras-Masse, H; Delanoye, A; Herno, J; Capron, A; Auriault, C

    1996-11-01

    In a previous work the authors demonstrated that immunization with Schistosoma mansoni 28-kDa glutathione-S-transferase (Sm28GST) was able to reduce hepatic damage in infected mice and that the adoptive transfer of Sm28GST-specific T cells reproduced the protective effect obtained with the recombinant molecule. In the present paper, the authors show that Sm28GST is also able to stimulate an antigen-specific, cytotoxic T-cell response against Sm28GST-pulsed P815 target cells in normal mice and that effector cells induced in vivo were classical Class I MHC-restricted CD8+ lymphocytes. The authors found no spontaneous CTL activity against Sm28GST-pulsed target cells during the course of the infection by S. mansoni although Sm28GST is expressed at different developmental stages of the parasite. It was observed, however, that immunization with Sm28GST is sufficient to elicit a significant level of CTL response for 6 weeks in infected mice. The role of these Class I MHC-restricted CD8+ lymphocytes in the protection observed precisely at the same period in immunized mice remains to be elucidated. The authors also observe that immunization with the lipopeptide form of the C-terminal peptide of the molecule (190-211 peptide) led to a CTL activation comparable to that observed after immunization with the whole molecule demonstrating the feasibility of using a synthetic lipopeptide as immunogen for a CTL response against Sm28GST epitopes. Moreover, like Sm28GST-specific CTLs, 190-211 lipopeptide-specific cells were also Class I MHC-restricted lymphocytes. PMID:8947600

  11. Protection provided by a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein C and D subunit antigen vaccine against genital HSV-2 infection in HSV-1-seropositive guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Balliet, John W; Flynn, Jessica A; Lubinski, John M; Shaw, Carolyn E; DiStefano, Daniel J; Cai, Michael; Brown, Martha; Smith, Judith F; Kowalski, Rose; Swoyer, Ryan; Galli, Jennifer; Copeland, Victoria; Rios, Sandra; Davidson, Robert C; Salnikova, Maya; Kingsley, Susan; Bryan, Janine; Casimiro, Danilo R; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-02-01

    A prophylactic vaccine for genital herpes disease remains an elusive goal. We report the results of two studies performed collaboratively in different laboratories that assessed immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-seropositive guinea pigs immunized and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2. In study 1, HSV-2 glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) were produced in baculovirus and administered intramuscularly as monovalent or bivalent vaccines with CpG and alum. In study 2, gD2 was produced in CHO cells and given intramuscularly with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum, or gC2 and gD2 were produced in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris and administered intramuscularly as a bivalent vaccine with Iscomatrix and alum to HSV-1-naive or -seropositive guinea pigs. In both studies, immunization boosted neutralizing antibody responses to HSV-1 and HSV-2. In study 1, immunization with gC2, gD2, or both immunogens significantly reduced the frequency of genital lesions, with the bivalent vaccine showing the greatest protection. In study 2, both vaccines were highly protective against genital disease in naive and HSV-1-seropositive animals. Comparisons between gD2 and gC2/gD2 in study 2 must be interpreted cautiously, because different adjuvants, gD2 doses, and antigen production methods were used; however, significant differences invariably favored the bivalent vaccine. Immunization of naive animals with gC2/gD2 significantly reduced the number of days of vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA compared with that for mock-immunized animals. Surprisingly, in both studies, immunization of HSV-1-seropositive animals had little effect on recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA, despite significantly reducing genital disease. PMID:24284325

  12. Early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes protective T helper 17 cell responses in a toll-like receptor-2-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Samit; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Singh, Yogesh; Siddiqui, Imran; Sharma, Pawan; Van Kaer, Luc; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Das, Gobardhan

    2011-11-01

    Despite its relatively poor efficacy, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used as a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine since its development in 1921. BCG induces robust T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses but, for many individuals, this is not sufficient for host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. Here we provide evidence that early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6), expressed by the virulent M. tb strain H37Rv but not by BCG, promotes vaccine-enhancing Th17 cell responses. These activities of ESAT-6 were dependent on TLR-2/MyD88 signalling and involved IL-6 and TGF-β production by dendritic cells. Thus, animals that were previously infected with H37Rv or recombinant BCG containing the RD1 region (BCG::RD1) exhibited improved protection upon re-challenge with virulent H37Rv compared with mice previously infected with BCG or RD1-deficient H37Rv (H37RvΔRD1). However, TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2⁻/⁻) animals neither showed Th17 responses nor exhibited improved protection in response to immunization with H37Rv. Furthermore, H37Rv and BCG::RD1 infection had little effect on the expression of the anti-inflammatory microRNA-146a (miR146a) in dendritic cells (DCs), whereas BCG and H37RvΔRD1 profoundly induced its expression in DCs. Consistent with these findings, ESAT-6 had no effect on miR146a expression in uninfected DCs, but dramatically inhibited its upregulation in BCG-infected or LPS-treated DCs. Collectively, our findings indicate that, in addition to Th1 immunity induced by BCG, RD1/ESAT-6-induced Th17 immune responses are essential for optimal vaccine efficacy. PMID:22102818

  13. Contributions of edema factor and protective antigen to the induction of protective immunity by Bacillus anthracis edema toxin as an intranasal adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Alexandra; Carré, Jeanne-Marie; Jee, Junbae; Leppla, Stephen H; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Tang, Wei-Jen; Tomé, Daniel; Boyaka, Prosper N

    2010-11-15

    We have shown that intranasal coapplication of Bacillus anthracis protective Ag (PA) together with a B. anthracis edema factor (EF) mutant having reduced adenylate cyclase activity (i.e., EF-S414N) enhances anti-PA Ab responses, but also acts as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered unrelated Ags. To elucidate the role of edema toxin (EdTx) components in its adjuvanticity, we examined how a PA mutant lacking the ability to bind EF (PA-U7) or another mutant that allows the cellular uptake of EF, but fails to efficiently mediate its translocation into the cytosol (PA-dFF), would affect EdTx-induced adaptive immunity. Native EdTx promotes costimulatory molecule expression by macrophages and B lymphocytes, and a broad spectrum of cytokine responses by cervical lymph node cells in vitro. These effects were reduced or abrogated when cells were treated with EF plus PA-dFF, or PA-U7 instead of PA. We also intranasally immunized groups of mice with a recombinant fusion protein of Yersinia pestis F1 and LcrV Ags (F1-V) together with EdTx variants consisting of wild-type or mutants PA and EF. Analysis of serum and mucosal Ab responses against F1-V or EdTx components (i.e., PA and EF) revealed no adjuvant activity in mice that received PA-U7 instead of PA. In contrast, coimmunization with PA-dFF enhanced serum Ab responses. Finally, immunization with native PA and an EF mutant lacking adenylate cyclase activity (EF-K346R) failed to enhance Ab responses. In summary, a fully functional PA and a minimum of adenylate cyclase activity are needed for EdTx to act as a mucosal adjuvant. PMID:20952678

  14. Contributions of Edema Factor and Protective Antigen to the Induction of Protective Immunity by Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin as an Intranasal Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Alexandra; Carré, Jeanne-Marie; Jee, Junbae; Leppla, Stephen H.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Tang, Wei-Jen; Tomé, Daniel; Boyaka, Prosper N.

    2013-01-01

    We have shown that intranasal coapplication of Bacillus anthracis protective Ag (PA) together with a B. anthracis edema factor (EF) mutant having reduced adenylate cyclase activity (i.e., EF-S414N) enhances anti-PAAb responses, but also acts as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered unrelated Ags. To elucidate the role of edema toxin (EdTx) components in its adjuvanticity, we examined how a PA mutant lacking the ability to bind EF (PA-U7) or another mutant that allows the cellular uptake of EF, but fails to efficiently mediate its translocation into the cytosol (PA-dFF), would affect EdTx-induced adaptive immunity. Native EdTx promotes costimulatory molecule expression by macrophages and B lymphocytes, and a broad spectrum of cytokine responses by cervical lymph node cells in vitro. These effects were reduced or abrogated when cells were treated with EF plus PA-dFF, or PA-U7 instead of PA. We also intranasally immunized groups of mice with a recombinant fusion protein of Yersinia pestis F1 and LcrVAgs (F1-V) together with EdTx variants consisting of wild-type or mutants PA and EF. Analysis of serum and mucosal Ab responses against F1-V or EdTx components (i.e., PA and EF) revealed no adjuvant activity in mice that received PA-U7 instead of PA. In contrast, coimmunization with PA-dFF enhanced serum Ab responses. Finally, immunization with native PA and an EF mutant lacking adenylate cyclase activity (EF-K346R) failed to enhance Ab responses. In summary, a fully functional PA and a minimum of adenylate cyclase activity are needed for EdTx to act as a mucosal adjuvant. PMID:20952678

  15. Mucosal priming of newborn mice with S. Typhi Ty21a expressing anthrax protective antigen (PA) followed by parenteral PA-boost induces B and T cell-mediated immunity that protects against infection bypassing maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Karina; Ditamo, Yanina; Galen, James E; Baillie, Les W J; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2010-08-23

    The currently licensed anthrax vaccine has several limitations and its efficacy has been proven only in adults. Effective immunization of newborns and infants requires adequate stimulation of their immune system, which is competent but not fully activated. We explored the use of the licensed live attenuated S. Typhi vaccine strain Ty21a expressing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen [Ty21a(PA)] followed PA-alum as a strategy for immunizing the pediatric population. Newborn mice primed with a single dose of Ty21a(PA) exhibited high frequencies of mucosal IgA-secreting B cells and IFN-gamma-secreting T cells during the neonatal period, none of which was detected in newborns immunized with a single dose of PA-alum. Priming with Ty21a(PA) followed by PA-boost resulted in high levels of PA-specific IgG, toxin neutralizing and opsonophagocytic antibodies and increased frequency of bone marrow IgG plasma cells and memory B cells compared with repeated immunization with PA-alum alone. Robust B and T cell responses developed even in the presence of maternal antibodies. The prime-boost protected against systemic and respiratory infection. Mucosal priming with a safe and effective S. Typhi-based anthrax vaccine followed by PA-boost could serve as a practical and effective prophylactic approach to prevent anthrax early in life. PMID:20619377

  16. Antigenicity, Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Three Proteins Expressed in the Promastigote and Amastigote Stages of Leishmania infantum against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Garde, Esther; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; da Silva, Viviane Gomes; Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, two Leishmania infantum hypothetical proteins present in the amastigote stage, LiHyp1 and LiHyp6, were combined with a promastigote protein, IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor (HRF); to compose a polyproteins vaccine to be evaluated against L. infantum infection. Also, the antigenicity of the three proteins was analyzed, and their use for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was evaluated. The LiHyp1, LiHyp6, and HRF DNA coding sequences were cloned in prokaryotic expression vectors and the recombinant proteins were purified. When employed in ELISA assays, all proteins were recognized by sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, and presented no cross-reactivity with either sera from dogs vaccinated with a Brazilian commercial vaccine, or sera of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected or Ehrlichia canis-infected animals. In addition, the antigens were not recognized by antibodies from non-infected animals living in endemic or non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the three proteins administered in the presence of saponin, individually or in combination (composing a polyproteins vaccine), were evaluated in a VL murine model: BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Spleen cells from mice inoculated with the individual proteins or with the polyproteins vaccine plus saponin showed a protein-specific production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF after an in vitro stimulation, which was maintained after infection. These animals presented significant reductions in the parasite burden in different evaluated organs, when compared to mice inoculated with saline or saponin. The decrease in parasite burden was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-γ against parasite total extracts (produced mainly by CD4+ T cells), correlated to the induction of parasite proteins-driven NO production. Mice inoculated with the recombinant protein-based vaccines showed also high levels of parasite

  17. Antigenicity, Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Three Proteins Expressed in the Promastigote and Amastigote Stages of Leishmania infantum against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Garde, Esther; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; da Silva, Viviane Grazielle; Silva, Viviane Gomes da; Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira de; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, two Leishmania infantum hypothetical proteins present in the amastigote stage, LiHyp1 and LiHyp6, were combined with a promastigote protein, IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor (HRF); to compose a polyproteins vaccine to be evaluated against L. infantum infection. Also, the antigenicity of the three proteins was analyzed, and their use for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was evaluated. The LiHyp1, LiHyp6, and HRF DNA coding sequences were cloned in prokaryotic expression vectors and the recombinant proteins were purified. When employed in ELISA assays, all proteins were recognized by sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, and presented no cross-reactivity with either sera from dogs vaccinated with a Brazilian commercial vaccine, or sera of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected or Ehrlichia canis-infected animals. In addition, the antigens were not recognized by antibodies from non-infected animals living in endemic or non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the three proteins administered in the presence of saponin, individually or in combination (composing a polyproteins vaccine), were evaluated in a VL murine model: BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Spleen cells from mice inoculated with the individual proteins or with the polyproteins vaccine plus saponin showed a protein-specific production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF after an in vitro stimulation, which was maintained after infection. These animals presented significant reductions in the parasite burden in different evaluated organs, when compared to mice inoculated with saline or saponin. The decrease in parasite burden was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-γ against parasite total extracts (produced mainly by CD4+ T cells), correlated to the induction of parasite proteins-driven NO production. Mice inoculated with the recombinant protein-based vaccines showed also high levels of parasite

  18. Trichinella spiralis: intranasal immunization with attenuated Salmonella enterica carrying a gp43 antigen-derived 30mer epitope elicits protection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Pompa-Mera, E N; Yépez-Mulia, L; Ocaña-Mondragón, A; García-Zepeda, E A; Ortega-Pierres, G; González-Bonilla, C R

    2011-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a public health problem and is considered an emergent/re-emergent disease in various countries. The etiological agent of trichinellosis is the nematode Trichinella, which infects domestic animals such as pigs and horses, as well as wild animals and humans. A veterinary vaccine could be an option to control the disease in domestic animals. Although several vaccine candidates have shown promising results, a vaccine against trichinellosis remains unavailable to date. Attenuated Salmonella strains are especially attractive live vectors because they elicit mucosal immunity, which is known to be important for the control of Trichinella spiralis infection at the intestinal level and can be administered by oral or intranasal routes. In this study, the autotransporter ShdA was used to display, on the surface of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261, the 210-239 amino acid epitope, (designated as Ag30) derived from the 43 kDa glycoprotein of T. spiralis muscle larvae. The fusion protein elicited antibodies in BALB/c mice that were able to recognize the native epitope on the surface of T. spiralis muscle larvae. Mice immunized by intranasal route with the recombinant Salmonella induced a protective immune response against the T. spiralis challenge, reducing by 61.83% the adult burden at day eight postinfection. This immune response was characterized by the induction of antigen-specific IgG1 and of IL-5 production. This study demonstrates the usefulness of Salmonella as a carrier of nematode epitopes providing a surface display system for intestinal parasite vaccine applications. PMID:21907709

  19. Antibodies to variant surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes associated with protection from treatment failure and development of anaemia in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gaoqian; Aitken, Elizabeth; Yosaatmadja, Francisca; Kalilani, Linda; Meshnick, Steven R; Jaworowski, Anthony; Simpson, Julie A; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Background In pregnancy associated malaria (PAM), Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IEs) express variant surface antigens (VSA-PAM) that evade existing immunity and mediate placental sequestration. Antibodies to VSA-PAM develop with gravidity and block placental adhesion or opsonise IEs for phagocytic clearance, protecting women from anemia and low birth weight Methods and findings Using sera from 141 parasitemic pregnant Malawian women enrolled in a randomized trial of antimalarials and VSA-PAM-expressing CS2 IEs, we quantitated levels of IgG to VSA-PAM by flow cytometry and opsonizing antibodies by measuring uptake of IEs by THP1 promonocytes. After controlling for gravidity and antimalarial treatment, IgG against VSA-PAM was associated with decreased anemia at delivery (OR=0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46, 0.93; P=0.018) and weakly associated with decreased parasitological failure (OR=0.78; 95% CI, 0.60, 1.03; P=0.075), especially re-infection (OR=0.73; CI, 0.53,1.01; P=0.057). Opsonizing antibodies to CS2 IE were associated with less maternal anemia. (OR=0.31, 95% CI, 0.13, 0.74; P=0.008) and treatment failure (OR=0.48; 95% CI, 0.25, 0.90; P=0.023), primarily due to recrudescent infection (OR=0.49; 95% CI, 0.21, 1.12; P=0.089). Conclusion Both IgG antibody to VSA-PAM and opsonizing antibody, a functional measure of immunity correlate with parasite clearance and less anemia in pregnancy malaria. PMID:19500037

  20. The Disulfide Bond Cys255-Cys279 in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 Is Required for Membrane Insertion of Anthrax Protective Antigen Pore

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Kyle; Altiyev, Agamyrat; Puschhof, Jens; Sauter, Roland; Arigi, Emma; Ruiz, Blanca; Peng, Xiuli; Almeida, Igor; Sherman, Michael; Xiao, Chuan; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax toxin receptors act as molecular clamps or switches that control anthrax toxin entry, pH-dependent pore formation, and translocation of enzymatic moieties across the endosomal membranes. We previously reported that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain of the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2) inhibited the function of the protective antigen (PA) pore. In the present study, the disulfide linkage in the Ig domain was identified as Cys255-Cys279 and Cys230-Cys315. Specific disulfide bond deletion mutants were achieved by replacing Cys residues with Ala residues. Deletion of the disulfide bond C255-C279, but not C230-C315, inhibited the PA pore-induced release of the fluorescence dyes from the liposomes, suggesting that C255-C279 is essential for PA pore function. Furthermore, we found that deletion of C255-C279 did not affect PA prepore-to-pore conversion, but inhibited PA pore membrane insertion by trapping the PA membrane-inserting loops in proteinaceous hydrophobic pockets. Fluorescence spectra of Trp59, a residue adjacent to the PA-binding motif in von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of ANTXR2, showed that deletion of C255-C279 resulted in a significant conformational change on the receptor ectodomain. The disulfide deletion-induced conformational change on the VWA domain was further confirmed by single-particle 3D reconstruction of the negatively stained PA-receptor heptameric complexes. Together, the biochemical and structural data obtained in this study provides a mechanistic insight into the role of the receptor disulfide bond C255-C279 in anthrax toxin action. Manipulation of the redox states of the receptor, specifically targeting to C255-C279, may become a novel strategy to treat anthrax. PMID:26107617

  1. Antigenic and sequence diversity at the C-terminus of the merozoite surface protein-1 from rodent malaria isolates, and the binding of protective monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, P A; Ling, I T; Clottey, G; Valero, L M; Ogun, S A; Fleck, S L; Walliker, D; Morgan, W D; Birdsall, B; Feeney, J; Holder, A A

    1999-11-30

    Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) is a major candidate in the development of a vaccine against malaria. Immunisation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the two Plasmodium yoelii MSP-1 C-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domains (MSP-1(19)) can protect mice against homologous but not heterologous challenge, and therefore, antigenic differences resulting from sequence diversity in MSP-1(19) may be crucial in determining the potential of this protein as a vaccine. Representative sequence variants from a number of distinct P. yoelii isolates were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were screened for binding to a panel of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) capable of suppressing a P. yoelii YM challenge infection in passive immunisation experiments. The sequence polymorphisms affected the binding of the antibodies to the recombinant proteins. None of the Mabs recognised MSP-1(19) of P. yoelii yoelii 2CL or 33X or P. yoelii nigeriensis N67. The epitopes recognised by the Mabs were further distinguished by their reactivity with the other fusion proteins. The extent of sequence variation in MSP-1(19) among the isolates was extensive, with differences detected at 35 out of the 96 positions compared. Using the 3-dimensional structure of the Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1(19) as a model, the locations of the amino acid substitutions that may affect Mab binding were identified. The DNA sequence of MSP-1(19) from two Plasmodium vinckei isolates was also cloned and the deduced amino acid sequence compared with that in other species. PMID:10593171

