NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Nieves, J.; Wang, E.
2015-10-01
We review our theoretical approach to neutral current photon emission on nucleons and nuclei in the few-GeV energy region, relevant for neutrino oscillation experiments. These reactions are dominated by the weak excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance but there are also important non-resonant contributions. We have also included terms mediated by nucleon excitations from the second resonance region. On nuclei, Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and the in-medium Δ resonance broadening have been taken into account for both incoherent and coherent reaction channels. With this model, the number and distributions of photon events at the MiniBooNE and T2K experiments have been obtained. We have also compared to the NOMAD upper limit at higher energies. The implications of our findings and future perspectives are discussed.
Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Nieves, J.; Wang, E.
2015-10-15
We review our theoretical approach to neutral current photon emission on nucleons and nuclei in the few-GeV energy region, relevant for neutrino oscillation experiments. These reactions are dominated by the weak excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance but there are also important non-resonant contributions. We have also included terms mediated by nucleon excitations from the second resonance region. On nuclei, Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and the in-medium Δ resonance broadening have been taken into account for both incoherent and coherent reaction channels. With this model, the number and distributions of photon events at the MiniBooNE and T2K experiments have been obtained. We have also compared to the NOMAD upper limit at higher energies. The implications of our findings and future perspectives are discussed.
Rakotondravohitra, Laza
2015-08-18
Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X10^{20} protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θ_{m}u < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dx_{bj} measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.
Bogdan Wojtsekhowski
2006-06-04
Review of Nucleon Compton Scattering in wide angle regime is presented. JLab experimental data strongly support dominance of handbag mechanism in the RCS process. The approved ALLRCS experiment with polarized target and future plans with 12 GeV beam are discussed.
Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering
Hughes, E.
1994-02-01
Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.
The scattering of fast nucleons from nuclei
Kerman, A. K.; McManus, H.; Thaler, R. M.
2000-04-10
The formal theory of the scattering of high-energy nucleons by nuclei is developed in terms of the nucleon nucleon scattering amplitude. The most important approximations necessary to make numerical calculation feasible are then examined. The optical model potential is derived on this basis and compared with the optical model parameters found from experiment. The elastic scattering and polarization of nucleons from light nuclei is predicted and compared with experiment. The effect of nuclear correlations is discussed. The polarization of inelastically scattered nucleons is discussed and predictions compared with experiments. To within the validity of the approximations the experimental data on the scattering of nucleons from nuclei at energies above {approx}100 Mev appears to be consistent with the theory. (c) 2000 Academic Press, Inc.
Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung from nucleon-nucleon scattering
Li, Yi; Liou, M. K.; Schreiber, W. M.; Gibson, B. F.
2015-07-22
Background: Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung processes from nucleon-nucleon scattering ΝΝνν¯ (nnvv¯, ppvv¯, and npvv¯) have recently attracted attention in studies of neutrino emission in neutron stars, because of the implications for the neutron star cooling. The calculated ΝΝνν¯ emissivities within the neutron star environment are relatively insensitive to the two-nucleon dynamical model used in the calculations, but differ significantly from those obtained using an OPE model. Purpose: To investigate the free ΝΝνν¯ cross sections using a realistic nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, comparing the relative sizes of the cross sections for the three processes nnvv¯, ppvv¯, and npvv¯.
Backward pion-nucleon scattering
F. Huang; Sibirtsev, Alex; Haidenbauer, Johann; Meissner, Ulf-G.
2010-02-01
A global analysis of the world data on differential cross sections and polarization asymmetries of backward pion-nucleon scattering for invariant collision energies above 3 GeV is performed in a Regge model. Including the $N_\\alpha$, $N_\\gamma$, $\\Delta_\\delta$ and $\\Delta_\\beta$ trajectories, we reproduce both angular distributions and polarization data for small values of the Mandelstam variable $u$, in contrast to previous analyses. The model amplitude is used to obtain evidence for baryon resonances with mass below 3 GeV. Our analysis suggests a $G_{39}$ resonance with a mass of 2.83 GeV as member of the $\\Delta_{\\beta}$ trajectory from the corresponding Chew-Frautschi plot.
Nucleon-nucleon scattering contribution to the triton binding energy
Noyes, H.P.
1983-04-01
We conjectured in 1972 that much of the dynamics of a few nucleon systems could be computed from the on-shell nucleon-nucleon scatterings provided that a consistent few body theory using this input could be constructed. Such a Zero Range Scattering Theory has been shown to lead to unitary three and four particle scattering amplitudes provided only the two particle amplitudes have no singularities other than bound state poles when continued to negative energies, which restricts the theory to Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson solutions of the Low equation. We extend the model by rewriting the off-shell amplitude which drives the Faddeev equations. This amplitude retains full off-shell unitarity and still leads to unitary on-shell three particle amplitudes. This amounts to keeping any unitary two-nucleon amplitude on-shell and restricting the analytic continuation to negative energies to the term which represents the correct continuation of the two particle total partial wave cross section; the meson exchange or potential contributions are eliminated in the unphysical region, thus excising the left-hand cut. Using this model in the zero range Faddeev equations for the three nucleon system our preliminary results show that the on-shell scatterings bind the triton with about 2.5 MeV and are insensitive to the details of the fit.
Nucleon-nucleon scattering within a multiple subtractive renormalization approach
Timoteo, V. S.; Frederico, T.; Delfino, A.; Tomio, Lauro
2011-06-15
We present a methodology to renormalize the nucleon-nucleon interaction in momentum space, using a recursive multiple subtraction approach that prescinds from a cutoff regularization, to construct the kernel of the scattering equation. The subtracted scattering equation is solved with the next-leading-order and next-to-next-leading-order interactions. The results are presented for all partial waves up to j=2, fitted to low-energy experimental data. In this renormalization group invariant approach, the subtraction energy emerges as a renormalization scale and the momentum associated with it comes to be about the QCD scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD}), irrespectively to the partial wave.
Nucleon-nucleon scattering with the complex scaling method and realistic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papadimitriou, G.; Vary, J. P.
2015-02-01
We demonstrate the validity of the complex scaling method for realistic strong, nonlocal, nucleon-nucleon interactions by comparing the deuteron bound state and nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts with results from other high-precision methods. This opens a pathway for the simultaneous ab initio solutions of the nuclear bound and scattering problems within a unified framework.
On the resonance structure in nucleon-nucleon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.
1981-10-01
A possible explanation of resonance-like structure in 1D 2 and 3F 3 proton-proton phase parameters at medium energy is suggested by the analysis of an exactly soluble coupled channel model. Looping in the Argand plot is mainly due to the nucleon-delta branch cut. This effect is already present in the NΔ box diagram, but is modified by higher order multiple scattering. Poles occur close to the NΔ branch point and originate from left-hand singularities in the unphysical sheet.
Study of Three-Nucleon Force Effect via Few-Nucleon Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wada, Yasunori; Sekiguchi, Kimiko; Gebauer, Uwe; Miyazaki, Jumpei; Taguchi, Takahiro; Dozono, Masanori; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Naruhiko; Sasano, Masaki; Shimizu, Yohei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Kawase, Shoichiro; Kubota, Yuki; Lee, Cheong Soo; Tang, Tsz Leung; Yako, Kentaro; Maeda, Yukie; Miki, Kenjiro; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Wakasa, Tomotsugu
2016-02-01
A complete set of deuteron analyzing powers for elastic deuteron-proton(dp) scattering at 250 and 294 MeV/nucleon has been measured. The obtained data are compared with the Faddeev calculations based on the modern nucleon-nucleon forces together with three-nucleon forces.
Low-energy pion-nucleon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibbs, W. R.; Ai, Li; Kaufmann, W. B.
1998-02-01
An analysis of low-energy charged pion-nucleon data from recent π+/-p experiments is presented. From the scattering lengths and the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule we find a value of the pion-nucleon coupling constant of f2=0.0756+/-0.0007. We also find, contrary to most previous analyses, that the scattering volumes for the P31 and P13 partial waves are equal, within errors, corresponding to a symmetry found in the Hamiltonian of many theories. For the potential models used, the amplitudes are extrapolated into the subthreshold region to estimate the value of the Σ term. Off-shell amplitudes are also provided.
Low-energy pion-nucleon scattering
Gibbs, W.R.; Ai, L.; Kaufmann, W.B.
1998-02-01
An analysis of low-energy charged pion-nucleon data from recent {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}p experiments is presented. From the scattering lengths and the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule we find a value of the pion-nucleon coupling constant of f{sup 2}=0.0756{plus_minus}0.0007. We also find, contrary to most previous analyses, that the scattering volumes for the P{sub 31} and P{sub 13} partial waves are equal, within errors, corresponding to a symmetry found in the Hamiltonian of many theories. For the potential models used, the amplitudes are extrapolated into the subthreshold region to estimate the value of the {Sigma} term. Off-shell amplitudes are also provided. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\
Chvojka, Jesse John
2012-01-01
The phenomenon of neutrino oscillation is becoming increasingly understood with results from accelerator-based and reactor-based experiments, but unanswered questions remain. The proper ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates that compose the neutrino avor eigenstates is not completely known. We have yet to detect CP violation in neutrino mixing, which if present could help explain the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter in the universe. We also have not resolved whether sterile neutrinos, which do not interact in any Standard Model interaction, exist. Accelerator-based experiments appear to be the most promising candidates for resolving these questions; however, the ability of present and future experiments to provide answers is likely to be limited by systematic errors. A significant source of this systematic error comes from limitations in our knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions. Errors on cross-sections for such interactions are large, existing data is sometimes contradictory, and knowledge of nuclear effects is incomplete. One type of neutrino interaction of particular interest is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering, which yields a final state consisting of a charged lepton and nucleon. This process, which is the dominant interaction near energies of 1 GeV, is of great utility to neutrino oscillation experiments since the incoming neutrino energy and the square of the momentum transferred to the final state nucleon, Q^{2}, can be reconstructed using the final state lepton kinematics. To address the uncertainty in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, many experiments have begun making dedicated measurements. In particular, the MINER A experiment is studying neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few GeV region. MINERvA is a fine-grained, high precision, high statistics neutrino scattering experiment that will greatly improve our understanding of neutrino cross-sections and nuclear effects that affect the final state particles
Deeply virtual Compton scattering and nucleon structure
M. Garcon
2006-11-01
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the tool of choice to study Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD) in the nucleon. After a general introduction to the subject, a review of experimental results from various facilities is given. Following the first encouraging results, new generation dedicated experiments now allow unprecedented precision and kinematical coverage. Several new results were presented during the conference, showing significant progress in this relatively new field. Prospects for future experiments are presented. The path for the experimental determination of GPDs appears now open.
Effective theories for dark matter nucleon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hisano, Junji; Nagai, Ryo; Nagata, Natsumi
2015-05-01
We reformulate the calculation of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections based on the method of effective field theories. We assume that the scatterings are induced by the exchange of colored mediators, and construct the effective theories by integrating out the colored particles. All of the leading order matching conditions as well as the renormalization group equations are presented. We consider a Majorana fermion, and real scalar and vector bosons for the dark matter and show the results for each case. The treatment for the twist-2 operators is discussed in detail, and it is shown that the scale of evaluating their nucleon matrix elements does not have to be the hadronic scale. The effects of the QCD corrections are evaluated on the assumption that the masses of the colored mediators are much heavier than the electroweak scale. Our formulation is systematic and model-independent, and thus suitable to be implemented in numerical packages, such as micrOMEGAs and DarkSUSY.
Evidence for dibaryon resonances in nucleon-nucleon scattering
Roberts, J.B.
1980-01-01
There has been a revival of interest in the subject of nucleon-nucleon resonances in the past 3 to 4 years, largely generated by experimental results from the polarized beam program at the Argonne ZGS. Evidence from experimental results and phase shift and phenomenological analyses incorporating these results regarding the existence of these resonances is summarized. 20 figures.
Nucleon and deuteron scattering cross sections from 25 MV/Nucleon to 22.5 GeV/Nucleon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.
1983-01-01
Within the context of a double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to generate tables of nucleon and deuteron total and absorption cross sections at kinetic energies between 25 MeV/nucleon and 22.5 GeV/nucleon for use in cosmic-ray transport and shielding studies. Comparisons of predictions for nucleon-nucleus and deuteron-nucleus absorption and total cross sections with experimental data are also made.
Intrinsic radial sensitivity of nucleon inelastic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, J. J.
1988-02-01
A linear expansion analysis of the folding model transition amplitude is used to study the intrinsic sensitivity of the inelastic scattering of intermediate energy nucleons to the radial form of the neutron transition density, given known proton transition densities from electron scattering. Realistic density-dependent effective interactions are used to construct pseudodata. These pseudodata are then reanalyzed and the error matrix is used to calculate an error band for the radial transition density. This approach reveals the sensitivity of the extracted transition density to absorption, medium modifications of the interaction, and the extent and quality of the data in a manner that is largely free of the residual inaccuracies in reaction theory that complicate the analysis of real data. We find that the intrinsic radial sensitivity of nucleon inelastic scattering is best for projectile energies between 200 and 500 MeV, but is adequate to resolve the radial dependence of neutron transition densities even in the interior of heavy nuclei throughout the energy regime 100-800 MeV. We have also compared our method with scale-factor analyses which assume proportionality between neutron and proton densities. For states whose transition densities are similar in the surface, we find scaling to be accurate at the 20% level. However, for light nuclei substantial deviations beyond the first peak of the differential cross section reveal sensitivity to shape differences. This sensitivity is reduced for heavy nuclei. The model dependence of radial densities is also studied. A high-q constraint is used to analyze the contribution of incompleteness error to the deduced error bands and to reduce the model dependence.
Electromagnetic Form Factors of the Nucleon and Compton Scattering
Charles Hyde-Wright; Cornelis De Jager
2004-12-01
We review the experimental and theoretical status of elastic electron scattering and elastic low-energy photon scattering (with both real and virtual photons) from the nucleon. As a consequence of new experimental facilities and new theoretical insights, these subjects are advancing with unprecedented precision. These reactions provide many important insights into the spatial distributions and correlations of quarks in the nucleon.
Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon
Kuhn, S.E.; Griffioen, K.
1994-04-01
The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).
Model independent extraction of the axial mass parameter in CCQE anti neutrino-nucleon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grebe, Heather
2013-10-01
Neutrino oscillation studies depend on a consistent value for the axial mass. For this reason, a model-independent extraction of this parameter from quasielastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering data is vital. While most studies employ a model-dependent extraction using the dipole model of the axial form factor, we present a model-independent description using the z expansion of the axial form factor. Quasielastic antineutrino scattering data on C-12 from the MiniBooNE experiment are analyzed using this model-independent description. The value found, mA = 0 .85-0 . 06 + 0 . 13 +/- 0 . 13 GeV, differs significantly from the value utilized by the MiniBooNE Collaboration, mA = 1 . 35 GeV. Advisor: Dr. Gil Paz Wayne State Univerity.
Deep inelastic lepton scattering from nucleons and nuclei
Berger, E.L.
1986-02-01
A pedagogical review is presented of results obtained from inclusive deep inelastic scattering of leptons from nucleons and nuclei, with particular emphasis on open questions to be explored in future experiments.
Double deeply virtual Compton scattering on nucleons and nuclei
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Schmidt, Ivan; Siddikov, M.
2010-07-01
In this paper we evaluate the double deeply virtual Compton scattering on nucleons and nuclei in the framework of the color dipole model. Both the effects of quark and the gluon shadowing are taken into account.
Nucleon-nucleon scattering at small angles, measured at ANKE-COSY
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagdasarian, Z.
2016-03-01
The most accepted approach to describe nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is the partial wave analysis (PWA), which translates various experimental observables to the common language of the partial waves. The reliable analysis relies not only on the quality experimental data, but also on the measurements of scattering observables over preferably the full angular range. Small angle scattering has been measured for six beam energies between 0.8 and 2.4 GeV using polarized proton beam incident on both proton and deuteron unpolarized targets at COSY-ANKE. This proceeding will report on the published and preliminary results for both pp and pn scattering from this and other recent experiments at ANKE. This study aims to provide the valuable observables to the SAID group in order to improve the phenomenological understanding of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.
Yokosawa, A.
1985-01-01
We review experimental results concerning polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering in which both the elastic scattering and hadron-production reaction are included. We also present summary of S = 0 dibaryon resonances and candidates by reviewing experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system, ..gamma..d channel, ..pi..d elastic scattering, pp ..-->.. ..pi..d channel, deuteron break-up reactions, and narrow structures in missing-mass spectra. 93 refs., 26 figs.
New results in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate energies
Spinka, H.
1995-01-01
Many np elastic scattering spin observables have recently been measured between kinetic energies of about 500 and 1100 MeV at Saclay and LAMPF. These data are summarized and some new results are presented. Evidence for structure in pp observables near 2100 MeV is reviewed, and new data in this energy region are shown from SATURNE.
Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a strong external magnetic field and the neutrino emissivity
Bavarsad, E.; Mohammadi, R.; Haghighat, M.
2010-11-15
The nucleon-nucleon scattering in a large magnetic background is considered to find its potential to change the neutrino emissivity of the neutron stars. For this purpose, we consider the one-pion-exchange approximation to find the nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross section in a background field as large as 10{sup 15}-10{sup 18} G. We show that the NN cross section in neutron stars with temperatures in the range 0.1-5 MeV can be changed up to the 1 order of magnitude with respect to the one in the absence of the magnetic field. In the limit of the soft neutrino emission, the neutrino emissivity can be written in terms of the NN-scattering amplitude; therefore, the large magnetic fields can dramatically change the neutrino emissivity of the neutron stars as well.
Goeppert-Mayer Award Recipient: Electron Scattering and Nucleon Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beise, Elizabeth
1998-04-01
Electron scattering from hydrogen and light nuclear targets has long been recognized as one of the best tools for understanding the electromagnetic structure of protons, neutrons and few-nucleon systems. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the field through advances in polarized beams and polarized targets. Improvements in polarized electron sources has made it feasible to also study the structure of the nucleon through parity-violating electron scattering, where the nucleon's neutral weak structure is probed. In this talk, a summary of the present experimental status of the nucleon's electroweak structure will be presented, with an emphasis on recent results from the MIT-Bates and Jefferson Laboratories.
Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-4He scattering with three-nucleon forces
Hupin, Guillaume; Langhammer, Joachim; Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Calci, Angelo; Roth, Robert
2013-11-27
We extend the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method to include three-nucleon (3N) interactions for the description of nucleon-nucleus collisions. We outline the formalism, give algebraic expressions for the 3N-force integration kernels, and discuss computational aspects of two alternative implementations. The extended theoretical framework is then applied to nucleon-4He elastic scattering using similarity-renormalization-group (SRG)-evolved nucleon-nucleon plus 3N potentials derived from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the convergence properties of the calculated phase shifts and explore their dependence upon the SRG evolution parameter. We include up to six excited states of the 4He target and find significant effects from themore » inclusion of the chiral 3N force, e.g., it enhances the spin-orbit splitting between the 3/2– and 1/2– resonances and leads to an improved agreement with the phase shifts obtained from an accurate R-matrix analysis of the five-nucleon experimental data. As a result, we find remarkably good agreement with measured differential cross sections at various energies below the d+3H threshold, while analyzing powers manifest larger deviations from experiment for certain energies and angles.« less
1S0 nucleon-nucleon scattering in the modified Weinberg approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epelbaum, E.; Gasparyan, A. M.; Gegelia, J.; Krebs, H.
2015-06-01
Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the 1 S 0 partial wave is considered in chiral effective field theory within the renormalizable formulation of a previous work (Phys. Lett. B 716, 338 (2012)) beyond the leading-order approximation. By applying subtractive renormalization, the subleading contact interaction in this channel is taken into account non-perturbatively. For a proper choice of renormalization conditions, the predicted energy dependence of the phase shift and the coefficients in the effective range expansion are found to be in a good agreement with the results of the Nijmegen partial wave analysis.
Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon
Ankowski, Artur M.
2015-05-15
Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.
Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ankowski, Artur M.
2015-05-01
Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.
Nucleon-nucleon scattering from dispersion relations: Next-to-next-to-leading order study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oller, J. A.
2016-02-01
Nucleon-nucleon (NN ) scattering is studied by applying an approach based on the N /D method and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), whose dynamical input per partial wave consists of the imaginary part of the NN partial-wave amplitude along the left-hand cut. The latter is calculated in one-loop ChPT up to and including next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). A power counting for the subtraction constants is established, which is appropriate for those subtractions attached to both the left- and the right-hand cuts. A quite good reproduction of the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis phase shifts and mixing angles results, which implies a steady improvement in the accurateness achieved by increasing the chiral order in the calculation of the dynamical input. I discuss that it is not necessary to fine tune the chiral counterterms ci determined from pion-nucleon scattering to agree with NN data, but instead one should perform the iteration of two-nucleon intermediate states in a well-defined way so as to keep proper unitarity and analyticity. It is also confirmed at NNLO the long-range correlations between the NN S -wave effective ranges and scattering lengths, when employing only once-subtracted dispersion relations, that hold up to around 10% when compared with experimental values.
Unitary model for meson-nucleon scattering
Feuster, T.; Mosel, U.; Mosel, U.
1998-07-01
We extract nucleon resonance parameters from an effective Lagrangian model employing the K-matrix approximation. To this end we analyze simultaneously all available data for reactions involving the final states {pi}N, {pi}{pi}N, {eta}N, and K{Lambda} in the energy range m{sub N}+m{sub {pi}}{le}{radical} (s) {le}1.9 GeV. The background contributions are generated consistently from the relevant Feynman amplitudes, which significantly reduces the number of free parameters. The sensitivity of the parameters upon the {pi}N{endash}partial-wave analysis and the details of the Lagrangians and form factors used are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Nucleon-Hyperon (and YY) Scattering on the Lattice
Huey-Wen Lin
2011-09-01
Lattice QCD offers the chance to study the interactions of strange hadrons from the first principles of QCD. These NY (nucleon-hyperon) and YY (hyperon-hyperon) interactions are crucial to understanding the strange matter that may be created in extreme environments, such as the core of a neutron star. Since the fast decay of strange matter prevents experiments from providing strong constraints on the parameters of such interactions, direct theoretical calculations are especially valuable. In this presentation, I will report on the latest progress toward precision nucleon-hyperon and hyperon-hyperon scattering calculation in lattice QCD.