  2. Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen: Inhibition of Channel Function by Chloroquine and Related Compounds and Study of Binding Kinetics Using the Current Noise Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Orlik, Frank; Schiffler, Bettina; Benz, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA) of the tripartite anthrax toxin binds to a cell surface receptor and mediates the transport of two enzymatic components, edema factor and lethal factor, into the cytosol of host cells. Here recombinant PA63 from Bacillus anthracis was reconstituted into artificial lipid bilayer membranes and formed ion permeable channels. The heptameric PA63-channel contains a binding site for 4-aminoquinolones, which block ion transport through PA in vitro. This result allowed a detailed investigation of ligand binding and the stability constants for the binding of chloroquine, fluphenazine, and quinacrine to the binding site inside the PA63-channel were determined using titration experiments. Open PA63-channels exhibit 1/f noise in the frequency range between 1 and 100 Hz, whereas the spectral density of the ligand-induced current noise was of Lorentzian type. The analysis of the power density spectra allowed the evaluation of the on- and off-rate constants (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}k_{1}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}k_{-1}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) of ligand binding. The on-rate constants of ligand binding were between 106 and 108 M−1 s−1 and were dependent on the ionic strength of the aqueous phase, sidedness of ligand addition, as well as the orientation and intensity of the applied electric field. The off-rates varied between ∼10 s−1 and 2600 s−1 and depended mainly on the structure of the ligand. PMID:15596516

  3. Neem leaf glycoprotein promotes dual generation of central and effector memory CD8(+) T cells against sarcoma antigen vaccine to induce protective anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sarbari; Sarkar, Madhurima; Ghosh, Tithi; Guha, Ipsita; Bhuniya, Avishek; Saha, Akata; Dasgupta, Shayani; Barik, Subhasis; Bose, Anamika; Baral, Rathindranath

    2016-03-01

    We have previously shown that Neem Leaf Glycoprotein (NLGP) mediates sustained tumor protection by activating host immune response. Now we report that adjuvant help from NLGP predominantly generates CD44(+)CD62L(high)CCR7(high) central memory (TCM; in lymph node) and CD44(+)CD62L(low)CCR7(low) effector memory (TEM; in spleen) CD8(+) T cells of Swiss mice after vaccination with sarcoma antigen (SarAg). Generated TCM and TEM participated either to replenish memory cell pool for sustained disease free states or in rapid tumor eradication respectively. TCM generated after SarAg+NLGP vaccination underwent significant proliferation and IL-2 secretion following SarAg re-stimulation. Furthermore, SarAg+NLGP vaccination helps in greater survival of the memory precursor effector cells at the peak of the effector response and their maintenance as mature memory cells, in comparison to single modality treatment. Such response is corroborated with the reduced phosphorylation of FOXO in the cytosol and increased KLF2 in the nucleus associated with enhanced CD62L, CCR7 expression of lymph node-resident CD8(+) T cells. However, spleen-resident CD8(+) T memory cells show superior efficacy for immediate memory-to-effector cell conversion. The data support in all aspects that SarAg+NLGP demonstrate superiority than SarAg vaccination alone that benefits the host by rapid effector functions whenever required, whereas, central-memory cells are thought to replenish the memory cell pool for ultimate sustained disease free survival till 60 days following post-vaccination tumor inoculation. PMID:26851529

  4. Anthrax Toxin Receptor 1 / Tumor Endothelial Marker 8: Mutation of Conserved Inserted Domain Residues Overrides Cytosolic Control of Protective Antigen Binding†

    PubMed Central

    Ramey, Jordan D.; Villareal, Valerie A.; Ng, Charles; Ward, Sabrina; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Clubb, Robert T.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) / tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) is one of two known proteinaceous cell surface anthrax toxin receptors. A metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) present in the integrin-like inserted (I) domain of ANTXR1 mediates the binding of the anthrax toxin subunit, protective antigen (PA). Here we provide evidence that single point mutations in the I domain can override regulation of ANTXR1 ligand-binding activity mediated by intracellular signals. A previously reported MIDAS-mutant of ANTXR1 (T118A) was found to retain normal metal ion binding and secondary structure but failed to bind PA, consistent with a locked inactive state. Conversely, mutation of a conserved I domain phenylalanine residue to a tryptophan (F205W) increased the proportion of cell-surface ANTXR1 that bound PA, consistent with a locked active state. Interestingly, the KD and total amount of PA bound by the isolated ANTXR1 I domain was not affected by the F205W mutation, indicating that ANTXR1 is preferentially found in the active state in the absence of inside-out signaling. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that structural changes between T118A, F205W and WT I domains were minor despite a greater than 103-fold difference in their abilities to bind toxin. Regulation of toxin binding has important implications for the design of toxin inhibitors and for the targeting of ANTXR1 for anti-tumor therapies. PMID:20690680

  5. Structural Characterization of Humanized Nanobodies with Neutralizing Activity against the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin: Implications for a Potential Epitope of Toxin-Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Imtong, Chompounoot; Sookrung, Nitat; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2016-01-01

    Previously, the 126-kDa CyaA-hemolysin (CyaA-Hly) fragment cloned from Bordetella pertussis—the causative agent of whooping cough—and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli was revealed as a key determinant for CyaA-mediated hemolysis against target erythrocytes. Here, phagemid-transfected E. coli clones producing nanobodies capable of binding to CyaA-Hly were selected from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage-display library. Subsequently verified for binding activities by indirect ELISA and Western blotting, four CyaA-Hly-specific nanobodies were obtained and designated according to the presence/absence of VHH-hallmark amino acids as VHH2, VH5, VH18 and VHH37. In vitro neutralization assay revealed that all four ~17-kDa His-tagged VH/VHH nanobodies, in particular VHH37, which were over-expressed as inclusions and successfully unfolded-refolded, were able to effectively inhibit CyaA-Hly-mediated hemolysis. Phage-mimotope searching revealed that only peptides with sequence homologous to Linker 1 connecting Blocks I and II within the CyaA-RTX subdomain were able to bind to these four CyaA-Hly-specific nanobodies. Structural analysis of VHH37 via homology modeling and intermolecular docking confirmed that this humanized nanobody directly interacts with CyaA-RTX/Linker 1 through multiple hydrogen and ionic bonds. Altogether, our present data demonstrate that CyaA-RTX/Linker 1 could serve as a potential epitope of CyaA-protective antigen that may be useful for development of peptide-based pertussis vaccines. Additionally, such toxin-specific nanobodies have a potential for test-driven development of a ready-to-use therapeutic in passive immunization for mitigation of disease severity. PMID:27043627

  6. Electrochemical immunosensor based on bismuth nanocomposite film and cadmium ions functionalized titanium phosphates for the detection of anthrax protective antigen toxin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh K; Narayanan, J; Upadhyay, Sanjay; Goel, Ajay K

    2015-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis is a bioterrorism agent classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Herein, a novel electrochemical immunosensor for the sensitive, specific and easy detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) toxin in picogram concentration was developed. The immunosensor consists of (i) a Nafion-multiwall carbon nanotubes-bismuth nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (BiNPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/GCE) as a sensing platform and (ii) titanium phosphate nanoparticles-cadmium ion-mouse anti-PA antibodies (TiP-Cd(2+)-MαPA antibodies) as signal amplification tags. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), zeta-potential analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were employed to characterize the synthesized TiP nanoparticles and modified electrode surfaces. The immunosensing performance of BiNPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/GCE was evaluated based on sandwich immunoassay protocol. A square wave voltammetry (SWV) scan from -1.2 to -0.3 V in HAc-NaAc buffer solution (pH 4.6) without stripping process was performed to record the electrochemical responses at -0.75 V corresponding to high content of Cd(2+) ions loaded in TiP nanoparticles for the measurement of PA toxin. Under optimal conditions, the currents increased with increasing PA toxin concentrations in spiked human serum samples and showed a linear range from 0.1 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml. The limit of detection of developed immunosensor was found to be 50 pg/ml at S/N=3. The total time of analysis was 35 min. PMID:26148674

  7. Feasibility of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation as a method for detecting protective antigen by direct recognition of size-increased target-captured nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kayeong; Choi, Jaeyeong; Cho, Jun-Haeng; Yoon, Moon-Young; Lee, Seungho; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-11-27

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) was evaluated as a potential analytical method for detection of a protective antigen (PA), an Anthrax biomarker. The scheme was based on the recognition of altered AF4 retention through the generation of the size-increased Au nanoparticle probes as a result of PA binding, in which a PA-selective peptide was conjugated on the probe surface. In the visible absorption-based AF4 fractograms, the band position shifted to a longer retention time as the PA concentration increased due to the presence of probe bound with PAs. The shift was insignificant when the concentration was relatively low at 84.3pM. To improve sensitivity, two separate probes conjugated with two different peptides able to bind on different PA epitopes were used together. The band shift then became distinguishable even at 84.3pM of PA sample. The formation of larger PA-probe inter-connected species using the dual-probe system was responsible for the enhanced band shift. In parallel, the feasibility of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a potential AF4 detection method was also evaluated. In the off-line SERS fractogram constructed using fractions collected during AF4 separation, a band shift was also observed for the 84.3pM PA sample, and the band intensity was higher when using the dual-probe system. The combination of AF4 and SERS is promising for the detection of PA and will become a potential tool if the reproducibility of SERS measurement is improved. PMID:26482872

  8. Structural Characterization of Humanized Nanobodies with Neutralizing Activity against the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin: Implications for a Potential Epitope of Toxin-Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Imtong, Chompounoot; Sookrung, Nitat; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2016-04-01

    Previously, the 126-kDa CyaA-hemolysin (CyaA-Hly) fragment cloned from Bordetella pertussis--the causative agent of whooping cough--and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli was revealed as a key determinant for CyaA-mediated hemolysis against target erythrocytes. Here, phagemid-transfected E. coli clones producing nanobodies capable of binding to CyaA-Hly were selected from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage-display library. Subsequently verified for binding activities by indirect ELISA and Western blotting, four CyaA-Hly-specific nanobodies were obtained and designated according to the presence/absence of VHH-hallmark amino acids as VHH2, VH5, VH18 and VHH37. In vitro neutralization assay revealed that all four ~17-kDa His-tagged VH/VHH nanobodies, in particular VHH37, which were over-expressed as inclusions and successfully unfolded-refolded, were able to effectively inhibit CyaA-Hly-mediated hemolysis. Phage-mimotope searching revealed that only peptides with sequence homologous to Linker 1 connecting Blocks I and II within the CyaA-RTX subdomain were able to bind to these four CyaA-Hly-specific nanobodies. Structural analysis of VHH37 via homology modeling and intermolecular docking confirmed that this humanized nanobody directly interacts with CyaA-RTX/Linker 1 through multiple hydrogen and ionic bonds. Altogether, our present data demonstrate that CyaA-RTX/Linker 1 could serve as a potential epitope of CyaA-protective antigen that may be useful for development of peptide-based pertussis vaccines. Additionally, such toxin-specific nanobodies have a potential for test-driven development of a ready-to-use therapeutic in passive immunization for mitigation of disease severity. PMID:27043627

  9. 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Crystallographic Studies of 5-Fluorotryptophan-Labeled Anthrax Protective Antigen and Effects of the Receptor on Stability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The anthrax protective antigen (PA) is an 83 kDa protein that is one of three protein components of the anthrax toxin, an AB toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis. PA is capable of undergoing several structural changes, including oligomerization to either a heptameric or octameric structure called the prepore, and at acidic pH a major conformational change to form a membrane-spanning pore. To follow these structural changes at a residue-specific level, we have conducted initial studies in which we have biosynthetically incorporated 5-fluorotryptophan (5-FTrp) into PA, and we have studied the influence of 5-FTrp labeling on the structural stability of PA and on binding to the host receptor capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2) using 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There are seven tryptophans in PA, but of the four domains in PA, only two contain tryptophans: domain 1 (Trp65, -90, -136, -206, and -226) and domain 2 (Trp346 and -477). Trp346 is of particular interest because of its proximity to the CMG2 binding interface, and because it forms part of the membrane-spanning pore. We show that the 19F resonance of Trp346 is sensitive to changes in pH, consistent with crystallographic studies, and that receptor binding significantly stabilizes Trp346 to both pH and temperature. In addition, we provide evidence that suggests that resonances from tryptophans distant from the binding interface are also stabilized by the receptor. Our studies highlight the positive impact of receptor binding on protein stability and the use of 19F NMR in gaining insight into structural changes in a high-molecular weight protein. PMID:24387629

  10. Prime-boost bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination with lentivirus-vectored and DNA-based vaccines expressing antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 improves protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Yang, Enzhuo; Wang, Jianguang; Li, Rui; Li, Guanghua; Liu, Guoyuan; Song, Na; Huang, Qi; Kong, Cong; Wang, Honghai

    2014-10-01

    To prevent the global spread of tuberculosis (TB), more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies are urgently needed. As a result of the success of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in protecting children against miliary and meningeal TB, the majority of individuals will have been vaccinated with BCG; hence, boosting BCG-primed immunity will probably be a key component of future vaccine strategies. In this study, we compared the ability of DNA-, protein- and lentiviral vector-based vaccines that express the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 to boost the effects of BCG in the context of immunity and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that prime-boost BCG vaccination with a lentiviral vector expressing the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 significantly enhanced immune responses, including T helper type 1 and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, compared with DNA- and protein-based vaccines. However, lentivirus-vectored and DNA-based vaccines greatly improved the protective efficacy of BCG against M. tuberculosis, as indicated by a lack of weight loss and significantly reduced bacterial loads and histological damage in the lung. Our study suggests that the use of lentiviral or DNA vaccines containing the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 to boost BCG is a good choice for the rational design of an efficient vaccination strategy against TB. PMID:24773322

  11. Pathways of Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Janice S.; Wearsch, Pamela A.; Cresswell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    T cell recognition of antigen presenting cells depends on their expression of a spectrum of peptides bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) and class II (MHC-II) molecules. Conversion of antigens from pathogens or transformed cells into MHC-I and MHC-II-bound peptides is critical for mounting protective T cell responses, and similar processing of self proteins is necessary to establish and maintain tolerance. Cells use a variety of mechanisms to acquire protein antigens, from translation in the cytosol to variations on the theme of endocytosis, and to degrade them once acquired. In this review we highlight the aspects of MHC-I and MHC-II biosynthesis and assembly that have evolved to intersect these pathways and sample the peptides that are produced. PMID:23298205

  12. Evaluating the A-Subunit of the Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) As an Immunogen and a Protective Antigen Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Branco, Luis M.; Clements, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal illness contributes to malnutrition, stunted growth, impaired cognitive development, and high morbidity rates in children worldwide. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major contributor to this diarrheal disease burden. ETEC cause disease in the small intestine by means of colonization factors and by production of a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or a small non-immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Overall, the majority of ETEC produce both ST and LT. LT induces secretion via an enzymatically active A-subunit (LT-A) and a pentameric, cell-binding B-subunit (LT-B). The importance of anti-LT antibodies has been demonstrated in multiple clinical and epidemiological studies, and a number of potential ETEC vaccine candidates have included LT-B as an important immunogen. However, there is limited information about the potential contribution of LT-A to development of protective immunity. In the current study, we evaluate the immune response against the A-subunit of LT as well as the A-subunit’s potential as a protective antigen when administered alone or in combination with the B-subunit of LT. We evaluated human sera from individuals challenged with a prototypic wild-type ETEC strain as well as sera from individuals living in an ETEC endemic area for the presence of anti-LT, anti-LT-A and anti-LT-B antibodies. In both cases, a significant number of individuals intentionally or endemically infected with ETEC developed antibodies against both LT subunits. In addition, animals immunized with the recombinant proteins developed robust antibody responses that were able to neutralize the enterotoxic and cytotoxic effects of native LT by blocking binding and entry into cells (anti-LT-B) or the intracellular enzymatic activity of the toxin (anti-LT-A). Moreover, antibodies to both LT subunits acted synergistically to neutralize the holotoxin when combined. Taken together, these data support the inclusion of both LT-A and LT-B in prospective vaccines

  13. Evaluating the A-Subunit of the Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) As an Immunogen and a Protective Antigen Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Branco, Luis M; Clements, John D

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal illness contributes to malnutrition, stunted growth, impaired cognitive development, and high morbidity rates in children worldwide. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major contributor to this diarrheal disease burden. ETEC cause disease in the small intestine by means of colonization factors and by production of a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or a small non-immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Overall, the majority of ETEC produce both ST and LT. LT induces secretion via an enzymatically active A-subunit (LT-A) and a pentameric, cell-binding B-subunit (LT-B). The importance of anti-LT antibodies has been demonstrated in multiple clinical and epidemiological studies, and a number of potential ETEC vaccine candidates have included LT-B as an important immunogen. However, there is limited information about the potential contribution of LT-A to development of protective immunity. In the current study, we evaluate the immune response against the A-subunit of LT as well as the A-subunit's potential as a protective antigen when administered alone or in combination with the B-subunit of LT. We evaluated human sera from individuals challenged with a prototypic wild-type ETEC strain as well as sera from individuals living in an ETEC endemic area for the presence of anti-LT, anti-LT-A and anti-LT-B antibodies. In both cases, a significant number of individuals intentionally or endemically infected with ETEC developed antibodies against both LT subunits. In addition, animals immunized with the recombinant proteins developed robust antibody responses that were able to neutralize the enterotoxic and cytotoxic effects of native LT by blocking binding and entry into cells (anti-LT-B) or the intracellular enzymatic activity of the toxin (anti-LT-A). Moreover, antibodies to both LT subunits acted synergistically to neutralize the holotoxin when combined. Taken together, these data support the inclusion of both LT-A and LT-B in prospective vaccines

  14. Recombinant Protective Antigen Anthrax Vaccine Improves Survival when Administered as a Postexposure Prophylaxis Countermeasure with Antibiotic in the New Zealand White Rabbit Model of Inhalation Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Bourdage, James S.; Williamson, E. Diane; Duchars, Matthew; Fuerst, Thomas R.; Fusco, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a potentially lethal form of disease resulting from exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores. Over the last decade, incidents spanning from the deliberate mailing of B. anthracis spores to incidental exposures in users of illegal drugs have highlighted the importance of developing new medical countermeasures to protect people who have been exposed to “anthrax spores” and are at risk of developing disease. The New Zealand White rabbit (NZWR) is a well-characterized model that has a pathogenesis and clinical presentation similar to those seen in humans. This article reports how the NZWR model was adapted to evaluate postexposure prophylaxis using a recombinant protective antigen (rPA) vaccine in combination with an oral antibiotic, levofloxacin. NZWRs were exposed to multiples of the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of B. anthracis spores and then vaccinated immediately (day 0) and again on day 7 postexposure. Levofloxacin was administered daily beginning at 6 to 12 h postexposure for 7 treatments. Rabbits were evaluated for clinical signs of disease, fever, bacteremia, immune response, and survival. A robust immune response (IgG anti-rPA and toxin-neutralizing antibodies) was observed in all vaccinated groups on days 10 to 12. Levofloxacin plus either 30 or 100 μg rPA vaccine resulted in a 100% survival rate (18 of 18 per group), and a vaccine dose as low as 10 μg rPA resulted in an 89% survival rate (16 of 18) when used in combination with levofloxacin. In NZWRs that received antibiotic alone, the survival rate was 56% (10 of 18). There was no adverse effect on the development of a specific IgG response to rPA in unchallenged NZWRs that received the combination treatment of vaccine plus antibiotic. This study demonstrated that an accelerated two-dose regimen of rPA vaccine coadministered on days 0 and 7 with 7 days of levofloxacin therapy results in a significantly greater survival rate than with antibiotic treatment alone. Combination of

  15. Induction of mucosal immune responses and protection of cattle against direct-contact challenge by intranasal delivery with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen mediated by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Zhang, Zhongwang; Lv, Jianliang; Zhou, Peng; Hu, Wenfa; Fang, Yuzhen; Chen, Haotai; Liu, Xinsheng; Shao, Junjun; Zhao, Furong; Ding, Yaozhong; Lin, Tong; Chang, Huiyun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Yonglu