Roy-Steiner-equation analysis of pion-nucleon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoferichter, Martin; Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-04-01
We review the structure of Roy-Steiner equations for pion-nucleon scattering, the solution for the partial waves of the t-channel process ππ → N ¯ N, as well as the high-accuracy extraction of the pion-nucleon S-wave scattering lengths from data on pionic hydrogen and deuterium. We then proceed to construct solutions for the lowest partial waves of the s-channel process πN → πN and demonstrate that accurate solutions can be found if the scattering lengths are imposed as constraints. Detailed error estimates of all input quantities in the solution procedure are performed and explicit parameterizations for the resulting low-energy phase shifts as well as results for subthreshold parameters and higher threshold parameters are presented. Furthermore, we discuss the extraction of the pion-nucleon σ-term via the Cheng-Dashen low-energy theorem, including the role of isospin-breaking corrections, to obtain a precision determination consistent with all constraints from analyticity, unitarity, crossing symmetry, and pionic-atom data. We perform the matching to chiral perturbation theory in the subthreshold region and detail the consequences for the chiral convergence of the threshold parameters and the nucleon mass.
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiringa, R. B.; Nollett, Kenneth M.; Pieper, Steven C.; Brida, I.
2009-10-01
We report recent quantum Monte Carlo (variational and Green's function) calculations of elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering. We are adding the cases of proton-^4He, neutron-^3H and proton-^3He scattering to a previous GFMC study of neutron-^4He scattering [1]. To do this requires generalizing our methods to include long-range Coulomb forces and to treat coupled channels. The two four-body cases can be compared to other accurate four-body calculational methods such as the AGS equations and hyperspherical harmonic expansions. We will present results for the Argonne v18 interaction alone and with Urbana and Illinois three-nucleon potentials. [4pt] [1] K.M. Nollett, S. C. Pieper, R.B. Wiringa, J. Carlson, and G.M. Hale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 022502 (2007)
The method of unitary clothing transformations in the theory of nucleon-nucleon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovyk, I.; Shebeko, A.
2010-04-01
The clothing procedure, put forward in quantum field theory (QFT) by Greenberg and Schweber, is applied for the description of nucleon-nucleon (N -N) scattering. We consider pseudoscalar (π and η), vector (ρ and ω) and scalar (δ and σ) meson fields interacting with 1/2 spin (N and N) fermion ones via the Yukawa-type couplings to introduce trial interactions between “bare” particles. The subsequent unitary clothing transformations (UCTs) are found to express the total Hamiltonian through new interaction operators that refer to particles with physical (observable) properties, the so-called clothed particles. In this work, we are focused upon the Hermitian and energy-independent operators for the clothed nucleons, being built up in the second order in the coupling constants. The corresponding analytic expressions in momentum space are compared with the separate meson contributions to the one-boson-exchange potentials in the meson theory of nuclear forces. In order to evaluate the T matrix of the N-N scattering we have used an equivalence theorem that enables us to operate in the clothed particle representation (CPR) instead of the bare particle representation (BPR) with its huge amount of virtual processes. We have derived the Lippmann-Schwinger(LS)-type equation for the CPR elements of the T-matrix for a given collision energy in the two-nucleon sector of the Hilbert space H of hadronic states and elaborated a code for its numerical solution in momentum space.
The Method of Unitary Clothing Transformations in the Theory of Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovyk, I.; Shebeko, O.
2010-12-01
The clothing procedure, put forward in quantum field theory (QFT) by Greenberg and Schweber, is applied for the description of nucleon-nucleon ( N- N) scattering. We consider pseudoscalar ( π and η), vector ( ρ and ω) and scalar ( δ and σ) meson fields interacting with 1/2 spin ( N and {bar{N}}) fermion ones via the Yukawa-type couplings to introduce trial interactions between “bare” particles. The subsequent unitary clothing transformations are found to express the total Hamiltonian through new interaction operators that refer to particles with physical (observable) properties, the so-called clothed particles. In this work, we are focused upon the Hermitian and energy-independent operators for the clothed nucleons, being built up in the second order in the coupling constants. The corresponding analytic expressions in momentum space are compared with the separate meson contributions to the one-boson-exchange potentials in the meson theory of nuclear forces. In order to evaluate the T matrix of the N- N scattering we have used an equivalence theorem that enables us to operate in the clothed particle representation (CPR) instead of the bare particle representation with its large amount of virtual processes. We have derived the Lippmann-Schwinger type equation for the CPR elements of the T-matrix for a given collision energy in the two-nucleon sector of the Hilbert space {mathcal{H}} of hadronic states.
Nucleon polarizabilities: From Compton scattering to hydrogen atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagelstein, Franziska; Miskimen, Rory; Pascalutsa, Vladimir
2016-05-01
We review the current state of knowledge of the nucleon polarizabilities and of their role in nucleon Compton scattering and in hydrogen spectrum. We discuss the basic concepts, the recent lattice QCD calculations and advances in chiral effective-field theory. On the experimental side, we review the ongoing programs aimed to measure the nucleon (scalar and spin) polarizabilities via the Compton scattering processes, with real and virtual photons. A great part of the review is devoted to the general constraints based on unitarity, causality, discrete and continuous symmetries, which result in model-independent relations involving nucleon polarizabilities. We (re-)derive a variety of such relations and discuss their empirical value. The proton polarizability effects are presently the major sources of uncertainty in the assessment of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and hyperfine structure. Recent calculations of these effects are reviewed here in the context of the "proton-radius puzzle". We conclude with summary plots of the recent results and prospects for the near-future work.
Patrick, Cheryl
2016-01-01
Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.
Virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon at low energies
Scherer, S.; Korchin, A.Y.; Koch, J.H.
1996-08-01
We investigate the low-energy behavior of the four-point Green{close_quote}s function {Gamma}{sup {mu}{nu}} describing virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon. Using Lorentz invariance, gauge invariance, and crossing symmetry, we derive the leading terms of an expansion of the operator in the four-momenta {ital q} and {ital q}{sup {prime}} of the initial and final photon, respectively. The model-independent result is expressed in terms of the electromagnetic form factors of the free nucleon, i.e., on-shell information which one obtains from electron-nucleon scattering experiments. Model-dependent terms appear in the operator at {ital O}({ital q}{sub {alpha}}{ital q}{sub {beta}}{sup {prime}}), whereas the orders {ital O}({ital q}{sub {alpha}}{ital q}{sub {beta}}) and {ital O}({ital q}{sub {alpha}}{sup {prime}}{ital q}{sub {beta}}{sup {prime}}) are contained in the low-energy theorem for {Gamma}{sup {mu}{nu}}, i.e., no new parameters appear. We discuss the leading terms of the matrix element and comment on the use of on-shell equivalent electromagnetic vertices in the calculation of {open_quote}{open_quote}Born terms{close_quote}{close_quote} for virtual Compton scattering. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salam, Agus; Fachruddin, Imam
2016-03-01
Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum's magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.
Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities in chiral EFT: Status and future
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grießhammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.
2016-05-01
We review theoretical progress and prospects for determining the nucleon's static dipole polarisabilities from Compton scattering on few-nucleon targets, including new values; see Refs. [1-5] for details and a more thorough bibliography.
Simula, S.
1994-04-01
Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off nuclei is investigated assuming that virtual boson absorption occurs on a hadronic cluster which can be either a two-nucleon correlated pair or a six-quark bag. The differences in the energy distribution of nucleons produced in backward and forward directions are analyzed both at x<1 and x>1.
Nucleon Compton scattering in the Dyson-Schwinger approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.
2013-02-01
We analyze the nucleon’s Compton scattering amplitude in the Dyson-Schwinger/Faddeev approach. We calculate a subset of diagrams that implements the nonperturbative handbag contribution as well as all t-channel resonances. At the quark level, these ingredients are represented by the quark Compton vertex whose analytic properties we study in detail. We derive a general form for a fermion two-photon vertex that is consistent with its Ward-Takahashi identities and free of kinematic singularities, and we relate its transverse part to the on-shell nucleon Compton amplitude. We solve an inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation for the quark Compton vertex in rainbow-ladder truncation and implement it in the nucleon Compton scattering amplitude. The remaining ingredients are the dressed quark propagator and the nucleon’s bound-state amplitude which are consistently solved from Dyson-Schwinger and covariant Faddeev equations. We verify numerically that the resulting quark Compton vertex and nucleon Compton amplitude both reproduce the πγγ transition form factor when the pion pole in the t channel is approached.
Virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory
Hemmert, T.R.; Holstein, B.R.; Knoechlein, G.; Scherer, S.
1997-03-01
We investigate the spin-independent part of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) amplitude off the nucleon within the framework of chiral perturbation theory. We perform a consistent calculation to third order in external momenta according to Weinberg`s power counting. With this calculation we can determine the second- and fourth-order structure-dependent coefficients of the general low-energy expansion of the spin-averaged VCS amplitude based on gauge invariance, crossing symmetry, and the discrete symmetries. We discuss the kinematical regime to which our calculation can be applied and compare our expansion with the multipole expansion by Guichon, Liu, and Thomas. We establish the connection of our calculation with the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon where it is possible. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
On triplet low-energy parameters of nucleon-nucleon scattering
Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.
2006-09-15
Triplet low-energy parameters of neutron-proton scattering, including high-order shape parameters, are calculated on the basis of approximating the effective-range function k cot {delta}{sub t} by polynomials and rational functions with the aid of the latest experimental data on phase shifts from the SAID nucleon-nucleon database. With the resulting values of the low-energy parameters, a good description of phase shifts over a broad energy interval is obtained by using the effective-range expansion featuring a small number of terms. The properties of the deuteron that were calculated on the basis of the values found for the triplet low-energy parameters of scattering agree very well with experimental values. The triplet low-energy parameters and the properties of the deuteron that were obtained here by using present-day data from the SAID database differ markedly from the analogous results obtained for data of the Nijmegen group. Possible reasons behind this discrepancy are discussed. Highly precise new approximate formulas for determining the shape parameter v{sub 2} are proposed and are shown to be efficient in calculations. The effective-range expansion for the D wave is considered, and preliminary results of calculations of low-energy scattering parameters for this case are obtained.
Compton scattering, meson exchange, and the polarizabilities of bound nucleons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, G.; Mellendorf, K. E.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Federspiel, F. J.; Garino, G.; Igarashi, R.; Kolb, N. R.; Lucas, M. A.; MacGibbon, B. E.; Mize, W. K.; Nathan, A. M.; Pywell, R. E.; Wells, D. P.
1996-11-01
Elastic photon scattering cross sections on 16O have been measured in the energy range 27-108 MeV. These data are inconsistent with a conventional interpretation in which the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the bound nucleon are unchanged from the free values and the meson-exchange seagull amplitude is taken in the zero-energy limit. Agreement with the data can be achieved by invoking either strongly modified polarizabilities or a substantial energy dependence to the meson-exchange seagull amplitude. It is argued that these seemingly different explanations are experimentally indistinguishable and probably physically equivalent.
Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleon Neutral-Current Elastic Scattering Cross-section at SciBooNE
Takei, Hideyuki; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.
2009-02-01
In this thesis, results of neutrino-nucleon neutral current (NC) elastic scattering analysis are presented. Neutrinos interact with other particles only with weak force. Measurement of cross-section for neutrino-nucleon reactions at various neutrino energy are important for the study of nucleon structure. It also provides data to be used for beam flux monitor in neutrino oscillation experiments. The cross-section for neutrino-nucleon NC elastic scattering contains the axial vector form factor G{sub A}(Q{sup 2}) as well as electromagnetic form factors unlike electromagnetic interaction. G{sub A} is propotional to strange part of nucleon spin ({Delta}s) in Q{sup 2} {yields} 0 limit. Measurement of NC elastic cross-section with smaller Q{sup 2} enables us to access {Delta}s. NC elastic cross-sections of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon were measured earlier by E734 experiment at Brookheaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1987. In this experiment, cross-sections were measured in Q{sup 2} > 0.4 GeV{sup 2} region. Result from this experiment was the only published data for NC elastic scattering cross-section published before our experiment. SciBooNE is an experiment for the measurement of neutrino-nucleon scattering cross-secitons using Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at FNAL. BNB has energy peak at 0.7 GeV. In this energy region, NC elastic scattering, charged current elastic scattering, charged current pion production, and neutral current pion production are the major reaction branches. SciBar, electromagnetic calorimeter, and Muon Range Detector are the detectors for SciBooNE. The SciBar consists of finely segmented scintillators and 14336 channels of PMTs. It has a capability to reconstruct particle track longer than 8 cm and separate proton from muons and pions using energy deposit information. Signal of NC elastic scattering is a single proton track. In {nu}p {yields} {nu}p process, the recoil proton is detected. On the other hand, most of {nu}n {yields} {nu
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksenov, A. G.; Chechetkin, V. M.
2012-03-01
The collapse of the iron core of a star with mass 1.4 M ⊙ is computed. The initial model was chosen to be polytropic, P ∝ ρ 1+1/ n , with n = 3. The equation of state takes into account the equilibrium radiation of photons, a mixture of Fermi gases comprised of free nucleons and ideal gases comprised of nuclei (Fe, He) in equilibrium with respect to nuclear reactions, and electron-positron gas. The transport equation for electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos is also included. The absorption and emission of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos with the participation of free nucleons and nuclei is taken into account, as well as scattering on electrons. The main goal of this study is to develop a numerical method for the joint solution of the gas-dynamical equations formatter and the Boltzmann kinetic equations for the distribution functions of various types of neutrinos in both optically thin and optically thick regions. The spherically symmetrical case is considered, but the dependences of the distribution functions on all the phase-space variables—the mass coordinate, particle energy, cosine of the angle between the radius vector and the particle momentum, and time, ( m, ɛ, µ, t)—are retained in the description of the neutrino transport. When computing reaction rates, the exact quantum-mechanical expressions for the probabilities of processes are used, with integration over the entire momentum phase space. The gas-dynamical variables depend on the mass coordinate and time, ( m, t). The solution yields neutrino light curves, which have narrow maximum with characteristic widths ≈10 ms. This makes it possible to place constraints on the mass of the electron neutrino based on the detection of short bursts of radiation, ≲4 eV. Part of the neutrino energy is absorbed in the envelope of the stellar core (˜1050 erg). This is associated with the higher mean neutrino energies in this model, which is more exact than models with neutrino thermal conductivity. This
Low-energy theorems for nucleon-nucleon scattering at unphysical pion masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baru, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Filin, A. A.; Gegelia, J.
2015-07-01
The longest-range part of the nuclear force from the one-pion exchange governs the energy dependence of the scattering amplitude in the near-threshold region and imposes correlations between the coefficients in the effective range expansion. These correlations may be regarded as low-energy theorems and are known to hold to a high accuracy in the neutron-proton 3S1 partial wave. We generalize the low-energy theorems to the case of unphysical pion masses and provide results for the correlations between the coefficients in the effective range expansion in this partial wave for pion masses up to Mπ˜400 MeV . We discuss the implications of our findings for the available and upcoming lattice-quantum-chromodynamics simulations of two-nucleon observables.
Low-energy theorems for nucleon-nucleon scattering at Mπ=450 MeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baru, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Filin, A. A.
2016-07-01
We apply the low-energy theorems to analyze the recent lattice QCD results for the two-nucleon system at a pion mass of Mπ≃450 MeV obtained by the NPLQCD Collaboration. We find that the binding energies of the deuteron and dineutron are inconsistent with the low-energy behavior of the corresponding phase shifts within the quoted uncertainties and vice versa. Using the binding energies of the deuteron and dineutron as input, we employ the low-energy theorems to predict the phase shifts and extract the scattering length and the effective range in the S31 and S10 channels. Our results for these quantities are consistent with those obtained by the NPLQCD Collaboration from effective field theory analyses but are in conflict with their determination based on the effective-range approximation.
{eta}-Nucleon scattering length and effective range uncertainties
Green, A.M.; Wycech, S.
2005-01-01
The coupled {eta}N, {pi}N, {gamma}N, {pi}{pi}N system is described by a K-matrix method. The parameters in this model are adjusted to get an optimal fit to {pi}N{yields}{pi}N, {pi}N{yields}{eta}N, {gamma}N{yields}{pi}N, and {gamma}N{yields}{eta}N data in an energy range of about 100 MeV or so each side of the {eta} threshold. Compared with our earlier analysis, we now utilize recent Crystal Ball data. However, the outcome confirms our previous result that the {eta}-nucleon scattering length a is large with a value of 0.91(6)+i 0.27(2) fm.
Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Quasielastic Scattering on a Hydrocarbon Target at Eν˜3.5GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fields, L.; Chvojka, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Baldin, B.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradford, R.; Brooks, W. K.; Budd, H.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Castromonte, C. M.; Christy, M. E.; Chung, H.; Clark, M.; da Motta, H.; Damiani, D. S.; Danko, I.; Datta, M.; Day, M.; DeMaat, R.; Devan, J.; Draeger, E.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Edmondson, D. A.; Felix, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Gago, A. M.; Gallagher, H.; George, C. A.; Gielata, J. A.; Gingu, C.; Gobbi, B.; Gran, R.; Grossman, N.; Hanson, J.; Harris, D. A.; Heaton, J.; Higuera, A.; Howley, I. J.; Hurtado, K.; Jerkins, M.; Kafka, T.; Kaisen, J.; Kanter, M. O.; Keppel, C. E.; Kilmer, J.; Kordosky, M.; Krajeski, A. H.; Kulagin, S. A.; Le, T.; Lee, H.; Leister, A. G.; Locke, G.; Maggi, G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Ochoa, N.; O'Connor, C. D.; Olsen, J.; Osmanov, B.; Osta, J.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Peña, C.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rude, C.; Sassin, K. E.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schneider, R. M.; Schulte, E. C.; Simon, C.; Snider, F. D.; Snyder, M. C.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tan, W.; Tice, B. G.; Tzanakos, G.; Velásquez, J. P.; Walding, J.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wolthuis, B. A.; Woodward, N.; Zavala, G.; Zeng, H. B.; Zhang, D.; Zhu, L. Y.; Ziemer, B. P.
2013-07-01
We have isolated ν¯μ charged-current quasielastic (QE) interactions occurring in the segmented scintillator tracking region of the MINERvA detector running in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We measure the flux-averaged differential cross section, dσ/dQ2, and compare to several theoretical models of QE scattering. Good agreement is obtained with a model where the nucleon axial mass, MA, is set to 0.99GeV/c2 but the nucleon vector form factors are modified to account for the observed enhancement, relative to the free nucleon case, of the cross section for the exchange of transversely polarized photons in electron-nucleus scattering. Our data at higher Q2 favor this interpretation over an alternative in which the axial mass is increased.
Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Quasielastic Scattering on a Hydrocarbon Target at Eν~3.5 GeV
Fields, L.; Chvojka, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Baldin, B.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradford, R.; et al
2013-07-11
We have isolated ν¯μ charged-current quasielastic (QE) interactions occurring in the segmented scintillator tracking region of the MINERvA detector running in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We measure the flux-averaged differential cross section, dσ/dQ², and compare to several theoretical models of QE scattering. Good agreement is obtained with a model where the nucleon axial mass, MA, is set to 0.99 GeV/c² but the nucleon vector form factors are modified to account for the observed enhancement, relative to the free nucleon case, of the cross section for the exchange of transversely polarized photons in electron-nucleus scattering. Our data at highermore » Q² favor this interpretation over an alternative in which the axial mass is increased.« less
Ab Initio Many-Body Calculations Of Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering
Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P
2008-12-17
We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase shift results for neutron scattering on {sup 3}H, {sup 4}He and {sup 10}Be and proton scattering on {sup 3,4}He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A = 4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-{sup 4}He S-wave phase shifts. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-{sup 10}Be continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in {sup 11}Be.
The pion nucleon scattering lengths from pionic hydrogen and deuterium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, H.-Ch.; Badertscher, A.; Goudsmit, P. F. A.; Janousch, M.; Leisi, H. J.; Matsinos, E.; Sigg, D.; Zhao, Z. G.; Chatellard, D.; Egger, J.-P.; Gabathuler, K.; Hauser, P.; Simons, L. M.; Rusi El Hassani, A. J.
2001-07-01
This is the final publication of the ETH Zurich Neuchâtel PSI collaboration on the pionic hydrogen and deuterium precision X-ray experiments. We describe the recent hydrogen 3 p 1 s measurement, report on the determination of the Doppler effect correction to the transition line width, analyze the deuterium shift measurement and discuss implications of the combined hydrogen and deuterium results. From the pionic hydrogen 3 p 1 s transition experiments we obtain the strong-interaction energy level shift \\varepsilon_{1s} = -7.108±0.013 (stat.)±0.034 (syst.) eV and the total decay width Γ_{1s} = 0.868±0.040 (stat.)±0.038 (syst.) eV of the 1s state. Taking into account the electromagnetic corrections we find the hadronic π N s-wave scattering amplitude a_{π-prightarrowπ-p} = 0.0883±0.0008 m_{π}^{-1} for elastic scattering and a_{π-prightarrowπ0n} = -0.128±0.006 m_{π} ^{-1} for single charge exchange, respectively. We then combine the pionic hydrogen results with the 1 s level shift measurement on pionic deuterium and test isospin symmetry of the strong interaction: our data are still compatible with isospin symmetry. The isoscalar and isovector π N scattering lengths (within the framework of isospin symmetry) are found to be b_0 = -0.0001^{+0.0009}_{-0.0021} m_{π}^{-1} and b1 = -0.0885^{+0.0010}_{-0.0021} m_{π} ^{-1}, respectively. Using the GMO sum rule, we obtain from b_1 a new value of the π N coupling constant (g_{π N} = 13.21_{-0.05}^{+0.11}) from which follows the Goldberger Treiman discrepancy Δ_{{GT}} =0.027_{-0.008}^{+0.012}. The new values of b_0 and g_{π N} imply an increase of the nucleon sigma term by at least 9 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shebeko, A.; Dubovik, E.
2013-08-01
One more application of the method of unitary clothing transformations (UCT's) in the theory of nucleon-nucleon ( N - N) interaction has been presented. We have extended our previous analysis (Dubovik and Shebeko in Few-Body Syst 48:109-142, 2010) of the N - N scattering below the pion production threshold to treat the neutron-proton ( n - p) scattering at low energies and the deuteron static properties. Our calculations of deuteron magnetic and quadrupole moments have been carried out in the framework of a gauge independent description of electromagnetic (EM) interactions with nuclei (bound systems) using the clothed particle representation of the Hamiltonian, the boost and EM current density operators for the n-p system.