    2014-01-01

    the Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticle-immunized group. Only one animal was clinically affected with mild signs after 7 days of contact challenge, after a delay of 2-3 days compared with the clinically affected negative-control group. Of the five animals directly challenged that were vaccinated by intranasal route with a double dose of Chi-Tre-Inactivated, four were clinically infected; however, the degree of severity of disease in this group was lower than in control cattle. The number of viral RNA copies in nasal swabs from the vaccinated, severely infected group was significantly higher than in swabs from the vaccinated, clinically protected group. These data suggested that intranasal delivery of Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticles resulted in higher levels of mucosal, systemic, and cell-mediated immunity than did of Chi-Tre-Inactivated nanoparticles. In conclusion, although intranasal delivery with FMDV antigen mediated by nanoparticles did not provide complete clinical protection, it reduced disease severity and virus excretion and delayed clinical symptoms. Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticle vaccines have potential as a nasal delivery system for vaccines. PMID:25506214

  16. Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amy C; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C; Butter, Colin

    2013-01-11

    Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP+M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry. PMID:23200938

  17. Elongation Factor-1α Is a Novel Protein Associated with Host Cell Invasion and a Potential Protective Antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum *

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Teramoto-Kimata, Isao; Uni, Shigehiko; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Matsuda, Haruo; Furuya, Masaru; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises obligate intracellular parasites that infect vertebrates. All invasive forms of Apicomplexa possess an apical complex, a unique assembly of organelles localized to the anterior end of the cell and involved in host cell invasion. Previously, we generated a chicken monoclonal antibody (mAb), 6D-12-G10, with specificity for an antigen located in the apical cytoskeleton of Eimeria acervulina sporozoites. This antigen was highly conserved among Apicomplexan parasites, including other Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma, Neospora, and Cryptosporidium. In the present study, we identified the apical cytoskeletal antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) and further characterized this antigen in C. parvum to assess its potential as a target molecule against cryptosporidiosis. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that the reactivity of 6D-12-G10 with C. parvum sporozoites was similar to those of anti-β- and anti-γ-tubulins antibodies. Immunoelectron microscopy with the 6D-12-G10 mAb detected the antigen both on the sporozoite surface and underneath the inner membrane at the apical region of zoites. The 6D-12-G10 mAb significantly inhibited in vitro host cell invasion by C. parvum. MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides revealed that the mAb 6D-12-G10 target antigen was elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). These results indicate that C. parvum EF-1α plays an essential role in mediating host cell entry by the parasite and, as such, could be a candidate vaccine antigen against cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24085304

  18. Circulating Autoantibodies in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Recognize Human Macular Tissue Antigens Implicated in Autophagy, Immunomodulation, and Protection from Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Iannaccone, Alessandro; Giorgianni, Francesco; New, David D.; Hollingsworth, T. J.; Umfress, Allison; Alhatem, Albert H.; Neeli, Indira; Lenchik, Nataliya I.; Jennings, Barbara J.; Calzada, Jorge I.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Mathews, Dennis; Diaz, Rocio I.; Harris, Tamara; Johnson, Karen C.; Charles, Steve; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Gerling, Ivan C.; Beranova-Giorgianni, Sarka; Radic, Marko Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated sera from elderly subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for presence of autoantibodies (AAbs) against human macular antigens and characterized their identity. Methods Sera were collected from participants in the Age-Related Maculopathy Ancillary (ARMA) Study, a cross-sectional investigation ancillary to the Health ABC Study, enriched with participants from the general population. The resulting sample (mean age: 79.2±3.9 years old) included subjects with early to advanced AMD (n = 131) and controls (n = 231). Sera were tested by Western blots for immunoreactive bands against human donor macular tissue homogenates. Immunoreactive bands were identified and graded, and odds ratios (OR) calculated. Based on these findings, sera were immunoprecipitated, and subjected to 2D gel electrophoresis (GE). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify the targets recognized by circulating AAbs seen on 2D-GE, followed by ELISAs with recombinant proteins to confirm LC-MS/MS results, and quantify autoreactivities. Results In AMD, 11 immunoreactive bands were significantly more frequent and 13 were significantly stronger than in controls. Nine of the more frequent bands also showed stronger reactivity. OR estimates ranged between 4.06 and 1.93, and all clearly excluded the null value. Following immunoprecipitation, 2D-GE and LC-MS/MS, five of the possible autoreactivity targets were conclusively identified: two members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, HSPA8 and HSPA9; another member of the HSP family, HSPB4, also known as alpha-crystallin A chain (CRYAA); Annexin A5 (ANXA5); and Protein S100-A9, also known as calgranulin B that, when complexed with S100A8, forms calprotectin. ELISA testing with recombinant proteins confirmed, on average, significantly higher reactivities against all targets in AMD samples compared to controls. Conclusions Consistent with other evidence supporting the

  19. Vaccination with a Fusion Protein That Introduces HIV-1 Gag Antigen into a Multitrimer CD40L Construct Results in Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protection from Viral Challenge by Vaccinia-Gag

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M.; Raffa, Francesca N.; Williams, Cindi-Ann; Kornbluth, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) is a membrane protein that is important for the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and DC-induced CD8+ T cell responses. To be active, CD40L must cluster CD40 receptors on responding cells. To produce a soluble form of CD40L that clusters CD40 receptors necessitates the use of a multitrimer construct. With this in mind, a tripartite fusion protein was made from surfactant protein D (SPD), HIV-1 Gag as a test antigen, and CD40L, where SPD serves as a scaffold for the multitrimer protein complex. This SPD-Gag-CD40L protein activated CD40-bearing cells and bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro. Compared to a plasmid for Gag antigen alone (pGag), DNA vaccination of mice with pSPD-Gag-CD40L induced an increased number of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells with increased avidity for major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted Gag peptide and improved vaccine-induced protection from challenge by vaccinia-Gag virus. The importance of the multitrimeric nature of the complex was shown using a plasmid lacking the N terminus of SPD that produced a single trimer fusion protein. This plasmid, pTrimer-Gag-CD40L, was only weakly active on CD40-bearing cells and did not elicit strong CD8+ T cell responses or improve protection from vaccinia-Gag challenge. An adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vaccine incorporating SPD-Gag-CD40L was much stronger than Ad5 expressing Gag alone (Ad5-Gag) and induced complete protection (i.e., sterilizing immunity) from vaccinia-Gag challenge. Overall, these results show the potential of a new vaccine design in which antigen is introduced into a construct that expresses a multitrimer soluble form of CD40L, leading to strongly protective CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:24227853

  20. Relationship between liver disorders and protection against Eimeria stiedai infection in rabbits immunized with soluble antigens from the bile of infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hanada, S; Omata, Y; Umemoto, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Furuoka, H; Matsui, T; Maeda, R; Saito, A

    2003-02-13

    Soluble antigens exist in the bile of rabbits infected with Eimeria stiedai (E. stiedai) in the acute phase, and rabbits immunized with the antigens show resistance against the infection. In this study, the liver function of rabbits immunized either with the soluble antigens or PBS were examined following the parasite challenge. Rabbits immunized with PBS shed a number of oocysts and showed an increase in r-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity and a decrease in blood Indocyanine green (ICG) clearance. However, rabbits immunized with the soluble antigens shed a lower number of oocysts and showed a transient increase of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) activity on Day 8 post-challenge (p.c.). The blood Indocyanine green clearance of the rabbits showed no change throughout the experiment. By histopathological observation of the liver, a number of merozoites were found in the biliary ducts on Day 8 post-challenge in the non-immunized rabbits. In contrast, a number of lymphocytes and neutrophilic leukocytes assembled around the biliary ducts of the immunized rabbits, but few parasites were found there on Day 8 post-challenge. These results suggest that the soluble antigens stimulate local immune reactions, for example around the biliary ducts, resulting in elimination of the parasite's development. PMID:12531300

  1. The in vivo expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (IVE-TB) antigen Rv2034 induces CD4⁺ T-cells that protect against pulmonary infection in HLA-DR transgenic mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Commandeur, Susanna; van den Eeden, Susan J F; Dijkman, Karin; Clark, Simon O; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Wilson, Louis; Franken, Kees L M C; Williams, Ann; Christensen, Dennis; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Geluk, Annemieke

    2014-06-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a life-threatening infectious disease of global proportions with serious negative health and economic consequences. The lack of sufficient protection induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the current vaccine for TB, as well as the impact of HIV co-infection and the emergence of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains all urge for improved vaccines against TB. A minimal requirement for Mtb vaccine antigens is their in vivo expression during Mtb infection and ability to trigger significant immune responses. Recently we identified a new class of Mtb antigens, designated IVE-TB (in vivo expressed) antigens. These included Rv2034, a protein that was expressed during pulmonary infection and strongly recognized by human T-cells. Here, the in vivo immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Rv2034 was further analyzed using HLA-DR transgenic mice that lack endogenous murine MHC class II molecules. The Rv2034 protein indeed was highly immunogenic in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice and induced HLA-DR3 restricted IFN-γ(+)/TNF(+) and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) T-cells, specific for an epitope encoded in peptide 31-50. CD4(+) T-cell responses were optimally induced when using TLR9- and TLR3-ligand-adjuvants or CAF09. Rv2034-specific antibodies were observed following immunization with either TLR2-, TLR3-, TLR4-, TLR5-, TLR7- or TLR9-ligands or CAF09. Importantly, immunization with Rv2034 or the hybrid-protein Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2034 adjuvanted with CpG or CAF09, induced over one log reduction, relative to unvaccinated controls, in the number of bacilli in the lungs of Mtb challenged HLA-DR3 transgenic mice and guinea pigs. These data demonstrate the potential of Rv2034 as a novel, IVE-TB antigen for future TB vaccination. PMID:24837764

  2. Intranasal Immunization with Influenza Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored Cholera Toxin B or Ricin Toxin B Enhances Adaptive Immune Responses and Protection against an Antigenically Distinct Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xianliang; Ren, Zhiguang; Xu, Na; Meng, Lingnan; Yu, Zhijun; Feng, Na; Sang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shengnan; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Jin, Hongli; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Cao, Jinshan; Liu, Wensen; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective means to prevent influenza virus infection, although current approaches are associated with suboptimal efficacy. Here, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M1) of A/Changchun/01/2009 (H1N1) with or without either membrane-anchored cholera toxin B (CTB) or ricin toxin B (RTB) as molecular adjuvants. The intranasal immunization of mice with VLPs containing membrane-anchored CTB or RTB elicited stronger humoral and cellular immune responses when compared to mice immunized with VLPs alone. Administration of VLPs containing CTB or RTB significantly enhanced virus-specific systemic and mucosal antibody responses, hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers, virus neutralizing antibody titers, and the frequency of virus-specific IFN-γ and IL-4 secreting splenocytes. VLPs with and without CTB or RTB conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with a mouse-adapted homologous virus. When challenged with an antigenically distinct H1N1 virus, all mice immunized with VLPs containing CTB or RTB survived whereas mice immunized with VLPs alone showed only partial protection (80% survival). Our results suggest that membrane-anchored CTB and RTB possess strong adjuvant properties when incorporated into an intranasally-delivered influenza VLP vaccine. Chimeric influenza VLPs containing CTB or RTB may represent promising vaccine candidates for improved immunological protection against homologous and antigenically distinct influenza viruses. PMID:27110810

  3. Novel 6xHis tagged Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses and histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co2...

  4. Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, shares antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi that are recognized by human sera and induce protective immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Breganó, José Wander; Picão, Renata Cristina; Graça, Viviane Krominski; Menolli, Rafael Andrade; Itow Jankevicius, Shiduca; Pinge Filho, P; Jankevicius, José Vítor

    2003-12-01

    The immune cross-reactivity between Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas' disease, and Phytomonas serpens, a trypanosomatid that infects tomatoes, was studied. Sera from patients with Chagas' disease presented a strong reactivity with P. serpens antigens by conventional serological assays such as indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and direct agglutination test (DAT), confirmed after cross-absorption experiments. The results show that this protozoan is highly immunogenic and that rabbit and mouse hyperimmune serum raised against T. cruzi or P. serpens was able to recognize both T. cruzi and P. serpens antigens in immunofluorescence and agglutination assays. The antigenic cross-reactivity between T. cruzi and P. serpens was also demonstrated in vivo. BALB/c mice immunized by the intraperitoneal or oral route with P. serpens and later challenged with a lethal inoculum of T. cruzi blood forms showed a significant decrease in parasitemia and increase in survival compared to controls. A practical implication of these findings is that the ingestion by humans or animals of living plant trypanosomatids present in naturally infected edible fruits could potentially prime the immune response to T. cruzi antigens and interfere with the development of T. cruzi infection. PMID:14642311

  5. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses and histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co2...

  6. Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-ediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, and host imm...

  7. Prime-boost BCG vaccination with DNA vaccines based in β-defensin-2 and mycobacterial antigens ESAT6 or Ag85B improve protection in a tuberculosis experimental model.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto R; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Biragyn, Arya; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio; Bodogai, Monica; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita; Sada, Eduardo; Trujillo, Valentin; Enciso-Moreno, Antonio; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2013-01-11

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that there are about 8 million new cases annually of active Tuberculosis (TB). Despite its irregular effectiveness (0-89%), the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) BCG is the only vaccine available worldwide for prevention of TB; thus, the design is important of novel and more efficient vaccination strategies. Considering that β-defensin-2 is an antimicrobial peptide that induces dendritic cell maturation through the TLR-4 receptor and that both ESAT-6 and Ag85B are immunodominant mycobacterial antigens and efficient activators of the protective immune response, we constructed two DNA vaccines by the fusion of the gene encoding β-defensin-2 and antigens ESAT6 (pDE) and 85B (pDA). After confirming efficient local antigen expression that induced high and stable Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in intramuscular (i.m.) vaccinated Balb/c mice, groups of mice were vaccinated with DNA vaccines in a prime-boost regimen with BCG and with BCG alone, and 2 months later were challenged with the mild virulence reference strain H37Rv and the highly virulent clinical isolate LAM 5186. The level of protection was evaluated by survival, lung bacilli burdens, and extension of tissue damage (pneumonia). Vaccination with both DNA vaccines showed similar protection to that of BCG. After the challenge with the highly virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, animals that were prime-boosted with BCG and then boosted with both DNA vaccines showed significant higher survival and less tissue damage than mice vaccinated only with BCG. These results suggest that improvement of BCG vaccination, such as the prime-boost DNA vaccine, represents a more efficient vaccination scheme against TB. PMID:23196205

  8. Complete Protection of Mice against Lethal Murine Cytomegalovirus Challenge by Immunization with DNA Vaccines Encoding Envelope Glycoprotein Complex III Antigens gH, gL and gO

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huadong; Huang, Chaoyang; Dong, Jinrong; Yao, Yanfeng; Xie, Zhenyuan; Liu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus infects the majority of humanity which may lead to severe morbidity and mortality in newborns and immunocompromised adults. Humoral and cellular immunity are critical for controlling CMV infection. HCMV envelope glycoprotein complexes (gC I, II, III) represent major antigenic targets of antiviral immune responses. The gCIII complex is comprised of three glycoproteins, gH, gL, and gO. In the present study, DNA vaccines expressing the murine cytomegalovirus homologs of the gH, gL, and gO proteins were evaluated for protection against lethal MCMV infection in the mouse model. The results demonstrated that gH, gL, or gO single gene immunization could not yet offer good protection, whereas co-vaccination strategy apparently showed effects superior to separate immunization. Twice immunization with gH/gL/gO pDNAs could provide mice complete protection against lethal salivary gland-derived MCMV (SG-MCMV) challenge, while thrice immunization with pgH/pgL, pgH/pgO or pgL/pgO could not provide full protection. Co-vaccination with gH, gL and gO pDNAs elicited robust neutralizing antibody and cellular immune responses. Moreover, full protection was also achieved by simply passive immunization with anti-gH/gL/gO sera. These data demonstrated that gCIII complex antigens had fine immunogenicity and might be a promising candidate for the development of HCMV vaccines. PMID:25803721

  9. In vitro binding of anthrax protective antigen on bacteriophage T4 capsid surface through Hoc-capsid interactions: A strategy for efficient display of large full-length proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shivachandra, Sathish B.; Rao, Mangala; Janosi, Laszlo; Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Matyas, Gary R.; Alving, Carl R.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Rao, Venigalla B. . E-mail: rao@cua.edu

    2006-02-05

    An in vitro binding system is described to display large full-length proteins on bacteriophage T4 capsid surface at high density. The phage T4 icosahedral capsid features 155 copies of a nonessential highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc, at the center of each major capsid protein hexon. Gene fusions were engineered to express the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA) from Bacillus anthracis fused to the N-terminus of Hoc and the 130-kDa PA-Hoc protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified PA-Hoc was assembled in vitro on hoc {sup -} phage particles. Binding was specific, stable, and of high affinity. This defined in vitro system allowed manipulation of the copy number of displayed PA and imposed no significant limitation on the size of the displayed antigen. In contrast to in vivo display systems, the in vitro approach allows all the capsid binding sites to be occupied by the 130-kDa PA-Hoc fusion protein. The PA-T4 particles were immunogenic in mice in the absence of an adjuvant, eliciting strong PA-specific antibodies and anthrax lethal toxin neutralizing antibodies. The in vitro display on phage T4 offers a novel platform for potential construction of customized vaccines against anthrax and other infectious diseases.

  10. Recombinant hepatitis B triple antigen vaccine: Hepacare.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Zuckerman, Arie J

    2002-08-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus is a public health problem throughout the world. Hepatitis B vaccines are now included in national immunization programmes of infants and/or adolescents in 129 countries. Current single antigen vaccines, that are plasma-derived or produced by recombinant DNA technology are highly effective, but between 5-10% or more of healthy immunocompetent subjects do not mount an antihepatitis B surface antibody protective response and others respond poorly (hyporesponders). The inclusion of pre-S1 and -S2 components of hepatitis B surface antigen in addition to the single antigen (triple antigen) in a novel vaccine, Hepacare, Medeva Pharma Plc, Speke, UK, overcomes nonresponsiveness and hyporesponsiveness in a significant number of individuals. The triple antigen is indicated for vaccination of nonresponders (and hyporesponders) to the current single antigen vaccines and for persons who require rapid protection against hepatitis B infection. PMID:12901552

  11. Novel recombinant BCG expressing perfringolysin O and the over-expression of key immunodominant antigens; pre-clinical characterization, safety and protection against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ronggai; Skeiky, Yasir A W; Izzo, Angelo; Dheenadhayalan, Veerabadran; Imam, Zakaria; Penn, Erica; Stagliano, Katherine; Haddock, Scott; Mueller, Stefanie; Fulkerson, John; Scanga, Charles; Grover, Ajay; Derrick, Steven C; Morris, Sheldon; Hone, David M; Horwitz, Marcus A; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Sadoff, Jerald C

    2009-07-16

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has infected approximately two billion individuals worldwide with approximately 9.2 million new cases and 1.6 million deaths annually. Current efforts are focused on making better BCG priming vaccines designed to induce a comprehensive and balanced immunity followed by booster(s) targeting a specific set of relevant antigens in common with the BCG prime. We describe the generation and immunological characterization of recombinant BCG strains with properties associated with lysis of the endosome compartment and over-expression of key Mtb antigens. The endosome lysis strain, a derivative of BCG SSI-1331 (BCG(1331)) expresses a mutant form of perfringolysin O (PfoA(G137Q)), a cytolysin normally secreted by Clostridium perfringens. Integration of the PfoA(G137Q) gene into the BCG genome was accomplished using an allelic exchange plasmid to replace ureC with pfoA(G137Q) under the control of the Ag85B promoter. The resultant BCG construct, designated AERAS-401 (BCG(1331) DeltaureC::OmegapfoA(G137Q)) secreted biologically active Pfo, was well tolerated with a good safety profile in immunocompromised SCID mice. A second rBCG strain, designated AFRO-1, was generated by incorporating an expression plasmid encoding three mycobacterial antigens, Ag85A, Ag85B and TB10.4, into AERAS-401. Compared to the parental BCG strain, vaccination of mice and guinea pigs with AFRO-1 resulted in enhanced immune responses. Mice vaccinated with AFRO-1 and challenged with the hypervirulent Mtb strain HN878 also survived longer than mice vaccinated with the parental BCG. Thus, we have generated improved rBCG vaccine candidates that address many of the shortcomings of the currently licensed BCG vaccine strains. PMID:19500523

  12. Immunization with non-replicating E. coli minicells delivering both protein antigen and DNA protects mice from lethal challenge with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Giacalone, Matthew J.; Zapata, Juan C.; Berkley, Neil L.; Sabbadini, Roger A.; Chu, Yen-Lin; Salvato, Maria S.; McGuire, Kathleen L.