Extra dimensions, SN1987a, and nucleon-nucleon scattering data
Christoph Hanhart; Daniel R. Phillips; Sanjay Reddy; Martin J. Savage
2001-02-01
One of the strongest constraints on the existence of large, compact, ''gravity-only'' dimensions comes from SN1987a. If the rate of energy loss into these putative extra dimensions is too high, then the neutrino pulse from the supernova will differ from that actually seen. The dominant mechanism for the production of Kaluza-Klein gravitons and dilatons in the supernova is via gravistrahlung and dilastrahlung from the nucleon-nucleon system. In this paper we compute the rates for these processes in a model-independent way using low-energy theorems which relate the emissivities to the measured nucleon-nucleon cross section. This is possible because for soft gravitons and dilatons the leading contribution to the energy-loss rate is from graphs in which the gravitational radiation is produced from external nucleon legs. Previous calculations neglected these mechanisms. We re-evaluate the bounds on toroidally-compactified ''gravity-only'' dimensions (GODs), and find that consistency with the observed SN1987a neutrino signal requires that if there are two such dimensions then their radius must be less than 1 micron.
Directional Antineutrino Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safdi, B. R.; Suerfu, J.
2014-12-01
We propose the first truly directional antineutrino detector for antineutrinos near the threshold for the inverse beta decay (IBD) of hydrogen, with potential applications including the spatial mapping of geo-neutrinos, searches for stellar antineutrinos, and the monitoring of nuclear reactors. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and neutron-capture layers. The IBD events, which result in a neutron and a positron, take place in the target layers. These layers are thin enough so that the neutrons escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker neutron-capture layers. The location of the IBD event is determined from the energy deposited by the positron as it slows in the medium and from the two gamma rays that come from the positron annihilation. Since the neutron recoils in the direction of the antineutrino's motion, a line may then be drawn between the IBD event location and the neutron-capture location to approximate the antineutrino's velocity. In some events, we may even measure the positron's velocity, which further increases our ability to reconstruct the antineutrino's direction of motion. Our method significantly improves upon previous methods by allowing the neutron to freely travel a long distance before diffusing and being captured. Moreover, our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could easily be built with existing technology. We verify our design through Monte Carlo simulations in Geant4, using commercially-available boron-loaded plastic scintillators for the target and neutron-capture layer materials. We are able to discriminate from background using multiple coincidence signatures within a short, ~microsecond time interval. We conclude that the detector could likely operate above ground with minimal shielding.
Wang, D; Pan, K; Subedi, R; Deng, X; Ahmed, Z; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Armstrong, D S; Arrington, J; Bellini, V; Beminiwattha, R; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Dalton, M M; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deconinck, W; Deur, A; Dutta, C; El Fassi, L; Flay, D; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, A; Golge, S; Grimm, K; Hafidi, K; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Holmstrom, T; Holt, R J; Huang, J; Hyde, C E; Jen, C M; Jones, D; Kang, H; King, P; Kowalski, S; Kumar, K S; Lee, J H; LeRose, J J; Liyanage, N; Long, E; McNulty, D; Margaziotis, D J; Meddi, F; Meekins, D G; Mercado, L; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Myers, K E; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman; Oh, Y; Parno, D; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Quinn, B; Rakhman, A; Reimer, P E; Rider, K; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Rubin, J; Russo, G; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Silwal, R; Sirca, S; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C M; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Waidyawansa, B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ye, L; Zhao, B; Zheng, X
2013-08-23
We report on parity-violating asymmetries in the nucleon resonance region measured using inclusive inelastic scattering of 5-6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons off an unpolarized deuterium target. These results are the first parity-violating asymmetry data in the resonance region beyond the Δ(1232). They provide a verification of quark-hadron duality-the equivalence of the quark- and hadron-based pictures of the nucleon-at the (10-15)% level in this electroweak observable, which is dominated by contributions from the nucleon electroweak γZ interference structure functions. In addition, the results provide constraints on nucleon resonance models relevant for calculating background corrections to elastic parity-violating electron scattering measurements. PMID:24016222
Ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon scattering and parton distributions at small x
Henley, Ernest M.; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal
2006-05-01
The cross section for ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon scattering is very sensitive to the parton distributions at very small values of Bjorken x (x{<=}10{sup -4}). We numerically investigate the effects of modifying the behavior of the gluon distribution function at very small x in the DGLAP evolution equation. We then use the Color Glass Condensate formalism to calculate the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultrahigh energies and compare the result with those based on modification of DGLAP evolution equation.
Armstrong, David S.; McKeown, Robert
2012-11-01
Measurement of the neutral weak vector form factors of the nucleon provides unique access to the strange quark content of the nucleon. These form factors can be studied using parity-violating electron scattering. A comprehensive program of experiments has been performed at three accelerator laboratories to determine the role of strange quarks in the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. This article reviews the remarkable technical progress associated with this program, describes the various methods used in the different experiments, and summarizes the physics results along with recent theoretical calculations.
Azimuthal and single spin asymmetry in deep-inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering
Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian
2006-09-21
The collinear expansion technique is generalized to thefactorization of unintegrated parton distributions and other higher twistparton correlations from the corresponding collinear hard parts thatinvolve multiple parton final state interaction. Such a generalizedfactorization provides a consistent approach to the calculation ofinclusive and semi-inclusive cross sections of deep-inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering. As an example, the azimuthal asymmetry iscalculated to the order of 1/Q in semi-inclusive deeply inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering with transversely polarized target. Anon-vanishing single-spin asymmetry in the "triggered inclusive process"is predicted to be 1/Q suppressed with a part of the coefficient relatedto a moment of the Sivers function.
Isospin breaking in low-energy pion-nucleon scattering
Gibbs, W.R.; Ai, L.; Kaufmann, W.B.
1995-05-08
We have analyzed low-energy pion-nucleon data for isospin invariance by comparing charge-exchange amplitudes derived from charge-exchange data with those predicted from recent {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}{ital p} elastic data through the application of isospin invariance. A discrepancy of the order of 7% is observed beyond the contributions of the {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}{ital p} Coulomb interaction and the hadronic mass differences.
Polarized lepton-nucleon elastic scattering and a search for a light scalar boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu-Sheng; Miller, Gerald A.
2015-09-01
Lepton-nucleon elastic scattering, using the one-photon and one-scalar-boson exchange mechanisms considering all possible polarizations, is used to study searches for a new scalar boson and suggest new measurements of the nucleon form factors. A new light scalar boson, which feebly couples to leptons and nucleons, may account for the proton radius and muon g -2 puzzles. We show that the scalar boson produces relatively large effects in a certain kinematic region when using sufficient control of lepton and nucleon spin polarization. We generalize current techniques to measure the ratio GE:GM and present a new method to separately measure GM2 and GE2 using polarized incoming and outgoing muons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. W.
1972-01-01
The exact nucleon-deuteron elastic single scattering integral was calculated numerically in order to evaluate errors in sticking factor approximations. A similar analysis made by using S wave separable potentials concluded that errors for these approximations were negligible except near backward angles where they were found to be about 10 percent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, D.; Pan, K.; Subedi, R.; Deng, X.; Ahmed, Z.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Bellini, V.; Beminiwattha, R.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M. M.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deconinck, W.; Deur, A.; Dutta, C.; El Fassi, L.; Flay, D.; Franklin, G. B.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Golge, S.; Grimm, K.; Hafidi, K.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Holmstrom, T.; Holt, R. J.; Huang, J.; Hyde, C. E.; Jen, C. M.; Jones, D.; Kang, H.; King, P.; Kowalski, S.; Kumar, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; LeRose, J. J.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; McNulty, D.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D. G.; Mercado, L.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Myers, K. E.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; Oh, Y.; Parno, D.; Paschke, K. D.; Phillips, S. K.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Quinn, B.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Rider, K.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Rubin, J.; Russo, G.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Silwal, R.; Sirca, S.; Souder, P. A.; Suleiman, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ye, L.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.
2013-08-01
We report on parity-violating asymmetries in the nucleon resonance region measured using inclusive inelastic scattering of 5-6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons off an unpolarized deuterium target. These results are the first parity-violating asymmetry data in the resonance region beyond the Δ(1232). They provide a verification of quark-hadron duality—the equivalence of the quark- and hadron-based pictures of the nucleon—at the (10-15)% level in this electroweak observable, which is dominated by contributions from the nucleon electroweak γZ interference structure functions. In addition, the results provide constraints on nucleon resonance models relevant for calculating background corrections to elastic parity-violating electron scattering measurements.
Nucleon-deuteron scattering using the adiabatic projection method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rupak, Gautam
2016-06-01
In this paper we discuss the adiabatic projection method, a general framework for scattering and reaction calculations on the lattice. We also introduce several new techniques developed to study nucleus-nucleus scattering and reactions on the lattice. We present technical details of the method for large-scale problems. To estimate the systematic errors of the calculations we consider simple two-particle scattering on the lattice. Then we benchmark the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by applying these to calculate fermion-dimer scattering in lattice effective field theory with and without a long-range Coulomb potential. The fermion-dimer calculations correspond to neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron scattering in the spin-quartet channel at leading order in the pionless effective field theory.
Supersymmetry-generated jost functions and nucleon–nucleon scattering phase shifts
Bhoi, J. Laha, U.
2015-10-15
By exploiting the supersymmetry-inspired factorization method higher partial wave Jost solutions and functions for nuclear Hulthen potential are constructed from the knowledge of the ground state wave function. As a case study the nucleon–nucleon scattering phase shifts are computed for partial waves ℓ = 0, 1, and 2.
Partial-wave analysis of all nucleon-nucleon scattering data below 350 MeV
Stoks, V.G.J.; Klomp, R.A.M.; Rentmeester, M.C.M.; de Swart, J.J. )
1993-08-01
We present a multienergy partial-wave analysis of all [ital NN] scattering data below [ital T][sub lab]=350 MeV, published in a regular physics journal between 1955 and 1992. After careful examination, our final database consists of 1787 [ital pp] and 2514 [ital np] scattering data. Our fit to these data results in [chi][sup 2]/[ital N][sub df]=1.08, with [ital N][sub df]=3945 the total number of degrees of freedom. All phase shifts and mixing parameters can be determined accurately.
Ultra-High Energy Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering and Parton Distributions at Small x
Henley, Ernest M.; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal
2006-11-17
The cross section for ultra-high energy neutrino-nucleon scattering is very sensitive to the parton distributions at very small values of Bjorken x (x {<=} 10-4). We numerically investigate the effects of modifying the behavior of the gluon distribution function at very small x in the DGLAP evolution equation. We then use the Color Glass Condensate formalism to calculate the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultra-high energies and compare the result with those based on modification of DGLAP evolution equation.
Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Hill, Richard J.; Paz, Gil
2011-10-01
Quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering is a basic signal process for neutrino oscillation studies. At accelerator energies, the corresponding cross section is subject to significant uncertainty due to the poorly constrained axial-vector form factor of the nucleon. A model-independent description of the axial-vector form factor is presented. Data from the MiniBooNE experiment for quasielastic neutrino scattering on {sup 12}C are analyzed under the assumption of a definite nuclear model. The value of the axial mass parameter, m{sub A}=0.85{sub -0.07}{sup +0.22}{+-}0.09 GeV, is found to differ significantly from extractions based on traditional form factor models. Implications for future neutrino scattering and pion electroproduction measurements are discussed.
A relativistic meson-exchange model of pion-nucleon scattering
Lee, T.S.H.; Hung, C.T.; Yang, S.N.
1995-08-01
Pion-nucleon scattering is investigated using the Kadshevsky three-dimensional reduction of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The resulting potential includes the direct and crossed N and {Delta} terms, and the t-channel {sigma}- and {rho}-exchange terms. The nucleon-pole condition is imposed to define the renormalization of the nucleon mass and the {pi}NN coupling constant. A mixture of the scalar and vector {sigma}{pi}{pi} couplings is introduced to simulate the broad width of the s-wave correlated two-pion exchange mechanism. Good descriptions of the {pi}N phase shifts up to 400 MeV have been obtained in all S- and P-waves. The off-shell behavior for our model differs significantly from that obtained using different reductions. A paper describing our results was published.
Ellis, Colleen
2010-01-01
The G^{0} backward angle experiment, completed in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton and quasielastic electron-deuteron scattering at Q^{2} = 0.22 and 0.63 (GeV/c)^{2}. The asymmetries are sensitive to strange quark contributions to currents in the nucleon and the nucleon axial-vector current. The results indicate strange quark contributions of ≤ 10% of the charge and magnetic nucleon form factors at these four-momentum transfers. This was also the first measurement of the anapole moment effects in the axial-vector current at these four-momentum transfers.
Directional Antineutrino Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safdi, Benjamin R.; Suerfu, Burkhant
2015-02-01
We propose the first event-by-event directional antineutrino detector using inverse beta decay (IBD) interactions on hydrogen, with potential applications including monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation, spatially mapping geoneutrinos, characterizing the diffuse supernova neutrino background and searching for new physics in the neutrino sector. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and capture scintillator planes. IBD events take place in the target layers, which are thin enough to allow the neutrons to escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker boron-loaded capture layers. The location of the IBD event and the momentum of the positron are determined by tracking the positron's trajectory through the detector. Our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could be built with existing technology.
Directional antineutrino detection.
Safdi, Benjamin R; Suerfu, Burkhant
2015-02-20
We propose the first event-by-event directional antineutrino detector using inverse beta decay (IBD) interactions on hydrogen, with potential applications including monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation, spatially mapping geoneutrinos, characterizing the diffuse supernova neutrino background and searching for new physics in the neutrino sector. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and capture scintillator planes. IBD events take place in the target layers, which are thin enough to allow the neutrons to escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker boron-loaded capture layers. The location of the IBD event and the momentum of the positron are determined by tracking the positron's trajectory through the detector. Our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could be built with existing technology. PMID:25763953
Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon scattering on ^16O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Roth, Robert
2008-10-01
We develop a new ab initio many-body approachootnotetextS. Quaglioni and P. Navratil, arXiv:0804.1560. capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group methodootnotetextY. C. Tang et al., Phys. Rep. 47, 167 (1978); K. Langanke and H. Friedrich, Advances in Nuclear Physics, Plenum, New York, 1987. with the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM).ootnotetextP. Navratil, J. P. Vary, and B. R. Barrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5728 (2000); Phys. Rev. C 62, 054311 (2000). In this way, we complement a microscopic-cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, while preserving Pauli principle and translational symmetry. We will present results for low-energy nucleon scattering on ^16O and for A=17 bound states obtained using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The ^16O wave functions are calculated within the importance-truncated NCSMootnotetextR. Roth and P. Navratil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 092501 (2007). that allows the use of model spaces up to 18φ and ultimately enables to reach convergence of phase-shifts and other observables. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support from the U.S. DOE/SC/NP (Work Proposal No. SCW0498), and from the U. S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FC02-07ER41457 is acknowledged.
Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Quasielastic Scattering on a Hydrocarbon Target at E_{ν}~3.5 GeV
Fields, L.; Chvojka, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Baldin, B.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradford, R.; Brooks, W. K.; Budd, H.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Castromonte, C. M.; Christy, M. E.; Chung, H.; Clark, M.; da Motta, H.; Damiani, D. S.; Danko, I.; Datta, M.; Day, M.; DeMaat, R.; Devan, J.; Draeger, E.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Edmondson, D. A.; Felix, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Gago, A. M.; Gallagher, H.; George, C. A.; Gielata, J. A.; Gingu, C.; Gobbi, B.; Gran, R.; Grossman, N.; Hanson, J.; Harris, D. A.; Heaton, J.; Higuera, A.; Howley, I. J.; Hurtado, K.; Jerkins, M.; Kafka, T.; Kaisen, J.; Kanter, M. O.; Keppel, C. E.; Kilmer, J.; Kordosky, M.; Krajeski, A. H.; Kulagin, S. A.; Le, T.; Lee, H.; Leister, A. G.; Locke, G.; Maggi, G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Ochoa, N.; O’Connor, C. D.; Olsen, J.; Osmanov, B.; Osta, J.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Peña, C.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rude, C.; Sassin, K. E.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schneider, R. M.; Schulte, E. C.; Simon, C.; Snider, F. D.; Snyder, M. C.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tan, W.; Tice, B. G.; Tzanakos, G.; Velásquez, J. P.; Walding, J.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wolthuis, B. A.; Woodward, N.; Zavala, G.; Zeng, H. B.; Zhang, D.; Zhu, L. Y.; Ziemer, B. P.
2013-07-11
We have isolated ν¯_{μ} charged-current quasielastic (QE) interactions occurring in the segmented scintillator tracking region of the MINERvA detector running in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We measure the flux-averaged differential cross section, dσ/dQ², and compare to several theoretical models of QE scattering. Good agreement is obtained with a model where the nucleon axial mass, M_{A}, is set to 0.99 GeV/c² but the nucleon vector form factors are modified to account for the observed enhancement, relative to the free nucleon case, of the cross section for the exchange of transversely polarized photons in electron-nucleus scattering. Our data at higher Q² favor this interpretation over an alternative in which the axial mass is increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.; Schäfer, A.; Schlegel, M.; Vogelsang, W.; Zhou, J.
2012-11-01
Transverse single-spin asymmetries in inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering can be generated through multiphoton exchange between the leptonic and the hadronic part of the process. Here we consider the two-photon exchange and mainly focus on the transverse target spin asymmetry. In particular, we investigate the case where two photons couple to different quarks. Such a contribution involves a quark-photon-quark correlator in the nucleon, which has a (model-dependent) relation to the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman quark-gluon-quark correlator TF. Using different parametrizations for TF we compute the transverse target spin asymmetries for both a proton and a neutron target and compare the results to recent experimental data. In addition, potential implications for our general understanding of single-spin asymmetries in hard scattering processes are discussed.
Drechsel, D.; Knoechlein, G.; Metz, A.; Scherer, S.
1997-01-01
We discuss the low-energy behavior of the spin-averaged amplitude of virtual Compton scattering off a nucleon. Based on gauge invariance, Lorentz invariance, and the discrete symmetries, it is shown that to first order in the frequency of the final real photon only two generalized polarizabilities appear. Different low-energy expansion schemes are discussed and put into perspective. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Proton and antiproton production in deep inelastic muon-nucleon scattering at 280 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J. J.; Badelek, B.; Beaufays, J.; Bee, C. P.; Benchouk, C.; Berghoff, G.; Bird, I.; Blum, D.; Böhm, E.; de Bouard, X.; Brasse, F. W.; Braun, H.; Broll, C.; Brown, S.; Brück, H.; Calen, H.; Chima, J. S.; Ciborowski, J.; Clifft, R.; Coignet, G.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Düren, M.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, A.; Edwards, M.; Ernst, T.; Eszes, G.; Favier, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Flauger, W.; Foster, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gajewski, J.; Gamet, R.; Gayler, J.; Geddes, N.; Grafström, P.; Grard, F.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F. J.; Hayman, P.; Heusse, P.; Jaffré, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janata, F.; Jansco, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kellner, G.; Korbel, V.; Krüger, A.; Krüger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Maire, M.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Maselli, S.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Montgomery, H. E.; Nagy, E.; Nassalski, J.; Norton, P. R.; Oakham, F. G.; Osborne, A. M.; Pascaud, C.; Pawlik, B.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Peschel, H.; Pessard, H.; Pettingale, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Poensgen, B.; Pötsch, M.; Renton, P.; Ribarics, P.; Rith, K.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Scheer, M.; Schlagböhmer, A.; Schiemann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, M.; Schouten, M.; Schröder, T.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H. E.; Studt, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Thénard, J. M.; Thompson, J. C.; de La Torre, A.; Toth, J.; Urban, L.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Williams, W. S. C.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Windmolders, R.; Wolf, G.
1987-12-01
New results on proton and antiproton production in the target and current fragmentation regions of high energy muon-nucleon scattering are presented. Proton and antiproton production is investigated as a function of Feynman x and rapidity. No significant difference is observed between production on hydrogen and deuterium targets. Correlations between pp,pbar p andbar pbar p pairs are analysed and the results are compared with the predictions of the Lund fragmentation model.
Parity Violating Electron Scattering and Strangeness in the Nucleon
Maas, Frank E.
2008-10-13
A measurement of the weak form factor of the proton allows a flavor separation of the strangeness contribution to the electromagnetic form factors. The weak form factor is accessed experimentally by the measurement of a parity violating (PV) asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons on unpolarized protons. An extended experimental program to measure these parity violating asymmetries has been performed and is going on at different accelerators. After the first round of experiments allowing a separation of the strangeness form factors G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} at a Q{sup 2}-value of 0.1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, new, preliminary results have been achieved at 0.23 (GeV/c){sup 2}.
Antineutrino Neutral Current Interactions in MiniBooNE
Dharmapalan, Ranjan
2012-01-01
This dissertation reports the antineutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering cross section on CH_{2} measured by the MiniBooNE experiment located in Batavia, IL. The data set consists of 60,605 events passing the selection cuts corresponding to 10.1×10^{20} POT, which represents the world’s largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering events. The final sample is more than one order of magnitude lager that the previous antineutrino NCE scattering cross section measurement reported by the BNL E734 experiment. The measurement presented in this dissertation also spans a wider range in Q^{2}, including the low-Q^{2} regime where the cross section rollover is clearly visible. A X^{2}-based minimization was performed to determine the best value of the axial mass, M_{A} and the Pauli blocking scaling function, that matches the antineutrino NCE scattering data. However, the best fit values of M_{A}=1.29 GeV and K=1.026 still give a relatively poor X^{2}, which suggests that the underlying nuclear model (based largely on the relativistic Fermi gas model) may not be an accurate representation for this particular interaction. Additionally, we present a measurement of the antineutrino/neutrino-nucleus NCE scattering cross section ratio. The neutrino mode NCE sample used in this study, corresponding to 6.4 × 10^{20} POT, is also the world’s largest sample (also by an order of magnitude). We have demonstrated that the ratio measurement is robust, as most of the correlated errors cancel, as expected. Furthermore, this ratio also proves to be rather insensitive to variations in the axial mass and the Pauli blocking parameter. This is the first time that this ratio has been experimentally reported. We believe this measurement will aid the theoretical physics community to test various model predictions of neutrino-nucleon/nucleus interactions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schinder, Paul J.
1990-01-01
The exact expressions needed in the neutrino transport equations for scattering of all three flavors of neutrinos and antineutrinos off free protons and neutrons, and for electron neutrino absorption on neutrons and electron antineutrino absorption on protons, are derived under the assumption that nucleons are noninteracting particles. The standard approximations even with corrections for degeneracy, are found to be poor fits to the exact results. Improved approximations are constructed which are adequate for nondegenerate nucleons for neutrino energies from 1 to 160 MeV and temperatures from 1 to 50 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, De-Liang; Siemens, D.; Bernard, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Gasparyan, A. M.; Gegelia, J.; Krebs, H.; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-05-01
We present the results of a third order calculation of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in a chiral effective field theory with pions, nucleons and delta resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We work in a manifestly Lorentz invariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory using dimensional regularization and the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. In the delta resonance sector, the on mass-shell renormalization is realized as a complex-mass scheme. By fitting the low-energy constants of the effective Lagrangian to the S- and P -partial waves a satisfactory description of the phase shifts from the analysis of the Roy-Steiner equations is obtained. We predict the phase shifts for the D and F waves and compare them with the results of the analysis of the George Washington University group. The threshold parameters are calculated both in the delta-less and delta-full cases. Based on the determined low-energy constants, we discuss the pion-nucleon sigma term. Additionally, in order to determine the strangeness content of the nucleon, we calculate the octet baryon masses in the presence of decuplet resonances up to next-to-next-to-leading order in SU(3) baryon chiral perturbation theory. The octet baryon sigma terms are predicted as a byproduct of this calculation.
Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-^{4}He scattering with three-nucleon forces
Hupin, Guillaume; Langhammer, Joachim; Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Calci, Angelo; Roth, Robert
2013-11-27
We extend the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method to include three-nucleon (3N) interactions for the description of nucleon-nucleus collisions. We outline the formalism, give algebraic expressions for the 3N-force integration kernels, and discuss computational aspects of two alternative implementations. The extended theoretical framework is then applied to nucleon-^{4}He elastic scattering using similarity-renormalization-group (SRG)-evolved nucleon-nucleon plus 3N potentials derived from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the convergence properties of the calculated phase shifts and explore their dependence upon the SRG evolution parameter. We include up to six excited states of the ^{4}He target and find significant effects from the inclusion of the chiral 3N force, e.g., it enhances the spin-orbit splitting between the 3/2^{–} and 1/2^{–} resonances and leads to an improved agreement with the phase shifts obtained from an accurate R-matrix analysis of the five-nucleon experimental data. As a result, we find remarkably good agreement with measured differential cross sections at various energies below the d+^{3}H threshold, while analyzing powers manifest larger deviations from experiment for certain energies and angles.
Mechanism of pion production in {alpha}p scattering at 1 GeV/nucleon
Alkhazov, G. D.; Prokofiev, A. N. Smirnov, I. B.; Strokovsky, E. A.
2012-09-15
An analysis of the experimental data on one-pion and two-pion production in the p({alpha}, {alpha} Prime )X reaction studied in a semi-exclusive experiment at an energy of E{sub {alpha}} = 4.2 GeV has been performed. The obtained results demonstrate that the inelastic {alpha}-particle scattering on the proton at the energy of the experiment proceeds either through excitation and decay of the {Delta} resonance in the projectile {alpha} particle, or through excitation in the target proton of the Roper resonance, which decays into a nucleon and a pion, or a nucleon and a {sigma} meson-a system of two pions in the isospin I = 0, S-wave state.
Virtual compton scattering at low energy and the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon
Helene Fonvieille
2003-10-01
We present a particular kind of (e, e' p) experiments, which has opened a new field of investigation of nucleon structure in the last ten years. The exclusive photon electroproduction process p(e, e' p){gamma} is used to study Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) off the proton: {gamma}*p {yields} {gamma}p. In the low energy domain, this process gives access to new observables called the Generalized Polarizabilities. They are fundamental properties of the nucleon, characterizing the deformation of its internal structure under an applied electromagnetic field. Dedicated experiments have been performed at MAMI, Jefferson Lab and MIT-Bates. This contribution summarizes the results obtained so far and future prospects in the field.
Neutrino and Antineutrino Cross sections at MiniBooNE
Dharmapalan, Ranjan; /Alabama U.
2011-10-01
The MiniBooNE experiment has reported a number of high statistics neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections -among which are the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and neutral current elastic (NCE) neutrino scattering on mineral oil (CH2). Recently a study of the neutrino contamination of the anti-neutrino beam has concluded and the analysis of the anti-neutrino CCQE and NCE scattering is ongoing.
Elastic pion-nucleon scattering in chiral perturbation theory: A fresh look
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siemens, D.; Bernard, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Gasparyan, A.; Krebs, H.; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-07-01
Elastic pion-nucleon scattering is analyzed in the framework of chiral perturbation theory up to fourth order within the heavy-baryon expansion and a covariant approach based on an extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. We discuss in detail the renormalization of the various low-energy constants and provide explicit expressions for the relevant β functions and the finite subtractions of the power-counting breaking terms within the covariant formulation. To estimate the theoretical uncertainty from the truncation of the chiral expansion, we employ an approach which has been successfully applied in the most recent analysis of the nuclear forces. This allows us to reliably extract the relevant low-energy constants from the available scattering data at low energy. The obtained results provide clear evidence that the breakdown scale of the chiral expansion for this reaction is related to the Δ resonance. The explicit inclusion of the leading contributions of the Δ isobar is demonstrated to substantially increase the range of applicability of the effective field theory. The resulting predictions for the phase shifts are in an excellent agreement with the predictions from the recent Roy-Steiner-equation analysis of pion-nucleon scattering.
High energy proton-proton elastic scattering at the Large Hadron Collider and nucleon structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luddy, Richard Joseph
To gain insight into the structure of the nucleon, we pursue the development of the phenomenological model of Islam et al. (IIFS model) for high energy elastic pp and p¯p scattering. We determine the energy dependence of the parameters of the IIFS model using the available elastic differential cross section data from SPS Collider and Tevatron and the known asymptotic behavior of sigmatot (s) and rho(s) from dispersion relation calculations and more recent analyses of Cudell et al. (COMPETE Collaboration). Next, we incorporate a high energy elastic valence quark-quark scattering amplitude into the model based on BFKL pomeron to describe small impact parameter (large | t|) pp collisions. Finally, we predict the pp elastic differential cross section at the unprecedented c.m. energy of s = 14.0 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This prediction assumes crucial significance---because of an approved experiment at LHC: TOTal and Elastic Measurement (TOTEM). The TOTEM group plans to measure pp elastic dsigma/dt at 14.0 TeV all the way from momentum transfer |t| = 0 to |t| ≃ 10 GeV 2. Their measurement will stringently test not only the diffraction and o-exchange descriptions of the original IIFS model, but also the additional valence quark-quark scattering contribution that we find to be dominant for large |t|. Successful quantitative verification of the predicted dsigma/dt will mean that our picture of the nucleon with an outer cloud of qq¯ condensed ground state, an inner core of topological baryonic charge, and a still smaller core of massless valence quarks provides a realistic description of nucleon structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avishai, Y.
1983-08-01
Using a phenomenological neutron-40Ca strong and weak potentials at low energy we calculate the asymmetry A in the total cross section between positive and negative incoming helicity states, the asymmetry I in the differential elastic cross sections, and the neutron spin rotation angle dφdz. In general, max |IA|>>1. Taking into account the relevant cross sections, it turns out that sometimes, measuring I (instead of A) can save a substantial amount of beam time. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Parity violation, asymmetries, neutron spin rotation, σ-->.p--> interactions, neutron-nucleus scattering, phenomenological weak and strong nucleon-nucleus optical potential.
a Phenomenological Determination of the Pion-Nucleon Scattering Lengths from Pionic Hydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.
A model independent expression for the electromagnetic corrections to a phenomenological hadronic pion-nucleon (πN) scattering length ah, extracted from pionic hydrogen, is obtained. In a non-relativistic approach and using an extended charge distribution, these corrections are derived up to terms of order α2 log α in the limit of a short-range hadronic interaction. We infer ahπ ^-p=0.0870(5)m-1π which gives for the πNN coupling through the GMO relation g2π ^± pn/(4π )=14.04(17).
Strangeness S =-1 hyperon-nucleon scattering in covariant chiral effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kai-Wen; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei
2016-07-01
Motivated by the successes of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory in one-baryon systems and in heavy-light systems, we study relevance of relativistic effects in hyperon-nucleon interactions with strangeness S =-1 . In this exploratory work, we follow the covariant framework developed by Epelbaum and Gegelia to calculate the Y N scattering amplitude at leading order. By fitting the five low-energy constants to the experimental data, we find that the cutoff dependence is mitigated, compared with the heavy-baryon approach. Nevertheless, the description of the experimental data remains quantitatively similar at leading order.
Longitudinal-Transverse Separation of Deep-Inelastic Scattering at Low Q² on Nucleons and Nuclei
Tvaskis, Vladas
2004-12-09
Since the early experiments at SLAC, which discovered the nucleon substructure and led to the development of the quark parton model, deep inelastic scattering (DIS) has been the most powerful tool to investigate the partonic substructure of the nucleon. After about 30 years of experiments with electron and muon beams the nucleon structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) is known with high precision over about four orders of magnitude in x and Q{sup 2}. In the region of Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} the results of the DIS measurements are interpreted in terms of partons (quarks and gluons). The theoretical framework is provided in this case by perturbative Quantum Chromo Dynamics (pQCD), which includes scaling violations, as described by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) equations. The description starts to fail when Q{sup 2} becomes of the order of 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, where non-perturbative effects (higher-twist effects), which are still not fully understood, become important (non-pQCD). The sensitivity for order-n twist effects increases with decreasing Q{sup 2}, since they include a factor 1/(Q{sup 2}{sup n}) (n {ge} 1).
McNaughton, M.W.; Gulmez, E.; Whitten, C.A.
1997-10-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work completes the determination of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering amplitudes from 485 to 800 MeV. The data set is completed by the publication of two papers. These new data have a precision better than 1% and an absolute accuracy about 1%, which is generally an order of magnitude better than previous data. The NN data set is now complete and consistent. The set of spin-dependent NN-scattering amplitudes is now well determined up to 800 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quesada, José Manuel; Capote, Roberto; Soukhovitski, Efrem S.; Chiba, Satoshi
2016-03-01
An extension for odd-A actinides of a previously derived dispersive coupledchannel optical model potential (OMP) for 238U and 232Th nuclei is presented. It is used to fit simultaneously all the available experimental databases including neutron strength functions for nucleon scattering on 232Th, 233,235,238U and 239Pu nuclei. Quasi-elastic (p,n) scattering data on 232Th and 238U to the isobaric analogue states of the target nucleus are also used to constrain the isovector part of the optical potential. For even-even (odd) actinides almost all low-lying collective levels below 1 MeV (0.5 MeV) of excitation energy are coupled. OMP parameters show a smooth energy dependence and energy independent geometry.
Determination of the pion-nucleon coupling constant and scattering lengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ericson, T. E.; Loiseau, B.; Thomas, A. W.
2002-07-01
We critically evaluate the isovector Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule for forward πN scattering using the recent precision measurements of π-p and π-d scattering lengths from pionic atoms. We deduce the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant, with careful attention to systematic and statistical uncertainties. This determination gives, directly from data, g2c(GMO)/ 4π=14.11+/-0.05(statistical)+/-0.19(systematic) or f2c/4π=0.0783(11). This value is intermediate between that of indirect methods and the direct determination from backward np differential scattering cross sections. We also use the pionic atom data to deduce the coherent symmetric and antisymmetric sums of the pion-proton and pion-neutron scattering lengths with high precision, namely, (aπ-p+aπ-n)/2=[- 12+/-2(statistical)+/-8(systematic)]×10-4 m-1π and (aπ-p-aπ- n)/2=[895+/-3(statistical)+/-13 (systematic)]×10-4 m-1π. For the need of the present analysis, we improve the theoretical description of the pion-deuteron scattering length.
Wang, Diancheng; Pan, Kai; Subedi, Ramesh R.; Deng, Xiaoyan
2013-08-22
We report on parity-violating asymmetries in the nucleon resonance region measured using 5 - 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons scattering off an unpolarized deuterium target. These results are the first parity-violating asymmetry data in the resonance region beyond the Δ(1232), and provide a verification of quark-hadron duality in the nucleon electroweak γ Z interference structure functions at the (10-15)% level. The results are of particular interest to models relevant for calculating the γ Z box-diagram corrections to elastic parity-violating electron scattering measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shebeko, A.
2013-12-01
The clothing procedure, put forward in quantum field theory by Greenberg and Schweber, is applied for the description of nucleon-nucleon ( N- N) scattering below the pion production threshold and deuteron properties. We consider pseudoscalar ( π and η), vector ( ρ and ω) and scalar ( δ and σ) meson fields interacting with N and ones via the Yukawa-type couplings to introduce trial interactions between "bare" particles. The subsequent unitary clothing transformations (UCTs) are found to express the total Hamiltonian through new interaction operators that refer to particles with physical (observable) properties, the so-called clothed particles. The corresponding analytic expressions in momentum space are compared with the separate meson contributions to the one-boson-exchange potentials in the meson theory of nuclear forces. We will also show a worked example where the UCTs method is used in the framework of a gauge-independent field-theoretical treatment of electromagnetic interactions of deuterons (bound systems).
Chiral Three-Nucleon Interactions in Light Nuclei, Neutron-α Scattering, and Neutron Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynn, J. E.; Tews, I.; Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Gezerlis, A.; Schmidt, K. E.; Schwenk, A.
2016-02-01
We present quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei, neutron-α scattering, and neutron matter using local two- and three-nucleon (3 N ) interactions derived from chiral effective field theory up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO ). The two undetermined 3 N low-energy couplings are fit to the 4He binding energy and, for the first time, to the spin-orbit splitting in the neutron-α P -wave phase shifts. Furthermore, we investigate different choices of local 3 N -operator structures and find that chiral interactions at N2LO are able to simultaneously reproduce the properties of A =3 ,4 ,5 systems and of neutron matter, in contrast to commonly used phenomenological 3 N interactions.
Virtual Compton Scattering at low energy and the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon
Helene Fonvieille
2003-05-01
Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) {gamma}*p {yields} {gamma}p at low CM energy gives access to the Generalized Polarizabilities of the nucleon. These observables generalize the concept of electromagnetic polarizabilities to the case of a virtual photon. Dedicated VCS experiments have been performed at MAMI, Jefferson Lab and MIT-Bates. The experimental status is reviewed, including analysis methods and physics results. The measurement of absolute (ep {yields} ep{gamma}) cross sections allows the extraction of the two unpolarized VCS structure functions P{sub LL}-P{sub TT}/{epsilon} and P{sub LT}, which are combinations of the Generalized Polarizabilities of the proton. Future prospects in the field of VCS at low energy are also presented.
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on nucleons and nuclei in generalized vector meson dominance model
Vadim Guzey; Klaus Goeke; Marat Siddikov
2008-02-01
We consider Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) on nucleons and nuclei in the framework of generalized vector meson dominance (GVMD) model. We demonstrate that the GVMD model provides a good description of the HERA data on the dependence of the proton DVCS cross section on $Q^2$, $W$ (at $Q^2=4$ GeV$^2$) and $t$. At $Q^2 = 8$ GeV$^2$, the soft $W$-behavior of the GVMD model somewhat underestimates the $W$-dependence of the DVCS cross section due to the hard contribution not present in the GVMD model. We estimate $1/Q^2$ power-suppressed corrections to the DVCS amplitude and the DVCS cross section and find them large. We also make predictions for the nuclear DVCS amplitude and cross section in the kinematics of the future Electron-Ion Collider. We predict significant nuclear shadowing, which matches well predictions of the leading-twist nuclear shadowing in DIS on nuclei.
Strangeness production in deep inelastic muon nucleon scattering at 280 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J. J.; Badelek, B.; Beaufays, J.; Bee, C. P.; Benchouk, C.; Berghoff, G.; Bird, I.; Blum, D.; Böhm, E.; de Bouard, X.; Brasse, F. W.; Braun, H.; Broll, C.; Brown, S.; Brück, H.; Calen, H.; Chima, J. S.; Ciborowski, J.; Clifft, R.; Coignet, G.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Düren, M.; Eckhardt, V.; Edwards, A.; Edwards, M.; Ernst, T.; Eszes, G.; Favier, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Flauger, W.; Foster, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gajewski, J.; Gamet, R.; Gayler, J.; Geddes, N.; Grafström, P.; Grard, F.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F. J.; Hayman, P.; Heusse, P.; Jaffré, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janata, F.; Jancso, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kellner, G.; Korbel, V.; Krüger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Maire, M.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Maselli, S.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Montgomery, H. E.; Nagy, E.; Nassalski, J.; Norton, P. R.; Oakham, F. G.; Osborne, A. M.; Pascaud, C.; Pawlik, B.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Peschel, H.; Pessard, H.; Pettingale, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pönsgen, B.; Pötsch, M.; Renton, P.; Ribarics, P.; Rith, K.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Scheer, M.; Schlagböhmer, A.; Schiemann, H.; Schmifz, N.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, M.; Schröder, T.; Schouten, M.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H. E.; Studt, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Thénard, J. M.; Thompson, J. C.; de La Torre, A.; Toth, J.; Urban, L.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Williams, W. S. C.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Windmolders, R.
1987-09-01
The production of strange particles has been studied in a 280 GeV muon nucleon scattering experiment with acceptance and particle identification over a large kinematical range. The data show that at large values of x Bj the interactions take place mostly on a u valence quark in agreement with the basic quarkparton model predictions. This feature results in a strong forward-backward asymmetry in the distribution of strangeness along the rapidity axis. The data are compatible with a strange to non-strange quark suppression factor of ≈0.3 and with a strong suppression of strange diquarks. The distributions of K + K - pairs show that the two kaons are preferentially produced at neighbouring values of rapidity.
Pion-nucleon scattering in the Skyrme model and the P-wave Born amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, A.; Saito, S.; Uehara, M.
1991-03-01
We treat fluctuating pion fields around a rotating Skyrmion by means of Dirac's quantization method. The rotational collective motion of the Skyrmion is described by collective coordinates, and conventional gauge-fixing conditions are imposed. Taking into account all the relevant terms at the tree level appearing in the Hamiltonian, we show that pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes exhibit the P-wave Born amplitudes attributed to the Yukawa coupling of order √Nc , which is consistent with the prediction of chiral symmetry such as the Adler-Weisberger relation. This resolves the difficulty that the Skyrme model predicts a wrong Nc dependence for the coupling of order N-3/2c.
Chiral representation of the πN scattering amplitude and the pion-nucleon sigma term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alarcón, J. M.; Camalich, J. Martin; Oller, J. A.
2012-03-01
We present a novel analysis of the πN scattering amplitude in Lorentz covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory renormalized in the extended-on-mass-shell scheme. This amplitude, valid up to O(p3) in the chiral expansion, systematically includes the effects of the Δ(1232) in the δ-counting, has the right analytic properties, and is renormalization-scale independent. This approach overcomes the limitations that previous chiral analyses of the πN scattering amplitude had, providing an accurate description of the partial wave phase shifts of the Karlsruhe-Helsinki and George-Washington groups up to energies just below the resonance region. We also study the solution of the Matsinos group which focuses on the parameterization of the data at low energies. Once the values of the low-energy constants are determined by adjusting the center-of-mass energy dependence of the amplitude to the scattering data, we obtain predictions on different observables. In particular, we extract an accurate value for the pion-nucleon sigma term, σπN. This allows us to avoid the usual method of extrapolation to the unphysical region of the amplitude. Our study indicates that the inclusion of modern meson-factory and pionic-atom data favors relatively large values of the sigma term. We report the value σπN=59(7)MeV and comment on implications that this result may have.
Pion-Nucleon Scattering and Analysis from threshold to the N*(1440) Resonance Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadler, Michael; Watson, Shon; Stahov, Jugoslav
2008-10-01
Many measurements for pion-nucleon scattering from threshold to the N*(1440) resonance region have been made since 1980, when the landmark Karlsruhe-Helsinki (KH) and Carnegie Mellon-Berkeley (CMB) partial wave analyses (PWA) were completed. These measurements consist of differential cross sections and analyzing powers for elastic scattering and charge exchange. Spin rotation parameters for elastic scattering in the momentum interval 0.4 -- 0.7 GeV/c have also been obtained. The program culminated with measurements of π-p -> Neutrals (charge exchange, multiple pi-zero final states, eta production, and inverse photoproduction) using the Crystal Ball at BNL. Resonance parameters for the N*(1440) in the Review of Particle Physics by the Particle Data Group have been obtained from the KH and CMB analyses. The 2006 edition also includes the analysis by George Washington University (GWU) ``for averages, fits, limits, etc.'', but the parameters were unchanged. An overview of the data will be presented along with comparisons to PWA.
Single-inclusive production of hadrons and jets in lepton-nucleon scattering at NLO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinderer, Patriz; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner
2015-07-01
We present next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative-QCD calculations of the cross sections for ℓN →h X and ℓN →jet X . The main feature of these processes is that the scattered lepton is not observed, so that the hard scale that makes them perturbative is set by the transverse momentum of the hadron or jet. Kinematically, the two processes thus become direct analogs of single-inclusive production in hadronic collisions which, as has been pointed out in the literature, makes them promising tools for exploring transverse spin phenomena in QCD when the incident nucleon is transversely polarized. We find that the NLO corrections are sizable for the spin-averaged cross section. We also investigate in how far the scattering is dominated by the exchange of almost real (Weizsäcker-Williams) photons. We present numerical estimates of the cross sections for present-day fixed target experiments and for a possible future electron-ion collider.
Kuprikov, V. I.; Pilipenko, V. V.
2013-01-15
A microscopic optical nucleon-nucleus potential constructed on the basis of calculating the mass operator for the single-particle Green's function with Skyrme nucleon-nucleon forces was used to study the effect of the tensor part of Skyrme forces on describing differential cross sections for elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering and the structure of nuclei within a self-consistent approach. It was shown that an increase in the tensor terms of nucleon-nucleon forces impaired the description of nucleon-nucleus scattering within the model being considered. The parameters of Skyrme forces were optimized on the basis of an analysis of cross sections for neutron-nucleus scattering, the properties of nuclear matter and the structure of nuclei being tested in doing this. This optimization led to nucleon-nucleon force versions where the tensor part was small or zero and which described satisfactorily the structure of nuclei and cross sections for elastic neutron and proton scattering on nuclei over a broad range of target mass numbers.