    2008-01-01

    In the midst of new investigations into the mechanisms of both delivery and protection of new vaccines and vaccine carriers, it has become clear that immunization with delivery mechanisms that do not involve living, replicating organisms are vastly preferred. In this report, non-replicating bacterial minicells simultaneously co-delivering the nucleoprotein (NP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the corresponding DNA vaccine were tested for the ability to generate protective cellular immune responses in mice. It was found that good protection (89%) was achieved after intramuscular administration, moderate protection (31%) was achieved after intranasal administration, and less protection (7%) was achieved following gastric immunization. These results provide a solid foundation on which to pursue the use of bacterial minicells as a non-replicating vaccine delivery platform. PMID:17258845

  13. GD2-specific CAR T Cells Undergo Potent Activation and Deletion Following Antigen Encounter but can be Protected From Activation-induced Cell Death by PD-1 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Tessa; Yu, Wenbo; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Christo, Susan N; Hayball, John D; Lewis, Ian D; Brenner, Malcolm K; Brown, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but more variable results in the treatment of solid tumors and the persistence and expansion of CAR T cells within patients has been identified as a key correlate of antitumor efficacy. Lack of immunological "space", functional exhaustion, and deletion have all been proposed as mechanisms that hamper CAR T-cell persistence. Here we describe the events following activation of third-generation CAR T cells specific for GD2. CAR T cells had highly potent immediate effector functions without evidence of functional exhaustion in vitro, although reduced cytokine production reversible by PD-1 blockade was observed after longer-term culture. Significant activation-induced cell death (AICD) of CAR T cells was observed after repeated antigen stimulation, and PD-1 blockade enhanced both CAR T-cell survival and promoted killing of PD-L1(+) tumor cell lines. Finally, we assessed CAR T-cell persistence in patients enrolled in the CARPETS phase 1 clinical trial of GD2-specific CAR T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Together, these data suggest that deletion also occurs in vivo and that PD-1-targeted combination therapy approaches may be useful to augment CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in patients. PMID:27019998

  14. Antigenic sites in carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Hammarstrom, S; Shively, J E; Paxton, R J; Beatty, B G; Larsson, A; Ghosh, R; Bormer, O; Buchegger, F; Mach, J P; Burtin, P

    1989-09-01

    The epitope reactivities of 52 well-characterized monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against carcinoembryonic antigen from 11 different research groups were studied using competitive solid-phase immunoassays. About 60% of all possible combinations of Mabs as inhibitors and as the primary binding antibody were investigated. The inhibition data were analyzed by a specially developed computer program "EPITOPES" which measures concordance and discordance in inhibition patterns between Mabs. The analysis showed that 43 of the 52 Mabs (83%) could be classified into one of five essentially noninteracting epitope groups (GOLD 1-5) containing between four and 15 Mabs each. The epitopes recognized by the Mabs belonging to groups 1 to 5 were peptide in nature. With one or two possible exceptions non-classifiable Mabs were either directed against carbohydrate epitopes (4 Mabs) or were inactive in the tests used. Within epitope groups GOLD 1, 4, and 5 two partially overlapping subgroups were distinguished. Mabs with a high degree of carcinoembryonic antigen specificity generally belonged to epitope groups GOLD 1 and 3. PMID:2474375

  15. Antibody Titer Has Positive Predictive Value for Vaccine Protection against Challenge with Natural Antigenic-Drift Variants of H5N1 High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses from Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, David L.; Spackman, Erica; Jadhao, Samadhan; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; McGrane, James; Weaver, John; Daniels, Peter; Wong, Frank; Selleck, Paul; Wiyono, Agus; Indriani, Risa; Yupiana, Yuni; Sawitri Siregar, Elly; Prajitno, Teguh; Smith, Derek; Fouchier, Ron

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccines are used in integrated control strategies to protect poultry against H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). H5N1 HPAI was first reported in Indonesia in 2003, and vaccination was initiated in 2004, but reports of vaccine failures began to emerge in mid-2005. This study investigated the role of Indonesian licensed vaccines, specific vaccine seed strains, and emerging variant field viruses as causes of vaccine failures. Eleven of 14 licensed vaccines contained the manufacturer's listed vaccine seed strains, but 3 vaccines contained a seed strain different from that listed on the label. Vaccines containing A/turkey/Wisconsin/1968 (WI/68), A/chicken/Mexico/28159-232/1994 (Mex/94), and A/turkey/England/N28/1973 seed strains had high serological potency in chickens (geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition [HI] titers, ≥1:169), but vaccines containing strain A/chicken/Guangdong/1/1996 generated by reverse genetics (rg; rgGD/96), A/chicken/Legok/2003 (Legok/03), A/chicken/Vietnam/C57/2004 generated by rg (rgVN/04), or A/chicken/Legok/2003 generated by rg (rgLegok/03) had lower serological potency (geometric mean HI titers, ≤1:95). In challenge studies, chickens immunized with any of the H5 avian influenza vaccines were protected against A/chicken/West Java/SMI-HAMD/2006 (SMI-HAMD/06) and were partially protected against A/chicken/Papua/TA5/2006 (Papua/06) but were not protected against A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Experimental inactivated vaccines made with PWT/06 HPAI virus or rg-generated PWT/06 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus seed strains protected chickens from lethal challenge, as did a combination of a commercially available live fowl poxvirus vaccine expressing the H5 influenza virus gene and inactivated Legok/03 vaccine. These studies indicate that antigenic variants did emerge in Indonesia following widespread H5 avian influenza vaccine usage, and efficacious inactivated vaccines can be developed using

  16. Prime and boost immunization with influenza and adenovirus encoding the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 2 (SAG2) induces strong protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alexandre V; Caetano, Bráulia C; Barbosa, Rafael P; Salgado, Ana Paula C; Rabelo, Renata H; Garcia, Cristiana C; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Escriou, Nicolas; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2010-04-19

    In this work, we explored an original vaccination protocol using recombinant influenza and adenovirus. We constructed recombinant influenza viruses harboring dicistronic NA segments containing the surface antigen 2 (SAG2) from Toxoplasma gondii under control of the duplicated 3' promoter. Recombinant influenza viruses were able to drive the expression of the foreign SAG2 sequence in cell culture and to replicate efficiently both in cell culture and in lungs of infected mice. In addition, mice primed with recombinant influenza virus and boosted with a recombinant adenovirus encoding SAG2 elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses specific for SAG2. Moreover, when immunized animals were challenged with the cystogenic P-Br strain of T. gondii, they displayed up to 85% of reduction in parasite burden. These results demonstrate the potential use of recombinant influenza vectors harboring the dicistronic segments in the development of vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:20189485

  17. Influence of protein formulation and carrier solution on asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation: a case study of the plant-produced recombinant anthrax protective antigen pp-PA83.

    PubMed

    Palais, Caroline; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Yusibov, Vidadi; Arvinte, Tudor

    2015-02-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (afFFF) was used to investigate the properties of a plant-produced anthrax toxin protective antigen, pp-PA83. The afFFF fractogram consisted of two main peaks with molar masses similar to the molecular mass of pp-PA83 monomer. afFFF carrier solutions strongly influenced the ratio and the intensity of the two main peaks. These differences indicate that conformation changes in the pp-PA83 molecule occurred during the afFFF analysis. Similar fractograms were obtained for different pp-PA83 formulations when the afFFF carrier solution and the protein formulation were the same (or very similar). The data show that in specific cases, afFFF could be used to study protein conformation and document the importance of studying the influence of the carrier solution on afFFF. PMID:25417936

  18. Oral immunization of mice with a glycoconjugate vaccine containing the O157 antigen of Escherichia coli O157:H7 admixed with cholera toxin fails to elicit protection against subsequent colonization by the pathogen.

    PubMed

    Conlan, J W; KuoLee, R; Webb, A; Cox, A D; Perry, M B

    2000-03-01

    It has been postulated that a humoral immune response directed against the O157 antigen of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and expressed in the intestine, might afford protection from colonization and consequent infection by this enteric pathogen. The present study was conducted to determine whether such an immune response can be experimentally generated in mice. To this end, mice were orally immunized with a glycoconjugate vaccine consisting of horse serum albumin and the O157 polysaccharide admixed with the mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin. Mice consistently developed robust local and systemic immune responses to the cholera toxin adjuvant, but were far from uniformly reactive to the test vaccine. Moreover, vaccinated mice were as susceptible to transient intestinal colonization following challenge with an isolate of E. coli O157:H7 as unvaccinated control mice. These results indicate that this vaccination approach is unlikely to be straightforward in target bovine or human hosts. PMID:10749542

  19. Mapping Epitopes on a Protein Antigen by the Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemmerson, Ronald; Paterson, Yvonne

    1986-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody bound to a protein antigen decreases the rate of proteolytic cleavage of the antigen, having the greatest effect on those regions involved in antibody contact. Thus, an epitope can be identified by the ability of the antibody to protect one region of the antigen more than others from proteolysis. By means of this approach, two distinct epitopes, both conformationally well-ordered, were characterized on horse cytochrome c.

  20. Diagnotic value of some Fasciola gigantica antigens.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Said; El-Bahy, Mohammad; Hassan, Ali; Shalaby, Hatem; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-09-01

    The present study was aimed to select the specificity of antigens for Fasciola gigantica depending on its diagnostic utility and field applications. The tested antigens were coproantigen, excretory-secretory (ES) antigen and egg antigen. Coproantigen and Copro Hyperimmune serum were able to reflect the lowest level of cross-reaction with other tested F. gigantica antigens. By using SDS-PAGE, a structural homology was observed in F. gigantica ES and egg antigens. Intense cross reaction was observed between ES and egg antigens by ELISA technique even when there was no cross-reaction with coproantigen. The 27.6 kDa band proved to be the most specific in F. gigantica coproantigen and was different from the band at the same molecular weight by ES antigen. The results conclude that coproantigens show specific diagnostic ability for Fasciola and have low numbers of cross-reaction proteins reflecting its high specificity. Moreover, detection of coproantigen in faeces offers a new potential for diagnostics as compared to serum samples. This fact holds promise for a more accurate diagnostic technique in the near future for suspected Fasciola infection. PMID:26345056

  1. Identification and Prioritization of Merozoite Antigens as Targets of Protective Human Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria for Vaccine and Biomarker Development

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jack S.; Arumugam, Thangavelu U.; Reiling, Linda; Healer, Julie; Hodder, Anthony N.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Cross, Nadia; Langer, Christine; Takeo, Satoru; Uboldi, Alex D.; Thompson, Jennifer K.; Gilson, Paul R.; Coppel, Ross L.; Siba, Peter M.; King, Christopher L.; Torii, Motomi; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Narum, David L.; Mueller, Ivo; Crabb, Brendan S.; Cowman, Alan F.; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective malaria vaccines and immune biomarkers of malaria is a high priority for malaria control and elimination. Ags expressed by merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum are likely to be important targets of human immunity and are promising vaccine candidates, but very few Ags have been studied. We developed an approach to assess Ab responses to a comprehensive repertoire of merozoite proteins and investigate whether they are targets of protective Abs. We expressed 91 recombinant proteins, located on the merozoite surface or within invasion organelles, and screened them for quality and reactivity to human Abs. Subsequently, Abs to 46 proteins were studied in a longitudinal cohort of 206 Papua New Guinean children to define Ab acquisition and associations with protective immunity. Ab responses were higher among older children and those with active parasitemia. High-level Ab responses to rhoptry and microneme proteins that function in erythrocyte invasion were identified as being most strongly associated with protective immunity compared with other Ags. Additionally, Abs to new or understudied Ags were more strongly associated with protection than were Abs to current vaccine candidates that have progressed to phase 1 or 2 vaccine trials. Combinations of Ab responses were identified that were more strongly associated with protective immunity than responses to their single-Ag components. This study identifies Ags that are likely to be key targets of protective human immunity and facilitates the prioritization of Ags for further evaluation as vaccine candidates and/or for use as biomarkers of immunity in malaria surveillance and control. PMID:23776179

  2. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  3. Delivery of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Empty Capsid Subunit Antigen with Nonstructural Protein 2B Improves Protection of Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector carrying the capsid (P1-2A) and 3C protease coding regions as well as a portion of the 2B coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) (Ad5-A24) protects cattle and swine from direct inocula...

  4. A Novel Synthetic TLR-4 Agonist Adjuvant Increases the Protective Response to a Clinical-Stage West Nile Virus Vaccine Antigen in Multiple Formulations.

    PubMed

    Van Hoeven, Neal; Joshi, Sharvari Waghmare; Nana, Ghislain Ismael; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Fox, Christopher; Bowen, Richard A; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Parks, D Elliot; Baldwin, Susan; Reed, Steven G; Coler, Rhea N

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Flaviviridae family that has emerged in recent years to become a serious public health threat. Given the sporadic nature of WNV epidemics both temporally and geographically, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that can rapidly provide effective immunity. Protection from WNV infection is correlated with antibodies to the viral envelope (E) protein, which encodes receptor binding and fusion functions. Despite many promising E-protein vaccine candidates, there are currently none licensed for use in humans. This study investigates the ability to improve the immunogenicity and protective capacity of a promising clinical-stage WNV recombinant E-protein vaccine (WN-80E) by combining it with a novel synthetic TLR-4 agonist adjuvant. Using the murine model of WNV disease, we find that inclusion of a TLR-4 agonist in either a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE) or aluminum hydroxide (Alum) formulation provides both dose and dosage sparing functions, whereby protection can be induced after a single immunization containing only 100 ng of WN-80E. Additionally, we find that inclusion of adjuvant with a single immunization reduced viral titers in sera to levels undetectable by viral plaque assay. The enhanced protection provided by adjuvanted immunization correlated with induction of a Th1 T-cell response and the resultant shaping of the IgG response. These findings suggest that inclusion of a next generation adjuvant may greatly enhance the protective capacity of WNV recombinant subunit vaccines, and establish a baseline for future development. PMID:26901122

  5. A Novel Synthetic TLR-4 Agonist Adjuvant Increases the Protective Response to a Clinical-Stage West Nile Virus Vaccine Antigen in Multiple Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoeven, Neal; Joshi, Sharvari Waghmare; Nana, Ghislain Ismael; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Fox, Christopher; Bowen, Richard A.; Clements, David E.; Martyak, Timothy; Parks, D. Elliot; Baldwin, Susan; Reed, Steven G.; Coler, Rhea N.

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Flaviviridae family that has emerged in recent years to become a serious public health threat. Given the sporadic nature of WNV epidemics both temporally and geographically, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that can rapidly provide effective immunity. Protection from WNV infection is correlated with antibodies to the viral envelope (E) protein, which encodes receptor binding and fusion functions. Despite many promising E-protein vaccine candidates, there are currently none licensed for use in humans. This study investigates the ability to improve the immunogenicity and protective capacity of a promising clinical-stage WNV recombinant E-protein vaccine (WN-80E) by combining it with a novel synthetic TLR-4 agonist adjuvant. Using the murine model of WNV disease, we find that inclusion of a TLR-4 agonist in either a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE) or aluminum hydroxide (Alum) formulation provides both dose and dosage sparing functions, whereby protection can be induced after a single immunization containing only 100 ng of WN-80E. Additionally, we find that inclusion of adjuvant with a single immunization reduced viral titers in sera to levels undetectable by viral plaque assay. The enhanced protection provided by adjuvanted immunization correlated with induction of a Th1 T-cell response and the resultant shaping of the IgG response. These findings suggest that inclusion of a next generation adjuvant may greatly enhance the protective capacity of WNV recombinant subunit vaccines, and establish a baseline for future development. PMID:26901122

  6. Association of a Protective Monoclonal IgA with the O Antigen of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Impacts Type 3 Secretion and Outer Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Stephen J.; Martinelli, Daniel; Hsieh, Chyongere; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Marko, Michael; Mannella, Carmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an energetically demanding process, involving the transfer of effector proteins from invading bacteria into host cells via a specialized organelle known as the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) type 3 secretion system (T3SS). By a mechanism that remains poorly understood, entry of S. Typhimurium into epithelial cells is inhibited by Sal4, a monoclonal, polymeric IgA antibody that binds an immunodominant epitope within the O-antigen (O-Ag) component of lipopolysaccharide. In this study, we investigated how the binding of Sal4 to the surface of S. Typhimurium influences T3SS activity, bacterial energetics, and outer membrane integrity. We found that Sal4 treatment impaired T3SS-mediated translocon formation and attenuated the delivery of tagged effector proteins into epithelial cells. Sal4 treatment coincided with a partial reduction in membrane energetics and intracellular ATP levels, possibly explaining the impairment in T3SS activity. Sal4's effects on bacterial secretion and energetics occurred concurrently with an increase in O-Ag levels in culture supernatants, alterations in outer membrane permeability, and changes in surface ultrastructure, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy. We propose that Sal4, by virtue of its ability to bind and cross-link the O-Ag, induces a form of outer membrane stress that compromises the integrity of the S. Typhimurium cell envelope and temporarily renders the bacterium avirulent. PMID:22473607

  7. Immunity to Intracellular Salmonella Depends on Surface-associated Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Claudi, Beatrice; Mazé, Alain; Schemmer, Anne K.; Kirchhoff, Dennis; Schmidt, Alexander; Burton, Neil; Bumann, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Invasive Salmonella infection is an important health problem that is worsening because of rising antimicrobial resistance and changing Salmonella serovar spectrum. Novel vaccines with broad serovar coverage are needed, but suitable protective antigens remain largely unknown. Here, we tested 37 broadly conserved Salmonella antigens in a mouse typhoid fever model, and identified antigen candidates that conferred partial protection against lethal disease. Antigen properties such as high in vivo abundance or immunodominance in convalescent individuals were not required for protectivity, but all promising antigen candidates were associated with the Salmonella surface. Surprisingly, this was not due to superior immunogenicity of surface antigens compared to internal antigens as had been suggested by previous studies and novel findings for CD4 T cell responses to model antigens. Confocal microscopy of infected tissues revealed that many live Salmonella resided alone in infected host macrophages with no damaged Salmonella releasing internal antigens in their vicinity. In the absence of accessible internal antigens, detection of these infected cells might require CD4 T cell recognition of Salmonella surface-associated antigens that could be processed and presented even from intact Salmonella. In conclusion, our findings might pave the way for development of an efficacious Salmonella vaccine with broad serovar coverage, and suggest a similar crucial role of surface antigens for immunity to both extracellular and intracellular pathogens. PMID:23093937

  8. Mucosally administered Lactobacillus surface-displayed influenza antigens (sM2 and HA2) with cholera toxin subunit A1 (CTA1) Induce broadly protective immune responses against divergent influenza subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Chowdhury, Mohammed Y E; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Pathinayake, Prabuddha; Koo, Wan-Seo; Park, Min-Eun; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Roh, Jong-Bok; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Sung, Moon-Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Chul-Joong

    2015-09-30

    The development of a universal influenza vaccine that provides broad cross protection against existing and unforeseen influenza viruses is a critical challenge. In this study, we constructed and expressed conserved sM2 and HA2 influenza antigens with cholera toxin subunit A1 (CTA1) on the surface of Lactobacillus casei (pgsA-CTA1sM2HA2/L. casei). Oral and nasal administrations of recombinant L. casei into mice resulted in high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and their isotypes (IgG1 & IgG2a) as well as mucosal IgA. The mucosal administration of pgsA-CTA1sM2HA2/L. casei may also significantly increase the levels of sM2- or HA2-specific cell-mediated immunity because increased release of both IFN-γ and IL-4 was observed. The recombinant pgsA-CTA1sM2HA2/L. casei provided better protection of BALB/c mice against 10 times the 50% mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of homologous A/EM/Korea/W149/06(H5N1) or A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W81/2005 (H5N2) and heterologous A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1), or A/Chicken/Korea/116/2004(H9N2) or A/Philippines/2/08(H3N2) viruses, compared with L. casei harboring sM2HA2 and also the protection was maintained up to seven months after administration. These results indicate that recombinant L. casei expressing the highly conserved sM2, HA2 of influenza and CTA1 as a mucosal adjuvant could be a potential mucosal vaccine candidate or tool to protect against divergent influenza viruses for human and animal. PMID:26210951

  9. Novel antigen delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Maria; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2015-08-12

    Vaccines represent the most relevant contribution of immunology to human health. However, despite the remarkable success achieved in the past years, many vaccines are still missing in order to fight important human pathologies and to prevent emerging and re-emerging diseases. For these pathogens the known strategies for making vaccines have been unsuccessful and thus, new avenues should be investigated to overcome the failure of clinical trials and other important issues including safety concerns related to live vaccines or viral vectors, the weak immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and side effects associated with the use of adjuvants. A major hurdle of developing successful and effective vaccines is to design antigen delivery systems in such a way that optimizes antigen presentation and induces broad protective immune responses. Recent advances in vector delivery technologies, immunology, vaccinology and system biology, have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vaccines should stimulate both arms of the adaptive immune responses, offering new strategies of vaccinations. This review is an update of current strategies with respect to live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, viral vectors, lipid-based carrier systems such as liposomes and virosomes as well as polymeric nanoparticle vaccines and virus-like particles. In addition, this article will describe our work on a versatile and immunogenic delivery system which we have studied in the past decade and which is derived from a non-pathogenic prokaryotic organism: the "E2 scaffold" of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:26279977

  10. Coexpressed Catalase Protects Chimeric Antigen Receptor–Redirected T Cells as well as Bystander Cells from Oxidative Stress–Induced Loss of Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ligtenberg, Maarten A.; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Mukhopadhyay, Madhura; Witt, Kristina; Lladser, Alvaro; Chmielewski, Markus; Riet, Tobias; Abken, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients by adoptive T cell therapy has yielded promising results. In solid tumors, however, T cells encounter a hostile environment, in particular with increased inflammatory activity as a hallmark of the tumor milieu that goes along with abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS) that substantially impair antitumor activity. We present a strategy to render antitumor T cells more resilient toward ROS by coexpressing catalase along with a tumor specific chimeric Ag receptor (CAR) to increase their antioxidative capacity by metabolizing H2O2. In fact, T cells engineered with a bicistronic vector that concurrently expresses catalase, along with the CAR coexpressing catalase (CAR-CAT), performed superior over CAR T cells as they showed increased levels of intracellular catalase and had a reduced oxidative state with less ROS accumulation in both the basal state and upon activation while maintaining their antitumor activity despite high H2O2 levels. Moreover, CAR-CAT T cells exerted a substantial bystander protection of nontransfected immune effector cells as measured by CD3ζ chain expression in bystander T cells even in the presence of high H2O2 concentrations. Bystander NK cells, otherwise ROS sensitive, efficiently eliminate their K562 target cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress when admixed with CAR-CAT T cells. This approach represents a novel means for protecting tumor-infiltrating cells from tumor-associated oxidative stress–mediated repression. PMID:26673145

  11. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  12. Rotavirus antigen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003349.htm Rotavirus antigen test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This ...

  13. Human Leukocyte Antigen and Systemic Sclerosis in Japanese: The Sign of the Four Independent Protective Alleles, DRB1*13:02, DRB1*14:06, DQB1*03:01, and DPB1*02:01

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Shomi; Kawasaki, Aya; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji; Matsushita, Takashi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Komiya, Akiko; Fukui, Naoshi; Kobayashi, Kouji; Osada, Atsumu; Ihata, Atsushi; Kondo, Yuya; Nagai, Tatsuo; Setoguchi, Keigo; Okamoto, Akiko; Okamoto, Akira; Chiba, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Eiichi; Kono, Hajime; Katayama, Masao; Hirohata, Shunsei; Sumida, Takayuki; Migita, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Sato, Shinichi; Nagaoka, Shouhei; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies and susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) have been reported. Anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) and anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (ATA) are found in SSc patients. Here, we sought to identify HLA alleles associated with SSc in Japanese, and explored their associations with SSc phenotypes including the presence of autoantibodies. Methods Associations of HLA-DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 were analyzed in 463 Japanese SSc patients and 413 controls. Results We found that DRB1*13:02 (P = 0.0011, Pc = 0.0319, odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.73), DRB1*14:06 (P = 6.60X10-5, Pc = 0.0020, OR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01–0.41), DQB1*03:01 (P = 0.0009, Pc = 0.0150, OR 0.56, 95%CI 0.40–0.79), and DPB1*02:01 (P = 5.16X10-6, Pc = 8.77X10-5, OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.39–0.69) were protectively associated with SSc. In addition, these four alleles seemed to be independently associated with the protection against the susceptibility of SSc. On the other hand, we could not find predisposing alleles for overall SSc. With respect to SSc subsets, a tendency for these four alleles to be protectively associated was observed. However, there was a significant association between DRB1*01:01, DRB1*10:01, DQB1*05:01, and DPB1*04:02 and the susceptibility to SSc with ACA. On the other hand, the presence of DRB1*15:02, DQB1*06:01, DPB1*03:01, and DPB1*09:01 was associated with SSc with ATA. Conclusion Thus, the present study has identified protective associations of the four HLA class II alleles with overall Japanese SSc and predisposing associations of HLA class II alleles with Japanese SSc subsets. PMID:27116456

  14. The anthrax protective antigen (PA63) bound conformation of a peptide inhibitor of the binding of lethal factor to PA63: as determined by trNOESY NMR and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Rickey P; Bhattacharjee, Apurba K; Koser, Brandon W; Traficante, Daniel D

    2004-10-21

    Anthrax protective antigen (PA) is one of the three proteins produced by the gram positive bacteria Bacillus anthracis collectively known as the "anthrax toxin" (Ascenzi, P.; Visca, P.; Ippolito, G.; Spallarossa, A.; Bolognesi, M.; et al. Anthrax toxin: a tripartite lethal combination. FEBS Lett. 2002, 531, 384-388). The role played by PA in anthrax intoxication is to transport the two enzymes lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) into the cell. Collier and co-workers (Mourez, M.; Kane, R. S.; Mogridge, J.; Metallo, S.; Deschatelets, P.; et al. Designing a polyvalent inhibitor of anthrax toxin. Nat. Biotechnol. 2001, 958). reported the isolation of two peptides via phage display that bind to the PA63 heptamer and inhibit its interaction with LF and EF, and thereby prevent the transport of LF and EF into the cell. One of these peptides, His-Thr-Ser-Thr-Try-Trp-Trp-Leu-Asp-Gly-Ala-Pro (P1), was selected for structural investigation on the basis of its ability to prevent the binding of LF to the PA63 heptamer bundle. Two-dimensional trNOESY experiments coupled with NOE restrained simulated annealing calculations were used to determine the PA63-bound conformation of P1. On binding to PA63, P1 adopts a helical conformation involving residues 3-9 while the C- and N-terminal residues exhibit dynamic fraying. PMID:15481973

  15. Novel antigen delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Maria; Berardinis, Piergiuseppe De

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent the most relevant contribution of immunology to human health. However, despite the remarkable success achieved in the past years, many vaccines are still missing in order to fight important human pathologies and to prevent emerging and re-emerging diseases. For these pathogens the known strategies for making vaccines have been unsuccessful and thus, new avenues should be investigated to overcome the failure of clinical trials and other important issues including safety concerns related to live vaccines or viral vectors, the weak immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and side effects associated with the use of adjuvants. A major hurdle of developing successful and effective vaccines is to design antigen delivery systems in such a way that optimizes antigen presentation and induces broad protective immune responses. Recent advances in vector delivery technologies, immunology, vaccinology and system biology, have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vaccines should stimulate both arms of the adaptive immune responses, offering new strategies of vaccinations. This review is an update of current strategies with respect to live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, viral vectors, lipid-based carrier systems such as liposomes and virosomes as well as polymeric nanoparticle vaccines and virus-like particles. In addition, this article will describe our work on a versatile and immunogenic delivery system which we have studied in the past decade and which is derived from a non-pathogenic prokaryotic organism: the “E2 scaffold” of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:26279977

  16. Impact of laser-contaminant interaction on the performance of the protective capping layer of 1w high-reflection mirror coatings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qiu, S. R.; Norton, M. A.; Raman, R. N.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Boley, C. D.; Rigatti, A.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Stolz, C. J.; Matthews, M. J.

    2015-10-02

    In this paper, high dielectric constant multilayer coatings are commonly used on high-reflection mirrors for high-peak-power laser systems because of their high laser-damage resistance. However, surface contaminants often lead to damage upon laser exposure, thus limiting the mirror’s lifetime and performance. One plausible approach to improve the overall mirror resistance against laser damage, including that induced by laser-contaminant coupling, is to coat the multilayers with a thin protective capping (absentee) layer on top of the multilayer coatings. An understanding of the underlying mechanism by which laser-particle interaction leads to capping layer damage is important for the rational design and selectionmore » of capping materials of high-reflection multilayer coatings. In this paper, we examine the responses of two candidate capping layer materials, made of SiO2 and Al2O3, over silica-hafnia multilayer coatings. These are exposed to a single oblique shot of a 1053 nm laser beam (fluence ~10 J/cm2, pulse length 14 ns), in the presence of Ti particles on the surface. We find that the two capping layers show markedly different responses to the laser-particle interaction. The Al2O3 cap layer exhibits severe damage, with the capping layer becoming completely delaminated at the particle locations. The SiO2 capping layer, on the other hand, is only mildly modified by a shallow depression. Combining the observations with optical modeling and thermal/mechanical calculations, we argue that a high-temperature thermal field from plasma generated by the laser-particle interaction above a critical fluence is responsible for the surface modification of each capping layer. The great difference in damage behavior is mainly attributed to the large disparity in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two capping materials, with that of Al2O3 layer being about 15 times greater than that of SiO2.« less

  17. Impact of laser-contaminant interaction on the performance of the protective capping layer of 1w high-reflection mirror coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S. R.; Norton, M. A.; Raman, R. N.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Boley, C. D.; Rigatti, A.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Stolz, C. J.; Matthews, M. J.

    2015-10-02

    In this paper, high dielectric constant multilayer coatings are commonly used on high-reflection mirrors for high-peak-power laser systems because of their high laser-damage resistance. However, surface contaminants often lead to damage upon laser exposure, thus limiting the mirror’s lifetime and performance. One plausible approach to improve the overall mirror resistance against laser damage, including that induced by laser-contaminant coupling, is to coat the multilayers with a thin protective capping (absentee) layer on top of the multilayer coatings. An understanding of the underlying mechanism by which laser-particle interaction leads to capping layer damage is important for the rational design and selection of capping materials of high-reflection multilayer coatings. In this paper, we examine the responses of two candidate capping layer materials, made of SiO2 and Al2O3, over silica-hafnia multilayer coatings. These are exposed to a single oblique shot of a 1053 nm laser beam (fluence ~10 J/cm2, pulse length 14 ns), in the presence of Ti particles on the surface. We find that the two capping layers show markedly different responses to the laser-particle interaction. The Al2O3 cap layer exhibits severe damage, with the capping layer becoming completely delaminated at the particle locations. The SiO2 capping layer, on the other hand, is only mildly modified by a shallow depression. Combining the observations with optical modeling and thermal/mechanical calculations, we argue that a high-temperature thermal field from plasma generated by the laser-particle interaction above a critical fluence is responsible for the surface modification of each capping layer. The great difference in damage behavior is mainly attributed to the large disparity in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two capping materials, with that of Al2O3 layer being about 15 times greater

  18. Impact of laser-contaminant interaction on the performance of the protective capping layer of 1 ω high-reflection mirror coatings.

    PubMed

    Qiu, S R; Norton, M A; Raman, R N; Rubenchik, A M; Boley, C D; Rigatti, A; Mirkarimi, P B; Stolz, C J; Matthews, M J

    2015-10-10

    High dielectric constant multilayer coatings are commonly used on high-reflection mirrors for high-peak-power laser systems because of their high laser-damage resistance. However, surface contaminants often lead to damage upon laser exposure, thus limiting the mirror's lifetime and performance. One plausible approach to improve the overall mirror resistance against laser damage, including that induced by laser-contaminant coupling, is to coat the multilayers with a thin protective capping (absentee) layer on top of the multilayer coatings. An understanding of the underlying mechanism by which laser-particle interaction leads to capping layer damage is important for the rational design and selection of capping materials of high-reflection multilayer coatings. In this paper, we examine the responses of two candidate capping layer materials, made of SiO2 and Al2O3, over silica-hafnia multilayer coatings. These are exposed to a single oblique shot of a 1053 nm laser beam (fluence ∼10  J/cm2, pulse length 14 ns), in the presence of Ti particles on the surface. We find that the two capping layers show markedly different responses to the laser-particle interaction. The Al2O3 cap layer exhibits severe damage, with the capping layer becoming completely delaminated at the particle locations. The SiO2 capping layer, on the other hand, is only mildly modified by a shallow depression. Combining the observations with optical modeling and thermal/mechanical calculations, we argue that a high-temperature thermal field from plasma generated by the laser-particle interaction above a critical fluence is responsible for the surface modification of each capping layer. The great difference in damage behavior is mainly attributed to the large disparity in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two capping materials, with that of Al2O3 layer being about 15 times greater than that

  19. Protective autoimmunity in cancer (review).

    PubMed

    Toubi, E; Shoenfeld, Y

    2007-01-01

    Not all malignant cells progress to invasive cancer, some may even regress, but the early detection of abnormal cells can be crucial for patient survival. Immune surveillance mechanisms are complex and provide continuous efforts for the removal of transformed cells. Naturally occurring antibodies are frontier soldiers that act as the first line of defense in the battle against cancer. During the process of carcinogenesis naturally occurring antibody responses to tumor antigens were found to be associated with improved survival and protection against the spread of cancer. Using the human hybridoma technology, a series of tumor-binding antibodies can be isolated as they have several common features: they are germ-line coded IgM antibodies, they bind to various tumor-antigens, they induce apoptosis of malignant cells, and most importantly they detect not only malignant cells but also the precursor stages (i.e., autoantigens). Natural protective autoantibodies against tumor-antigens were isolated from patients and healthy donors reflecting the development of naturally occurring B-cell responses during the process of cancer evolvement. They fulfill the definition of autoantibodies since they are self-reactive and they also bind altered self-antigens such as tumor cells. In this regard various autoantibodies such as anti-dsDNA and anti-Fas autoantibodies were found to be significantly higher in patients with various carcinomas, thus playing a role for their improved survival. Targeting T-regulatory cells, namely the expression of CTLA-4 was also found to improve survival in cancer patients. Autoimmunity and malignancy frequently coexist and they may share etiological and pathological mechanisms. Therefore, the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins or CTLA-4 blockade was also employed as a treatment for prevention of malignancy and metastases spread. PMID:17143505

  20. An Immunomics Approach to Schistosome Antigen Discovery: Antibody Signatures of Naturally Resistant and Chronically Infected Individuals from Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Gaze, Soraya; Driguez, Patrick; Pearson, Mark S.; Mendes, Tiago; Doolan, Denise L.; Trieu, Angela; McManus, Donald P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Fernanda C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Nakajima, Rie; Jasinskas, Al; Hung, Chris; Liang, Li; Pablo, Jozelyn; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Felgner, Philip L.; Loukas, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for almost 300,000 deaths annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) is used worldwide for the control of schistosomiasis, but chemotherapy fails to prevent reinfection with schistosomes, so MDA alone is not sufficient to eliminate the disease, and a prophylactic vaccine is required. Herein, we take advantage of recent advances in systems biology and longitudinal studies in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Brazil to pilot an immunomics approach to the discovery of schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. We selected mostly surface-derived proteins, produced them using an in vitro rapid translation system and then printed them to generate the first protein microarray for a multi-cellular pathogen. Using well-established Brazilian cohorts of putatively resistant (PR) and chronically infected (CI) individuals stratified by the intensity of their S. mansoni infection, we probed arrays for IgG subclass and IgE responses to these antigens to detect antibody signatures that were reflective of protective vs. non-protective immune responses. Moreover, probing for IgE responses allowed us to identify antigens that might induce potentially deleterious hypersensitivity responses if used as subunit vaccines in endemic populations. Using multi-dimensional cluster analysis we showed that PR individuals mounted a distinct and robust IgG1 response to a small set of newly discovered and well-characterized surface (tegument) antigens in contrast to CI individuals who mounted strong IgE and IgG4 responses to many antigens. Herein, we show the utility of a vaccinomics approach that profiles antibody responses of resistant individuals in a high-throughput multiplex approach for the identification of several potentially protective and safe schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. PMID:24675823

  1. Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  2. Meningococcal vaccine antigen diversity in global databases

    PubMed Central

    Brehony, C; Hill, DM; Lucidarme, J; Borrow, R; Maiden, MC

    2016-01-01

    The lack of an anti-capsular vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease has necessitated the exploration of alternative vaccine candidates, mostly proteins exhibiting varying degrees of antigenic variation. Analysis of variants of antigen-encoding genes is facilitated by publicly accessible online sequence repositories, such as the Neisseria PubMLST database and the associated Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL). We investigated six proposed meningococcal vaccine formulations by deducing the prevalence of their components in the isolates represented in these repositories. Despite high diversity, a limited number of antigenic variants of each of the vaccine antigens were prevalent, with strong associations of particular variant combinations with given serogroups and genotypes. In the MRF-MGL and globally, the highest levels of identical sequences were observed with multicomponent/multivariant vaccines. Our analyses further demonstrated that certain combinations of antigen variants were prevalent over periods of decades in widely differing locations, indicating that vaccine formulations containing a judicious choice of antigen variants have potential for long-term protection across geographic regions. The data further indicated that formulations with multiple variants would be especially relevant at times of low disease incidence, as relative diversity was higher. Continued surveillance is required to monitor the changing prevalence of these vaccine antigens. PMID:26676305

  3. Human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Havlir, D V; Wallis, R S; Boom, W H; Daniel, T M; Chervenak, K; Ellner, J J

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about the immunodominant or protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans. Cell-mediated immunity is necessary for protection, and healthy tuberculin-positive individuals are relatively resistant to exogenous reinfection. We compared the targets of the cell-mediated immune response in healthy tuberculin-positive individuals to those of tuberculosis patients and tuberculin-negative persons. By using T-cell Western blotting (immunoblotting) of nitrocellulose-bound M. tuberculosis culture filtrate, peaks of T-cell blastogenic activity were identified in the healthy tuberculin reactors at 30, 37, 44, 57, 64, 71 and 88 kDa. Three of these fractions (30, 64, and 71 kDa) coincided with previously characterized proteins: antigen 6/alpha antigen, HSP60, and HSP70, respectively. The blastogenic responses to purified M. tuberculosis antigen 6/alpha antigen and BCG HSP60 were assessed. When cultured with purified antigen 6/alpha antigen, lymphocytes of healthy tuberculin reactors demonstrated greater [3H]thymidine incorporation than either healthy tuberculin-negative controls or tuberculous patients (8,113 +/- 1,939 delta cpm versus 645 +/- 425 delta cpm and 1,019 +/- 710 delta cpm, respectively; P less than 0.01). Healthy reactors also responded to HSP60, although to a lesser degree than antigen 6/alpha antigen (4,276 +/- 1,095 delta cpm; P less than 0.05). Partially purified HSP70 bound to nitrocellulose paper elicited a significant lymphocyte blastogenic response in two of six of the tuberculous patients but in none of the eight healthy tuberculin reactors. Lymphocytes of none of five tuberculin-negative controls responded to recombinant antigens at 14 or 19 kDa or to HSP70. Antibody reactivity generally was inversely correlated with blastogenic response: tuberculous sera had high titer antibody to M. tuberculosis culture filtrate in a range from 35 to 180 kDa. This is the first systematic evaluation of the human response to a panel of native