Measurement of the antineutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section
Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cheng, G.; Church, E. D.; Conrad, J. M.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; et al
2015-01-08
We report the measurement of the flux-averaged antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering cross section (dσν-barN→ν-barN/dQ2) on CH2 by the MiniBooNE experiment using the largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic candidate events ever collected. The ratio of the antineutrino to neutrino neutral current elastic scattering cross sections and a ratio of the antineutrino neutral current elastic to antineutrino charged current quasi elastic cross sections are also presented.
Measurement of the antineutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section
Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cheng, G.; Church, E. D.; Conrad, J. M.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Huelsnitz, W.; Ignarra, C.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Louis, W. C.; Mariani, C.; Marsh, W.; Mills, G. B.; Mirabal, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nienaber, P.; Osmanov, B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Tayloe, R.; Van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.
2015-01-08
We report the measurement of the flux-averaged antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering cross section (dσ_{ν-barN→ν-barN}/dQ^{2}) on CH_{2} by the MiniBooNE experiment using the largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic candidate events ever collected. The ratio of the antineutrino to neutrino neutral current elastic scattering cross sections and a ratio of the antineutrino neutral current elastic to antineutrino charged current quasi elastic cross sections are also presented.
Direct extraction of nuclear effects in quasielastic scattering on carbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkinson, Callum; McFarland, Kevin S.
2016-07-01
Nuclear effects on neutrino reactions are expected to be a significant complication in current and future neutrino oscillation experiments seeking precision measurements of neutrino flavor transitions. Calculations of these nuclear effects are hampered by a lack of experimental data comparing neutrino reactions on free nucleons to neutrino reactions on nuclei. We present results from a novel technique that compares neutrino and antineutrino charged current quasielastic scattering on hydrocarbons to extract a cross section ratio of antineutrino charged current elastic reactions on free protons to charged current quasielastic reactions on the protons bound in a carbon nucleus. This measurement of nuclear effects is compared to models.
Electron and Muon production cross-sections in quasielastic ν(ν¯)-Nucleus scattering for Eν < 1GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, F.; Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Chauhan, S.; Singh, S. K.; Zaidi, F.
2015-10-01
In this paper, we have studied (anti)neutrino induced charged current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering from some nuclear targets in the energy region of Eν < 1GeV. Our aim is to confront electron and muon production cross-sections relevant for νμ↔νe or ν¯μ↔ν¯e oscillation experiments. The effects due to lepton mass and its kinematic implications, radiative corrections, second class currents (SCCs) and uncertainties in the axial and pseudoscalar form factors are calculated for (anti)neutrino induced reaction cross-sections on free nucleon as well as the nucleons bound in a nucleus where nuclear medium effects influence the cross-section. For the nuclear medium effects, we have taken some versions of Fermi gas model (FGM) available in the literature. The results for (anti)neutrino-nucleus scattering cross-section per interacting nucleons are compared with the corresponding results in free nucleon case.
Determination of sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/ by muon neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering by electrons
Abe, K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Amako, K.; Aronson, S.H.; Beier, E.W.; Callas, J.L.; Connolly, P.L.; Cutts, D.; Diwan, M.V.; Doughty, D.C.
1988-01-01
Total and differential cross sections for ..nu../sub ..mu../ and /bar /nu///sub ..mu../ elastic scattering by electrons were measured. The best value of sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/, obtained by fits to the differential distributions, was found to be sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/ = 0.195 +- 0.018 +- 0.013. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Constraints on the virtual Compton scattering on the nucleon in a new dispersive formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprini, Irinel
2016-04-01
The dispersive representation of the virtual Compton forward scattering amplitude has been recently reexamined in connection with the evaluation of the Cottingham formula for the proton-neutron electromagnetic mass difference and the proton radius puzzle. The most difficult part of the analysis is related to one of the invariant amplitudes, denoted as T1(ν ,Q2), which requires a subtraction in the standard dispersion relation with respect to the energy ν at fixed photon momentum squared q2=-Q2. We propose an alternative dispersive framework, which implements analyticity and unitarity by combining the Cauchy integral relation at low and moderate energies with the modulus representation of the amplitude at high energies. Using techniques of functional analysis, we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the consistency with analyticity of the subtraction function S1(Q2)=T1(0 ,Q2) , the cross sections measured at low and moderate energies and the Regge model assumed to be valid at high energies. From this condition we obtain model-independent constraints on the subtraction function, confronting them with the available information on nucleon magnetic polarizabilities and results reported recently in the literature. The formalism can be used also for testing the existence of a fixed pole at J =0 in the angular momentum plane, but more accurate data are necessary for a definite answer.
Neutrino and Anti-neutrino Cross Sections at MiniBooNE
Dharmapalan, Ranjan
2011-10-06
The MiniBooNE experiment has reported a number of high statistics neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections -among which are the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and neutral current elastic (NCE) neutrino scattering on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}). Recently a study of the neutrino contamination of the anti-neutrino beam has concluded and the analysis of the anti-neutrino CCQE and NCE scattering is ongoing.
Density and correlation integrals in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering at 490 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Botterweck, F.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kadija, K.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.; Fermilab E665 Collaboration
1994-09-01
Results on density integrals Fq( Q2) and correlation integrals Kq( Q2) are presented for the first time in muon-nucleon scattering at ∼ 490 GeV, using data from the E665 experiment at the Tevatron of Fermilab. A clear rise of the Fq integrals with decreasing size of the phase-space cells (“intermittency”) is observed for pairs and triplets of negative hadrons whereas the effect is much weaker for mixed charge combinations. From these findings it is concluded that the observed intermittency signal is mainly caused by Bose-Einstein interference. Furthermore, no energy ( W) dependence of F2( Q2) is observed within the W range of the E665 experiment. Finally, the third-order correlation integrals K3( Q2) are found to be significantly different from zero which implies the presence of genuine three-particle correlations in muon-nucleon interactions.
Extended-soft-core baryon-baryon model. I. Nucleon-nucleon scattering with the ESC04 interaction
Rijken, Th.A.
2006-04-15
The NN results are presented from the extended-soft-core (ESC) interactions. They consist of local and nonlocal potentials due to (i) one-boson-exchanges (OBE), which are the members of nonets of pseudoscalar, vector, scalar, and axial mesons (ii) diffractive exchanges (iii) two-pseudoscalar exchanges (PS-PS), and (iv) meson-pair exchanges (MPE). We describe a fit to the pp and np data for 0{<=}T{sub lab}{<=}350 MeV, having a typical {chi}{sup 2}/N{sub data}=1.155. Here, we used {approx}20 quasi-free physical parameters, which are coupling constants and cutoff masses. A remarkable feature of the couplings is that we were able to require them to follow rather closely the pattern predicted by the {sup 3}P{sub 0} quark-pair-creation (QPC) model. As a result the 11 OBE couplings are rather constrained, i.e., quasi free. Also, the deuteron binding energy and the several NN scattering lengths are fitted.
Photon emission in neutral current interactions with nucleons and nuclei
Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Nieves, J.; Wang, E.
2015-05-15
We report on our study of photon emission induced by E{sub ν} ∼ 1 GeV (anti)neutrino neutral current interactions with nucleons and nuclei. This process is an important background for ν{sub e} appearance oscillation experiments. At the relevant energies, the reaction is dominated by the excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance but there are also non-resonant contributions that, close to threshold, are fully determined by the effective chiral Lagrangian of strong interactions. We have obtained differential and integrated cross section for the (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering and compare them with previous results. Furthermore, we have extended the model to nuclear targets taking into account Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and the in-medium modifications of the Δ properties. This study is important in order to reduce systematic effects in neutrino oscillation experiments.
Probing Novel Properties of Nucleons and Nuclei via Parity Violating Electron Scattering
Mercado, Luis
2012-05-01
This thesis reports on two experiments conducted by the HAPPEx (Hall A Proton Parity Experiment) collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. For both, the weak neutral current interaction (WNC, mediated by the Z^{0} boson) is used to probe novel properties of hadronic targets. The WNC interaction amplitude is extracted by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in the elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons o unpolarized target hadrons. HAPPEx-III, conducted in the Fall of 2009, used a liquid hydrogen target at a momentum transfer of Q^{2} = 0.62 GeV^{2}. The measured asymmetry was used to set new constraints on the contribution of strange quark form factors (G^{s}_{E,M} ) to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. A value of A_{PV} = -23.803±} 0.778 (stat)± 0.359 (syst) ppm resulted in G^{s}_{E} + 0.517G^{s}_{M} = 0.003± 0.010 (stat)± 0.004 (syst)± 0.009 (FF). PREx, conducted in the Spring of 2010, used a polarized electron beam on a 208Pb target at a momentum transfer of Q^{2} = 0.009 GeV^{2}. This parity-violating asymmetry can be used to obtain a clean measurement of the root-mean-square radius of the neutrons in the ^{208}Pb nucleus. The Z^{0} boson couples mainly to neutrons; the neutron weak charge is much larger than that of the proton. The value of this asymmetry is at the sub-ppm level and has a projected experimental fractional precision of 3%. We will describe the accelerator setup used to set controls on helicity-correlated beam asymmetries and the analysis methods for finding the raw asymmetry for HAPPEx-III. We will also discuss in some detail the preparations to meet the experimental challenges associated with measuring such a small asymmetry with the degree of precision required for PREx.
Three-body break-up in deuteron-deuteron scattering at 65 MeV/nucleon
Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Biegun, A.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Stephenson, E. J.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Gasparic, I.; Kistryn, St.; Sworst, R.; Kozela, A.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Stephan, E.
2011-02-15
In an experiment with a 65 MeV/nucleon polarized deuteron beam on a liquid-deuterium target at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, several multibody final states in deuteron-deuteron scattering were identified. For these measurements, a unique and advanced detection system, called the Big Instrument for Nuclear-polarization Analysis, was utilized. We demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vector and tensor polarization observables of the deuteron break-up reaction leading to a three-body final state. The polarization observables were determined with high precision in a nearly background-free experiment. The analysis procedure and some results are presented.
Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Armstrong, D.S.; Averett, T.; Finn, J.M.; Holmstrom, T.; Kelleher, A.; Moffit, B.; Sulkosky, V.; Benaoum, H.; Holmes, R.; Souder, P.A.; Bertin, P.Y.; Ferdi, C.
2006-01-20
We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from {sup 4}He at an average scattering angle <{theta}{sub lab}>=5.7 deg. and a four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2}=0.091 GeV{sup 2}. From these data, for the first time, the strange electric form factor of the nucleon G{sub E}{sup s} can be isolated. The measured asymmetry of A{sub PV}=(6.72{+-}0.84{sub (stat)}{+-}0.21{sub (syst)})x10{sup -6} yields a value of G{sub E}{sup s}=-0.038{+-}0.042{sub (stat)}{+-}0.010{sub (syst)}, consistent with zero.
Aniol, Konrad; Armstrong, David; Averett, Todd; Benaoum, Hachemi; Bertin, Pierre; Burtin, Etienne; Cahoon, Jason; Cates, Gordon; Chang, C; Chao, Yu-Chiu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Craver, Brandon; Cusanno, Francesco; Decowski, Piotr; Deepa, Deepa; Ferdi, Catherine; Feuerbach, Robert; Finn, John; Frullani, Salvatore; Fuoti, Kirsten; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Gorbenko, V; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmes, Richard; Holmstrom, Timothy; Humensky, Thomas; Ibrahim, Hassan; Jager, Cornelis De; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kowalski, Stanley; Kumar, Krishna; Lambert, Daniel; Laviolette, Peter; LeRose, John; Lhuillier, David; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Mazouz, Malek; McCormick, Kathy; Meekins, David; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Monaghan, Peter; Camacho, Carlos Munoz; Nanda, Sirish; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Neyret, Damien; Paschke, Kent; Poelker, Benard; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Qiang, Yi; Reitz, Bodo; Roche, Julie; Saha, Arunava; Singh, Jaideep; Snyder, Ryan; Souder, Paul; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Vacheret, Antonin; Voutier, Eric; Wang, Kebin; Wilson, R; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Zheng, Xiaochao
2005-06-01
We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from {sup 4}He at an average scattering angle {theta}{sub lab} = 5.7 degrees and a four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2} = 0.091 GeV{sup 2}. From these data, for the first time, the strange electric form factor of the nucleon G{sub E}{sup s} can be isolated. The measured asymmetry of A{sub PV} = 6.72 {+-} 0.84 (stat) {+-} 0.21 (syst) parts per million yields a value of G{sub E}{sup s} = -0.038 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.010 (syst), consistent with zero.
Peripheral elastic and inelastic scattering of {sup 17,18}O on light targets at 12 MeV/nucleon
Carstoiu, F.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Trache, L.
2015-02-24
The elastic and inelastic scattering of {sup 17,18}O with light targets has been undertaken at 12 MeV/nucleon in order to determine the optical potentials needed for the transfer reaction {sup 13}C({sup 17}O,{sup 18}O){sup 12}C. Optical potentials in both incoming and outgoing channels have been determined in a single experiment. This transfer reaction was used to infer the direct capture rate to the {sup 17}F(p,γ){sup 18}Ne which is essential to estimate the production of {sup 18}F at stellar energies in ONe novae. We demonstrate the stability of the ANC method and OMP results using good quality elastic and inelastic scattering data with stable beams. The peripherality of our reaction is inferred from a semiclassical decomposition of the total scattering amplitude into barrier and internal barrier components. Comparison between elastic scattering of {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O and {sup 16}O projectiles is made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boër, Marie
2016-03-01
Hard exclusive processes such as photoproduction or electroproduction of photon or meson off the nucleon provide access to the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), in the regime where the scattering amplitude is factorized into a hard and a soft part. GPDs contain the correlation between the longitudinal momentum fraction and the transverse spatial densities of quarks and gluons in the nucleon. Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS) correspond to the reaction γN → γ*N → e+e-N, where the photon is scattered off a quark. It is measured through its interference with the associated Bethe-Heitler process, which has the same final state. TCS allows to access the GPDs and test their universality by comparison to the results obtained with the DVCS process (eN → eγN). Also, results obtained with TCS provide additional independent constrains to the GPDs parameterization. We will present the physical motivations for TCS, with our theoretical predictions for TCS observables and their dependencies. We calculated for JLab 12 GeV energies all the single and double beam and/or target polarization observables off the proton and off the neutron. We will also present the experimental perspectives for the next years at JLab. Two proposals were already accepted at JLab: in Hall B, with the CLAS12 spectrometer, in order to measure the unpolarized cross section and in Hall A, with the SoLID spectrometer, in order to measure the unpolarized cross section and the beam spin asymmetry at high intensity. A Letter Of Intent was also submitted in order to measure the transverse target spin asymmetries in Hall C. We will discuss the merits of this different experiments and present some of the expected results.
Charged current antineutrino reactions from {sup 12}C at MiniBooNE energies
Athar, M. Sajjad; Ahmad, Shakeb; Singh, S. K.
2007-05-01
A study of charged current induced antineutrino interactions from nuclei has been done for the intermediate energy antineutrinos and applied to {sup 12}C, relevant for ongoing experiment by MiniBooNE collaboration. The calculations have been done for the quasielastic and inelastic lepton production as well as for the incoherent and the coherent pion production processes. The calculations are done in local density approximation. In the case of the quasielastic reaction the effects of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion effects, renormalization of weak transition strengths in nuclear medium and the Coulomb distortion of the outgoing lepton have been taken into account. For the inelastic processes the calculations have been done in the {delta} dominance model and take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion of the nucleon, and renormalization of {delta} properties in a nuclear medium. The effect of final state interactions of pions is also taken into account. The numerical results for the total cross sections for the charged current quasielastic scattering and incoherent pion production processes are compared with earlier experimental results available in freon and freon-propane. It is found that nuclear medium effects give strong reduction in the cross sections leading to satisfactory agreement with the available data.
Radiative effects in scattering of polarized leptons by polarized nucleons and light nuclei
Igor Akushevich; A. Ilyichev; N. Shumeiko
2001-07-01
Recent developments in the field of radiative effects in polarized lepton-nuclear scattering are reviewed. The processes of inclusive, semi-inclusive, diffractive and elastic scattering are considered. The explicit formulae obtained within the covariant approach are discussed. FORTRAN codes POLRAD, RADGEN, HAPRAD, DIFFRAD and MASCARAD created on the basis of the formulae are briefly described. Applications for data analysis of the current experiments on lepton-nuclear scattering at CERN, DESY, SLAC and TJNAF are illustrated by numerical results.
Dynamical Coupled-Channel Model of pi-N scattering in te W < 2 GeV Nucleon Resonane Region
Lee, T S.H.; Julia-diaz, B; Matsuyama, A; Sato, T
2007-12-01
As a first step to analyze the electromagnetic meson production reactions in the nucleon resonance region, the parameters of the hadronic interactions of a dynamical coupled-channel model, developed in {\\it Physics Reports 439, 193 (2007)}, are determined by fitting the empirical $\\pi N$ elastic scattering amplitudes of SAID up to 2 GeV. The channels included in the calculations are $\\pi N$, $\\eta N$ and $\\pi\\pi N$ which has $\\pi\\Delta$, $\\rho N$, and $\\sigma N$ resonant components. The non-resonant meson-baryon interactions of the model are derived from a set of Lagrangians by using a unitary transformation method. One or two bare excited nucleon states in each of $S$, $P$, $D$, and $F$ partial waves are included to generate the resonant amplitudes in the fits. The predicted total cross sections of $\\pi N$ reactions and $\\pi N\\rightarrow \\eta N$ reactions are in good agreement with the data. Applications of the constructed model in analyzing the electromagnetic meson production data as well as the future developments are discussed.
Production of neutral strange particles in muon-nucleon scattering at 490 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. R.; Aderholz, M.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kadija, K.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H. J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, R.; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.
1994-12-01
The production of K 0, Λ andbar Λ particles is studied in the E665 muon-nucleon experiment at Fermilab. The average multiplicities and squared transverse momenta are measured as a function of x F and W 2. Most features of the data can be well described by the Lund model. Within this model, the data on the K0/π± ratios and on the average K 0 multiplicity in the forward region favor a strangeness suppression factor s/u in the fragmentation process near 0.20. Clear evidence for QCD effects is seen in the average squared transverse momentum of K 0 and Λ particles.
Andrei V. Afanasev; Stanley J. Brodsky; Carl E. Carlson; Yu-Chun Chen; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2005-01-01
We estimate the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer by using a quark-parton representation of virtual Compton scattering. We thus can relate the two-photon exchange amplitude to the generalized parton distributions which also enter in other wide angle scattering processes. We find that the interference of one- and two-photon exchange contribution is able to substantially resolve the difference between electric form factor measurements from Rosenbluth and polarization transfer experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kim, K. S.; Kim, Hungchong; So, W. Y.; Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka
2015-04-01
We investigated the in-medium effect by density-dependent axial and weak-vector form factors on muon-neutrino ({{ν }μ }) and anti-muon-neutrino ({{\\bar{ν }}μ }) scattering in the quasi-elastic (QE) region from nucleons (N*) bound in a nucleus or immersed in a nuclear medium via neutral current (NC) and charged current (CC). For the density-dependent form factors, we exploited a quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model. We found that the {{ν }μ }({{\\bar{ν }}μ })-{{N}*} scattering cross sections via NC in the QE region usually decrease with an increased medium density, while those using CC were increased. However, their rate of change was sensitive to the four-momentum transfer given to a bound nucleon through scattering. We compared these results obtained by the elementary process corrected by the in-medium effect to the BNL and MiniBooNE data, which measured {{ν }μ } scattering cross sections per nucleon through {{ν }μ } - 12C scattering in 12C composite targets. The incident energy range was 550 \\lt {{E}ν }\\lt 3000 MeV. We increased the energy up to 100 GeV to compare our results to the NOMAD experimental data. In order to study the density effects on a nucleon embedded in 12C, we exploited the QMC form factors evaluated at ρ =0.5{{ρ }o}, where the normal density {{ρ }o}˜ 0.15 f{{m}-3}. The strangeness contributions in NC scattering are also incorporated into the form factors for comparison with experimental data. Our numerical results show that most of the experimental data can be explained in a satisfactory manner by the density-dependent elementary process, but there are some remaining deviations resulting from the nuclear structure, particularly in the low and high momentum-transfer regions.
Igor Akushevich; Andrei Afanasev; Mykola Merenkov
2001-12-01
The explicit formulae for radiative correction (RC) calculation for elastic ep-scattering is presented. Two typical measurements of polarization observables such as beam-target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization, are considered. Possibilities to take into account realistic experimental acceptances are discussed. The Fortran code MASCARAD for providing the RC procedure is presented. Numerical analysis is done for kinematical conditions of TJNAF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasev, A.; Akushevich, I.; Merenkov, N.
2001-12-01
Explicit formulas for radiative correction (RC) calculations for elastic ep scattering are presented. Two typical measurements of polarization observables, such as beam-target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization, are considered. The possibilities of taking into account realistic experimental acceptances are discussed. The FORTRAN code MASCARAD for providing the RC procedure is presented. A numerical analysis is done for the kinematical conditions of CEBAF.
Modeling single arm electron scattering and nucleon production from nuclei by GeV electrons
Lightbody J.W. Jr.; O'Connell, J.S.
1988-05-01
Nuclear reaction data for the doubly differential cross sections of inelastic electron scattering and of electronucleon and electropion production are parametrized by analytic models of the major reaction mechanisms. Predictive FORTRAN codes for the yields of reaction products have been developed for all nuclei interacting with electrons and bremsstrahlung beams in the energy range 0.5--5 GeV. Comparison with a variety of electromagnetic reaction data is shown.
Elster, C.; Gloeckle, W.