  4. Production of Functionally Active and Immunogenic Non-Glycosylated Protective Antigen from Bacillus anthracis in Nicotiana benthamiana by Co-Expression with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F (PNGase F) of Flavobacterium meningosepticum

    PubMed Central

    Mamedov, Tarlan; Chichester, Jessica A.; Jones, R. Mark; Ghosh, Ananya; Coffin, Megan V.; Herschbach, Kristina; Prokhnevsky, Alexey I.; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and therefore, there is a need for a safe, low-cost and highly efficient anthrax vaccine with demonstrated long-term stability for mass vaccination in case of an emergency. Many efforts have been made towards developing an anthrax vaccine based on recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, a key component of the anthrax toxin, produced using different expression systems. Plants represent a promising recombinant protein production platform due to their relatively low cost, rapid scalability and favorable safety profile. Previous studies have shown that full-length rPA produced in Nicotiana benthamiana (pp-PA83) is immunogenic and can provide full protection against lethal spore challenge; however, further improvement in the potency and stability of the vaccine candidate is necessary. PA of B. anthracis is not a glycoprotein in its native host; however, this protein contains potential N-linked glycosylation sites, which can be aberrantly glycosylated during expression in eukaryotic systems including plants. This glycosylation could affect the availability of certain key epitopes either due to masking or misfolding of the protein. Therefore, a non-glycosylated form of pp-PA83 was engineered and produced in N. benthamiana using an in vivo deglycosylation approach based on co-expression of peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) from Flavobacterium meningosepticum. For comparison, versions of pp-PA83 containing point mutations in six potential N-glycosylation sites were also engineered and expressed in N. benthamiana. The in vivo deglycosylated pp-PA83 (pp-dPA83) was shown to have in vitro activity, in contrast to glycosylated pp-PA83, and to induce significantly higher levels of toxin-neutralizing antibody responses in mice compared with glycosylated pp-PA83, in vitro deglycosylated pp-PA83 or the mutated versions of pp-PA83. These results suggest that pp-dPA83 may offer advantages

  5. Production of Functionally Active and Immunogenic Non-Glycosylated Protective Antigen from Bacillus anthracis in Nicotiana benthamiana by Co-Expression with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F (PNGase F) of Flavobacterium meningosepticum.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, Tarlan; Chichester, Jessica A; Jones, R Mark; Ghosh, Ananya; Coffin, Megan V; Herschbach, Kristina; Prokhnevsky, Alexey I; Streatfield, Stephen J; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and therefore, there is a need for a safe, low-cost and highly efficient anthrax vaccine with demonstrated long-term stability for mass vaccination in case of an emergency. Many efforts have been made towards developing an anthrax vaccine based on recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, a key component of the anthrax toxin, produced using different expression systems. Plants represent a promising recombinant protein production platform due to their relatively low cost, rapid scalability and favorable safety profile. Previous studies have shown that full-length rPA produced in Nicotiana benthamiana (pp-PA83) is immunogenic and can provide full protection against lethal spore challenge; however, further improvement in the potency and stability of the vaccine candidate is necessary. PA of B. anthracis is not a glycoprotein in its native host; however, this protein contains potential N-linked glycosylation sites, which can be aberrantly glycosylated during expression in eukaryotic systems including plants. This glycosylation could affect the availability of certain key epitopes either due to masking or misfolding of the protein. Therefore, a non-glycosylated form of pp-PA83 was engineered and produced in N. benthamiana using an in vivo deglycosylation approach based on co-expression of peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) from Flavobacterium meningosepticum. For comparison, versions of pp-PA83 containing point mutations in six potential N-glycosylation sites were also engineered and expressed in N. benthamiana. The in vivo deglycosylated pp-PA83 (pp-dPA83) was shown to have in vitro activity, in contrast to glycosylated pp-PA83, and to induce significantly higher levels of toxin-neutralizing antibody responses in mice compared with glycosylated pp-PA83, in vitro deglycosylated pp-PA83 or the mutated versions of pp-PA83. These results suggest that pp-dPA83 may offer advantages

  6. Antigens provide immunity against Ich in channel catfish trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine effects of 1) types of Ich antigens and routes of immunization, 2) methods of inactivated trophonts, and 3) antigen doses on fish immune protection against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich). All catfish immunized with live theronts by immersion, live the...

  7. B-Cell Responses to Pregnancy-Restricted and -Unrestricted Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Antigens in Ghanaian Women Naturally Exposed to Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ampomah, Paulina; Stevenson, Liz; Ofori, Michael F.; Barfod, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired after natural exposure is largely antibody mediated. IgG-specific P. falciparum EMP1 (PfEMP1) proteins on the infected erythrocyte surface are particularly important. The transient antibody responses and the slowly acquired protective immunity probably reflect the clonal antigenic variation and allelic polymorphism of PfEMP1. However, it is likely that other immune-evasive mechanisms are also involved, such as interference with formation and maintenance of immunological memory. We measured PfEMP1-specific antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and memory B-cell frequencies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay in a cohort of P. falciparum-exposed nonpregnant Ghanaian women. The antigens used were a VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 (IT4VAR04) with expression restricted to parasites infecting the placenta, as well as two commonly recognized PfEMP1 proteins (HB3VAR06 and IT4VAR60) implicated in rosetting and not pregnancy restricted. This enabled, for the first time, a direct comparison in the same individuals of immune responses specific for a clinically important parasite antigen expressed only during well-defined periods (pregnancy) to responses specific for comparable antigens expressed independent of pregnancy. Our data indicate that PfEMP1-specific B-cell memory is adequately acquired even when antigen exposure is infrequent (e.g., VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1). Furthermore, immunological memory specific for VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 can be maintained for many years without antigen reexposure and after circulating antigen-specific IgG has disappeared. The study provides evidence that natural exposure to P. falciparum leads to formation of durable B-cell immunity to clinically important PfEMP1 antigens. This has encouraging implications for current efforts to develop PfEMP1-based vaccines. PMID:24566620

  8. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni circulating cathodic antigen for evaluation of resistance induced by irradiated cercariae.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, I S; Bogitsh, B J; Colley, D G

    1992-08-01

    The appearance of serum levels of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) detectable by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (5H11) antigen-capture sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was evaluated during acute Schistosoma mansoni infections in female CF1 mice exposed to either 100 or 25 cercariae. Measurable CCA levels occurred in these groups at 5 and 7 wk after infection, respectively. The kinetics of appearance of CCA were thus related to the intensity of infection. The level of resistance developed by female C57BL/6 mice upon immunization with irradiated cercariae, as expressed by both worm burden and CCA levels after cercarial challenge was evaluated. Immunization conferred 44% protection against the challenge infection, and the level of CCA detected in the sera of the control group was significantly (P less than 0.02) higher than that found in the sera of the immunized group, 6 wk after challenge. These results demonstrate that CCA detection by the 5H11 mAb antigen-capture sandwich ELISA can reflect vaccine-induced resistance against S. mansoni. Localization studies showed that 5H11 reacts with a CCA epitope in the adult worm gut and to a lesser extent with the male tegument. Adaptations of this and other antigen detection systems may prove useful in monitoring the efficacy of developmental vaccines, an ability that may be essential for the extension of such studies to humans. PMID:1635027

  9. Antigenic Distance Measurements for Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Selection

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is one of the major options to counteract the effects of influenza diseases. Selection of an effective vaccine strain is the key to the success of an effective vaccination program since vaccine protection can only be achieved when the selected influenza vaccine strain matches the antigenic variants causing future outbreaks. Identification of an antigenic variant is the first step to determine whether vaccine strain needs to be updated. Antigenic distance derived from immunological assays, such as hemagglutination inhibition, is commonly used to measure the antigenic closeness between circulating strains and the current influenza vaccine strain. Thus, consensus on an explicit and robust antigenic distance measurement is critical in influenza surveillance. Based on the current seasonal influenza surveillance procedure, we propose and compare three antigenic distance measurements, including Average antigenic distance (A-distance), Mutual antigenic distance (M-distance), and Largest antigenic distance (L-distance). With the assistance of influenza antigenic cartography, our simulation results demonstrated that M-distance is a robust influenza antigenic distance measurement. Experimental results on both simulation and seasonal influenza surveillance data demonstrate that M-distance can be effectively utilized in influenza vaccine strain selection. PMID:22063385

  10. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  11. IRRIGATION TO MAXIMIZE VACCINE ANTIGEN PRODUCTION IN PHARMACEUTICAL TOBACCO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology companies have engineered plants to produce recombinant proteins for therapeutic drugs and vaccines. Chlorogen, Inc. located in St. Louis, Missouri, inserted the protective antigen (PA) gene from Bacillus anthracis into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplasts to produce an anthrax va...

  12. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Shin, Meong-Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical application of antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization targeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received much attention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigen delivery. The skin has important immunological functions with unique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years, novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually been developed; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yet been fully exploited due to the penetration barrier represented by the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport of antigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievements in transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the various strategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery and vaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 17-24] PMID:23351379

  13. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum surface antigens in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshir, F; Flint, J E; Reese, R T

    1985-01-01

    The asexual blood stages of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum produce many antigens, only some of which are important for protective immunity. Most of the putative protective antigens are believed to be expressed in schizonts and merozoites, the late stages of the asexual cycle. With the aim of cloning and characterizing genes for important parasite antigens, we used late-stage P. falciparum mRNA to construct a library of cDNA sequences inserted in the Escherichia coli expression vector pUC8. Nine thousand clones from the expression library were immunologically screened in situ with serum from Aotus monkeys immune to P. falciparum, and 95 clones expressing parasite antigens were identified. Mice were immunized with lysates from 49 of the bacterial clones that reacted with Aotus sera, and the mouse sera were tested for their reactivity with parasite antigens by indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting assays. Several different P. falciparum antigens were identified by these assays. Indirect immunofluorescence studies of extracellular merozoites showed that three of these antigens appear to be located on the merozoite surface. Thus, we have identified cDNA clones to three different P. falciparum antigens that may be important in protective immunity. Images PMID:3887406

  14. Complex Antigens Drive Permissive Clonal Selection in Germinal Centers.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, Masayuki; Schmidt, Aaron G; Nojima, Takuya; Feng, Feng; Watanabe, Akiko; Kitamura, Daisuke; Harrison, Stephen C; Kepler, Thomas B; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2016-03-15

    Germinal center (GC) B cells evolve toward increased affinity by a Darwinian process that has been studied primarily in genetically restricted, hapten-specific responses. We explored the population dynamics of genetically diverse GC responses to two complex antigens-Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and influenza hemagglutinin-in which B cells competed both intra- and interclonally for distinct epitopes. Preferred VH rearrangements among antigen-binding, naive B cells were similarly abundant in early GCs but, unlike responses to haptens, clonal diversity increased in GC B cells as early "winners" were replaced by rarer, high-affinity clones. Despite affinity maturation, inter- and intraclonal avidities varied greatly, and half of GC B cells did not bind the immunogen but nonetheless exhibited biased VH use, V(D)J mutation, and clonal expansion comparable to antigen-binding cells. GC reactions to complex antigens permit a range of specificities and affinities, with potential advantages for broad protection. PMID:26948373

  15. Nonclassical T Cells and Their Antigens in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit; Lepore, Marco; Mori, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    T cells that recognize nonpeptidic antigens, and thereby are identified as nonclassical, represent important yet poorly characterized effectors of the immune response. They are present in large numbers in circulating blood and tissues and are as abundant as T cells recognizing peptide antigens. Nonclassical T cells exert multiple functions including immunoregulation, tumor control, and protection against infections. They recognize complexes of nonpeptidic antigens such as lipid and glycolipid molecules, vitamin B2 precursors, and phosphorylated metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. Each of these antigens is presented by antigen-presenting molecules other than major histocompatibility complex (MHC), including CD1, MHC class I–related molecule 1 (MR1), and butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) molecules. Here, we discuss how nonclassical T cells participate in the recognition of mycobacterial antigens and in the mycobacterial-specific immune response. PMID:25059739

  16. Development of a candidate influenza vaccine based on virus-like particles displaying influenza M2e peptide into the immunodominant region of hepatitis B core antigen: Broad protective efficacy of particles carrying four copies of M2e.

    PubMed

    Tsybalova, Liudmila M; Stepanova, Liudmila A; Kuprianov, Victor V; Blokhina, Elena A; Potapchuk, Marina V; Korotkov, Alexander V; Gorshkov, Andrey N; Kasyanenko, Marina A; Ravin, Nikolai V; Kiselev, Oleg I

    2015-06-26

    A long-term objective when designing influenza vaccines is to create one with broad cross-reactivity that will provide effective control over influenza, no matter which strain has caused the disease. Here we summarize the results from an investigation into the immunogenic and protective capacities inherent in variations of a recombinant protein, HBc/4M2e. This protein contains four copies of the ectodomain from the influenza virus protein M2 (M2e) fused within the immunodominant loop of the hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBc). Variations of this basic design include preparations containing M2e from the consensus human influenza virus; the M2e from the highly pathogenic avian A/H5N1 virus and a combination of two copies from human and two copies from avian influenza viruses. Intramuscular delivery in mice with preparations containing four identical copies of M2e induced high IgG titers in blood sera and bronchoalveolar lavages. It also provoked the formation of memory T-cells and antibodies were retained in the blood sera for a significant period of time post immunization. Furthermore, these preparations prevented the death of 75-100% of animals, which were challenged with lethal doses of virus. This resulted in a 1.2-3.5 log10 decrease in viral replication within the lungs. Moreover, HBc particles carrying only "human" or "avian" M2e displayed cross-reactivity in relation to human (A/H1N1, A/H2N2 and A/H3N2) or A/H5N1 and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, respectively; however, with the particles carrying both "human" and "avian" M2e this effect was much weaker, especially in relation to influenza virus A/H5N1. It is apparent from this work that to quickly produce vaccine for a pandemic it would be necessary to have several variations of a recombinant protein, containing four copies of M2e (each one against a group of likely influenza virus strains) with these relevant constructs housed within a comprehensive collection Escherichia coli-producers and maintained ready for use

  17. Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 2 (EBNA2) Target Proteins by Proteome Analysis: Activation of EBNA2 in Conditionally Immortalized B Cells Reflects Early Events after Infection of Primary B Cells by EBV

    PubMed Central

    Schlee, Martin; Krug, Tanja; Gires, Olivier; Zeidler, Reinhard; Hammerschmidt, Wolfgang; Mailhammer, Reinhard; Laux, Gerhard; Sauer, Guido; Lovric, Josip; Bornkamm, Georg W.

    2004-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus associated with several malignant tumors, e.g., Burkitt's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease, and is able to efficiently immortalize primary B lymphocytes in vitro. The growth program of infected B cells is initiated and maintained by the viral transcription factor EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), which regulates viral and cellular genes, including the proto-oncogene c-myc. In our study, patterns of protein expression in B cells with and without EBNA2 were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. For this purpose, we used a conditional immortalization system for EBV, a B cell line (EREB2-5) that expresses an estrogen receptor-EBNA2 fusion protein. In order to discriminate downstream targets of c-Myc from c-Myc-independent EBNA2 targets, we used an EREB2-5-derived cell line, P493-6, in which c-Myc is expressed under the control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. Of 20 identified EBNA2 target proteins, 11 were c-Myc dependent and therefore most probably associated with proliferation, and one of these proteins was a posttranslationally modified protein, i.e., hypusinylated eIF5a. Finally, to estimate the relevance of EBNA2 targets during early EBV infection, we analyzed the proteomes of primary B cells before and after infection with EBV. The protein expression pattern induced upon EBV infection was similar to that following EBNA2 activation. These findings underscore the value of EREB2-5 cells as an appropriate model system for the analysis of early events in the process of EBV-mediated B-cell immortalization. PMID:15047810

  18. High-throughput prediction of protein antigenicity using protein microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Magnan, Christophe N.; Zeller, Michael; Kayala, Matthew A.; Vigil, Adam; Randall, Arlo; Felgner, Philip L.; Baldi, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Discovery of novel protective antigens is fundamental to the development of vaccines for existing and emerging pathogens. Most computational methods for predicting protein antigenicity rely directly on homology with previously characterized protective antigens; however, homology-based methods will fail to discover truly novel protective antigens. Thus, there is a significant need for homology-free methods capable of screening entire proteomes for the antigens most likely to generate a protective humoral immune response. Results: Here we begin by curating two types of positive data: (i) antigens that elicit a strong antibody response in protected individuals but not in unprotected individuals, using human immunoglobulin reactivity data obtained from protein microarray analyses; and (ii) known protective antigens from the literature. The resulting datasets are used to train a sequence-based prediction model, ANTIGENpro, to predict the likelihood that a protein is a protective antigen. ANTIGENpro correctly classifies 82% of the known protective antigens when trained using only the protein microarray datasets. The accuracy on the combined dataset is estimated at 76% by cross-validation experiments. Finally, ANTIGENpro performs well when evaluated on an external pathogen proteome for which protein microarray data were obtained after the initial development of ANTIGENpro. Availability: ANTIGENpro is integrated in the SCRATCH suite of predictors available at http://scratch.proteomics.ics.uci.edu. Contact: pfbaldi@ics.uci.edu PMID:20934990

  19. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  20. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  1. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Experimental Parasitology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, ...