1997-03-01
Transition potentials for elastic p-d scattering and the coupled processes p+{sup 3}He {r_arrow} p+{sup 3}He and n+{sup 3}He {r_arrow} d+d are derived in the Faddeev-Yakubovsky framework with special emphasis on leading order terms, which are expected to be valid at intermediate energies. In addition, equations for the fragmentations {sup 3}He(p,ppp)n and {sup 3}He(p,pp)d are derived within the same framework. Again leading order terms for intermediate energies are considered. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
A phenomenological study of photon production in low energy neutrino nucleon scattering
Jenkins, James P; Goldman, Terry J
2009-01-01
Low energy photon production is an important background to many current and future precision neutrino experiments. We present a phenomenological study of t-channel radiative corrections to neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering. After introducing the relevant processes and phenomenological coupling constants, we will explore the derived energy and angular distributions as well as total cross-section predictions along with their estimated uncertainties. This is supplemented throughout with comments on possible experimental signatures and implications. We conclude with a general discussion of the analysis in the context of complimentary methodologies. This is based on a talk presented at the DPF 2009 meeting in Detroit MI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Wen-Jun; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Newton, William G.
2015-04-01
The neutron-proton effective mass splitting in asymmetric nucleonic matter of isospin asymmetry δ and normal density is found to be mn-p* ≡ (mn* - mp*) / m = (0.41 ± 0.15) δ from analyzing globally 1088 sets of reaction and angular differential cross sections of proton elastic scattering on 130 targets with beam energies from 0.783 MeV to 200 MeV, and 1161 sets of data of neutron elastic scattering on 104 targets with beam energies from 0.05 MeV to 200 MeV within an isospin dependent non-relativistic optical potential model. It sets a useful reference for testing model predictions on the momentum dependence of the nucleon isovector potential necessary for understanding novel structures and reactions of rare isotopes.
Short-Range Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations
Douglas Higinbotham
2011-10-01
Valence-shell nucleon knock-out experiments, such as 12C(e,e'p)11B, measure less strength then is predicted by independent particle shell model calculations. The theoretical solution to this problem is to include the correlations between the nucleons in the nucleus in the calculations. Motivated by these results, many electron scattering experiments have tried to directly observe these correlations in order to gain new insight into the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon potential. Unfortunately, many competing mechanisms can cause the same observable final-state as an initial-state correlation, making truly isolating the signal extremely challenging. This paper reviews the recent experimental evidence for short-range correlations, as well as explores the possibility that such correlations are responsible for the EMC effect in the 0.3 < xB < 0.7 deep inelastic scattering ratios.
Axial structure of the nucleon
Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner
2002-01-01
We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.
Wiringa, R.B.
1996-12-31
Nucleon-nucleon interactions are at the heart of nuclear physics, bridging the gap between QCD and the effective interactions appropriate for the shell model. We discuss the current status of {ital NN} data sets, partial-wave analyses, and some of the issues that go into the construction of potential models. Our remarks are illustrated by reference to the Argonne {ital v}{sub 18} potential, one of a number of new potentials that fit elastic nucleon-nucleon data up to 350 MeV with a {Chi}{sup 2} per datum near 1. We also discuss the related issues of three-nucleon potentials, two-nucleon charge and current operators, and relativistic effects. We give some examples of calculations that can be made using these realistic descriptions of {ital NN} interactions. We conclude with some remarks on how our empirical knowledge of {ital NN} interactions may help constrain models at the quark level, and hence models of nucleon structure.
Adams, M.R.; Arndotied, S.; Anthony, P.L.; Baker, M.D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A.A.; Braun, H.M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J.M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S.K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M.C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V.W.; Jackson, H.E.; Jaffe, D.E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D.M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R.D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H.G.E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lubatti, H.J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D.G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H.E.; Morfin, J.G.; Nickerson, R.B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F.M.; Ramberg, E.J.; Roeser, A.; Ryan, J.J.; Salgado, C.W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schueler, K.P.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G.A.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P.H.; Stier, H.E.; Stopa, P.; S
1994-01-24
The average squared transverse energy of jets in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering is measured as a function of the momentum transfer squared ([ital Q][sup 2]), in the range 3[lt][ital Q][sup 2][lt]25 GeV[sup 2]. Perturbative QCD predicts that the average squared parton transverse energy will depend upon the strong coupling constant ([alpha][sub [ital S
Microscopic model analysis of {sup 11}Li+p elastic scattering at 62, 68.4, and 75 MeV/nucleon
Hassan, M. Y. M.; Farag, M. Y. H.; Esmael, E. H.; Maridi, H. M.
2009-01-15
{sup 11}Li+p elastic scattering data at three energies, 62, 68.4, and 75 MeV/nucleon, are analyzed with density-dependent M3Y and KH effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions in the framework of the single folding model. The parameters of the density-dependent term are adjusted to fulfill saturation of nuclear matter. The optical potentials (OP's) and cross sections are calculated using four model densities of {sup 11}Li, G (one-parameter Gaussian), GG (Gaussian-Gaussian), GO (Gaussian- oscillator), and the COSMA (cluster orbital shell model approximation). Comparative studies are performed for real, imaginary, and spin-orbit potentials with the phenomenological and microscopic forms. The microscopic volume and surface imaginary potentials are constructed from both the renormalized folded potentials and their derivatives. The sensitivity of the differential cross section to the four densities is tested. It is found that the {sup 11}Li+p elastic scattering cross sections depend strongly upon the behavior of the corresponding potentials. The GG and GO densities obtained from analyzing the data, using Glauber multiple scattering theory at high energies, give good results at energies below 100 MeV/nucleon in the framework of the folding model. The OP's calculated in the microscopic form using few parameters give good agreement with the data. Thus, it is not necessary to introduce a large number of arbitrary fitting parameters as done in the phenomenological and semimicroscopic OP's. The KH effective interaction successfully describes {sup 11}Li+p elastic scattering as the popular M3Y interaction. The obtained results of the reaction cross section are in good agreement with previous calculations.
Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.
1985-01-01
The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.
Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.
1985-09-01
The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szableski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.
2014-09-01
Spin-averaged asymmetries in the azimuthal distributions of positive and negative hadrons produced in deep inelastic scattering were measured using the CERN SPS longitudinally polarised muon beam at 160 GeV/c and a 6LiD target. The amplitudes of the three azimuthal modulations cosϕh, cos2ϕh and sinϕh were obtained binning the data separately in each of the relevant kinematic variables x, z or pTh and binning in a three-dimensional grid of these three variables. The amplitudes of the cosϕh and cos2ϕh modulations show strong kinematic dependencies both for positive and negative hadrons.
Reactor antineutrino experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haoqi
2014-05-01
Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive non-zero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference ∣ Δ m2ee∣ = (2.59+0.19-0.20)× 10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.
Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick
2016-03-01
The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.
Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors
Kees de Jager
2004-08-01
Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.
Reactor antineutrino experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haoqi
2014-09-01
Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive nonzero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference \\vertΔ m2ee\\vert\\big (2.59+0.19-0.20\\big )×10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melson, Tobias; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Bollig, Robert; Hanke, Florian; Marek, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard
2015-08-01
Interactions with neutrons and protons play a crucial role for the neutrino opacity of matter in the supernova core. Their current implementation in many simulation codes, however, is rather schematic and ignores not only modifications for the correlated nuclear medium of the nascent neutron star, but also free-space corrections from nucleon recoil, weak magnetism, or strange quarks, which can easily add up to changes of several 10% for neutrino energies in the spectral peak. In the Garching supernova simulations with the Prometheus-Vertex code, such sophistications have been included for a long time except for the strange-quark contributions to the nucleon spin, which affect neutral-current neutrino scattering. We demonstrate on the basis of a 20 {M}ȯ progenitor star that a moderate strangeness-dependent contribution of {g}{{a}}{{s}}=-0.2 to the axial-vector coupling constant {g}{{a}}≈ 1.26 can turn an unsuccessful three-dimensional (3D) model into a successful explosion. Such a modification is in the direction of current experimental results and reduces the neutral-current scattering opacity of neutrons, which dominate in the medium around and above the neutrinosphere. This leads to increased luminosities and mean energies of all neutrino species and strengthens the neutrino-energy deposition in the heating layer. Higher nonradial kinetic energy in the gain layer signals enhanced buoyancy activity that enables the onset of the explosion at ∼300 ms after bounce, in contrast to the model with vanishing strangeness contributions to neutrino–nucleon scattering. Our results demonstrate the close proximity to explosion of the previously published, unsuccessful 3D models of the Garching group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. R.; Arndotïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.
1994-01-01
The average squared transverse energy of jets in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering is measured as a function of the momentum transfer squared (Q2), in the range 3
D. Day
2007-03-01
The nucleon form factors are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.
Elastic scattering and breakup effect analysis of {sup 11}Be+{sup 12}C at 38.4 MeV/nucleon
Hassan, M. Y. M.; Farag, M. Y. H.; Esmael, E. H.; Maridi, H. M.
2009-06-15
{sup 11}Be+{sup 12}C elastic-scattering data at 38.4 MeV/nucleon has been analyzed using the optical model. The optical potential is calculated in the framework of the double folding model using M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. Different models of {sup 11}Be density are tested and the model that does not include the halo structure gives poor fitting with data. The breakup effect is studied by introducing a complex dynamical polarization potential (DPP) that is added to the ''bare'' potential. The DPP is taken in different forms that have been obtained from simple phenomenological, semiclassical approximation, and microscopic methods. The simple phenomenological DPP is related to the semiclassical approximation method. The sensitivity of the differential and reaction cross sections to these polarization potentials is tested. The microscopic DPP that has been constructed from the derivative of the folding potential describes the breakup effect well. It gives an explicit justification for the long range of the polarization potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molochkov, Alexander
The study presented in this paper shows that accounting for the relativistic structure of the deuteron allows to explain the ratio of the Drell-Yan pair production cross-sections at the low Bjorken x off the deuteron and the proton. Thus, the sea quark distributions in the nucleon should be studied with accounting for the effects of the relativistic structure of the deuteron. The suggested approach reduces theoretical uncertainty in extracting the ratio bar {u}/bar {d} from the data and it is important for the clarification of the nature of the sea quark asymmetry in the nucleon.
Charm-Quark Production in Deep-Inelastic Neutrino Scattering at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Edmond L.; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng; Liu, Ze Long; Zhu, Hua Xing
2016-05-01
We present a fully differential next-to-next-to-leading order calculation of charm-quark production in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering, with full charm-quark mass dependence. The next-to-next-to-leading order corrections in perturbative quantum chromodynamics are found to be comparable in size to the next-to-leading order corrections in certain kinematic regions. We compare our predictions with data on dimuon production in (anti)neutrino scattering from a heavy nucleus. Our results can be used to improve the extraction of the parton distribution function of a strange quark in the nucleon.
Berger, Edmond L; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng; Liu, Ze Long; Zhu, Hua Xing
2016-05-27
We present a fully differential next-to-next-to-leading order calculation of charm-quark production in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering, with full charm-quark mass dependence. The next-to-next-to-leading order corrections in perturbative quantum chromodynamics are found to be comparable in size to the next-to-leading order corrections in certain kinematic regions. We compare our predictions with data on dimuon production in (anti)neutrino scattering from a heavy nucleus. Our results can be used to improve the extraction of the parton distribution function of a strange quark in the nucleon. PMID:27284650
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Jackson, H. E.; Reimer, P. E.; HERMES Collaboration; Physics; Univ. of Michigan; Yerevan Physics Inst.; Univ. of Illinois; DESY Lab.
2008-01-01
The momentum and helicity density distributions of the strange quark sea in the nucleon are obtained in leading order from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron. The distributions are extracted from spin-averaged K{sup {+-}} multiplicities, and from K{sup {+-}} and inclusive double-spin asymmetries for scattering of polarized positrons by a polarized deuterium target. The shape of the momentum distribution is softer than that of the average of the {bar u} and {bar d} quarks. In the region of measurement 0.02 < x < 0.6 and Q{sup 2} > 1.0 GeV{sup 2}, the helicity distribution is zero within experimental uncertainties.
Few-nucleon systems with state-of-the-art chiral nucleon-nucleon forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binder, S.; Calci, A.; Epelbaum, E.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Golak, J.; Hebeler, K.; Kamada, H.; Krebs, H.; Langhammer, J.; Liebig, S.; Maris, P.; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Minossi, D.; Nogga, A.; Potter, H.; Roth, R.; Skibiński, R.; Topolnicki, K.; Vary, J. P.; Witała, H.; Lenpic Collaboration
2016-04-01
We apply improved nucleon-nucleon potentials up to fifth order in chiral effective field theory, along with a new analysis of the theoretical truncation errors to study nucleon-deuteron (N d ) scattering and selected low-energy observables in 3H,4He , and 6Li. Calculations beyond second order differ from experiment well outside the range of quantified uncertainties, providing truly unambiguous evidence for missing three-nucleon forces within the employed framework. The sizes of the required three-nucleon-force contributions agree well with expectations based on Weinberg's power counting. We identify the energy range in elastic N d scattering best suited to study three-nucleon-force effects and estimate the achievable accuracy of theoretical predictions for various observables.
Devan, Joshua D.
2015-01-01
Neutrinos are a nearly massless, neutral particle in the Standard Model that only interact via the weak interaction. Experimental confirmation of neutrino oscillations, in which a neutrino created as a particular type (electron, muon or tau) can be observed as a different type after propagating some distance, earned the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments rely on accurate measurements of neutrino interactions with matter, such as that presented here. Neutrinos also provide a unique probe of the nucleus, complementary to electron scattering experiments. This thesis presents a measurement of the charged-current inclusive cross section for muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the energy range 2 to 50 GeV with the MINERvA detector. MINERvA is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab, near Chicago. A cross section measures the probability of an interaction occurring, measured here as a function of neutrino energy. To extract a cross section from data, the observed rate of interactions is corrected for detector efficiency and divided by the number of scattering nucleons in the target and the flux of neutrinos in the beam. The neutrino flux is determined with the low-$\
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kievsky, A.
2005-04-01
Recent advances in the theoretical description of few-nucleon systems are reported. This research activity has been performed under the Italian project FISICA TEORICA DEL NUCLEO E DEI SISTEMI A MOLTI CORPI. Bound and scattering states as well as specific reactions are analyzed in connection with the current experimental activity.
Precision spectroscopy with reactor antineutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Patrick; Schwetz, Thomas
2004-09-01
In this work we present an accurate parameterization of the antineutrino flux produced by the isotopes 235U, 239Pu, and 241Pu in nuclear reactors. We determine the coefficients of this parameterization, as well as their covariance matrix, by performing a fit to spectra inferred from experimentally measured beta spectra. Subsequently we show that flux shape uncertainties play only a minor role in the KamLAND experiment, however, we find that future reactor-neutrino experiments to measure the mixing angle θ13 are sensitive to the fine details of the reactor-neutrino spectra. Finally, we investigate the possibility to determine the isotopic composition in nuclear reactors through an antineutrino measurement. We find that with a three month exposure of a 1ton detector the isotope fractions and the thermal reactor power can be determined at a few percent accuracy, which may open the possibility of an application for safeguard or nonproliferation objectives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration
2016-04-01
We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 ×104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn=9.4 ×10-41 cm2 (σp=2.9 ×10-39 cm2 ) at 33 GeV /c2 . The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Carroll, T. J.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C. W.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H. J.; Venkataramania, H.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.
1996-03-01
We have used the energy-energy angular pattern of hadrons in inelastic muon-deuteron scattering to study perturbative QCD effects and to extract the gluon distribution function ηG( η) of the nucleon, where η is the fractional momentum carried by the gluon. The data were taken with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 490 GeV. We present ηG( η) for 0.005< η<0.05 and at an average Q 2 of 8 GeV2 using this new technique. We find that ηG( η) in this region can be described by ηG( η) α ηλ with λ=-0.87±0.09( stat.)±{0.37/0.32}( sys.). We compare our results to expectations from various parametrizations of the parton distribution function and also to results from HERA.
Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D-M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O'Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C
2016-04-22
We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4×10^{4} kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σ_{n}=9.4×10^{-41} cm^{2} (σ_{p}=2.9×10^{-39} cm^{2}) at 33 GeV/c^{2}. The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date. PMID:27152786
Akerib, D. S.
2016-04-20
Here, we present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 × 104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn = 9.4 × 10–41 cm2 (σp = 2.9 × 10–39 cm2) at 33 GeV/c2. Themore » spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.« less
Fanelli, Cristiano V.
2015-03-01
In this thesis work, results of the analysis of the polarization transfers measured in real Compton scattering (RCS) by the Collaboration E07-002 at the Je fferson Lab Hall-C are presented. The data were collected at large scattering angle (theta_cm = 70deg) and with a polarized incident photon beam at an average energy of 3.8 GeV. Such a kind of experiments allows one to understand more deeply the reaction mechanism, that involves a real photon, by extracting both Compton form factors and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) (also relevant for possibly shedding light on the total angular momentum of the nucleon). The obtained results for the longitudinal and transverse polarization transfers K_LL and K_LT, are of crucial importance, since they confirm unambiguously the disagreement between experimental data and pQCD prediction, as it was found in E99-114 experiment, and favor the Handbag mechanism. The E99-114 and E07-002 results can contribute to attract new interest on the great yield of the Compton scattering by a nucleon target, as demonstrated by the recent approval of an experimental proposal submitted to the Jefferson Lab PAC 42 for a Wide-angle Compton Scattering experiment, at 8 and 10 GeV Photon Energies. The new experiments approved to run with the updated 12 GeV electron beam at JLab, are characterized by much higher luminosities, and a new GEM tracker is under development to tackle the challenging backgrounds. Within this context, we present a new multistep tracking algorithm, based on (i) a Neural Network (NN) designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector which allows the track identification, and (ii) the application of both a Kalman filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother to further improve the track reconstruction. The full procedure, i.e. NN and filtering, appears very promising, with high performances in terms of both association effciency and reconstruction accuracy, and these preliminary results will
Weak production of strange particles off the nucleon
Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Simo, I. Ruiz; Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente
2015-05-15
The strange particle production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos is investigated at low and intermediate energies. We develop a microscopic model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangian. The studied mechanisms are the main source of single kaon production for (anti)neutrino energies up to 1.5 GeV. Using this model we have also studied the associated production of kaons and hyperons. The cross sections are large enough to be measured by experiments such as MINERνA, T2K and NOνA.
Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector
Himmel, Alexander I.
2011-05-01
This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for v_{μ} → $\\bar{v}$_{μ} transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ$\\bar{m}$_{atm} ^{2}| = (3.36_{-0.40}^{+0.46}(stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10^{-3} eV^{2} and sin^{2}(2$\\bar{θ}$_{23}) = 0.860_{-0.12}^{+0.11}(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.
AGM2015: Antineutrino Global Map 2015.
Usman, S M; Jocher, G R; Dye, S T; McDonough, W F; Learned, J G
2015-01-01
Every second greater than 10(25) antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics. Mapping the anisotropic antineutrino flux and energy spectrum advance geoscience by defining the amount and distribution of radioactive power within Earth while critically evaluating competing compositional models of the planet. We present the Antineutrino Global Map 2015 (AGM2015), an experimentally informed model of Earth's surface antineutrino flux over the 0 to 11 MeV energy spectrum, along with an assessment of systematic errors. The open source AGM2015 provides fundamental predictions for experiments, assists in strategic detector placement to determine neutrino mass hierarchy, and aids in identifying undeclared nuclear reactors. We use cosmochemically and seismologically informed models of the radiogenic lithosphere/mantle combined with the estimated antineutrino flux, as measured by KamLAND and Borexino, to determine the Earth's total antineutrino luminosity at . We find a dominant flux of geo-neutrinos, predict sub-equal crust and mantle contributions, with ~1% of the total flux from man-made nuclear reactors. PMID:26323507
AGM2015: Antineutrino Global Map 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usman, S. M.; Jocher, G. R.; Dye, S. T.; McDonough, W. F.; Learned, J. G.
2015-09-01
Every second greater than 1025 antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics. Mapping the anisotropic antineutrino flux and energy spectrum advance geoscience by defining the amount and distribution of radioactive power within Earth while critically evaluating competing compositional models of the planet. We present the Antineutrino Global Map 2015 (AGM2015), an experimentally informed model of Earth’s surface antineutrino flux over the 0 to 11 MeV energy spectrum, along with an assessment of systematic errors. The open source AGM2015 provides fundamental predictions for experiments, assists in strategic detector placement to determine neutrino mass hierarchy, and aids in identifying undeclared nuclear reactors. We use cosmochemically and seismologically informed models of the radiogenic lithosphere/mantle combined with the estimated antineutrino flux, as measured by KamLAND and Borexino, to determine the Earth’s total antineutrino luminosity at . We find a dominant flux of geo-neutrinos, predict sub-equal crust and mantle contributions, with ~1% of the total flux from man-made nuclear reactors.
AGM2015: Antineutrino Global Map 2015
Usman, S.M.; Jocher, G.R.; Dye, S.T.; McDonough, W.F.; Learned, J.G.
2015-01-01
Every second greater than 1025 antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics. Mapping the anisotropic antineutrino flux and energy spectrum advance geoscience by defining the amount and distribution of radioactive power within Earth while critically evaluating competing compositional models of the planet. We present the Antineutrino Global Map 2015 (AGM2015), an experimentally informed model of Earth’s surface antineutrino flux over the 0 to 11 MeV energy spectrum, along with an assessment of systematic errors. The open source AGM2015 provides fundamental predictions for experiments, assists in strategic detector placement to determine neutrino mass hierarchy, and aids in identifying undeclared nuclear reactors. We use cosmochemically and seismologically informed models of the radiogenic lithosphere/mantle combined with the estimated antineutrino flux, as measured by KamLAND and Borexino, to determine the Earth’s total antineutrino luminosity at . We find a dominant flux of geo-neutrinos, predict sub-equal crust and mantle contributions, with ~1% of the total flux from man-made nuclear reactors. PMID:26323507
Suvorova, O. V. Boliev, M. M. Demidov, S. V. Mikheyev, S. P.
2013-11-15
The results of a neutrino experiment that involved 24.12 yr of live time of observation of muons from the lower Earth's hemisphere with the aid of the Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope are presented. In the problem of searches for a signal from the annihilation of dark matter in the Sun, an upper limit on the cross section for the elastic scattering of a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) on a nucleon was obtained at a 90% confidence level from an analysis of data accumulated within 21.15 yr of live time of observation. A neutralino in a nonminimal supersymmetric theory was considered for a WIMP. The best limit at the Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope on the cross section for spin-dependent neutralino interactionwith a proton corresponds to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} pb for the neutralino mass of 210 GeV/c{sup 2}. This limit is three orders of magnitude more stringent than similar limits obtained in experiments that detected directly WIMP scattering on target nuclei.
Towards a Microscopic Understanding of Nucleon Polarizabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichmann, Gernot
2016-07-01
We outline a microscopic framework to calculate nucleon Compton scattering from the level of quarks and gluons within the covariant Faddeev approach. We explain the connection with hadronic expansions of the Compton scattering amplitude and discuss the obstacles in maintaining electromagnetic gauge invariance. Finally we give preliminary results for the nucleon polarizabilities.
Toward reactor monitoring with antineutrinos
Guillon, Benoit; Cormon, S.; Fallot, M.; Giot, L.; Martino, J.; Cribier, M.; Lasserre, T.
2007-07-01
The fundamental knowledge on neutrino properties acquired in recent years as well as the great experimental progress made on neutrino detection open nowadays the possibility of applied neutrino physics. Among it, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) asked to its member states to study the possibility of nuclear reactor monitoring applications, such as the thermal power measurement or the fuel composition bookkeeping. In this context, we report studies aiming at a better determination of the antineutrino energy spectrum emitted by nuclear power plants, necessary for reactor monitoring applications, but also for experiments studying the ground properties of these particles. (authors)
Bhattacharya, Debdatta; /Pittsburgh U.
2009-03-01
This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 10{sup 6} neutrino events and 1.60 x 10{sup 5} antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.
Gårdestig, A; Phillips, D R
2006-06-16
We show that chiral symmetry and gauge invariance enforce relations between the short-distance physics that occurs in a number of electroweak and pionic reactions on light nuclei. Within chiral perturbation theory, this is manifested via the appearance of the same axial isovector two-body contact term in pi(-)d --> nngamma, p-wave pion production in NN collisions, tritium beta decay, pp fusion, nud scattering, and the hep reaction. Using a Gamow-Teller matrix element obtained from calculations of pp fusion as input, we compute the neutron spectrum obtained in pi(-)d --> nngamma. With the short-distance physics in this process controlled from pp --> de(=)nu(e), the theoretical uncertainty in the nn scattering length extracted from pi(-)d --> nngamma is reduced by a factor larger than 3, to approximately < or = 0.05 fm. PMID:16803373
Is Deuterium Nuclear Fusion Catalyzed by Antineutrinos?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shomer, Isaac
2010-02-01
The hypothesis of Fischbach and Jenkins that neutrinos emitted from the sun accelerate radioactive decay is noted. It is thought that neutrinos accelerate beta decay by reacting with neutron-rich nuclides to form a beta particle and a daughter product, with no antineutrino emitted. Conversely, it is proposed that antineutrinos can react with proton-rich nuclides to cause positron decay, with no neutrino emitted. It is also proposed that the nuclear fusion of the hydrogen bomb is triggered not only by the energy of the igniting fission bomb, but by the antineutrinos created by the rapid beta decay of the daughter products in the fission process. The contemplated mechanism for antineutrino initiated fusion is the following: 1. The antineutrinos from the fission daughter products cause positron decay of deuterium by the process outlined above. 2. In a later fusion step, these positrons subsequently react with neutrons in deuterium to create antineutrinos. Electrons are unavailable to annihilate positrons in the plasma of the hydrogen bomb. 3. These antineutrinos thereafter react with more deuterium to form positrons, thereby propagating a chain reaction. )
Precise measurement of neutrino and anti-neutrino differential cross sections
Tzanov, M.; Naples, D.; Boyd, S.; McDonald, J.; Radescu, V.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; deBarbaro, L.; deBarbaro, P.; Bernstein, R.H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R.B.; Fleming, B.T.; Frey, R.; /Pittsburgh U. /Cincinnati U. /Columbia U. /Fermilab /Kansas State U. /Northwestern U. /Oregon U. /Rochester U.
2005-09-01
The NuTeV experiment at Fermilab has obtained a unique high statistics sample of neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions using its high-energy sign-selected beam. We present a measurement of the differential cross section for charged-current neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering from iron. Structure functions, F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) and xF{sub 3}(x,Q{sup 2}), are determined by fitting the inelasticity, y, dependence of the cross sections. This measurement has significantly improved systematic precision as a consequence of more precise understanding of hadron and muon energy scales.
Final Report for Monitoring of Reactor Antineutrinos with Compact Germanium Detectors
Orrell, John L.; Collar, J. I.
2009-07-01
This 2008 NCMR project has pursued measurement of the antineutrino-nucleus coherent scattering interaction using a low-energy threshold germanium gamma-ray spectrometer of roughly one-half kilogram total mass. These efforts support development of a compact system for monitoring the antineutrino emission from nuclear reactor cores. Such a monitoring system is relevant to nuclear safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation in general by adding a strong method for assuring quantitative material balance of special nuclear material in the nuclear fuel cycle used in electricity generation.
Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowden, N. S.
2008-11-01
Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore orer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several erorts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.
Nucleon Spin And Structure Studies With COMPASS
Platchkov, Stephane
2006-07-11
The COMPASS experiment at CERN investigates nucleon structure and spectroscopy with high-intensity muon and hadron beams. Between 2002 and 2004 COMPASS has mainly concentrated on the spin structure of the nucleon via deep-inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized nucleons. First results include measurements of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin via charm production and high-pt pairs, {lambda} polarization, vector-meson production, Collins and Sivers asymmetries, inclusive and semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering asymmetries and a search for pentaquark states. A short overview of these results is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Heß, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Morreale, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novakova, C.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmïden, H.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.
2013-11-01
The differential cross section for the production of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in the scattering of 160GeV/c muons off nucleons at low photon virtualities has been measured at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The results, which cover transverse momenta from 1.1GeV/c to 3.6GeV/c, are compared to a perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculation, in order to evaluate the applicability of pQCD to this process in the kinematic domain of the experiment. The shape of the calculated differential cross section as a function of transverse momentum is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, but the absolute scale is underestimated by next-to-leading order pQCD. The inclusion of all-order resummation of large logarithmic threshold corrections reduces the discrepancy from a factor of 3 to 4 to a factor of 2. The dependence of the cross section on the pseudorapidity and on the virtual photon energy fraction is investigated. Finally the dependence on the charge of the hadrons is discussed.
Precompound nucleon angular distributions in the continuum
Blann, M.; Scobel, W.; Plechaty, E.
1985-08-01
Angular distributions for nucleon induced reactions (incident energies 14 to 90 MeV) leading to precompound nucleon emission in the continuum (emitted particle energies 9-70 MeV) are calculated based on nucleon-nucleon scattering kinematics for an incident nucleon on a Fermi gas. Analytic expressions due to Kikuchi and Kawai are used for the single scattering kernel. The geometry dependent hybrid model is used to generate the differential cross sections for first, second, etc. order scattering, these weightings being used to fold the single scattering kernel. Results are found to reproduce all experimental angular distributions quite well at angles in the 20/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ range. Ad-hoc modifications to approximate quantal effects and Coulomb deflections are explored, but the results do not seem to offer a consistent means of reproducing back angle yields, and give generally poorer results at very forward angles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berge, P.; Blondel, A.; Böckmann, P.; Burkhardt, H.; Dydak, F.; de Groot, J. G. H.; Grant, A. L.; Hagelberg, R.; Hughes, E. W.; Krasny, M.; Meyer, H. J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Rothberg, J.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wahl, H.; Williams, R. W.; Wotschack, J.; Wysłouch, B.; Blümer, H.; Brummel, H. D.; Buchholz, P.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Kampschulte, B.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Müller, E.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B.; Belusević, R.; Falkenburg, B.; Fiedler, M.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hepp, V.; Keilwerth, H.; Kurz, N.; Tittel, K.; Debu, P.; Guyot, C.; Merlo, J. P.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Schuller, J. P.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.; Abramowicz, H.; Królikowski, J.; Lipniacka, A.
1987-12-01
Neutrino and antineutrino total charged current cross sections on iron were measured in the 100, 160, and 200 GeV narrow band beams at the CERN SPS in the energy range 10 to 200 GeV. Assuming σ/ E to be constant, the values corrected for non-isoscalarity are σv/E = (0.686 ± 0.019) * 10-38 cm2/ (GeV · nucleon) and σv/E = (0.339 ± 0.010) * 10-38 cm2/ (GeV·nucleon). Between 50 and 150 GeV no energy dependence of σ/ E was observed within ±3% for neutrino and ±4% for antineutrino interactions.
Weak η production off the nucleon
Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente
2015-05-15
The weak η-meson production off the nucleon induced by (anti)neutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies, the range of interest for several ongoing and future neutrino experiments. We consider Born diagrams and the excitation of N{sup *} (1535)S{sub 11} and N{sup *} (1650)S{sub 11} resonances. The vector part of the N-S{sub 11} transition form factors has been obtained from the MAID helicity amplitudes while the poorly known axial part is constrained with the help of the partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC) and assuming the pion-pole dominance of the pseudoscalar form factor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radici, Marco
2014-07-01
Starting from the interpretation of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors in terms of charge/magnetic density, we illustrate the need and the advantages of a multidimensional exploration of the structure of the nucleon, and in general of hadrons. We introduce new tools, like the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) and the Transverse Momentum Distributions (TMDs), which enable us to explore the dynamics of partons beyond the usual collinear approximation adopted in the QCD analysis of hard processes. We emphasize the possibility of using these tools to address the (orbital) angular momentum of partons, and we highlight the latest results on the partonic decomposition of the nucleon spin. We briefly touch on the possible breaking of universality for a specific category of TMDs; as an example, we describe the Sivers effect as a fundamental test of our understanding of the color force in QCD.
A Precise Measurement of Reactor Antineutrino at RENO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, J. S.
2014-06-01
RENO is the reactor experiment to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ1 3 by observing the disappearance of the reactor antineutrino. Antineutrinos from six reactors at Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant in Korea, are detected and compared by two identical detectors located at 294 m and 1383 m, respectively, from the center of the reactor array. The far (near) detector observes 73 (780) electron antineutrino candidate events per day after background subtraction with the precise measurement of reactor antineutrino flux. In this paper, an updated result is presented about the energy spectra of antineutrino signals in RENO detectors. A precise measurement of reactor antineutrino flux is also presented in comparison with expectations.
Terrestrial and Reactor Antineutrinos in Borexino
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, M. C.; Calaprice, F. P.; Rothschild, C. G.
1998-10-01
The Earth is an abundant source of antineutrinos coming from the decay of radioactive elements in the mantle and crust. Detecting these antineutrinos is a challenge due to their small cross section and low energies. The Borexino solar neutrino experiment will also be an excellent detector for barν_e. With 300 tons of ultra-low-background liquid scintillator, surrounded by an efficient muon veto, the inverse-β-decay reaction: barνe + p arrow e^+ + n (Q = 1.8 MeV), can be exploited to detect terrestrial antineutrinos from the uranium and thorium decay chains, with little background. A direct measurement of the total uranium and thorium abundance would establish important geophysical constraints on the heat generation and thermal history of the Earth. Starting with the most recent uranium and thorium distribution and abundance data, and employing a global map of crustal type and thickness, we calculated the antineutrino fluxes for several sites. We estimate a terrestrial antineutrino event rate in Borexino of 10 events per year. This small signal can be distinguished over the neutrino background from the world's nuclear power reactors by measuring the positron energy spectrum from the barνe events. The possibility to perform a long-baseline oscillation experiment, reaching Δ m^2 ≈ 10-6 eV^2, using the nuclear reactors in Europe will also be discussed.
Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.
2012-11-01
The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.
A Direction-Sensitive Detector for Electron Antineutrinos
Brooks, F. D.; Drosg, M.; Smit, F. D.
2011-12-13
A modular design is proposed for an electron antineutrino detector based on boron-doped liquid scintillator. Tests have been carried out on small detector systems using neutrons to simulate the antineutrino detection signature. Results from these tests are reported, and the possibility of using a larger system of similar design to detect reactor antineutrinos is discussed.
A Direction-Sensitive Detector for Electron Antineutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, F. D.; Drosg, M.; Smit, F. D.
2011-12-01
A modular design is proposed for an electron antineutrino detector based on boron-doped liquid scintillator. Tests have been carried out on small detector systems using neutrons to simulate the antineutrino detection signature. Results from these tests are reported, and the possibility of using a larger system of similar design to detect reactor antineutrinos is discussed.
Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier
Carlson, Carl E.
2013-11-07
We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.
Antineutrino Monitoring for Heavy Water Reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Eric; Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas E.
2014-07-01
In this Letter we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a nonproliferation measure. An above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet IAEA verification goals for reactor plutonium inventories. While detectors with the needed spectral sensitivity have been demonstrated below ground, additional research and development is needed to demonstrate an above-ground detector with this same level of sensitivity. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shut down, provided very low detector backgrounds can be achieved. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to reestablish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary.
Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei
Leitch, M.J.
1989-01-01
Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.
Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions
Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.
2012-01-01
Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.
Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions
Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.
2012-01-01
Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.
Hybrid method to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy by supernova (anti)neutrino induced reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vale, D.; Rauscher, T.; Paar, N.
2016-02-01
We introduce a hybrid method to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy by simultaneous measurements of responses of at least two detectors to antineutrino and neutrino fluxes from accretion and cooling phases of core-collapse supernovae. The (anti)neutrino-nucleus cross sections for 56Fe and 208Pb are calculated in the framework of the relativistic nuclear energy density functional and weak interaction Hamiltonian, while the cross sections for inelastic scattering on free protons p(bar nue,e+)n are obtained using heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The modelling of (anti)neutrino fluxes emitted from a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova include collective and Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects inside the exploding star. The particle emission rates from the elementary decay modes of the daughter nuclei are calculated for normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. It is shown that simultaneous use of (anti)neutrino detectors with different target material allows to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the ratios of νe- and bar nue-induced particle emissions. This hybrid method favors neutrinos from the supernova cooling phase and the implementation of detectors with heavier target nuclei (208Pb) for the neutrino sector, while for antineutrinos the use of free protons in mineral oil or water is the appropriate choice.
Polarized target for nucleon-nucleon experiments at Saturne II
Ball, J. |; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Sans, J.
1995-09-01
Continuous improvements of SATURNE polarized target resulted in a flexible and reliable facility for spin physics. For polarized neutron target, two cartridges loaded with {sup 6}{ital LiD} and {sup 6}{ital LiH} are set in the refrigerator and can be quickly inserted in the beam. The polarized proton target is a 70 cm{sup 3} cartridge loaded with Pentanol-2, a promising material according to the results obtained. Angular distribution as a function of a kinematically conjugate angle and coplanarity in nucleon-nucleon scattering is shown for different targets. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}
Dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon collisions revisited
Shyam, Radhey; Mosel, Ulrich
2009-01-01
We present a fully relativistic and gauge invariant framework for calculating the cross sections of dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) collisions which is based on the meson-exchange approximation for the $NN$ scattering amplitudes. Prediction of our model are compared with those of other covariant models that have been used earlier to describe this reaction. Our results are also compared with those of the semiclassical models of this reaction which are employed in the transport model calculations of the dilepton production in nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is found that cross sections obtained within the semiclassical and quantum mechanical models differ noticeably from each other.
Some measurements for determining strangeness matrix elements in the nucleon
Henley, E.M.; Pollock, S.J.; Ying, S. ); Frederico, T. , Sao Jose dos Campos, SP . Inst. de Estudos Avancados); Krein, . Inst. de Fisica Teorica); Williams, A.G. )
1991-01-01
Some experiments to measure strangeness matrix elements of the proton are proposed. Two of these suggestions are described in some detail, namely electro-production of phi mesons and the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering for isospin zero targets such as deuterium.
Some measurements for determining strangeness matrix elements in the nucleon
Henley, E.M.; Pollock, S.J.; Ying, S.; Frederico, T.; Krein,; Williams, A.G.
1991-12-31
Some experiments to measure strangeness matrix elements of the proton are proposed. Two of these suggestions are described in some detail, namely electro-production of phi mesons and the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering for isospin zero targets such as deuterium.
Weak charged and neutral current induced one pion production off the nucleon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafi Alam, M.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Chauhan, S.; Singh, S. K.
2016-02-01
We present a study of neutrino/antineutrino induced charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) single pion production (SPP) off the nucleon. For this, we have considered P33(1232) resonance, nonresonant background (NRB) terms, other higher resonances like P11(1440), S11(1535), D13(1520), S11(1650) and P13(1720). For the NRB terms a microscopic approach based on SU(2) nonlinear sigma model has been used. The vector form factors for the resonances are obtained by using the relationship between the electromagnetic resonance form factors and helicity amplitudes provided by MAID. Axial coupling C5A(0) in the case of P33(1232) resonance is obtained by fitting the ANL and BNL ν-deuteron reanalyzed scattering data. The results are presented with and without deuteron effect for the total scattering cross-sections for all possible channels, viz. νl(ν¯l)+N → l-(l+)+N‧+πi and νl(ν¯l)+N → νl(ν¯l)+N‧ + πi, where N,N‧ = p,n, πi = π± or π0 and l = e,μ.
Reactor antineutrino fluxes - Status and challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Patrick
2016-07-01
In this contribution we describe the current understanding of reactor antineutrino fluxes and point out some recent developments. This is not intended to be a complete review of this vast topic but merely a selection of observations and remarks, which despite their incompleteness, will highlight the status and the challenges of this field.
Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Fiorentini, Giovanni; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara; Strati, Virginia; Xhixha, Gerti
2015-03-01
Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework, we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO +), and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA, and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation, and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo-based approach, which provides an overall site-dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes, and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of ten years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.
Neutrino-antineutrino annihilation around collapsing star
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berezinsky, V. S.; Prilutsky, O. F.
1985-01-01
Stellar collapse is accompanied by emission of E sub neutrino approximately 10 MeV neutrinos and antineutrinos with the energy output W sub neutrino approximately 10 to the 53rd power to 10 to the 54th power erg. Annihilation of these particles in the vicinity of collapsar is considered. The physical consequences are discussed.
Determination of antineutrino spectra from nuclear reactors
Huber, Patrick
2011-08-15
In this paper we study the effect of well-known higher-order corrections to the allowed {beta}-decay spectrum on the determination of antineutrino spectra resulting from the decays of fission fragments. In particular, we try to estimate the associated theory errors and find that induced currents like weak magnetism may ultimately limit our ability to improve the current accuracy and under certain circumstance could even greatly increase the theoretical errors. We also perform a critical evaluation of the errors associated with our method to extract the antineutrino spectrum using synthetic {beta} spectra. It turns out that a fit using only virtual {beta} branches with a judicious choice of the effective nuclear charge provides results with a minimal bias. We apply this method to actual data for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu and confirm, within errors, recent results, which indicate a net 3% upward shift in energy-averaged antineutrino fluxes. However, we also find significant shape differences which can, in principle, be tested by high-statistics antineutrino data samples.
Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology
Signell, P.
1981-03-01
This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the ..pi..N and ..pi pi.. physical regions of the N anti N ..-->.. ..pi pi.. amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers.
Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons
Meissner, U.G.
1991-09-01
I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, {pi}N scattering and the {sigma}-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon.
Simulated antineutrino signatures of nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misner, Alex C.
2008-10-01
Antineutrino detectors could provide a valuable addition to current safeguards regimes. Antineutrinos are an attractive emission to monitor due to their low interaction cross-section that prevents them from being shielded and the dependence of their spectrum on the power level and isotopic content of a reactor core. While there are antineutrino detectors currently deployed at an operational reactor, such observations cannot predict the effect of the diversion of nuclear material on the antineutrino emissions. Utilizing simulation tools, one can predict the antineutrino signatures of such abnormal operations and other reactor types that have not been experimentally measured. This study simulates reactor cores with assembly-level resolution for both baseline and diversion cases in order to predict the properties of a detector for measuring the differences in the antineutrino signatures.
A Precise Measurement of Reactor Antineutrino at RENO
Jang, J.S.
2014-06-15
RENO is the reactor experiment to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 1}3 by observing the disappearance of the reactor antineutrino. Antineutrinos from six reactors at Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant in Korea, are detected and compared by two identical detectors located at 294 m and 1383 m, respectively, from the center of the reactor array. The far (near) detector observes 73 (780) electron antineutrino candidate events per day after background subtraction with the precise measurement of reactor antineutrino flux. In this paper, an updated result is presented about the energy spectra of antineutrino signals in RENO detectors. A precise measurement of reactor antineutrino flux is also presented in comparison with expectations.
Parity violation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction
Haeberli, W.
1981-01-01
A short review is presented of experiments designed to detect parity nonconservation (PNC) in the interaction between nucleons. A recent measurement of PNC in proton-proton scattering is described, and some of the methods which were developed to reduce systematic errors to less than or equal to 2 x 10/sup -8/ are discussed. The results of this experiment and of other measurements on PNC are compared to theoretical predictions.
Cooperative Monitoring of Reactors with Antineutrino Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keefer, Greg
2010-11-01
The current state-of-the-art in antineutrino detection is such that it is now possible to monitor the operational status, power levels and fissile content of nuclear reactors in real-time at standoff distances of a few tens of meters, well outside of the reactor containment. This has been demonstrated at civilian power reactors in both Russia and the United States. In the last few years, the International Atomic Energy Agency has begun to consider the potential of this technology for its reactor safeguards regime. In this talk, I describe the state of the art for this application, and emphasize the natural overlap with ongoing efforts in fundamental physics to measure the oscillations of antineutrinos using reactor sources.
Flux and spectrum of reactor antineutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeikin, V. I.
2012-02-01
In order to perform reactor experiments aimed at studying the nature of the neutrino and measurements in the realms of geo- and astrophysical neutrinos and to meet practical requirements in this field, it is highly desirable to obtain deeper insight into the operation of nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos. The fluxes and spectra of neutrinos from a reactor in the on and off modes and from a reservoir intended for storing a spent reactor fuel and situated near the reactor being considered are calculated. Features that are peculiar to the flux and spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and which are of importance for implementing and interpreting experiments, but which were disregarded previously, are analyzed here.
Improved predictions of reactor antineutrino spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Fallot, M.; Letourneau, A.; Cormon, S.; Fechner, M.; Giot, L.; Lasserre, T.; Martino, J.; Mention, G.; Porta, A.; Yermia, F.