  2. Antigenic relationship between the common antigen (OEP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Hirao, Y; Homma, J Y

    1978-01-01

    Antibodies were found by the OEP-passive hemagglutination test to cross-react with the common antigen (OEP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sera of rabbits immunized with two serotype (Inaba and Ogawa) strains of Vibrio cholerae. The titer in the OEP-passive hemagglutination reaction rose later than did the agglutinin titer and reached a peak of 640 to 1,280. The titers of OEP antibody formation in rabbits immunized with V. cholerae were almost the same as that of P. aeruginosa. The common antigen of P. aeruginosa was confirmed to exist serologically in both strains of V. cholerae as determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test and the agar gel precipitin test. Passive immunization with the V. cholerae immune rabbit serum significantly protected mice against P. aeruginosa infection. Purified antibodies cross-reacting with the OEP of P. aeruginosa derived from the V. cholerae immune rabbit sera by OEP-coupled affinity chromatography protected mice against P. aeruginosa infection as compared with the control group, which was injected with 100 microgram of immunoglobin G not containing OEP antibody. The purified antibodies (2.5 microgram per mouse) protected animals challenged with approximately 10,000 50% lethal doses in the control group. Consequently, the common antigen (OEP) of P. aeruginosa proved to be a common antigen of V. cholerae both serologically and in possessing infection protective properties. PMID:75846

  3. Antigen-specific vaccines for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines targeting pathogens are generally effective and protective because based on foreign non-self antigens which are extremely potent in eliciting an immune response. On the contrary, efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines is still disappointing. One of the major reasons for such poor outcome, among others, is the difficulty of identifying tumor-specific target antigens which should be unique to the tumors or, at least, overexpressed on the tumors as compared to normal cells. Indeed, this is the only option to overcome the peripheral immune tolerance and elicit a non toxic immune response. New and more potent strategies are now available to identify specific tumor-associated antigens for development of cancer vaccine approaches aiming at eliciting targeted anti-tumor cellular responses. In the last years this aspect has been addressed and many therapeutic vaccination strategies based on either whole tumor cells or specific antigens have been and are being currently evaluated in clinical trials. This review summarizes the current state of cancer vaccines, mainly focusing on antigen-specific approaches. PMID:25483639

  4. Substitutions near the Hemagglutinin Receptor-Binding Site Determine the Antigenic Evolution of Influenza A H3N2 Viruses in U.S. Swine

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nicola S.; Anderson, Tavis K.; Kitikoon, Pravina; Skepner, Eugene; Burke, David F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Swine influenza A virus is an endemic and economically important pathogen in pigs, with the potential to infect other host species. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is the primary target of protective immune responses and the major component in swine influenza A vaccines. However, as a result of antigenic drift, vaccine strains must be regularly updated to reflect currently circulating strains. Characterizing the cross-reactivity between strains in pigs and seasonal influenza virus strains in humans is also important in assessing the relative risk of interspecies transmission of viruses from one host population to the other. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data for swine and human H3N2 viruses were used with antigenic cartography to quantify the antigenic differences among H3N2 viruses isolated from pigs in the United States from 1998 to 2013 and the relative cross-reactivity between these viruses and current human seasonal influenza A virus strains. Two primary antigenic clusters were found circulating in the pig population, but with enough diversity within and between the clusters to suggest updates in vaccine strains are needed. We identified single amino acid substitutions that are likely responsible for antigenic differences between the two primary antigenic clusters and between each antigenic cluster and outliers. The antigenic distance between current seasonal influenza virus H3 strains in humans and those endemic in swine suggests that population immunity may not prevent the introduction of human viruses into pigs, and possibly vice versa, reinforcing the need to monitor and prepare for potential incursions. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen in pigs and humans. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is the primary target of protective immune responses and the major target of vaccines. However, vaccine strains must be updated to reflect current strains. Characterizing the differences between seasonal IAV in humans and swine

  5. V-antigen homologs in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Katoh, Hideya; Yasumoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria cause many types of infections in animals from fish and shrimps to humans. Bacteria use Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) to translocate their toxins directly into eukaryotic cells. The V-antigen is a multifunctional protein required for the TTSS in Yersinia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. V-antigen vaccines and anti-V-antigen antisera confer protection against Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections in animal models. The V-antigen forms a pentameric cap structure at the tip of the Type III secretory needle; this structure, which has evolved from the bacterial flagellar cap structure, is indispensable for toxin translocation. Various pathogenic gram-negative bacteria such as Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio spp., and Aeromonas spp. encode homologs of the V-antigen. Because the V-antigens of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria play a key role in toxin translocation, they are potential therapeutic targets for combatting bacterial virulence. In the USA and Europe, these vaccines and specific antibodies against V-antigens are in clinical trials investigating the treatment of Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections. Pathogenic gram-negative bacteria are of great interest because of their ability to infect fish and shrimp farms, their potential for exploitation in biological terrorism attacks, and their ability to cause opportunistic infections in humans. Thus, elucidation of the roles of the V-antigen in the TTSS and mechanisms by which these functions can be blocked is critical to facilitating the development of improved anti-V-antigen strategies. PMID:24641673

  6. Presentation of hepatocellular antigens

    PubMed Central

    Grakoui, Arash; Crispe, Ian Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The liver is an organ in which antigen-specific T-cell responses manifest a bias toward immune tolerance. This is clearly seen in the rejection of allogeneic liver transplants, and multiple other phenomena suggest that this effect is more general. These include tolerance toward antigens introduced via the portal vein, immune failure to several hepatotropic viruses, the lack of natural liver-stage immunity to malaria parasites, and the frequent metastasis of cancers to the liver. Here we review the mechanisms by which T cells engage with hepatocellular antigens, the context in which such encounters occur, and the mechanisms that act to suppress a full T-cell response. While many mechanisms play a role, we will argue that two important processes are the constraints on the cross-presentation of hepatocellular antigens, and the induction of negative feedback inhibition driven by interferons. The constant exposure of the liver to microbial products from the intestine may drive innate immunity, rendering the local environment unfavorable for specific T-cell responses through this mechanism. Nevertheless, tolerance toward hepatocellular antigens is not monolithic and under specific circumstances allows both effective immunity and immunopathology. PMID:26924525

  7. Immunogenetic Mechanisms Driving Norovirus GII.4 Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Eric F.; Corti, Davide; Swanstrom, Jesica; Debbink, Kari; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Baric, Ralph S.

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses are the principal cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide with GII.4 strains accounting for 80% of infections. The major capsid protein of GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in new epidemic strains with altered antigenic potentials. To test if antigenic drift may contribute to GII.4 persistence, human memory B cells were immortalized and the resulting human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) characterized for reactivity to a panel of time-ordered GII.4 virus-like particles (VLPs). Reflecting the complex exposure history of the volunteer, human anti-GII.4 mAbs grouped into three VLP reactivity patterns; ancestral (1987–1997), contemporary (2004–2009), and broad (1987–2009). NVB 114 reacted exclusively to the earliest GII.4 VLPs by EIA and blockade. NVB 97 specifically bound and blocked only contemporary GII.4 VLPs, while NBV 111 and 43.9 exclusively reacted with and blocked variants of the GII.4.2006 Minerva strain. Three mAbs had broad GII.4 reactivity. Two, NVB 37.10 and 61.3, also detected other genogroup II VLPs by EIA but did not block any VLP interactions with carbohydrate ligands. NVB 71.4 cross-neutralized the panel of time-ordered GII.4 VLPs, as measured by VLP-carbohydrate blockade assays. Using mutant VLPs designed to alter predicted antigenic epitopes, two evolving, GII.4-specific, blockade epitopes were mapped. Amino acids 294–298 and 368–372 were required for binding NVB 114, 111 and 43.9 mAbs. Amino acids 393–395 were essential for binding NVB 97, supporting earlier correlations between antibody blockade escape and carbohydrate binding variation. These data inform VLP vaccine design, provide a strategy for expanding the cross-blockade potential of chimeric VLP vaccines, and identify an antibody with broadly neutralizing therapeutic potential for the treatment of human disease. Moreover, these data support the hypothesis that GII.4 norovirus evolution is heavily influenced by antigenic variation of neutralizing epitopes

  8. Dengue viruses cluster antigenically but not as discrete serotypes.

    PubMed

    Katzelnick, Leah C; Fonville, Judith M; Gromowski, Gregory D; Bustos Arriaga, Jose; Green, Angela; James, Sarah L; Lau, Louis; Montoya, Magelda; Wang, Chunling; VanBlargan, Laura A; Russell, Colin A; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Pierson, Theodore C; Buchy, Philippe; Aaskov, John G; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Vasilakis, Nikos; Gibbons, Robert V; Tesh, Robert B; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Durbin, Anna; Simmons, Cameron P; Holmes, Edward C; Harris, Eva; Whitehead, Stephen S; Smith, Derek J

    2015-09-18

    The four genetically divergent dengue virus (DENV) types are traditionally classified as serotypes. Antigenic and genetic differences among the DENV types influence disease outcome, vaccine-induced protection, epidemic magnitude, and viral evolution. We characterized antigenic diversity in the DENV types by antigenic maps constructed from neutralizing antibody titers obtained from African green monkeys and after human vaccination and natural infections. Genetically, geographically, and temporally, diverse DENV isolates clustered loosely by type, but we found that many are as similar antigenically to a virus of a different type as to some viruses of the same type. Primary infection antisera did not neutralize all viruses of the same DENV type any better than other types did up to 2 years after infection and did not show improved neutralization to homologous type isolates. That the canonical DENV types are not antigenically homogeneous has implications for vaccination and research on the dynamics of immunity, disease, and the evolution of DENV. PMID:26383952

  9. Dengue viruses cluster antigenically but not as discrete serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Katzelnick, Leah C.; Fonville, Judith M.; Gromowski, Gregory D.; Arriaga, Jose Bustos; Green, Angela; James, Sarah L.; Lau, Louis; Montoya, Magelda; Wang, Chunling; VanBlargan, Laura A.; Russell, Colin A.; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Pierson, Theodore C.; Buchy, Philippe; Aaskov, John G.; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Gibbons, Robert V.; Tesh, Robert B.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Durbin, Anna; Simmons, Cameron P.; Holmes, Edward C.; Harris, Eva; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Smith, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    The four genetically divergent dengue virus (DENV) types are traditionally classified as serotypes. Antigenic and genetic differences among the DENV types influence disease outcome, vaccine-induced protection, epidemic magnitude, and viral evolution. We characterized antigenic diversity in the DENV types by antigenic maps constructed from neutralizing antibody titers obtained from African green monkeys and after human vaccination and natural infections. Genetically, geographically, and temporally, diverse DENV isolates clustered loosely by type, but we found many are as similar antigenically to a virus of a different type as to some viruses of the same type. Primary infection antisera did not neutralize all viruses of the same DENV type any better than other types did up to two years after infection and did not show improved neutralization to homologous type isolates. That the canonical DENV types are not antigenically homogenous has implications for vaccination and research on the dynamics of immunity, disease, and the evolution of DENV. PMID:26383952

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of B Cell Antigen Gathering and Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hoogeboom, Robbert; Tolar, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Generation of high-affinity, protective antibodies requires B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, as well as antigen internalization and presentation to helper T cells. B cell antigen internalization is initiated by antigen capture, either from solution or from immune synapses formed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, and proceeds via clathrin-dependent endocytosis and intracellular routing to late endosomes. Although the components of this pathway are still being discovered, it has become clear that antigen internalization is actively regulated by BCR signaling at multiple steps and, vice versa, that localization of the BCR along the endocytic pathway modulates signaling. Accordingly, defects in BCR internalization or trafficking contribute to enhanced B cell activation in models of autoimmune diseases and in B cell lymphomas. In this review, we discuss how BCR signaling complexes regulate each of the steps of this endocytic process and why defects along this pathway manifest as hyperactive B cell responses in vivo. PMID:26336965

  11. Lipid antigens in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowds, C. Marie; Kornell, Sabin-Christin

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are not only a central part of human metabolism but also play diverse and critical roles in the immune system. As such, they can act as ligands of lipid-activated nuclear receptors, control inflammatory signaling through bioactive lipids such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins, and modulate immunity as intracellular phospholipid- or sphingolipid-derived signaling mediators. In addition, lipids can serve as antigens and regulate immunity through the activation of lipid-reactive T cells, which is the topic of this review. We will provide an overview of the mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation, the biology of lipid-reactive T cells, and their contribution to immunity. PMID:23999493

  12. Dendritic cell function and antigen presentation in malaria.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Ian A; Zavala, Fidel

    2016-06-01

    Due to the diverse roles T cells play in protection against malaria as well as pathogenesis it is critical to know which cells present antigen and the nature of the antigens they present. During pre-erythrocytic stages of infection, cutting-edge imaging studies have shown how Plasmodium antigens are presented during both the priming and effector phases of the protective CD8+ T cell response. During blood stages, pathology is in part due to the loss of DC function and the action of pathogenic T cells in the brain. Recently endothelial cells presenting malaria antigen to cognate T cells have emerged as critical players in malaria pathogenesis. Manipulating these processes may inform both vaccine design and the development of therapies for cerebral malaria. PMID:26845735

  13. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  14. How to Make a Non-Antigenic Protein (Auto) Antigenic: Molecular Complementarity Alters Antigen Processing and Activates Adaptive-Innate Immunity Synergy.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed that complementary proteins and peptides form complexes with increased antigenicity and/or autoimmunogenicity. Five case studies are highlighted: 1) diphtheria toxin-antitoxin (antibody), which induces immunity to the normally non-antigenic toxin, and autoimmune neuritis; 2) tryptophan peptide of myelin basic protein and muramyl dipeptide ("adjuvant peptide"), which form a complex that induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; 3) an insulin and glucagon complex that is far more antigenic than either component individually; 4) various causes of experimental autoimmune myocarditis such as C protein in combination with its antibody, or coxsackie B virus in combination with the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor; 5) influenza A virus haemagglutinin with the outer membrane protein of the Haemophilus influenzae, which increases antigenicity. Several mechanisms cooperate to alter immunogenicity. Complexation alters antigen processing, protecting the components against proteolysis, altering fragmentation and presenting novel antigens to the immune system. Complementary antigens induce complementary adaptive immune responses (complementary antibodies and/or T cell receptors) that produce circulating immune complexes (CIC). CIC stimulate innate immunity. Concurrently, complementary antigens stimulate multiple Toll-like receptors that synergize to over-produce cytokines, which further stimulate adaptive immunity. Thus innate and adaptive immunity form a positive feedback loop. If components of the complex mimic a host protein, then autoimmunity may result. Enhanced antigenicity for production of improved vaccines and/or therapeutic autoimmunity (e.g., against cancer cells) might be achieved by using information from antibody or TCR recognition sites to complement an antigen; by panning for complements in randomized peptide libraries; or using antisense peptide strategies to design complements. PMID:26179268

  15. Reflected Glory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific model of how people see things is far removed from children's real-world experience. They know that light is needed in order to see an object, but may not know that light is reflected off the object and some of that light enters the eyes. In this article, the author explores children's understanding of reflection and how to develop…

  16. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissue using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular methodology is chosen ...

  17. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. PMID:24922567

  18. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  19. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  20. A Murine Model in Which Protection Correlates with Pertussis Vaccine Efficacy in Children Reveals Complementary Roles for Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity in Protection against Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Kingston H. G.; Ryan, Mark; Ryan, Elizabeth; Mahon, Bernard P.

    1998-01-01

    The results of phase 3 efficacy trials have shown that acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccines can confer protection against whooping cough. However, despite the advances in vaccine development, clinical trials have not provided significant new information on the mechanism of protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis. Classical approaches based on measurement of antibody responses to individual antigens failed to define an immunological correlate of protection. A reliable animal model, predictive of acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccine potency in children, would facilitate an elucidation of the mechanism of immune protection against B. pertussis and would assist in the regulatory control and future development of pertussis vaccines. In this study, we have shown that the rate of B. pertussis clearance following respiratory challenge of immunized mice correlated with vaccine efficacy in children. Using this model together with mice with targeted disruptions of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) receptor, interleukin-4 or immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes, we have demonstrated an absolute requirement for B cells or their products in bacterial clearance and a role for IFN-γ in immunity generated by previous infection or immunization with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine. The results of passive immunization experiments suggested that protection early after immunization with acellular pertussis vaccines is mediated by antibody against multiple protective antigens. In contrast, more complete protection conferred by previous infection or immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines reflected the induction of Th1 cells. Our findings suggest that the mechanism of immunity against B. pertussis involves humoral and cellular immune responses which are not directed against a single protective antigen and thus provide an explanation for previous failures to define an immunological correlate of protection. PMID:9453614

  1. What Do We Need to Protect, at All Costs, During the 21st Century? Reflections From a Curated, Interactive Co-Created Intellectual Jazz Performance.

    PubMed

    Jadad, Alejandro R; Davis, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The question that forms the title of this article, "What do we need to protect, at all costs, during the 21st century?," speaks to the sizable changes in health care systems and settings that surround the continuing professional development (CPD) provider, and the need to establish a core set of principles and practices as the field moves forward from both theoretical and practical aspects. It also provided the focus for one of the five keynote lectures presented during the 2016 World Congress on Continuing Professional Development. As the planners of this keynote session, we sought to evoke answers to the question, not from the speaker, but from the audience itself, a process enabled by a highly engaging presentation style and powered by interactive digital technologies. Further, we believed that the session would not directly lead to suggestions to improve the theory and practice of CPD, but rather to create the biopsychosocial context-a sort of platform-on which such discussions can occur. PMID:27584066

  2. [Does aesthetic surgery form part of mainstream surgery or is it an entirely separate sector? Reflections and proposals for better protection of the public].

    PubMed

    Gréco, J M

    1993-11-01

    In contempt of the laws and regulations in force, several thousand unqualified practitioners carry out aesthetic surgery although only a mere few hundred are legally entitled to practice this surgical specialty. We are aware, in the present system which has no efficient control systems, that the public is no longer able to identify this small group of charlatans and incompetents. We call on massive concerted effort by the responsible public authorities to ensure that the general public receives the necessary protection. Amongst others, we demand that: The ministry of health, integrates all medical products and medical devices aimed at the aesthetic sector into the list of medical products and medical devices to marketing authorization (authorization de mise sur le marché--AMM) or to endorsement in compliance with the Huriet Law of 10.12.1988. The conseil national de l'ordre des medecins, (national council of doctors advisory board), ensures that the laws and regulations in force governing the value of diplomas, qualifications and competences are respected, be aware of the obsolescence of the general nature of the medical degree, inapplicable due to the efficiency and thus the dangerous nature of modern medicine. The ministry of justice, clearly defines the nature of the informed consent demanded from the patient prior to any therapeutic treatment, ensures the conditions required for legitimate compensation for prejudices caused by therapeutic risks, specifies the doctor's responsibility without malpractice conditions, be aware of the perverse effects caused by the abandonment of the obligation of means and its replacement by an obligation of results demanded from the doctor, to correct the unjust and anomalous situation which opposes the ten year responsibility of the medical product or medical devices manufacturer with the thirty year responsibility of the doctor using these products or equipment. PMID:8193949

  3. Protection of skin biological targets by different types of sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Fourtanier, A; Bernerd, F; Bouillon, C; Marrot, L; Moyal, D; Seité, S

    2006-02-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies provide a body of evidence that adequate protection of the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage requires photostable broad-spectrum sunscreens with a proper level of UVA protection. UVA alone and UV solar simulated radiation (SSR) induce DNA lesions in keratinocytes and melanocytes as reflected by the comet assay and p53 accumulation. UVA and SSR impair the immune system as shown by significant alteration of Langerhans cells and inhibition of contact hypersensitivity response to chemical allergens and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to recall antigens. Any of these detrimental effects is more efficiently prevented by sunscreens with a higher level of protection in the UVA range. The involvement of UVA (fibroblast alteration, increased metalloproteinase expression) and the pivotal need for well-balanced UVA/UVB sunscreens were further demonstrated using reconstructed three-dimensional skin models. PMID:16436178

  4. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnadas, Deepa Kolaseri; Bai, Fanqi; Lucas, Kenneth G

    2013-01-01

    The identification of cancer testis (CT) antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1), melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3), and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1) in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy.

  5. Evasion and subversion of antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Baena, Andres; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most successful of human pathogens, and has acquired the ability to establish latent or progressive infection and persist even in the presence of a fully functioning immune system. The ability of M. tuberculosis to avoid immune-mediated clearance is likely to reflect a highly evolved and coordinated program of immune evasion strategies, including some that interfere with antigen presentation to prevent or alter the quality of T cell responses. Here we review an extensive array of published studies supporting the view that antigen presentation pathways are targeted at many points by pathogenic mycobacteria. These studies reveal the multiple potential mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis may actively inhibit, subvert or otherwise modulate antigen presentation by MHC class I, class II and CD1 molecules. Unraveling the mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis evades or modulates antigen presentation is of critical importance for the development of more effective new vaccines based on live attenuated mycobacterial strains. PMID:19563525

  6. Reflective Shields for Artificial Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes reflective shield that protects spacecraft from radiant energy. Also gives some protection against particle beams and cosmic rays. Conceptual shield essentially advanced version of decorative multifaceted mirror balls often hung over dance floors. Mirror facets disperse radiant energy in many directions.

  7. Combination of worm antigen and proinsulin prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice after the onset of insulitis.

    PubMed

    Ajendra, Jesuthas; Berbudi, Afiat; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P

    2016-03-01

    Animal studies demonstrated that administration of helminth products can protect from autoimmune diseases. However, the success of such administrations is limited in the case of type 1 diabetes, as protection is only provided if the administration is started before the development of insulitis. In this study we investigated whether inclusion of helminth antigen administrations to an antigen-specific treatment with proinsulin improves the protective effect by triggering non-specific regulatory immune responses. Using a combination therapy of intraperitoneal Litomosoides sigmodontis antigen and intranasal pro-insulin, onset of diabetes was prevented in NOD mice after insulitis started, while either administration alone failed to protect. This protection was associated with an increased frequency of regulatory T cells within the pancreatic lymph nodes and a reduced inflammation of the pancreatic islets. This suggests that inclusion of helminth antigens improve the protective effect provided by antigen-specific therapies and represent a new potential therapeutic approach against autoimmune diseases. PMID:26898311

  8. Novel antigens for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, James; Sheikh, Alaullah; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in developing countries where they lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in children. These organisms are a leading cause of diarrheal illness in travelers to endemic countries. ETEC pathogenesis, and consequently vaccine approaches, have largely focused on plasmid-encoded enterotoxins or fimbrial colonization factors. To date these approaches have not yielded a broadly protective vaccine. However, recent studies suggest that ETEC pathogenesis is more complex than previously appreciated and involves additional plasmid and chromosomally encoded virulence molecules that can be targeted in vaccines. Here, we review recent novel antigen discovery efforts, potential contribution of these proteins to the molecular pathogenesis of ETEC and protective immunity, and the potential implications for development of next generation vaccines for important pathogens. These proteins may help to improve the effectiveness of future vaccines by making them simpler and possibly broadly protective because of their conserved nature. PMID:24702311

  9. Reflective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his study of parent participation at an international school in Spain offering the British curriculum. He used quantitative methods and administered questionnaires to gather data that reflected the views of a large proportion of the school's parent community. He administered semi-structured interviews to gain a…

  10. Immunization with purified protein antigens from Streptococcus mutans against dental caries in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, T; Russell, M W; Caldwell, J; Smith, R

    1981-01-01

    Protein antigens I, I/II, II, and III were prepared from Streptococcus mutans (serotype c). Their immunogenicities and protective effects against dental caries were investigated in 40 rhesus monkeys kept entirely on a human-type diet, containing about 15% sucrose. Antigens I, I/II and, to a lesser extent, antigen II induced significant reductions in dental caries, as compared with sham-immunized monkeys. This was achieved with 1 or 2 doses of antigen, the first of which was administered with adjuvant (Freund incomplete adjuvant or aluminum hydroxide). There was no reduction in caries in monkeys immunized with antigen III. The reduction in caries in the animals immunized with antigens I or I/II was comparable to that in monkeys immunized with whole cells. Protection against caries was associated predominantly with serum and gingival crevicular fluid immunoglobulin G antibodies, which appeared to be directed against the antigen I determinant, but antibodies to antigen II, though not to antigen III, were also protective. PMID:7309233

  11. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M

    1997-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  12. Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live NDV vaccines that typically induce protection against less virulent field viruses. The value of...

  13. Antibody titer has positive predictive value for vaccine protection against challenge with natural antigenic-drift variants of H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from Indonesia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning with Hong Kong in 2002, vaccines have been used as part of an integrated control strategy in 14 countries/regions to protect poultry against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). H5N1 HPAI was first reported in Indonesia in 2003 and vaccination was initiated the following year. ...

  14. Experimental studies with homologous subtype vaccines produced with multiple antigenically different seed strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the high antigenic variability of avian influenza virus, vaccines need to be continually updated to maintain adequate protection to evolving field strains. One possible approach, to mitigating the effects of antigenic change, is to use vaccines containing more than one isolate of the same su...

  15. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  16. Association of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis with Histo-blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, E; Dwibedi, B; Kar, S K; Pandey, R M

    2016-07-01

    Association of rotavirus gastroenteritis with histo-blood group antigens in children younger than 5 years admitted with diarrhea (n=389) was studied. Distribution of blood groups in rotavirus positive (n=96) and rotavirus negative (n=51) diarrhea gastroenteritis cases did not show any susceptibility to any blood group; blood group O seemed to be protective. PMID:27508550

  17. Antigenic differences of NDV vaccines affect viral shedding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be separated into genotypes based on genome differences even though they are antigenically considered to be of a single serotype. It is widely recognized that an efficacious Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine made with any NDV does induce protection against ...

  18. Incorporation of 4-1BB ligand into an adenovirus vaccine vector increases the number of functional antigen-specific CD8 T cells and enhances the duration of protection against influenza-induced respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Theo J; Lin, Gloria H Y; Wen, Tao; Watts, Tania H

    2011-08-26

    T cell based influenza vaccines offer the potential for cross protective immunity to multiple clades of influenza virus. Here we explored the effect of increasing CD8 T cell responses during intranasal vaccination by incorporating a T cell costimulator, 4-1BBL. Inclusion of 4-1BBL in an influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-containing adenoviral vector increased the number of NP-specific CD8 T cells and lowered the vaccine dose required for short-term protection from influenza-induced disease in mice. At higher vaccine doses, the inclusion of 4-1BBL increased the duration of protection of mice from influenza-induced mortality. Bone marrow chimera experiments revealed that the major effects of 4-1BBL were directly on αβ T cells with minor additional effects through cells other than αβ T cells. The implications of these findings are that including 4-1BBL or adjuvants that induce 4-1BBL expression may be of benefit in a vaccine setting for enhancing the magnitude and duration of T cell responses to influenza virus. PMID:21704101

  19. AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE FOLLOWING ANTIGEN AND PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IS VAGALLY MEDIATED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sensory nerves within the airways can initiate a variety of protective reflexes. We hypothesized that insults such as exposure to antigen and particulate matter (PM) might dysregulate airway sensory nerve function, thereby contributing to enhanced airway inflammation and hyperre...

  20. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size ... en español Muestra de materia fecal: antígeno de H. pylori What It Is Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) ...

  1. Haitian reflections.

    PubMed

    Docrat, Fathima

    2010-08-01

    Natural disasters and acts of terrorism demonstrate a similar critical need for national preparedness. As one of a team of volunteers with a local South African NGO who recently went on a medical mission, I would like to share glimpses of our experience and reflect on the mistakes - and also to state the obvious: that we do not learn from our mistakes. A simple literature search has shown that the same mistakes happen repeatedly. 'Humanitarian disasters occur with frightening regularity, yet international responses remain fragmented, with organizations and responders being forced to "reinvent the wheel" with every new event'. This is the result of an obvious lack of preparedness. PMID:20822625

  2. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-07-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure.

  3. Antigen specificity of invariant natural killer T-cells.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Alysia M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer T-cells, with an invariant T-cell antigen receptor α-chain (iNKT cells), are unique and conserved subset of lymphocytes capable of altering the immune system through their rapid and potent cytokine responses. They are reactive to lipid antigens presented by the CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that is not highly polymorphic. iNKT cell responses frequently involve mixtures of cytokines that work against each other, and therefore attempts are underway to develop synthetic antigens that elicit only strong interferon-gamma (IFNγ) or only strong interleukin-4 responses but not both. Strong IFNγ responses may correlate with tighter binding to CD1d and prolonged stimulation of iNKT cells, and this may be useful for vaccine adjuvants and for stimulating anti-tumor responses. iNKT cells are self-reactive although the structure of the endogenous antigen is controversial. By contrast, bacterial and fungal lipids that engage the T-cell receptor and activate IFNγ from iNKT cells have been identified from both pathogenic and commensal organisms and the responses are in some cases highly protective from pathogens in mice. It is possible that the expanding knowledge of iNKT cell antigens and iNKT cell activation will provide the basis for therapies for patients suffering from infectious and immune diseases and cancer. PMID:27013447

  4. DNA Recombination Strategies During Antigenic Variation in the African Trypanosome.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Richard; Morrison, Liam J; Hall, James P J

    2015-04-01

    Survival of the African trypanosome in its mammalian hosts has led to the evolution of antigenic variation, a process for evasion of adaptive immunity that has independently evolved in many other viral, bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens. The essential features of trypanosome antigenic variation have been understood for many years and comprise a dense, protective Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) coat, which can be changed by recombination-based and transcription-based processes that focus on telomeric VSG gene transcription sites. However, it is only recently that the scale of this process has been truly appreciated. Genome sequencing of Trypanosoma brucei has revealed a massive archive of >1000 VSG genes, the huge majority of which are functionally impaired but are used to generate far greater numbers of VSG coats through segmental gene conversion. This chapter will discuss the implications of such VSG diversity for immune evasion by antigenic variation, and will consider how this expressed diversity can arise, drawing on a growing body of work that has begun to examine the proteins and sequences through which VSG switching is catalyzed. Most studies of trypanosome antigenic variation have focused on T. brucei, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness. Other work has begun to look at antigenic variation in animal-infective trypanosomes, and we will compare the findings that are emerging, as well as consider how antigenic variation relates to the dynamics of host-trypanosome interaction. PMID:26104717

  5. Analysis of antigenic variation in equine 2 influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, V S; Naeve, C W; Webster, R G; Douglas, A; Skehel, J J; Bryans, J

    1983-01-01

    Influenza outbreaks involving viruses of the H3N8 subtype (equine 2) often occur in vaccinated horses. For this reason, a series of influenza viruses of the H3N8 subtype were examined to determine if antigenic variation could be detected in isolates during the period 1963-81. Antigenic analyses with post-infection ferret sera and monoclonal antibodies showed that the haemagglutinins of recent isolates were antigenically distinguishable from the prototype A/eq/Miami/1/63 and that antigenically distinguishable groups of equine 2 viruses co-circulate in the horse population. Based on these studies, it is recommended that a recent equine strain, A/equine/Fontainebleu/1/79 or A/equine/Kentucky/1/81, serve as an additional prototype strain for this subtype.Antigenic variation in equine 2 viruses may be of epidemiological significance, yet the overall conservation of these strains makes it unlikely that vaccine failures can be attributed solely to antigenic changes in these viruses. A sufficiently potent vaccine, containing a current representative of the most prevalent equine 2 strain, may improve the protection afforded by equine vaccines. PMID:6601538

  6. Mucosal immune responses following oral immunisation of pigs with fimbrial antigens of enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Cox, Eric; Snoeck, Veerle; Verdonck, Frank; Goddeeris, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The intestinal mucosal immune system can discriminate actively between harmful pathogens and harmless food antigens resulting in different immune responses namely IgA production and oral tolerance, respectively. Whereas particulate antigen (microorganisms) can induce an IgA response, soluble antigen often leads to tolerance. Recently, it has been demonstrated that F4 fimbrial antigens of enterotoxigenic E. coli (F4 ETEC) can be used to immunise piglets. Oral administration of soluble F4 to F4R+ piglets (pigs with a receptor for these fimbriae (F4R+) on their small intestinal villous enterocytes) results in an intestinal mucosal immune response that completely protects the piglets against a challenge infection. In F4R- pigs, such an intestinal mucosal immune response does not occur. However, a priming of the systemic immune system can be seen similar to the priming in pigs fed with the same dose of a food antigen, suggesting that F4 in F4R- pigs behaves as a food antigen. These results indicate that a receptor-mediated mechanism is involved in the induction of a protective intestinal mucosal immune response using soluble antigen. However, oral administration of soluble F18 fimbriae of verotoxigenic E. coli to F18R+ piglets could not induce a similar protective immune response. So the type of the receptor and/or the nature of the antigen seem to be important to obtain an intestinal IgA response. PMID:24757806

  7. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    PubMed

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  8. Altering the antigenicity of proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, H; Alexander, S; Getzoff, E D; Tainer, J A; Geysen, H M; Lerner, R A

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the binding interaction between antigen and antibody we need to distinguish protein residues critical to the binding energy and mechanism from residues merely localized in the interface. By analyzing the binding of monoclonal antibodies to recombinant wild-type and mutant myohemerythrin (MHr) proteins, we were able to test the role of individual critical residues at the highly antigenic site MHr-(79-84), within the context of the folded protein. The results directly show the existence of antigenically critical residues, whose mutations significantly reduce antibody binding to the folded protein, thus verifying peptide-based assignments of these critical residues and demonstrating the ability of buried side chains to influence antigenicity. Taken together, these results (i) distinguish the antigenic surface from the solvent-exposed protein surface before binding, (ii) support a two-stage interaction mechanism allowing inducible changes in protein antigens by antibody binding, and (iii) show that protein antigenicity can be significantly reduced by alteration of single critical residues without destroying biological activity. Images PMID:1373498

  9. Immunization of Saimiri sciureus Monkeys with a Recombinant Hybrid Protein Derived from the Plasmodium falciparum Antigen Glutamate-Rich Protein and Merozoite Surface Protein 3 Can Induce Partial Protection with Freund and Montanide ISA720 Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Leonardo J. M.; Alves, Francisco A.; Bianco, Cesare; Oliveira, Salma G.; Zanini, Graziela M.; Soe, Soe; Druilhe, Pierre; Theisen, Michael; Muniz, José A. P. C.; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio T.

    2005-01-01

    The immunogenicity and efficacy of a hybrid recombinant protein derived from the N-terminal end of the glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and the C-terminal portion of the merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in Saimiri sciureus monkeys. The GLURP/MSP3 hybrid protein, expressed in Lactococcus lactis, was administered in association with alum, Montanide ISA720, or complete or incomplete Freund adjuvant (CFA/IFA) in groups of five animals each. The three formulations were shown to be immunogenic, but the one with alum was shown to be weak compared to the other two, particularly CFA/IFA, which provided very high antibody titers (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers of >3,000,000 and immunofluorescence antibody test titers of 6,400). After a challenge infection with P. falciparum FUP strain, all five monkeys from the GLURP/MSP3-alum group showed a rapid increase in parasitemia, reaching 10% and were treated early. The two monkeys with the highest antibody titers in group GLURP/MSP3-Montanide ISA720 had a delay in the course of parasitemia and were treated late due to a low hematocrit. In the GLURP/MSP3-CFA/IFA group, parasitemia remained below this threshold in four of the five animals and, after it reached a peak, parasitemia started to decrease and monkeys were treated late. When all animals were grouped according to the outcome, a statistically significant association between high antibody titers and partial protection was observed. The challenge infection boosted the antibody titers, and the importance of this event for vaccine efficacy in areas where this parasite is endemic is discussed. In conclusion, these data suggest that GLURP and MSP3 can induce protection against malaria infection if antibodies are induced at properly high titers. PMID:15699417

  10. Boosting the MHC Class II-Restricted Tumor Antigen Presentation to CD4+ T Helper Cells: A Critical Issue for Triggering Protective Immunity and Re-Orienting the Tumor Microenvironment Toward an Anti-Tumor State

    PubMed Central

    Accolla, Roberto S.; Lombardo, Letizia; Abdallah, Rawan; Raval, Goutham; Forlani, Greta; Tosi, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Although the existence of an immune response against tumor cells is well documented, the fact that tumors take off in cancer patients indicates that neoplastic cells can circumvent this response. Over the years many investigators have described strategies to rescue the anti-tumor immune response with the aim of creating specific and long-lasting protection against the disease. When exported to human clinical settings, these strategies have revealed in most cases a very limited, if any, positive outcome. We believe that the failure is mostly due to the inadequate triggering of the CD4+ T helper (TH) cell arm of the adaptive immunity, as TH cells are necessary to trigger all the immune effector mechanisms required to eliminate tumor cells. In this review, we focus on novel strategies that by stimulating MHC class II-restricted activation of TH cells generate a specific and persistent adaptive immunity against the tumor. This point is of critical importance for both preventive and therapeutic anti-tumor vaccination protocols, because adaptive immunity with its capacity to produce specific, long-lasting protection and memory responses is indeed the final goal of vaccination. We will discuss data from our as well as other laboratories which strongly suggest that triggering a specific and persistent anti-tumor CD4+ TH cell response stably modify not only the tumor microenvironment but also tumor-dependent extratumor microenvironments by eliminating and/or reducing the blood-derived tumor infiltrating cells that may have a pro-tumor growth function such as regulatory CD4+/CD25+ T cells and myeloid-derived-suppressor cells. Within this frame, therefore, we believe that the establishment of a pro-tumor environment is not the cause but simply the consequence of the tumor strategy to primarily counteract components of the adaptive cellular immunity, particularly TH lymphocytes. PMID:24600588

  11. Evaluation of defined antigen vaccines against Schistosoma bovis and S. japonicum in bovines.

    PubMed

    Bashir, M; Bickle, Q; Bushara, H; Cook, L; Shi, F; He, D; Huggins, M; Lin, J; Malik, K; Moloney, A

    1994-01-01

    Our objective is to contribute to the development of defined antigen vaccines for schistosomiasis by evaluating the protective efficacy of Schistosoma bovis and S. japonicum antigens in their natural bovine hosts. Antigens under evaluation include some already identified as vaccine candidates: glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); KLH, which shares protective epitopes with the protective antigen GP38 of S. mansoni; and Sj23, the analogue of the vaccine candidate Sm23 antigen. In another approach, since crude freeze/thaw schistosomular antigen plus BCG(F/T vaccine) has proved protective against S. japonicum in bovines, as it was against S. mansoni in mice, we are carrying out further evaluations both of this crude antigen and of recombinant-derived paramyosins. In a third line of work, novel vaccine candidate antigens identified by screening our cDNA libraries with various passively protective animal sera are being evaluated in animal experiments. In the Sudan we have shown that vaccination of calves with either native S. bovis GSTs or KLH induces high levels of fecundity-suppression without causing a significant reduction in adult worm recoveries. Therefore, recombinant-derived S. bovis 28kD GST is now being evaluated, as are the effects of combined GST/KLH vaccination. In China, sheep have been vaccinated with either S. japonicum GSTs, with KLH, or with the F/T vaccine, as a prelude to trials in bovines. As judged by adult worm recoveries, each type of vaccine induced significant protection, and there was also evidence, particularly with the GST and F/T vaccines, of fecundity-suppressive effects. As with the S. bovis/cattle system therefore, both GST and KLH showed protective effects against S. japonicum in sheep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7825230

  12. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  13. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  14. Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Shi, Yan; Taylor, Clive R.

    2011-01-01

    As a review for the 20th anniversary of publishing the antigen retrieval (AR) technique in this journal, the authors intend briefly to summarize developments in AR-immunohistochemistry (IHC)–based research and diagnostics, with particular emphasis on current challenges and future research directions. Over the past 20 years, the efforts of many different investigators have coalesced in extending the AR approach to all areas of anatomic pathology diagnosis and research and further have led to AR-based protein extraction techniques and tissue-based proteomics. As a result, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue collections are now seen as a literal treasure of materials for clinical and translational research to an extent unimaginable just two decades ago. Further research in AR-IHC is likely to focus on tissue proteomics, developing a more efficient protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue based on the AR principle, and combining the proteomics approach with AR-IHC to establish a practical, sophisticated platform for identifying and using biomarkers in personalized medicine. PMID:21339172

  15. Structures of Preferred Human IgV Genes-Based Protective Antibodies Identify How Conserved Residues Contact Diverse Antigens and Assign Source of Specificity to CDR3 Loop Variation.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Steve; Thomson, Christy A; Risnes, Louise F; Dasgupta, Somnath; Smith, Kenneth; Schrader, John W; Pai, Emil F

    2016-06-01

    The human Ab response to certain pathogens is oligoclonal, with preferred IgV genes being used more frequently than others. A pair of such preferred genes, IGVK3-11 and IGVH3-30, contributes to the generation of protective Abs directed against the 23F serotype of the pneumonococcal capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae and against the AD-2S1 peptide of the gB membrane protein of human CMV. Structural analyses of Fab fragments of mAbs 023.102 and pn132p2C05 in complex with portions of the 23F polysaccharide revealed five germline-encoded residues in contact with the key component, l-rhamnose. In the case of the AD-2S1 peptide, the KE5 Fab fragment complex identified nine germline-encoded contact residues. Two of these germline-encoded residues, Arg91L and Trp94L, contact both the l-rhamnose and the AD-2S1 peptide. Comparison of the respective paratopes that bind to carbohydrate and protein reveals that stochastic diversity in both CDR3 loops alone almost exclusively accounts for their divergent specificity. Combined evolutionary pressure by human CMV and the 23F serotype of S. pneumoniae acted on the IGVK3-11 and IGVH3-30 genes as demonstrated by the multiple germline-encoded amino ac