2011-05-01
Precise predictions of the antineutrino spectra emitted by nuclear reactors is a key ingredient in measurements of reactor neutrino oscillations as well as in recent applications to the surveillance of power plants in the context of nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. We report new calculations including the latest information from nuclear databases and a detailed error budget. The first part of this work is the so-called ab initio approach where the total antineutrino spectrum is built from the sum of all β branches of all fission products predicted by an evolution code. Systematic effects and missing information in nuclear databases lead to final relative uncertainties in the 10-20% range. A prediction of the antineutrino spectrum associated with the fission of U238 is given based on this ab initio method. For the dominant isotopes we developed a more accurate approach combining information from nuclear databases and reference electron spectra associated with the fission of U235, Pu239, and Pu241, measured at Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in the 1980s. We show how the anchor point of the measured total β spectra can be used to suppress the uncertainty in nuclear databases while taking advantage of all the information they contain. We provide new reference antineutrino spectra for U235, Pu239, and Pu241 isotopes in the 2-8 MeV range. While the shapes of the spectra and their uncertainties are comparable to those of the previous analysis of the ILL data, the normalization is shifted by about +3% on average. In the perspective of the reanalysis of past experiments and direct use of these results by upcoming oscillation experiments, we discuss the various sources of errors and their correlations as well as the corrections induced by off-equilibrium effects.
Improved predictions of reactor antineutrino spectra
Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Letourneau, A.
2011-05-15
Precise predictions of the antineutrino spectra emitted by nuclear reactors is a key ingredient in measurements of reactor neutrino oscillations as well as in recent applications to the surveillance of power plants in the context of nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. We report new calculations including the latest information from nuclear databases and a detailed error budget. The first part of this work is the so-called ab initio approach where the total antineutrino spectrum is built from the sum of all {beta} branches of all fission products predicted by an evolution code. Systematic effects and missing information in nuclear databases lead to final relative uncertainties in the 10-20% range. A prediction of the antineutrino spectrum associated with the fission of {sup 238}U is given based on this ab initio method. For the dominant isotopes we developed a more accurate approach combining information from nuclear databases and reference electron spectra associated with the fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu, measured at Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in the 1980s. We show how the anchor point of the measured total {beta} spectra can be used to suppress the uncertainty in nuclear databases while taking advantage of all the information they contain. We provide new reference antineutrino spectra for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu isotopes in the 2-8 MeV range. While the shapes of the spectra and their uncertainties are comparable to those of the previous analysis of the ILL data, the normalization is shifted by about +3% on average. In the perspective of the reanalysis of past experiments and direct use of these results by upcoming oscillation experiments, we discuss the various sources of errors and their correlations as well as the corrections induced by off-equilibrium effects.
Cooperative Monitoring of Reactors with Antineutrino Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keefer, Gregory
2011-04-01
LLNL and SNL have been exploiting the unique characteristics of reactor antineutrinos for nearly a decade in an effort to develop an independent means of monitoring fissile material diversion for reactor safeguard programs. The current capabilities of antineutrino detectors used in a non-proliferation regime are such that the operational status, power levels and fissile content of the nuclear reactor can be determined in real-time. These experiments were performed at stand-off distances of a few tens of meters. In the last few years, the International Atomic Energy Agency has begun to consider the potential of this technology for its reactor safeguards regime. In this talk, I describe the state of the art for this application, and emphasize the natural overlap with ongoing efforts in fundamental physics to measure the oscillations of antineutrinos using nuclear reactors as sources. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Yokosawa, A.
1980-01-01
Structures appearing in various experimental data (particularly those with polarized beams) in nucleon-nucleon systems are reviewed. A number of candidates are presented for dibaryon resonances which can couple to nucleon-nucleon systems. The present status of experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system is discussed. Details of N-N scattering are written elsewhere, and here relatively new aspects are presented.
Three-Nucleon Electroweak Capture Reactions
L.E. Marcucci; M. Viviani; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; R. Schiavilla
2002-10-01
Recent advances in the study of the p-d radiative and mu-3he weak capture processes are presented and discussed. The three-nucleon bound and scattering states are obtained using the correlated-hyperspherical-harmonics method, with realistic Hamiltonians consisting of the Argonne v14 or Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Tucson-Melbourne or Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions. The electromagnetic and weak transition operators include one- and two-body contributions. The theoretical accuracy achieved in these calculations allows for interesting comparisons with experimental data.
Assembly and Installation of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, H. R.; Brown, R. L.; Carr, R.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Draeger, E.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Greenler, L. S.; Gu, W. Q.; He, W. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hinrichs, P.; Ho, T. H.; Hoff, M.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Jin, Y.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, G. S.; Li, N.; Li, S. F.; Li, X. N.; Lin, C. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, J. L.; Luk, K. B.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, X. Y.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Nakajima, Y.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Pagac, A.; Qian, X.; Seilhan, B.; Shih, K.; Steiner, H.; Tang, X.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Virostek, S.; Wang, L.; Wang, W.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Wenman, D. L.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wingert, M.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wu, F. F.; Xiao, Q.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhuang, H. L.
2013-11-01
The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment is designed to make a precision measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ13, and recently made the definitive discovery of its non-zero value. It utilizes a set of eight, functionally identical antineutrino detectors to measure the reactor flux and spectrum at baselines of ~ 300-2000 m from the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plants. The Daya Bay antineutrino detectors were built in an above-ground facility and deployed side-by-side at three underground experimental sites near and far from the nuclear reactors. This configuration allows the experiment to make a precision measurement of reactor antineutrino disappearance over km-long baselines and reduces relative systematic uncertainties between detectors and nuclear reactors. This paper describes the assembly and installation of the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors.
Uncertainty analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, X. B.; Lu, F.; Wang, L. Z.; Chen, Y. X.; Zhong, W. L.; An, F. P.
2016-06-01
Reactor simulation is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. Therefore, how to evaluate the antineutrino flux uncertainty results from reactor simulation is an important question. In this study, a method of the antineutrino flux uncertainty result from reactor simulation was proposed by considering the correlation coefficient. In order to use this method in the Daya Bay antineutrino experiment, the open source code DRAGON was improved and used for obtaining the fission fraction and correlation coefficient. The average fission fraction between DRAGON and SCIENCE code was compared and the difference was less than 5% for all the four isotopes. The uncertainty of fission fraction was evaluated by comparing simulation atomic density of four main isotopes with Takahama-3 experiment measurement. After that, the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux results from reactor simulation was evaluated as 0.6% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment.
Long-Distance Nucleon Structure: Theoretical Overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnelly, T. William
2008-04-01
The electroweak form factors of the nucleon will be discussed, including the electromagnetic form factors extracted from parity-conserving electron scattering from the proton and from light nuclei, the axial-vector form factor from weak interaction studies and the strangeness form factors which can play a role in parity-violating electron scattering. The focus will be placed on what can be learned about the long-distance structure of the nucleon. Several issues of interpretation will also be discussed: higher-order electroweak contributions, problems of interpretation in coordinate space and uncertainties which arise in the case of the neutron where inevitably nuclear structure problems arise.
Antineutrino spectroscopy with large water Cerenkov detectors.
Beacom, John F; Vagins, Mark R
2004-10-22
We propose modifying large water C erenkov detectors by the addition of 0.2% gadolinium trichloride, which is highly soluble, newly inexpensive, and transparent in solution. Since Gd has an enormous cross section for radiative neutron capture, with summation operatorE(gamma)=8 MeV, this would make neutrons visible for the first time in such detectors, allowing antineutrino tagging by the coincidence detection reaction nu (e)+p-->e(+)+n (similarly for nu (mu)). Taking Super-Kamiokande as a working example, dramatic consequences for reactor neutrino measurements, first observation of the diffuse supernova neutrino background, galactic supernova detection, and other topics are discussed. PMID:15525063
Dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon collisions reexamined
Shyam, R.; Mosel, U.
2009-03-15
We present a fully relativistic and gauge-invariant framework for calculating the cross sections of dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon (NN) collisions that is based on the meson-exchange approximation for the NN-scattering amplitudes. Predictions of our model are compared with those of other covariant models that have been used earlier to describe this reaction. Our results are also compared with those of the semiclassical models that are employed to get the input elementary cross sections in the transport model calculations of the dilepton production in nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is found that cross sections obtained within the semiclassical and quantum mechanical models differ noticeably from each other.
Cottingham formula and nucleon polarisabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasser, J.; Hoferichter, M.; Leutwyler, H.; Rusetsky, A.
2015-08-01
The difference between the electromagnetic self-energies of proton and neutron can be calculated with the Cottingham formula, which expresses the self-energies as an integral over the electroproduction cross sections - provided the nucleon matrix elements of the current commutator do not contain a fixed pole. We show that, under the same proviso, the subtraction function occurring in the dispersive representation of the virtual Compton forward scattering amplitude is determined by the cross sections. The representation in particular leads to a parameter-free sum rule for the nucleon polarisabilities. We evaluate the sum rule for the difference between the electric polarisabilities of proton and neutron by means of the available parameterisations of the data and compare the result with experiment.
Reactor Monitoring with Antineutrinos - A Progress Report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, Adam
2012-08-01
The Reactor Safeguards regime is the name given to a set of protocols and technologies used to monitor the consumption and production of fissile materials in nuclear reactors. The Safeguards regime is administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and is an essential component of the global Treaty on Nuclear Nonproliferation, recently renewed by its 189 remaining signators. (The 190th, North Korea, withdrew from the Treaty in 2003). Beginning in Russia in the 1980s, a number of researchers worldwide have experimentally demonstrated the potential of cubic meter scale antineutrino detectors for non-intrusive real-time monitoring of fissile inventories and power output of reactors. The detectors built so far have operated tens of meters from a reactor core, outside of the containment dome, largely unattended and with remote data acquisition for an entire 1.5 year reactor cycle, and have achieved levels of sensitivity to fissile content of potential interest for the IAEA safeguards regime. In this article, I will describe the unique advantages of antineutrino detectors for cooperative monitoring, consider the prospects and benefits of increasing the range of detectability for small reactors, and provide a partial survey of ongoing global research aimed at improving near-field and far field monitoring and discovery of nuclear reactors.
Long Distance Reactor Antineutrino Flux Monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dazeley, Steven; Bergevin, Marc; Bernstein, Adam
2015-10-01
The feasibility of antineutrino detection as an unambiguous and unshieldable way to detect the presence of distant nuclear reactors has been studied. While KamLAND provided a proof of concept for long distance antineutrino detection, the feasibility of detecting single reactors at distances greater than 100 km has not yet been established. Even larger detectors than KamLAND would be required for such a project. Considerations such as light attenuation, environmental impact and cost, which favor water as a detection medium, become more important as detectors get larger. We have studied both the sensitivity of water based detection media as a monitoring tool, and the scientific impact such detectors might provide. A next generation water based detector may be able to contribute to important questions in neutrino physics, such as supernova neutrinos, sterile neutrino oscillations, and non standard electroweak interactions (using a nearby compact accelerator source), while also providing a highly sensitive, and inherently unshieldable reactor monitoring tool to the non proliferation community. In this talk I will present the predicted performance of an experimental non proliferation and high-energy physics program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-674192.
Measurement of the ratio {σ n}/{σ p} in inelastic muon-nucleon scattering at very low χ and Q2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Carroll, T. J.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Venkataramania, H.; Vidal, M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.; Fermilab E665 Collaboration
1993-07-01
We present results on the cross-section ratio for inelastic muon scattering on neutrons and protons as a function of Bjorken chi;. The data extend to χ values two orders of magnitude smaller than in previous measurements, down to 2×10 -5, for Q2>0.01 GeV 2. The ratio is consistent with unity throughout this new range.
Measurement of muon neutrino and antineutrino induced single neutral pion production cross sections
Anderson, Colin E.
2011-05-01
flux-averaged, total cross sections for NC 1π^{0} production on CH_{2} to be (4.76 ± 0.05_{stat} ± 0.76_{sys}) x 10^{-40} cm^{2}/nucleon at
Mapping High x Structure of the Nucleon: which data is missing?
Smirnov, G.I.
2005-02-10
The analysis of numerous experiments on lepton-nucleon and lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering reveals several non-trivial features of the nucleon structure, which are particularly interesting in the range of large Bjorken x (x > 0.8). It is shown that new data form the lightest nuclei can provide decisive information needed for the understanding of the nucleon structure.
Future directions for probing two and three nucleon short-range correlations at high energies
Frankfurt, Leonid; Sargsian, Misak; Strikman, Mark
2008-10-13
We summarize recent progress in the studies of the short-rang correlations (SRC) in nuclei in high energy electron and hadron nucleus scattering and suggest directions for the future high energy studies aimed at establishing detailed structure of two-nucleon SRCs, revealing structure of three nucleon SRC correlations and discovering non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei.
Evaluation of the Antiproton Flux from the Antineutrino Electron Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, V. V.; Belotsky, K. M.; Bogomolov, Yu V.; Budaev, R. I.; Dunaeva, O. A.; Kirillov, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Laletin, M. N.; Lukyanov, A. D.; Malakhov, V. V.; Mayorov, A. G.; Mayorova, M. A.; Mosichkin, A. F.; Okrugin, A. A.; Rodenko, S. A.; Shitova, A. M.
2016-02-01
Recent experiments in high enegry cosmic ray physics, PAMELA and AMS-02, excite a new interest to the mechanisms of generation of galactic antiparticles. In spite of the fact that global picture coincides with the predictions of the standard model, there are some black spots stimulating scientists to involve into research a particularly new physics like dark matter. In the present work, we make an attempt to estimate the impact of standard neutrino processes into the total flux of secondary antiprotons detected by contemporary experiments.
Personal History of Nucleon Polarization Experiments
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Chamberlain, O.
1984-09-01
The history of nucleon scattering experiments is reviewed, starting with the observation of large proton polarizations in scattering from light elements such as carbon, and ending with the acceleration of polarized proton beams in high-energy synchrotrons. Special mention is made about significant contributions made by C.L. Oxley, L. Wolfenstein, R.D. Tripp, T. Ypsilantis, A. Abragam, M. Borghini, T. Niinikoski, Froissart, Stora, A.D. Krisch, and L.G. Ratner.
Geoneutrinos and reactor antineutrinos at SNO+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldoncini, M.; Strati, V.; Wipperfurth, S. A.; Fiorentini, G.; Mantovani, F.; McDonough, W. F.; Ricci, B.
2016-05-01
In the heart of the Creighton Mine near Sudbury (Canada), the SNO+ detector is foreseen to observe almost in equal proportion electron antineutrinos produced by U and Th in the Earth and by nuclear reactors. SNO+ will be the first long baseline experiment to measure a reactor signal dominated by CANDU cores (~55% of the total reactor signal), which generally burn natural uranium. Approximately 18% of the total geoneutrino signal is generated by the U and Th present in the rocks of the Huronian Supergroup-Sudbury Basin: the 60% uncertainty on the signal produced by this lithologic unit plays a crucial role on the discrimination power on the mantle signal as well as on the geoneutrino spectral shape reconstruction, which can in principle provide a direct measurement of the Th/U ratio in the Earth.
First direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance
Adamson, P.
2011-07-05
This letter reports the first direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance. The MINOS experiment has taken data with an accelerator beam optimized for ν¯μ production, accumulating an exposure of 1.71 x 1020 protons on target. In the Far Detector, 97 charged current ν¯μ events are observed. The no-oscillation hypothesis predicts 156 events and is excluded at 6.3σ. The best fit to oscillation yields |Δm¯2| = (3.36-0.40 +0.46(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3 eV2, sin2(2 θ¯) = 0.86-0.12+0.11 (stat.) ± 0.01(syst.). The MINOS νμ and ν¯μ measurements are consistent at the 2.0% confidence level, assuming identical underlying oscillation parameters.
Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements
Dye, Stephen T.; Guillian, Eugene H.
2008-01-01
Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce a major portion of terrestrial heat along with a measurable flux of electron antineutrinos. These elements are key components in geophysical and geochemical models. Their quantity and distribution drive the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemical model calculations. This article describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in the continental crust and in the mantle by using site-specific measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. Optimal, model-independent determinations involve significant exposures of antineutrino detectors remote from nuclear reactors at both a midcontinental and a midoceanic site. This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understanding of the deep interior of the Earth. PMID:18172211
Observation of reactor electron antineutrinos disappearance in the RENO experiment.
Ahn, J K; Chebotaryov, S; Choi, J H; Choi, S; Choi, W; Choi, Y; Jang, H I; Jang, J S; Jeon, E J; Jeong, I S; Joo, K K; Kim, B R; Kim, B C; Kim, H S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, S Y; Kim, W; Kim, Y D; Lee, J; Lee, J K; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Park, I G; Park, J S; Park, K S; Shin, J W; Siyeon, K; Yang, B S; Yeo, I S; Yi, S H; Yu, I
2012-05-11
The RENO experiment has observed the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos, consistent with neutrino oscillations, with a significance of 4.9 standard deviations. Antineutrinos from six 2.8 GW(th) reactors at the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant in Korea, are detected by two identical detectors located at 294 and 1383 m, respectively, from the reactor array center. In the 229 d data-taking period between 11 August 2011 and 26 March 2012, the far (near) detector observed 17102 (154088) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 5.5% (2.7%). The ratio of observed to expected numbers of antineutrinos in the far detector is 0.920±0.009(stat)±0.014(syst). From this deficit, we determine sin(2)2θ(13)=0.113±0.013(stat)±0.019(syst) based on a rate-only analysis. PMID:23003027
Uncertainties in the anti-neutrino production at nuclear reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djurcic, Z.; Detwiler, J. A.; Piepke, A.; Foster, V. R.; Miller, L.; Gratta, G.
2009-04-01
Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in \\bar{\
Remarks on the pion-nucleon σ-term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoferichter, Martin; Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-09-01
The pion-nucleon σ-term can be stringently constrained by the combination of analyticity, unitarity, and crossing symmetry with phenomenological information on the pion-nucleon scattering lengths. Recently, lattice calculations at the physical point have been reported that find lower values by about 3σ with respect to the phenomenological determination. We point out that a lattice measurement of the pion-nucleon scattering lengths could help resolve the situation by testing the values extracted from spectroscopy measurements in pionic atoms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, G. M.; Ng, C. K.; Klecker, B.; Green, G.
1989-01-01
Impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events are studied to: (1) describe a distinct class of SEP ion events observed in interplanetary space, and (2) test models of focused transport through detailed comparisons of numerical model prediction with the data. An attempt will also be made to describe the transport and scattering properties of the interplanetary medium during the times these events are observed and to derive source injection profiles in these events. ISEE 3 and Helios 1 magnetic field and plasma data are used to locate the approximate coronal connection points of the spacecraft to organize the particle anisotropy data and to constrain some free parameters in the modeling of flare events.
Guegan, Baptiste
2012-11-01
The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.
Antineutrino analysis for continuous monitoring of nuclear reactors: Sensitivity study
Stewart, Christopher; Erickson, Anna
2015-10-28
This paper explores the various contributors to uncertainty on predictions of the antineutrino source term which is used for reactor antineutrino experiments and is proposed as a safeguard mechanism for future reactor installations. The errors introduced during simulation of the reactor burnup cycle from variation in nuclear reaction cross sections, operating power, and other factors are combined with those from experimental and predicted antineutrino yields, resulting from fissions, evaluated, and compared. The most significant contributor to uncertainty on the reactor antineutrino source term when the reactor was modeled in 3D fidelity with assembly-level heterogeneity was found to be the uncertainty on the antineutrino yields. Using the reactor simulation uncertainty data, the dedicated observation of a rigorously modeled small, fast reactor by a few-ton near-field detector was estimated to offer reduction of uncertainty on antineutrino yields in the 3.0–6.5 MeV range to a few percent for the primary power-producing fuel isotopes, even with zero prior knowledge of the yields.
Antineutrino analysis for continuous monitoring of nuclear reactors: Sensitivity study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Christopher; Erickson, Anna
2015-10-01
This paper explores the various contributors to uncertainty on predictions of the antineutrino source term which is used for reactor antineutrino experiments and is proposed as a safeguard mechanism for future reactor installations. The errors introduced during simulation of the reactor burnup cycle from variation in nuclear reaction cross sections, operating power, and other factors are combined with those from experimental and predicted antineutrino yields, resulting from fissions, evaluated, and compared. The most significant contributor to uncertainty on the reactor antineutrino source term when the reactor was modeled in 3D fidelity with assembly-level heterogeneity was found to be the uncertainty on the antineutrino yields. Using the reactor simulation uncertainty data, the dedicated observation of a rigorously modeled small, fast reactor by a few-ton near-field detector was estimated to offer reduction of uncertainty on antineutrino yields in the 3.0-6.5 MeV range to a few percent for the primary power-producing fuel isotopes, even with zero prior knowledge of the yields.
Antineutrino monitoring of burning mixed oxide plutonium fuels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, A. C.; Trellue, H. R.; Nieto, Michael Martin; Wilson, W. B.
2012-02-01
Background: Antineutrino monitoring of reactors is an enhanced nuclear safeguard that is being explored by several international groups. A key question is whether such a scheme could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium loaded in a reactor as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.Purpose: To explore the effectiveness of antineutrino monitoring for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguarding of MOX plutonium, we examine the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different loadings of MOX fuels.Methods: Reactor burn simulations are carried out for four different MOX fuel loadings and the antineutrino signals as a function of fuel burnup are computed and compared.Results: The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium, and this signal difference increases as the MOX plutonium fraction of the reactor core increases.Conclusion: Antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, although verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.
Higher-order effects in inclusive electron-nucleus scattering.
Benhar, O.; Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.; Pandharipande, V. R.; Pieper, S. C.; Sick, I.; Physics; INFIN; Univ. of Pisa; SISSA; Univ. of Illinois; SISSA; Univ. Basel
1995-10-05
Higher order corrections in the theory of inclusive scattering of high energy electrons by nuclear matter are studied. They involve at least three nucleons, and are due to: (i) the correlations among the spectator nucleons in matter, and (ii) the Pauli blocking of the scattering of the struck nucleon by a spectator nucleon. Their effect on the cross sections is found to be much smaller than those of the two-nucleon correlation hole and of color transparency.
Helene Fonvieille
2003-05-01
Virtual Compton Scattering off the proton: {gamma}^+p --> {gamma}p is a new field of investigation of nucleon structure. Several dedicated experiments have been performed at low c.m. energy and various momentum transfers, yielding specific information on the proton. This talk reviews the concept of nucleon Generalized Polarizabilities and the present experimental status.